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Saw you in the Ojo


Saw you in the Ojo





Mildred Boyd is of the strong opinion that one of the most reviled women in Mexican history should instead be accorded an honored place in the hallowed annals of the country. 9




Cover Story



Richard Tingen


Alejandro Grattan-Domínguez

8 Cover by Dani Newcomb

Carol Bowman offers some useful tips in handling those folks who prey on the tourists in some parts of Mexico, selling time-shares and heaven knows, what else! Gloria Palazzo writes about her own experiences with the IMSS (Mexico’s health-care system) and favorably compares it with some of those she had up in the States.


Danny Dominguez tells us about a good friend who seemingly came to Mexico with unrealistic expectations and now finds himself in a deep state of melancholy.



Jackie Kellum believes that much of what we need to know about such techniques can be learned from . . . our pets!



Tom Clarkson writes about a particular type of person who could tax the patience of even Mahatma Ghandi. Unfortunately, we all have met at least one of these braggart/bores and lived to tell about the exasperating experience.

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El Ojo del Mar / July 2010

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Send all correspondence, subscriptions or advertising to: El Ojo del Mar Ave. Hidalgo 223 (or Apartado 279), 45900 Chapala, Jalisco Tels.: (376) 765 3676, Fax 765 3528 Printing: El Debate El Ojo del Mar aparece los primeros cinco días de cada mes. (Out over the first five days of each month) Certificado de Licitud de Título 3693 Certificado de Licitud de Contenido 3117. Reserva al Título de Derechos de Autor 04-2007-111412131300-102 Control 14301. Permisos otorgados por la Secretaría de Gobernación (EXP. 1/432 “88”/5651 de 2 de junio de 1993) y SEP (Reserva 171.94 control 14301) del 15 de enero de 1994. Distribución: Calle Niza #152, Puerto Vallarta All contents are fully protected by copyright and may not be reproduced without the written consent of El Ojo del Mar. Opinions expressed by the authors do not necessarily reflect the views of the Publisher or the Editor, nor are we responsible for the claims made by our advertisers. We welcome letters, which should include name, address and telephone number.

By Alejandro Grattan-Dominguez

The Bogart Mystique


ne synonym for the word “mystique” is magical, and it is indeed magical that today, some fifty years after his death, Bogart is a bigger star than he was even in his wildly successful heyday during the ‘40s and ‘50s. More amazing is that his fans are currently comprised mainly of young people. For those who doubt these assertions, I offer the following exhibits: • There have been more than fifteen books published about Bogart. Gable and Garbo rated two each. Brando and Monroe three apiece. Moreover, several of the Bogart books were written by highly literate and sophisticated men (e.g., Alistair Cooke and Nathaniel Benchley) who ordinarily had little interest in the history and/or highjinks of filmdom’s rich and famous. • In 1993, the editors (most of whom were in their 30s and early 40s) of Entertainment Weekly voted Bogart the greatest movie star ever. Amongst a list of thirty, some of the other stars whom he easily eclipsed are Connery, Newman, De Niro, Eastwood, Hoffman, Nicholson and Brando. The Top Thirty included such screen legends as Hepburn (K.), Grant, Monroe, Gable, Chaplin, Davis, Stewart, Cagney, Cooper, Bergman, Wayne, Astaire, Taylor (Liz), Olivier, Garland, Tracy, Dean, Temple, Fonda (H.) and Valentino. To have been included among such protean talent would have been a huge honor—to top such a list is a passport to posterity. • Since the early ‘60s, the Brattle Theatre in Cambridge, Mass. has run a series of Bogart films during Exam Week at Harvard. It has been reported that the students (both male and female) invariably know Bogart’s movies so well, they sit parroting his every line of dialogue, and rise in unison at the end of Casablanca to sing “La Marseillaise.” Finally, a few years ago, the American Film Institute conducted

By now it should be obvious that this list of films contains within it another reason for Bogart’s enduring legend: his artistic range and professional courage. In 1948, when he made Treasure, Bogart was the top box office attraction in the entire world. Yet he took a role which was anything but heroic, and one in which his character (a grimy-looking, borderline psycho) dies a brutal and ugly death at the end of the picture. There are today very few toprated film stars who have taken the same courageous risks with their career—Jack Nicholson, Sean Connery. Certainly Brando in his prime was the most adventurous of all. But most stars seem scared silly to attempt any role which the public hasn’t already pre-approved. Such actors are, in effect, like a a poll among its 3000 members—all line of automobiles whose designers of whom are still actively involved will never improve them as long as a in the industry—as to who was the passive public keeps buying the curgreatest film star of all-time. Bogart rent model. won again. In an industry clogged with conYet the rationale for picking Bogformism, Bogart was a flamboyant art doesn’t fully explain his endurrisk-taker—not only in his career, but ing popularity, or the perpetuation in his personal life, as well. And here, of his powerful mystique. They said I think, is where the secret to his enhe “was the onscreen essence of induring mystique lies. ner strength,” and his Yet for all his fame and longThroughout an “icon of majestic sojourn in Holachieve- lywood, he was faindifference.” Other undeniable stars of his same era ments, Bogart was a mous for fighting were outrageousagainst everything modest from censorship to ly good-looking, supremely physically impres- man, rare in a profes- blacklisting, and was sive specimens, equally (though sewhile Bogart was sion given to avid self- cretly) admired for an anomaly: short, congratulation. his fearless assaults rather scrawny, with on the pompous and a scarred lip that caused him to lisp self-adoring maharajahs of the movand decidedly unhandsome in his ie industry. later years. Yet, as the eminent film He was the first major star to critic Pauline Kael once said, Bogart openly condemn the despicable could dominate a scene simply by “pro-American” tactics of Senator Joentering it. seph McCarthy, this at a time when Okay, fair enough … but not quite most of Hollywood was hiding under far enough. the bed. He was the first film actor to One often overlooked reason for set up his own production company, Bogart´s enduring popularity is the even as the film industry was reeling astonishingly high caliber of so many under the initial impact of television. of the films he made. No other screen Yet for all his fame and undeniactor ever starred in so many outable achievements, Bogart was a sustanding movies. In the ‘30s, it was premely modest man, rare in a proThe Petrified Forest and High Sierra. In fession given to avid self-congratuthe ‘40s, The Maltese Falcon, To Have lation. Whenever asked the secret of and Have Not, The Big Sleep, Casahis success, he would answer without blanca, Sahara and the film many a moment’s hesitation: “I was lucky, (myself included) consider his best, that’s all.” The Treasure of the Sierra Madre. Bogart had a strong sense of who By the ‘50s, Bogart was himself in he was and what he stood for. He his fifties and poised to give three of once sailed into the harbor at Newthe finest performances of his career port, California, and took his skipper in The African Queen, The Barefoot along with him into the yacht club Contessa and The Caine Mutiny. bar. An official quietly told him that

the yacht club was restricted, and no place for “hired hands.” Bogart called for his bar check, and on the back of it he promptly wrote out his resignation. One month later, the club’s chastened board of directors dropped the restriction. This, and a hundred stories like it, would eventually make a deep impression on the general public. Hence, it is not surprising that by the end of his life Bogart the man had merged in some mysterious way with the most idealistic of his screen portrayals—a perception that has withstood the toughest trial of all, the test of time. Today, in an age cancerous with cynicism, Bogart remains a role model for young people—the bruised but gallant loner who in the midst of insidious corruption and craven self-deception somehow manages to hang onto his code of honor. As his friend and film mentor, John Huston, so succinctly put it at Bogart´s funeral in 1957, “He is quite irreplaceable. There will never be another like him.” Some fifty years after Humphrey Bogart´s death, time has proven how true those words were.

ALEJANDRO GRATTAN is a former screenwriter/film director who has published seven novels. Two of his novels are in over 1000 libraries in the US and Canada. He co-founded the Ajijic Writers’ Group 22 years ago and has been the Editor of El Ojo del Lago for the past 15 years.

Saw you in the Ojo


A BALLOON IN CACTUS By Maggie Van Ostrand


’m sick and tired of hearing disagreements between the U.S.A. and Mexico. First, entists were unable to gather direct there’s the emigration thing with evidence about September 5, 2001. fences and coyotes and blustering Science calls it a galactic puppeteer. politicians; second is the drug thing 3. An eruption of cosmic enwhere the U.S. blames Mexico for ergy rays from the black hole would their own addictive population; and occur in 1992, helping to create sun now the U.S. is blaming the Mayans spots and bring increasingly hotter for a prophesied 2012 doomsday temperatures to Earth. Global warmscenario. ing, anyone? Let’s take them in the above or4. Change of consciousness der: the truth is that, with the U.S. from left-brain thinking (logical) to in steep recession, their citizens are right-brain (intuitive). If you doubt swimming across the Rio Grande to this, read Sarah Paenter Mexico, not the reverse. The Wouldn’t you think the lin’s ghostwritten audrug thing is bad, U.S. would agree with tobiography. 5. B e t w e e n true, but without demand, there’d be Mexico about the Ma- November 2010 and no supply. yan Doomsday predic- October 2011, humanity will lose conAs to the most fidence in paper curimportant third tions? rency and turn back item, the Mayan calto gold. Check out Wall Street, dear endar predicts an apocalyptic endreader, for confirmation. ing to earth in 2012. Much as we may The Mayans only misread one of hope they were having a bad day their predictions, at least I think it was when they came up with that doozy, only one, when they enthusiastically fact is that, when it comes to cosmic greeted Kukulcan, a white-bearded matters, Mayan were right way more god from the east and survivor of often than not, as evidenced by a few mythical Atlantis. But Kukulcan was of their predictions: really Spanish conquistadors who 1. Solar Eclipse occurred exactnearly wiped them out. Whether God ly on Mayan schedule in 1999. or conqueror, that unfortunate ar2. A colossal black hole at the rival did coincide perfectly with the center of our Galaxy, which MIT sciMayan calendar. Wouldn’t you think the U.S. would agree with Mexico about the Mayan Doomsday predictions? Here’s why: The Mayan year of 360 days is called Tun (toon), 20 Tuns equals one K’atun (k’atoon), and 20 K’atuns equals one Baktun (back-toon). And what do you think I call the U.S. attitude toward Mayan predictions? Loonytune.

MAGGIE VAN OSTRAND is a humorist, speaker, ghostwriter and stand-up comedienne.


El Ojo del Mar / July 2010

In Defense of Malinche By Mildred Boyd


he was only one of twenty women slaves given to Cortez by the defeated chiefs of Tabasco in hopes that he would go away and leave them in peace. The women, given ostensibly “to make bread,” were welcome but the treasure of gold that accompanied them excited more interest. As listed by Bernal Diaz, that included “… four diadems, two masks with Indian faces, earrings, some articles shaped like lizards, little dogs, five ducks and some other trinkets…”  Those and the lengths of quilted cloth were more appreciated by the rank and file. The officers to whom the women were given by Cortez might have been of a different opinion. It was, however, hardly to be expected that any of them could guess how truly important one of those women, actually only a girl, would turn out to be. Her name was Malinche and, unlike the others, she was of noble birth. She had been the only child of a reigning cacique of the Paynalla province near Coatzcoalcos. He died while she was very young, leaving her as his sole heir. Her mother soon remarried and having borne a son to her new husband, sold young Malinali to slave traders and announced that she had died so that the boy might inherit her lands. She was sold first to a Maya lord in Xibalba and later to the Tabascan cacique who presented her to Cortez. He, in turn, gave her to Alonzo de Puertocarrero after she had been briefly exposed to the Christian faith and baptized like all the others. (Apparently, it was less of a sin to commit adultery with a fellow Christian than with a pagan.) Cortez was not to know that he had just received an answer to his prayers. Up until now, the priest he had ransomed and who spoke fluent Maya as the result of years of captivity in that land had served well as an interpreter. They had now reached lands where Nahua was the local tongue and he was back to grunts and gestures—

hardly the most eloquent language for sensitive diplomatic negotiations. When he learned of Doña Marina’s command of both Maya and Nahua and her extensive knowledge of the political and social structure of these lands, he wasted no time in attaching her to his staff as interpreter and advisor and, when Puertocarrero was sent on a mission to Spain, his lover. All during the conquest she was by his side and he never took another woman, though many were offered.       Malinche figured largely in all the chronicles of the time.       Even Cortez, who seldom gave credit to anyone else, once wrote, “After God, we owe the conquest of New Spain to Doña Marina”  Still, very little of her life is known before 1519 or after 1524. Even the year of her birth is uncertain. It is variously recorded as anywhere from 1502 to 1505. The

Was she harlot or heroine? Traitor or trustworthy ally? earlier date seems more likely. It is doubtful that, even in a society where women had to grow up fast, that a fourteen year old would have had the wisdom and maturity for the role she eventually played. Was she harlot or heroine? Traitor or trustworthy ally? If she was a harlot—and she would hardly have understood the term— what choice had she ever had? She had been sold as a slave three times, repeatedly raped, given as gift, first by the Tabascans, then by Cortez. None of these had been her choice. Even if they had been, how can she be blamed if she did use her wits and beauty to improve her status in the situation in which she now found herself? No rumor ever accused her of being unfaithful to Cortez or to Juan Jaramillo, the man she eventually married with Cortez’ blessing. Traitor? To whom? To whom did she owe fealty? Mexico was in no sense a united country at the time. It

was more like the quarrelsome Greek city states with warring factions jockeying for position and power and all hating the Aztecs. Her own people paid tribute to Aztec overlords because they feared them, and she did nothing to harm them. Though she had justifiable cause to hate the mother who had sold her and the brother who usurped her lands and titles, she readily forgave them with true Christian charity. There is little doubt that her ability to negotiate on equal terms with local chieftains avoided many a bloody battle. That and her frequent intercession on behalf of her countrymen saved untold thousands of Indian lives. Were the Cempoalans and Tlaxscalans, who fought with Cortez throughout the conquest, traitors? Rebels, yes, they would probably have joined Beelzebub himself if he offered to free them from the Aztec yoke. But no one has ever accused them of treachery. Why just her? Actually, no such accusation was ever made against her during her lifetime or for nearly three centuries after by either Spanish chroniclers or native scribes. They always referred to her as Doña Marina or Malintzin, both terms carrying honorifics indicating respect. It was only after the successful revolution of 1810 that she began to be spoken of in unflattering terms and the name of Malinche (a double corruption of Malintzin) became synonymous with traitor. It is not surprising that the fanatic republicans hated all things Spanish. Cortez, of course, was the villain incarnate and La Malinche was tarred with the same brush and, if possible, even more hated. It must have galled the patriarchal regime like a burr under the saddle that a mere female, and one of their own at that, had been so instrumental in the conquest. Perhaps they were afraid their own oppressed wives and daughters might admire her enough to try to follow her example. And why not? Although the son she bore Cortez was hardly the only, or even the first mestizo, he is the only one of which we have a real record, and Malinche could be regarded as the mother of all modern Mexicans. Whether it was deliberate or not, the ensuing smear campaign against her was, and still is, effective. She, who had so often advised mercy and gentle treatment for her people, was slanderously accused of sadistic cruelty against those who worked the land assigned to her by Cortez. Fortunately, this can be proved untrue. There was

a Maria de la Caballeria, also known as Doña Marina, who ruled with an iron hand and was guilty of inflicting numerous atrocities on her underlings, but it was certainly not our Malinche. The hatred against Malinche is too deeply ingrained in the modern Mexican to be easily uprooted. Occasionally researchers and historians publish learned articles vindicating her but to little effect. The chicanas of the United States are more daring. In their struggle for equal rights as human beings they are using La Malinche as a role model. Who knows? Some day the vilified harlot/heroine of 1519 may be deemed eligible for sainthood. But don’t hold your breath.

MILDRED BOYD is the author of several published books, both fiction and non-fiction, as well as being a keen student of Mexican history.

Saw you in the Ojo


AS THE TACO TURNS (And takes the world with it) By Beth Berube

Crustacean Migration


long the fence in our If I was the back yard are cameraperson a smatterfilming this ing of tunnels. The enshow and they trance holes are about made me boss, I the size of a baseball. I would throw am unfamiliar with native Wild Kingburrowers indiginous to dom prothis area. The possibilitocol to the ties of what kind of critter wind and intermight immerge from the dark vene with Mother passageway was a little unnerving. Nature. But I guess Could it be a mongoose? Maybe a birds of prey would die meerkat clan had set up camp. of starvation and the There is a show called “Meermeerkat population kat Manor.” If you have never would run amok. tuned in, the show is an Animal As it was, Flower foiled the hungry Planet documentary. It follows the hawk, but died from a snake bite in day to day foibles and pitfalls of the the third series. Whiskers family. They are one of a So, after a torrential rain, I discovdozen families of meerkats in the ered the mysterious occupants of Kalahari Desert. The fact that Barra the subterranean tubes. There were is not a desert and is about 20,000 no cute, furry mammals living in the miles from Africa, tunnels. I walked did not persuade Armies of them fear- outside and disme to discount this covered cangrejos. possibility. The pro- lessly scurrying side- Land crabs. Armies gram does not su- ways like little drunk- of them fearlessly garcoat the animals sideways en sailors down our scurrying less cuddly habits like little drunken such as infidel- walkway. sailors down our ity, abandonment of walkway. Click, young and occasional cannibalism click, click. which makes it very similar to the Our yard looks like a crustacean other Discovery Planet show “Jon Woodstock. Their attitudes are and Kate Plus 8.” positively contrarian. Defiant pink The problem is that I get all emopincers rise like fists, defying me to tionally involved in their drama. On come closer. They are ready to rumone episode, the matriarch of the ble. Then with a sideways swagger, family, Flower, can be seen peeking they indignantly return to the tunher adorable little ferret-like face nels. out of the den hole. Then a quick “up with the periscope” look-see and she and her mischievous brood BETH BERUBE at are outside hopping and bouncing the tender age of 20 about, seemingly oblivious to their joined United Airlines surroundings. Suddenly, a dark as a Flight Attendant. shadow looms above. “RUN FLOWAfter 30 years of world ER, RUN,” I shout at the television travel, she and her husband Larscreen. “GRAB YOUR KITS. THERE’S ry, found their place in the sun in A GINORMOUS HAWK CIRCLING Barra de Navidad. She not only OVERHEAD AND YOU ARE IN ITS RAwants to tell people about it she DAR, RUN FOR YOUR LIFE FLOWER, wants to invite people to share it BACK TO THE BURROW.” with her.


El Ojo del Mar / July 2010

The Beggars of Baja By Carol L. Bowman


s we deplaned at the Los Hotel check-in had its surprisCabos International Aires. Rebecca, a beautiful, smartlyport, Cabo San Lucas, dressed young Mexican woman, apMexico, the excitement of whale proached us, offering free cocktails watching and deep sea fishing on by the pool. How nice, a gesture to the Sea of Cortez boiled within welcome guests. How naïve, I realus. A quick exit through customs ized as the sales pitch for condoand we’d be nearing our adventure. miniums in Cabo San Lucas spewed Something delayed the process forth. Sensing our non-responthough. Dozens of young men in siveness, her dark eyes pleaded for pink shirts and white shorts, notereconsideration. Instantly, she rebooks in hand, snagged every outminded me of dozens of children bound passenger. Being bombardwe had encountered in Third World ed by zealous taxi destinations, when drivers, ragamuffin “Want a ride to town?” the handout proved children with out- a pleasant man in- insufficient. stretched palms and Rebecca turned eager boys snatch- quired. “What will it the usual scenario ing up luggage for cost?” I responded. upside down. Ina few pesos occurs stead of asking outside any Latin “Nothing, I’m just of- us for money, she American airport. fering you a ride be- kept sweetening This had a different cause you look so hot.” the pot. The deals ring to it. grew plumper. By The crisply the time we manstarched, salmon colored shirts reaged to extricate ourselves from her mained staid in the hallway breeze. net, she had offered us transportaThe mouths and hands of the weartion to Cabo San Lucas, breakfast at ers, however, operated at full throta time-share condominium, a $50 tle. Within a few minutes, the frenzy voucher for dinner at the hotel, two became clear. “Buy this Time Share, free whale watching cruises valued try that hotel’s package,” bellowed at $80 and a free ($6) tour on a glass these new-age hawkers. My look of bottom boat. disinterest only increased the fervor As I studied her frown and poutof the pitch. I came to explore Baja ing lips, I felt I rejected a little street California, not to buy a time-share. urchin saying “tengo hambre.” This We escaped unscathed or so we chic young woman, spouting near thought. perfect English, bore no resemblance. These are the Beggars of Baja, their livelihood dependent upon the hedonistic whims of Gringos. Our time in Baja was short and I was determined not to waste it visiting time-share opportunities. We set out on foot to explore San Jose del Cabo. The sweltering temperature wilted our every

step. Just then, a white van pulled along side us. “Want a ride to town?” a pleasant man inquired. “What will it cost?” I responded. “Nothing, I’m just offering you a ride because you look so hot.” We’d never get into a stranger’s car in the US, and what possessed us to accept this invitation remains a mystery. I blame the heat. We hopped in, but just as I thanked him for the rescue, I saw the look in his eyes. He started in on his pitch. Wanting honesty to prevail, I admitted our lack of interest. He swerved the van to the curb and screeched on the brakes. We quickly found ourselves back out on the street under the blazing sun. Dejected, we crawled up the deserted road to San Jose del Cabo. A ray of hope beckoned, as several tour agencies lined the sidewalk, offering whale watching cruises, deep sea fishing, sunset cruises, etc. Finally, we could book the activities we came for. The ever famous stone arch off Cabo San Lucas coast beckons Pacific delights. At every establishment, our outings came with a hidden price – a visit to a specific time-share. We resisted and walked on. Now we were the beggars. We passed a car rental agency. The sign said “Volkswagens, “$11/day” What a deal, we thought, we can visit these places by ourselves. Surprise- that deal came attached to a trip to Westin Club Regina Time-Share. Without this agreement, the price climbed to $60/day and alas there were no cars available at that price. Totally disillusioned, we headed off to have a good cry in a bucket full of margaritas. Outside the restaurant, a spiffy young Brazilian named Adriano approached us. He offered free drinks for filling out a recommendation card for the restaurant. No mention of time-share, although his crisp tan shirt seemed frighteningly familiar. Following a sumptuous meal and those much needed margaritas, I headed to Adriano with an A-1 rating. This caper would not have an easy end. Adriano represented vacation packages. We caved in. We settled down on a wrought iron bench with this slick, charming starchedshirt beggar and began a game of “Let’s Make a Deal.” If this is the only way to see Cabo, we planned to make it worthwhile. Negotiating prices for crafts, taxi rides or border bribes comes easy, but haggling over vacation activities struck me as foreign.

I advise first time Cabo San Lucas visitors to avoid the frustration we experienced. Listen to a few pitches early on, select one immediately that might meet your future goals. Make your best deal to visit the property he or she represents. The next starched-shirt or chic dress that approaches will melt quickly away when you say “I’ve already been there.” It’s the answer to all your travel needs. When the pot is sweetened to your satisfaction, agree and watch the shock on the hustler’s face. He will know who maneuvered whom and who won the game. Much of your vacation will be magically free.

CAROL BOWMAN worked in a psychiatric hospital for 33 years before moving to Mexico in 2006. Visiting 45 countries before retirement, Carol’s outlet of travel writing helped preserve her sanity. She was a featured author in the published anthology, Tales from the Couch V.

Saw you in the Ojo




he Valentine Tournament this year was once again a great success and even set an attendance record. Played over 4 days in the Real de Chapala Hotel, the event attracted players from as far away as the US and Canada, as well as a very strong contingent from Mexico City and the majority of the local duplicate aficionados. The format for the first three days was pairs, culminating as always in the Sunday Swiss Teams of four for which 32 teams entered. The team format is a particularly exciting version of bridge, though one that is played less frequently than its matchpoint duplicate sibling. One pair from each


team sits NorthSouth at one table while their team-mates sit East-West at the other. A match of eight hands was played and then comparisons made to see how each team had fared. Six matches were played throughout the course of the day with the overall winners being the team that accumulated the best results over the long haul. This year, the team consisting of Thomas Henson, Jane Payette, Mona Ninnes and Lenore Woods started strongly and quickly jumped to the top of the charts. They continued to play at a high level and soundly won each of the first five rounds, and had

El Ojo del Mar / July 2010

an almost unsurmountable lead going into the final round. Herself and myself, together with our team-mates John Fraser and Elsie Johnson, were also having a decent day at the table and found ourselves in second place with one round to go. However, it was our misfortune to face the Henson juggernaut in the ultimate round and we fared no better than the first five teams they played. Indeed, we would have had to virtually “blitz” the opposition to come out on top and that just wasn’t in the cards that day. The illustrated hand was one where the Henson squad plain outbid us and showed that they were well worth their win. Sitting South, Tom Henson opened the bidding 1 Heart, West passed and Jane Payette bid 3 Clubs, the Bergen Convention showing a “constructive” raise, about 6 to 9 high card points and a four card or longer Heart suit. South felt his hand had improved with this information and promptly jumped to game. With the favorable location of the heart honors in West and East, and the opening lead solving any guess in the club suit, declarer held his losers

to two spades and one club to make his vulnerable contract with ease. At the other table, herself also opened 1 Heart but, as we were not playing Bergen, I responded with a pedestrian 2 Hearts and there the contract rested. Declarer made the same 10 tricks as our opponents but without the game bonus we lost 10 International Match Points (IMPs for short) and with it any chance of the championship. Team Henson won the event going away with a total of 161 Victory Points out of a possible 180, an astonishing 89.4 %. Congratulations to all their players, the rest of us will just have to wait until next year. Questions or comments: email:

KEN MASSON has been playing, teaching and writing about bridge for 35 years. Originally from Dublin, Ireland, Ken has been living in Toronto since 1967. He and his wife and bridge partner, Rosemarie, are now in their third year wintering in Mexico.


The “Heinz Dilemma” and Ethical Development


or the last couple of months, I’ve been writing about ethics. I’ll continue this topic this month with the idea of ethical development. You may be familiar with Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development. Children, according to Piaget, go through predictable stages when learning to think and conceptualize abstract concepts. These stages occur from infancy through adolescence. Similarly, Lawrence Kohnberg theorized that we also go though stages in our ethical thinking. His research was based on children’s responses to the in this stage conceptualize moral “Heinz Dilemma:” decisions as very clear. Obedience is A woman was near death from a the primary value. She might think special kind of cancer. There was one Heinz should not steal the medicine drug that the doctors thought might because he would be put in prison, save her. It was a form of radium that which would mean he is a bad pera druggist in the same town had reson. cently discovered. The drug was exStage two, self-interest: Children pensive to make, but the druggist in this stage consider their own self was charging ten times what the drug interest. They might recommend cost him to produce. He paid $200 for he steal the drug because it would the radium and charged $2,000 for a make him happy to have his wife small dose of the drug. The sick womalive, even if it meant he would go an’s husband, Heinz, to prison. went to everyone he Should Heinz have broStage three, knew to borrow the ken into the laboratory conformity: A child money, but he could this stage might to steal the drug for his in only get together recommend that about $ 1,000, which wife? Why or why not? Heinz should steal is half of what it cost. the drug because it He told the druggist that his wife was is the role of the husband to protect dying and asked him to sell it cheaper the wife, and she would expect him or let him pay later. But the druggist to do it. You cannot blame him; he said, “No, I discovered the drug and tried to talk to the pharmacist. I’m going to make money from it.” So Stage four, law-and-order: In Heinz got desperate and broke into this stage children see the value of the man’s store to steal the drug for laws and rules to society. To steal his wife. Should Heinz have broken the drug would involve breaking a into the laboratory to steal the drug law set up to protect society, so he for his wife? Why or why not? should not steal the drug. The alterKohlberg asserted that our develnative would be anarchy. opment, in terms of ethical thinking, Stage five, human rights: Here, goes through six stages, from very the child places the value of human black and white to more complex life as more important than followthinking. At each stage, it is the reaing the law. Heinz should steal the soning the child uses to defend his drug because his wife has a right to choice, not the choice itself, which live, even if he goes to jail. determines the stage: Stage six, universal human ethics: Stage one, obedience: Children Kohlberg sees this stage as the most

abstract and mature. Sometimes, a universal ethical value will require a person to break the law to uphold a more worthy universal principle. Heinz should steal the drug because preserving human life is more important than the property rights of an individual. As you might imagine, Kohlberg’s scheme of moral development is not universally applauded. Some contend it is skewed to a collectivist, rather than an individualistic sensibility. It justifies actions like civil disobedience, which some may consider unethical, and maybe skewed against the concept of individual freedom. Nevertheless, it does present the interesting idea that we develop as ethical beings.

BILL FRAYER taught writing/ critical thinking at a community college. He has written a textbook, Figuring Things Out, and a volume of poetry, Sacred Lake. He and his wife Pixie have lived in Mexico for the past five years.

Saw you in the Ojo


Joyful Musings By Joy Birnbach Dunstan, MA, LPC, MAC

Living Life on Purpose


e’re so lucky living here in Paradise! But for some, paradise has left them floundering for structure and purpose. Retirement is a different experience for everybody. Some people would gladly work here but cannot get a permit from the Mexican government for their particular occupation. Others would be happy to continue their old job if only they could identity for yourself by pursuing acdo it long distance from south of the tivities that express your true self. Do border. Some people yearn for the like Dolly Parton suggests, and “find collegial atmosphere of the workout who you are...and do it on purplace, but not the actual work. And pose!” many people are thrilled to never In retirement, we can choose again do whatever they did before, what we do with our heart instead of but they have no the budget in mind idea what they’d You may have experi- because working rather do instead. enced flow sometime and receiving monSeemingly posiey are no longer hours disap- directly related. We tive changes like when retirement and in- peared like minutes can select what we’d creased leisure time to do. Work is no while you were com- like can create confulonger what we have sion or depression. pletely absorbed in to do and play what Many people adjust, some engrossing ac- we want to do. Our quickly filling their work and our play days with rewarding tivity. can become one. activities. For others, Retirement is the transition is more difficult. For the perfect time to “go for the flow.” those who defined themselves by Flow is a concept defined as a state their job, they may find themselves of deep absorption that occurs when temporarily lost without that identipeople are thoroughly focused on a ty. So create an intentional alternate challenging task that meshes per-


El Ojo del Mar / July 2010

fectly with their abilities, interests, and strengths. You may have experienced flow sometime when hours disappeared like minutes while you were completely absorbed in some engrossing activity. Consider enriching your own life by learning new skills and increasing the challenges you face each day. It’s important to have goals. Goals give us a reason to get up in the morning. If you’d like to bring more happiness into your life, consider the wise words of Helen Keller: “Many persons have a wrong idea of what constitutes true happiness. It is not attained through self-gratification but through fidelity to a worthy purpose.” Life is about more than pedicures and cocktail parties. Give some thought to what things bring you joy or might bring a satisfying sense of accomplishment, and then make a plan to do them. People pursuing dreams in their mind and heart are already on the road to success. Take five minutes to list all the wants you have in your life, your “bucket list.” Then circle your top five choices and prioritize them, and begin to consider how to make them happen.

If you find yourself not wanting to face the new day because it’s just the same as the previous one, consider developing new interests or exploring pursuits you didn’t have time for in the past. One of the treasures of living in Mexico is the multitude of options we have available here. There’s something for every taste and style, from the solely intellectual to the purely hedonistic, from highly structured organizations to no-commitment, drop-in activities. If it’s something more exotic or extravagant you’ve always wanted to try, budget a little every week to help make that dream possible. Go for the flow, and you just might discover an artistic streak or unexpected talent you never knew you had!

JOY DUNSTAN is a fullyaccredited therapist. She and her husband Terry have lived in Mexico for many years.

Saw you in the Ojo


Hearts at Work —A Column by Jim Tipton

“The Seven-Day Mental Diet”


hen I moved to Mexico years of Quakers on my father’s some years ago, I manside) where I studied Emerson and aged to reduce the Thoreau, and by temperament in possessions of sixty years down to tune with both I adopted many of what would fit into a little delivery their maxims. I took to heart Thotruck, 6’ wide, 6’ high, 7’ long. Boxes reau, “We are happy in proportion of beloved (or what to the things we I thought were be- Avoid being judgmen- can do without,” and loved) books filled up tal or opinionated. Re- Emerson, “To be simover half of that limis to be great.” nounce anxiety and ple That ited space. NPR socioloI remember listen- worry. Renounce gos- gist I had tuned into ing to a sociologist on however, that sip and meaningless said, National Public Radio in England, people talk about Americans talking. store their clutter and their addiction to and accumulations in accumulating things. I had been raised their attics; in France, in their garages; in a simple household (two hundred in Germany in their basements; but in


El Ojo del Mar / July 2010

the United States we need all three— attics, garages, basements—to store our clutter, and often a rented storage unit as well. Moving to another country forces us to reconsider“the things”of our lives, and some of us actually feel “lighter” (and happier) because we have let the burden of too many things slide off of our backs. In Walden, Thoreau writes that everything we own we must pay attention to, must give energy to. Another idea, out of Eastern thought, is: never own more things that you can list on a sheet of paper. And never own so many things that you do not remember everything you own. Some days, I think a beloved rice bowl, a pair of favorite chopsticks, and the beautiful moon might almost be enough. We also accumulate thoughts, most of which are clutter, and periodically we need a thorough (or should I say Thoreau) cleansing of those thoughts, reducing them to a sacred few, rather than letting those that are not sacred pile up in disarray, to pull at us like old papers we have saved but will never look at again.

A recent Truth Journal, ( based on the ideas of Paramahansa Yogananda), says to go on a mental cleansing diet, during which we consciously select our mental attitudes and thoughts. “For one week,” Truth Journal suggests, “cultivate an optimistic mental outlook by expecting the best outcome for everything you do and for all emerging events. Creatively imagine your near and distant future circumstances as being harmonious and satisfying. Avoid being judgmental or opinionated. Renounce anxiety and worry. Renounce gossip and meaningless talking. When you have experienced the positive results of a seven-day mental diet, permanently adopt it.” Wow! Talk about cleaning your room! A little pamphlet that has helped me through life is As a Man Thinketh, written over a hundred years ago by James Allen (available as a free download). Allen writes that “A man is literally what he thinks.” He adds, “You are today where your thoughts have brought you; you will be tomorrow where your thoughts take you.” Another passage you might post on your morning mirror: “Let there be nothing within thee that is not very beautiful and very gentle, and there will be nothing without thee that is not beautiful and softened by the spell of thy presence.”

JIM TIPTON has published several books of poetry and has sold dozens of articles to magazines in the US. His collections of poetry include Letters from a Stranger (1998)— winner of the Colorado Book Award in Poetry. Jim lived in Puerto Vallarta for several years.

TESTING IMSS By Gloria Palazzo


bout two weeks ago, I needed help. Not that I never needed help day morning, where do I go? I debefore, but now it was urgent. cided that this was the perfect time Pain and bleeding. Not something to give IMSS the test. you can take lightly. It was SaturAs I was preparing to go to the day night. I decided to put it off emergency room, showering, dressone more night. Maybe it would go ing warmly and loosely, taking away the same way it started. One of enough pesos to feel I could cover those miracles, I have experienced whatever was needed, I remembefore. Put off going to the doctor bered my last visit to an emergency and poof it’s gone. Not so lucky this room in Los Angeles. They wouldn’t time. By very early talk to me if I didn’t Sunday morning I My Spanish is less than give them a credit knew something mediocre and these card. I was not in this was wrong and emergency room I had better do folk labored to speak 30 minutes and the something. English so I could un- cost was more than I have belonged $500.00. That did to IMSS since com- derstand. If one of them not include three ing to Guadala- couldn’t speak English, expensive prescripjara five years ago. they tried to find some- tion medicines. Some of the horror When I was better stories made me one who could. enough and wanted cringe, but I didn’t to return to Guadahave any other health insurance and lajara, I called to ask the doctor if I felt good about joining. I wouldn’t could safely take a plane. Whoever depend on IMSS for everything, but answered the phone told me they I understood that they would pick would not give that information and me up, even if it was with a shovel, that I should find another doctor if ever I was left unconscious or innearby to get that information. Not jured while traveling any place in wanting to spend another $500.00, Mexico. I never did use the service. I made the decision on my own. When awake and it’s dark, and I am While traveling home to Guadalahurting, and it is approaching Sunjara, I remember thinking how cold

and uncaring this experience felt. Well, we got to the IMSS Hospital Emergency room and I was ushered in immediately. My Spanish is less than mediocre and these folk labored to speak English so I could understand. If one of them couldn’t speak English, they tried to find someone who could. Sometimes we just communicated in Spanglish, but I felt cared for and about. By afternoon, I was in surgery, after a sonogram (with a full explanation) and the deed was done. In all, I spent 1 1/2 days in the hospital and was kept comfortable and felt safe. In no way does this IMSS hospital compare to the sterile and icy feelings I have experienced visiting patients in the U.S. What I am trying to say is that I would not hesitate to use these services again and that the best of care can sometimes be a smile, a genuine, “How do you feel?” or just to know someone is looking over you. Relatives or friends can and do spend nights with patients. Because I slept next to an unscreened open window, I had mosquito bites on my forehead, the only place sticking out of the covers that

night. The bathroom was down the hall, and I had to stop at the nurse’s desk to get toilet paper before using the bathroom. I had to wiggle my way down the hall with this adult diaper contraption because it was not attached to anything, and if I didn’t wiggle, I’d loose it. I smiled as I left the next day saying my thanks many times over. The inconveniences seemed trivial compared with the services. And none of this cost a single peso!

GLORIA PALAZZO came to live in Mexico 14 years ago after a two year stint in the Peace Corps, Ecuador. Her passion for art and writing blossomed and is evident by her contributions to the Ojo del Mar and exhibitions of her art in galleries and museums in several parts of Mexico.

Saw you in the Ojo


BOOKS By Scott Richards


ooks have patience. They never ask you “Where worst times, always there for you and have you been?” “Who never demanding anything in return. else have you been reading?” Your level of comprehension, or apThey humbly wait unconcerned that preciation never tested, never chalyou’ve been away and now you’re lenged. Silently waiting to instruct, back. They never question your literamuse, induce euphoria, instigate ary motives, your loyalties, or your tears, or gut you like a fish. level of understanding. A book simBooks are as ply awaits your next A book is a life un-lived, faithful as the dawn desire to once again go down the road it a story untold, or a les- and loyal as the leads you. And then son unlearned. They setting sun. Within their pages exists a very soon, it is like you never left at all. can be nibbled at a bit place where meanOpening a new at a time, or devoured ing has no master where personal book is like possible in great avid gulps. It and interpretations are love at first sight. In that first moment is all at your pace and limitless. They are your words and your lies the promise of leisure. pages to feast on, or wonder, knowledge, ignore at will. Truly, what a thing a or entertainment. book is. You can always count on a book to be there for you. They never change their words, or re-arrange SCOTT RICHARDS the letters to be something they’re grew up in Southern not. They will interminably hug your California and after colbookmark, anchoring your last word lege hit the road to high and thought without complaint, adventure in the Caawaiting your next visit. ribbean, never to return, at least A book is a life un-lived, a story mentally, to the corporate soup of untold, or a lesson unlearned. They America. He is here with his wife, can be nibbled at a bit at a time, or thoroughly enjoying Mexico and devoured in great avid gulps. It is all his new found mistress and taskat your pace and leisure. master - the written word. A book is your best friend at your


El Ojo del Mar / July 2010

By Victoria Schmidt Dial and Smile


here was once just busy. an advertising sloOK, this gan: “Just dial and problem smile.” I don’t even know will rewhat they were selling, but solve itself here in Mexico, dialing a teleonce I learn phone does not induce any kind of Spanish… smile for me. Moving to Mexico has but for now, I’m just made me completely rethink that totally confused. By the time I figure whole telephone thing. out the number, dial it, bypass any Trying to understand telephone messages and actually get to speak numbers in Mexico is not easy! First to a human being, I’m in no mood to of all, no one seems to write out the talk to anyone! telephone numbers in a consistent We brought an Internet phone manner. There are two numbers in system with us so we could continparenthesis, or three…sometimes ue to talk to our family and friends it represents the area code, someup north for the cost of a local call. time not. If the rest of the numbers Sometimes the reception is great, have some logic to the way they are and sometimes it’s as if we are atprinted, I can’t seem to find it. There tempting to maintain communicais the ever-popular tions via a Mars sattwo-digit grouping, And of course the peo- ellite. And of course and the more com- ple who always have the people who almon NOB grouping the best reception? ways have the best of three digits folreception? TeleTelemarketers. I wish marketers. I wish I lowed by four. NOB, it’s so easy I could have brought could have brought to dial a number the phone and left and be connected. the phone and left them behind! Most of the time, them behind! So we have the I had people on Mexico phone and speed dial so I didn’t even have to the USA phone. One is hooked to a think about the actual number at telephone line, one is hooked to a all. I can’t use the speed dial here, modem that is hooked to another because every time I try I get a remodem, which is hooked to the cording, but if I dial it by myself, the telephone line. I have one table that call usually goes through. Here in is strewn with telephones, modems Mexico, I have to try to figure out and cords everywhere! They look where I’m calling. Am I calling a lanlike either basal ganglia, or my yarn dline or a cell phone? Is it a local call after my cats have gotten into it. I on a landline or is it a long distance can’t decide which. Either way, it is call to a cell phone? It isn’t easy for unsightly. those of us who are numerically And don’t even get me started challenged! And it is even worse for on the telephone bill. No. Really. I the memory challenged! mean it. I don’t want to talk about it. Once I’ve managed to dial a     We did, however, simplify our life phone number, I am often conby canceling our cell phones when fronted with a message in Spanish. we got to Mexico. The last thing we Only, as I’ve mentioned in previous needed was yet another telephone! columns, my Spanish isn’t stellar. So But I notice we are in the minority I’m not sure: if I’ve dialed the wrong here. Cell phones are as ubiquitous number, if I’m supposed to leave a here as they are NOB. But cell phone message, if there is a problem with etiquette seems as scarce here as it the telephone line, or if the line is is there. Drivers still use them while

driving, clerks in stores use them, kids on the street have them. People use them in restraints and in the stores. Sigh. Do we honestly need to spend so much time on the telephone? Does a thin voice coming through a transmitter have more relevance than the people around us at any given moment? I prefer email to telephones. Getting emails almost always brings a smile to my face, and I can answer them on my own schedule. Emails don’t wake me from a sound sleep. An email arriving on my computer won’t make me run to catch it in time. Emails are quiet and simple. I like quiet and simple.

VICTORIA SCHMIDT was a systems supervisor for several documentary film companies. She and her husband Tom moved to Mexico from the Mid-West a few years ago. She has contributed several articles to technical magazines in the US.

Saw you in the Ojo


ENGLISH–Pitfalls for the Unwary By David Harper


y wife is a stickler for correct English usage. I am a bit of a stickler another shriek?). myself but academically I am only The same holds true for spellbacked up by “O” level English (about ing, where if enough people get it the same as High School level, but in wrong it will, in the fullness of time, England) as opposed to her Honors become right. I am waiting for the Degree in English (but only from a day when “dessicated” is accepted Canadian University!). as correct. As just 3% of us know it is Yesterday I heard her shriek while actually spelled with one s and two watching television. Apparently, c’s because it is from the Latin verb on PBS no less, someone had said “desiccare” – to dry up, as in desic“Chief of Staffs” instead of “Chiefs cated coconut. I am proud to be in of Staff”. I agreed with her that this the 3% who get showed how low PBS standards had This could be of vital it right as it vindifallen. Something I importance in an in- cates my “O” level am only too happy terview for a white col- LatinMy(failed). wife does to do concerning those “bow-tie wear- lar job, or of no conse- not accept this coning, panty-waisted, quence if you are inter- cept. She points out that if your stanliberals.” Later she viewing for the job of dard usage causes shrieked again from bouncer at a night club. others to think you uneducated or igin front of her comnorant, then you are damaging your puter screen – a two shriek day – as efforts to communicate effectively she was reading the Daily Telegraph with them. This could be of vital iminternet edition. A journalist had portance in an interview for a white written “Mother-in-laws” instead of collar job, or of no consequence if “Mothers-in-law”. As the Daily Teleyou are interviewing for the job of graph does have a good sports secbouncer at a night club where petion I refrained from any negative dantic obsession with correct usage comments. has been known to translate into seAs all of you know a compound rious bodily harm. noun that has one head with which Under threat of serious bodily it begins usually pluralizes its head. harm myself I am making the folCourts martial is a good example. lowing voluntary statement: My But as is often the case with Engwife (who is a lawyer) disavows any lish, anomalies abound. For examstatements I have attributed to her. ple “Son of a bitch” can be “Sons of bitches” or “Sons of a bitch”. Sorry about the language, it’s a cheap trick to try and keep your attention. You then run into that other problem with English: “common usage” so just when you think you have it right the philistines win anDAVID HARPER was other one. What common usage born and educated in means is that if the wrong usage beEngland. Worked and comes more common in everyday resided in Hong Kong, language, then by applying the simPanama, India and South Africa. ple rules of theoretical democracy Retired in 2008, he moved it first becomes acceptable then at to Mexico where he met and some later date – correct (did I hear married Susan.


El Ojo del Mar / July 2010

Melancholy In Mexico By Danny Dominguez


trange as it may seem, there are many in the expat community here in the so-called “Paradise” of Mexico who go through long, sometimes severe bouts of depression. The causes are as varied as the people who have the symptoms, yet somewhat different from those usually enmight say about this case, but my countered north of the border. own “diagnosis” is that the first obDepression is often caused by jective was ill-founded, and his failstress brought on by financial insecuure with the second his own fault. As rity, dissatisfaction with our job, dofor the former, any man who thinks a mestic strife, health problems, troulove-partner can shake him out of his ble with our children and that most doldrums is kidding himself. Rememcommon malaise best expressed by ber that story about the man who the song, “Is That All There Is?” waited years for the phone call that But here in Mexico, many of those was to change his life for the better? worries soon evaporate. Either time, And when it finally came, it was only climate or new challenges put our himself on the other end of the line. previous woes into I knew when first a more pleasing per- I knew when first com- coming to live here spective...or we sim- ing to live here that I that I would need ply make peace with a partner, but to would need not a part- not our past. But not all keep myself occuof us are so lucky. ner, but to keep my- pied with creative, Recently, a good self occupied with cre- soul-satisfying enfriend confessed to deavors. Knowing soul-satisfying how seductive the a case of the blues ative, that he couldn’t endeavors. lassitude of Mexico seem to shake. Yet, can be, I was aware on the surface my friend “Michael” that otherwise I could easily become doesn’t have a worry in the world. just another sad soul sitting around a A successful advertising executive cantina at eleven o’clock in the mornin New York, he took an early retireing, drinking myself to death while I ment and now has a pension well bored everyone silly by extolling the beyond that of most people in our would-be virtues of the “good old community. Moreover, Michael is in days.” excellent health, lives within his amSo, after what had been a long ple means and is considered highly and often shaky career as a screenattractive by most women. So what’s writer/director, I ventured to Mexico the problem? to try and write a novel. My seventh In a nutshell, he is suffering from book will soon be out, and this newwhat might loosely be called “buyfound career as a novelist, along er’s remorse.” Having bought too with my job at the Ojo, the congenial heavily into the myth of Mexico, he company of about a dozen good pals came south expecting more than the (male and female), and more housecountry (or any country, for that mathold pets than I care to count, have ter) could reasonably deliver. Here he rounded off most of the rough edges hoped to find a woman who could of my existence. warm his so-called golden years, as My friend, not quite so lucky, is well as discover an outlet for his still thinking about returning to New prodigious energy. York. And maybe he’s right to do so, I don’t know what Sigmund Freud for perhaps he retired too early. But

he must find a place to channel his personality, a new method to express himself, and thereby reaffirm his individuality. Dante once wrote that the worst fate that can befall anyone is for them to totally lose their sense of themselves and then have no way of regaining it. But each of us must reclaim it in our own way, in our own time. Meanwhile, I wait, watch and hope my witty, warm-hearted friend finds his way out of the dark. It would be a pity if a man who has brought

joy to so many others is unable to find it again himself.

DANNY DOMINGUEZ is a former screenwriter and lawyer who has lived for several years in San Luis Potosi, where he spends much of his time giving free legal advice to ex-pats.

Saw you in the Ojo




oing to the beach? a seascape not yet compromised by Want to relax with good overpopulation. But hurry, the clock friends and enjoy the is ticking. natural landscape and the open Located fifteen kilometers north sea as you walk without interrupof Melaque on the Mexico 200 going tion along a beautiful beach with north to Puerto Vallarta, La Manzano high rise hotels in sight? La nilla offers five miles of flat, white Manzanilla, facing sand beach that lies beautiful Tenacatita And, would you be- like a jewel around Bay, is my favorite. the neck of a beauOnce settled into lieve, margaritas for tiful woman. In the one of the small less than twenty pe- early mornings and hotels along the the late afternoon— sos! beach, or a rental when the light is perched on the hills above, you can just right—most visitors enjoy long lean back and enjoy the cool ocean strolls along the beach, or settle breeze as it sweeps across your terinto a lounge chair offered, without race while you take in the beauty of charge, at one of the beach front


El Ojo del Mar / July 2010

restaurants and then procrastinate a bit while drinking Margaritas with friends as the sun settles into the ocean to the west. The town, one main street with a loop around the park, is a small fishing village where the day’s big activity is to meet the fishing boats as they come in and compete with a few other hungry travelers for your favorite seafood. The large central park hosts a Tianguis (street market) every Friday filled with crafts and art from throughout the region, and also offers a central gathering place to sit on a bench watching the world go by. And if art is your thing, there is also an excellent art gallery selling the works of artists from throughout eastern Mexico just four blocks away. For those of us who find no vacation complete without a small stack of books at their side, just off the square is a large book exchange that benefits the local education foundation, and five blocks down the main street is a second story bar, a hangout for ex-pats, that has a good selection of books for exchange and a large screen TV that is normally set on the latest sporting event. And, would you believe, margaritas for less than twenty pesos! For adventure, you can kayak through the calm waters of an inland lagoon surrounded by marsh land, both protected as a federal ecological zone, or paddle across the bay to a pristine coral reef to scuba dive. Or fill your days with more leisurely activities like watching whales and dolphins and flocks of pelicans, and cormorants as they mix with Frigate Birds dining on a school of fish along the edge of the sea. If you grow bored with just relaxing, watching the sea, and walking the beach, yoga, art and lan-

guage classes are offered at Casa Maria’s fixed on a steep hill above the town. The classes are held in her third story palapa which provides a panoramic view of the ocean and a cooling breeze. And best of all as you descend from her palapa Maria will invite you to join her for a cup of coffee or fresh squeezed orange juice on her bougainvillea covered terrace below. If you stay hungry and crave food (the sun and the sea tend to do that) there are cooking classes at Eilden’s Hacienda. Even better, along the beach and in the lush hills above the town, are a number of eclectic restaurants offering Chiles Rellenos (cooked the right way), Sea Bass and Snapper, some of the best Calamari I had ever eaten—and would you believe pizza from a wood-fired oven. Then, for a late morning breakfast, there is a spot on the central park—tucked under a cool colonnade—that specializes in fresh baked breads, sweet rolls and some of the best coffee I had ever tasted. The high point for me (I’m easy) was joining one of the year-round residents who like to throw Frisbees with friends on the beach, and then, as a good host, offer all who gathered an excellent tequila, good conversation and a peaceful moment to watch the sun turn the sky crimson. What more could a body want?

ROBERT MOHR has been an educator, a farmer and a social worker. He worked as a Peace Corps Volunteer, as well as an architect and was the administrator for a large organization helping the poor in Latin America.

GOOD NEWS/BAD NEWS Courtesy of an anonymous (if mean-spirited) contributor


hey are the first generation that will—let’s be honest—actually live too long. Despite the widespread availability of Twinkies, life expectancy in the United States has been climbing and shows no sign of a decline. The 20th century saw the greatest turn 110. (But best wishes to John gain in life expectancy in all of Henry and his bride.) human history, an increase of 30 Familial wealth is another. A years. couple of generations ago, paAmericans today can expect to triarchs died at 50 or 60, leaving live to be 77.7 years old, the govresources to their still-young kids. ernment says. We may reach 79 by Now, we’re faced with a future in the year 2015. which crusty boomers are cruisMeanwhile, the oldest of the ing around in their red ’Vettes baby boomers turn 63 this year. plastered with “I’m Spending My Armed with their heart-rate monGrandkids’ Inheritance” bumper itors and flax-seed smoothies, stickers, and this is no longer a they think they’re never going to joke. die. And everyone else is starting The boomers will hold onto to worry that they’re right. not only their money, but their By refusing to jobs. They will be expire after a rea- Deal with it, Generation reaching the tradisonable number of X. You are doomed to tional retirement years, the boom- be the Prince Charleses age of 65 over the ers are threatennext 20 years, but ing the social or- of the American work- a mass exodus der. Unconcerned force, waiting patient- from the workabout the conseplace is looking quences, they are ly for an opening that less likely every poised to make us may not come. day, particularly in a Nation of Geehard times. Boomzers. Oh, they’ll be well-preserved er professionals aren’t vacating geezers, sure. Taut, limber, and the corner offices anytime soon; relatively wrinkle-free. Their brain 70 percent say they’re going to gyms (Sudoku, anyone?) will keep working. Deal with it, Generkeep them driving long after the ation X. You are doomed to be the age at which their grandparents Prince Charleses of the American quit. They’ll be starting new busiworkforce, waiting patiently for nesses, “reinventing” themselves, an opening that may not come. jumping out of airplanes on their Nor will aging boomers move birthdays. from their homes to make room But this is not good news for for you. There was a time when a anyone other than the boomers young family could expect an asthemselves, because our social sortment of spacious 4 BR/2 BA institutions have not adjusted fire-placed ranchers coming on as life expectancy has increased. the market regularly, as Grandma Lifelong marriage, for example, and Grandpa downsized. That’s is one thing when you expect to over. The boomers, having spent live to be 40, quite another when the past decade putting down there’s a chance you may one day Brazilian cherry floors in their

mudrooms and hand-painted Mexican tiles in the bath, are not going anywhere. Their nests may be empty, but they are well feathered. No Florida condominium can compete. And, catastrophically, the Boomers Without End are going to snuff out what little life is left in the Social Security system. One survey found that nearly half of 61-year-olds plan to start drawing Social Security checks at 62, whether or not they are working. This will drive our government accountants nuts and the conspiracy theorists nuttier. Says author Mike Adams: “Ever wonder why they give out free vaccine shots to all the senior citizens every winter? Because vaccines increase the death rate!” So, what good are old boomers, anyway? What can we, as a nation, do with 77 million ageless Botoxed Parrotheads whose continued existence ensures that the

oldies stations play Zeppelin for decades to come? In generations past, the elderly remained useful even in their final, feeble years, baby-sitting their grandchildren, dispensing sundry wisdom, and keeping their extended family supplied with pound cakes. But boomer geezers will serve no useful purpose to the young; they’ll be too busy playing Wii Fit in their home gyms and downloading Younger Next Year on their Kindles. Ebenezer Scrooge, the Geezerin-Chief, would say they should just die and reduce the surplus population. Not likely. The boomers will be with us for a long time to come, and over time, we’ll have to find a purpose for them. Meanwhile, maybe they could lighten up on the All-Bran and hit the trans fat. Just sayin’. For posterity’s sake.

Saw you in the Ojo


I LOVE A PARADE By Phyllis Rauch


oving parades, I am lucky to live in Mexico. But if you see large groups of people on the streets, with floats, dancers and music it could be for a wide variA peregrinacion, however, occurs ety of reasons, with Spanish words to to honor the villages’ patron saints. indicate the differences. Music, dancing, and floats with reDesfiles, such as the one on Nothemes are vember 20, RevoI was thinking this is ligious dedicated to the lution Day, usually feature students of perhaps the craziest sacred event, and a all ages in sport uni- thing I’ve ever done, different mood prevails. forms, turning somThe festival culersaults and form- recuperating and with minates with the ing complicated a fractured rib. procesion, candlelit, pyramids. Desfiles and quiet except for the murmurmay be political or for other secular ing of rosaries. Those with a manda reasons.


El Ojo del Mar / July 2010

(promise) complete the route of the procession on their knees, friends and family running to place rugs in front of their painful paths. Finally, the acompañamiento includes long lines of family and friends following a casket to the graveyard. I have been a sideline participant in all desfiles, peregrinaciones and procesiones. Taking photos, tapping my foot to the Indian drumbeats, running blocks ahead to catch a second view of something like the Penachos (enormous headdresses) from Sahauyo and quietly following the January procession honoring our Señor del Monte, - always on the curb, never in the street. Recently I was invited to a celebration in honor of the Reyna de la Tercera Edad. (Roughly translated: Golden Age Queen). Recovering from a minor operation and still bound up with a fractured rib, I hadn’t been out of the house for two weeks and felt wobbly and fragile. I snapped a few photos of our special Nextipac float, featuring a painted landscape, a traditional fishing canoe with nets, and a large, paper mache flower, centered with a chair for our candidate. Then I chauffeured my Nextipac family to town, driving with just one arm. Mari said, “I’ve already reserved a chair for you Señora, on the plaza, in front of the stage.” It was early, and I went to check out the competition. Our float was by far the best. I was distracted however, when I spied a donkey (now so rare in our town) with flowers between his ears, pulling a little wooden cart. The owner, a mustachioed Señor with sombrero wandered over. After admiring and petting the burro, I discovered that they were from Potrerillos “Aha, I should have known,” I said. “This is the way we are,” the some-

breroed Señor grinned. “Why should we pretend to be anything different?” The candidates were now mounting the floats. Nextipac’s slim Doña Luz dressed in a white knit with seed pearls, her long hair swept up into an elegant style looked exquisite. Seated in the middle of her large blossom, she was every inch a queen. The Nextipac contingent was the largest present, carrying balloons, felt butterflies, tin cans with coins and wooden matracas as noisemakers. Suddenly I said to Mari, “I’m not going back to sit down, I’m going to walk in the desfile.” I was thinking this is perhaps the craziest thing I’ve ever done, recuperating and with a fractured rib. But so long just a witness, I suddenly had to become a participant. With my barrio, the lovely Doña Luz , and old enough to be a candidate myself…. if not now, when? We marched, yelled porras (cheers) waved balloons and butterflies, rattled noisemakers, sang Cielito Lindo. I was wearing a large visor and sunglasses, and fancied myself invisible. Not so. Richard, my mechanic, spied me, as did many others who know me well. Others asked, “Who was the gringa in the Nextipac delegation singing Cielito Lindo?” At first I was embarrassed, but then proud and happy. It was high time I finally joined the parade, and suspect this one won’t be my last.

PHYLLIS RAUCH has lived in Mexico for more than 30 years. She edited and translated her late husband’s memoirs The Jew with the Iron Cross. She owns and operates a B&B in the state of Jalisco.



ou do not have to own a cat they realize they need to get out of it or a dog to learn from their for their own good health of mind and life skill lessons. However, body. you have to be willing to be an obCats and dogs take life a moment server of their life, sort of like being a at a time—relishing the sheer joy of “people watcher” which we all do to that moment. There is no brooding some extent. They probably are more or holding a grudge about perceived honest than many humans in their infringements or insults that they feel outward conduct and not as refined in were sent in their direction—like failtheir behavior. ing to send a birthday card, feeling They have a wealth of patience, unappreciated for all that they have wisdom and defined social boundaries done for that another person, etc. Life within their family unit. Pets value the is a wonderful thing. It comes with success of the whole social family unit feelings of taking great pleasure in above temporary individual desires. play time, being a bit child-like, and Unless a perceived threat is presented having joy in your heart and your life, to an animal, they tend to follow the and hopefully not viewing these emo“golden rule” in their Cats and dogs also tions in the rear view relationships with humirror of one’s life. mans and other ani- know the value of takCats and dogs mals that are not their ing a nap. also know the value natural enemies. of taking a nap. They Along with patience, is perseverknow how to relax with no worries ance and independence. Cats always about anything. This is a lesson that evget what they want, even if they have eryone would benefit from learning. to get it themselves, and not depend Cats and dogs can teach us about on another to obtain their goal. Likecaring and empathy. I am sure we have wise, they also know how to “suck-up” all seen those “cute” stories where a if they really want something. They dog has become a surrogate mother know the limits of what they will do to to a baby pig and a tiger to a baby get what they want or need, and get fawn. Although as adult they might it they do. All those who had a boss at not have been best of friends, but they one time know this technique and no recognize a person in need, and put doubt enlisted this maneuver. You just those other feelings aside and offer have to determine your level of suckand provide loving care and attention up, like complimenting someone but in time of need. not cross the line of totally humiliatAnd the last and probably the more ing yourself, or being so obviously inforemost lesson is that each of us, at sincere. least once a day, needs a hug and an Another good survival trait is listenAtta-boy! ing to your inner instincts. As humans, we sometimes over-analyze things and make ourselves a bit nuts. Animals listen, and go cautiously when they get JACKIE KELLUM is a RN,  some kind of internal warning signal retired in Mexico with when approaching a person or situaher husband. They share tion that may prove harmful to them. their home with mostly The only exception possibly is when rescue animals.     Jackie they repeatedly trust a human who has and fellow-nurse Mary Anne done them harm, but they keep hopMolinari   worked to   create   a ing that this trusted person will not document, the legal Mexican repeat this hurtful action. Animals are equivalent of a Living Will and like humans in this case; sometimes Power of Attorney. http:// they stay in abusive relationships, until

Saw you in the Ojo


ANYTHING YOU CAN DO (they can do better!) By Tom Clarkson


t may be a brother-in-law, next door neighbor or that particularly irritating high school bellicose bully who has badly gone to seed. You know the kind, those guys (and occasional woman) who, no matter what you say, are the “I can top that” sort! Yesterday while flying home, trapped at an altitude of 39,000 feet, one sat next to me. Our (dare I call it such) conversation went somewhat as follows: Knowing we would share common space for several hours I introduced myself and initiated casual communication with a light anecdote of how, just that morning prior to leaving for

the airport, while playing with a friend’s puppy, it had nipped me. That was my first mistake. His immediate response, several decibels louder than necessary, was that this was nothing. He, in fact – while helping Siegfried and Roy perfect their act a few years ago – had found himself alone in the large stage cage with four 800-pound Bengal Tigers that had tried to maul him. But, inasmuch as he understood and “spoke” Punjabi Tiger, he had communicated with them, established rapport, playfully wrestled with them for a while and then had calmly walked from the enclosure with them in a state of quiet, docile submission.

had discovered a new galaxy from the Mauna Kea Observatory; while coaching Fabien Cousteau had discovered four, heretofore, unknown species of fish living at an ocean depth of 5,000 feet in the Mariana Trench and found satisfaction in tutoring a previously unknown tribe of primitive pygmies in the bowels of the Brazilian Rain Forest on use of the internet. At this point, desperate to find a topic of discussion on which we might have a modicum of parity, I grasped at the fact that, as a youth, I had enjoyed flying kites. He curtly replied that he tended Mouth agape, pausing to ponder to “play” at a bit higher elevation inasthe sight, I changed topics recountmuch as he had trained, taught and tuing how much I’d enjoyed barbequed tored the entirety of the multi-nation hamburgers, the evening before, with crews for the last eight space shuttles friends I’d been visiting. and was the primary consultant for He countered that he found tradiNASA’s planning of a Mars mission. tional beef too bland and pedestrian, Numb by this time, I stumbled on asserting that his favorite red meat to how I had enjoyed playing basketdish was three month aged, Himalaball as a kid. yan Yak flank filets - smoked over emScoffing, he told me that he regubers of slow burning Gumbo-Limbo, of larly counseled the University of North the Central and South American BursCarolina’s coach, Roy Williams, sat beeraceae family and which is related to hind the LA Lakers team bench at all frankincense and myrrh, spiced with home games, and (what those of lesser He rejoined that he had how his great grandpalates prefer on father had actually mastered effective twowhite meats) a sauce been the one to tell of Lemon Myrtle and way communication Dr. James Naismith Pepperberry. A bit over- with a pet lowland goril- how to affix fruit baswhelmed, I next la that shared its hous- kets to the wall, hence creating the sport in commented how, ing with a exceptional the first place. the day before yesStammering, I and uncommon, white terday, I had shot then shared our hope what, for me, was a Asian elephant and a Sito soon get a Labrarespectable round dor Retriever pup. berian Musk Ox. of golf. He rejoined that He responded he had mastered effective two-way that, following a 72-hole round in communication with a pet lowland which he had shot six holes in one, gorilla that shared its housing with a he’d found the PGA no longer chalexceptional and uncommon, white lenging and only dabbled in the sport Asian elephant and a Siberian Musk when Tiger Woods, Steve Stricker, Phil Ox. And then, as an afterthought, he Mickelson and Ernie Els ask for his peradded how much that his Costa Risonal counsel and advice – which he can Sloth and Dingo from Thailand assured me they did weekly. enjoyed riding the back of his Cyprus Feeling a bit deflated, I next offered Dwarf hippopotamus. that I planned to soon commence takAnd then the jet, in which I sat ing tennis lessons. trapped, pulled away from the termiHe tersely responded that such nal, began to taxi, heading for take off. sport was “too tame and unchalleng(Next issue – the conversation coning” and preferred sky boarding from tinues.) 27,000 feet clad only in a velour codpiece. Nearly choking on the mental image of his substantial – near 300 pounds - girth so attired, I hastened on to what I thought might be an area of common interest, mentioning how my wife Patty and I had last month found a wonderful week-end retreat. In the vein of finding things, his response was how, only recently, he


El Ojo del Mar / July 2010

TOM CLARKSON and his wife have lived on board a boat, on a remote 1.2 square mile island in the Pacific, in the bowels of wartorn Iraq and are now reasonably settled in Santiago, Manzanillo.





Tel: 315-100-8869

- AMERICAN AIRLINES Tel: 01-800-904-6000

Pag: 02


Pag: 22

BOUTIQUE - CURVAS PELIGROSAS Tel: (322) 223-5978 - LA BOHEMIA Tel: (322) 222-3164 - MARIA DE GUADALAJARA Tel: 322-222-2387

Pag: 12 Pag: 08 Pag: 24

CEILING FANS - VENTILADORES.COM Tel: (322) 221-3754, (322) 225-3506

Pag: 23


CONSTRUCTION/ARCHITECTS - ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN/CONSTRUCTION Arq. Juan Jose Rodriguez Tel: 322-225-8248 Pag: 12 - STUDIO SYNTHESIS Tel: (01) 33-8421-7733 Pag: 10



Pag: 15

HEALTH - AUDA HAMMETT Tel: (376) 766 4185

Pag: 21

HOTELS / SUITES - CASA ALVARADA Tel: 312-315-5229 - CASA DE MARCO Tel: 315-355-8402 - CIELO ROJO Tel: 311-258-4155 - COCO CABAÑAS Tel: 01-335-0042686 - JARDIN DEL TUITO Tel: 322-269-0205 - LA MISSION Tel: 322-222-7104 - LA NUEVA POSADA Tel: (376) 766-1444 - LOS CUATRO VIENTOS Tel: 322-222-0161

REAL ESTATE - APARTMENT FOR SALE Tel: 461-197-9417 Pag: 12 - COLDWELL BANKER, CANDY KING AND CONRADO BIELSA Tel: (314) 334-2000 Pag: 18 - FOR SALE BY OWNER-BEACH FRONT Tel: 011 52-315-108-3425 Pag: 20 - FOR SALE BY OWNER-El Tigre Golf Course Tel: 322-225-8248 Pag: 11 - PONTO HORIZONTE Tel: 01-800-3100-505 Pag: 28 - RE/MAX - PERLA PACIFICO Tel: (314) 333-2904 Pag: 03 - RESTAURANT FOR SALE - PV Tel: 322-222-7104 Pag: 17 - SPANISH HACIENDA FOR SALE Tel: 322-225-8248 Pag: 13

RENTALS - SANTANA RENTALS Cell: 315-104-3283, 315-100-9955

- MAILBOXES, ETC. Tel: (322) 224-9434

Pag: 13, 19 Pag: 14 Pag: 14 Pag: 16 Pag: 10

Pag: 13

RESTAURANTS/CAFES/CLUBS - BLAKES SPORT BAR & GOURMET DINING Tel: (322) 293-2397 Pag: 15 - BURRITO REVOLUTION Pag: 17 - CASA DEL WAFFLE Tel: 224-4846 Pag: 03 - HACIENDA ALEMANA Tel: 322-222-2071 Pag: 03 - IRISH PUB Tel: (315) 355-8402 Pag: 13 - JOLANDAS Tel: 315-351-5449 Pag: 03 - JUANITOS Tel: (314) 333-1388 Pag: 09 - MATEJA’S BAR & GRILL Tel: (045) 322-147-6383 Pag: 07


SPA - VALLARTA DETOX Tel: 322-101-7914

Pag: 19

Pag: 27

Pag: 24


Pag: 10


Pag: 16 Pag: 13

Pag: 23 Pag: 11

INTERIOR DESIGN - CASSIZ Tel: (322) 22 22884, (329) 29 83679, (314) 3336700

Pag: 16


Pag: 08

MOVERS - BALDERAS Tel: 01 (33) 3810-4859


Pag: 06

Saw you in the Ojo!



1 Starts 6 Member of an Arizona Indian tribe 10 Bang down 14 Film maker 15 Overt 16 Cornmeal cake 17 Where you were at crime time 18 Butterfly’s cousin 19 Decays 20 Still 21 Northwest by north 23 Venus 25 Horse command 26 Kitten’s cry 27 Screech 30 Held gingerly 34 Jeweled headdress 35 Break 36 Body of water 38 Left out of gear 39 Poisonous snake 40 Visual 42 Representative 43 Throb 44 Hallowed 45 ______Temple, tab 48 Shortage 49 Thai 50 Clench you teeth 51 Plasm 54 Males 55 Lysergic acid diethylamide 58 Uncultured 59 Frock 61 Dickens’ “____ of Two Cities” (2wds.) 63 Voiced 64 Malicious 65 Having to do with the navy 66 Vassal 67 Mail 68 Fish

1 Yes 2 Stick 3 Change 4 Catch 5 Neo-nazi 6 Former capital of Malawi 7 On top 8 Yield 9 Brute 10 Spread out on the couch 11 Seabird 12 Opposed 13 Tableland 22 Chinese cooking pan 24 Scarlet 25 Telegram 27 Toss 28 Avoids 29 Movie “King” 30 Easy 31 Aged 32 Organic compound 33 Freethinker 35 Speed contest 37 Pituitary hormone 40 Respectful 41 Small ground plot 43 False names 46 Its own 47 Cram 48 Parch 50 Order 51 Not cons 52 Decoy 53 6th Month (Jewish calendar) 54 Facial expression 55 Magma 56 Cabbage salad 57 Vale 60 Average (abbr.) 62 Sticky black substance

Saw you in the Ojo




MONTHLY THROUGHOUT THE YEAR -  MUJERES AMIGAS LUNCHEONS When: First Wednesday of Each Month Where: El Caribe Restaurant Time: 1:00 pm Contact: Candy King    044-314-103-0406,   WEEKLY THROUGHOUT THE YEAR  -   THIRSTY THURSDAYS – MANZAMIGOS Where: To be announced each week – When: 6:00 pm Contact: Jack Akers To Join: Linda Breun

Puerto Vallarta Expats in Vallarta Meet 2nd and 4th Tuesdays of each month. For locations and time check, Every Wednesday 6 - 10 pm, Old Town Art Walk , 16 galleries, Centro.

English Church Services – Puerto Vallarta Assembly of God 1 de Junio #333, Col. El Calvario, Pitillal, 322-4163743 Sunday 10:30 AM –English translation Calvary Chapel Pablo Picasso/Diego Rivera #105 (beside La Playa store, just off Ascencio), 322-293-5455 Sunday 10:30 AM - English translation, and 6:30 PM – in English Wednesday 6:30 PM – in English (Bible Study) Centro Cristiano Nuevo Amanecer Sierra Aconagua #111 (next to Bancomer branch on Ascencio), 322-222-3330 Sunday 10:00 AM – English translation Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Emiliano Zapata #420, 322-209-0592 Sunday 8:00 AM and 12:00 Noon – in Spanish (translators avail.) Sunday 1:00 PM – in English (Sunday School) Church on the Beach El Dorado on the Beach Sundays 9:30 am Pulpito 108 (los Muertos Beach) Christ Church by the Sea Blvd Fco. Medina 7936 (across from Airport) Sunday 10:00 am www,, 322-209-0895 First Baptist Church Argentina #181 (corner Peru, 1 block north of Malecon), 322-222-1722 Sunday 9:45 AM – in English

Rotary Club Pitillal, Thursdays, 9:00 pm, Outback Restaurant.

Iglesia Maria Reina de la Paz Albatros #270, Col. Marina Vallarta,322-209-1545 Sunday 11:00 AM - Bilingual

Lions Club, Wednesdays 9:30 pm, Madero #280, 322-222-0313

Jehovah’s Witnesses Milan #271, Col. Versalles Sunday 7:00 PM – in English

Guayabitos Rotary Club Meetings, Wednesday, 7:30 am, Restaurant Piña Colada

The The Ojo Ojo Crossword Crossword

Parroquia de la Santa Cruz Aguacate #233 (at Lazaro Cardenas), Old Town, 322-222-0989 Sunday 11:00 – part English Parroquia De Nuestra Señora De Guadalupe Miguel Hidalgo #370 (2 blocks E. of City Hall, corner of Independencia, Downtown) 322-2221326 Saturday 5:00 PM – in English Sunday 10:00 AM – Bilingual The Church at the Santa Barbara Theatre Olas Altas #351, Zona Romantica Sunday 9:30 AM – in English

English Church Services – Mazatlan San Judas Tadeo Av. De La Ostra, Col. Sabalo Country Sunday 8:45 AM – in English The Vineyard Church Camaron Sabalo #335, Golden Zona (beside Budget Car Rental) Sunday 9:00 AM – in English

English Church Services – Manzanillo Pedro’s Cazuelas Restaurant Miramar Beach Sunday 5:00 PM – in English

English Church Services – Melaque St. Patricio By-The-Sea Sunday 10:30 AM,


El Ojo del Mar / July 2010

El Ojo del Mar - July 2010  

Puerto Vallarta newspaper devoted to news, interviews, history, culture and art.

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