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CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION Nowadays, job is very important and “hot” to students around the world. Every student wants to study well at university, thence; they can get not only the basis knowledge steadily but also experience for applying to their own job later. So, to study at university well, how can? There are many people succeeding in different ways, but a number of others cannot get to their goals in spite of their efforts. Especially in VN, in grades of high schools, students are familiar with the ways their family and their schools urge them to study and they have fixed timetable arranged by their schools. Accordingly, when they participate in university, students take the initiative to manage their own time, so distributing time to make a sensible(relevant, appreciate) timetable is not easy. In addition, because of the fact that the pressure of time in universities isn’t relatively as high as in high schools, students neglect their study or even invest their time in learning by inappropriate ways, therefore. That means some subjects are invested more than they should be, in contrary, others are very little. Consequently, their results are not good, which makes them either feel discouraged or don’t want to continue their study. Especially, students are stress and they think all of their efforts are unuseful. Thus, we can see the importance of students’ successful time management in academic life. Moreover, a student called “good” one not only he is just laborious, creative, self- confident, active but also he can find out the most important key to his own success. That is time management. Correspondingly, our group hopes that the below information will help you in your managing time best and achieve your goals soon.


CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

Definition of time management Chris Croft (2003, p.3) reported that time management was vitally important. Perhaps it was the single biggest ingredient which you achieved a current lifestyle that you enjoyed and a future life with which you would be satisfied. Managing your time means managing yourself, you know how important your work is – the most important work and the less one, but you are usually confused by those things which are the reason why you must arrange and manage them. Thus, although you are successful in your life at this time or in the future, time management is always the most important thing you have to do effectively. Furthermore, Matthew Robinson (2008, p.7) said “Time management is a series of tools that you can use to help yourself make smart choices when it comes to organizing and scheduling your daily life.” Chris said that “Managing your time means managing yourself” which is in your mind, make up your mind and push yourself to do it .Matthew thinks that time management is the tools that you use in your life, tools are something you can use to help you finish your job smoothly. According to authors above, both of them define time management is the best way to organize your daily life. Maybe you misunderstand Time Management means that you are able to control your time. Time is the unseen, unreachable, intangible thing you only know its existence and its effects on your life. Whenever time passes by, you cannot get it back, so the thing you can do is that you ought to arrange your work following the rule of time but don’t be controlled by time as well. Therefore, Stephen R.Covey founds that some of the recent general arguments related to "time" and "management" pointing out the term "time management" was misleading and the concept should actually implied that it was the management of our own activities, make sure they were accomplished within the available or allocated time, which was an unmanageable continuous resource.


How to manage your time Everyone in this world has the same amount of time – 24 hours a day. Most people, however, think that they don’t have enough time for their life, such as: work, study, entertainment. According to Sharon (2006), “You can’t save or steal time. When it’s gone, it’s gone. However you can learn to invest it wisely”. This paper will briefly review the best ways to manage time for college students. For college students, it’s not easy to finish all the things of their life while they have to split their time for school, family, and friends. Sometimes, when the problems come at the same time, they don’t have enough time to solve. So, this really makes them angry at themselves and others because they fell frustrated and unorganized. And to deal with this problem, according to Sharon (2006), students have to answer well these two questions “Where does your time go? (Where are you spending your time and energy?)” And “Where should your time go?” To get into the first question, students can divide time into three areas: committed time, maintenance time and discretionary time. And the answer for the second question is that setting goals to determine what they want to accomplish. On the other hand, Roy and Michael (2009) stated “In many cases, time manages you”. It means the notion of time is a paradox. People can only manage themselves in relation to time. It seems that the difference appears between Sharon and Roy and Michael: the point of view. In fact, these opinions are just the same and similar to each other. This means, time management is actually self management. It is interesting that the skills we need to manage others are the same skills we need to manage ourselves: the ability to plan, delegate, organize, direct and control.

The difference just appears when the authors give advice about schedule. Sharon uses table called “time log” and she manages time for a short period. In contrast Roy and Michael use “time map” to draw chains of things. With the same idea to Roy and Michael, another Sharon (2009) comes from state university of New


York at Buffalo who stated that: “There's no such thing as time management! So why should you read the rest of this handout? Because there is such a thing as self management and that's the key to make time your ally rather than your enemy.” She suggested following to 2 steps to self management: Step1: find out where your time goes by keeping track of how you use your hours for one week. Step2: pick up several more of these Weekly Schedules and do some planning. But according to Sharon, time management is not just making schedule, you must learn how to say “no” to succeed in it. It means you must stay away from telephone, computer, TV, and so on once your priorities are set. The key to effective time management is literally being your own boss. Instead of being accountable to teachers and parents, now you need to be accountable to you! One of the biggest stumbling blocks to time management is procrastination. However, the easiest way to avoid procrastination is to start by memorizing ten little two-letter words; “If it is to be, it is up to me.” like Sandberg (2004) reported.

Time management of students It is likely that many students are unaware of possible differences between how they spend their time, and how they think they spend their time. Such a perception gap may lead to a lower academic performance by students, because, according to one study at least, there is a relationship between study time and college outcomes (Stinebrickner and Stinebrickner, 2004). If students can be made aware of such a perception gap, by either faculty or advisors, or both, it should result in higher academic performance by the students. Moreover, results of such a study may also lead to students devoting more attention to developing their time management skills, which should enhance their personal development, and even their collaborative learning skills.


Today's college students are less prepared for college-level work than their predecessors. Once they get to college, they tend to spend fewer hours studying while spending more hours working, some even full time (D. T. Smart, C. A. Kelley, & J. S. Conant, 1999). In this study, the authors examined the effect of both time spent studying and time spent working on academic performance. The authors further evaluated the interaction of motivation and ability with study time and its effect on academic performance. The results suggested that notability variables like motivation and study time significantly interact with ability to influence academic performance. Contrary to popular belief, the amount of time spent studying or at work had no direct influence on academic performance. The authors also addressed implications and direction for future research. The fall 2003 survey conducted by the Higher Education Research Institute at UCLA's Graduate School of Education and Information Studies found that only 34% of today's entering freshmen have spent six or more hours per week outside of class on academic-related work (e.g., doing homework, studying) during their senior year in high school. The sample consisted of 276,449 students at 413 of the nation's 4-year colleges and universities (over one fourth of entering freshmen in the United States), and the data were statistically adjusted to reflect responses of all first time, full-time students entering all four-year colleges and universities as freshmen in 2003. In fact, in 1987 when this question was asked of entering freshmen, 47.0% claimed they spent 6 or more hours per week studying outside of class. Since then, the time spent studying outside of class has declined steadily each year (Higher Education Research Institute, 2003). Another trend that is emerging is the increase in the number of college students who are employed either part time or full time. According to Gose (1998), 39% of college freshmen work 16 or more hours per week, an increase of 4% since 1993. Among all business majors, marketing students typically work even more hours per week than do other students (Smart, Tomkovick, Jones, & Menon, 1999).


According to the information above, we can see the college’s student cannot balance time between working and studying.


CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The sample studied included 20 male and female first year students, at the faculty of languages and cultural studies, Hoa Sen University, using the questionnaire survey. The questionnaire set included: • An open letter • Personal information • 13 structured questions Q1 to Q6: The importance of time management Q7 to Q13: The advantages and disadvantages of time management • 02 open questions (the effective time management skill and other ideas) All above are about how male and female first-year students at Hoa Sen University manage their time for: study, entertainment, social activities. All questionnaires were delivered to 20 male and female first-year students, at the faculty of languages and cultural studies, at Hoa Sen University. 20 questionnaires were returned (100 %) of which there are 7 male students and 13 female students. After being returned, all questionnaires were processed with statistical software (SPSS) as follows: • All nominal variables were averaged by using “mode”. • All ordinal variables were averaged by using “median” • Create tables of frequencies. • All averages corresponding to different variables in “Personal Information” were then put on comparisons.


CHAPTER IV: DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION Characteristics of the respondents Table 1: Distribution of respondents by Sex Frequencies 101 99

Male Female

Percentage (%) 50.5 % 49.5 %

Table 2: Distribution of respondents by Major

Business English Translation and

Frequencies 149 42

Percentage (%) 74.5 % 21.0 %

interpretation Teaching children

9

4.5 %

So to say, from table 1 and 2 there are 101 (50.5%) male students, 99 (49.5%) female students participated in the survey. In another aspect, there are 149 (74.5%) students of business English major, 42 (21.0%) students of translation and interpretation major, 9 (4.5%) students of teaching children major took part in the survey. Analysis and discussion on median distributions by Sex Table 3: Distribution of respondents by Sex

Male Female

Q1 1.00 1.00

Q2 3.00 3.00

Q3 2.00 2.00

Q4 4.00 3.00

Q5 3.00 3.00

Q6 2.00 2.00


• Table 3 shows that: There is no difference between male and female choices from Q1 to Q3 and Q5 to Q6, there is one difference between them. • Specifically: In Q1, both male and female completely agree that time management is a necessary skill for university students. In Q2 and Q5 both male and female have no idea of only university students need time management skills, should put courses of time management skills in universities. In Q3 and Q6, both male and female agree that time management skills can help students study and work more effectively, just only manage time in one day. In Q4, male disagrees that only need to know about time management skills, unnecessary to study, female has no idea.

Table 4: Distribution of respondents by Sex

Male Female

Q7.1 2.00 2.00

Q7.2 2.00 2.00

Q7.3 2.00 2.00

Q7.4 2.00 2.00

• Table 4 reflects that:

There is no difference between male and female choices from Q7.1 to Q7.4, both male and female agree that time can manage in: each month, each year, each semester and whole life.


Table 5 Distribution of respondents by Sex

Male Female

Q8 3.00 4.00

Q9 2.00 2.00

Q10 3.00 4.00

Q11 4.00 3.00

Q12 2.00 2.00

Table 5 reflects that:

There is no difference between male and female choices in Q9 and Q12: •

Specifically:

In Q9 and Q12, both male and female agree that time management skills help you orient your study plans and time management will make your life easier, your study and your work smoother. There is a difference between male and female choices in Q8, Q10 and Q11. •

Specifically:

In Q8 and Q10 male has no idea about time management will make you feel uncomfortable, bored and lack of activeness, female disagrees and that time management makes you not have time to relax and enjoy yourself. In Q11, male disagrees that time management skills only are theoretical and absolutely cannot be applied to your real life, female has no idea. Table 6: Distribution of respondents by Major

Commercial English Translator

Frequencies 149 42

Percentage (%) 74.5% 21.0%


Elementary teacher

9

4.5%

Analysis and discussion on median distributions by Major:

Commercial English Translator Elementary teacher

Q1 1.00 1.00 2.00

Q2 3.00 2.00 2.00

Q3 2.00 2.00 2.00

Q4 3.00 4.00 3.00

Q5 3.00 2.00 3.00

Q1 to Q5: Necessity of time management in university environment. • Table reflect that: There is no difference between choices of three groups of students who are at Commercial English, Translator and Elementary teacher in Q3. They agreed that Time management skills can help students study and work more effectively. • Specifically: o In Q1, it’s about Time management is a necessary skill for university students. Students of 3 major completely agree and agree. o In Q2, it’s about only university students need time management skills. Most of student of Commercial English have no idea but Elementary teacher’s students and the others agree with this question. o In Q4 students of Commercial English and Elementary teacher have no idea about only need to know about Time management skills, unnecessary to study. However students of Translator disagree with that. o Likewise in Q5, students of Commercial English and Elementary teacher still have no idea about Should put courses of time management skills in universities but students of Translator agree with that


Table 7: Analysis and discussion on median distributions by Major

Commercial English Translator Elementary teacher

Q6 2.00 3.00 2.00

Q7.1 2.00 2.00 2.00

Q7.2 2.00 2.00 2.00

Q7.3 2.00 2.00 2.00

Q7.4 3.00 3.00 4.00

Q6 to Q7.4: Ways to manage your time. • The table show that: There is no difference between choices of three groups of students who are at Commercial English, Translator and Elementary teacher in Q7.1, Q7.2, Q7.3. They agreed that can manage time in: Each month, Each year, Each semester. • Specifically: o

In Q6, it’s about Just only manage time in one day . Students of Commercial English, Elementary teacher agree and others have no idea.

o

In Q7.4, most of students of Commercial English, Translator have no idea about Can manage time in: Whole life but students’ Elementary teacher don’t agree with that. Table 8: Analysis and discussion on median distributions by Major

Commercial English Translator Elementary teacher

Q8 4.00 4.00 4.00

Q9 2.00 2.00 2.00

Q8 to Q12: Benefit of time management skill. • Table reflect that:

Q10 4.00 3.00 4.00

Q11 4.00 4.00 4.00

Q12 2.00 2.00 2.00


There is no difference between choices of three groups of students who are at Commercial English, Translator and Elementary teacher in Q8, Q9, Q11 and Q12. They agree that Time management will make your life easier, your study and your work more smooth and Time management skills help you orient your study plans. They also disagree that Time management will make you feel uncomfortable, bored and lack of activeness and Time management skills only are theoretical and absolutely cannot be applied to your real life. • In details: In Q10, it’s about Time management makes you not have time to relax and enjoy yourself. Group of students in Commercial English and Elementary teacher don’t agree with that but students in Translator have no idea about this question.


CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

CONCLUSIONS: From the data analysis and discussions, the following conclusions were drawn: I. Overall: There are 101 (50.5%) male students, 99 (49.5%) female students participated in the survey. In another aspect, there are 149 (74.5%) students of business English major, 42 (21.0%) students of translation and interpretation major, 9 (4.5%) students of teaching children major took part in the survey. II. By “Sex”: Similarities: They all agree or totally agree in these questions: Q1, Q3, Q6, Q7.1, Q7.4, Q9, Q12. All about these topics:  The necessary of time management skill to academic life.  The reality of time management skill.  Benefits of time management in work, study and life. They have no idea or do not agree in these questions: Q2, Q4, Q5, Q8, Q10, Q11. All about these topics:  The necessary of time management for any ages.  The ability of applying time management skill to academic life.  The affects of time management to the life.  The reality of time management skill.


Differences: Answers in these questions: Q4 (unnecessary to study time management skill) male students do not agree while female students have no idea, in Q8 (time management will make you feel uncomfortable, bored and lack of activeness) and in Q10 (time management makes you not have time to relax and enjoy yourself) male students have no idea, female students disagree. In Q11(time management skills only are theoretical) male disagrees, female has no idea. III.

By Major:

Similarities: Entire students of Commercial English, translator and Elementary teacher have agreed in these questions: Q3, Q8, Q16, Q17, Q18.1, 18.2, Q20, Q22. Those questions are about: • The necessity of time management in learning environment. • Benefits of time management. • The practical of time management skills. All of them have no comment or disagree in Q17 and Q19. Those questions are about: • Benefits of time management. • The practical of time management skills. Differences: Q1, Q2, Q4, Q5, Q6, Q7, Q9, Q10, Q11.1, Q11.2, Q11.3, Q11.4, Q12, Q13, Q14, Q15, Q18.3, Q18.4, Q21, Q23. Those questions are about:


• The opinion about time management skill is necessary for University’s students in Q1, the Commercial English’s students and Translator were completely agreed but the Elementary teacher’s students were agreed. • About the view shows that only University’s students need time management skill in Q2, the Commercial English’s students were no commented, the Translator and Elementary teacher were agreed. • About the view shows that students only need to study well and doesn’t need to know the time management skill in Q4, the Commercial English’s students and Elementary teacher were no comment but the Translator were disagree. • The opinion about the time management skill just only needs to be heard, no need to be studied, the Commercial English’s students and Elementary teacher were no comment and the Translator students were disagreed. • About the view shows that the time management skill should be taught in school and universities in Q6, the Commercial English’s students and Elementary teacher were agree, the Translator’s students were no commented. • The opinion about time management will put life under compulsion in Q7, the Commercial English’s students were disagreed, the Translator’s students and Elementary teacher’s students were no commented. • About the view show that time can’t be managed in Q9, the Commercial English’s students were disagreed but the Translator and Elementary teacher’s students were no comment. • With Q11.11, time management can be applied for entertainment, the Commercial English’s students were disagreed, the Translator’s students and Elementary teacher’s students were no commented. • In Q11.2, 11.3 about Time management can be applied for studying and social activities, the Commercial English’s student and Translator were agreed, the Elementary teacher’s students were completely agreed.


• With Q11.4, time management can be applied for outdoor activities, the Commercial English’s students were agreed, the students of Translator and Elementary teacher were disagreed. • With Q12, time management help to balance life and studying as well as working, the Commercial English’s students and Translator were agreed but the Elementary teacher’s students were disagreed. • In Q13, time management only put business and time under compulsion, the students of Commercial English were disagreed, the Translator and Elementary teacher’s students were no commented. • In Q14, time management may cause the loss of your relaxing and entertaining time, the Commercial English’s students and Translator were disagree, the students of Elementary teacher were no commented. • With Q15, time management make more time for you to relax and entertainment, the Commercial English’s students were agreed, the Translator and Elementary teacher’s students were no commented. • About the view shows that time management can be studied at each term of studying in Q18.3, the Commercial English’s students and Translator were agreed, the Elementary teacher’s students were no commented.. • About the view shows that time management can be studied at each term of studying in Q18.4, the Commercial English’s students and Translator were no commented, the Elementary teacher’s students were disagreed. • About the view shows that time management skill are only theoretical absolutely can’t be applied to practice in Q21, the Commercial English’s students were disagreed, the Translator’s students and Elementary teacher were no commented.


• About the view shows that time management helps students to orient their study plans in Q23, the Commercial English’s students were agreed, and the Translator and Elementary teacher’s students were no comment. Recommendations: According to the data analysis and the conclusions, the following recommendations were made: • A university’s student must know how to manage time in the most sensible way. If you chose the right way to manage time, you will save as much as time you can and you can organize you work more logical. And it helps us to balance working, entertainment and studying. Then we can balance our daily life, avoid losing control of your own time or you may focus too much on one thing so you can’t realize that you’re missing something else. So the time management skill must be applied to the daily life of university’s students nowadays. • All of the students must divide work in a right way and “do not let the grass grow under your feet”. There are many ways to manage time, it’s depend on each person have the way of their own, but through the survey, most of the students choose these ways: take note, use the timetable or PDP (Personal Developing Planning), set your own goal or sign up the training of time management skill.


REFERENCES Richard, S. (2010. April 15). The Importance of ‘Soft Skills’. Retrieved from http://www.directionsmag.com/article.php?article_id=418.html Books 1. Alexander, R, Dobson, M. S 2009, Real- world Time Management, 2nd end, American Management association, New York 2. Moss, G 2007, Time Management secrets: guidelines, checklists& golden rules, Thomson, Singapore Sandberg, Jared (2004-09-10). "Though Time-Consuming, To-Do Lists Are a Way of Life". The Wall Street Journal.

Internet Mitchell, S. (2010. March 14, State University of New York at Buffalo. Retrieved from http://ub-counseling.buffalo.edu/studytime.shtml Joanna, H. (2010. April 29). How do you define Time Management?. Retrieved from http://blogs.bnet.co.uk/sterling-performance/2008/12/10/how-do-you-define-timemanagement/ Stephen, C (2010 May 23). Time management. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_management

How to manage time in university?  

Time management in university project.

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