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Unit 1 Contextual Studies for Fashion Retail Ellie Lawless

History of Fashion Timeline • • • • •

Bias cut dress material Fur shoulder cover ups Art deco period Sophisticated & Elegant


1920s • Pearls • Short hair cuts accompanied with cloche hats • Flapper dress

1940s • Christian Dior • Zoot Suit • Clothes and materials rations

• •

Marilyn Monroe, Grace Kelly Haute Couture Accessories & bikinis

• • •

Flower power Fitted and flared Ossie Clark



1960s • Mods – leather • Tights – meant that Women could wear as short as they like

1980s • Coco Chanel • Wide shoulders – empowered women • Handbags

The ‘roaring’ 20’s • After the Great War in 1914 the Government asked as many women as possible to take part in helping them out, for example in hospitals, transport and manufacturing. At this time, women had been pushing for the vote as only men were allowed to vote. Therefore the women agreed to help out the government providing they would get the right to vote, which the government agreed. • This lead to styles such as the short hair cut as women needed short hair styles so there hair did not get caught in machinery, as well as the introduction of very uniformed simple and quick looks. • The shortage of men after the war also lead to the style of women becoming a lot more provocative, this was because women wanted to look attractive due to the shortage of men because those who looked most attractive would pick up a scarce man. • Therefore, along with the new dancing era, the 20s saw the introduction of very daring dresses, including frills, shorter skirts, no structure and dresses. • Pearls were also introduced, most women wore pearls with their dresses and soft felt hats, to compliment the short hair cut. • In Europe the 1920’s was known as the ‘Golden age Twenties’, this was because of the economic boom that followed World War 1, due to this economic boom more people were willing to spend money on clothes, therefore investing in fashion • Towards the end of the 20s the introduction of flapper dresses became a lot more common due to the Hollywood movies, which were more sophisticated and elegant which led into the 1930s Pearls where a huge fashion craze in the 1920s,- they were worn with everything

The flapper dress – designed to be able to ‘shimmy’ when going dancing More elegant and sophisticated

The influence of Hollywood's film star Louise Brooks encouraged the short hair style with her famous bob

The 1930’s •

• •

It can be said the 1920s was too explosive and bright not to burn out, therefore it was replaced by the sophisticated ‘art deco’ period. Silk and a lot of new materials (i.e. bias cut which clings to your front so show off a very flat front) were used, and knee dresses were very common. Fur was also used in covering shoulders i.e. ostrich fur. There was a social craze for ballroom dancing which led to the style of sweeping fluid dresses, this led to the short dresses from the 1920s being left in the 20s and long floor length ball gowns were now in fashion.

Fur shoulder cover

Bias cut ‘flat front’ dress

The 1940’s • • • • • •

In 1939 Britain plunged into war until 1947, meaning for most of the 40s Britain was at war. This led to a lot of fashion houses closing down and people were making do with frocks they had from the 20s and 30s. However, this era saw the birth of Christian Dior’s Parisian fashion house in 1946 shaking the World with his designs. He used very glamorous fabrics ( a lot of it – 1 dress weighing 10 kilos) and used lots of petticoats. As swing music declined, due to many musicians being involved in the war efforts, the need for dresses being designed to be ‘suitable for dancing’ declined. Christian Dior used a lot of parachute silk, as there was a lot around after the World War. Dior’s designs lead to the style of elegance and sophistication staying on from the 1920s, but in a more glamorous way. New women were introduced – glamorous, confidence and beauty.

• As women had more rights, a lot of them were involved in the war efforts, leading to a ‘military fashion’. • During the war, cloth rationing resulted in a coupon system. Adults in Britain received 66 clothing coupons per year, which was reduced to 36 coupons by 1945 • Many governments placed restrictions on the use of fabrics and other materials used to make clothing as they were needed by the military. • The end of World War II did not immediately change the fashion industry. Clothing rations and fabric restrictions endured some time after as the economy changed slowly from a war economy toward peace. • This meant that people did not spend as much money and time on clothes as they did in the 20s and 30s.

Men’s Fashion in the 1940s •

• •

Men’s fashion during the 1940s was also reflective of the ominous tones of the wartime era. For special occasions, men wore suits made of rationed materials, or V-neck sweater vests or knitted waistcoats over a shirt and tie. An iconic men’s suit to emerge in the 1940s was the illicit zoot suit. This suit was usually worn at nightclubs and consisted of an oversized jacket, wide lapels, broad shoulders, low crotches, and the pants narrowed toward the ankles Natural fibres weren't used for civilian wear, because they were needed for uniforms. Men's suits lost their vests, pocket flaps and trouser cuffs. Since most of the men were at war, those who remained at home mostly wanted to look as austere as possible. During the war, civilian men generally wore plain, functional suits in solid, plain colours like navy or black, with plain white shirts, and very little embellishments. After the war ended, the working man could go to the office in the elegant suits usually associated with the 1940s emerged. The most notable new design was the Esquire jacket which featured a loose fit and broad shoulders common in many men's suits today. The Zoot suit was The Jazz Era's wide suit, hugely popular in Harlem in the 1930s, was worn predominately by AfricanAmerican and Mexican-American youths in the 1940s. It was considered unpatriotic and even illegal because it went so far against the standards of rationing.

Zoot suit

Esquire jacket

• • •

At this time, there was a war to recover from and everybody was depressed in this period “The Great Depression” – there were deficiencies in materials, food etc. Young designers became to come through such as Frank Arsha who made his first creation for a department store as he did not have his own brand. Zips had been introduced therefore zips were now commonly used in designs. Women return back to traditional housewife role introducing the “glamorous 1950’s housewife look” Fabric / textile technology improved with the creation of polyester, acrylic, spandex, nylon Transport and technology was improving therefore fashions from Hollywood and other parts of the world were spreading more quickly.

The 1950’s Women: • Haute Couture resurgence: -Dior (New Look) -Balenciaga (cocktail gowns) • Creation of fuller A-Line skirt – petticoats • Capri pants, knitted jumper, ballet pumps • Spiked stilettos • UK – hourglass shape instead of full skirts • Accessories –scarves instead of hats for women • Bikinis Men: • Greasers – Ducktail / quiff haircut, leather jackets, jeans, t-shirts • Preppy - collegiate • UK Teddy boys – Edwardian influences – tailored suits, single-breasted long jackets, slim ties, drainpipe trousers

Marilyn Monroe 1950

Grace Kelly – Hermes bag in 1950s

Cowel neck coat – very popular during the 50s

The swingin’ 1960’s • • • • • • •

Youth fashion and music (pop era) i.e. the Beatles Paris/French designers lost hold and more designers emerged in London on e.g. Vivienne Westwood. Introductions: leather, V-necks, very short skirts/dresses. Tights allowed women to wear as short dresses as they like “there’s no such thing as short”. There were film stars and celebrities everywhere and a lot of red carpet events for film premieres etc. these events had many men wearing bow ties. Era of the MOD’s therefore a lot of leather was in fashion and a ‘biker look’ i.e. leather jackets. Men pants became flared at the bottom – can be said men's fashion were becoming more feminine and women's becoming more masculine – this carried on into 1970s ‘flower power’. •

Shift dresses were casual wear for home, running errands, going to the beach. They were not office friendly. Leather jackets, today, are very common in most high street stores and brand’s collections.

The 70’s • • •

• • • •

• •

Flower power – psychedelic style New music and drugs – hippies Introduction of music festivals, demand for world peace and ‘music as a way of life encouraged the ‘hippy look’ Glam Rock Dancewear – leg warmers, headbands etc Backless and asymmetric designs were introduced, as well as trouser suits and wide leg pants (introduced by John Bates) Most iconic designer at this time was Ossie Clark and his wife Celia, whose pieces are today investment pieces. They used new materials such as moss crepe and introduced medieval and renaissance into their designs which involved women's dresses covering them from head to toe and including lots of drapes and falls etc. Shapes fitted and flared. The use of peace signs were used on clothing and use of handmade materials sparked. Glitter makeup came from David Bowie influence.

Dress by Ossie Clark 1970

The 1980’s • • • • • • • • • • •

4 D’s – Diana, Disco, Dallas, Dynasty Coco Chanel Fashion House introducing the classic cotton suit, black pipeline pockets to outline buttons which were the same on every piece of the suit. Chanel also encouraged the fashion of designer handbags with its quilted leather hand bag in the 80s. Wide shoulders were used as a sign of empowered women. Thatcher was an icon from this era who worn wide shoulder suits and handbags. Bangles, hoop earrings and sunglasses were common in the 80s. The biggest fashion trend was jeans but denim wasn’t appreciate for night life. Hair was teased crimped and colourful Nike had grown into one of the most profitable clothing company's in the world. Nike was the athletic wear battle of the decade. Also every kid had to have a pair of air Jordan's and a Chicago bulls baseball cap. Madonna the singer/dancer – Lacy fingerless gloves, ¾ leggings, rara skirts, eyeliners, beauty spots and statement t shirts. Blondie a lead singer in sex pistols – 100% peroxide blonde mind length hair, eyeliner and punked. Boy George - Face of British pop music. Lead singer of culture club - Dreadlocks and make up.

Task 1 - Burberry reflecting “Sophisticated Heritage”

Sophisticated Heritage is a local brand located and manufactured in Manchester. The Private White V.C. brand pays homage to its namesake WWI hero; Private Jack White. The clothing line has a subtle nod to Jack’s military legacy, with many items based on classic wartime pieces, updated with added functionality and detail for the modern man. The mood board shows how the war time ‘trench coat’ has come a long way for its main use for the Battlefields through Burberry. An original trench coat is designed and made of waterproof heavy duty cotton, leather or poplin and it comes in various lengths (Burberry design the coat offering 3 lengths for customers to choose from; short, mid and long). It was originally an item of clothing for army officers (developed prior to the way but adapted for use in the trenched for WW1. “Traditionally this garment is double-breasted with 10 front buttons, has wide lapels, a storm flap and pockets that button-close. The coat is belted at the waist with a self-belt, as well as having straps around the wrists that also buckle (to keep water from running down the forearm when using binoculars in the rain)”. (Wikipedia, 2016) The coat often has shoulder straps that button-close; those were a functional feature in a military context. The traditional color of a trench coat was khaki. However, Burberry have designed this coat in a ‘honey’ colour, navy or black. Burberry add detail in order to sell this coat from prices around £1,000. Burberry allow buyers to have the choice to ‘add their initials to the trench coat’. Also, the large distinctive collar shown on both original trench coats and Burberry trench coats, Burberry have added their print under the collar so those who have their collar up will show off the brand’s branded pattern off. Thomas Burberry invented this trench coat in 1859, proving that this fashion statement piece has lasted throughout almost 3 centuries. Furthermore, in the past (Wartime) and today when trench coats are modeled they are worn with leather boots. Therefore this could suggest that trench coats should be styled with a leather boot, as a fashion statement.

Task 2 & 3 – trends influenced by the 70s

Matthew Williamson SS15

Madonna 1970

Topshop SS16

Isabel Marant SS16

Ossie Clark 1970

David Bowie 1970

David Bowie 1970 “asymmetrical” “off the shoulder” Isabel Marant AW16

Anthony Vacarello SS16 asymmetrical Versace 2016 Asymetrical/ off skirt shoulder dress ASOS AW16

Bowie 1970 “shoulder pads”

Block heel Saint Laurent 2016

Balmain SS16

David Bowie Block Heel 1970

Key influences of the 70s used in fashion today: • • • • • • • • •

Stripes – Bowie was seen to use a lot of stripes in his designs which are used today in many designers including Isabel Marant Stars – glam rock encouraged by David Bowie included a lot of stars which is now used today by Anthony Vacarello Asymmetrical introduced by David Bowie with his one legged and one shoulder is now used in Anthony Vacarello today Off the shoulder introduced by Bowie is seen to be used in high end designers such as Versus Versace. Floral print / Flower Power encouraged by celebrities such as Madonna used by Isabel Marant 2016 Printed Jeans with badges linked to flower power and world peace are now used in designs today by Topshop. Shoulder pads – Bowie encouraged big shoulders, used in many designs today in blazers and dresses, as shown in Balmain’s SS16 collection Block heels – worn by Bowie in the 70s are now in most AW16 collections in both high end designers such as Saint Laurent and high street stores including Asos, Topshop and Zara. Bowie was seen to bring about these styles as a man in a feminine way such as with the block heels, star and stripe prints and shoulder pads. As well as encouraging transgender fashion.

Task 4 & 5 – market research trends & past eras Product on High Street

Link to Era

Links/ Relationship between product and era developments This block heel links to the 70s era because Bowie would introduced this style of the leather ‘block heel’ with most of his outfits to encourage his ‘glam rock’ look.

Asos Block Heel Boots £38.00

70’s Era David Bowie Block Heels

1970s Zara Flared trousers £39.99

Balmain Blazer £1,230.00 (Harvey Nichols)


These flared trousers link to the 70s era because in the 70s flared was a major fashion trend, also the zara flared trousers are black with white stripes going down, linking to Bowies ‘stripe’ trend in the 70s

This military style Balmain blazer links to the 40’s when women adopted a military style as they began to have more rights due to their efforts in the war.

Product on High Street

Link to Era Topshop leather biker jacket

Links/ Relationship between product and era developments The leather biker links to the 60s era where the ‘MODS’ brought leather biker jackets into fashion and now many high street stores and high end designers use leather biker jacket styles in their designs.



Kim Kardashian wears Balenciaga Trench coat (£1,465)


Valentino Gown £3,600



The trench coat was a key trend for men during the 1940s when the war was on (1939-1947), now designers such as Balenciaga and Burberry produce these coats for over £1,000 for both women and men.

This dress can be linked to the 1970 and Ossie Clark’s designs who designed dresses which covered women from head to toe and included a lot of falls and drapes.

Product on High Street

Link to Era

Kim Kardashian wears MSG dress

Isabel Marant Dress £160.00

Fausto Puglisi Dress £2,800

Links/ Relationship between product and era developments





The MSG sequin dress links to the 70s when sequins where in style as they were a new material which everybody wanted to wear encouraged by Bowie.

Metallic stripes can be said to come from the 70s with Bowie’s ‘stripe’ theme and is now used in designers such as Isabel Marant.

The 70s seen a lot of asymmetric designs ‘one shoulder, one leg’ this is shown in Fausto Puglisi’s design with one dress costing £2,8000 for this design.

Product on High Street Zara Military Shirt £25.99

Link to Era

Links/ Relationship between product and era developments


This military shirt can be said to link back to the 1940s at a time of war when army officers/ people who worked for the army would wear military badges on clothing. This Zara shirt displays some of these badges on an oversized cotton shirt.


The 70s seen a lot of leather designs, as it was a more common fabric in this era. As well, flares where on trend at this point. Therefore these £1,800 Unravel Project leather pants can be said to link back to the 70s as they are not only leather (a big material of the 70s) but also fitted at the top and flared at the bottom.


In the 70s the idea of free spirit and world peace ‘being free’ led women to show a lot more than usual, such as cleavage. This was shown in revealing outfits worn by Madonna during the 70s. This Anthony Vacarello dress has an open front which can be linked to the provocative and revealing attitude of designs in the 70s.

Unravel Project leather pants £1,800.

Anthony Vacarello Dress £800.00

Product on High Street

Link to Era

Charlotte Simone Fur “Muffin Top” £150.00

Hermes Birkin Bag go up to £60,000

Both in Balmain Bespoke made dresses worth around £10,000 and fur coats designed by Katie Eary and Kanye West.

Links/ Relationship between product and era developments 1930s

This Charlotte Simone fur shoulder cover can be said to link back to the 30s when women would wear fur over their shoulders with almost every outfit.

1950s Grace Kelly

This Hermes ‘Birkin’ bag can be said to go back to the 1950s when style icons such as Grace Kelly wore the bag encouraging more people to wear a handbag. Now Hermes continue to produce this Birkin bag which goes up to £60,000, along with other designer handbags worn by almost every style icon. “Outfit isn’t made without the handbag”.

1950s Marilyn Monroe & 1920s

This style of dress worn by the Kardashians can be said to link to the 1920s due to its style fringe and embellishments i.e. the pearls which were a huge trend in the 20s. However this cocktail dress styled with the fur coat can date back to the 1950s ‘Marilyn Monroe era’ as a ‘Haute Couture’ look.

Maison Margiela AW16/17

Givenchy AW16/17

Task 6 – Catwalk trend 1 Wartime/ Military Style 40s Prada AW16/17

Burberry AW16/17

Dolce&Gabbana AW16/17

Marni AW16/17

Burberry AW16/17 Burberry AW16/17 Dsquared AW16/17

Rag & Bone AW16/17

Yeezy AW16/17

Catwalk Trend 1 Evaluation Catwalk trend 1 shows how the military style from the 40s has influenced fashion on the Autumn/Winter 16/17 runway. The colour for military war time fashions is khaki and materials seem to be quite heavy, suggesting that the wartime / military trend would only work in an autumn/winter season and not in spring/summer. One of the military pieces from the Yeezy collection, has rips in which links to the wartime more as it suggests the pain and distress this caused to the country, which is highlighted through the distress and cuts to the clothing. Military clothing has a lot of badges and buttons, which was worn by those who worked in the army which sent a sense of solidarity. Therefore these military pieces having big gold buttons, wide shoulders and badges could suggest that these designers are now showing how the empowerment of women is now happening through these designs. This is because originally military coats in wartime were worn by those high up in the army such as naval officers etc.

Louis Vuitton AW16/17

Task 6 – Catwalk trend 2 60s Bikers

Wanda Nylon AW16/17

Saint Laurent AW16/17

Preen AW16/17

Carven AW16/17

Saint Laurent AW16/17 Alexander Mcqueen AW16/17

Anthony Vacarello AW16/17

Paco Robanne AW16/17

Catwalk Trend 2 evaluation Catwalk trend 2 shows how the 1960s ‘Mod’ era fashion is sill used in high end brands collections today. The biker look is associated with leather which explains why the biker jacket material is mainly leather. The fact that the biker jacket is linked to leather is due to the ‘mod’ era as they wore a lot of leather. As leather is a heavy material this explains why it is used mainly in Autumn/Winter collections. When the people of the ‘mod’ era would wear leather it would mainly be black, however from the mood board we can see that designers are now taking the trend into their own hands and experimenting with different colours for example Louis Vuitton AW16 biker jacket was a candy floss pink.

Task 6 – High Street trend 1 Wartime/ Military Style 40s

Topshop AW16/17

River Island AW16/17

Zara AW16/17

High Street Trend 1 Evaluation

On the high street the wartime/ military trend varies a little bit more than on the catwalk as the theme is broader for example military buttons and badges used on different fabric colour, not just khaki, although khaki is still a key theme in the high street wartime/ military trend. Also, military is brought into a product in a lot more ways, its not just the buttons and badges added to a jacket, like we seen on the catwalk. Instead, badges are added to shirts, jumpers, jumpsuits etc. On the high street ‘tweed’ is also used a lot which is a key fabric from wartime (the 40s). These trends are in the winter collection and are likely to have only been used in the autumn/winter collection because of the materials used which are quite heavy.

Task 6 – High Street trend 2 70s Disco/ Flares

River Island AW16

Zara AW16

Topshop AW16

High Street Trend 2 Evaluation In the 70s ‘flared pants’ were a high fashion trend and were encouraged by David Bowie, who wore flares in all different colours and materials; cotton, leather, nylon. Today, flares are still found on the high street. However they are probably more common in summer due to their loose fit and style, although they are still found in the high street in autumn/winter. On the high street we can find flares in denim and cotton and in ¾ length or full length. Some are flared throughout and some are tight at the top and flare out at the bottom (enhancing the flare) – as Bowie tended to wear his.

Task 7 - Deconstructing Artefacts The artefact I have chosen is a stained lampshade. The lampshade I have chosen is stained with earth colours such as greens (grass), blues (seas), yellow(land) and a little bit of red (fire/fire). This means that the collection made will have a colourful colour pallet therefore it is most likely to be a Spring/Summer Collection. In addition the pieces in the collection will have a peplum style to represent the shape of the lamp, therefore the hips of the dresses or skirts will be very defined and structured. The collection could include many different types of material, as it is a summer collection sleeves may be short or long with less material. However to make the shape of the lamp, materials could be quite thick in order to hold the shape therefore this could mean a lot of the pieces will use quite heavier material such as cotton rather than a silk chiffon material.

Alexander McQueen Savage Beauty

Spring/ Summer


Evaluation The spring/ summer collection I have designed includes a variety of different pieces. The body's of the tops or dresses tend to be very tight and fitted in order to enhance the peplum, structured style of the skirt around the hips. The colour pallet includes deep colours as well as subtle colours, however they are all bright primary colours and therefore reflect the idea that the collection is for a Spring/Summer collection. Due to the lamp having ‘earthy’ colours and looking almost like a world atlas the colour pallet reflects the colours of the world i.e. the sea, sun, grass, sand etc. The dresses/ skirts of the collection are short, again to reflect the shape of the lamp, as the lamp shade isn’t long it reflects a short skirt. Also this adds to the idea of the collection being a spring/summer collection.

Task 8 – Cultural Influences

Overview Culture relates to the ideas, customs, and social behaviour of a particular group of people or members of society. Therefore with many different cultures in the world there are many cultures for brands/ designers to look at in order to get inspiration for their designs. It can be said that culture differences has a major impact on brands and there designs, in particular Dolce & Gabanna who have a culture focus on Sicily, and Isabel Marant who has a design focus on tribes. In response to this, people in the fashion industry should be up to date with social changes and movements within society as this could spark off a designers future trends and allow those in fashion to be able to predict future collections and designs. Culture and peoples perspective on cultures can vary, some designers may use tribes or places as their focus whilst others may just use the pop culture, for example, looking at trends within a pop world society.

Terracotta ceramics from the island are well known, the art of ceramics on Sicily goes back to the original ancient peoples named the Sicilians, it was then perfected during the period of Greek colonisation and is still prominent and distinct to this day.

The island has a long history of producing a variety of noted cuisines and wines, to the extent that Sicily is sometimes nicknamed God's Kitchen because of this. The most well known dishes of Sicily are particularly the ice creams and pastries.

Today in Sicily most people are bilingual and speak both Italian and Sicilian, a distinct and historical Romance language. Some of the Sicilian words are loan words from Greek, Catalan, French, Arabic, Spanish and other languages.

Spring/Summer 13

Dolce & Gabbana SS16

Fall/Winter 13

Spring/Summer 14 Greek colonisation of Sicily Dolce&Gabbana SS16

Dolce&Gabbana SS16

Worn by horses carrying carts during parades in Sicily

Sicily's influence on fashion From the concept board, we can see that Sicily has a major impact on the designs of Dolce & Gabanna. We can see that the designers have taken a key tradition from the town of Sicily such as the culture of horse and carts used and looked at the design of these horse and carts, which were reflected in a dress, using the colours and patterns. During parades in Sicily, when the carts are used, the horses wear something on their backs and this pattern and creation was taken and made into a dress by dolce & Gabanna, as seen on the mood board. As well as this, hosiery such as mugs and plates from Sicily have been looked at and the print has been taken ad used in a dress design down to the colours and the patterns so much that is almost like the object has become a real life design. Moreover a famous building from Sicily, which marks the colonisation of Sicily from Greece, is shown printed on a dress. This shows how the designs are being directly aimed at Sicily and its history and culture. Similarly to this, a famous Greek picture has been taken by Dolce & Gabanna and the key woman in the picture has been put onto this dress.

The depth of the culture known by Dolce & Gabanna in order to have designs so specific to Sicily is important as Dolce & Gabanna as a luxury design makes this so specific to Sicily, that it actually educates the World about Sicily’s culture through fashion, allowing them to price at their RRP compared to high street stores.

Native African Tribes Sons are raised by their uncles When male children reach age 5 they are sent to live with their uncles on their mother’s side. This is because chiefs inherit their position through matrilineal lines.

Women can’t grieve elders When someone dies outsiders and all women are forbidden to attend.

In most tribes, each clan is associated with a specific wild species, which they often keep close to them and treat as a clan member.

The groom wears a veil In their culture, the men wear veils almost all the time. However, they can take their veils off when inside family camps or while traveling.

Wealth is measured by cows

A tribe is a group of people, often of related families, who live together, sharing the same language, culture, and history, especially those who do not live in towns or cities and are those of aborigine origin.

Isabel Marant

Native African Tribes influence on fashion Those within the native African tribes barely wear any clothes, if any at all, this is probably because of the heat that they live in on a day to day basis and their idea of being ‘free spirited’ they probably wouldn't’t like the idea of having to keep themselves enclosed in clothing. Therefore, any clothes they do wear, are clothes that are easy to wear such as wrap over skirts and clothes which have fringes and tassels, in other words, not fitted – everything has a loose fit and of a loose, light material. This idea of fashion is portrayed in Isabel Marant, not only by the fit and cut of the clothes but in the fact that the clothes include colours and patterns of the native African tribes.

Marant took on this look in a more fashionable way by using tassel and layered skirts in a leather material, obviously the native Africans don’t have leather skirts, but the style is the same. She has described her designs as “tribal without being too literal” Marant AW14 also featured a red coat with an African tribal pattern on and a leopard print collar, not only using patterns and colours from their culture but also using animals from the native Africans background, who they could potentially ‘live’ with and care for as their way of living.

Chinese Culture

Chinese embroidery - Embroidery is a brilliant pearl in Chinese art. From the magnificent Dragon Robe worn by Emperors to the popular embroidery seen in today's fashions.

Paifang, also known as a pailou, is a traditional style of Chinese architectural arch or gateway structure that is related to the Indian Torana from which it is derived

As a vital part of Chinese civilization, traditional costumes play an important role in the country’s history and culture. Their basic features are crosscollar, wrapping the right lapel over the left, tying with sash and a form of blouse plus skirt or long gown.

The Willow pattern is a distinctive and elaborate Chinese hosiery pattern used on ceramic kitchen/housewares. It became popular at the end of the 18th century in England when, in its standard form, it was developed by English ceramic artists combining and adapting motifs inspired by fashionable hand-painted blue-and-white wares imported from China.

Legend has it that in ancient times, Lei Zu, the wife of Huang Di , taught people how to raise silkworms and how to extract the silk.

Laurence XU

Chinese influence on Fashion

Embroidery is a huge trend in most of todays fashion pieces, and it actually derives from Chinese culture from the dragon robe worn by emperors. Many designers take on the Chinese style of dress as they tend to wear long, silk robes which usually fully cover their shoulders. Moreover the wife of Huang Di , taught people how to raise silkworms and how to extract the silk, suggesting silk has Chinese origins, suggesting that fashion designs based on Chinese culture are likely to be made of silk. In addition, Chinese fashion designs include different colour, particularly colours of the dragon, reds, gold's, blues green and the famous ‘willow pattern’ which includes whites, blues and gold's.

A Chinese designer, Laurence Xu, designed pieces which included the long silk gowns worn by the Chinese and the covering of the shoulders was in every design, even the design which had a lower neck and open chest, still covered the shoulders, suggesting that the covering of the shoulders is a Chinese tradition of their designs. One of the dresses was shaped symmetrical with a cut out the middle, which almost looked like a Chinese dragon’s tail, relating to the culture of the Chinese through the famous dragon.

Task 9 – social influences on the fashion industry How David Bowie impacted genderless fashion Bowie performed in heels; he sported dresses, blouses and crotch-hugging jumpsuits; he painted his face with neon colours and glitter, all while oozing sex appeal and nonchalance that made it impossible to see gender-bending as anything other than cool. (Thompson, 2016) Therefore, it can be said that today transgender fashion is due to Bowie and his influence. Bowies influence also meant that it was ok for men to wear makeup. This was because he was such a key figure in society in he 70s that whatever he did people would follow. It can also be said that he is to blame for the shoulder pads, v necks for men and off the shoulder and one leg dresses. One writer from the Huffington Post, 2016 said that Bowie was the reason he ‘transitioned’ because it was almost as if Bowie had made it ok for boys to want to trans dress due to his feminine way of dressing such as his flared trousers, one shoulder dresses.

Paris fashion week H&M transgender mode

When bowie died people said that he was the granddad of transgenderism, however others argue he was just a humorous rebel, who did not want to dress like a typical boy he wanted to just be different to what was out there. Therefore, Dolce & people who claimed he was bisexual due to his sense of fashion were proved Gabanna mens wrong by this idea.

V Neck .

Not only can it be said Bowie made people more open to transgender and transgender fashion but also made fashion items for women, at the time such as flared jeans and shoulder pads, ok for men to wear and allowed designers to use these features in their designs in the future. It can be said his influence still exists today as now many men's collections such as Dolce & Gabanna have V-necks regularly in their collections. As well as this, transgender is a lot more spoken about today, so much that in both London and Paris fashion week 2015 transgender models walked the catwalk.

London fashion week transgender model Andreja Pejic in 2015.

Grace Kelly and ‘the handbag’ In the 50s Grace Kelly was well known for bringing out the fashion trend of wearing a handbag and this influence definitely still exists today, as most people do not leave the house without a handbag to go with their outfit. Grace Kelly introduced it to fashion as an accessory but now it is seen to be more of a necessity. Hermès, the French haute couture fashion house, created and named a hand bag - the Kelly bag – in her honor and it has since become one of the world’s most sought-after luxury products. (“A Celebration of Grace – Style Icon”). As well as bags, Kelly had an influence on fashion in terms of fur, and lots of shoes and hats, which all still exist as a trend in today’s society. The Kardashian’s are a key example of those in society who add fur to most outfits whether it be day or night, as Kelly did. It can be said that Kelly was a huge fashion icon in the 50s and she still is today.

Kris Jenner wearing The ‘Kelly’ Hermes bag pink (2016)

Social Media’s influence on the fashion retail industry It can be said that in todays society, the trends that work well are the trends which are published, worked on and worn with those of high social media status (in other words, a high following on Instagram). An example would be when Brooklyn Beckham (son of the Beckham’s) announced he would be photographing Burberry’s latest fragrance campaign. A lot of people were controversial about this complaining that celebrities where just paying for their kids to get into top industries. However, the truth was was that it was not Brooklyn’s parents who got him into the role it was in fact his 5.9m Instagram followers. It can be said that rather than experience it is now the following you hold on social media which gets you into top jobs. "You don't want to be a commercial photographer unless you're famous," says Scott Galloway, clinical professor of marketing at the NYU Stern School of Business in New York, and founder of "digital benchmarking" firm L2. (“How Social Media Is Transforming The Fashion Industry – BBC News”) And, it worked for Burberry as the behind the scenes images and videos shared on Instagram from the shoot shot by Brooklyn received 15m impressions in the 8 hours of it being live. It is the same for models, it isn’t those with a pretty face and good height anymore. “Kendall Jenner, who shot to fame thanks to the Keeping Up with the Kardashians reality TV show, has been dubbed the "ultimate Instagirl" for her huge social media fan base: 48 million followers on Instagram and 15.3 million on Twitter.” (“How Social Media Is Transforming The Fashion Industry – BBC News”) With the widespread use of social media today, this issue, of social media impacting the fashion industry is only recent and would not have been an issue in previous eras such as the 60s, 70s, 80s and even 90s.

Task 10 – Fashion Advertisements

Advertisement 1

In this advertisement the product is clear, as everything is black and white and the only primary colour is blue which is on the shirt and the front of the car. Therefore this suggests quite clearly that the product is the shirt. However, it is not completely clear, how do we know its not car bonnets being advertised? The graffiti text “I hate ugly” suggests that this designer hates ugly therefore nothing in their collection is ugly, which portrays a clear message to the reader. However it could also suggest the wrong image to consumers in potentially saying you can only wear this designer if your not ugly because they hate ‘ugly’ people. This advertisement also contradicts itself as it says it ‘hates ugly’ however the image in the background is ugly, its not nice to look at; its messy, rusty etc. therefore maybe if it was a man in front of a shiny new sports car it would look more attractive. Additionally, along with the grubby background, the model himself looks messy. Therefore it could be argued the advertisement would be more attractive if he was in a fitted suit and a shirt rather than a baggy, unfitted shirt. Although the advertisement could be setting an image that the brand is effortless and not supposed to be preen and pristine, he is meant to look messy. However in this case the ‘I hate ugly’ doesn't’t go with the ad, because for me, the advert is not attractive and I would probably go as far as calling it an ‘ugly’ advertisement.

Advertisement 2

The slogan on this advertisement for Chanel “I don’t do fashion, I am fashion”, creates an image that suggest that to wear Chanel you don’t just know your fashion and your not just following the trend; in fact, you are the trend. However, people could look at this controversially as you can’t be fashion, fashion is a concept so how can you be fashion? Although you can do fashion, therefore people may argue that this advertisement doesn't’t actually make sense. In addition, the model in the picture isn't actually wearing a typical 80s Chanel style of suit, which we would link with Chanel, instead she is wearing, what looks like, a silk chiffon dress with a pattern associated with fashion brand Missoni, nothing like Chanel. Chanel is also associated with ladies, and there is an image that in order to wear it you have to be a lady and in this image, the model isn’t positioned or styled to look like a lady, instead she looks a little more provocative. This could suggest that the advertisement is trying to suggest, along with slogan, that it doesn't’t matter how or what Chanel you wear you will always be an icon when wearing it. If I was to make the advertisement again, I would ensure that the model in the picture looked like a typical chanel ‘lady’ in order to keep its classy image, rather than trying to bring out a new type of fashion, which the market has many of.

Advertisement 3

The message “from all good menswear shops” suggests that the brand has a cocky attitude in that if a shop doesn't’t have this brand its not ‘good’, therefore this advert not only is aimed at consumers of the brand but also for shops considering stocking the brand. The image also shows his wife/ partner behind him suggesting that if you wear this leisurewear your wife/partner will always be there to support you (taking into consideration this looks like an old advert and there was probably still a big gender gap during this time). Also, even if you do win or lose you still look the best. I think that this advertisement is good and most definitely would work to the consumer because it creates an image that suggests with this leisurewear you cant lose, and even if you do actually lose your still winning. Additionally, if the sport being played is so competitive it allows men to have the chance to tell their players that even if they lose they look better than them, allowing them to let go of the embarrassment of losing.

Advertisement 4 From this advertisement I think it is clear to see that the men's shoes are the product being advertised given that they are the most dignified object in the image, in terms of size; they are the first thing you see. Also the angle of the image is from the floor, where you see them first and then you see the New York skyline therefore with New york skyline being so distinctive and you notice these shoes first is almost as if they are more important than the skyline of New York, in particular the empire state building. Moreover, the sign behind where the car is parked states no parking, therefore this portrays an image that wearing these shoes you are a rebel and can get away with being rebellious. The slogan “choose ur playground” suggests these are a new brand and suggests to consumers they are up to date with fashion as they are up to date with ‘text talk’ and technology i.e. ‘ur’ instead of ‘your; and the play button for the ‘A’. I think this advert works, although I think calling the brand ‘red tape’ and the image of the man and woman in the car portrays quite a sexual image, although some people might like the idea of this.

The actual slogan also suggests that when wearing these shoes you can choose where you have fun and it doesn't’t matter where because with these on you are almost ‘invisible’ and can play anywhere you want, no matter what the rules. The fact that the brand is called red tape also enhances the idea of being rebellious.

Advertisement 5 This advertisement for Dolce & Gabanna is quite controversial as it still keeps the traditional D&G man look of a suit, but with a completely ‘out there’ twist of gold astronaut like pants and coats. The idea that gold is the main colour in the advertisement could suggest that the brand are trying to send a message that they are having a different look for the season the advert is advertising. Furthermore, gold being such a distinctive colour could suggest that the season being advertised for Dolce & Gabanna is going to stick out from the rest, as would these models on a high street if they was to wear the outfits shown in the ad. There is no slogan or direct words to send a message on the advertisement which I think is a good feature, as it shows that it doesn’t need to have a lot of writing, the brand is the brand and that is all that needs to be shown. However, it does send a message which expects the audience to know a bit about Dolce & Gabanna already, suggesting it is only aimed at those who wear it or know of its presence.

What I think is so distinctive about this ad is that the products worn on the models are not attractive to look at, they are just eye opening, therefore they may not actually be in the collection in this colour but the products themselves in terms of style and shape may be in the collection in more neutral colours. Therefore if this is true, items of clothes are simply being worn to drag the readers attention to the advert and simply not to get a feel for the collection itself or see of the actual products that will be in the collection.

Task 11 – successful and unsuccessful advertisements Successful Advertisement 1 – Balmain for H&M

This ad campaign by Balmain for H&M, in my opinion has been thought about and has a clear message behind it. Balmain being a high end designer brand it is, as you can see from the products in the picture it looks like an expensive brand, but these models are stood on the tube. The tube being a busy form of transport which normal people, of a working wage go on almost every day. This gives the message that this range will be aimed at those from the working class background, giving them the clear message that those from a working class background, and not the typical Balmain buyer, has the chance to wear the brand in this range. The price is also highlighted on one of the products as it says near to one of the models blazer, £59.99, which compared to Balmain prices, where blazers are usually around £1,200, is significantly reduced in this range.

Successful Advertisement 2 - Chanel I think that this advert by Chanel is successful because it still manages to keep the idea of the typical Chanel woman wearer within the picture, ‘a classy lady’.

The image is very simple, showing a woman looking out the window, with the model in a typical Chanel suit from the 80s. The colours are dull, suggesting the brand knows that it does not need to be distinctive by using bright colours and distinctive ideas. This is because Chanel being a traditional brand, the typical Chanel image is what makes it significant. Therefore the idea of “less is more” is portrayed on this image and makes the advert more attractive for people interested in brands like Chanel.

Successful Advertisement 3 – Jimmy Choo I think that this ad by Jimmy Choo is successful as it really makes the shoes look like the main product in the picture, suggesting the brand wanted to send a clear message that the advert is for the shoes and suggests that Jimmy Choo shoes will stand out on everyone as it does on this model. The model wears a simple, long silk chiffon black dress with a slit right down the middle allowing her long leg to distinctively stick out, which is enhanced by her pale skin. The fact that the shoes are colourful, when the rest of the picture is quite dull also portrays the image that the brand are trying to make the shoes look like they are trying to ‘stick out’, not only from the rest of the market, but on everyone who wears them.

Unuccessful Advertisement 1 – Calvin Klein Jeans I think this advertising campaign by Calvin Klein is hugely unsuccessful because the male model (Justin Bieber) looks really uncomfortable. In jeans, I think the buyer not only goes for the brand first, but the style, fit and comfortableness of them. Therefore, in order to portray an image Calvin Klein should have ensured Bieber look comfortable. However because he doesn't’t, and he looks particularly unhappy, in the position he is in (you can tell its forced) it makes the ad unattractive and the message unclear.

Unsuccessful Advertisement 2 – Lacoste

This ad by Lacoste for me is particularly unsuccessful; this is because the model in the picture is yawning. Lacoste being a tired brand as it is, it should be trying to make itself re born in its ads. However this ad adds to the idea of the public that Lacoste is tired and boring. In my opinion, this advert is basically saying “boring.. Move on to the next brand�.

Unsuccessful Advertisement 3 – Hermes being a high end fashion brand, is expected to be exclusive and the reason why people buy the brand is due to the exclusiveness of the brand – only people who can afford it will buy into it, for example the ‘Birkin’ bags which go up to £60,000. therefore the fact that this ad campaign says “all aboard Hermes” suggests Hermes is welcoming everyone to their brand. This can take away the exclusivity away from it for those who enjoy the brand being exclusive and therefore this could scare away customers to go to competitor brands which are more exclusive.

Mini Branding Task – Missoni History of Missoni •

• • •

Missoni is a high-end Italian fashion house based in Varese, and known for its colorful knitwear designs. The company was founded by Ottavio ("Tai") and Rosita Missoni in 1953. (, 2016) Missoni did have a Sport Range hover this was discontinued in 2002. Missoni is a world renowned name across the fashion and design industry and their iconic zigzag pattern is instantly recognisable. Where did the zig zag pattern and colour come from? The story starts in Golasecca, in the province of Varese, northern Italy, as this is where the headquarters and factories of T&J Vestor (Torrani & Jelmini) were founded and are still active today. It was here that Rosita Jelmini was born in 1931, the granddaughter to the Torrani owners of the embroidered fabric factory. Being brought up in a creative family environment influenced Rosita’s drive and passion for fashion. The family firm of T&J Vestor sparked her imagination, and growing up in the midst of the different operations of dyeing, embroidering and pattern cutting that took place at the factory was an endless source of fascination for her. When balls of yarn were not completely immersed in the dye, a part remained white, or of another colour, producing the ‘flame’ effects for the embroidery of the shaded roses on the kimonos that the factory then produced, a spark of the creativity that was to come. (Pople, 2015) Missoni not only has a clothing range, but also Missoni Home. In November 1973 The New York Times declared ‘Missoni’s knitted clothes have become international status symbols, like Vuitton bags and Gucci shoes.

I intend to buy in a Missoni Sport range, as I think that the bright colours and patterns will reflect a good ‘sporty’ image and brighten up peoples gym kits, which is a aim potential competitors such as Sweaty Betty are currently using – making gym kits bright as possible using neon colours. I think there is a niche for designer gym kits, as I think those who buy into high end fashion brands such as Missoni would definitely buy into them for gym wear and if there is a distinctive pattern such as the Missoni colours and zig zag pattern it is a distinctive brand pattern therefore people will want to buy into it because they know it will stand out from other gym kits such as Nike etc. and people will probably notice that it is Missoni – a high end brand – and not just the usual gym wear. Going to the gym and keeping active is now a huge craze, most of those who can afford to, are keeping active and going to the gym. Not only that, active wear has almost become a fashion trend there are people who wear active wear even if they are not going to the gym or doing anything active, but simply because it is stylish and comfortable. Therefore in this era, when people feel this way about gym kits I think that it is a key time for brands to invest in sportswear as this trend may not stick around forever.

Pen Portrait – Erin Erin is a married business woman in her early 30s. She set up a restaurant chain in London with her husband in her early 20s which has now rapidly grew, more than they thought it would. Although she is very busy with her business, she is mainly the running of operations and with a wide number of staff she does not need to be on site every day, instead she sometimes works from her office home. She sees the importance of training at least 5 days a week and continuously being in shape for those last minute romantic weekends away her husband may plan. She is married with children and she often goes to the gym after taking her 3 girls to school, therefore she is regularly running errands in her active wear. She lives in a Georgian family town house in the city of London. Therefore out and about London city she sees looking fashionable key. Taking pride in her health and wellbeing, she eats only organic food and she loves sushi. She likes to see herself as an ‘earth mum’ and has never given her children fizzy drinks or Mcdonald’s. Saturday, is ‘date night’ for her and her husband, away from the children, therefore they have a nanny who minds the children on a Saturday and she spends most of her Saturday getting her hair and beauty done, which she starts off with a gym session. On a Sunday morning, she goes to Yoga and pops into a few shops on her way back whilst her husband takes the children out for breakfast. She sees this as ‘me’ time and doesn’t see no better way to do this than to g to yoga and stay comfortable in her active wear, before going home to be pampered and go for Sunday lunch with her family. She shops in high end stores such as Harrods, Selfridges and Harvey Nichols, and whilst being a hands on mum and business mum she likes to pay these a visit during her ‘me’ time after Yoga on a Sunday. Being out and about London she prefers to go into stores to shop although she does like to shop online from her office from time to time, or during a glass of red wine on a Friday night with her feet up.

Company shop Missoni 100% Viscose

50% Viscose, 32% Cupro, 18% Polyester £360.00 RRP One piece

69% Viscose, 20% Cupro, 11% Polyester Shorts £280.00 RRP

Poncho £890 RRP 78% Wool, 8% Alpaca, 6% Polyamide, 4% Silk, 4% Mohair

T-shirt £140.00 RRP 100% Cotton

T-shirt £240 RRP 61% Silk, 35% Polyester, 4% Elastane

Jumper £320.00 RRP 45% Alpaca, 34% Rayon, 17% Nylon, 4% Elastane

Vest £280.00 RRP 55% Viscose, 40% Cupro, 5% Polyester

T-shirt £150.00 RRP 100% cotton

Socks £55.00 RRP 70% Rayon, 20% Polyester, 10% Nylon

Socks £60.00 RRP 90% Wool, 10% Polyamide

Jumpsuit £420.00 RRP

Anorak £800 RRP 90% Polyester, 10% Wool

Stella McCartney Sport Jacket £240.00 RRP 100% polyester plain weave

Jacket £180.00 RRP 100% polyester

Jacket £150.00 RRP 79% nylon / 21% elastane

Knit Jacket £190.00 RRP 72% viscose / 28% polyester

Leggings £90.00 RRP 82% polyester / 18% elastane

Ultra Boost Trainers RRP £190.00

81% nylon / 19% elastane TANK TOP £70.00 RRP

Sports Bra £50.00 RRP 76% polyester / 24% elastane

Leggings £70.00 RRP 76% polyester / 24% elastane

Leggings £80.00 RRP 62% nylon / 32% polyester / 6% elastane

T-shirt £80.00 RRP 93% nylon / 7% elastane

SOCKS £15.95 RRP 79% cotton / 19% polyester / 1% elastane / 1% nylon

Sweaty Betty Cape £275.00 RRP Rubber-coated fabric with taped seams for waterproof performance

Tank Top £60.00 RRP combines polyester manmade fibres and viscose

Leggings £90.00 RRP high elastane content

Leggings £90.00 RRP Polyester

Sports Bra £50.00 RRP Polyamide Elastane

Sweater £90.00 RRP High cotton content


Yoga Mat £60.00 RRP Soft natural latex

Socks £15.00 RRP 100% Polyamide

Vest RRP £55.00 Wool Polyester

Vest RRP £70.00 Polyester elastane

Vest RRP £60.00 Combination of manmade fibres

Nike Sports bra £50.00 RRP 82% nylon/ 18% elastane

Tank top RRP £60.00 58% nylon/ 29% polyester/ 13% elastane

Tank top RRP £45.00 62% polyester/ 38% nylon

Womens running Top RRP £65.00 62% polyester/ 38% nylon

Running jacket RRP £125 100% POLYESTER

Golf Jacket RRP £100 100% POLYESTER

Running jacket RRP £175 100% POLYESTER

Leggings RRP £105 74% polyester/ 26% elastane

Leggings RRP £75 77% nylon/23% elastane

Socks £18 RRP 46% nylon/ 43% polyester/ 6% cotton/ 5% elastane

Tank top RRP £25 75% recycled polyester/13% organic cotton/ 12% rayon

Leggings RRP £100 80% nylon/ 16% polyester/ 4% elastane

RRP £95.00

RRP £105.00

RRP £105.00

RRP £95.00

RRP £165.00

RRP £45.00 RRP £105.00

RRP £55.00

RRP £25.00

RRP £75.00

RRP £210.00


Marketing strategies To advertise the Missoni Sports Range, there are a number of ways to carry this out. However taking into consideration the type of consumer influences this. I think, with the advantage of having bright distinctive colours and patterns the range would easily stick out to the consumers eye, therefore it could be displayed in high end retail stores such as Selfridges and when people walk past and see the display the image will stick and will be associated with this store in order to keep its exclusive image. Keeping the exclusivity of the range up is important, in order to be able to charge slightly higher than competitors. Although prices are slightly higher than competitors, it still gives the non typical consumer of Missoni to buy into Missoni, who may pay £95.00 for an active wear tank top but would never think about paying £270.00 for a t-shirt from their range. Therefore, with Missoni being such a well known high end designer brand it allows them to widen the target market in this area and appeal to less of an elite group in society. However it still keeps its exclusivity as only those who can afford it will buy into the active wear and not just anybody.

With Missoni being such a high end designer I would also want the range to be promoted during fashion weeks, promoting to the elite group in society. Due to the loud and bright patterns it is important that the advertising reflects this, however in a more subtle way in order to keep its selectness. Therefore the advertising campaign would include the designs, however with a subtle background such as in the middle of an old city centre such as Paris “Chans Elysee” or Barcelona’s “Las Ramblas” where background colours are neutral in front of old delicate buildings. Or on a understated beach doing yoga, for example. Another marketing strategy in order to keep up with competitors would be to have an ‘eco’ image, as Nike do. Nike use recycled and organic materials in order to contribute to the environment, therefore by doing this Nike could gain a competitive advantage as those who want to buy into fashion more organically will go for Nike. Therefore in order to keep in competition this would be a marketing strategy for my Missoni sport range. By using organic and recycled materials not only would the range be more attractive but would also help to cut costs leading to a bigger profit.

TASK 12 – Evaluation The main thing I have learnt throughout Unit 1, is seeing how fashion is almost like a cycle and past fashions are continuously coming back into fashion through the high street and high end fashion houses. A key past fashion trend that has come back into society today in 2016 is the military jackets. Unit 1 has also given me an insight into the thought process behind fashion designs such as the Sicily influence behind Dolce & Gabbana. Also, the idea that one small artefact can spark off a whole collection of pieces from colour to the style. For task 7, ‘Deconstructing Artefacts’, I used an old fashioned stained glass lamp. I chose this because not only did it have a massive colour influence but the shape allowed me to look at ‘peplum’ styles and padded distinctive pieces which reflected the shape of the lampshade. When analysing the lamp, I came across that the colures represented the earth, there was green, blue, red and yellow which I thought reflected earth, in that the colours link to grass, sea, sun and land. Therefore, from these colours I looked at sunsets and sunrises, fields, clear sky's and deserts and came up with a colour scheme which had pale blue and delicate pink colours to greens. Therefore this colour chart included bright colours and subtle colours which were all primary colours, which automatically decided that the season for the collection would be spring/summer. There are many external influences on fashion which have affected the trends we have today. I have already mentioned how military fashion from the 40s is now a huge trend. It was the war in the 30s-40s which brought about the military fashion which has influenced todays fashion both in high street stores such as Zara, Topshop and River Island and in high end fashion houses such as Balmain, Burberry and Balenciaga. Another external influence on fashion is the ‘mod’ era in the 60s which brought about a gothic look, through black leather jackets worn by those who drove the mods. Today, leather jackets are a huge trend in both spring/summer collections and fall/winter. Therefore leather jackets have had time over the years to be experimented with and now have many different designs, meaning leather jackets come in all differ styles and colours – its not just black anymore. In 2015, leather and fur was a huge trend. Another external influence on fashion today is the ‘block heel boot’ style worn by David Bowie in the 70s. Bowie, not only influenced and made transgender fashion more known, but also influenced the trend of block heel, which today in 2016 is again a huge trend for AW16 collections; both in high street stores such as Topshop and Asos and in fashion houses such as Saint Laurent and Gucci. In advertisement and branding I think the relationship between the concept and product is important in order to convey the right image through advertisement campaigns for example. This is because advertising and branding is all about getting a message across through the product or concept with limited words or explanation, therefore it is important that the right image is portrayed across the campaign. For example, if something in the picture has more of an effect on the reader than the product being advertised than this could lead to the reader being influenced by something completely unnecessary which has nothing to do with the product or concept, leading them to get the wrong image or idea, making it a false advertisement. During this unit, I enjoyed looking at past trends which have influenced fashion today. This is because it is so captivating as it can be easily ignored and just be seen as a new trend and not a past trend which has come back to life. After identifying past trends from past eras, I have found that when shopping I can notice what era certain trends and fashions have come from, which I find really interesting. I also think that trying to spot these trends by looing online on fashion houses and high street stores allowed me to gain more knowledge about certain brands. The idea of past trends coming back into fashion also allow predicting future trends to be a lot easier. I feel as though this unit went quite well, however I would like to improve my Photoshop skills for the next unit, in order to make the layout of my work a bit more professional.

Bibliography • • • • • • • •

• • • • •

Fashion, B. (2016). Men's Trench Coats | Burberry. [online] Burberry. Available at: [Accessed 11 Oct. 2016]. Wikipedia. (2016). Trench coat. [online] Available at: [Accessed 11 Oct. 2016]. Wikipedia. (2016). Trench coat. [online] Available at: [Accessed 11 Oct. 2016]. (2016). Closed Exhibition - Alexander McQueen: Savage Beauty - Victoria and Albert Museum. [online] Available at: [Accessed 12 Oct. 2016]. (2016). [online] Available at: [Accessed 12 Oct. 2016]. Wikipedia. (2016). Sicily. [online] Available at: [Accessed 12 Oct. 2016]. Yotka, S. (2016). A 10-Point Guide to Dolce & Gabbana’s Sicilian Inspirations. [online] Vogue. Available at: [Accessed 12 Oct. 2016]. Fury, A. (2014). Dolce and Gabbana spring/summer 2015: Spain casts its influence on. [online] The Independent. Available at: [Accessed 12 Oct. 2016]. Wikipedia. (2016). Paifang. [online] Available at: [Accessed 12 Oct. 2016]. AFKInsider. (2015). 16 Fascinating African Tribal Traditions. [online] Available at: [Accessed 12 Oct. 2016]. "How Social Media Is Transforming The Fashion Industry - BBC News". BBC News. N.p., 2016. Web. 12 Oct. 2016. Pople, J. (2015). The Colourful History of Missoni Home. [online] LuxPad. Available at: [Accessed 17 Oct. 2016]. adidas United Kingdom. (2016). adidas Online Shop | adidas UK. [online] Available at: [Accessed 18 Oct. 2016]. Mat, S., Vest, N., Leggings, C., Strap, Y. and Sweat, S. (2016). Super Grip Yoga Mat - Beetle Blue | Yoga Mats | Sweaty Betty. [online] Sweaty Betty. Available at: [Accessed 18 Oct. 2016].

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