Issuu on Google+

Type vs. Image An activity book based on the debate of type vs. image within Wayfinding and Environmental Signage.

Male

Female


Type vs. Image For many years designers have engaged with the debate between type and image. Some designers believe that image can convey a message without a type element accompanying it, whilst others believe that type and image need to work together in order for a message to be effectively given. This activity book will highlight both arguments and allow you to come up with your own opinion at the end.


Type vs. Image


Wayfinding and Environmental Signage

Wayfinding and Signage Wayfinding and Signage is all around us, almost everyone will come into contact with some form each day. The role of wayfinding is simple, convey a message quickly and to as many people as possible. Perhaps the most common set of wayfinding and signage are road signs. Road signs use a range of both type and image to convey a message to road users.


Type vs. Image

Otto Neurath In 1930 the Vienese social scentist Otto Neurath worked to develop a set of symbols in order to overcome language barriers and create a global language. He called this collection Isotype, International System Of TYpographic Picture Education. Along with a team of data collectors, transformers, Graphic artists, techinical assistants and his wife Marie Neurath, he devised the symbols that are said to have influenced pictograms and signage today.

Otto Neurath

Marie Neurath

Neurath commissioned German artist Gerd Arntz to make his symbols visual. Gerd was well educated and embraced the same socialist ideas as Neurath, his artwork was influenced by the Expressionist and Constructivist movements. Arntz used wood block printing to bring Isotype to life and ensure that it could be reproduced.

Gerd Arntz


Isotype logo


Type vs. Image

Isotype Test The Isotype symbols were the first of their kind, they took on a more detailed form than any signs that are around today. See if you can guess what each sign means.


Wayfinding and Environmental Signage


Type vs. Image


Wayfinding and Environmental Signage

D.O.T In 1974 the Department of Transportation developed a set of 50 pictograms, which have continued to be used for the last forty years. They commissioned the American Institute of Graphic Arts to come up with a set of symbols that would overcome some of the errors they could see developing when it came to conveying a message to a growing population consisting of many new cultures. The symbols were designed by Roger Cook and Don Shanosky and the project was overseen by a commitee of lead designers; Thomas Geismar Seymour Chwast, Rudolph de Harak, John Lees, Massimo Vignelli.


Type vs. Image

D.O.T Pictograms There are many similarities between Isotype and the D.O.T pictograms. See if you can spot the similarities and guess what the symbol means.


Wayfinding and Environmental Signage


Type vs. Image

Universal language Otto Neurath intended Isotype to become an answer to global communication. His main aim for Isotype was to eliminate language barriers and come up with a universal language through symbols. Though, when Isotype was created language barriers were overcome, since the modern society has evolved these symbols no longer work as a universal language. An example of this was documented by Ellen Lupton in 1993, she described an instance in Saudi Arabian university where men became confused about toilet signs as they wore robes which resembled the dress represented in the women’s toilet sign. The signs were altered and a headdress was added to the women’s sign to avoid further confusement. This is an example of why type is sometimes needed to ensure that the right message is conveyed.


Wayfinding and Environmental Signage


Type vs. Image

Signs and symbols As human beings we can make assumptions of what a message is going to say from a great distance. A good example of this is found in road signs. For people who have learnt how to drive and taken a driving theory test this will have become second nature but for others who have not completed a theory test see if you know what each sign signifies. Possibilities: 1. Warning 2. Instruction 3. Danger 4. Order 5. Inform 6. Mandatory instruction

“Symbols can take longer to interpret than language when conveying a concept to someone who is unfamiliar with the symbols� Lankow, J, 2012.


Wayfinding and Environmental Signage


Type vs. Image

Colour connotations Like signs and symbols we all associate different colours with messages. Add your opinion on what colour conveys a message.


Wayfinding and Environmental Signage


Type vs. Image

The London Underground Tube Map The London Underground Map was first designed by Harry Beck in 1933. His original design has stayed consistent since then, with only a few modernisations over the years. The tube map is possibly the most commonly viewed piece of wayfinding with a range of audiences. The map is an example of wayfinding that needs to use both type and image to function properly.


Wayfinding and Environmental Signage


Type vs. Image

Taking away the type:

8

8

An example of the Underground Map without the type.

6

4

2 2 4

6


Wayfinding and Environmental Signage

6 4

4

2 2 2

2 2

4


Type vs. Image

Taking away the image:

Chesham

An example of the Underground map without the image.

Watford Junction

Chalfont & Latimer

Watford High Street

Watford

Amersham

Rickmansworth

Carpenders Park

Moor Park

Ruislip

Ruislip Manor Uxbridge

Ickenham

South Ruislip

Stanmore

Harrow & Wealdstone

Harrowon-the-Hill

Northwick Park

West Harrow

Kenton

Queensbury

Preston Road

Kingsbury

G Wembley Park

Dollis Hill

Harlesden

Queen’s Park

Kilburn High Road

Kilburn Park Maida Vale Warwick Avenue

Latimer Road East Acton

West Acton

North Acton

Acton Central Ealing Common South Acton Acton Town Chiswick Park

Hatton Cross

Heathrow Terminal 4

Bond Street

Marble Arch

Hyde Park Corner Knightsbridge Gloucester Road

Barons Court West Kensington

Lancaster Gate

Queensway High Street Kensington

Kensington (Olympia)

Goldhawk Road

Bayswater Notting Hill Gate

Holland Park

Hounslow East

Earl’s Court

Victo

South Kensington

Sloane Square

2

Pimli

Fulham Broadway Kew Gardens

4

Parsons Green

Imperial Wharf

Putney Bridge East Putney Southfields Wimbledon Park

Heathrow Terminal 5

St. J

Edgware Marylebone Road

West Brompton

Richmond

Heathrow Terminals 1, 2, 3

2

Wood Lane

Shepherd’s Bush Market

Turnham Stamford Ravenscourt Brook Park Green

Gunnersbury

Hounslow Central

Shepherd’s Bush

White City

Hammersmith

Osterley

Hounslow West

Swiss Co

Edgware Road Ladbroke Grove

North Ealing

Boston Manor

Paddington

Westbourne Park

Park Royal

South Ealing

Finchley Roa

South Hampstead

Royal Oak

Hanger Lane

Northfields

West Hampstead

Brondesbury

Kensal Green

Greenford

4

Kilburn

Brondesbury Park

Kensal Rise

Willesden Junction

Perivale

F

Willesden Green

Stonebridge Park

Alperton

6

Bre

Neasden

Wembley Central Sudbury Hill

Northolt

Ealing Broadway

Colindale

Hendon Cent

South Kenton North Wembley

Sudbury Town

Burnt Oak

Canons Park

North Harrow

Rayners Lane

South Harrow

Edgware

Headstone Lane

Pinner

Eastcote

Ruislip Gardens

Hatch End

Northwood Northwood Hills

West Ruislip Hillingdon

Bushey

Croxley

Chorleywood

Va Clapham Junction

Wand R

Wimbledon

Clap

Clapha

Clapham

Balha

To

Colliers

South Wimb Morden


Wayfinding and Environmental Signage

Epping Theydon Bois High Barnet

Cockfosters

Totteridge & Whetstone

Oakwood

Woodside Park

4

Mill Hill East

Buckhurst Hill

Southgate

West Finchley

Roding Valley

Arnos Grove

Woodford

Wood Green East Finchley

ent Cross

Golders Green

Hampstead Heath

Hampstead

Finchley Road & Frognal

Belsize Park

Arsenal

Tufnell Park

2

ad

ottage

Chalk Farm

Kentish Town

Mornington Crescent

John’s Wood

Baker Street

Great Portland Street

Highbury & Islington

Caledonian Road & Barnsbury

Regent’s Park

Hoxton

Goodge Street

St. Paul’s

Holborn

Bank

Green Park

Mansion House

Monument

Embankment

London Bridge

Stepney Green

Whitechapel

2

Westferry

2

Oval

Queens Road Peckham

Peckham Rye

Stockwell

am Common

Brockley

Forest Hill Sydenham

Brixton

m South

Penge West

am

Anerley

Tooting Bec

Crystal Palace

ooting Broadway

Norwood Junction West Croydon

4

Upton Park

West Ham

Star Lane

4

Langdon Park Canning Town

All Saints Blackwall

Royal Victoria

Custom House for ExCeL

Poplar

East India

Prince Regent

Emirates Royal Docks

Royal Albert

West Silvertown

Heron Quays South Quay

Beckton Park Cyprus

Canary Wharf North Greenwich

2

Emirates Greenwich Peninsula

Pontoon Dock London City Airport

Gallions Reach Beckton

King George V

Woolwich Arsenal

Cutty Sark for Maritime Greenwich

New Cross Gate

Honor Oak Park Denmark Hill

Clapham North

Barking East Ham

Island Gardens

Borough

Kennington

Becontree Upney

Plaistow

West India Quay

Wapping

Crossharbour

Elephant & Castle

Bromleyby-Bow Devons Road

Elm Park

Dagenham Heathway

Abbey Road

Bow Road

Mudchute

pham High Street

bledon

Canada Water

Southwark

Lambeth North

s Wood

Bermondsey

Surrey Quays

ico

dsworth Road

Tower Gateway

Rotherhithe

Waterloo

auxhall

Tower Hill

Temple

Westminster

Mile End

Limehouse

Fenchurch Street

Blackfriars

Wanstead Park

Pudding Mill Lane

Shadwell Cannon Street

Charing Cross

St. James’s Park

2

Aldgate

Leicester Square

Piccadilly Circus

Hornchurch Dagenham East

Woodgrange Park

Bow Church

Covent Garden

Upminster Upminster Bridge

Stratford

Hackney Wick

Shoreditch High Street

Aldgate East

Gants Hill

Leytonstone High Road

Stratford High Street

Moorgate

Chancery Lane

Wanstead Leytonstone

Leyton Midland Road Leyton

Bethnal Green Liverpool Street

Barbican

Fairlop Barkingside Newbury Park

Stratford International

Hackney Central

Homerton

Haggerston

Farringdon

Russell Square

Tottenham Court Road

oria

Canonbury

Old Street

Euston Square

4

Redbridge

Walthamstow Central

Walthamstow Queen’s Road

Dalston Junction

Angel

Oxford Circus

Tottenham Hale

Dalston Kingsland

King’s Cross St. Pancras

Snaresbrook

Blackhorse Road

Euston

Warren Street

d

Camden Road

Camden Town

Finsbury Park

Holloway Road Caledonian Road

d

Seven Sisters

Manor House Upper Holloway

Kentish Town West

South Woodford South Tottenham

Archway

Gospel Oak

Harringay Green Lanes

Turnpike Lane Crouch Hill

Highgate

Grange Hill

Chigwell Hainault

Bounds Green

Finchley Central

tral

6

Debden Loughton

New Cross

Greenwich Deptford Bridge Elverson Road Lewisham

4


Conclusion The London Underground map is an example of wayfinding that must use type and image or it is not legible. Road traffic signs on the other hand do work with just image, though in some cases it would seem that type is added to ensure that the correct message is conveyed. The debate of type vs. image has been ongoing for several years, though no definitive answer has been found it is clear that for the purpose of wayfinding both should work together in order to convey the correct message.


Type vs. Image