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E L L E GE R DE M AN PORTFOLIO FOR POSITION IN ARCHITECTURE, 2014 gerdeman@gsd.harvard.edu 614 / 216. 2668


G R A D UAT E P E R F O R M I N G A RT S C E N T E R U R BA N D E S I G N + A RC H I T EC T U R E BAT H S LO C K I N T E RV E N T I O N UTOPIODS E L E M E N T S O F A RC H I T EC T U R E C A RT O G R A P H Y F O R A I R U N D E RG R A D UAT E DOILE HIGHLINE THESIS P RO F E S S I O N A L U C B E R K E L E Y ST U D E N T H O U S I N G Q ATA R N AT I O N A L L I B R A RY STA D S K A N T O O R


G R A D UAT E E D U C AT I O N

E L L E GE R DE M AN APPLICANT FOR POSITION IN ARCHITECTURE, 2014 gerdeman@gsd.harvard.edu 6 14 / 2 16.2668

2014 H A RVA R D U N I V E R S I T Y

GRADUATE SCHOOL OF DESIGN MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE CANDIDATE CONTACT INGEBORG ROCKER, PHD 609/933.0782 OMA OPTION ABROAD STUDIO “ F U N DA M E N TA L S I N A RC H I T EC T U R E” ROT T E R DA M 201 2 research studio intended for upcoming Venice Biennale, led by Rem Koolhaas and AMO within OMA’s Rotterdam office HONORS CORE/OPTION STUDIOS HIGHEST HONORS EACH SEMESTER LIEBMANN FELLOWSHIP presented to top 3 students at Harvard University COSUTTA AWARD nomination HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL ENTREPRENEURSHIP CHALLENGE semi-finalist

PUBLISHED WORK & EXHIBITIONS “GSD PLATFORM 5,” HARVARD GSD [ACTAR, 2012] Two semesters of student work [Fall 2011, Spring 2012] exhibited in the Harvard design school lobby [March - May 2013] and published in annual publication, Platform 5. pp 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 260, 261 “GSD PLATFORM 4,” HARVARD GSD [ACTAR, 2011] Two semesters of student work [Fall 2010, Spring 2011] exhibited in the Harvard design school lobby [Dec 2010 - Feb 2011] and published in annual publication, Platform 4. pp 23, 100, 101 “A VIEW ON HARVARD GSD” work exhibited and published “GALLERY A4, TAKENAKA KOMUTEN,” TOKYO [2013] work exhibited and published

U N D E RG R A D U AT E E D U C AT I O N 2009 M I A M I U N I V E R S I T Y

DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE + INTERIOR DESIGN BACHELOR OF FINE ARTS www.fna.muohio.edu/architecture CORE 1 + 2 STUDIOS, INTERIOR DESIGN STUDIO, HOSPITALITY DESIGN STUDIO, TARGET RETAIL DESIGN STUDIO, GENSLER OFFICE DESIGN STUDIO, THESIS STUDIO, MILE2 LAB REALIZED PROJECTS IN NYC AND SEOUL, KOREA

CONTACTS JOHN WEIGAND, DEPT. CHAIR 513/529.4903 DR. JINBAE PARK, FIT, NYC 646/763.0695 HONORS CUM LAUDE, 3.98 GPA 2009 DEPARTMENTAL DESIGN MERIT OF PORTFOLIO SCHOLARSHIP ODEGARD AWARD FOR EXCELLENCE IN DESIGN PLACEMENT PRESIDENT AND FOUNDER, ALPHA RHO CHI


EXPERIENCE 3 MONTHS O M A 2012

2006 C A L L I S O N

ARCHITECTURE INTERN www.oma.com

SPECIALTY RETAIL DESIGN INTERN www.callison.com

significant concept development and production for design of interior architecture package on two large scale projects

Considerable contribution in concept/design development and presentation sets NOTABLE PROJECTS

dd sets, ca revisions, presentation documents, physical and rhino models NOTABLE PROJECTS

WEST ELM, POTTERY BARN, KOREAN AEKYONG DEPARTMENT STORE

QATAR NATIONAL LIBRARY 2014 STADSKANTOOR, CITY HALL BUILDING, ROTTERDAM 2015

CONTACT DAWN CLARK D.CLARK15@COMCAST.NET

CONTACT SASKIA SIMON SSIMON@OMA.COM

2005 C H U T E G E R D E M A N

4 MONTHS RO C K E R - L A N G E A RC H I T EC T S 2011

ARCHITECTURE RESEARCH AND PROJECT COORDINATION www.rocker-lange.com Critical participation in concept and production Graphic setup for publication NOTABLE PROJECTS HONG KONG & SHENZHEN BIENNALE 2012 CONTACT INGEBORG ROCKER, PHD 609/933.0782

1 YEAR 2009–2010

B E H N I S C H A RC H I T E K T E N ARCHITECT www.behnisch.com SD, DD, CD phases on 125,000sf student housing complex Design, concept development, drawing documentation, presentation documents NOTABLE PROJECTS UC BERKELEY ANNA HEAD STUDENT HOUSING CONTACT KRISTI PAULSON KRISTI.PAULSON76@GMAIL.COM

6 MONTHS B E H N I S C H A RC H I T E K T E N 2008

ARCHITECTURE INTERN

Assisted in concept and design development, presentation sets, Building construction sets, graphic design, rfq, and model building Coordination with structural engineers, consultants, numerous contractors and city of los angeles building department NOTABLE PROJECTS YALE UNIVERSITY LABORATORY, CAROLLA RESIDENCE

RETAIL DESIGN INTERN www.chutegerdeman.com Joined conceptual design process and presentation production NOTABLE PROJECTS AMERICAN GREETINGS CONCEPTS

T E AC H I N G HARVARD GRADUATE SCHOOL OF DESIGN Co-Teacher, Digital Skills Workshop Aug 2013 Graduate level 2-week course Instructor, Digital Workshop Series Jan, Sept, Nov 2013 Graduate level course, ‘Rhino’. Graduate level course, ‘Adobe InDesign’ 1 & 2. Teaching Assistant, Core Studio 1 [Aug - Dec 2013] Teaching Assistant, Core Studio 4 [Jan - May 2014] Assistant to Graduate Studio with Prof. Dr. Ingeborg Rocker. Responsible for Software Instruction, Project Feedback, Skills, and Management. FASHION INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Guest Lecturer and Juror March 2012, April 2013 Undergraduate Level Interior Design Studio MIAMI UNIVERSITY Teaching Assistant, Capstone (Thesis) Studio [Jan - May 2007] Assistant to Thesis Level Undergraduate Studio with Prof. Dr. Jinbae Park. Responsible for Project Feedback, Skills, and Management. Teaching Assistant [Jan - May 2009] Assistant to Asst. Prof. Denette Callahan. Responsible for Assignment Markups and Software Instruction. Instructor [April 2009] Undergraduate Level Course, ‘Adobe InDesign’. GRAPHIC SKILLS

2007 A K A R S T U D I O S

INTERIOR ARCHITECTURE INTERN www.akarstudios.com Significant role in complete design process for crescent heights restaurant including rendering, graphics and final presentations. Primary interaction with clients

GRASSHOPPER, RHINO, 3DS MAX, V-RAY, DIGITAL PROJECT, FULL ADOBE GRAPHICS SUITE, PROCESSING (JAVA BASED PROGRAMMING), AUTOCAD, REVIT CERTIFIED, 3D PRINTING, CNC MILL, LASER CUTTING CAPABLE, HAND ILLUSTRATION, MODEL BUILDING, WOOD & METAL SHOP CERTIFIED


MANIFESTO FOR A BROKEN URBANISM: BUILDING AMONGST BRUTALISM HARVARD GSD CORE 3, 2011 PERFORMING ARTS CENTER, BOSTON CR IT ICS DA NIE L L E ETZ L E R , E R IC HOW E L E R

E X H I B I T E D + P U B L I S H E D, H A RVA R D “ P L AT F O R M 5, ” 2 0 1 3 E X H I B I T E D, T O K Y O G A L L E RY A 4, S T U D E N T W O R K F RO M A RO U N D T H E W O R L D, 2 0 1 3 P U B L I S H E D, H A RVA R D G S D W E B S I T E


CO R E 3 | DA N I E L L E E T Z L E R


MANIFESTO FOR A BROKEN URBANISM

The urban condition of Boston’s Government Center, a fabric of a distinct, non-permeable parts is dictated by heroic values and divorced by the elevator. It stands as a relic of a diluted modernist testimony. The decline of the modern ethos is the final declaration of monumentality, torn between positive social objectives and the inward self-exploration of its own objective. No positivity is any longer to be found within it: neither hopeful ideas so heroic they end in muteness, nor enclosed in the stubborn silence of geometry content with its own perfection.1 Its fall is as definitive as the commitment to functionalism that modern architecture rallied in the process of its development. It is this which most distracted the after effects from modern architecture’s most genuine, original objectives.2

In its gestation, Modernism confronted the conflation of the city. It is this emphasis on finiteness and separateness that makes artifacts like these the most intense manifestation of the political in the city. 3 This is diametrically opposite to the following architecture, New Brutalism, one so obsessed with authenticity, it became tied to the replication of itself, ironically leading to its own sterility. The overzealous ambition for sheer heroism and total authenticity relies on the didactic; a shift to total authority – a single dictator with lost claim: ‘Architecture is the city.’


E N T RY S C H E M E | B E LO W A N D A B OV E C A N T I L E V E R | LO B BY P L A N W I T H E X I ST I N G P . RU D O L P H B U I L D I N G


What sort of architecture incarnates the city? The iconic building – which affirms its own singular presence through the appearance of its image cannot be a valid part of the city. Presence in a city can be defined as a constant state of liminality – that of passing through borders. Our public encounters

are

an

oscillation

through

space

defined

by

threshold. One cannot define the outcome of the threshold as

urbanization:

how

program

evolves,

how

movement

performs, how flows unfold, how change occurs. Delineating the fabric of a city is to make way for relationships which are at their most complex and intense. This does not lead to simplification, but rather the opposite, a city cannot sustain as a work of art. Since the urban is now pervasive, urbanism will never again be about the ‘new’, only about the ‘more’ and the ‘modified’.4

MANIFESTO FOR A BROKEN URBANISM

We cannot be concerned with arrangement of permanent objects, but rather aim for configurations to refuse definitive form.

Our ability to achieve the more, the modified is via

denying boundaries, as an act of identifying threshold to pursue conflation. Our obsession with urbanism is misguided, instead we must aim for the manipulation of infrastructure, a layering of intent and reduction of authority to favor endless diversifications.

1

M a n f re d o T a f u r i , 1 97 3

2

Moneo, Peter Eisenman, 2004

3

A u re l i , T 2 0 1 1

4

Ko o l h a a s , 1 9 9 4


CO N F L AT I O N O F P RO P O S A L W I T H RU D O L P H AU D I T O R I U M A N D C L A S S RO O M P L A N


MANIFESTO FOR A BROKEN URBANISM


1 / 6 4 ” : 1 ’ - 0 ” U N O B ST RU C T I V E M A S S I N G O N O B ST RU C T I V E E X I ST I N G U R B A N B LO C K


MANIFESTO FOR A BROKEN URBANISM


R E V E R S A L O F T H E H E RO I C WA L L O F M O N U M E N TA L E X I ST I N G U R B A N FA B R I C


MANIFESTO FOR A BROKEN URBANISM


E X T E R I O R E N T RY R E N D E R I N G B E T W E E N E X I S T I N G / N E W I N T E R I O R LO B BY R E N D E R I N G B E LO W STAG E


MANIFESTO FOR A BROKEN URBANISM


R ECO M P O S I T I O N O F RU D O L P H I D EO LO GY - O PAQ U E B A R , S O L I D G RO U N D, M O N U M E N TA L H E RO I C I S M


MANIFESTO FOR A BROKEN URBANISM


S I T E A N A LY S I S | U N RO L L E D E L E VAT I O N O F S I T E


URBAN CODE: T Y P O LO G I C A L J U X TA P O S I T I O N S : R E S U LTA N T U R B A N F O R M A N D O P E N S PAC E HARVARD GSD CORE 4, 2012 URBAN DESIGN, FLUSHING QUEENS, NY CRIT ICS M I CH AE L P I P E R , TI M OTH Y H YD E COLLABO R ATI O N : R E N TI AN , M O L LY G A Z Z A

E X H I B I T E D + P U B L I S H E D, H A RVA R D “ P L AT F O R M 5, ” 2 0 1 3


CO R E 4 | M I C H A E L P I P E R


U R B A N CO D E

HOUSTON Highly functional at the helm of commercialism, to the extent that even the city blocks are figured, certain density responds to a certain commercial block. Here the commercial is seen to be synonymous to be public, however, the people have taken it upon themselves to make their own piazzas. The perceived public, ie. the commercialism is so banal that the real public space must be subsumed by the individual. The only problem is that the public, the piazza, the swimming pool is no longer widely public but defined by the private. This insular swimming pool serves no purpose but to express the wealth of the individual, though almost half of individuals own them. Therefore, the social is idealized not in shopping malls, parking lots or supermarkets, yet pools. Residents despise sharing pools, rather only use their very own.

VENICE Space

based

on

the

city’s

will

for

expansion,

wealth,

image and necessity, the city’s artifact is relative to its own

determination.

Punctuated

by

singular

architectural

interventions, the city is not planned along the principals of cohesive spatial design. Unexpected relationships are purveyed through the system of implied coherence amongst un-implied organicism. The most formalized reference of orthogonality is spatially described in familiar terms to the remaining city fabric, the sinuous river. The city finds at once complete distance from other cities and at the same time an ability for

internal-extrovertedness.

Its

defensive

walls

and

1m

walking surfaces dually restrict and make way for successive open space beyond.


U R B A N WA L L S

I N T E R S EC T I O N S

O P E N S PAC E

O P E N S PAC E

U R B A N WA L L S

I N T E R S EC T I O N S

C A S E ST U D I E S | V E N I C E A N D H O U ST O N


T Y P O LO G I E S O F V E N I C E D I S P L AY VA R I E D CO N D I T I O N S O F CO U RT YA R D S A N D C A P T U R E D S E M I - P U B L I C S PAC E S

H O U ST O N A LT E R N AT I V E LY FAVO R S A B RU P T P U B L I C A N D P R I VAT E S PAC E ( PA R K I N G LOT S A N D AU T O N O M O U S H O M E S ) , A L LO C AT I N G T H E S W I M M I N G P O O L S A S T H E S I N G L E T RU E SEMI-PUBLIC VENUE

T H E P ROJ EC T S I T E , Q U E E N S N Y , T R A D I T I O N A L LY O F F E R S H I G H R I S E B U I L D I N G S W I T H P R I VAT E B A LCO N I E S ( B A R O R P O I N T ) A N D T O W N H O U S E S W I T H S E M I - P U B L I C E N T R I E S A N D B AC KYA R D S

C A S E ST U D I E S | V E N I C E A N D H O U ST O N V I S A V I S T H E Q U E E N S N Y S I T E


VISUAL CONTINGENCIES

SUN CONTINGENCIES


S M O OT H B O U N DA RY

A FA B R I C O F I S L A N D S W I T H VA RY I N G C H A R AC T E R I ST I C S H AV E T H E A B I L I T Y T O E F F EC T I N D I V I D UA L B U I L D I N G S : A N A RC H I P E L AG O.

T H E TA XO N O M Y , W H I C H E N CO M PA S S E S A L L I N D I V I D UA L B U I L D I N G S HAS THE ABILITY TO SHAPE THE ENTIRE U R B A N FA B R I C O F ISLANDS.

A B RU P T B O U N DA RY

TA XO N O M I E S O F U R B A N F O R M : T Y P O LO GY D R I V E N U R B A N D E S I G N


U R B A N CO D E

Both cities have polarized characteristics of land ownership and allocation of open public, semi public, and private spaces; the tendencies of the physical remnants of each city are inversely proportional to the tendencies of each city’s social atmosphere. The introduced code allows for the fabric of open space and architectural bounding to be divided into

complementary

zones

composed

of

subtle

and

aggressive dis-junctures, all characterized by the desires for urban behavior.

The incorporation of smoothness as well as urban disjunctures build upon the precedent study of urban walls and variegated building typologies. The two organizing principles provided evidence that an urban fabric is created from (1) a collection of building typologies that relate to one another through smooth morphological changes, and (2) top down hierarchical

relationships

within

an

urban

fabric

reveal

anomalies in building typologies. Urban dis-junctures provide shifts in societal characteristics through the creation of unexpected

relationships

via

juxtapositions.

In

this

way,

quotidian architectural typologies are joined, multiplying open public and semi-public spaces, reforming infrastructure, and thus embedding anomaly within the homogeneous code.

We observe that there is an identifiable scalar pattern within the surrounding context. This is both a physical artifact and representation of the cultural artifact. Further, the physical scale is indicative of a trend toward a size of neighborhoodrelationship. The site is also adjacent to 3 large activity zones,


each producing high population volumes over short periods of time. Because of the discrepancy between consistent residents and period shifts of high density transients, the site had remained vacant. We want to provide for both a continuation of the cultural, typically residential, fabric as well as one which caters to the periodic influx of the large activity zones. Our code provides for both via its ability to construct varying scales of urban fabric, thus supporting the behavioral discrepancies between the vastly different groups. The advantage to the code is the transition. Both populations (residents and transients) benefit from or to share resources, ie. retail, open public space, and infrastructure. These shared zones, or blurred perimeter conditions, are flexible in size, degree, and scale, each determined by: one, the amount of disturbance desired within the infrastructure and two, programmatic association of the blur.

The characteristic of the blurred perimeter conditions is charged by the ability for a simple operation initiated by the desire for an urban behavior relating to program, density or environment, to construct a series of, or slight alterations to, the framework of what was inherent in the surrounding urban form. The re-formulation produces (1) shifts in public, private,

U R B A N CO D E

open and enclosed spaces and (2) abrupt juxtapositions of existing building typologies, previously not combined, which drastically change the usage of infrastructure to open space, while remaining consistent with the representation of the existing cultural artifact.


M AT R I C E S | ( 1 ) B U I L D I N G T Y P O LO G I E S I M PA RT I A L T O E N T I R E B U I L D I N G ( 2 ) A N O M A LY F O R M AT I O N ( 3 ) B U I L D I N G S O R D E R E D BY CO N D I T I O N


U R B A N CO D E

250’ 500’ 1000’


G RO U N D F LO O R | M I X E D U S E

6 T H F LO O R | T O W N H O M E S , A PA RT M E N T S

U R B A N S I T E P L A N | E N L A RG E D S I T E P L A N E X A M P L E O F W I D E N E D B U I L D I N G CO N D I T I O N


C I T Y CO D E


W I D E N E D CO N D I T I O N O N S I T E A L LO W S F O R O P E N CO U RT YA R D S PAC E W I T H I N T O W N H O M E - T Y P E U N I T

I N WA R D O R I E N T E D U N I T S D E F Y I N D U C E D B E H AV I O R T H RO U G H H I G H LY - P U B L I C STA I R H I G H LY - P R I VAT E U N I T

P R I VAT E WITHIN

R ECO M P O S I T I O N O F T O W N H O M E S EC T I O N A L LO W S S H A R I N G O F CO R R I D O R W I T H OT H E R T Y P O LO G I E S A S P RO D U C E D BY S I T E J UX TA P O S I T I O N S


P O ST S C R I P T P R I N C I P L E S O F “ T H E N E W T R A D I T I O N ” : A D O L F LO O S | FA B R I C AT E D I N T E R I O R I T Y A RC H I T EC T U R E A N D P L E A S U R E HARVARD GSD CORE 2, 2011 ROMAN BATH COMPLEX, NO LOCATION CR IT ICS E L IZ A BETH W HITTA KE R , IN G E BO RG RO C K E R

E X H I B I T E D + P U B L I S H E D, H A RVA R D “ P L AT F O R M 4, ” 2 0 1 2


CO R E 2 | E L I Z A B E T H W H I T TA K E R


B U I LT P O ST S C R I P T

The voyeurism of people, the identity of people, and the agenda for occupants are drastically dissimilar between Adolf Loos and Le Corbusier. The and

exteriority

are

two

diverging

resolved

social

through

stances

of

interiority

architectural

voyeuristic

compositions. Corbusier acting as cinematographer – a series of repetitive perspectives, and oppositely, Loos who forces an inward and staged trajectory as a fragmented stop and resume motion. For each there is a trace of coming or going; a non static condition laced with views and social opinions. What becomes architecturally of both are frames of overlapping or intersecting vantage points, meant to objectify one’s relationship on interiority or exteriority of the societal whole: should occupants engage externally, or is it best for the individual to remain secure and separate?

Focused outward toward society, Corbusier attempts to flatten the occupant’s gaze into the exterior, collapsing their position with that of the surrounds and verifying his sociopolitical agenda. This act is defensively opposed by Loos, promising a view or path to a more inward point and therefore opting to shelter from a chaotic society. For Loos, architecture became a model of domesticity apart from the greater whole, one which is a detective story of detection itself; a look into the makeup of occupied or unoccupied spaces, embedded with clues of people to come but who never meet. A set in need of actors, it is a clear agent for the defensive outcome of his architecture.

This postscript is staged as an intermediate, one which compromises the inherent societal issues which are original, and producing the missing tension by applying an overlay of their intent. The result, a direct gaze between the fleeting and following, allowing for direct phenomena of space of the occupant; a new convergence. To align the original opposing views into a new collision exemplifies the new outlook, relieving the contemporary desire for collectivity.


CO L L AG E M I X E D M E D I A | G R A DAT I O N O F M A R B L E T H I C K N E S S I N C R E A S E S O CC U PA N T O B J EC T I F I C AT I O N


AT H L E T I C C LU B : A N I N C U B AT O R F O R A D U LT S HARVARD GSD CORE 2, 2011 BROOKLINE, MA CRIT ICS E L I ZABETH WH I TTAK E R , I N GE BORG ROC K ER

N O M I N AT E D, H A RVA R D P L AT F O R M 4. 2 0 1 2


B R I C K A S ST RU C T U R E , I L LU ST R AT I O N O F ST RU C T U R E , A N D P U R E C L A D D I N G , P R I N C I PA L S W H I C H D E F I N E M AT E R I A L T H I C K N E S S A N D O PAC I T Y


AT H L E T I C C LU B

In the after modern, an imperceivable relationship with others nearby would instigate something which does not exist in the culture of congestion. I propose an intermediate between

the

exteriority

and

interiority

of

modernism:

a direct gaze between the eeting and following, allowing for

phenomena

of dissolve,

of

space;

a

new

convergence. The

area

an inhabitable space, debates the antonymy

between the voyeuristic objectives of modernism. It is a variation of viewership assembled as promenade; an awareness amongst the cinema of the observer associated with Corbusier and

Loos.

Degrees

of

proximity

and

blurring

dissolve

congestion and boundaries between open public spectacle and autonomous intimacy. It is the enchantment of imagination, the cognatively imposed view of others or the elevating of oneself in comparison.

When removed from congestion

only in subjective relation, how will the individual respond? In the creation of an incubator, imagination is added amidst viewership. Unique levels of perfection are achieved through this fabrication.


U N - A L I K E D I ST R I B U T I O N O F P RO G R A M M AT I C R EG I O N S W I T H I N M A S S I V E E N V E LO P E , C AU S E O P P O RT U N I T Y F O R CO N G E ST I O N


Architecture as a sensuous spatial encounter is conceived to expand one’s being into the likeness of others, or to cause an abstraction of their relationships; an allowed ambiguity between oneself and others, which oscillates between lucidity and acknowledgement, and one which is remote, causing an obscured but ubiquitous relationship. The dynamic shifts from one to another is perceivable as an interactive subject to subject vis a vis object to object ambiguity. Viewership between two given people may witness one another in several different configurations, their perceivable identity always in a state of

AT H L E T I C C LU B

altering, may never recognize the other person. Their chemistry is only dictated by a glance in a fleeting moment, perhaps only characterized by the shadow cast onto a neighboring surface. It becomes a variation in degrees of intimacy, of closeness and distance; the only clues to the altering of ones own condition, or the fabrication of which.


O B J EC T I F I C AT I O N O F T H E F I E L D, T H E I RO N Y O F CO N T I N U I T Y


LO C K I N T E RV E N T I O N : R ECO N F I G U R I N G T H E I D E N T I T Y O F S PAC E HARVARD GSD CORE 1 , 2011 FLOOD LOCKS | BOSTON, MA CR IT ICS ING E BORG ROC KE R | P R E STO N S COT T CO H E N

E X H I B I T E D + P U B L I S H E D, H A RVA R D “ P L AT F O R M 4 ” 2 0 1 2


K I N E T I C M O D E L D E M O N ST R AT E S C H A N G I N G S PAT I A L A N D S EC T I O N A L CO N F I G U R AT I O N


LO C K I N T E RV E N T I O N

WA L L S B ECO M E STA I R S , P I E R S B ECO M E D O U B L E ST O RY O P E N S PAC E ; T H E S EC T I O N , R ECO N F I G U R E D FAC A D E

S I M P L E c o v e re d pier condition canal

D I S P L AC E D

STA I R

2 ST O RY COV E R E D - P I E R

canal

OPEN PIER

u n c o v e re d space below


E AC H M E M B E R O F T H E JA N S E N M EC H A N I S M A LT E R S D I F F E R E N T LY , T H E S PAT I A L O U T CO M E I S U N E X P EC T E D


The Jansen mechanism is composed of a disparate assembly of

rotational

members,

non-uniform

in

length,

which

characterize unpredictable movement; it appears to unfold. As

an

architecture,

mechanism

has

the

arranged ability

to

sectionally

in

reconfigure

a

field,

spaces

the

bound

by each member. Due to unequal displacement of sectional distances,

spatial

juxtapositions

remain

constant,

although they become entirely transformed, each inferring particularities

of

occupation,

of

corridors,

open

space,

LO C K I N T E RV E N T I O N

stairs, auditoria. On site, the mechanism is integrated as an extension of the current condition. When flood locks are open, the structure simply acts as a pier with roof cover. When closing, the structure follows the path of the flood gate,

unravelling

the

mechanism

from

a

single

point.

Each member is dependent on the next in the operation to re-organize the arrangement of circulation and open space.

O P E N LO C K CO N D I T I O N


F U L LY C LO S E D LO C K CO N D I T I O N


LO C K I N T E RV E N T I O N


S EC T I O N M O D E L S H O W N I N T R A N S I E N T STAT E


D E S C R I P T I O N O F T H E N EO N S EC T O R : S I T UAT I O N I ST N E W B A BY LO N HARVARD GSD OPTION STUDIO, 2013 FROM PARIS TO VEGAS: A CITY DETERMINED FOR SITUATIONISM CRIT IC C I RO N AJL E

E X H I B I T E D, H A RVA R D U T O P I O D S , 2 0 1 3


D E S C R I P T I O N O F T H E N EO N S EC T O R

Skyscraper

collectives,

tower

agglomerations,

mixed-use

developments, high-rise housing, luxury condominiums, airport hubs,

office

conference

enclaves, and

industrial

financial

centers,

parks,

hotel

satellite

complexes,

cities,

theme

parks, thematic cities, branded cities, central districts, gated communities: what is the intellectual potential latent in extraordinarily large urban typologies developing around the world, however currently restricted by the typological tradition of urbanism and the segregation of disciplinary domains?

Generic Sublime presents itself as the quasi-utopian

laboratory that results when these realities operate in a multiplicity. This upgrade is based on the integration of the protocols at work in large-scale developmental types in a manifold singularity: the monstrous commune.

Radically idealized, the territory here achieves an

artificial wilderness of a bold architectural artifact, whose power operates far beyond ideology, in a condition that can be called utopioid. In this move, radically emancipating the real into the realm of the fantastic by means of the instrumentalization of its same pervasive values, the straitjacket of the urbanism of good intentions, first untied by the Situationsist International, is now taken to a new state of crisis or physical uncertainties and reconfigured with the blunt force of an artistic invention, an indeterminant utopia, a Plastic Synthetic City.

The following utopiod is a commentary on the emerging

endless artificial space as recognized by Constant in the 1960s-1970s. The project subverts his imaginative construct into a contemporary non-reality. What was hoped to be continuous space for strolling the streets of Paris has been commercialized into continuous space for strolling casinos, a [plausible] funding for the desired leisurely appetite of Parisians, to the Situationist point of view. A utopia of flickering casino lights, this is “The Description of the Neon Sector�.


2

Harvard University Graduate School Of Design Utopioids Spring 2013 Professor: Ciro Najle Assistant: Pablo Barría Student: Elle Gerdeman Constant and the Situationists DESCRIPTION OF THE NEON SECTOR

PHYSICAL UNCERTAINTIES Situationists Values and Reactions

06

3

PHYSICAL

CERTAINTIES

Situationism Realized

Wa r o n t h e P h y c h o g e o g r a phy of Pitifulness Situationist: Critique of Urban Authorship

2 4 5 F r o m Ve g a s t o P a r i s : A C i t y Determined for Situationism A Manifesto for a Determinate Architecture

2 4 7 Model Manifesto: Re-Guided Constant’s Indeterminant Utopia

29

A Plastic Synthetic City Constant: A Sympathetic Utopia

Critique On Modernism to Critique/display of “Reality Shortage” with ambiguous predictions in ecology of the city

A Prototype for a Determinate Architecture

2 6 5 The Intermediate Space

Plans of the Neon Sector

2 8 0 The Utopiod

2-3

Harvard University Graduate School Of Design Utopioids Spring 2013 Professor: Ciro Najle Assistant: Pablo Barría Student: Elle Gerdeman Constant and the Situationists DESCRIPTION OF THE NEON SECTOR

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Harvard University Graduate School Of Design Utopioids Spring 2013 Professor: Ciro Najle Assistant: Pablo Barría Student: Elle Gerdeman Constant and the Situationists DESCRIPTION OF THE NEON SECTOR

9

construction of situations

D E S C R I P T I O N O F T H E N EO N S EC T O R

unitary urbanism

syn

experimental behavior

dérive

psychogeography

ic thet thesis hypho

situationist architecture

for both play standing game

diversion of prefabricated aesthetic

and seriousness

R E S E A RC H A N D RESPONSE

INTERNATIONAL SITUATIONNIST “New Theater of Operations in Culture,” 1958. image source[bibliographic reference or URL]

T h e S i t u a t i o n i s t Ti m e s : I n t e r n a t i o n a l Ve r s i o n

T O D I R EC T S I T UAT I O N I ST I D EO LO GY 8 -9


Harvard University Graduate School Of Design Utopioids Spring 2013 Professor: Ciro Najle Assistant: Pablo Barría Student: Elle Gerdeman Constant and the Situationists DESCRIPTION OF THE NEON SECTOR

10

Harvard University Graduate School Of Design Utopioids Spring 2013 Professor: Ciro Najle Assistant: Pablo Barría Student: Elle Gerdeman Constant and the Situationists DESCRIPTION OF THE NEON SECTOR

PALAIS IDÉAL: T H E U LT I M AT E S I T U AT I O N I S T Jacques Fillon at the Palais Idéal, May 1955. From Potlatch no. 20 (May 30, 1955) image source[bibliographic reference or URL]

11

LE CORBUSIER: T H E U LT I M AT E A U T H O R L e C o r b u s i e r, P l a n Vo i s i n f o r P a r i s

10-11

lt structures ntinuous bui ry axis for co s a prelimina A line create

existing city treets within an ry of particular s mates the bounda This line approxi The boundary is determined by existing infrastructure and also navigates around

When two city propers do not have a direct existing infrastructural line between them, the built footprint continues in a staggered, non axial, fashion in the direction mediating the two propers, creating a connection forming the shortest length to form a network

historic city centers, parks, rivers, and waterways Along the bo undary axis , polygonal angle proper building foo ties of the l tprints, rela ine, are form ting to the c ed to create ity block str raised build ucture with ings which it is l ocated and i n conjunctio n with the l These buildings are connected along the line to continue the way of infrastructure ength and tinued is discon for pedestrian use structure ing infra t s i x e n e ued wh discontin s i e n i l e built ion of th t a u n i t n o The c As the built line con tinues out of the cit y proper along an in it navigates around frastructural line an the historic center a meets another city p nd diverges r o p e r,

Certain existing conditions of the city effect the outcome of the built network: cemetaries prov ide open area and are covered with building footprints, parks are never to

be covered, but always tangent to the built line The polygon footprints a re divided in in area part to approxim s ate

ly equal

e cables in a omposed of tensil tructural units c These parts are s n supports rtical compressio ring form and ve

l ertica The v e rts ar suppo d in locate ive isrupt non-d of the parts ng existi abric, city f ng creati niform non u ctions n in con e th ile re en the Wi t e n s e a betw the re e tic r id of tu th he s fo centro uc he r t nt l t d n s a sy ve parts o le he t f w o d t ns on locati ise tria a r s rts de suppo pe

AXIAL MAP CONDITION LOGIC

30-31

B O O K I S M A N I F E ST O T Y P E O U T CO M E O F R E S E A RC H O N T H E S I T UAT I O N I ST I N T E R N AT I O N A L . T H E P ROJ EC T I S D O C U M E N TAT I O N A N D R E S P O N S E T O S I T UAT I O N I ST C L A I M S T H RO U G H A R E V I S E D M A N I F E ST O, G R A P H I C D E S I G N , A N D S C R I P T D E V E LO P M E N T F O R A N E W ‘ N EO N S EC T O R , ’ A U T O P I A T U R N E D C A S I N O F RO M CO N STA N T ’S ‘ Y E L LO W S EC T O R’


From Vegas to Paris A CITY

DETERMINE FOR SITUATIONI

Descr

D

SM

iption of the Neon Sector

CO N STA N T FA M O U S LY D I S P L AY E D H I S UTOPIAS IN OV E R S C A L E D MODEL P H OT O S 24 4 - 24 5

D E S C R I P T I O N O F T H E N EO N S EC T O R

Harvard U niversity G radu a t e S c h o o l Of De si g n U topioids Spring 2013 P rofessor: Ciro N ajle A ssistant: P ablo Barría Student: Elle G erdeman Constant and the Situatio n i st s DESCRIPTION OF THE NEON SECTOR

246

Ha r v a r d U n iv e r s ity G r a d u a te S c h o o l O f D e s ig n U to p io id s S p r in g 2 0 1 3 P r o fe s s o r : C ir o N a jle A s s is ta n t: P a b lo B a r r ía S tu d e n t: E lle G e r d e ma n C o n s ta n t a n d th e S itu a tio n is ts DESCRIPTION OF THE NEON SECTOR

247

This area, which is situated on the edge of t he city, gets its name fr om t he colors of a large part of its deep surface, notably on the casino level. This particularity adds to the r ather whic joyfu h pr l atm edis osph pose ere, s the its islet ada The difpta towa tion rds ferent levels as a zon are suppor ted by a e fo r pl ay. metal construction, disengaged from the ground.

tour bus, taxi cab, or limousine at the valet; or lastly by electric tram - according to the distances to be covered. Core-pilotis, around which one has foreseen areas for

The eastern par t is divided ver tically into two covered floors, plus the part of the terracing for the casino f loor.

The water games are found in the open air between the two houses, the terracing above having an opening which permits the sky to be seen. Jets of water and fountain, interspersed here with hoard-

Titanium has construction the buildings the footways dividing and

been used for the bearing the floors and within; adorned carpet for and cheap nylon to cover par tition-walls. The light-

or to t he basement of t he cur rent city. The building (A) which houses the gener at or, air conditioning, and secur ity, is separated from the rest of the islet and is only accessible from the terraces or

The perimeter part appears immediately more complicated. There are many labyrinth-houses, which take up and

the grand ballroom. Or instead one passes along the terraces around the water effects, which jut out over the retail, visible below, where product demonstrations are held; and which also give access to

ness of this construction explains not only the minimum use of supports, but

the ground level. All the rest communicates internally and forms an expansive

develop the ancient forces of architectural confusion: the water effects (c),

the parking loop on the f loor below. In descending below this plaza the public

also a great flexibility in the handling of the different parts, and the complete suppression of volumes. The metal structure may be considered as the basis for an arrangement of interchange-

common space, except for only onebuilding bar playfully floating over the casino patterns, containing hotel rooms that face the gleaming view of the electrified spaceframe landscape. Between

the circus (H), the great ballroom (N), the retail mall (F) beneath which is suspended the parking loop, which enjoys a splendid view of the freeway traf fic that passes below.

transpor t may be found which communicates with the other neighborhoods.

able, dismountable noisy machines and color ful furniture, favo ring th e perm anent varia Thus the tion of th e env following description will reironm ent. strict itself to the general framework of the arrangement. The structure consisting of superimposed levels means that the whole of the deep surface must be

the hotels, whose windows also overlook the basement city landscape, a large

The labyrinth-houses are formed by a great number of irregularly-shaped

swimming pool is to be found, populating the curvilinear pattern below with a smoothened graceful edge, and extending beyond the upper terraces, the great arrival hall (D) and a metal construction covered in sheet aluminum of an extremely free form, whose two floors con-

chambers, firestairs, distant corners, wastelands, cul-de-sacs. One goes t hrough t hem adventurously. One can find oneself in the VIP room, clad in the most luxurious material; the disco room with its vivid colors and ear-splitting sounds; the room of the arcades (ra-

illuminated and climatized ar tif icially. Yet nowhere has it been sought to imitate natural conditions, but instead to profit from this circumstance by creating climatic conditions and forms of lighting. This becomes an integral part in the ambient games that are one of the

tain the valets for the frantic gamblers and the curious tourist arrival (one leads the former directly into the casino ambience through a set of 8 spinning revolving doors that frantically ingrain them in the space, the other confronts the latter immediately by a large table

diophonic, speaker games); the room of images (continual feeds of sporting games); the room for reflection (continual perfection spa), the club room for rest; the room for erotic games; the room of coincidences, etc. There are endless complimentary refresh-

attractions of the Neon Sector. It should be noted, fur thermore, that in many places one emerges suddenly into the open air of swimming pools, outdoor ball-rooms and outside concerts. One can arrive in this part of the city

of 12 greeters who cordially assign them to rooms) and warehouses for the distribution of valet luggage and retail goods. While the hall is open to the air and the interior is entirely covered, both are

eit her by air, t he ter racing of fer ing a ser ies of landing str ips; by rented car,

swallowed by a higher form of indeterminate inter ior ity.

By means of rows upon rows of electric and flickering gambling tables acting as labyrinhian dividers,

the parking of the means of transport,

ings and constructions bizarre shapes, including a grotto can bathe in deepest winter while watching the stars. By taking passage (K), which instead of windows is equipped with large optical

the floors are arranged into a great number of rooms - communicating hor izont ally as well as ver tically,

ifts, ar l acul -city pect e hotel of s ls of th dles er leve bun the upp ain o up to cont which g

by means of stairs and escalators - whose varied ambiences are continually changed by costume clad staff, in conjunction with monetary distributors.

lenses that greatly magnify the view of the neighboring district, one arrives at

Deceptive games for monetary collection, above all, a re practiced there.

An

RE-WRITING

ments offered within the two lounges and casinos, effectively lengthening ext end the time of arrest ed ef f stay within the most in ect th of profitable a b ese h rai ous a r e a s . nw ash es h a ing s and a ton ic is fre que undert ntl aken t y o

AMPL

IFY

effects

Casino Derive: Description of the Neon Sector [Original inl’reneh, ‘Description de la zone jaune,’ published in Internationale of hab its

.

Situationniste, no. 4 Uune 1960), pp. 2 3 - 2 6 . Tr a n s l a t e d b y Paul Hammond]

CO N STA N T ’S M A N I F E ST O FOR THE “DESCRIPTION OF T H E Y E L LO W S EC T O R” 24 6 - 247


Harvard U niversity G raduate School O f D e si g n U topioids Spring 2013 P rofessor: Ciro N ajle A ssistant: P ablo Barría Student: Elle G erdeman Constant and the Situationists DESCRIPTION OF THE NEON SECTOR

254

SITUATIONS

SECONDARY MEDIUMS

SITUATIONS

MEDIUMS

SITUATIONS

MEDIUMS

CONDITIONS

Room for Erotic Games

Contains

Room for Erotic Games

Contains

Room for Erotic Games

Contains

Cemeteries

Loud Room

Loud Room

Loud Room

Room for Rest

Room for Rest

Room for Rest

Room of Coincidences

Room of Coincidences Between

Ha r v a r d U n iv e r s ity G r a d u a te S c h o o l O f D e s ig n U to p io id s S p r in g 2 0 1 3 P r o fe s s o r : C ir o N a jle A s s is ta n t: P a b lo B a r r ía S tu d e n t: E lle G e r d e ma n C o n s ta n t a n d th e S itu a tio n is ts DESCRIPTION OF THE NEON SECTOR

255

Highways

Room of Coincidences Between

Between

Room for Reflection

Room for Reflection

Room for Reflection

Room of Images

Room of Images

Room of Images

Railways Quiet Room

Quiet Room Over

Quiet Room Over

Over

Room of Echos

Room of Echos

Room of Echos

Labyrinth-houses

Labyrinth-houses

Labyrinth-houses Parks

Water Effects

Grand Ballroom

Water Effects

Under

Grand Ballroom

Water Effects

Under

Grand Ballroom

Circus

Circus

Circus

Terraces

Terraces

Terraces

Passage

Passage

Passage

Under

Mideaval City

Only Accessible Via

Only Accessible Via

Only Accessible Via

White Plaza

White Plaza

White Plaza

Green Plaza

Green Plaza

Green Plaza

Water Games

Water Games

Water Games

Major Roads

Near Great Arrival Hall

Great Arrival Hall

Public Transport

Public Transport

Public Transport

Technical Services

Apartments

Technical Services

View

Apartments

T H I S P ROJ EC T

Near

Near

Great Arrival Hall

Minor Roads

P L AC E S CO N STA N T ’S I N -

Technical Services

View

Apartments

View

Sky

DETERMINANT

description of the yellow sector conditions, mediations, situations park condition

the contemporary casino conditions, mediations, situations park condition

SCHEME INTO A CO N T E M P O R A RY C A S I N O 254-255

THE INTERMEDIATE SPACE Occupiable zon e: where figure s exist and wer e chaotic happ The tru ens. sses and figures are alik They e: are both the regi stra tion that the ima ge i s ne ithe r

The structure pro

Both the ideal and

real

ity o r id ea

lism

nounces that the

project is determ inistically impos sible via: Chaos and trauma

the detriment to the

system

264-265

T H E R E - W R I T I N G O F T H E S I T UAT I O N I ST M A N I F E ST O T O A F T E R - M O D E R N T E R M S I N C LU D E S I M AG I N I N G T H E I N D E T E R M I N A N T T E N D E N C I E S O F U T O P I A N I S M W I T H I N A N E N T I R E LY CO N S U M E R I ST CO N ST RU C T


A S C R I P T WA S D E V E LO P E D T O I N ST I L D E TA I L E D S I T UAT I O N I ST P R I N C I PA L S INTO THE REALITY OF A RC H I T EC T U R E D I AG R A M S : P ROT OT Y P E O F R E TA I L A N D C A S I N O S PAC E

D E S C R I P T I O N O F T H E N EO N S EC T O R

2 76 - 2 7 7

D I AG R A M S : P ROT OT Y P E O F PA R K I N G A N D VA L E T 2 78 - 2 7 9


D I AG R A M S : M AT R I X O F I N STA L L E D R E TA I L A N D C A S I N O S PAC E 280-281

D I AG R A M S : M AT R I X O F I N STA L L E D PA R K I N G A N D VA L E T 282-283

A P ROT OT Y P E WA S D E V E LO P E D T O M AT C H I D EO LO G I C A L P R I N C I PA L S F RO M T H E S I T UAT I O N I ST I N T E R N AT I O N A L I N T O “ U S A B L E ” A RC H I T EC T U R A L A LT E R N AT E S . T H E S E W E R E T H E N P O P U L AT E D I N T O T H E C I T Y O F PA R I S A S I M AG I N E D BY CO N STA N T


Situationist New Babylon re - c o n s t r u c t e d : (L) 1% cemetery selection ( R ) 2 5 % ra i lw a y selection

D E S C R I P T I O N O F T H E N EO N S EC T O R

6 0, 1 0 2

(L) 1% highway selection (R) 1% park selection 61, 63


(L) 25% highway accumulation ( R ) 2 5 % ra i lw a y accumulation 8 5, 8 6

(L) 25% medieval city accumulation (R) 25% m a j o r ro a d accumulation 8 8, 1 1 3

T H E F I N A L C I T Y S C R I P T F O R R E - CO M P O S I N G T H E S I T UAT I O N I ST U T O P I A O N T O CO N T E M P O R A RY PA R I S CO M P R I S E D O F PA R A M E T E R S W H I C H A N A LY Z E T H E E X I ST I N G C I T Y FA B R I C T H RO U G H M E D I A O F : H I G H WAY S , C E M E T E R I E S , R A I L ROA D S , PA R K S , M A J O R ROA D S , A N D M I N O R ROA D S .


D E S C R I P T I O N O F T H E N EO N S EC T O R


H OT E L T O W E R S O F PA R I S , C R E AT E D T H RO U G H T H E PA R A M E T E R S O F T H E S I T UAT I O N I ST S


D E S C R I P T I O N O F T H E N EO N S EC T O R


E N D L E S S A RT I F I C I A L R E TA I L A N D C A S I N O S O F PA R I S


D E S C R I P T I O N O F T H E N EO N S EC T O R


PA R K I N G A N D VA L E T F O R PA R I S I A N ST RO L L I N G


D E S C R I P T I O N O F T H E N EO N S EC T O R


T H E CO M B I N E D N E W A RC H I T EC T U R E O F PA R I S F O R S I T UAT I O N I ST AC T I V I T I E S : N EO N S EC T O R S


D E S C R I P T I O N O F T H E N EO N S EC T O R


E L E M E N T S O F A RC H I T EC T U R E : T H E R I S E A N D FA L L O F T H E C U RTA I N WA L L HARVARD GSD OPTION STUDIO, 2012 AMO/OMA ROTTERDAM RESEARCH REM KOOL H AAS

E X H I B I T E D W I T H PA N E L D I S C U S S I O N , ROT T E R D A M W E E N A , 2 0 1 2 VENICE BIENNALE, 2014


E X H I B I T I O N , B O O K , A N D PA N E L D I S C U S S I O N


T H E R I S E A N D FA L L O F T H E C U RTA I N WA L L

A WINDOW IS NOT A WINDOW IS NOT A WINDOW ANY MORE. – after Gertrude Stein

From the Renaissance onwards, the discourse on architecture was largely based on the definition and analysis of architectural elements. Alberti’s six elements (locality, area, compartition, wall, roof, and opening; 1452), Gottfried Semper’s four elements (hearth, roof, enclosure, mound; 1851) and Le Corbusier’s Five Points of Architecture (pilotis, free facade, open plan, long window, roof garden; 1928) were all efforts to analyse the history of buildings and codify the future of architecture. But since the globalization of modern architecture in the second half of the 20th century, the possibility of an elemental systematization of architecture has been largely ignored. Elements that used to be the specialty of architects – the ceiling and the window, but also even the façade – have become devices, ceded to more advanced technological domains. And architects themselves have largely ignored other elements in which they used to excel, like the corridor. There is a paradox though: today, despite standardization, devic-ification and the attempts of parametric architecture to merge formerly distinct categories like roof, wall, and window into an ideally continuous architectural surface, the fundamental elements of architecture still endure…

The shown project is a studio component of the Harvard + OMA/ AMO Venice Biennale 2014 and book. Each student was assigned an element of architecture to study for anthropological heritage and adaptations in the last century.


M A P P I N G D I AG R A M I L LU ST R AT E S T H E P RO D U C T I O N O F FAC A D E M AT E R I A L S


T H E R I S E A N D FA L L O F T H E C U RTA I N WA L L

Facade is a relatively young word, yet is the most ubiquitously studied architectural element. 1656 marked the first use in English language, referring to it as the exterior representation of the front of a house; the French translation for facade, face (or frontage), dates just 60 years ahead. Prior, “wall” pertained to both interior and exterior conditions as the specificity appeared only in the nuances of construction technique. Vitruvius in 70 BC identifies the proper orientation for the placement of brick, applying concern to the “facings of the walls,” which already identified the notion of frontality. By the 16th century, facade is applied exclusively to define the exterior of a building. This was a vehicle for iconography and a departure from interior walls. With the shift to Modernism came innovations in structure, which relieved the facade of load bearing duties: the facade needed only to support itself. With the mortar joint between structure and facade, the facade increasingly became a device; device of modularity, flexibility and economy.

Non-load bearing, the curtain wall facade was enticingly low in

cost, labor, and time - all possible through the push for standardization. Le Corbusier developed a system of construction which could realize large numbers of inexpensive houses in an industrial, automobile assembly-line method: with this idea, he reorganized the hierarchy of criteria in architecture by prioritizing speed and construction over stylistic or decorative objectives. Architects dove into the innovations of mass production and prefabricated parts, while factories spread with the demand for the new standardized curtain walls. Silicone, the gelatinous, glue-type caulk developed with the curtain wall, allowing through its speedy and expertise-less installation and removal, for facades to be “flexible.” No longer were facades thought of as lasting, they only last 43 years. In the effort to source cheap, repetitive, standard items, facades have become a product able to ship across the world; the curtain wall facade is a device. The centralization of all curtain wall industry to one region infers that facade design at a global scale is reaching a point of unified standardization. Via the principals of economics, facades are diminishing in variation, all globally derived from the same source: China.


“Making the theoretical assumption that there is such a thing as a universal surface, that is, an element with so many physical properties that, abstractly expressed, it can serve any purpose … Such a system of classification requires a reappraisal of the concepts wall, window, door, ceiling and floor. This approach not only appears convenient in relation to industrial production methods but, more particularly, is in harmony with the universal joining technique, used in assembly, which makes no distinction between types of element.” - Wachsmann

The Elements of Architecture

FACADE The rise & fall of the curtain wall Elle Gerdeman Fall 2012

1 0 8, 1 121114_Facade.indd 108

11/20/12 1:47 PM

What are the consequences of this freedom of flexibility? Signs of corrosion are easy to find: is the option for perpetual newness enticing enough for a constant state of needing renewal? When we do renew, most western manufacturers are gone. Will all new facades be shipped from China?

16

121114_Facade.indd 16

121114_Facade.indd 1

11/20/12 1:46 PM

Weena, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

FACADE FACADE

THE ECONOMICS OF ORNAMENT

11/20/12 1:46 PM

121114_Facade.indd 17

17

16-17

11/20/12 1:46 PM

E L E M E N T S O F A RC H I T EC T U R E B O O K


121114_Facade.indd 22 11/20/12 1:46 PM 121114_Facade.indd 23

22

11/20/12 1:46 PM 121114_Facade.indd 24

The invention of the curtain wall changed both the way the facade and the highrise were composed.

22-25

Gropius spans a glass membrane in fron of the floors and columns. The facade has been radically disconnected from the skeleton. On axis with each column is a windbeam, a hollow mullion set in the facade and fastened at the upper storeys to the concrete floor slab. The windbeam not only takes up the wind load but marks the position of the concrete column it fronts. Thus together the windbeams represent the presence of the skeleton.

“Although the plans supply little information about how the tower was to be constructed: Mies saw that applying a glass facade would allow great freedom in the form a building could take. The glass skin could be wrapped around any form imaginable.”

The facade is disconnected from the building: the first curtain wall

WWI Mies van der Rohe, Friedrichstrasse

GROpiUS bAUHAUS, DESSAU, GERmANy

miES VAN DER ROHE fRiEDRiCHSTRASSE, bERLiN, GERmAN

wiLLiS pOLK HALLiDiE bUiLDiNG, SAN fRANCiSCO, CALifORNiA

LE CORbUSiER mAiSON DOmiNO

fAGUS fACTORy

Corbusier, Maison Dom-Ino

The structure is independent of its content. As the concrete skeleton is by its very nature fireproof, the facade no longer needed to protect the skeleton. This made the facade as free as the scenery; facade and structure can be fully disconnected from each other. The excision consists of a mortar joint between the concrete of the skeleton and the brickwork of the facade.

1926

1919

1918

1914

1911

skin

At the time when Loos was proclaiming an independent cladding to be a stepping-off point for architecture, Berlage and Horta were designing buildings whose enclosure of space once again coincided with the structure. Structural brick walls bound the space. New, more finely finished building materials such as glazed brick and ornate ironwork enabled scenery and structure to integrate. The Dom-Ino unit is based on a standardized reinforced concrete skeleton a la systeme Henebique. In opting for reinforced concrete Le Corbusier assumed that this technique would facilitate the rapid and efficient production of houses. 1 The structure is independent of its content. 2 The skeleton is cast in situ without the use of complicated form work 3 An engineer’s firm can be on call to manufacture the structure on site 4 A second company can be made responsible for producing the furnishings aided by standardized cupboards, doors and windows

Vitruvius speaks of exterior brick construction as walls, identifying the proper orientation for the placement of brick, applying concern to the “facings of the walls.”

bERLAGE THE HENNy ViLLA

1919

21

1898

Pre-Standardization

Hennebique replaced hot-rolled sections with iron bars to develop reinforced concrete, an invention to support fire-resistance.

THE ECONOMICS OF ORNAMENT

fRANCOiS HENNEbiqUE REiNfORCED CONCRETE

121114_Facade.indd 21

1892

The steel structure is wrapped in fireproof terra-cotta and the facade clad with terra-cotta elements. This withdraws from sight the actual structure, the steel skeleton. Unlike the skin of Schinkel’s bauakademie which is still fully fastened to the structure, the cladding of these first skyscrapers is, in a sense, disconnected from the structure they conceal. The arrival of the iron skeleton, an later the steel skeleton, first of all brought the possibility of constructing floor areas that are almost entirely free of obstacles and can be stack to a great height. The excision between wall and column allows nonstructural elements to be changed or removed in the course of time. The steel skeleton thus defines the generic space in which the scenery in its new guise can be placed at will.

Schinkel, Bauakademie

bURNHAm & CO RELiANCE bUiLDiNG, CHiCAGO

San SanPetronio PetronioBasilica, Basilica,Bologna Bologna

LiLONG HOUSiNG SHANGHAi, CHiNA

Brunelleschi, Dome of Santa Maria del Fiore

1850-

Viollet-Le-Duc destabilizes one of Vitruvius three independent legs of architecture, Venustas (aesthetics), and makes it do with the two-wheeled bicycle riding on Firmitas (structure) and Commoditas (function).

As the building was also open in the evening and equipped with gaslight for that purpose, Labrouste decided to apply to it the fireproof construction of the English mills. Labrouste’s building combines a load bearing masonry shell with an iron skeleton to over arch

Simultaniously, cladding suggests the presence of a structure: the brick second skin represents the column structure desired by Schinkel but not applied. In reality, this skin concreals a structural wall.

ViOLLET-LE-DUC HiSTOiRE D’UNE mAiSON

pAXTON CRySTAL pALACE, LONDON, ENGLAND

structure

skin

Schinkel’s fascination with the skeleton finds some reflection in the rational grid informing the design; a grid defined partly by brick columns and partly by structural walls. it is the brick columns that reflect the idea of a skeleton the most. besides the influence of English mills, the grid-like composition of the plan betrays the strong influence of the rational principles of the French architect and theorist Durand. This building is described in the literature as one of the first factory buildings with a ‘pier and panel construction’ 89 The Bauakademie had to show what could be done with Prussian brick itself. To this end Schinkel applied a construction uncustomary until then. He clad the facade with a thin layer of brick specially selected fro that purpose. Although placed like a second skin right up against the structural wall, the brick cladding can nevertheless be

Timber beams were replaced by cast iron. This Flax Mill was the first building to have an entirely iron skeleton. It was assumed to be fireproof.

On plan, this cotton mill consists of a masonry shell with cast-rion columns placed in it. Timber beams rest on the wall at one end and on the cast-iron columns at the other. The structure with its cast-iron columns allowed Strutt to create the large, virtually unobstructed

Structure and ornament separate into distinct, specialized components. Slippages Slippagesbetween between panels, panels,pilasters pilastersand and brackets bracketsthat thatmarked markedaa complex complexsuperficiality. superficiality.

1868

1851

LAbROUSTE bibLiOTEqUE SAiNTE-GENEViEVE, pARiS

SCHiNKEL bAUAKADEmiE, bERLiN

STANLEy miLL GLOUCESTERSHiRE, ENGLAND

CHARLES bAGE

wiLLiAm STRUT COTTON miLL, DERby ENGLAND

FACADE

1838

1836

1813

1797

In the 17th century Netherlands it became customary to cover the brick walls with a thin layer of plaster. The structural walls became clad with wood panelling and stretched linen.73 The scenery was almost entirely disconnected from the structure. At scenery was almost entirely disconnected from the structure. At that time fastened with just wire and nails to the underlying layer (the excision lay behind the wallpaper and plaster), the scenery needed the structure merely as a means of staying in place. At the same time it relieved the structure of its duty of helping to determine the form, colour and texture of the enclosure.

In traditional Korean architecture, there has been a “front” (most of the time it is the South side of the building), but there has NOT been a concept of “facade” existed. That is why, in these days, in architectural field in Korea, they just use the foreign term “facade” which we literally pronounce facade (ኒຫ౵). There is an important reason why the concept of facade did not exist. Unlike the Western architecture that emphasized monumentality for a certain authority (God, king, etc.), what was really important in Korean architecture was the space/view that people see/feel when they are inside the building. In other words, if we look a traditional Korean house, in some ways, it just look similar (whether it is a house, temple or a palace). but if we go inside, it is completely different story. Different views, of course, different depth of space composed with multiple layers, etc.

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1792

DUTCH VERNACULAR

LEON bATTiSTA ALbERTi

CHOSUN DyNASTy KOREA

121114_Facade.indd 20

16001800

1457

1450 1850

1. The dome consists of two layers resting on an octagonal plan: An inner shell with a pointed arch profile where the segments of the circle begin a fifth of the baseline in, 7’ thick at the base and 5’ thick at the top. 2. An outer shell protects the inner from the elements and gives it a greater radiance and lightness; this measures 2.5’ at the base and 1/5’ at the top.

The dome in Florence is an early example of the disconnection between two portions of a monolithic building. It is not spherical, but instead a skeleton of ribs octagonally arranged. The ribs separate two shells, an exterior to hold cladding and an interior to assist with structural load transfer.

In ancient times, the yingbi was a symbol of rank. According to the Western Zhou system of rites, only royal palaces, noblemen’s mansions and religious temples had screen walls. Apart from keeping passersby from peeping into the courtyard, the screen wall was also used by a

Post-Standardization

bRUNELLESCHi DOmE Of THE SANTA mARiA DEL fiORE, fLORENCE

yiNGbi SCREEN wALLS miNG DyNASTy, CHiNA

CASES ObOS CAmEROON

KANDARiyA mAHADEVA KHAjURAHO

SiCHUAN pROVENCE

SUpTA SANCHi 20

1420

1368 1644

1000

1050

600

30BC

T H E R I S E A N D FA L L O F T H E C U RTA I N WA L L

“Efficiency”

Red Chinese lanterns: humanity within the machine

JINAN PARKER MACHINERY CO., LTD. SHANDONG, CHINA CURTAIN WALL MANUFACTURING FACILITY

The facade as a product. Fast forward from Loos in 1910 to today, ornament is replaced by modularity, modularity is excersized through standardization, and standardization is economized by centralized manufacturing facilities. Globally, architects and developers choose their facades from a catalogue, with or without the knowledge of its origin, but very aware of the low cost.

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20-21


Viollet-Le-Duc no longer regarded architecture as

aesthetically speculative, but the result of empirical science. Architecture in his contemporary was only effective (perhaps deceptive) because of its decorative scenery - nothing to do with construction. Laws of physics could not be derived from this form of architecture.6

34

Otto Wagner “THE BASIS OF TODAY’S PREDOMINANT VIEWS ON ARCHITECTURE MUST BE SHIFTED, AND WE

THAT THE SOLE DEPARTURE POINT FOR OUR ARTISTIC WORK CAN ONLY BE MODERN LIFE”

1814-1879

1841-1918

The innovative cast iron and glass Crystal Palace (Paxton,1851) is leDuc’s ideal marriage of physics and aesthetics.

Wagner’s facade of the Majolica House in Vienna (1899) shows that decorative scenery has not yet been fully eradicated, despite his favouring of Viollet-Le-Duc’s theory and Wagner’s own statements.

1870-1933

“The Papuan slaughters his enemies and devours them. He is no criminal. If, however, the modern man slaughters and devours somebody, he is a criminal or a degenerate. The Papuan tattoos his skin, his boat, his oar, in short, everything that is within his reach. The modern man who tattoos himself is a criminal or a degenerate. There are prisons where eighty percent of the inmates bear tattoos. Those who are tattooed but are not imprisoned are latent criminals or degenerate aristocrats.” PRE-MODERN: THE CUNNING OF ORNAMENT

FACADE

121114_Facade.indd 34

Adolf Loos “The evolution of culture is synonymous with the removal of ornament from objects of daily use.”

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121114_Facade.indd 35

35

34-35

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The facade as a spreadsheet: the development schedule (1961) for a product in the form of sub-problems which together turn the facade element into a result.

42

121114_Facade.indd 42

FACADE

42-43 11/20/12 1:46 PM

E L E M E N T S O F A RC H I T EC T U R E B O O K


T H E R I S E A N D FA L L O F T H E C U RTA I N WA L L

5 6 -5 7

Oily residue left from silicone Silicone (black) Aluminum frame

Silicone

72

121114_Facade.indd 72

FACADE

GENERIC IS ECONOMIC, BUT SHORT LIVED

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121114_Facade.indd 73

73

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7 2 -7 3


STRUCTURAL SILICONE SEALANT

The introduction of the curtain wall was accompanied by the invention of elastomeric sealants that would adhere to glass, metal, concrete, masonry, mortar, vinyl and plastic and flexible enough to take greater movement than had existed in the older expansion joints. The old oil-based caulking compounds no longer qualified, and the new materials became “sealants” rather than caulks. The large increase in silicone sealant usage is partly due to its popularity as a construction adhesive for stopless glazing. Urethane, broadly used before silicone continued use on masonry due to an oily residue left by silicone, which stains brick and stone. Panek & Cook, Construction Sealants and Adhesives (1991)

“[The] most propitious single wartime development in the entire resins and plastics field is the recent commercialization of the silicone” Chemical and Metallurgical

Earliest work on silicones: the synthesis of silicone tetrachloride initiated by Swedish chemist Johan Berzelius.

Production goes global: first silicone plant in China.

Engineering

Solvent acrylic high modulus Butyl residential commercial & high-rise

Silicone replaces mullion facade expression: stop-less glazing allows the mullion to be invisible behind the silicone.

74

Fast-curing, 2-part structural silicone sealant for faster, easier shop glazing of unitized building curtainwalls.

FACADE

121114_Facade.indd 74

Solvent acrylic high modulus

1991

The General Electric Company and Corning Glass Works developed high-temperature electrical insulations, founding Dow-Corning Corporation to carry out early production of silicones.

Silicone

Silicone sealants are the 1st preference for construction, dominating industry of high-rise buildings.

75

GENERIC IS ECONOMIC, BUT SHORT LIVED

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Some clients don’t care what will happen to the building after they are not involved, which effects the durability of what they pay for.

Safety, certainly.

121114_Facade.indd 75

74 -75

11/20/12 1:47 PM

Clients ask for a particular cost figure, also structural feasibility (planning for the 100 year storm) is a decision at the time of construction. Some clients don’t care what will happen to the building after they are not involved, which effects the durability of what they pay for. Safety, certainly. There is only a 20 Frames also are outmoded in performance technology and year glass lifespan. Almost all curtain corrosion resistance. In a building’s 100 year lifecycle, the wall type glass has 10-year warrantee, glass will need replaced five times, the entire facade system but will last 20 years. At that time, the 2-3 times. This creates the question: at what point do you stop coatings (UV, self cleaning, tint), seals replacing one glass panel at a time and replace them all at (silicone) and gaskets will corrode. once? Based on the costs associated with recladding an entire system and given the unknown risks that might be uncovered when dismanteling a facade and the small amount of case studies, how do clients compare recladding with complete building demolition? Do costs play a key role in evaluating one method to the other? It is impossible to generalize between the two, when dismantling the former facade, the aged structure and all systems are reveiled. Problems with these elements might show and add significant costs in their additional rehabilitation. If one considers the built lifespan of the envelope/skin of buildings with significant curvature or even double curvature, how is lifespan addressed? With the complexity and specificity - will the envelopes be re-clad, or will the entire building just be demolished? Is storage always added in these types of buildings to house facade panel duplicates? Attic Stock is typically only for extraordinary pieces or pieces which are predicted to possibly break first. If there is high repetition, there is less risk, therefore there is always an assessment of repetition. With low repetition and attic stock, you end up buying two facades. Costs and benefits of ordering again the pieces from the same manufacturer or having a die cut to reproduce later are weighed. Then there is the question of ‘where do you keep extra pieces?’ curved glass takes space and any glass has a lifecycle which will be ticking even in storage. We try to avoid attic stock when possible. How many recladding projects are taking place? Is it a practice that is picking up? Do you expect it to increase?

The market for recladding is lurking. 86

121114_Facade.indd 86

The market for recladding is lurking. High risk depends on type and size - a bigger building is more Clients are facing the issue, but for risky than a smaller one, if there are multiple tenants they them it is still high risk - there aren’t will become displaced. Contingencies play a major role. If many projects which have been reclad they take off the cladding and realize the building is in worse yet and therefore often opt for total shape than expected, as if structure needed more repair, it is demolition instead. an extra cost. A client faced with a more expensive demolition and entirely new building may choose to do so to avoid these GENERIC IS ECONOMIC, BUT SHORT LIVED

FACADE

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87

8 6 - 87

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E L E M E N T S O F A RC H I T EC T U R E B O O K


C A RT O G R A P H Y O F A I R F O R T H E T H E R M A L R E L AT I O N S H I P S O F AIR & HUMIDITY THERMODYNAMIC ARCHITECTURE: AIR IN MOTION COURSE, 2013 CRIT IC D E PARTM E N T CH AI R I N AK I ABALOS COLLABO R ATO R : L I N DA ZH AN G


T R A N S LU C E N T B O O K I S CO N C E P T UA L I Z E D A S 3 - D I M E N S I O N A L D I AG R A M


C A RT O G R A P H Y O F A I R

Each

page

of

the

air

cartography

displays

proportional

relationships between factors as they contribute to the scale of 0-100% humidity. Our interest in humidity stems from its presence in the aspects of thermal conductivity, which has an effect on comfort, but is often less investigated in our architectural studies. Our hopes are to use this data as a way to understand relationships between humidity, conductivity, temperature and material geometry in order to design architectural materials more in accordance to air properties, rather than follow the current culture of automatic specification of products such as insulation.

Construction

categorizing

of

relationships:

the

cartography

density

with

comprises

temperature

of and

pressure, altitude with temperature, density, pressure, thermal conductivity with material geometry, temperature, density, pressure and velocity, evaporation with geometry, temperature, air velocity, and velocity with geometry, delta temperature and delta pressure. These relationships are set in proportion with each other and with respect to humidity between the range of 0-100%.

By representing the cartography on transparencies,

the relational change between these elements become clear; it is the arranged hierarchically by prominence in relationships to each other that becomes dominant. A ring on the chart becomes its widest if the element is both at its highest numerical point (ex. Temperature at 50 degrees C) and when in proportion to the others adjacent to it, it is the most present in the combination (ex. temperature is highest and pressure lowest when humidity is 100%)


P RO C E S S I N G C O M P U T E D D O I L I E S S E R I E S OPEN SOURCE PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE AND ENVIRONMENT COURSE, 2008 CRIT IC IR A GR E E N BE RG COLLABO R ATO R : KYL E CO BU R N


D O I L E S E R I E S D E V E LO P E D I N P RO C E S S I N G I N T E R FAC E W I T H R A N D O M I Z E D O U T P U T , C N C M I L L E D O N T O P L E X I G L A S


UNDER THE HIGHLINE: R EC L A I M I N G P U B L I C S PAC E UNDERGRADUATE THESIS STUDIO, 2009 ART FORUM, RETAIL, CAFE, GALLERY, HOSTEL CR IT IC GU L E N C E V IK COLLABOR ATOR : KY L E COBUR N

AWA R D E D, P RO J EC T W I T H D E PA RT M E N TA L H O N O R S


R E TA I L A N D A RT F O RU M


Located in Chelsea NY, the project aims to be a last public stand for the gentrification of art in Manhattan. This task requires an exhibitionist and engaging architecture. Where this project unites urbanism and interior space is its most identifiable feature. Acting as both a ubiquitous entrance and an interactive urban figure, the angled surface transforms exterior and interior usage patterns UNDER THE HIGHLINE

based on its luminous qualities. Materiality of white carrara marble produces varying effects of light transmittance through the surface. Thinner sheeting of the material is placed at strategic points that stress the dichotomy of areas of high person interaction in the interior and high traffic areas on the exterior, causing patterned reversals of translucent sun-light into the interior by day and exterior illumination from within at night.


UNDER THE HIGHLINE


A RT F O RU M G A L L E RY S PAC E W I T H AU D I T O R I U M

C A F E ( T O P ) A N D P U B L I C RO O F T O P ( B OT T O M )


UC BERKELEY: ST U D E N T H O U S I N G A N D C E N T E R BEHNISCH [CANCELLED, PROJECTED 2013] ARCHITECT POSITION DIRECT ED U N DE R , K R I STI PAU L SO N


UC BERKELEY

As part of UC Berkeley’s 2020 Long Range development Plan, the Anna Head West Student Housing Complex will house a sophomore residence hall and upper classmen apartments for 416 students. The complex of single and double story units will have access to light and air from two sides, creating naturally bright and well ventilated living spaces. These units are situated above the student concourse which is a topographic ground plane that links shared program with the adjacent landscape. The goals for the project are to create healthy and inspiring living environments for students, to ensure that its legacy is not a burden on future generations, and to promote public awareness of the relationship between progressive environmental strategies and the quality of urban life. Beyond this, the project is intended to act as a catalyst for urban development and to bring vibrancy and vitality to the neighborhood.

The project site includes the Anna Head Historic Structures Complex, which is a notable example of the brown shingle style in the Bay Area, a regional expression of the Arts and Crafts movement. The student housing complex will not seek to mimic the adjacent building structures; rather, it will be a contemporary building that responds to the scale, orientation and organization of the neighboring structures. The quality of outdoor spaces between the new and old buildings are equally important in the development and these spaces will provide diverse areas of play and rest along with careful transitions between the public, semi-public and private realms. Additionally, the existing arboretum of tree species gives the project a unique ability to nestle around a mature landscape. Floor plates are allowed the opportunity to distinctly weave through the tree canopies.


R E S P O N S I B I L I T I E S : M A ST E R 3 D M O D E L M A N AG E R , S P EC I F I C AT I O N S M A N AG E R , A S W E L L A S C R I T I C A L F I G U R E O N T H E D E V E LO P M E N T O F T H E D E S I G N A N D W O R K I N G D R AW I N G S E T S


DENSITY & OPENNESS REVISITED: R ECO D I N G B U I L D I N G B U L K I N H O N G KO N G ROCKER-LANGE ARCHITECTS PROJECT MANAGER + RESEARCHER DIRECT ED U N DE R I N GE BO RG RO CK E R

E X H I B I T E D, H O N G KO N G & S H E N Z H E N B I E N N A L E , 2 0 1 2


A S SY M E T R I C A N D SY M M E T R I C

A SY M M E T R I C A N D SY M M E T R I C

E N V E LO P E

S E M I - P U B L I C S PAC E


A SY M M E T R I C A N D SY M M E T R I C C I RC U L AT I O N


DENSITY AND OPENNESS REVISITED

Hong Kong’s cityscape is primarily shaped by the typology of the tower. While specifically in Hong Kong the tower is utilized as an extension of the urban programmatic user surface, the question of public space within this vertical urban fabric remains unaddressed. This research project is the search for an alternative approach to think about open and public spaces in the context of the city and the context of buildings.

In a city like Hong Kong the building envelope, which usually expands to the maximum boundary of the site defines the void space or possible exterior public space. It could be argued that the GFA (gross floor area) for building plots is responsible for this dilemma. While the GFA could be theoretically freely interpreted and would allow for many different versions of integration of public and open space into the building bulk, the common practice is to extrude the boundaries of the plot area in order to maximize the GFA. The building code is conceptually the genetic DNA for the life and success of cities. If the code is misused, the vitality of a city can suffer. Hong Kong is massively shaped by the building code. The call for density is a necessity; however the quality of urban space should not suffer. The question that strikes us: How can we rethink the building code in order to overcome the lack of public space?

This hypothetical project tries to establish an alternative system to define building bulk. Instead of extruding the maximum boundary condition of a given site to determine the building mass, this model incorporates a ratio of open space in the design process. At its core is a computational logic that calculates the amount of open space for each city plot. The rule-based model can adapt to different site and programmatic conditions. It has the capacity to generate new forms of public space, semi public and private exterior and interior spaces. Outcomes never look identical and result in specific massing configurations. The intention of this set-up is to produce varying spaces and varying densities between solid and void patterns.


Q ATA R N AT I O N A L L I B R A RY : L I B R A RY , M U S E U M , C U LT U R A L C E N T E R OMA [UNDER CONSTRUCTION, PROJECTED 2014] INTERNSHIP POSITION DIRECT ED U N DE R , SASK I A SI M O N


R E S P O N S I B I L I T I E S : 3 D M O D E L I N G O F I N T E R I O R , CO N ST RU C T I O N A D M I N I ST R AT I O N O N I N T E R I O R S , S P EC I F I C AT I O N S


STAT S K A N T O O R : N E W STAT E H O U S E F O R ROT T E R DA M OMA [UNDER CONSTRUCTION, PROJECTED 2015] INTERNSHIP POSITION DIRECT ED U N DE R , SASK I A SI M O N


STA D S K A N T O O R

What does Rotterdam really need? After an impressive sequence of abrupt architectural transitions - from the stark modernity of the reconstruction, via the “new humanism” of the cubes, the repressed postmodern of the 90s to the current apotheosis of Dutch modernity - launched by the fireworks of the 1940 bombardment, all these ideologies coexist and interact in harsh juxtaposition, each successive layer oblivious and in contradiction to the previous ones.

What is now needed may be subtlety and ambiguity in the midst of an overdose of form. We propose a “formless” heap, consisting of smaller elements that are shaped to perform a number of major and minor responsibilities.

Where necessary the shape can be formal and impressive, almost symmetrical - for instance, from the Coolsingel, glimpsed between the two survivors - and where desired, it can be delicate and accommodating - for instance in its relationship with the existing monument, Stadstimmerhuis.

Our structural system - a three dimensional Vierendeel structure in steel - enables us to improvise and to liberate the ground almost in its entirety, to interpret the “Stadswinkel” as an unencumbered public space, in which we arrange the interaction between citizen and city in a dignified, spacious urban landscape, with an almost “Roman” scale and materiality. - Rem Koolhaas


RESPONSIBILITIES: 3D MODELLING, INTERIOR RENDERINGS, PHYSICAL MODELING FOR INTERIORS


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Elle Gerdeman Harvard GSD Core Portfolio  

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Elle Gerdeman Harvard GSD Core Portfolio  

Architecture I