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Introduction This atlas that I have put together will be talking about the Pacific Maritime Climate Region, the West Coast Pacific Sockeye Salmon and Canadian fishing industries. When you are finished reading this atlas you will know how these three topics can all greatly contribute to Canada diversity and will be able to evaluate the current status of the topic. The Pacific Maritime Region is a major tourist attraction in Canada due to its ideal climate and beautiful scenery. Not only that, but it also has many logging industries and fishing industries that provide many Canadians with jobs. The West Coast Pacific Sockeye Salmon are one of the most popular and tastiest fish in the world. They contribute a great deal to the major fishing industries in Canada. The fishing industries in Canada were once a very wealthy industry. However, due to recent events our fishing industry is now less important. These topics are all very interesting and enlightening. There are many lessons to learn and considerations to be given to maintain a sustainable diversity in Canada.

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Pacific Maritime Climate Region

Broadleaf Coniferous

Forest Type

Mixedwood Non-treed

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The Pacific Maritime climate region is located on the west coast of Canada. It stretches from the Yukon/Alaska border in the north to British Columbia/Washington State boundary in the south. While this region is small in size (196,000 km2) ([Pacific Maritime Ecozone]: Your One-stop for Information on This Ecozone. Web. 07 June 2011. <http://pacificmaritime.awardspace.com/>), it is dominated by the Coast Mountains which are also part of the Pacific Ocean’s Ring of Fire. The steepness of these mountains has resulted in fjords, glacial valleys, rivers, and coastal plains. Due to its proximity to the Pacific Ocean, the Pacific Maritime climate region is mild and wet throughout the year. The temperature averages 13C in the summer and –1.5C in the winter (“Canadian Biodiversity: Ecozones: Pacific Maritime." Canadian Biodiversity Web Site. Web. 07 June 2011. <http://canadianbiodiversity.mcgill.ca/english/ecozones/pacificmaritime/pacificma ritime.htm>). The annual precipitation is between 1,500-2,000mm because of the amount of moisture in the air mass (Wizards, Digital. "Pacific Maritime." Park Wardens. Web. 07 June 2011. <http://www.parkwardens.com/zone12/1.html>). The moderate climate in this region results in abundant and diversified vegetation. 52.4% of this area is forested with 10 million hectares of temperate rain forest ("Statistical Data." Canada's Forests. Web. 07 June 2011. <http://canadaforests.nrcan.gc.ca/statsprofile/inventory/pacificmaritime>). Some of the trees include the Douglas fir, alder, Garry oak, western white pine, red cedar and yellow cedar (“Canadian Biodiversity: Ecozones: Pacific Maritime." Canadian Biodiversity Web Site. Web. 07 June 2011. <http://canadianbiodiversity.mcgill.ca/english/ecozones/pacificmaritime/pacificma ritime.htm>). In fact, some of them are the tallest and oldest trees in Canada. A wide range of wildlife animals can be found in the Pacific Maritime climate region. They include large herbivores such as moose and caribou, large carnivores such as grizzly bear, smaller herbivores such as beaver and snowshoe hare, small carnivores such as wolverine and river otter. A large variety of birds such as bald eagle and turkey vulture are also found in this region (“Canadian Biodiversity: Ecozones: Pacific Maritime." Canadian Biodiversity Web Site. Web. 07 June 2011. <http://canadianbiodiversity.mcgill.ca/english /ecozones/pacificmaritime.htm>). Today, many factors are threatening the biodiversity of this region. Firstly, the vast amount of trees is the focus of the thriving logging industry. In the past 120 years the Pacific Maritime Region has lost two million hectares of temperate rain forest ([Pacific Maritime Ecozone]: Your One-stop for Information on This Ecozone. Web. 07 June 2011. <http://pacificmaritime.awardspace.com/>), Secondly, the blooming tourist industry in the region has led to more pollution and exploitation of land for building hotels and resorts. Thirdly, the once very large and successful fishing industry in the region is threatened by overfishing and global warming. 3


Weight of Sockeye Salmon Exported (1,000 kg)

1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0

Sockeye Salmon Export from Canada

2005

2006 2007 2008 2009 Japan

United States

Switzerland

4

Taiwan


The sockeye salmon is one of the most popular and important species of Pacific salmons in the west coast of Canada. They were the first salmon to be harvested in the Pacific and have become one of the symbols of the Pacific Ocean ("Fisheries and Oceans Canada | Pacific Region | Salmon." REFRESH. Web. 08 June 2011. <http://www.pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/fm-gp/speciesespeces/salmon-saumon/facts-infos/sockeye-rouge-eng.htm>). Today, sockeye salmon is the third most abundant species of salmon and most sought after because of their excellent taste and rich oil content. In 2009 alone, about 200,000 kg of sockeye salmon were exported internationally (“Canada's Sockeye salmon (red salmon)(Oncorhynchus nerka),frz,excl hd 03.04,livers & roes” Statistics Canada: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Web. 09. < http://www.ats.agr.gc.ca/sea-mer/03031100-eng.pdf>) which reflects the importance of this fish to the Canadian commercial fisheries. The main spawning ground of the sockeye salmon is the Fraser River. Interestingly, its population grows abundantly once every four years, a phenomenon called “cyclic dominance” ("Fisheries and Oceans Canada | Pacific Region | Salmon." REFRESH. Web. 08 June 2011. <http://www.pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/fm-gp/speciesespeces/salmon-saumon/facts-infos/sockeye-rouge-eng.htm>). The sockeye salmon fishery plays an important role in the communities across Western Canada. Commercial fisheries for sockeye salmon provide Canadians with jobs. Sport fisheries for sockeye salmon are important for tourism and contribute to the economy of the region. Last but not least, First Nation people need the sockeye salmon for tradition and ceremonial purposes. In 2009, the sockeye salmon stock was found to decline below expectation. It led to the closure of all sockeye fisheries on the Fraser River for the third year in a row and a widespread demand for more studies on how to maintain the stock. Studies have shown that human activities are largely responsible for the loss of sockeye salmon population. Some of the poor practices include mixedstock fishing, production-scale hatcheries, and overharvesting. ("Canada's Wild Fisheries | Sustainable Fisheries and Aquaculture | Issues." David Suzuki Foundation | Solutions Are in Our Nature. Web. 08 June 2011. <http://www.davidsuzuki.org/issues/oceans/science/sustainable-fisheries-andaquaculture/canadas-wild-fisheries/>). Global warming has also been affecting the spawning river of salmons because the fish are highly sensitive to temperature. Warm water increases pre-spawning mortality rate, decreases survival rate of eggs to salmon “fry”, and increases mortality rate of out-migrating juvenile salmon ("SALMON AND CLIMATE CHANGE." Site Has Moved. Web. 08 June 2011. http://archive.greenpeace.org/climate/arctic99/reports/salmon.html). There are many ways that we can help sustain the sockeye salmon population. Firstly, we need regulations to prevent overharvesting. Secondly, we need to minimize human impacts on environment that can cause water pollution and global warming. Thirdly, we need to protect the sockeye salmon habitats. 5


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British Columbia

Alberta

Saskatchewan

Manitoba

Ontario

Quebec

New Brunswick

Nova Scotia

PEI

Newfoundland

Relative Importance of Employment

6.00% 5.00% 4.00% 3.00% 2.00% 1.00% 0.00%


Fishing is Canada’s oldest industry and a cultural heritage. We have the world’s longest coastline which amounts to 25% of the global coastline and are naturally abundant with fresh water ("Canada's Fish and Seafood Industry." AgriFood Trade Service | Service D'exportation Agroalimentaire. Web. 05 June 2011. <http://www.ats.agr.gc.ca/sea-mer/ind-eng.htm>). Today, Canada is the seventh largest fish exporter in the world. The fishing industry is important to us because it generates five billion dollars a year commercially and provides 130,000 jobs to Canadians. In Canada, capture fishery is responsible for 76% of total fish production. Atlantic fishery accounts for 80% of total landings and Pacific fishery accounts for 16% ("Canada's Fish and Seafood Industry." Agri-Food Trade Service | Service D'exportation Agroalimentaire. Web. 05 June 2011. <http://www.ats.agr.gc.ca/sea-mer/indeng.htm>). Despites the growth of the Canadian GDP since 1984, the fish and trapping industry has failed to prosper during that period (“Fishing Industry”. Human Resources and Skill Development Canada. Web 08 July 2005 <http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/hip/hrp/sp/industry_profiles/fishing_services.shtml>). Our east coast fishing industries have been suffering due to overfishing because scientists overestimated the number of fish that could be caught each year. Overfishing also took place in the west coast in the 1990’s when Canada and the U.S. caught over 800,000 tonnes of fish per year. Too few adult fish were left to return to the spawning rivers making it difficult for the fish to reproduce and replenish the stock. Due to the improvement of fishing technology in recent years, we have adopted more destructive fishing practices such as bottom trawling that destroys the bottom of the sea and hence the protective habit for juvenile fish. Global warming is considered a threat to the fishing industry. Scientists say a 2°C warming will threaten the natural habitat of Atlantic salmon ("Canada's Fish and Seafood Industry." Agri-Food Trade Service | Service D'exportation Agroalimentaire. Web. 05 June 2011. <http://www.ats.agr.gc.ca/sea-mer/indeng.htm>). Warmer water can also increase the number of parasites, microbes, and toxins such as mercury in our fish. In the west coast, change in the migration routes of the salmon further north towards Alaska where it is cooler has been noted. Finally, the demand of salmon from the U.S. and the First Nations continues to grow. The Americans state that there is enough salmon and no restrictions are needed. Meanwhile, the First Nations demand more salmon for social and ceremonial purposes. There are a lot of things we can do to sustain our fishing industry. Firstly, government regulation is required to stop overfishing. Secondly, policies and inspections standards need to be implemented to ensure fishing vessels are licensed and good practices are in place. Thirdly, we need to work closely with environmental groups to look for ways to prevent global warming and further damage to our environment.

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Conclusion The topics covered in this Atlas are extremely important to Canada. Take the Pacific Maritime Climate Region for example. This area has generated a large source of income since it has the largest amount of trees than anywhere else in Canada. It has also made Canada what it is because of the environment that can support a widely variety of wildlife and birds. Some of the world’s endangered animals now reside in the Pacific Maritime Climate Region and it is up to us to keep the animals’ habitats viable. It is also up to us to create less of a problem for our future descendants. The Pacific Sockeye Salmon have contributed so much to our society. It is the very keystone to our fishing industries in Canada. If we continue to fish for the salmon the way we do, there will be no more salmon left to harvest. Our fishing industry will suffer and even collapse if no immediate resolution is found. Canada’s reputation will be ruined. Our fishing industries contribute to Canada’s diversity, like all other industries. It deserves as much attention as others. Think of all the things that the fishing industry gives us. It provides thousands of Canadians with jobs. It also gives our country income when we sell salmons and other fish and fish products to other countries in the world. It gives us delicious and nutritious food and is even a staple food for communities such as the First Nations people. I hope you have enjoyed reading this atlas and maybe now you’ll see how diverse Canada really is.

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Works Cited "Canada's Fish and Seafood Industry." Agri-Food Trade Service | Service D'exportation Agroalimentaire. Web. 05 June 2011. <http://www.ats.agr.gc.ca/sea-mer/ind-eng.htm>. "Canada's Wild Fisheries | Sustainable Fisheries and Aquaculture | Oceans | Science & Policy | Sustainable Fisheries and Aquaculture | Issues." David Suzuki Foundation | Solutions Are in Our Nature. Web. 08 June 2011. <http://www.davidsuzuki.org/issues/oceans/science/sustainable-fisheries-andaquaculture/canadas-wild-fisheries/>. "Canadian Biodiversity: Ecozones: Pacific Maritime." Canadian Biodiversity Web Site. Web. 07 June 2011. <http://canadianbiodiversity.mcgill.ca/english/ecozones/pacificmaritime/pacificma ritime.htm>. "Fisheries and Oceans Canada | Pacific Region | Salmon." REFRESH. Web. 08 June 2011. <http://www.pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/fm-gp/species-especes/salmonsaumon/facts-infos/sockeye-rouge-eng.htm>. "Home Page - Fisheries and Oceans Canada." Welcome Page | Page D'accueil. Web. 05 June 2011. <http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/index-eng.htm>. "Learning Resources – The Land." Statistics Canada: Canada's National Statistical Agency / Statistique Canada : Organisme Statistique National Du Canada. Web. 07 June 2011. <http://www.statcan.gc.ca/kits-trousses/cybadc1999/ecozone/edu04_0092c-eng.htm>. "Pacific Maritime Ecozone - Forest Ecosystems of Canada." Écosystèmes Forestiers Du Canada | Forest Ecosystems of Canada. Web. 07 June 2011. <http://ecosys.cfl.scf.rncan.gc.ca/classification/classif06-eng.asp>. "Parks Canada - Pacific Maritime Ecozone." Parcs Canada | Parks Canada. Web. 07 June 2011. <http://www.pc.gc.ca/apprendre-learn/prof/itm2-crptrc/htm/ecozone12_e.asp>. "SALMON AND CLIMATE CHANGE." Site Has Moved. Web. 08 June 2011. <http://archive.greenpeace.org/climate/arctic99/reports/salmon.html>. "Statistical Data." Canada's Forests. Web. 07 June 2011. <http://canadaforests.nrcan.gc.ca/statsprofile/inventory/pacificmaritime>. "WWF - Climate Change - Impact on Canada." WWF - Local to Global Environmental Conservation. Web. 05 June 2011. <http://wwf.ca/conservation/global_warming/impact/economy/>. [Pacific Maritime Ecozone]: Your One-stop for Information on This Ecozone. Web. 07 June 2011. <http://pacificmaritime.awardspace.com/>. “Canada's Sockeye salmon (red salmon)(Oncorhynchus nerka),frz,excl hd 03.04,livers & roes” Statistics Canada: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Web. 09. < http://www.ats.agr.gc.ca/sea-mer/03031100-eng.pdf> 9


“Fishing Industry”. Human Resources and Skill Development Canada. Web 08 July 2005 <http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/eng/hip/hrp/sp/industry_profiles/ fishing_services.shtml> Maritime Pacific Engineering Ltd. - Home. Web. 07 June 2011. <http://maritimepacific.ca/>. News, Cbc. "N.L. Fishery Report Recommends Massive Cuts - Nfld. & Labrador CBC News." CBC.ca - Canadian News Sports Entertainment Kids Docs Radio TV. Web. 05 June 2011. <http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/newfoundlandlabrador/story/2011/02/25/nl-report-cuts-.html>. Wizards, Digital. "Pacific Maritime." Park Wardens. Web. 07 June 2011. <http://www.parkwardens.com/zone12/1.html>.

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Canadian diversity