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LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION The founding level of musical form can be divided into two parts

PASSAGE The smallest level of construction concerns the way musical phrases are organized into musical sentences and “paragraphs� such as the verse of a song. This may be compared to, and is often decided by, the verse-form or meter of the words or the steps of a dance.

For example, the twelve bar blues is a specific verse form, while common meter is found in many hymns and ballads and, again, the Elizabethan galliard, like many dances, requires a certain rhythm, pace and length of melody to fit its repeating pattern of steps. Simpler styles of music may be more or less wholly defined at this level of form, which therefore does not differ greatly from the loose sense first mentioned and which may carry with it rhythmic, harmonic, timbral, occasional and melodic conventions.


THE CELLS OF A MEASURE

Music structure, the further organization of such a measure, by repetition and variation, into a true musical phrase having a definite rhythm and duration that may be implied in melody and harmony, defined, for example, by a long final note and a breathing space.


INTRODUCTION The introduction is a unique section that comes at the beginning of the piece

RHYTHM AND GROOVE This form can be used in any structural difference in melodies. A common format would be as listed: Verse, Pre-Chorus, Chorus, Verse, Pre-Chorus, Chorus, Bridge, Verse, Chorus, Middle Eight.

Generally speaking an introduction will contain just music and no words. It usually builds up suspense for the listener so when the downbeat drops in, it creates a release or surprise. In some songs, the intro is one or more bars of the tonic chord (the “home” key of the song). The introduction may also be based around the chords used in the verse, chorus, or bridge, or a stock “turnaround” progression may be played, such as the I /vi / ii/ V progression (particularly in jazz influenced pop songs). In some cases, an introduction contains only drums or percussion parts which set the rhythm and “groove” for the song. Alternately the introduction may consist of a solo sung by the lead singer (or a group of backup singers), or played by an instrumentalist.

VERSE The verse is the main part of a song. In popular music a verse roughly corresponds with a poetic stanza. When two or more sections of the song have basically identical music and different lyrics, each section is considered one verse. It is not to be confused with a pre-verse, which is an interlude between the introduction of a song and its opening verse. Although less common now, the pre-verse technique was popular with the surf music of the 1960s.


This form is built from a sequence of clear-cut units

Sectional Form

Many popular songs, particularly from early in this century, are in a verse and a chorus (refrain) form. Most popular songs from the middle of the century consist only of a chorus.

CHORUS The element of the song that repeats at least once both musically and lyrically. It is almost always of greater musical and emotional intensity than the verse. In terms of narrative, the chorus conveys the main message or theme of the song.

VERSE CHORUS FORM


This form has a recurring theme alternating with different usually contrasting sections called “episodes�.


RONDO FORM


The BPM tempo of a piece of music is conventionally shown in its score as a metronome mark, as illustrated to the right. This indicates that there should be 120 crotchet beats (quarter notes) per minute. In simple time signatures it is conventional to show the tempo in terms of the note duration on the bottom. So a 4/4 would show a crotchet (or quarter note), as shown to the right, while a 2/2 would show a minim (or half note).

Beats per minute (BPM) is a unit typically used as a measure of tempo in music and heart rate.

Beatmatching is a tool used by DJs that involves speeding up or slowing down a record in order to match the tempo of a previous track so both can be seamlessly mixed.

BEATMATCHING

Beats Per Minute


BPM

Music ranges from 125 to 150 BPM, Drum and bass generally ranges between 150–180 BPM.

00:00:38


-issimo

By adding an -issimo ending the word is amplified/ made louder

-ino

By adding an -ino or -etto ending the word is diminished/made softer.softer.

-etto

The metronome marks are broad approximations. softer.


EXTREME TEMPOS

When speeding up or slowing down a record on a turntable, the pitch and tempo of a track are linked: spin a disc 10% faster and both pitch and tempo will be 10% higher. Software processing to change the pitch without changing the tempo, or vice-versa, is called time-stretching or pitch-shifting. While it works fairly well for small adjustments (Âą 20%), the result can be noisy and unmusical for larger changes.

FAST

By adding an -issimo ending the word is amplified/made louder, by adding an -ino or -etto ending the word is diminished/made softer.

SLOW

BASIC TEMPO MARKING


MIDDLE 8 Intro-{Verse-Chorus}{Verse-Chorus}-Middle 8-{Chorus}-{Chorus}-(Outro)

A typical song structure employing a middle 8 is:

In music theory, middle 8 (or bridge) refers to the section of a song which has a significantly different melody from the rest of the song,[citation needed] usually after the second chorus in a song. (Typically, a song consists of first verse, pre-chorus, chorus, second verse, pre-chorus, chorus, middle eight, chorus). Such sections often consist of new chords, but also frequently just alternate between two chords. It is called a middle 8 because it happens in the middle of the song and the length is generally 8 bars.

COLLISION A collision is a section of music where different parts overlap one another, usually for a short period. It is mostly used in fast-paced music, and it is designed to create tension and drama. For example, during a chorus later in the song, the composer may interject musical elements from the bridge.

INSTRUMENTAL SOLO A solo is a section designed to showcase an instrumentalist (e.g. a guitarist or a harmonica player) or less commonly, more than one instrumentalist (e.g., a trumpeter and a sax player). The solo section may take place over the chords from the verse, chorus, or bridge, a standard solo backing progression, such as the 12-bar blues progression. In some pop songs, the solo performer plays the same melodies that were performed by the lead singer, often with flourishes and embellishments, such as riffs, scale runs, and arpeggios. In blues- or jazz-influenced pop songs, the solo performers may improvise a solo.

AD LIB Latin: Ad Libitum, “at will�. An ad lib section of a song (usually in the coda or outro) occurs when the main lead vocal or a second lead vocal breaks away from the already established lyric and/or melody to add melodic interest and intensity to the end of the song. Often, the ad lib repeats the previously sung line using variations on phrasing, melodic shape, and/or lyric, but the vocalist may also use entirely new lyrics or a lyric from an earlier section of the song. During an ad lib section, the rhythm may become freer (with the rhythm section following the vocalist), or the rhythm section may stop entirely, giving the vocalist the freedom to use whichever tempo he or she wishes. During live performances, singers sometimes include ad libs not originally in the song, such as making a reference to the town of the audience or customizing the lyrics to the current events of the era. [It is important to note the distinction between ad lib as a song section and ad lib as a general term. Ad lib as a general term can be applied to any free interpretation of the musical material.



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