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NORMAN FOSTER’S

TUBULAR STEEL COLUNS

HONGKONG BANK    

THE MASTS ARE MADE UP OF 4 TUBULAR STEEL COLUMNS. THESE COLUMNS DECREASE IN DIAMETER OVER THE RISE OF THE BUILDING, TO REFLECT THE DECREASE THE AXIAL LATERAL LOADS TUBES INTER-CONNECTED BY RECTANGULAR BEAMS

Lateral loads + structural system

 

INTERNAL CROSS BRACING 3 STOREY HIGH EITHER SIDE OF THE ATRIUM, BUT FOR LATERAL LOAD BEARING BRACES, CROSS BRACING IS SITUATED FROM THE NORTH SIDE INTERNALALY THROUGH TO THE SOUTH

   

  LOCATION: CHINA,   HONGKONG

  ASSIGNMENT 1: DUE19/8/09 DESIGN  CONSTRUCTION MULTISTOREY BUIL2005 STUDY  PERIOD 5  

RECTANGULAR BEAMS (INTERCONNECT 4 STEEL TUBES)

BRACING LOCATED ON THE INNER LINING OF THE MASTS DIRECT THE LOADS INTO A SINGLE POINT, CALLED THE CENTRAL NODE. THIS REDUCES THE SPACIAL NEED FOR BRACING

THE DESIGN FOR THE COAT HANGER STRUCTURE WAS AN EVOLUTION OF THE COMPETITION SCHEME (THE CEHEVRON DESIGN)

   

Great Buildings online, http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Hongko ng_and_Shanghai_Ban.html

MAST

 

Lateral Loads- earthquakes, tsunamis + typhoons

 

Arup’s 3 tests to analyse the structural system:

  HANGERS    

Static analysis: statutory strength requirements. dynamic analysis: predict performance of building under wind load deflections: deflections during construction on frame work.

FLOORS SUSPENSION TRUSSES

   

COAT HANGER STRUCTURAL SYSTEM   THE SUSPENSION TRUSSES ARE CONNECTED TO EACH OTHER AND THE MASTS BY PINS, AND SUPPORT THE HANGERS WHICH INTERN SUPPORT THE FLOOR STRUCTURE. OUTER HANGERS

-The shape of the building Is designed to withstand horizontal forces. -The eastern façade is also set back allowing for future building, and to reduce the shadow cast on the surrounding buildings. -the reinforced concrete floors act as a sheer plane reducing axonal rotation of building. -the glazing especially on the north façade is braced using window trusses.

FLOOR STRUCTURE  ‐100MM REINFORCED CONCRETE SLAB, CAST  ON A PROFILED METAL DECKING.  ‐DECKING SPANS BETWEEN SECONDARY  BEAMS. 

Arup’s testing on this building using the wind tunnel revealed a satisfactory building movement which could withstand tsunamis of 30h travelling at 30knots and severe winds.

REINFORCED CONCRET FLOORS REDUCE  BUILDING VIBRATION, AND NOISE  CIRCULARION.  NORTH FACADE TAO-HO, 1986, FOSTER TOWER: A GLOBAL ARCHITECTURE, BUNJI, TOKYO, P.104 

EAST ELEVATION UNISA, B.ARCH.ST, BUIL2006, ASSIGNMENT 1, 2009, RESEARCH TOPIC: NORMAN FOSTER HONG KONG BUILDING, BILAL ABOU‐MOSLEA:100099457, ELLEN BUTTROSE:100097747, MEGAN DARBYSHIRE:100093594


LOAD TRANSFERS  

VERTICAL LOADS (LOAD TRANSFERS)

 

The load transfer is dealt with using a complex yet easily understood structure in this building. The masts of the building are essentially the main load baring component throughout the structure. Firstly, the trusses are attached to the masts, thus meaning the masts carry the load of the truss. The loads on the trusses are the hangers. The role of the hangers in the structure is to hold up the floors. Thus the floor load is transferred to the truss, and in turn is transferred to the masts. Thus this system efficiently transfers the loads back down to ground level.

5.  Floors 

 

6.  Floors 

 

PLANNING The design of the building to reduce the tension on the vertical loads is important to the structure, allowing it to be strong. There are 5 trusses throughout the height of the structure. As we move up the building the amount of floor load that each truss carries, is reduced. For example the truss at the top of the building is only carrying 5 floor levels, and as we go to the truss second from the top, we see that it carries 6. The middle truss carries a load of 7 floors, and as we get to the bottom trusses they carry a greater load. This is due to the concept that as the building rises, not only does the structure have to maintain the load of that level, but the levels previous to it as well, so the higher the structure, the less pressure you can put on it, due to the increasing load and distance away from the ground (meaning greater forces act upon the buildings stability)

       

8.  Floors 

   

 

VERTICAL LOADS (LOAD TRANSFERS)

8.  Floors 

Throughout the building there are:

2. 

2. 

Stephanie Williams, 1998, Hong Kong Bank: The Building of Norman Foster's Masterpiece, little brown and company, Boston USA

1. This diagram shows load transfers and components of the built structure in detail. 2. This diagram effectively shows how the floor levels differ as the building rises, as well as the location of the masts as well as the connected double height trusses. And the bottom corner showing the footings of the structure.

seven pairs of suspension trusses

102 hangers

Eight masts

Hanging floors

Twenty four cross braces

Two three store high braces at either end of the atrium.

Load Transfer 1.  Stephanie Williams, 1998, Hong Kong Bank: The Building of Norman Foster's Masterpiece, little brown and company, Boston USA

Each mast made up of tubular steel columns connected by hunched rectangular beams known as the virendeels

UNISA, B.ARCH.ST, BUIL2006, ASSIGNMENT 1, 2009, RESEARCH TOPIC: NORMAN FOSTER HONG KONG BUILDING, BILAL ABOU‐MOSLEA: 100099457, ELLEN BUTTROSE:100097747, MEGAN DARBYSHIRE:100093594


FLOOR ARRAGEMENTS

SUN SCOOP MAST

 

PLANT 3 ZONES WC

LIFT

ESCALATOR

FIRE STAIR

REFUGEE TERRACE

ATRIUM

 

 

 

INTERIOUR PERSPECTIVE

SOCIAL ZONES

DOUBLE HEIGHT SPACE (DHS) DHS: BOADROOM DHS: DINING TERRACE

YEANG. K, 2000, SERVICE CORES, WIVEY ACADEMY, UK, P. 20

SENIOR EXECUTIVES AND BOADROOM IMPLICATIONS ON FLOOR PLATE BY STRUCTURE GROUP HEAD OFFICE

The only impending structural elements on the otherwise completely open floor plan are the structural masts and hangers. The floor plan can be divided up with demountable partitions. The flexibility of the space have been increased with the use of underfloor service ducts rather than overhead.

EDP DHS: AMENETIES ANCILLARY HK OFFICE

floor heights have been determined in increments of 2.8 meters, with double height spaces at 5.6m, 8.4m and 11.2 meters high.

DHS: OFFICES

Escalators have been used in the building as the main mode of transport between levels as to increase communication and continuity between the floors.

HK OFFICE AND RETAIL BANKING ENTRANCE/ CIRCIULATION

The 10 story atrium space is a landscaped space which visual excitement, coffee areas and relaxation spaces.

CENTRAL PLANT AND VAULT  

BUILDING ZONE LAYOUT

LIFT ARRANGEMENT

TAO-HO, 1986, FOSTER TOWER: A GLOBAL ARCHITECTURE, BUNJI, TOKYO, P. 56 

ELEVATOR LAYOUT

TAO-HO, 1986, FOSTER TOWER: A GLOBAL ARCHITECTURE, BUNJI, TOKYO, P. 56 

UNISA, B.ARCH.ST, BUIL2006, ASSIGNMENT 1, 2009, RESEARCH TOPIC: NORMAN FOSTER HONG KONG BUILDING, BILAL ABOU‐MOSLEA:100099457, ELLEN BUTTROSE:100097747, MEGAN DARBYSHIRE:100093594 

 


CORE TYPOLOGY STRUCTURAL HANGERS

 

CORE TYPEOLOGY

SERVICE MODULES- INCLUDE BATHROOMS PLANTROOMS

Split core system is used on the western and east face. This is to dampen the thermal impact of the sun and increase the focus on the stunning views to the north.

MARST – CENTRAL STRUCTURAL SUPPORT

The design of the core modules was subcontracted to a Japanese firm. The design solution meant that the modules could be stacked on top of one another op the lengths of the building. Each module includes both Plant rooms and Bathrooms. The modules were prefabrication in Japan and then shipped to the site to allow for speedy construction on site.   Foster and Partners, Projects, http://www.fosterandpar tners.com/Projects/0501/Default.aspx Accessed 10/8/09  

EXECUTIVE SUITE

The structural steal trussed modules were completely fitted out with detail down to the soap holders as well as acoustic and thermal insulation.

MAST HANGERS AND SERVICE MODULES

TAO-HO, 1986, FOSTER TOWER: A GLOBAL ARCHITECTURE, BUNJI, TOKYO, P. 56 

Each 24meters of floor space has access to both emergency exit stairs, lifts and bathrooms.

PLANT ROOMS

The cores were designed to accommodate additional lifts if they were to be needed.

E

 

 

MASTS LIFTS ESCALATOR

FIRE STAIR

BATHROOMS PLANT ROOM

BATHROOM

  TAO-HO, 1986, FOSTER TOWER: A GLOBAL ARCHITECTURE, BUNJI, TOKYO, P. 56 

CORE ZONES

SERVICE MODULES

YEANG. K, 2000, SERVICE CORES, WIVEY ACADEMY, UK, P. 20

 

UNISA, B.ARCH.ST, BUIL2006, ASSIGNMENT 1, 2009, RESEARCH TOPIC: NORMAN FOSTER HONG KONG BUILDING, BILAL ABOU‐MOSLEA:100099457, ELLEN BUTTROSE:100097747, MEGAN DARBYSHIRE:100093594 

 


FACADES AND SUN-SHADING

EAST & WEST FAÇADE     

TRUSS

 

- EXTERNAL SHADING REDUCES THE IMPACT OF SOLAR RATDIATION, - INTERNAL SHADING DEVICES NEEDED. eg. REMOTE CONTROLLED BLINDS - TREATED SOLAR GLASS

   

GLAZING

        TRUSS GLAZING NORTH FACE GLAZING IS TRUSSED TO   SUPPORT LATERAL AND VERTICAL LOADS. HELPS GLAZED FAÇADE SPAN   THE VERTICAL DISTANCE.

 

ROOF

NORTH FAÇADE

- INITIAL IDEA TO PROVIDE SOLAR PANNELS ON ROOF – COULD PROVIDE DOMESTIC HOT WATER

- MOSTLY IN SHADE, LITTLE SHADING DEVICES NEEDED - FAÇADE FULLY GLAZED TO PROVIDE OPTIMUM VIEW OUT TO HARBOUR - PROVIDES MAXIMUM BUILDING TRANSPARENCY – LINKING INSIDE WITH OUTSIDE

BUILDING HAS A COMPACT SHAPE REDUCING SURFACE AREA = CONSERVING ENERGY

  THE FORM OF THE EXTERIOR IS DETERMINED BY THE USE OF THE   SUSPENSION STRUCTURE, ALLOWING  

NORTH FACADE

 

       

SOUTH FAÇADE

U SHAPE STRUCTURE  THE FACADES ARE INFLUENCED BY THE U SHAPE STRUCTURE CREATED BY CROSS BRACING ON THE E/W/S SIDE EXCLUDING THE NORTH. THIS PROVIDES A FLOOR TO SKY GLAZED SURFACE ON THE NORTH .

TAO-HO, 1986, FOSTER TOWER: A GLOBAL ARCHITECTURE, BUNJI, TOKYO, P.52 

 

- SUN SHADE LOUVERS USED TO REDUCE SOLAR PENETRATION, BUT DON’T RESTRICT VIEWS - ADJUSTABLE INTERNAL BLINDS

EXTERNAL SUN SHADE

FULL HEIGHT GLAZING

BACKUP WALL

LIGHTING

TYPICSL CURTAIN WALL THE EAST AND WEST CONTAIN THE MAIN STRUTURAL MASTS. THIS HAS A BOLD AND POWERFUL EXTERNAL REPRESENTATION DIRECTING THE EYE UPWARDS.

ACOUSTIC FIRE BARRIER

Typical floor section TAO-HO, 1986, FOSTER TOWER: A GLOBAL ARCHITECTURE, BUNJI, TOKYO, P.104 

Foster and Partners, Projects, http://www.fosterandpartners.com/Projects/0501/Default.aspx UNISA, B.ARCH.ST, BUIL2006, ASSIGNMENT 1, 2009, RESEARCH TOPIC: NORMAN FOSTER HONG KONG BUILDING, BILAL ABOU‐MOSLEA:100099457, ELLEN BUTTROSE:100097747, MEGAN DARBYSHIRE:100093594


POINTS OF INTEREST

THE SUN SCOOP TAO-HO, 1986, FOSTER TOWER: A GLOBAL ARCHITECTURE, BUNJI, TOKYO, P. 55  

The system consists of exterior and interior sun scoops. During the day these sun scoops illuminate the building including the vertical atrium sun scoop, allowing for natural light to pass through the building from east to west throughout the day, with the mirror bays within the sun scoop, being adjusted through a mechanical computing system. At night, the interior sun scoops illuminate with artificial light, allowing for the same process of illuminate using the mirrors to occur without the presence of direct sunlight. Thus this system is more energy efficient due to the controlled use of solar radiation.

 

7. 

SEA WATER The building’s design also incorporated the usage of sea water for flushing the toilets and running the air conditioning system. This required extensive engineering to work out where the pipes were to be locates and how they were to be laid, due to the Chinese government’s refusal of closing shore side roads, making it harder to allocate the position of the pipes which were to bring the sea water to the site.

1.  TAO-HO, 1986, FOSTER TOWER: A GLOBAL ARCHITECTURE, BUNJI, TOKYO, P. 95 

5.  TAO-HO, 1986, FOSTER TOWER: A GLOBAL ARCHITECTURE, BUNJI, TOKYO, P. 54 

1. Interior sun scoop 2. The structure of the interior sun scoop 3. The exterior sun scoop with a view of the 24 mirror bays 4. An image of how the exterior sun scoop is attached to the masts 5. The cooling system 6. The sea water piping system 7. A complex view into the cooling system

2.  TAO-HO, 1986, FOSTER TOWER: A GLOBAL ARCHITECTURE, BUNJI, TOKYO, P. 95 

TAO-HO, 1986, FOSTER TOWER: A GLOBAL ARCHITECTURE, BUNJI, TOKYO, P. 94 

4. 

Air Conditioning from the sea The complex engineering design of the building air-conditioning system allows it to use sea water to heat and cool the building through out the year. Using a piping system, the building resources its sea water for the Air conditioning and for toilet flushing. The cooling system works as a cooling system which contains both a heat and a moisture recycling wheel. The sea water is bought in and chilled then travels through to the A/C unit; the thermostat uses the cooled water to cool the air. Furthermore, the unit is de – centralised meaning it immediately responds to its controls, thus makes the system more energy efficient. TAO-HO, 1986, FOSTER TOWER: A GLOBAL ARCHITECTURE, BUNJI,

3.  TAO-HO, 1986, FOSTER TOWER: A GLOBAL ARCHITECTURE, BUNJI, TOKYO, P. 95 

6. 

TOKYO, P. 138 

NEGATIVES A negative to the Air conditioning system is that even though the system is efficient, is its extensive use of prime floor area at high level, which came to a total of 2500 m2, together with the significant use of vertical rise space The disadvantage of the sea water system was the extensive civil works required to bring the piping required into the site. Furthermore, the disadvantage of the sun scoop on the building was the exterior sun scoop and its visibility on the façade.

BIBLIOGRAPHY EISELE, JOHANN,KLOFT, 2004, HIGHT RISE MANUAL: TYPOLOGY & DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION & TECHNOLOGY, BIRKHAUSER, BOSTON, P. 76-95 PARLOUR. RP, 1997, BUILDING SERVICES, INTEGRAL PUBLISHINGS, P. 132-158 PAWLEY M, 1999, NORMAN FOSTER: ARCHITECTURE, THAMES & HUDSON, LONDON, P.75, 78 Rowland j. Mainstone, 1975, Development in structural form, Architectural press, Oxford Sudjik D, 2000, On Foster…On foster, Prestel, New York TAO-HO, 1986, FOSTER TOWER: A GLOBAL ARCHITECTURE, BUNJI, TOKYO, P. 66-93, 123-135, 139-141 TREIBER D, 1991, NORMAN FOSTER, BIRKHAUSIER, GERMANY Williams S, 1998, Hong Kong Bank: The Building of Norman Foster's Masterpiece, little brown and company, Boston USA YEANG. K, 2000, SERVICE CORES, WIVEY ACADEMY, UK, P. 9-20, 42-46 WEB SITES Foster and Partners, Projects, http://www.fosterandpartners.com/Projects/0501/Default. aspx Accessed 10/8/09Great Buildings online, GREAT BUILDINGS http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Hongkong_and_Sh anghai_Ban.html Accessed: 10/8/09 HSBC, WWW.HSBC.COM.HK/1/2/ABOUT/HOMR/UNIQUEHEADQUATERS/BUILDING ACCESSED: 13/8/09 Hong Kong Bank, http://web.utk.edu/~archinfo/a489_f02/PDF/hongkongbank .pdf Accessed: 15/8/09 Uoregon, HK Bank, http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~struct/courseware/hk1/hk1_ hkb/hkb.html Acessed 15/8/09 Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HSBC_Main_Building,_Hong_Kon g#Characteristics, accessed: 16/8/09

UNISA, B.ARCH.ST, BUIL2006, ASSIGNMENT 1, 2009, RESEARCH TOPIC: NORMAN FOSTER HONG KONG BUILDING, BILAL ABOU‐MOSLEA: 100099457, ELLEN BUTTROSE:100097747, MEGAN DARBYSHIRE:100093594  


NORMAN FOSTER- Hong Kong Bank