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ELIZA BOLGER GRAPHIC 3 PROCESS BOOK


FROUNT COVER OF ZINE


sF

m a p p a a u q u a


SAN FRANCISCO SAN FRANCISCO SAN FRANCISCO SAN FRANCISCO SAN FRANCISCO

SAN FRANCISCO

SF

auqua mappa


SAN FRANCISCO SAN FRANCISCO SAN FRANCISCO SAN FRANCISCO SAN FRANCISCO

SAN FRANCISCO

sf mappa auqua

auqua issue mappa spring 2013

SF


sf

auqua mappa table of contents

This zine combines multiple studies of psychogeography, completed by Graphic Design students. The title of the zine Auqua Mappa makes reference to the term Mappae Mundi. World Maps created during Medieval Europe. “To modern eyes, mappae mundi can look superficially primitive and inaccurate. However, mappae mundi were never meant to be used as navigational charts and they make no pretense of showing the relative areas of land and water. Rather, mappae mundi were schematic and were meant to illustrate different principles.”

AUTHOR

CONTENT

Derek Wong

Access to Excess

Trudy Regan

Public Swimming Pools

Alisha Piccirillo Lindsey Millen Ghazal Modaressi Gabriella Medina Dana Lui

Paradise Found PIGEONS,PIGEONS,PIGEONS The Future is coming on FRESH! Water Storage

Madeleine Lucero-Simmons

Water Fountains and Evacuations

Judy Chu

Bodies dumped in bodies of water

Alexander Hopson Yvonne Calderon

25 self cleaning public toilets PIPESPIPESPIPES

Anthony Buada

FILTRATION!

Federico Dejesus

Water Market

Carly Leung Celeste Freitas Dan Cranney Gabriel Bentley Pichamon Chamroenrak Sarah Groshans Stella Cunanan Justin Soong Eliza Bolger

Let’s stop Sea-Horsing around Breath.Suffocate Waste Water Treatment Fog v Crime Here today.....Gone tomorrow The red triangle Golden Gate Suicides Surf’s Up Front cover / layout


IMAGE MATRIX GROUNDWATER OVERDRAFT EXISTING IMAGES

GROUNDWATER OVERDRAFT MY MAGES

OBJECTIVE

MACRO

CORE

OBJECTIVE

MICRO

MACRO

SUBJECTIVE

CORE

MICR

METAPHORE

SUBJECTIVE

METAPHOR


BILL BOARD

PHOTOS FOR PROJECT 1


PROJECT 1IDEA GENERATION

LOGOS FOR BOOKLET A=AGRICULTURE

AGRICULTURAL COMMERCIAL INDUSTRIAL RESIDENTIAL

oil tanks

AGRICULTURAL COMMERCIAL INDUSTRIAL RESIDENTIAL urban sprawl

Feedlots

oil storage

Irrigation Sites

Pesticides

METAL WORKSHOPS


C=COMMERCIAL

I=INDUSTRIAL


O=OTHER

R=RESIDENTIAL


BOOKLET FOR PRINT GROUNDWATER OVERDRAFT HUMAN IMPACT ON THE GROUNDWATER WITHIN SAN FRANCISCO

KEY:

GROUNDWATER OVERDRAFT HUMAN IMPACT CATERGORIES

KEY:

HUMAN IMPACT CATERGORIES

AGRICULTURE

AGRICULTURE

HUMAN IMPACT ON THE GROUNDWATER WITHIN SAN FRANCISCO

COMMERCIAL

COMMERCIAL

Machine/Metal Workshops INDUSTRIAL

RESIDENTIAL

OTHER

SEPTIC SYSTEMS One of the main causes of ground water contamination in the United States is the effluent (outflow) from septic tanks, cesspools, and privies.

LANDFILLS Once in the landfill, chemicals can leach into the ground water by means of precipitation and surface runoff. New landfills are required to have clay or synthetic liners and leachate (liquid from a landfill containing contaminants) collection systems to protect ground water

HOUSE HOLD LAWNS Nitrate is a groundwater contaminant of concern in drinking water because at high enough concentrations it can cause methoglominemia, or "blue baby syndrome." Typical sources of high nitrate concentrations include septic systems that are spaced too close together, fertilizers that leach from lawns or agricultural fields.

INDUSTRIAL

People can become sick after eating food grown in water exposed to heavy metals from a nearby distillery.

Machine/Metal Workshops People can become sick after eating food grown in water exposed to heavy metals from a nearby distillery.

RESIDENTIAL

PESTICIDE USE Millions of tons of fertilizers and pesticides are used annually in the United States for crop production. A number of these pesticides and fertilizers (some highly toxic) have entered and contaminated ground water following normal, registered use.

PESTICIDE USE Millions of tons of fertilizers and pesticides are used annually in the United States for crop production. A number of these pesticides and fertilizers (some highly toxic) have entered and contaminated ground water following normal, registered use.

OTHER

SEPTIC SYSTEMS One of the main causes of ground water contamination in the United States is the effluent (outflow) from septic tanks, cesspools, and privies.

LANDFILLS Once in the landfill, chemicals can leach into the ground water by means of precipitation and surface runoff. New landfills are required to have clay or synthetic liners and leachate (liquid from a landfill containing contaminants) collection systems to protect ground water

HOUSE HOLD LAWNS Nitrate is a groundwater contaminant of concern in drinking water because at high enough concentrations it can cause methoglominemia, or "blue baby syndrome." Typical sources of high nitrate concentrations include septic systems that are spaced too close together, fertilizers that leach from lawns or agricultural fields.

AIRPORTS Airports pollute the ground water of the surrounding land. With all those fuel burning airplanes, not to mention their entourages of service vehicles. The tarmac on the airport produces the same problems as any well-travelled blacktop - a toxic brew of synthetic chemicals is washed off of the blacktop.

FEEDLOTS A potential dource of contamination is animal wastes that perculate into the ground from farm feedlots.

AIRPORTS Airports pollute the ground water of the surrounding land. With all those fuel burning airplanes, not to mention their entourages of service vehicles. The tarmac on the airport produces the same problems as any well-travelled blacktop - a toxic brew of synthetic chemicals is washed off of the blacktop.

FEEDLOTS A potential dource of contamination is animal wastes that perculate into the ground from farm feedlots.

ABANDONED WELLS

ABANDONED WELLS Wells can act as a conduct through which contaminates can reach an aquifer if the well casing has been removed.

Wells can act as a conduct through which contaminates can reach an aquifer if the well casing has been removed.

OIL STORAGE TANKS

OIL STORAGE TANKS Small amounts of fuel oil spilled on the ground may be naturally biodegraded by bacteria in the soil. However, spilled fuel oil that enters the soil or rock fractures near a badly sealed casing of a water well could cause problems.

IRRIGATION SITES

IRRIGATION SITES

STORM WATER DRAINS

The downstream quality of the groundwater may deteriorate owing to leaching of salts, nutrients, herbicides and pesticides with high salinity and alkalinity. There is threat of soils converting in to saline or Alkali soils.

The downstream quality of the groundwater may deteriorate owing to leaching of salts, nutrients, herbicides and pesticides with high salinity and alkalinity. There is threat of soils converting in to saline or Alkali soils.

Storm water drains collect all the black material that results of human existance. If these drains are leeking it allows for all of the chemicals that's collected from pavedment/ industrial areas to seep into the groundwater

Small amounts of fuel oil spilled on the ground may be naturally biodegraded by bacteria in the soil. However, spilled fuel oil that enters the soil or rock fractures near a badly sealed casing of a water well could cause problems.

BY ELIZA BOLGER STORM WATER DRAINS

BY ELIZA BOLGER

Storm water drains collect all the black material that results of human existance. If these drains are leeking it allows for all of the chemicals that's collected from pavedment/ industrial areas to seep into the groundwater SOURCES: http://psep.cce.cornell.edu/ http://www.cgtextures.com/ http://en.wikipedia.org/ http://www.agwt.org/content/oil-storage-wells http://www.epa.gov/region1/students/pdfs/gwc1.pdf

SOURCES: http://psep.cce.cornell.edu/ http://www.cgtextures.com/ http://en.wikipedia.org/ http://www.agwt.org/content/oil-storage-wells http://www.epa.gov/region1/students/pdfs/gwc1.pdf


GROUNDWATER OVERDRAFT

HUMAN IMPACT ON THE GROUNDWATER WITHIN SAN FRANCISCO

KEY

HUMAN IMPACT CATERGORIES

AGRICULTURE

Machine/Metal Workshops RESIDENTIAL

People can become sick after eating food grown in water exposed to heavy metals from a nearby distillery.

INDUSTRIAL

PESTICIDE USE Millions of tons of fertilizers and pesticides are used annually in the United States for crop production. A number of these pesticides and fertilizers (some highly toxic) have entered and contaminated ground water following normal, registered use.

COMMERCIAL

GROUNDWATER OVERDRAFT HUMAN IMPACT ON THE GROUNDWATER WITHIN SAN FRANCISCO AGRICULTURE

OIL STORAGE TANKS Small amounts of fuel oil spilled on the ground may be naturally biodegraded by bacteria in the soil. However, spilled fuel oil that enters the soil or rock fractures near a badly sealed casing of a water well could cause problems.

ANIMAL FEEDLOTS A potential dource of contamination is animal wastes that perculate into the ground from farm feedlots.

AIRPORTS Airports pollute the ground water of the surrounding land. With all those fuel burning airplanes, not to mention their entourages of service vehicles. The tarmac on the airport produces the same problems as any well-travelled blacktop - a toxic brew of synthetic chemicals is washed off of the blacktop.

COMMERCIAL RESIDENTIAL INDUSTRIAL OTHER

IRRIGATION SITES The downstream quality of the groundwater may deteriorate owing to leaching of salts, nutrients, herbicides and pesticides with high salinity and alkalinity. There is threat of soils converting in to saline or Alkali soils.

SEPTIC SYSTEMS One of the main causes of ground water contamination in the United States is the effluent (outflow) from septic tanks, cesspools, and privies.

ABANDONED WELLS Wells can act as a conduct through which contaminates can reach an aquifer if the well casing has been removed.

Groundwater contamination is nearly always the result of human activity. In areas where population density is high and human use of the land is intensive, groundwater is especially vulnerable. Virtually any activity whereby chemicals or wastes may be released to the environment, either intentionally or accidentally, hasthe potential to pollute ground water. When groundwater becomes contaminated, it is difficult and expensive to clean up.


PROJECT 2 CREATING THE SPREAD!


TYPOLOGIES trees and footpaths Water and energy Hayes and octavia


TYPOLOGIES trees and footpaths Water and energy Hayes and octavia


Hydroelectric Power Plants in California The amount of fresh water consumed for world energy production is on track to double within the next 25 years

2013 Hydroelectric Plants account for 

14.5%

2038

of Californiaís energy

For the spread I would like to explore how Water is used to create energy. Both in a negstive and in a positive way. The negative side would be focused on water used to operate power plants such as coal plants or biofuel. And the Positive side would be focused on renewable energy such as hydroelectric plants within california.

4X

If today's policies remain in place, the IEA calculates that water consumed for energy production would increase from 66 billion cubic meters (bcm) today to 135 bcm annually by 2035.

PHOTOS FOR COVER


WATER AND ENGERY IDEA GENERATION FOR SPREAD WATER AND ENGERY

WATER AND ENGERY a soloution

ENERGY AND WATER ARE TIGHTLY INTERTWINED

WATER AND ENGERY a soloution

Think about how many people live in the United States of America.

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Hydroelectric Power Plants in California

billion cubic meters?... ButAmerica. seriously this is a lot of water right? Well tium ad eaturis et rectest quid moditi odiHydroelectric Power Plants in California distist ionseria dolorit Think about how many people live in the United States of atusame ndandae raestia doluptatur quaesinverae venditaturem doloris thiswould amount is equal to the amount of water consumed doluptatem sequialit, omnihita consequas Then thing about how much water be used in ALL of predicted their magnimaximus pro dolum diaerep ersped minim tem alia adiam, rehent denisite qui bla con production year by 2035. That is DOUBLE what it prae volori soloribuscia aut voluptiurem est qui aut quiatessima vid homes each year. Then TRIPLE for thisenergy amount....Did youeach get 135 tectatur? Quiant litaturit alibus, optaera erspero voloria ectem. Itais now! qui a cus unde volorio remosto remque nos qui doluptatatis nobitio billion cubic meters?... But seriously this is a lot of water right? Well tium eaturis sinverae et rectest quid moditi odi distist ionseria dolorit corae erum quia eum dunt vid ma nullabo rporeiu ntecaerum ni this amount is equal to the predicted amount of water consumed doluptatem sequi omnihita consequas rehent denisite qui bla con

More than half of of that drain is involved in coal fired power plants demquat ipition ere, ut dolupta quasit acit eate dolut eum anduscium for energy production each year by 2035. That is DOUBLE what it prae volori soloribuscia aut voluptiurem est qui aut quiatessima vid and a massive 30% is dedicated to bio-fuels. estrum dolut volorrovitam ut essuntur aut at. is now! qui a cus unde volorio remosto remque nos qui doluptatatis nobitio Ad ellam, ipsundi tatinti incil int, istem lam, eum aut magnat ut corae erum quia eum dunt vid ma nullabo rporeiu ntecaerum ni sonsenis et voloressi reribea tureped explitatem sitae velicaturiti atiumqui quatiae ipsam, ut mintion consequi ut qui More than half of of that drain is involved in coal fired power plants demquat ipition ere, ut dolupta quasit acit aut eatevoluptatiae dolut eumet anduscium culpa nis exerupid ut rerum liquatem. Et atquam suntore nit, suntect occupti squaernam ressunt am, commolu ptatent eatust voloreped and a massive 30% is dedicated to bio-fuels. estrum dolut volorrovitam ut essuntur aut at.

ity, gas plants account for just 2 percent of today’s enHydroelectric Plants account for  ergy water consumption, shares that essentially would hold steady through 2035 under current policies.

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14.5%

Think about how many people live in the United States of America. Then thing about how much water would be used in ALL of their homes each year. Then TRIPLE this amount.... Did you get 135 billion cubic meters?... But seriously this is a lot of water right? Well this amount equal to the predicted of water for how energy production each Think about how many peopleislive in the United Statesamount of America. Thenconsumed thing about year by 2035. That is DOUBLE what it is now! much water would be used in ALL of their homes each year. Then TRIPLE this amount.... Did you get 135 billion cubic meters?... But seriously this is a lot of water right? Well this More than half of of that drainconsumed is involved coal fired power plants amount is equal to the predicted amount of water forinenergy production each and a massive 30% is dedicated to bio-fuels. year by 2035. That is DOUBLE what it is now! 4X and a massive 30% is More than half of of that drain is involved in coal fired power plants dedicated to bio-fuels. 4X

The surest way to reduce the water required for electricity generation, IEA’s figures indicate, would be to move to alternative fuels. Renewable energy provides the greatest opportunity: The surest way to reduce the water required forWind elec-and solar photovoltaic power have such minimal water tricity generation, IEA’s figures indicate, would be to needs they account for less than oneenergy percentprovides of water consumption for move to alternative fuels. Renewable energy now and in the future, by IEA’s calculations. the greatest opportunity: Wind and solar photovoltaic Natural gasneeds powerthey plants also use less water than coal power have such minimal water account plants. While providing 23 percent of today’s electricfor less than one percent of water consumption for ity, gas plants account for just energy now and in the future, by IEA’s calculations. 2 percent of today’s energyalso water consumption, shares Natural gas power plants use less water than coalthat essentially would hold steady through 2035 under plants. While providing 23 percent of today’s electric- current policies.

of California’s energy

Hydroelectric Plants account for 

14.5% of California’s energy

It takes a great deal of energy to supply water and a great deal of water to supply energy” It takes a great deal of energy to supply water and a great deal of water to supply energy”

2013 It would be FOUR times the volume of the largest U.S. reservoir, Hoover Dam’s Lake Mead. It would be FOUR times the volume of the largest U.S. reservoir, Hoover Dam’s Lake Mead. 18 Campus of the Future Arup Foresight

2013

2038

2038


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LIGHT BULB


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Biofuel Thirst Facepeliquia est litas voluptassum nusam

Coal Power

LIGHTBULBS USE WATER

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20

20

10

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PIE CHART FOR FINAL SPREAD

Coal Power 57%

Bio-fuel 18%

Coal Power 52%

Bio-fuel 30.5%


the future of water spring 2013

the future of water spring 2013


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WATT IS THE ISSUE?

COAL POWER

BIO-FUEL

The quantity of fresh water consumed for energy

the methods that constantly hit the headlines.

Steam driven coal plants have always required

Biofuel is the second largest energy stress of the

production is a massive concern for todays

However, the largest strain on water resources

the most amount of water. “ They are the back-

future. The IEA predicts an incredible surge with a

society. Even more alarming, it is predicted by

according to the IEA’s forecast is coal-powered

bone fuel for electric generation” (IEA) and are

242% increase in water consumption by the year

the International Energy Agency (IEA) to double

electricity and bio-fuel production. We are

responsible for fueling 41% of power around

2035. This figure is even more worrisome when

within the next 25 years.

putting too much energy and money into these

the world. The coal power producers are spend-

you compare it with how much energy biofuel is

systems, rather than investing in renewable

ing a lot of money improving their technologies,

actually contributing. It is a very modest amount

It is assumed the worst water consumers for

energy methods to ensure a sustainable future

although their new methods are consuming more

as biofuels such as ethanol and bio-diesel produce

energy production would be fracking and

of fresh water.

fresh water than ever.

less energy per galleon than petroleum based fuels.

It is clear that coal plants do not ensure a sus-

Today these biofuels account for more than half

tainable future for fresh water. They use up too

of the fresh water consumed for primary energy

much fresh water and damage the environment.

production (the production of fuels only and not

We need to make the switch to renewable energy

electricity) and provide less that 3% of energy that

as quickly as possible. Using technologies such

fuels cars, trucks, aircrafts and ships. By the year

as wind and solar photovoltaic power, which

2035, fuel processed from plant material will be

have minimal water needs, (they account for

responsible for using more then 72% of water in

only 1% of fresh water consumption.) Natural

primary energy production.

high-pressure hydraulic fracturing, as these are

Gas is also a better option. Whilst currently responsible for fueling 23% of today’s electricity worldwide, it is only responsible for 2% of energy water consumption.

Steam driven coal plants have always required the most amount of water. “They are the backbone fuel for electric generation.”

20

20

10

35

-International Energy Agency

Coal Power

57%

Bio-fuel

18%

Coal Power

Bio-fuel

52%

31%

Energies fresh water consumption. -International Energy Agency, current policies scenario 4

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Generating Station

Cold water pumped down

Steam and hot water

GEOTHERMAL

HYDROELECTRIC POWER

Heat from the earth can be used as a renewable

This form of clean power is produced by flowing

There are currently three hydro electric power-

energy source in many ways, from large and

water, from which energy is captured and turned

houses within the Hetch Hetchy Power system

complex power stations to small and relatively

into electricity. It is a highly efficient energy

that provide electricity to San Francisco

simple pumping systems. This heat energy,

producer that emits no harmful emissions.

municipalities, residents and retail customers,

almost anywhere— as far away as remote deep

The most common type of hydroelectric power

districts. This system generates 1.6 billion

wells in Indonesia and as close as the dir t

plant uses a dam on a river to store water in

kilowatt-hours of clean, greenhouse gas-free

in our backyards.

a reservoir. Water released from the reservoir

energy annually; it produces no harmful

flows through a turbine, spinning it, which in turn

radioactive byproducts, nor does it leave

activates a generator to produce electricity.

any waste behind.

The most common current way of capturing Geothermal Energy Plant

as well as additional energy for neighboring

known as Geothermal Energy, can be found

the energy from geothermal sources is to tap into naturally occurring “ hydrothermal convection” systems, where cooler water seeps into Earth’s crust, is heated up, and then rises to the surface. When the heated water is forced to the surface, it is relatively simple to capture that steam and use it to drive electric generators. The largest geothermal system now in operation is a steam-driven plant in an area called the Geysers, just north of San Francisco, California.

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The Future of Water

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Arup Foresight

Unlike fossil-fueled power plants, Hydroelectric energy facilities generate electricity without producing any pollutant emissions or greenhouse gases.

Arup Foresight | The Future of Water | 7


ELIZA PROCESS BOOK