Page 1

Preface The Greatest Educational Stage: a University - Mini-Research -

The Period Full of Terror and Madness: A Tale of Two Cities - Book Review -

Prologue: Exploring the legacy from the past Quick Views of Each Field Trip Site: Bologna Visiting the Country of Culture and Art: Italy - 2010 Summer Field Trip to Italy -

Preface Half a year has passed since the second volume of our journal was published in the summer of 2009. Like in the previous volumes, the members focused on exploring the targeted period of European civilization from the waning of the Middle Ages just right before the Modern World, choosing interesting themes or topics to them in the timeline. The papers in this volume are quite centered on Renaissance Era flowering the intellectual and artistic ideas to revive the values of the classical worlds before 14th century. Thus, you could find the members’ overall reviews of the period or their investigation of a particular topic. One of the conspicuous differences between this volume and the previous one is a carefully planned field trip to Italy to further experience the Renaissance Era. Traveling logs and quick views of the sites are introduced in the special section, with lots of images taken by the participants during the trip. It is recommended to enjoy spotting those images as well as reading the papers. In addition, our club, with five new members, was chosen as one of the student chapters of People To People International Organization (PTPI), headquartered in the US, in January 2010. The organization has encouraged us to keep exploring the world and find the ways to share our activities and learning with the other parts of the world. With the encouragement, we all expect the newcomers to actively participate in the club activities with the current members, to gain global and valuable opportunities, and to better understand many different cultures and traditions in the world. Owing to addition of the new promising and supports from the worldwide prominent organization, we will be able to more actively engage in the club activities, studying the world, connecting the learning to our daily lives, and having chances to broaden our perspectives of different cultures. By Han, Elizabeth

Mini-Research Report

The Greatest Educational Stage: a University By Han, Elizabeth I.

Introduction Without learning, it is impossible to live this life. Not only learning school-related

courses, but also learning psychological and emotional things is important. We learn things through various experiences, other people, the society, and so on. Yet, we learn things the most at school. In elementary school, we learn basic knowledge and skills. As we pass elementary school, middle school, and high school, we develop our knowledge and skills further. In university, the last school that we go to and the stepping stone into adulthood, we specify our skills and prepare for the job that we will do during our remaining lives. Because we learn what we really want and prepare for the future, university is the most crucial among schools. Due to its significance and value, people often question the origin of the university and its history. The university was first settled and developed in Europe. Thus, to understand the university’s history, we should look into the history of Europe’s universities. II. History of Europe’s Universities 1. The origin of university The early church was used not only for divine service but also for gathering of guild 1 and lay believers and for school. Since the church was placed in a city, it was more opened and attracted more people. These characteristics were also reflected in the education. In church school, many students had one teacher, compared to the priory school’s education system in which each young friar learned from one old friar. At first, mot students learned studies related to religion, hoping to be friars. But gradually, students started to hope to be clergymen who could work with other people. During the early 12th century, the number of 1

an association of craftsmen in a particular trade

students rapidly increased, going beyond the human power that the church needed.

2. Characteristics of medieval universities The word “university” was derived from Latin word, “universitas” meaning the group of people who have common interests and legal status. During the 12th~ 14th centuries, guild or self-governing assembly was also called a university. After the late 14th century, the word “university” started to designate schools. Before that, the word that meant schools was studium generale. Studium meant schools which have institutions for study, and generale meant the school’s ability to attract students from various places. Moving on in the 13th century, the schools came to have teachers specialized in seven liberal arts, canon laws2, and the civil law. Theology, law, and medical science were included graduate school programs. The universities offering these high-ranking subjects to their students at that time were the University of Bologna, University of Paris, University of Oxford, and University of Salerno. Until the 14th century, people believed that a studium generale was built by the Pope or an emperor.

Because of this aspect, schools could have some privileges. For instance,

one of the privileges was that churchmen could get a benefice3 during the period that they studied in a studium generale. Also after graduating from a studium generale, people could teach in other universities without taking any tests. Because of these privileges, the studium generale became more popular.

3. Education of medieval universities


the body of laws and regulations made by or adopted by ecclesiastical authority, for the government of the Christian organization and its members 3

was a gift of land for life as a reward for services rendered. The word comes from the Latin noun beneficium, meaning "benefit".

In the early stage of the school, students usually learned reading and writing in Latin, singing, and writing compositions and poems. These studies were all based on religious teaching. However, as students who didn’t want to be friars increased, new students started to request to learn practical studies such as law, medical science, and natural history. New students also wanted to learn how to debate and analyze main issues during that time. The most popular place for students was Paris, France. There were abundant food supplies and wines, and there were 25 famous schools within 150 kilometers from the city. Also, there were many churches, whose warehouses students could use as dormitories. In the 1140s, Paris had the best schools in Northern Europe. The main reason for this is that there were many teachers, each specialized in certain subjects. Some people even said that “There was everything in Paris during the 1140s. To learn canon law, students should go to Bologna. To learn modern medical science, students should go to Montpellier. To learn various studies such as grammar, logic, philosophy, and theology, and to be ambitious, students should go to Paris.� During the mid-12th century, every year, hundreds of students came to Paris from Normandy, Germany, England, and Picardie. In 1180, the University of Paris, one of the oldest universities, was built by some Englanders studying in Paris. Since the university was much opened compared to the priory schools, its atmosphere was also different. In priory schools, students usually meditated and read the Bible alone in a large library. But in Chartres and Paris, discussion was the main method for classes. The main subjects for universities were seven liberal arts. Classical Greeks thought that liberal arts were appropriate for freemen. There were two kinds of liberal arts: one, by Plato4, was philosophical and metaphysical, in which ethics and intellect had great parts, and


a Classical Greek philosopher, mathematician, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world

the other, by Socrates5, was more realistic in participating in politics and communities. Ancient Romans developed further from this notion of logic and classified liberal arts into nine other subjects: grammar, logic, rhetoric, geometry, arithmetic, astronomy, music, medical science, and architecture. Then, in the early 5th century, Martianus Capella 6 classified liberal arts as three elementary sections-grammars, logic, and rhetoric- and a higher ranking of four sections- arithmetic, geometric, astronomy, and music. Among them, especially three sections were considered as basic subjects. They were about reading the Bible, analyzing it critically, and exploring the truth. To successfully complete this course, students should be good at Latin and study classical authors, especially Cicero7, Vergilius8, and Ovidius 9 . This made students interested in ancient Rome and classicism. Another remarkable thing is that the study of logic became important after the interpretation of Aristotle’s Poetics was found. Before, grammars and rhetoric were significant, but during the 12th century, the study of logic became the most significant subject among three sections of liberal arts. People believed that through logic, they could solve the question of God. The basic goal of the logic was to use logical reasoning to reveal contradictions that God have concealed with obscure words and to find the language’s deepest meaning. Because of these characteristics, the study of logic was very attractive and popular. This intellectual change was very notable. Before, it was impossible to question about the existence of God and to propose the contradictions of God. People should believe that God were perfect. But after the study of logic became popular, all people, irrespective of their authority or rank, were able to talk freely about God. The early medieval universities also focused on medical science, law, 5

a Classical Greek Athenian philosopher a pagan writer of Late Antiquity, one of the earliest developers of the system of the seven liberal arts that structured Early medieval education 7 a Roman philosopher, statesman, lawyer, political theorist, and Roman constitutionalist 8 a classical Roman poet, best known for three major works—the Eclogues (or Bucolics), the Georgics, and the Aeneid 9 a Roman poet who is best known as the author of the three major collections of erotic poetry: Heroides, Amores, and Ars Amatoria 6

science, and mathematics. Above all else, law and medical science were very popular during the Renaissance’s period of prosperity because of their practicality. Most of the popular jobs were derived from law and medical science.  University of Salerno


The cities where universities were first built were Salerno, Bologna, Paris, and Oxford. Especially in the University of Salerno, medical science was very developed. Most of the early documents related to medical science were found in Salerno during the 11 th century. Because of its independent development in medical science, Salerno was called the city of Hippocrates, a well-known Greek physician and mathematician. People from all over the world came to Salerno to recover from diseases and to learn medical skills.  University of Bologna The University of Bologna is the oldest studium generale. It started with a rudimentary institute for people who were trying to study Roman law. Roman law was suitable to stand against church government. Thus, the school

Image from

attracted people who wanted to participate in

politics against the church’s authority. In Bologna, the documents related to Roman law and suitable for higher education and specialized study were easily found. With these aspects,

Bologna became the center of nongovernmental studies. After canon law became an official subject in the 1140s and 1150s, Bologna became more popular. These characteristics were so influential that after two centuries most popes were jurists, and some of them were law professors in the University of Bologna. Another characteristic of the University of Bologna was “habitas”. Habitas was an academic regulation which was approved by the Vatican. Habitas is considered as the origin of academic freedom until now. In habitas, an emperor was considered as God’s servant or representative. This emphasizes the concept that an emperor’s authority didn’t come out from the church, but from the God directly. This concept developed further, and people started to deny the church’s authority over universities. Due to constant conflict between the Pope and an emperor, Italy started to almost become in a state of anarchy. To prevent a worse state, students of the University of Bologna started to control their university. Later, this became the benefit of the University of Bologna. Bologna could have economical benefit because there was an autonomous university. Therefore, Bologna established a law that prohibited professors from moving to other cities. Students of the University of Bologna thought that no more professors would come to their university, so they stood against that law in 1193 by forming universitates scolarium. Then, the Vatican and the city approved the students’ opinion. Such power of students like this also affected the system of the university. Students selected professors a few months before they become the next grade, and professors who were selected had to take an oath for their obedience. If professors were late for the class or exceeded the

given class time, they had to pay a fine. Before the semester started, students and professors consented about the curriculum. Therefore, students could know what materials they would use during class beforehand. Also students continuously evaluated professors, and professors who were evaluated under average should pay fines. But after universities were built in many other places, Bologna thought that their system was too harsh and started to pay a salary to professors from the late 13th century. After this, students started to lose power. The form of classes was settled in the 12th century. Textbooks were managed in four views: theme, goal, immanent purpose, and philosophy that was related to the class. Professors first discussed about these aspects and explained about expressions and vocabularies used in reading materials. This kind of class was called lectio or lectura which is the derivation of the word “lecture”. At first, students didn’t take notes during the class, but as the subject became complicated, students needed to take notes. Since it was the first university and the oldest university, its motto has been “alma mater studiorum” meaning fostering mother of studies until now.

 University of Paris The University of Paris is the second oldest studium generale, specialized in theology. It is the first university which stood against the church’s authority and achieved the right to self-control. Also, in contrast to the University of Bologna, professors had more power than students in the University of







autonomy from the church and were satisfied with the church’s control over the university. Thus, the University of Paris was protected by both the

pope and emperor. Due to the control of the church, the University of Paris specialized in theology and philosophy. The

University of



various courses. Also since the university was very big, students from each country created small schools and selected deans all by themselves. But after the Hundred Years’ War10,

the University of Paris lost much of its power, and foreign students rapidly decreased. Since May 1968 in France11, the University of Paris has been divided into 13 different schools until now.  University of Oxford & University of Cambridge

The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge are the representative universities in England. Both were built in the 12th century. They were different from other medieval universities because they weren’t related to the church.


a series of separate wars lasting from 1337 to 1453 between two royal houses for the French throne, which was vacant with the extinction of the senior Capetian line of French kings 11 The May 1968 protest refers to a particular period in French history. During this time, the country saw the largest general strike that resulted in the economy coming to a virtual standstill, the first of its kind for an advanced industrial country.[1] It was also the first wildcat general strike in history [1] and involved a series of student occupation protests.

The University of Oxford was famous for mathematics and natural science. This is because in the 12th century, Englanders became familiar with various scientific documents while they traveled around several places. Also in early the 13th century, when the Vatican prohibited





science in the University of Paris, the University of Oxford was exempted from that. Mathematics was introduced in order to explain natural science, and observation and experiments were emphasized in

proving given hypotheses.

Not only natural science and mathematics were developed, but also various courses. Thus, many famous people graduated from the University of Oxford, such as Bill Clinton, T.S. Elliott, Stephen Hawking, and so on. The University of Cambridge is an aggregate of 31 colleges. Similar to the University





Cambridge was also famous for mathematics and science. Among 31 colleges, Girton College is especially famous as the first

college for women.

III. Medieval Universities’ Impact on Europe Medieval universities in Europe have become bases for modern universities in the world. They settled various courses such as liberal arts, law, and medical science and developed them further. Based on these basic courses, modern universities provide more

diverse subjects that can directly connect to the jobs which students may want. In addition, the form of lectures was also organized by medieval universities, and still, many professors are using that method now. Classes in modern universities also contain debate and discussion as big parts, and students usually take notes during lectures. Students also have great power nowadays like at the University of Bologna during the medieval period. Students create student government, select president and vice president by vote, and participate in establishing school policies. Through this system, students can develop their leadership and prepare for social life in the future. Medieval universities in Europe were superior to any other universities. They were receptive to the views of the past and looked forward to the views of the future. Due to their superiority, many talented people were produced in Europe. Medieval universities had established the significance of a university. Thus, university is generally considered as the greatest educational stage.

Reference: Watson, Peter (2005). Ideas: A History of Thought and Invention, from Fire to Freud . New York: HarperCollins

Book Review

The Period Full of Terror and Madness: A Tale of Two Cities Reviewed by Han, Elizabeth Reign of Terror, Storming of the Bastille, revolution, war. These are all parts of the French Revolution, which happened from 1789 to 1799. The French Revolution was the French citizens’ revolution against French aristocrats. This period of upheaval is well depicted in a book, A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens. The author describes the situation of France and how French citizens changed through the revolution. The French Revolution happened because of three causes. The first cause was the hierarchical system. Only aristocrats and clergymen monopolized authority, wealth, and honor, and they were exempted from taxation. On the other hand, commoners couldn’t participate in government actions, but they bore much more tax. The second cause was the royal households’ sumptuous spending, making France’s poverty even worse. Since King Louis ⅩⅣ, France’s finances had started to falter. During King Louis ⅩⅥ’s regime, the commoners had to carry more of a tax burden, and many diseases and famine had spread all over France. The third cause was the bourgeoisie’s desire to become the leading class of France instead of the aristocrats and clergymen. Also, many commoners believed Jean Jacque Rousseau’s ideology that every human is equal, and humans should resist social systems that infringe on human rights. The book A Tale of Two Cities especially focuses on the commoners’ antipathy to the aristocrats. The head of revolutionary mobs, Madame Defarge, can be the symbol of the chaos of the French Revolution. Madame Defarge is a cold-blooded, relentless person who is

blinded by her desire for vengeance against aristocrats. Her family has died and she has suffered because of the Marquis Evermonde, a ruthless aristocrat. Preparing for her vengeance, she stitches into her needle work a list of names of people who will die. This knitting represents revolutionaries’ vengeance on cruel aristocrats. Also, Madame Defarge looks quiet and calm when she is knitting on her rocking chair. But in fact, she is deciding which people to kill. This characteristic of Madame Defarge also represents the French peasants who may appear kind and submissive, but eventually rise up to kill the aristocrats and reform France. Furthermore, Charles Dickens describes the scene of revolution and shows the readers how brutal it was. The most memorable scene describing the revolution might be when revolutionary mobs storm the Bastille and kill the governor “with a rain of stabs and blows”, and Madame Defarge decapitates him “with her cruel knife”(p.209). Also Sydney Carton, an attorney who sacrifices himself at the end for his love and friendship, states that “solemn interest… in the streets along which the sixties [the groups of sixty people going to the guillotione] rolled to a death which had become so common and material, that no sorrowful story of a haunting Spirit ever arose among the people out of all the working of the Guillotine…"(p.298). In addition, most of the episodes of French aristocrat Charles Darnay’s trial in a court and Sydney Carton’s execution take place particularly during 1793~1794, which was the most violent period in the French Revolution. A Tale of Two Cities contains not only factual description, but also a profound theme. Throughout the book, Dickens depicts how one’s sacrifice is important for not only one’s self, but also for others’ lives. In the book, the most representative sacrifice is Sydney Carton’s. At first in the story, he seems to be frivolous, reckless, and imprudent. But as he starts to love Lucie and feels some kind of responsibility, he becomes more mature than before. Eventually, he feigns to be Charles Darnay and dies instead of him. He sacrifices himself for Charles

Darnay, Lucie, Doctor Manette, and Lucie’s little daughter. Because of Carton’s sacrifice, the whole family survives the revolution. Not only do other people benefit, but also Carton himself benefits from his sacrifice. Through his sacrifice, he makes his life more valuable. In the last line of the entire book, Carton states, “It is a far, far better thing that I do, than I have ever done; it is a far, far better rest that I go to than I have ever known”(p.372). Through this quote, Carton himself admits how his sacrifice makes his life more valuable. Also the quote implies that because of his sacrifice, Carton is going to rest in heaven. Furthermore in the book, there is an allusion from the Bible; “I am the Resurrection and the Life, saith the Lord”(p.371). Through this allusion, the author portrays Carton’s personal change as the Resurrection of the Christ. The author refers to Carton’s change as his rebirth and his new life in heaven. Thus, Carton’s sacrifice becomes a crucial part of the Manette family’s life and also of Carton’s own life. Through this example, Dickens proves that sacrifice is a critical thing in our lives since it becomes a big part of other people’s lives and also contributes to personal growth. Through the book’s realistic descriptions, I could learn more about the French Revolution. The revolution itself was pretty brutal and harsh. Still, due to many people’s sacrifice and endeavor to reform France, France could be organized and have a democratic government system. Even though it was the period full of terror and madness, it contributed to France being full of peace and happiness.

2010 Summer Field Trip To Italy

Prologue: Exploring the legacy from the past Han, Elizabeth As we may well know, the simple word ‘history’ derives from the Latin ‘historia’, which means ‘story’ and also implies that a person goes and sees something for himself or for herself. In the same vein, our history journal club has long been thinking about taking a field trip to see hidden legacy and experience its footprints since the club was created in 2007. Finally, we made a decision about the time to move for this invaluable opportunity of taking a historical field trip. Nine members and two adult advisors talked about potential sites and countries to visit and relevant itineraries. We chose the trip site Italy, which greatly influenced other parts of Europe particularly because this third volume was supposed to cover the 14th to 16th century of European history including Italian Renaissance on the center of the history during the period. We were all quite excited about preparing every detail of our itinerary, realizing that not only needed we to further study global history through different cultures, we also should be exposed to legacy from the history. In order for us effectively to visit the historical sites closely related to the Renaissance in Italy, the participants gathered relevant information and travel tips, made reservations to be required for enter Uffizi Museum, and pre-researched the topic which they wanted to explore further on the spot. All participants had their own responsibility of guiding field trips sites respectively on the spot, as well. Starting from Milan, we visited the targeted sites from the north to the south of Italy, where we can encounter the historical aspects closely related to Renaissance Era. They include Milan, Verona, Bologna, Firenze, Pisa, Siena, Rome, and the like, well preserved as the most famous architecture or artworks during the period. Throughout the trip, we went through such special and invaluable experience, as each participant described here below.

Ultimately it turned out to be effective to get information of the past and present Italy, due to our preparation of the trip beforehand. Furthermore, we could deal with any unexpected while taking the trip. Well, we did get real survival instinct.

2010 Summer Field Trip To Italy

Quick Views of Each Field Trip Site: Bologna By Han, Elizabeth Bologna has been the center of university life in Italy since 1088 when the oldest university of the west was founded. Because of this, Bologna has been called “Bologna the Learned” since the Middle Ages. Due to its position between the Reno and Savena rivers and because it is surrounded by picturesque hills, Bologna is an important place for road and rail communication. The city was formed almost a thousand years before Christ. Its original name was Felsina, named by the Etruscans, who had settled in the nearby Villanova area where the rich





Because of this civilization, Bologna became an important urban center, which survived until the arrival of the Gauls, who were defeated by the Romans in 196 B.C.E. At this time, the city’s name was changed to Bononia. The city’s flourishing economy led to an increase in population, and it became the 5th most populous city in Europe. Bologna is also known as a forest of towers because of numerous towers. Among the 17 surviving ones, the best known towers are the Garisenda and the Asinelli Towers, the symbols of Bologna that were built in the 12th century. Another famous feature of Bologna is its 38km of porticos, which make a picture-frame for

all the old town centers. They were created during the late Middle Ages, when the city had expanded and a way to increase the spaces for housing without taking up the street area was needed. Thus, the houses began to build above from the first floor. This also created picturesque walks which were used as both the artisans’ private space and a public space. This enabled shopkeepers to work and display their products outside their shops even in bad weather conditions. Still today, porticos are distinguishing features of Bologna and the neighboring cities. Last, Bologna’s culinary culture is very famous and enjoyable. During the Middle Ages, powerful families surrounded themselves with the best cooks while the presence of university students from all over Italy could only enrich the cuisine. Bologna was called not only “Bologna the Learned”, but also “Bologna the Fat” because of its delicious and diverse foods. Among these various features of Bologna, our club members visited the University of Bologna, the oldest university in the western hemisphere. When we arrived at Bologna and walked around, we thought we were just walking around the city. But it was actually the university’s campus. Just as Bologna was once the 5th most populous city in Europe, so also there were a lot of people around the campus when we visited. Also regarding its title “Bologna the Fat”, there were many cuisines around and inside the campus. We visited Bologna during lunch time, and there were many people who were at restaurants

eating. The restaurants were diverse: fast food restaurants, Italian, Chinese, American restaurants, and so on. In addition, there were not only various restaurants, but also various stores. Since there are a lot of young people on the campus, there were many stores which young men and women would like. As we passed some stores and restaurants, we realized that we were walking under the porticos. Because of those endless porticos, our members could avoid the sunlight! Bologna looks like an ordinary city which has a big university. However, Bologna was the center of education during the Middle Ages, and its significance is actually large. The city is just suitable for young students who want to learn and enjoy various foods. Since more and more young people are coming to Bologna, now the city should be called “Bologna the Young�! Photos taken by Han, Elizabeth

2010 Summer Field Trip To Italy

Travel Log:

Visiting the Country of Culture and Art: Italy By Han, Elizabeth Travelling to both unknown and famous places always makes me thrilled and challenged in that I can encounter many unexpected things and strangers, experience various cultures, and eat culturally diverse foods. More than that, traveling is great since it raises my self-awareness and independence and leads me to be mature. I





opportunities of travelling many different countries compared to others of my age, but most of those trips were with my family and for fun and relaxation. However, the trip to Italy this summer, 2010, which was the most memorable one in my life, gave me a whole different perspective from that of a typical trip. It was my first trip that I took with only my schoolmates and with the specific objectives to get a good knowledge related to the field that I have been involved in over three years, history. In fact, Italy, the field trip site, is one of the intriguing places that I have always wanted to explore. But the better thing about it was that I was well prepared before the trip since it was planned as a kind of an independent field trip. Therefore, even from a month before the trip, I had been so excited. As we expected, the trip was fabulous. It wasn’t as comfortable as we could imagine

with a nice and cozy bed and in a comfortable limo. But it gave us intuition like finding the way out underground subway in Rome or getting on the right train bound for Firenze from Bologna. Such uncertain situations that sometimes bothered us in totally strange places of a foreign country made us self-directed and adaptive to the news. I still feel sure that the cities that we visited not only inspired us with their overwhelming historical remains, but awoke us from our hypnosis sticking to the only present. I could get a chance to see the present Italy as well as its past through its history. For lunch at a restaurant, Cinque Terre

We also visited various cities, such as Cinque Terre located along the coastline and selected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. There is a splendid esplanade which is made for tourists. We followed that road and enjoyed the splendid views. After looking around the village, we had dinner in the village. The food was one of the best that I had tried in Italy. We tried typical and traditional Italian dishes, and they were





cuisines in Korea. After dinner, we wanted to stay a night in the village, but there were no places so we just went back to our hotel. Another of my favorite cities is Vatican City. It is a sovereign city-state Nine members in Vatican City

which is surrounded by high walls and located in the middle of Roma. This city is a sacred

place since it is the place where the Pope lives and many masterpieces are placed inside the cathedral. The security was so strict that we needed to pass many processes to enter Vatican City. When we entered the city, we found the dome of St. Peter’s Basilica. We went into the Sistine Chapel to see the representative and famous masterpieces of the Renaissance, Michelangelo’s “The Last Judgment” and the ceiling. When we first stepped into the room that contained those two masterpieces, we were astonished by its grandiosity. “The Last Judgment” filled the whole side of one wall. It was actually amazing that Michelangelo drew every person in the picture very descriptively. The more amazing one was the ceiling. There are nine pictures on the ceiling which depict the stories of the creation, Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, and the Great Flood. It was quite surprising that Michelangelo drew those marvelous pictures on the ceiling. Furthermore, I was so honored to see those masterpieces directly in front of them. It took a lot of time to get in to look at those masterpieces because there were so many people, but it was worth the time we waited outside on a sunny day. I can’t express my happiness from the trip in a single sentence. I learned so many things. I learned about Italy’s culture, food, history, people, environment, and beliefs. Other than that, I could also develop independence, get more mature, and learn how to behave when I am with other people during a trip. Even though it was so hot and every member was tired of walking too much, this trip has made my life more valuable. Last, I want to thank my friends who endured the hot weather and tiredness and made this trip full of fun. Also I want to thank the adult advisors who were always with us to take care of every one of our members. Because of the things I’ve learned, the incidents we’ve experienced, and hardships we’ve overcome, I will never forget this trip. All photos were taken by Han Elizabeth

History Journal Vol.3  

This is the third volume of history journal.

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you