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C O N C E P T U A L I S A T I O N I N T R O D U C T I O N A . 1 D E S I G N F U T U R I N G S K I N G F A H A D N A T I O N A L
L I B R A R Y
Z O O T O P I A
A . 2 D E S I G N C O M P U T A T I O N N A W A P A V I L L I O N
M E S S E
B A S E L
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A . 3 C O M P O S I T I O N / G E N E R A T I O N W E S T E N D G A T E L A
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F A M I L I A
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C O N C L U S I O N
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Hello! Iâ€™m Elizabeth, currently a third year student majoring in architecture at the University of Melbourne. A love of art has always been present in my life. Growing up, my dream of one day helping to create mesmerizing skylines only became stronger and choosing to become an architect seemed like the obvious choice for me. In this digitalised world that we live in now, I believe that digital fabrication is the future of architecture. I believe that technology and architecture go hand in hand, and to push the boundaries of architecture, we need parametrics. Having studied at Singapore Polytechnic for the last 3 years, I am familiar with 2D and 3D software such as AutoCAD, Revit, SketchUp a n d re n d e r i n g p ro g ra m s s u c h a s Vray.
As we humans evolve through the centuries, we continue to deplete the earth of its natural resources, treating it as an infinite resource at our disposal 1 . Erratic climate change and damage to the ecological systems are constant reminders that our destructive ways have effect on the world that we live in today. The key to achieving sustainability is through sustainable design. To achieve such design, we must dream big. The main purpose of design is problem solving. Problems we should address should include challenges about overpopulation, water shortages, and climate change 2 . It is crucial that designers and architects are aware of the current and ongoing ecological issues. With this knowledge, designers are then able to implement new ideas that are not only solely based on aesthetics, but so it preserves our future as a race and its surrounding ecology.
Tony Fry. (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice. 1st ed. Oxford: Berg, p.1. Dunne, Anthony & Raby, Fiona (2013) Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (MIT Press) pp. 2
K I N G F A H A D L I B R A R Y G E R B E R
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R I YA D H , S A U D I 2 0 0 8 - 2 0 1 3
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The King Fahad National Library of Saudi Arabia is one of the most important cultural buildings in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. When asked to refurbish and build an extension of the old wing, the Gerber Architekten team approached the design in a sensitive manner.
With Saudi Arabia’s desert climate, extreme temperatures occur during the day, including the occasional sandstorms. The key element of the façade was developed especially for the new wing. It’s cladding is made up of rhomboid textile awnings, marked by its play with revealing and concealing. These
white membranes textiles act as sunshades during the day and interpret the traditional Arabian tent structure in a modern way 3 . These awnings help prevent sand particles from sticking onto the fabric during a sandstorm. The fabric is angled at 45° to deposit away the sand and prevent it from scaring the internal glazing glass of the facade. Hence, retaining and maintaining the quality of the fabric in the long run. When looked at perpendicularly, these white textile awnings form a pattern that is significant is Islamic culture. This sequence of old and
new creates a uniform and prestigious overall architectural appearance with charactearistic styling. At night the building glows a soft white light and becomes the city’s cultural lighthouse4.
Image Source: https://www.archdaily.com/469088/kingfahad-national-library-gerber-architekten “King Fahad National Library By Gerber Architekten”, Designboom | Architecture & Design Magazine, 2018 <https://www.designboom.com/ architecture/king-fahad-national-library-by-gerberarchitekten-01-19-2014/> [Accessed 15 March 2018]. by-gerber-architekten-01-19-2014/gallery/image/gerberarchitekten-king-fahad-national-library-designboom-8/ [Accessed 15 Mar. 2018].
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When designing buildings for the future, one must always think about how it will affect the environment in return. In BIGâ€™s Zootopia, the integration of nature and natural elements into a cutting-edge, innovative architecture5 was the approach taken to design the extraordinary space. Integrating the zoo
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enclosure within the landscape is their attempt to preserve the diverse ecology on the plane. To stray away from the tradition ideas of what a zoo is, the idea proposed was an open space where both animals and humans could interact with each other openly. This open
space design challenges the safety of the visitors, but also brings radical innovation to the table. Removing fences and barriers in the original design of a traditional zoo opens opportunities for people to interact and discover a relationship with the animals at the zoo. This project supports Dune and Raby’s idea to act on critical and imaginative designs instead of being purely aesthetics 6 . By bringing something new and imaginative to the table, many future architects can aspire to design something more to the table as well.
Image Source: https://www.archdaily.com/532248/ big-unveils-design-for-zootopia-in-denmark 5 ”BIG Unveils Design For “Zootopia” In Denmark”, Archdaily, 2018 <https://www.archdaily.com/532248/ big-unveils-design-for-zootopia-in-denmark> [Accessed 15 March 2018]. 6 Dunne, Anthony & Raby, Fiona (2013) Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (MIT Press) pp.45
In todayâ€™s era of technological advancement, one must distinguish the difference between computation and computerisation. Computational methods have no doubt aided the architectural industry in the past few decades. As our society evolves, technology advances, and as technology advances, building methods evolve. Which such, todayâ€™s generation media skills revolve around modeling software based on Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) such as Rhino and Grasshopper 7. It goes without saying that computers never make mistakes 8, they are brilliant analytical engines and produce results that are faster and accurate. With such technology, architects should use these mediums to their advantage and share new possibilities and ideas with the world and the design community.
Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 3 Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architectureâ€™s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 3 7.
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The NAWA pavilion was part of the European Capital of Culture celebrations that followed a theme of “Metamorphoses of Culture” 9. Designed with the Wroclaw’s Dailowa Island in mind, the pavilion sculpture is modelled to create an organic movement that naturally emerges from the river the island sits on. Using the algorithmic software, Grasshopper, each arched element was modelled according to its optimal size, weight and adaptation to the terrain of the ground. During this process od computer shaping, multiple forms and variations are created, some even surprising the creator himself.
The lightweight steel material that make up the parametrically designed sculpture were made using a method called FiDU, a metal inflating process created by Zieta himself. Metal is put through a 2D laser-cutting process and are then welded together to form a lightweight durable component that is compressed and then pumped with air to inflate the object10. This proves that computation not only aid in form creation, but with fabrication and physical creation as well. This project proves and reveals the potential of design computation and its benefits. Working with such software can help a designer experiment with different variations quickly and efficiently.
9. “Oskar Zieta Inflates Steel Arches With Air To Create This Lightweight Pavillion”, Archdaily, 2018 <https://www.archdaily. com/875571/oskar-zieta-inflates-steel-arches-with-air-to-create-this-lightweight-pavillion> [Accessed 15 March 2018] 10. “Nawa - A City Sculpture By Oskar Zieta”, ZIETA, 2018 <http://zieta.pl/nawa/> [Accessed 15 March 2018]
Image Source: https://www.archdaily.com/875571/oskar-zieta-inflates-steel-arches-with-air-to-create-this-lightweight-pavillion
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Another example of prime computation would be Herzog and de Meuron’s Messe Basel New Hall. Parametric design computation was utilized to create this intriguing pattern that mimics the impression of a basket weave on the facade. To break away from traditional monotonous exhibition hall facades, Herzog approached the design in a new light by offsetting the 2 volumes on top of one another and rotating them to achieve different architectural perspectives from street level. This architectural variation is reinforced, paradoxically, by applying a homogeneous material of aluminum all over the exterior surfaces. Articulated by weaving bands, these bands are strategically modelled to reduce the scale of the large exhibition volume it carries11. In addition, the multiple voids that are created using the modulated weaving pattern creates opportunities for natural light
to leak in, adding ambiance to the space. The rise of parametric modelling has increased over the last decade. Young generation users engage in the use of such mediums to generate continuous flow and accurate control of their design before construction. This helps economically as problems and issues are resolved before the construction process instead of during. Buildings, prior to the renaissance, were constructed, not planned 12; and the design process of such buildings can take years or even decades without the help of parametric modelling. In Herzog’s example, this goes to show that the use of computation technology is an excellent tool that designers can utilize to manipulate and experiment with form and material. It also allows designers to use provisional dimensions and change them later, without having to remodel everything from scratch.
11. “213 MESSE BASEL - NEW HALL - HERZOG & DE MEURON”, Herzogdemeuron.Com, 2018 <https://www.herzogdemeuron. com/index/projects/complete-works/201-225/213-messe-basel-new-hall.html> [Accessed 15 March 2018]. 10. Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 7
Image Source: https://www.pinterest.com.au/pin/106397609916366466/
Image Source: https://www.dezeen.com/2013/05/27/messe-basel-new-hall-by-herzog-de-meuron-new-photographs/
In this age of research by design, many distinct architectural firms begin to form their own multidisciplinary research through computational geometry in mediated generation and analysis of digital designs 13 . Currently, generative architecture is seen globally as revolutionary because of its functions. A small adjustment in algorithms can generate multiple iterations. This allows us as designers to experiment with ideas and explore with complexity and order. While computational design might look like to key to the future of the design industry, many are still not equipped with the knowledge to use any of these tools. Architecture, at its current state, is experiencing a shift from drawing to algorithm as the method of capturing and communicating designs14. There are many who wish to go back to the traditional ways of craftsmanship instead of advancing forward into the word of digital computation, only turning to computers to computerise their design and ideas. Though craftsmanship may produce spectacular results, it is by no doubt a slow and tedious process which is not easily adaptable to new technologies and made difficult or sometimes even impossible to have total control over building and form15.
Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 4 Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 15 15. Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 7 13.
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This organic tree-like structure roof is an inverted tree growth algorithm that was developed and optimised using generative mediums to arrive at a minimal deployment of steel. This resulted in a doubly curved surface, which depicts the distribution of forces of the structural framework. Uniting the form and structure as one 16 . The supporting structure consist of steel pipe members that are welded together and then bolted onto site. The use of computational methods has enabled this project to be assembled effortlessly as on-site assembling was done without any need of welding. The complex geometry was made possible with the help of advance 3D modelling software. This again proves that
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the use of generative computation enables one to produce complex form and structure. Generation has not only influenced design, but has improved communication between architect, structural engineers, consultants, contractors, and every other profession who is involved in the built environment17. Mediums like BIM enable each profession to communicate with other to prevent mistakes and potential issues that could occur whilst designing. Projects such as WestendGate requires collaboration between all those involved in planning. The integral planning between architecture and structural design is the basis for high quality and economical structure.
â€œWestendgate / Just Burgeff Architekten + A3labâ€?, Archdaily, 2018 <https://www.archdaily.com/175519/westendgate-justburgeff-architekten-a3lab> [Accessed 15 March 2018]. 17. Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architectureâ€™s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 12 16.
Image Source: https://www.archdaily.com/175519/westendgate-just-burgeff-architekten-a3lab
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B A R C E L O N A , C A T A L O N I A , I N P R O G R E S S
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The famous Sagrada Familia, an extraordinary ongoing historic artefact that baffles us all. The continuation of this building is made possible due to the wonders and discovery of parametric modelling. The destruction of Gaudi’s models and workshops during the Spanish Civil War left no direct pathway for architects to follow. However, with the introduction to computers and computation, the Sagrada Familia continues to rise as architects interpret and develop the complex geometry that Gaudi has left behind18. As parametrics turn architecture into a more sophisticated mode of design, industries begin to adapt to mainstream methods. The Sagrada Familia has similarly adopted the same methods, using contemporary digital design and construction technologies such as Rhino to understand its complex geometries
and to visualise the building as a whole 19. Flexibility is a major attribute of parametric modelling; however, designers find it hard to maintain flexibility throughout their projects. Programming paradigms of parametric modelling is based on data and parameters. However, if the two do not correlate, errors and difficulties may occur, resulting in lost data. A prime example can be seen during the construction of the Sagrada Familia. Forming the bases of the front tower are the “Frontons”. These “Frontons” were designed parametrically during the design process. However, during the process, these “Frontons” were converted into explicit geometry, which eventually complicated parametrical properties, resulting in the loss of the original data 20. In cases like these, parametric computation could be made efficient but problematic.
“Sagrada Família”, En.Wikipedia.Org, 2018 <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sagrada_Fam%C3%ADlia> [Accessed 16 March 2018]. 19. “AD Classics: La Sagrada Familia / Antoni Gaudi”, Archdaily, 2018 <https://www.archdaily.com/438992/ad-classics-lasagrada-familia-antoni-gaudi> [Accessed 16 March 2018]. 20. Mark Burry, Daniel Davis and Jane Burry, “The Flexiblity Of Logic Programming”, Parametrically Regenerating The Sagrada Família, 2011, 34-35 <http://www.danieldavis.com/papers/caadria2011_davis_burry_burry.pdf> [Accessed 16 March 2018]. 18.
Image Source: https://www.archdaily.com/438992/ad-classics-la-sagrada-familia-antoni-gaudi
Part A opens our eyes to the digitalised world of parametrics and computation in architecture: its sophisticated but complicated ways of algorithms and scripting. This mode of design presents alternatives and innovative ways to approach design in architecture. In todayâ€™s world of technological advancement, we as new generation designers should utilise these tools that were created to help aid us in our designs that can help support the environment and preserve its ecology. Living in a fast-paced environment, it is crucial to produce results efficiently and accurately. To do so computers are here to aid our discovery and exploration.
The past few weeks has exposed me to complex algorithmic scripting in Grasshopper and Rhino. Scripting was no doubt a challenged I faced while playing with the software. One of the main problems I struggled with was modelling what I wanted intentionally. However, once I got a hang of it, the set of algorithms seemed to form a line of logic. The charm about algorithmic parametrics is the moment of creating something unintentional that turns out to take a better shape and form then your original intent. It is the beauty in that moment that you drop your original intent and continue to explore what other variations and iteration you can or could create. As we delve deeper into the world of parametrics and digital computation, it is important to keep an open mind to discover new creative and innovative opportunities. We should not let go of our traditional craftmanship methods in architecture, but we should not strive to achieve the past either.
Using driftwood pavillion splitting technique
S U B S T R A T E Using algorithms inspired by Jake Ta r b e l l , o n e c a n to d i v i d e fo r m s i n to different sections on a flat plane by inputting numeric data into different components, thus resulting in various s u b s t ra t e ra d i a l s a n d c o m p o s i t i o n s . Converting a plane into a 3D form is a bit more complicated. As first, points must be made on these lines, and lines must be offset to form 2D volumes. Only then are you able to extrude points and lines from the x-y axis to the z axis.