Page 1


2

1. Executive summary | 4-5

2. Introduction | 6 2.1 About the designer | 6 2.2 Brand History | 7 2.3 Brand History Timeline | 8-9

1 2 executive summary.

introduction.

brand equity.

marketing mix.

3 4

3. Brand Equity | 10 3.1 What is Brand Equity? | 11 3.2 About the logo | 11 3.3 Brand Personality | 11 3.3.1 Brand Values | 11 3.4 Brand Environment | 11 3.4.1 Brand Website | 11

4. Marketing Mix | 14 4.1 What is Marketing Mix? | 15 4.2 Product | 15 4.3 Pricing | 15 4.4 Place | 16 4.5 Promotion | 17 4.6 Other Kenzo Campaigns | 18-19


3 5. Costumer Segmentation | 20 5.1 What is a consumer? | 20 5.1.1 Kenzo’s Target Consumer | 20 5.1.2 Who purchases the brand? | 20 5.3 Mass-marketing Strategy | 21 5.4 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs | 21 5.5 Customer Profile | 22-23

6. Brand Positioning | 24 6.1 What is Brand Positioning? | 24 6.1.1 Kenzo’s Positioning Aim | 24 6.2 Kenzo’s Competitors | 25 6.2.1 Kenzo’s Top Competitors | 25 6.2.2 Kenzo’s USP | 25 6.3 Kenzo’s Strategy | 25 6.4 Market Positioning and Competition Diagram | 26-27

5 6 7 8 customer segmentation.

micro and macro.

7. Micro and macro analysis | 28 7.1 Ethical and Sustainability | 28 7.2 Issue Response | 28

Brand positioning and competitor.

SWOT analysis.

8. SWOT analysis | 30 8.1 SWOT definition | 30 8.2 Strengths | 30 8.3 Weaknesses | 30 8.4 Opportunities | 30 8.5 Threats | 30 8.6 Recommendations | 30


4

executive summary.

1.


5

executive summary. The purpose of the following report is to analyse the brand Kenzo. This report demonstrates the brand’s unique identity that they are trying to convey and their marketing strategy which successfully capture the attention of their target audience (men and women aged 15-30 and over). It has been concluded that Kenzo Takada played a vital role in the French fashion scene and even after retiring he is still an inspiration in today’s fashion.


6

introduction.

2.

2. It all started off with the name Jungle Jap when the brand was created in 1970 by Kenzo Takada (Fibre2fashion. (n.d.). It is inspired by culture and colour to create bold, elegant and sophisticated garments for most people. What makes the brand unique in the high fashion world is that by looking at the designs you can there’s no such thing as conventions when it comes to fashion. For Kenzo Takada it’s all about being experimental with his imagination by being creative with his designs while making them wearable. 2.1 Designer, Kenzo Takada was born in 1940 in Himeji, Japan. He developed his fashion interest at a young age by reading his sister’s magazine. Takada wanted to obey his parents’ wish so at the age of 18, he studied Literature at the University of Kobe. This didn’t last long as he transferred to Tokyo’s Bunka Fashion College where he was one of the first male students to be accepted, to pursue a degree in fashion. This led him to working for the Sanai Department store where he created up to 40 designs of girl’s clothing every month. He graduated in 1964 and broke into the world of fashion when he moved to Paris where he produced 30 designs that were accepted by designer Louis Feraud (Sowray, B. 2017). He worked for various department stores including The Pisanti Textile Group and Relations Textiles. He opened the boutique called Jungle Jap in 1970, located in an old clothing store at the Gallerie Vivvienne, where he also held his first fashion show. His smock trent dresses, oversized dungarees, enlarged armholes, unique shoulder shapes and store gained a lot of attention and were featured in American Vogue in 1971. It was referred to as the next development in the Paris boutique scene. We could start to see the development of Kenzo as a brand and where it was heading towards.


7

キンゾーは誰ですか?

who is Kenzo.

2.2. In 1975, he launched his first collection in Tokyo and 1977 in New York. Despite of his designs being very colourful and diverse, he was still named as the “Great White Designer” (Sowray, B. 2017). In 1983, his first men’s collection was launched followed by the kids collection in 1987. In 1988, he launched his fragrance line starting off with women’s, including Kenzo de Kenzo, Parfum D’éte, Le Mode est Beau and L’eau par Kenzo. 3 years later, his first men’s fragrance Kenzo Pour Homme was launched. Flower by Kenzo was then launched and has become a flagship fragrance for the Kenzo parfum brand since. In 1993, a multinational conglomerate company LVMH also known as Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton SE). LVMH’s aim is to control the brands they manage to maintain and increase the recognition of their luxury products. Kenzo products, for example, are only sold in Kenzo stores in big and wealthy cities or luxury goods shop like Selfridges (En.wikipedia.org, 2018). In 1999, Kenzo Takada announced his retirement leaving his assistants in charge. The brand was joined by Antonio Maras in 2003 and became the Creative Director in 2008. Maras was born in 1961 in Alghero, a small town in Sassari in the Northwestern Sardinia (Showstudio.com, 2018). He brought the Sardinian-style to the brand while keeping the brand’s signature - artistic and colourful styles. In July 2011, Antonio Maras left his Creative Directorship and was replaced by duo Humberto Leon and Carol Lim - founders of Opening Ceremony (Sowray, B. 2017). In the past, Kenzo was all about the products being infused with colour and culture, it had more elements of nature in the form of coloured prints and patterns and culture integrated into the garment through shape, design and cut. Now, the duo, has inserted a youth and urban feel to the brand, changing the “Classic Jungle” to “Urban Jungle”, inspired by dynamic city, bright electric colours and plastics. They introduced the iconic tiger logo that people (mostly younger generations) wear on their chest so proudly. “We think our approach is similar to Mr. Takada’s,” says Humberto Leon, now 18 months into his shared tenure. “Always wanting to push ourselves and do things that feel fresh and modern” (Walker, 2018). “Kenzo Takada came to Paris from Tokyo with bold new ideas for fashion and established an international company full of vibrant energy and color. We are thrilled to take Kenzo, a source of great inspiration for us, into the future with our generation and the next in mind,” Humberto Leon and Carol Lim, to another source (Fashiongear.fibre2fashion.com, 2018).


8

timeline.

Kenzo Takada founded Jungle Jap (soon-to-be Kenzo). He opened a store at the Gallerie Vivienne and later on held his first show at the same place.

Takada showed his first women collections for Jungle Jap in Tokyo.

Jungle Jap was renamed as Kenzo.

Kenzo launched its kids and home collection.

2.3

1970

1971

1975

1977

1982

1983

1987

1988

Takada’s designs were featured in American Vogue.

He then showed these collections in New York.

Kenzo’s first mens collection was launched.

Kenzo’s women’s fragrance line began.


9

賢三の進化.

evolution of Kenzo. Kenzo launched its first men’s fragrance - Kenzo Pour Homme.

1991

1993

Kenzo Takada announced his retirement.

1999

2000

Kenzoji, a skincare line was launched.

2001

2003

Antonio Maras became Kenzo’s creative director.

2008

2011

His label was bought by LVMH (Moet Hennessy Louis Vuitton SE).

Flower by Kenzo was launched and has become a flagship fragrance for the Kenzo Parfums brand.

Antonio Maras, an Italian designer - joined the brand.

Antonio Maras left his creative directorship and was replaced by duo Humberto Leon and Carol Lim (founders of Open Ceremony).


10

3.

brand equity.

YOUNG CREATIVE

REASONABLY PRICED CULTURAL

HIGH QUALITY DIVERSE

UNIQUE

URBAN


11

ブランド.

the brand. Brand equity is the image the brand wants to represent to their target market, how it wants to be recognised (Shopify, 2018). Aaker;s model talks about four main dimensions of brand equity: brand as product, brand as symbol, brand as person and brand as organisation. Kenzo logo is its own lettering made up of three black lines with each letters, with “Paris” written inside the letter O, and a plain white background. Kenzo is a name originated in Japan, which has two meanings: “wise” (ken) and “three” (zou). It is also the first name of the founder of Kenzo - Kenzo Takada (Japan-guide.com, 2018). The brand is known for its iconic tiger motif, its most wanted piece never lasts in store for more than two to three hours every time it’s launched (Alexander, 2018). “The knitted and embroidered jumper that we created was quite expensive and we didn’t sell that many,” Lim stated. ”But then there was a waiting list in store for the sweater as it got shot for the ad campaign. So when the sweatshirt came in, it just blew up. We just couldn’t keep it in stores” (Alexander, 2018). Kenzo as a brand has very captivating and strong history that makes it almost so difficult to detect the changes that have been made since Kenzo Takada’s retirement. Having a strong brand equity is very important for brands - the more successful it is, the more recognisable the brand will be and can definitely help to increase sales, for example, if the brand is well-known and respected, the demands for the products they offer will be higher, which means prices could also go higher such as Kenzo sweatshirts. Kenzo jumpers price varies from £75-£200 - some designs are more demanded than others. For a jumper this is very expensive but at this point the customers are not buying the actual garment - they are buying the logo because the brand is very popular. When you see bright, electric colours and floral prints, geographically, you think of Japan especially Tokyo and the bright billboards and the street style - it’s just very live and eye catching. Fashion brand wise, you think of Kenzo, which links to Japan because of the designer’s origin. The clothes are inspired by art and culture - these two things will always be the main inspiration. Their clothing used to attract people aged 30 and over but now teens have joined and even newly born babies! The designer duo Humberto Leon and Carol Lim believes that they have not changed the target market, in fact, they have expanded it. “We’re not after a younger customer specifically. We want a bigger dialogue and we want different age demographics to exist together,” Carol stated (Stylist, 2018). “That’s the goal; we didn’t want to exclude the existing customer,” Humberto added (Stylist, 2018). Kenzo has a range of fragrance for men and women, in fact, their fragrance line is one of the brand’s essence alongside the clothing (En.wikipedia.org, 2018). He didn’t only express his creativity through designing garments but also through his Kenzo Parfums. This shows that Kenzo is willing to extend its brand in order to attract more customers and to show that the brand has diversity within its products. You don’t just see Kenzo in any shopping malls or any high streets - like most brands it has over 100 stores internationally and an online shop which ships internationally. This is a very important factor of brand equity as the more ways of selling a brand has the more known it’s going to be. Kenzo is known for its unique welcoming store, obviously filled with coloured and printed, oversized clothes. As said before, the brand is not just aimed at one target market but it’s for everyone, which makes it very welcoming as everyone can come in, not just to buy their clothes (but that’s up to the customers) but just to be inspired by the culture and tradition that the clothes have been inspired by. The website is filled with colours and floral prints, with lots of images to keep the customers engaged. It is very easy to navigate to make the customer’s shopping experience easy (Kenzo.com, 2018). The website consists of archives from previous seasons including their motifs such as “The Tiger”, The Kenzo Move (which linked fashion to performing arts), floral prints and more. It also features their latest fashion show such as the Fall Winter 18. So, the purpose of the website isn’t just for purchasing, it’s also for customers to see the ideas behind the products they buy (Kenzo.com, 2018).


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13


14

marketing mix.

4.


15

製品と価格.

product and pricing. 4.1 Marketing mix consists of 4 P’s: Product, Price, Place and Promotion. These factors are needed by businesses to promote and sell to their target market (The Economic Times, 2018). 4.2 A product is anything that can be offered in a market for attention, acquisition, use or consumption that might satisfy a need or want. Kenzo’s unique selling point is that it’s a French luxury house known for its craftsmanship they put in their bright urban style clothing, full of colours and prints - and fragrance line - these are all Kenzo’s actual products. It may be priced a little higher than high street brands, but the quality is worth the price. Women’s coats costs and jackets costs from £200-£1900, dresses from £150-£800, shoes from £100£1600 and so on. Men’s coats and jackets are priced from £200-£1400, sweatshirts from £130-£600, shoes from £120-£700…their core product, which is the tiger sweatshirts for both men and women costs £175-£250. Their kids wear costs around £30-£150 for both girls and boys. 4.3 When it comes to how they price their products, they offer a high price to start with and when new lines comes out then they put the existing products on sale - but they keep some of the products’ price such as the tiger sweatshirts as they are highly demanded by their consumers. This pricing strategy is called ‘Product line pricing’ (Smallbusiness.chron.com, 2018). The prices may still be expensive and the consumers may hesitate from ordering online as they can’t try it on, however they offer free shipping and free returns.


16

16

ĺ ´ć‰€.

place.

4.4 When it comes to location, Kenzo has stores across the world and located in luxury department stores such as Selfridges, where they can go visit and experience the whole ambiance of Kenzo - playful with elements of travel and culture. This makes it accessible for everyone especially they have expanded their target market to older consumers too and older consumers may not be pros at technology so it’s easier for all age range to see or purchase. Kenzo stores will not be seen in high streets but will stay close to it, for example, in London the main high street.


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プロモーション.

promotion.

turn for more promotional campaigns.

4.5 Kenzo use different media for promotion such as film, photographs and even music (Bobila and Bobila, 2018). They include a lot of bright colours including their clothing to catch the audience’s attention - the classic colours that they always use are red, yellow, electric blue - very oriental like the founder’s country origin. Their adverts are always creative and youthful with a hint of sophistication. They have used famous actors such as Macaulay Culkin who’s very well recognised from the Home Alone movies - this is a smart strategy of the brand. Their iconic tiger shirt and clothing has been worn by many celebrities and fashion bloggers including Beyonce, Zoey Deschanel, Selena Gomez, Joan Smalls, Lorde, Andy from Stylescrapbook and Rihanna (En.wikipedia.org, 2018). Social media, which is one of the biggest platform for advertising, is used by the brand as well such as Instagram.


18

4.5

kenzo


19

キャンペーン.

campaigns.


20

customer segmentation.

5.

5.1 A consumer is someone who buys products and services for personal use (InvestorWords.com, 2018). Consumers that often purchase from a certain brand or company is also susceptible to advertising. 5.1.1 Kenzo doesn’t really have a particular target consumer as it is open for everyone and that’s one of the things that attracts their consumers. The brand caters to men, women and kids so it really is for everybody. The products are aimed at people aged 10-40 and above (they also offer newborn kids wear but at this case the brand will have to attract the parents’ attention), middle to upper middle class, who are aiming to stand out and has a passion for travel, culture and art - or just anything different from the products they sell in the high street or other luxury stores. There are 149 Kenzo stores globally and an online store (Businessoffashion.com, 2018). 5.1.2 It may seem to be worn mostly by younger generations but having stores around the world helps Carol Lim’s and Humberto Leon’s aim to expand their target market (Stylist, 2018). It can be described as a brand that is for everyone because of its affordability, practicality and accessibil-


ターゲット.

21

the target. 5.3 Kenzo doesn’t offer customisation as they use mass-marketing strategy. The style of the brand is very distinct and people who purchase their products know what they want. It offers a variety of style, for example, with the tiger motif, they have different colours. Mass-marketing is cheaper and price has always been considered within the brand so this strategy is best for them. Also, using mass-marketing can reach a wider audience or someone who’s trying to change their style a little bit - which again is Kenzo’s creative directors’ aim (Anon, 2018). 5.4 According to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, there are five stages - physiological needs, safety/security needs, social needs, esteem needs and self-actualisation needs (Simply Psychology, 2018). For Kenzo’s consumers it’s more about the esteem and self-actualisation needs. People who choose to wear bold, avant-garde style clothing, may want to express themselves through clothing to boost their self-esteem and as what most people would say nowadays “treating yourself” is one of the factors that encourage consumers to make a purchase to fulfil their needs or just to reward themselves may it be for something they have achieved or just for personal growth or development.

FYI: FYI: FYI:

Kenzo’s target consumer is the aspirational consumer but the brand’s audience is not defined by age. It is defined by shared fashion and social values.


顧客情報

22


23

5.5


24

brand positioning a n d c o m p e t i t o r.

6.

6.1 Brand positioning is what a brand wants to be perceived by the consumers’ minds. It can also be described as the place of the brand in the market next to their competitors. When brands know where they are positioned in the market it is hard to reposition without breaking their integrity (BusinessDictionary.com, 2018). 6.1.1 Kenzo aims for a luxury positioning while selling reasonably priced products, near the high street and luxury department stores such as Harrods and Selfridges - they also sell their products in designer outlets, for example, in Bicester Village, they have other designers such as Gucci, Givenchy and Chanel. On a business perspective, being in this position will allow them to attract more audience, build connection with them, leading to a higher exposure in the market.


25

位置と競争.

position and competition. 6.2 First and foremost, Kenzo’s competition comes from the same parent group (LVMH) such as Louis Vuitton, Givenchy, Marc Jacobs, Céline and so on. 6.2.1 However, according to a market survey, Etro is Kenzo’s top competition next to Marc Jacobs - these are the fashion houses that sell a similar range of products with a similar price point (Dillon, S. 2011). 6.2.2 Kenzo’s unique selling point is their price range - good quality products for sensible prices. Kenzo has 149 stores globally, while Etro has 175 and Marc Jacobs with 138. Because Kenzo’s USP is its price range, it is definitely in front of the line, then Marc Jacobs then Etro. A dress from Kenzo costs around £150-£800, while Marc Jacobs costs around £275-£1700 (Marcjacobs.com, 2018) and Etro costs around £600-2500 (Limited, 2018). 6.3 All brands sell clothes that are bright, screams creativity and inspired by prints. However, I think Kenzo’s strategy of being slightly cheaper than its competitors is working in terms of having a wider audience (this is their aim) as more people can afford their products whereas Etro and Marc Jacobs are leaving towards the luxury price range.


market positioning and competition diagram.

市場ポジショニングと競争の図.

26


27

+ Quality (Price)

High Street

Luxury

- Quality (Price)


28

micro and macro.

7.

7.1 Kenzo is known for introducing 100% cotton - using cotton is very sustainable as it is renewable and its environmentally-friendly throughout its life cycle, whereas artificial cotton is not renewable and is not eco-friendly as it emits toxic. Although they use 100% cotton, Kenzo doesn’t have actual policies for environment, carbon emissions or labour conditions in poorer countries (Rankabrand.org, 2018). However, the products are manufactured in Portugal, Italy, France and China. It is known to be testing on animals with their fragrances and cosmetics and for using real leather and fur (Ethicalconsumer.org, 2018). 7.2 For their 2017 Fall/Winter collection, the creative duo Leon and Lim wanted to raise awareness towards environmental issues through showcasing their clothing designs at Paris Fashion Week. Ski jackets, turtleneck sweater and puffer jackets filled with bright and vibrant colours. The designs also include animal prints, Hawaiian florals, northern lights and arctic glaciers. Instead of investing money on their set, they focused more on donating towards environmental organisations including ‘Ideas for us’ and ‘Earth Guardians’. All of this were featured to raise eco-awareness and ethical fashion sense (That’s it Magazine | Bloggers around the world., 2018). They might have done this to show that they are starting to be more ethical and to make up for the issues that the brand was facing.


問題.

issues.

29


30

SWOT analysis.

8.

8.1 SWOT analysis stands for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. 8.2 Kenzo’s strengths will have to be its worldwide brand presence. It is a famous brand that has a wide variety of audience. It also has a strong heritage and history, which has always been the pride of the brand. It has established its recognition in the market. It is doing well when it comes to advertising their brand and image too. The French and Japanese culture makes the brand more interesting and allow customers to trust the designs and the quality. It’s affordable luxury unlike Marc Jacobs and Etro. 8.3 Weaknesses will have to be that the silhouettes and designs appeal more to young adult women more than career women, price level doesn’t completely appeal to younger target market like students. Lastly, it’s not as prestige as other LVMH brands such as Dior and Chanel. 8.4 Kenzo has a lot of improvements to make such as having to push further in the garment industry, reducing the price for younger target market, use fashion influencers to promote their products and collaborate with well-known brands. 8.5 Potential threats could be that 30-45 middle class are more able to afford the products so it is target market is very limited at the moment and it is fast fashion. 8.6 Recommendation: In order to achieve a wider market, they have to reduce the price for the younger market. People are becoming more aware about the fast fashion industry therefore Kenzo will have to provide information about their manufacturing, labour and so on - or else people will hesitate to buy. Collaborations with today’s biggest fashion influencers such as Kendall Jenner or any of the Kardashian or brands such as Topshop, Comme des Garçons, etc.


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問題.


32

参考文献.

bibliography. * Sowray, B. (2017, August 23). Kenzo Takada. Retrieved January 24, 2018, from http://www.vogue.co.uk/article/kenzo-takada * History of Kenzo Fashion Brand | Kenzo Fashion History | Fibre2fashion. (n.d.). Retrieved January 24, 2018, from http://fashiongear.fibre2fashion.com/brand-story/kenzo/history.asp * Kenzo Brand Philosophy | Kenzo Brand Values and Inspirations @ Fibre2fashion. (n.d.). Retrieved January 24, 2018, from http://fashiongear. fibre2fashion.com/brand-story/kenzo/brand-philosophy-values-and-inspirations.asp * LVMH. (2018, January 29). Retrieved January 29, 2018, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LVMH * Walker, H. (2018). Kenzo: it takes two to make a brand go right. [online] The Independent. Available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/lifestyle/fashion/features/kenzo-it-takes-two-to-make-a-brand-go-right-8555526.html [Accessed 29 Jan. 2018]. * Showstudio.com. (2018). Antonio Marras. [online] Available at: http://showstudio.com/contributor/antonio_marras [Accessed 30 Jan. 2018]. * Fashiongear.fibre2fashion.com. (2018). Kenzo Leadership | Kenzo Brand Leadership | Kenzo Brand Leaders | Fibre2fashion. [online] Available at: http://fashiongear.fibre2fashion.com/brand-story/kenzo/leadership.asp [Accessed 29 Jan. 2018]. * Shopify. (2018). Brand Equity Definition - What is Brand Equity. [online] Available at: https://www.shopify.co.uk/encyclopedia/brand-equity?rodeo_token=61a1a291-594e-4fff-acc7-decc0936703f [Accessed 1 Feb. 2018]. * Kenzo.com. (2018). KENZO Clothing | Men, Women & Kids collections. [online] Available at: https://www.kenzo.com/en/winter2018show [Accessed 1 Feb. 2018]. * Japan-guide.com. (2018). What is the meaning of the name Kenzo? - japan-guide.com forum. [online] Available at: https://www.japan-guide.com/forum/quereadisplay.html?0+20788 [Accessed 1 Feb. 2018]. * Alexander, E. (2018). How Long Would You Wait For A Kenzo Tiger Jumper?. [online] Vogue.co.uk. Available at: http://www.vogue.co.uk/ article/kenzo-tiger-sweater-design-process-inspiration [Accessed 1 Feb. 2018]. * Stylist. (2018). How Kenzo Created a Monster. [online] Available at: https://www.stylist.co.uk/fashion/how-kenzo-created-a-monster/103813 [Accessed 1 Feb. 2018]. * En.wikipedia.org. (2018). Kenzō Takada. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kenzō_Takada#Fashion_career [Accessed 2 Feb. 2018]. * Kenzo.com. (2018). KENZO Clothing - Men, Women & Kids collections. [online] Available at: https://www.kenzo.com/en/home [Accessed 2 Feb. 2018]. * The Economic Times. (2018). Definition of Marketing Mix | What is Marketing Mix ? Marketing Mix Meaning - The Economic Times. [online] Available at: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/definition/marketing-mix [Accessed 3 Feb. 2018] * Anon, (2018). [online] Available at: https://shuspace.shu.ac.uk/bbcswebdav/pid-7551380-dt-content-rid-19012071_2/courses/55-401601AF-20178/The%20Marketing%20Mix%20-%2015-01-18.pdf [Accessed 3 Feb. 2018]. * Smallbusiness.chron.com. (2018). What Is Price Lining?. [online] Available at: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/price-lining-12459.html [Accessed 5 Feb. 2018]. * Bobila, M. and Bobila, M. (2018). Hear Karen O’s New Song ‘Yo! My Saint’ for Kenzo’s Spring 2018 Collection. [online] Fashionista. Available at: https://fashionista.com/2018/01/kenzo-karen-o-spring-2018-ad-campaign [Accessed 5 Feb. 2018]. * En.wikipedia.org. (2018). Kenzo (brand). [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kenzo_(brand) [Accessed 5 Feb. 2018]. * InvestorWords.com. (2018). What is a consumer? definition and meaning. [online] Available at: http://www.investorwords.com/1055/consumer.html [Accessed 8 Feb. 2018]. * Stylist. (2018). How Kenzo Created a Monster. [online] Available at: https://www.stylist.co.uk/fashion/how-kenzo-created-a-monster/103813 [Accessed 8 Feb. 2018]. * Anon, (2018). [online] Available at: https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-benefits-and-disadvantages-of-mass-marketing-compared-toniche-marketing [Accessed 8 Feb. 2018]. * Simply Psychology. (2018). Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. [online] Available at: https://www.simplypsychology.org/maslow.html [Accessed 8 Feb. 2018]. * BusinessDictionary.com. (2018). Good one to know!. [online] Available at: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/positioning.html [Accessed 8 Feb. 2018]. * Marcjacobs.com. (2018). Women’s Dresses | Marc Jacobs | Official Site. [online] Available at: https://www.marcjacobs.com/clothing/dresses/ [Accessed 9 Feb. 2018]. * Limited, S. (2018). Selfridges | Shop Online. [online] Selfridges.com. Available at: http://www.selfridges.com/GB/en/webapp/wcs/stores/ servlet/FhBrowse?device=Desktop&fh_location=%2f%2fselfridges%2fen_GB%2f%24s%3detro%5cu0020women%2fcategories%3c%7bselfridges_c548261%7d%2fcategories%3c%7bselfridges_c548261_c548652%7d%2fcategories%3c%7bselfridges_c548261_c548652_ c548685%7d&fh_view_size=60&catalogId=16151&fh_refview=search&InternationalLanguage=en&mrf=categories&llc=sn&langId=-1&InternationalCountry=GB&fh_refpath=533c4a4c-ca89-4413-bd6a-0bee19fdecf5&fh_reffacet=categories&storeId=10052 [Accessed 9 Feb. 2018]. * Rankabrand.org. (2018). Kenzo and sustainability: E-label | Buy sustainable brands. [online] Available at: https://rankabrand.org/sustainable-luxury-brands/Kenzo [Accessed 9 Feb. 2018]. * Ethicalconsumer.org. (2018). Kenzo clothing. [online] Available at: http://www.ethicalconsumer.org/scoredetails.aspx?ProductId=556721 [Accessed 9 Feb. 2018]. * That’s it Magazine | Bloggers around the world. (2018). KENZO: BOLD AND ETHICAL. [online] Available at: http://www.thatsitmag.com/ blog/2017/1/23/kenzo-2017-fallwinter-collection-is-unapologetically-bold [Accessed 9 Feb. 2018].


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画像ソース.

images sources.

* Thebestfashionblog.com. (2018). Cite a Website - Cite This For Me. [online] Available at: http://thebestfashionblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/Kenzo-Accessories-Fall-Winter-2012-2013-Campaign-1.jpg [Accessed 11 Feb. 2018]. * Sidewalkhustle.com. (2018). Cite a Website - Cite This For Me. [online] Available at: https://sidewalkhustle.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/kenzo-fall-2017-ad-campaign-5. jpeg [Accessed 11 Feb. 2018]. * Fashiongonerogue.com. (2018). Cite a Website - Cite This For Me. [online] Available at: https://www.fashiongonerogue.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/kenzo2.jpg [Accessed 11 Feb. 2018]. * I.blogs.es. (2018). Cite a Website - Cite This For Me. [online] Available at: https://i.blogs.es/af3f40/kenzo-accesorios-invierno-2012-4/450_1000.jpg [Accessed 11 Feb. 2018]. * Fuckingyoung.es. (2018). Cite a Website - Cite This For Me. 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終わり Elisa Confesor Brand Marketing Audit Kenzo

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