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Digital Design - Module 02 Semester 1, 2018 Elias Hanna

915203 Junhan Foong + 14

Week Three

Reading: Kolerevic B. 2003. Architecture in the Digital Age

Kolerevic described three fundamental type of fabrication techniques in the reading. Outline the three techniques and discuss the potential of Computer Numeric Controlled fabrication with parametric modelling. (150 words max)

The three types of fabrication techniques outlined in the Digital Production chapter of Architecture in the Digital Age by Branko Kolarevic are Subtractive Fabrication (including Two Dimensional Fabrication), Additive Fabrication and Transformative Fabrication. Parametric Modelling has offered architects a way of designining and eventually realising complex and iterative forms and geometries which were previously unthinkable thanks in part to CNC fabrication technology. CNC fabrication has streamlined the process of production of elements which make up these designs through a coding language driven machine, which communicates with parametric software to produce elements in a building, or its complex formwork for instance, some programs can automatically produce the data to be inputted into the fabricaiton drawings (or CNC data) streamlining the process entirely. It is also as easy for a CNC machine to produce numerous custom panels of varying sizes, as it is for it to produce numerous panels of the same size, which allows for complex parametric models to be continually iterated without a significant cost burden or time expense as was previosuly encountered.


Week Three

Surface Creation

Left: Script for near final Loft Surfaces (Top Middle).Bottom Middle: early experiments with Lofting, I like how the surfaces seem to be reacting to one another, and the double curves are roughly mirrors of one another. Top Right: I find this saddle form beautiful, and the two subtlely varied forms resting over each other extremely interesting but developing this into a physical model would be difficult due to their proximity and angle. Bottom Right: Two Surfaces touching at a point, somewhat interesting opening resulting between the two, but overall too simple and the waffle structure would be difficult to construct given that the surfaces are touching. Top Middle: Close to my final surface outcome, minor alteration was needed to ensure the waffle structure would work. I like the variation in curvature between the two and how different the geometry appears based on the viewing angle.


Week Four Panels & Waffle

Panelised surfaces combining a mixture of angular solid forms and pyramid forms with various opening sizes throughout, subtly changing, while their direction and shape changes in a more random and prominent way create a sense of complexity and playfulness.

Successful waffle structure of my two surface lofts, some tweaking was required of my doubly curving surfaces so that the Z Axis elements in particular were successfully outputted, I believe that the curve radius was initially too sharp to creat a clean and workable flat geometry.


Week Four

Laser Cutting

A meticuluous layer structure for each row of Panelised elements and careful cross referencing of unrolled surfaces with the 3D panels ensured a smooth transition to Laser Cutting, removing any unneeded tabs and deleting those that were overlapping or impossible to fold was time consuming but necessary. Using Grasshopper to make the tabs for the Panels was helpful in speeding up the process.



Horizontal Elements (like Floor Slabs) provide rigidity

Solid Panels Etch (to allow folding)

Perforated Panels

Various Vertical Elements (like Columns) to be cut out of 1mm Mountboard as it is Solid and has better load bearing capacity than the thinner Ivory Card

Excerpts of Waffle Structure


Week Five

The process of scripting my Boolean form was simpler than that of Scripting Task 1, I enjoyed experiemtning with the various Attractor systems, namely random and point attractors, in conjunction with each other and other attractors like mean curvature. I had difficulties combining various shapes in the one operation, so in the end I baked them out seperately and deleted objects as needed to create variation, in the future I would prefer to do this solely in grasshopper. My Boolean form experiments were driven by the idea of fragmentation and complex solid/void relationships, especially when combining various shapes of different sizes and orientations, this lead to my final form which was a combination of spherica cutouts and more angular/planar ones.


Week Five


1/8 view of 150 x 150 x 150 Cube, oriented to show most interesting aspects. This final iteration is a combination of those that preceeded it, combining spherical and angular geometries to create a feeling of random cutouts across the surface bisecting the overal cube in different ways and creating varying plays of shadow and light across its surface. Some elements go entirely through the cutout, others stop short, some only flake parts off, adding to the sense of intrigue and difference. Creating the form was a process of trial and error, modifying certain thicknesses and object placement’s to enable successful 3D printing.


Week Six Task 01











{150,37.5,150} {0,0,150} {150,30,150}

{150, 150,150}


{150, 150,0}


{0,75, 150}

{0, 150, 100}


{150,150,0} {0,90,0}

{150,0,0} {30,150,0}




Paneling Grid & Attractor Point

{Index Selection}

{Index Selection}

{Index Selection}

{Index Selection}




2.4 {194,0,114}



Grid Points


{112.5, 0,0} {0, 0, 0}

Attractor / Control Points (X,Y,Z) Attractor / Control Curves

{30,150,150} {0,0,150}








{Attractor Point Location}

{Attractor Point Location’s}

{Curve Attractor Location}

{Mean Curve Attractor (Surface)}







Task 01 Matrix I chose to develop Panels 3.2 and 3.3 in conjunction with eachother, while varying their opening sizes and overall depths to create undulation and to avoid repetition in the overall form. One side of the surface holds larger openings and less solid objects than the other to allow more light in, while the other is the opposite to enable shade, emulating a passive shading structure on a building’s facade.


Week Six Task 02

Grid Manipulation











Attractor / Control Points (X,Y,Z) Attractor / Control Curves Grid Points


{130,-1,12} {150,0,0}





Sphere Distribution

{Point Attractor: Magnitude = 1.24}

{Control Curve(s): Magnitude = 1.44}

{Point Attractor(s) & Random Attraction}




{Gaussian Curvature Attraction}

2.4 {16,133,146}


{136,19,86} {21,84,11}

{-5,82,0} {115,126,2}

{Attractor Point Location}



{Curve, Point &Random Attractor’s}

{Mean Curve Attractor}

{Direction (Unit X) & Point Attractor}





Sphere Transformation




{Attractor Points Location}

{Platonic Octahedron: Random Attractor}

{Truncated Platonic Cube & Spheres}

{Truncated Tetrahedron}

Task 02 Matrix Choices made while iterating Task 02 were based on trying to create a sense of intrigue and complexity in the overall form using varying shapes, considering the shape of the cutout as much as the shape itself, aiming to emulate a jewelbox found at the bottom of the ocean. A combination of attractors was used, including random and mean curvature, on the point grid and the objects themselves in order to create variance and porosity.


Week Six

Final Isometric Views


Appendix Process

Loft Iterations: Experimenting with Bisecting angular surfaces

Surfaces draping from the top of other surfaces, intriguing resultant shapes

Sharp geometries and tight curves, difficult to join the two with a structure, or develop a surface upon either

Sphere created on grid points for both 5 x 5 Grid and Grid affected by attractor points/curve to enable illustrator output for journal entry

Geometries sharing a flat meeting point at their top and then draping down uniquely to one another

Resultng grid with spheres in rhino after baking and then using silhouette command to obtain the spherical outlines, joining the curves was necessary to enable filling in in Illustrator


Appendix Process

Experimenting with 2D Panelling using Octagon Shapes over a grid of points influenced by a mean attractor, not a particularly interesting or

Inspiration: Chapel in Valleaceron by S.M.A.O. (2001), a captivating folding, origami like form conceptually derived from folding as a ‘hidden generator of dif-

aesthetically captivaitng result.

ferent spaces’. Carefully considered openings and sweepng simple but not simplistic flat angular geomteries.

Panel and Waffle Structure combined Inspiration: Institut du Monde Arabe by Enrique Jan + Jean Nouvel + Architecture-Studio, France (1987). Beautiful filtration and regulation of light through metallic brise soleil (diaphragms) which regulate light and cast a multitude of shadows across the interiors. I hope to create a sense of intrigue through the shadow play created through my openings in Task 1.




I like the complexity of the resulting breps interior form and the random but not over the top undulation within.

Experimenting with strings of various point and random attractors between Point Grids in order to create complexity in the resulting form, magnitude value is crucial in obtaining an interesting result.


Truncated Cube over bounding box, form is too rectilinear

Truncated Octahedron jutting through bounding box, scale of objects too large

Tetrahedron and Sphere objects, too many objects for our small scale. Interesting junctions appearing however

Initial Sphere Booleans, too many spheres are touching one another, while small fragments are floating. Boolean Difference at corner points creates interesting effects.

Make2D view of Final Model with Extract Wireframe and Hidden Lines settings on. interesting to see the amount of information in the geometries but far too complex and unclear to read.

Thickness Analysis of Final 3D Boolean Form, some elements are at risk of breaking off after printing

Unsuccesful attempt at combining Spherical and Linear Shapes in Boolean Difference

Images of two sides of the Laser Cut Mountboard, one side clean and the burnt by the high temperature of the laser cutter unfortunately. Task1 Pattern Modules fresh from the Fablab. In future I wont get cutouts taped to Material as the fragile model broke in parts as I carefully removed the tape.

Workspace for assembling waffle structure, small amounts of PVA were placed within cutouts to aid in stiffening the structure while it was being built. The small tool helped to get minimal glue neatly in the tight spaces.

Folding the small panels in Ivory Card, in future I will not ‘Etch’ the folds but rather draw them in a Dashed Linetype and then explode them in Rhino so small fragments are laser cutout enabling me to freely fold the material in both directionsa instead of the one direction dictated by the Etch. When I had to fold the other way the material often broke apart.

Random straight line cuts, as Laser Cutter must have malfunctioned during processing job. Luckily the affected waffle part was reprinted on another sheet.


Aerial view of completed Waffle Structure, assembly of certain horizontal elements was extremely fiddly due to sharp angularity

Interesting complex play of light through intere-

Vertical elements stepping back con-

secting geometries in Waffle structure

secutively, creating a playful sense of movement through the structure and also complex shadows

Areas of pattern structure where model making skill was challenged, this is something I definitely need to work on, the intricacy of my geometry coupled with he small scale of the model created folds and connections that I found extremely difficult to glue and fold neatly, especially in the solid panels, and where elements broke off due to the laser cutter etching too deeply.


Hanna_Elias_DDF_M2 Journal  
Hanna_Elias_DDF_M2 Journal