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GRADE FIVE

ORAL HEALTH CURRICULUM

Ontario Curriculum, Grades 1—8: Health and Physical Education, 2009.


The dental public health professional association, Ontario Association of Public Health Dentistry (OAPHD), has specially created the following Grade 5 oral health module to align with the new Ontario Curriculum, Grades 1—8: Health and Physical Education, 2009. OAPHD would like to acknowledge the following Ontario Public Health Units for their collaborative effort in the development of this resource: Brant County Health Unit Chatham-Kent Health Unit Public Health Services City of Hamilton Haldimand-Norfolk Health Unit Haliburton Kawartha Pine Ridge District Health Unit Halton Region Hastings and Prince Edward Counties Health Unit Niagara Region Public Health Oxford County Region of Peel – Public Health Porcupine Health Unit Region of Waterloo Public Health Simcoe Muskoka District Health Unit Sudbury and District Health Unit Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph Health Unit York Region (Grade 7 Mouth guards)

OAPHD is very interested in your feedback on the following module. Please take a few moments to complete the following survey: http://www.surveymonkey.com/s/VL2QLV9


General Topic: Grade 5 – Making Healthy Choices This section covers the following expectations from The Ontario Curriculum, Grades 1—8: Health and Physical Education, 2009. (Grade 5) •

C2.1: Explain how to use nutrition facts tables and ingredient lists on food labels to make healthier personal food choices.

In addition, this section will meet specific requirements noted in the 2009 Curriculum including: •

Enhancing students’ health literacy or the skills needed to get, understand and use information to make good decisions for health (p. 4).

Help students learn to examine their own food choices and make healthy food and beverage decisions (p. 31).

Activities •

Label Reading: Understanding the contents of food and beverages, and the implications on oral health (This activity can also be linked with a lesson on nutrition.)

Make a Menu (This activity can also be linked with a lesson on nutrition)

Acid Attacks – What I Ate Today Log (This activity can also be linked with a lesson on nutrition.)

Class Discussion – Liquid Sugar and Youth Teeth (This activity can also be linked with a lesson on nutrition.)


Additional Resources: •

Canadian Diabetes and Dieticians of Canada: o Fact sheets, information: http://www.healthyeatingisinstore.ca/ o Virtual grocery store: http://www.healthyeatingisinstore.ca/virtual_grocery.asp

Health Canada: www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/food-guide-aliment/choosechoix/beverage-boisson/index_e.html o Food Label Quiz: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/labeletiquet/nutrition/cons/interactive-eng.php o Brushing and Flossing Video: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hl-vs/oralbucco/care-soin/techniques-eng.php

Eat Right Ontario: http://www.eatrightontario.ca/en/ViewDocument.aspx?id=63&Topic=5&Cat=2 16

(Please note that the location of URL’s can change over time.)


Introduction Causes of Tooth Decay •

A main cause of tooth decay is dietary sugar, which mixes with bacteria (plaque: clear sticky film that clings to your teeth) in your mouth to create acid. This acid weakens the hard outer layer of your tooth (enamel).

Common sources of dietary sugar include: chocolate, cookies, cakes, and pastries, as well as drinks with added sugar, for example, fruit drinks, carbonated beverages (pop), and sports and energy drinks. But, “sugar” doesn’t always appear on your food labels, so it is important to check for these common “hidden sugars”. There are many types of sugars (commonly ending in “ose”) used in products, a few examples that you may see on a food label include: o

Corn sweeteners

o

Honey

o

Maltose

o

Maple syrup

o

Dextrose

o

Molasses

o

Fructose

o

Sucrose

o

Glucose

Glucose (dextrose, grape or corn sugar): is less sweet than table sugar and is common in sweet fruit and vegetables, such as berries, oranges, carrots, and corn

Fructose (fruit sugar): is much sweeter than cane sugar and is found in honey and ripe fruit

Sucrose (table sugar): is found in cane or beet sugar, brown sugar, and molasses

Lactose (milk sugar): is produced by animals and is found in milk

Maltose (malt sugar): is found in malted breakfast cereals and some infant formulas

How often you consume sugar (frequency: continuously sipping drinks with added sugar, like pop and fruit drinks) and how long sugar lingers in your mouth (duration: continuously sucking on hard candies) affects tooth decay. The more sugary foods you eat and drink, and the longer these foods and drinks stay in your mouth, the more likely you are to develop tooth decay.


Sugary foods and carbohydrates that are sticky (i.e. dried fruit, granola bars, gummies, and toffee) cling to your tooth’s surface, increasing the duration of sugar on the tooth and the tooth’s exposure to decay-causing acid.

The Process of Tooth Decay

Plaque + Sugar = Acid

 Acid + Tooth = Decay

Tooth decay occurs when sugary foods are frequently left on your teeth. The bacteria (plaque) already in your mouth feed on the sugar and produce acid. This acid attacks the hard outer layer of your tooth (enamel), which weakens it and causes tooth decay.

If the affected tooth is left untreated, the decay can spread into the dentin, which is the slightly softer layer under the enamel that forms the bulk of the tooth.

If still not treated, the decay penetrates to the pulp, which is the soft centre tissue of the tooth containing blood vessels and nerve tissue. An abscess (infection) may form at the root of the tooth. At this point, if the tooth is not treated by root canal therapy, the tooth may be destroyed.

Enamel Dentin Pulp (nerve)


Preventing Tooth Decay – Making Healthy Choices •

Choose foods that increase saliva flow to help cleanse your teeth and dilute the sugar in your mouth, for example: o Eggs

o

Fruit (hard and crisp, like apples)

o Plain yogurt (recommend < 2% M.F. [Milk Fat])

o

100% fruit or vegetable juice

o

Cheese (recommend < 20% M.F.)

o

Sugarless gum

o Fish/Meat/poultry o Seeds o Plain popcorn o Vegetables •

Limit sugary foods, for example sweets, and serve them only at mealtime, when your saliva levels are high. Again, your saliva will help cleanse your teeth and dilute the sugar in your mouth.

Snacking between meals, when saliva levels are low, can leave your teeth susceptible to acid. Choose nutritious snacks between meals that work to cleanse your teeth (listed above). Also, drink water between meals to keep your body hydrated. Water is a sugar-free way to keep hydrated; it is also good for both your oral and overall health.

Limit how often (frequency) you consume sugar and how long (duration) sugar is in your mouth. Avoid sucking on hard candies (duration) and sipping drinks with added sugar (frequency), as these can increase your risk of tooth decay.

Avoid sticky foods, for example dried fruit, granola bars, gummies, and toffee, because they cling to your teeth longer and increase your exposure to decaycausing acid.


Nutrition Facts Labels •

Watch your labels! The ingredients are listed in descending order of quantity; the ingredient present in the largest quantity is listed first and the ingredient in the smallest quantity is listed last.

Watch for added sugars (same examples as listed above: corn sweeteners, maltose, dextrose, fructose, sucrose, glucose, molasses, and honey). Limit your consumption of foods and beverages with these ingredients, particularly when sugar or its other chemical names appear high on the ingredients list.

It is important for you to look at your labels closely, as they can often be misleading; sometimes the label gives you the nutrition information for only part of the container/package, for example: nutritional label reads 250ml for a drink bottle size of 500ml. (This means that there is more than one serving in the container and the nutrition facts need to be interpreted accordingly.)

To determine the total amount of sugar and calories in your food and drinks, you must multiply totals on the label with the number of servings you are going to eat or drink. o Example:



Bottle size: 500ml of pop



Serving size: 250ml of pop



Sugar (based on 250ml): 25g

Servings of pop consumed:

= bottle size ÷ serving size = 500 ÷ 250 =2

Amount of sugar consumed: = sugar X number of servings = 25g X 2 = 50g

o Therefore, based on the example above, if you drank the entire 500ml of pop, you consumed two servings, which is equal to 50g of sugar.


Avoid drinks with added sugar (e.g. fruit drinks, pop, sports drinks, and energy drinks). These drinks should only be consumed occasionally and at mealtime when saliva levels are high; this will help neutralize the acid caused by the high sugar contents.

Sugar Contents of Common Drinks The table below highlights the sugar contents of some of your favourite drinks. Drink Actual (600 ml)

Water

0 tsp

Milk

8 tsp (natural)

100% Fruit juice

18 tsp (natural)

Flavoured milk

16 tsp (8 added + 8 natural)

Sports drink

12 tsp (added)

Fruit drink

18 tsp (16 added + 2 natural)

Chocolate bar milkshake

23 tsp (14 added + 9 natural)

Pop

17 tsp (added)

Energy drink

16 tsp (added)

The Big One (2 L – pop)

58 tsp (added)

Oral Hygiene •

Proper oral hygiene is the best way to prevent tooth decay. Brush your teeth twice daily with a pea-sized amount of fluoridated toothpaste for two minutes each time, and floss your teeth once daily.

Your teeth affect your life in many ways. A healthy mouth allows you to chew and swallow foods and drinks, as well as speak and smile. To achieve and maintain a healthy smile, you must keep your teeth clean.


Keeping your teeth clean is critical to maintaining a healthy smile and preventing cavities. The plaque (clear sticky film) bacteria (already present in your mouth) mix with sugar (from the foods and drinks you consume) to produce acid. It is this acid that wears away the hard outer layer of your teeth (enamel), and produces a cavity. Therefore, we must work hard to remove the bacteria that cling to our teeth by brushing and flossing daily.

Brushing •

You should brush your teeth two times a day for two minutes each time (hard scrubbing should be avoided – to prevent gum recession and tooth sensitivity) with a pea-sized amount of fluoride toothpaste.

Ask your parent/caregiver to help to make sure you are doing a good job. (Supervision and adult assisted brushing is advised for children six years of age and younger. The Canadian Dental Association recommends to continue supervising until your child can write (not print) on their own.)

Hold your toothbrush at a 45-degree angle and gently brush in circular strokes from where the tooth and gum meet to the tip of the tooth. Be sure to brush all outside and inside surfaces of each tooth.

Clean the pits and crevices on the chewing surface of your teeth with short sweeping strokes. And, brush your tongue to remove bacteria and to freshen your breath.

Style of toothbrush •

When selecting a toothbrush, remember the following: o Your toothbrush should have a small head so it is easy to move around inside your mouth, and should fit comfortably in your hand. o Your toothbrush should have soft bristles.

Toothbrush Maintenance •

Rinse your toothbrush with water after every use and let air dry.

Replace your toothbrush when it has become visibly worn or frayed (typically after 3 months).

Replace your toothbrush after any illness, cold, or flu.


Flossing •

Flossing is also important to keep your mouth clean and free from bacteria. Flossing helps remove bacteria from in between your teeth – where your toothbrush cannot reach.

It is important to have your parent/caregiver help you floss.

To floss, start with a 30-35 cm (elbow’s length) piece of floss and wrap the floss around your two middle fingers.

For your upper teeth, use your two index fingers and thumbs to guide the floss. Your thumbs should be on the outside.

For your lower teeth, use your two index fingers; when guiding the floss, your fingers should be no more than 2.5cm apart.

Gently guide the floss between your teeth using a “see-saw” motion.

Move the floss up and down on the side in of the tooth in a “C” shape motion 2-3 times or until clean.

Financial Assistance for Oral Care There are limited programs available in Ontario for children and youth with no dental insurance. The following list provides a description of what is available. •

Children In Need Of Treatment (CINOT) dental program provides emergency dental treatment for children 0-17 years of age whose families are not on social assistance, do not have insurance, and cannot afford to pay for their dental treatment (http://www.mhp.gov.on.ca/en/healthy-communities/dental/default.asp).

Healthy Smiles Ontario (HSO) is a new program for children and youth 0-17 years of age who do not have access to any form of dental coverage. This is a preventive and basic dental care program. Children and youth who are members of a household with an Adjusted Family Net Income of $20,000 per year or below may be eligible (http://www.health.gov.on.ca/en/public/programs/dental/)


References American Dental Association. (2005). Watch your smile. Retrieved from http://www.ada.org/3257.aspx#top American Dental Association. (2002). Diet and tooth decay. Journal of the American Dental Association, 133, 527. Calgary Health Region. (2009). Community oral health re-think your drink. Retrieved from http://www.calgaryhealthregion.ca/programs/dental/pdf/rtyd/rtyd_display07.pdf Canadian Diabetes Association and Dieticians of Canada. (2005). Look at the label. Retrieved from http://www.healthyeatingisinstore.ca/pdf/ENG_BW_FactSheet.pdf Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. (2010). Healthy Smiles Ontario. Retrieved from http://www.health.gov.on.ca/en/public/programs/dental/ Ministry of Health Promotion and Sport. (2010). Dental Health (CINOT). Retrieved from http://www.mhp.gov.on.ca/en/healthycommunities/dental/default.asp


Activity 1 – Label Reading Materials Needed: • •

Food and beverage labels (assorted) Copies of the attached “Look at the label” handout

Preparation:

Teacher Bring to class additional food • and beverage labels for variety (ensure to collect labels for sticky sweet foods and drinks with added sugar) Print attached “Look at the label” handout for each student

Students Bring to class one food or beverage label

Activity: Teacher Introduction: •

Divide the class into small groups (3 to 4 students)

Students •

Students will be divided into small groups

Content: • •

Distribute the “Look at the label” handout. Have students work together to analyze their food and beverage labels, considering their oral health and overall health

Students will work together to analyze their food and beverage labels using the “Look at the label” handout

Students will discuss which food and beverage labels

Conclusion: •

Discuss the food and beverage labels, and how these items affect their oral and overall

Time Required

1 hour (30 minutes for group work and 30 minutes for discussion)


â&#x20AC;˘

health (i.e. hidden sugars [1 tsp or sugar = 4 grams of sugar]) Discuss how the consumption of these foods and beverages (i.e. frequency and duration) can have further implications on their oral health

contained the most sugar and identify hidden sugars (i.e. honey, molasses, sugars ending in â&#x20AC;&#x153;oseâ&#x20AC;?)


Activity 2: Make a Menu Materials Needed: •

Copies of attached menu template

Preparation:

Teacher Print attached menu template for each group

Activity: Teacher Introduction: •

Divide the class into small groups (3 to 4 students)

Students

Students will be divided into small groups

Students will work together to make a menu of three balanced meals and three snack options that are healthy for both their oral and overall health

Students will discuss their menus and explain how the meal and snack options are healthy for both their oral and overall health

Content: •

Have students work together to make a menu (template included) of three balanced meals and three snack options that are healthy for both their oral and overall health Encourage students to consider drinks with added sugar and sticky foods that can cling to teeth

Conclusion: •

Discuss the students’ choices, and how nutritious foods benefit their oral and overall health

Time Required

1 hour (30 minutes for group work and 30 minutes for discussion


Activity 3: Acid Attacks - What I Ate Today Log Materials Needed: •

Copies of the attached “Acid Attacks – What I Ate Today Worksheet”

Preparation: Teacher •

Print attached “Acid Attacks – What I Ate Today Worksheet” for each student

Activity: Teacher

Students

Time Required

Introduction: •

Distribute the handout to students to work independently

Students will work independently

Students will work independently to record all of the food and drinks they consume in 1 day

Students will discuss their food and drink options and how eating food/drinks with sugar can affect their oral health

Content: •

Have students take home the diary and record all of the food and drinks (meals) they consume in 1 day Have students bring their completed handouts to class the next day to discuss

Conclusion: •

Discuss the students’ choices, and how nutritious foods benefit their oral and overall health Have students think about healthy alternatives to some of their favourite high-sugar food and drinks Remind students to limit their sugar intake, especially between meals

• •

1 day (total) 1 hour class discussion


Make a Menu In small groups, design a menu (breakfast, lunch, dinner, and three snack options) that includes healthy foods and beverages that benefit your oral and overall health.

Breakfast

Lunch

Dinner

Snack 1

Snack 2

Snack 3


Acid Attacks â&#x20AC;&#x201C; What I Ate Today Worksheet Please use the table below to record all of the foods and drinks you consume for breakfast, lunch, and dinner â&#x20AC;&#x201C; for one day!

Meal Breakfast

Lunch

Dinner

Food & Drinks Consumed

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