Page 1

ISSN 2363-247X

EU

energy in figures

STATISTICAL POCKETBOOK

2018 Energy


Manuscript completed in 08/2018 Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission is responsible for the use that might be made of the following information. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2018 Š European Union, 2018 Reuse is authorised provided the source is acknowledged. The reuse policy of European Commission documents is regulated by Decision 2011/833/EU (OJ L 330, 14.12.2011, p. 39). Credits all images ŠShutterstock For any use or reproduction of photos or other material that is not under the EU copyright, permission must be sought directly from the copyright holders. Print ISBN 978-92-79-88737-6 ISSN 1977-4559 doi:10.2833/279113 MJ-AB-18-001-EN-C PDF ISBN 978-92-79-88735-2 ISSN 2363-247X doi:10.2833/105297 MJ-AB-18-001-EN-N Epub ISBN 978-92-79-88736-9 ISSN 2363-247X doi:10.2833/77817 MJ-AB-18-001-EN-E


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

Introduction The energy sector is one of the pillars of growth, competitiveness and development for modern economies. To keep up with the ongoing transformation of the energy sector in Europe, we need data that is accurate and up-to-date. This publication provides an overview of the most relevant annual energyrelated statistics for the European Union as a whole and for each of its Member States. The data contained in this pocketbook is drawn from several sources: from the European Commission’s services, from international organisations such as the European Environment Agency and the International Energy Agency and also from the European Commission’s estimates when other data is unavailable. The publication is divided into five parts: Part 1. Energy overview at global and EU levels. Part 2. Main energy indicators, at EU and Member States levels. Part 3. Socio-economic indicators in the EU. Part 4. Impact of the energy sector on the environment. Part 5. Country profiles – Main energy indicators. Indicators have been calculated using the methodology established by the European Commission – DG Energy. The appendices include a glossary and methodological notes. This publication was produced using the most recently available data. Corrections and updates will be published at: https://ec.europa.eu/energy/en/data-analysis Recommended sources of data: European Commission websites: DG Energy Energy pocketbook, country statistics, data and analysis https://ec.europa.eu/energy/en/data-analysis Eurostat Eurostat Database: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/data/database DG Economic and Financial Affairs AMECO: http://ec.europa.eu/economy_finance/db_indicators/ameco/index_en.htm DG Climate Action Climate strategies, targets and progress reports: http://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/strategies/index_en.htm Websites of other organisations: European Environment Agency Data and maps: http://www.eea.europa.eu/ International Energy Agency Statistics and balances: http://www.iea.org/statistics/ Please send your comments on this publication and suggestions for improvement to ener-emos@ec.europa.eu, with the word ‘Pocketbook’ in the subject line. 1


Statistical pocketbook 2018

Summary PART 1 Overview 1.1

1.2

1.3

Energy in the World (Overview) � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 10 1.1.1

World Energy Production by Region � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 10

1.1.2

World Energy Production by Fuel � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 11

1.1.3

World Gross Inland Consumption by Region � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 12

1.1.4

World Gross Inland Consumption by Fuel � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 13

1.1.5

World Final Energy Consumption by Region� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 14

1.1.6

World Final Energy Consumption by Fuel � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 15

1.1.7

World Electricity Generation by Fuel � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 16

1.1.8

World Heat Generation by Fuel � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 17

1.1.9

World CO 2 Emissions by Region � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 18

1.1.10

World CO 2 Intensity by Region� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 19

Energy in the EU (Overview) � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 20 1.2.1

EU-28 Energy Flow – 1995 � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 20

1.2.2

EU-28 Energy Flow – 2016 � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 21

1.2.3

EU-28 Gross Inland Consumption � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 22

1.2.4

EU-28 Energy Import Dependency � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 24

1.2.5

EU-28 Energy Import Dependency – Net Imports� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 25

1.2.6

EU-28 Imports by Country of Origin� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 26

EU 2020 Targets � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 27 1.3.1

Renewable Energy Targets � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 27

1.3.2

Renewable Energy Shares � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 29

1.3.3

GHG Emissions Targets � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 30

PART 2 Energy in the EU 2.1

2.2

2

Energy Supply � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 35 2.1.1

Production � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 35

2.1.2

Net Imports� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 38

2.1.3

Gross Inland Consumption � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 41

Energy Imports � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 45 2.2.1

Imports – Solid Fuels � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 45

2.2.2

Imports – Petroleum and Products � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 50

2.2.3

Imports – Gases � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 55

2.2.4

Imports – Electricity � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 59

2.2.5

Imports by Country of Origin � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 63


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

Energy Import Dependency� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 66 2.3.1

Import Dependency – All Fuels � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 66

2.3.2

Import Dependency – By Fuel � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 67

2.3.3

Import Dependency – Solid Fuels � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 68

2.3.4

Import Dependency – Hard Coal  � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 69

2.3.5

Import Dependency – Petroleum and Products  � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 70

2.3.6

Import Dependency – Crude and NGL� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 71

2.3.7

Import Dependency – Natural Gas � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 72

Energy Transformation � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 73 2.4.1

Transformation Input – All Fuels � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 73

2.4.2

Transformation Input – By Fuel � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 74

2.4.3

Transformation Input – By Sector � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 75

2.4.4

Transformation Output – All Fuels� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 76

2.4.5

Transformation Output – By Fuel � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 77

2.4.6

Transformation Output – By Sector � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 78

Final Energy � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 79 2.5.1

Primary Energy Consumption � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 79

2.5.2

Available for Final Consumption � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 80

2.5.3

Final Non-Energy Consumption � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 81

2.5.4

Final Energy Consumption � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 82

Electricity � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 86 2.6.1

Installed Electricity Capacity � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 86

2.6.2

Gross Electricity Generation � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 89

2.6.3

Market Share of the Largest Electricity Producer � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 94

Solar and Wind Energy� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 95 2.7.1

Solar and Wind Energy – Cumulative Capacity � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 95

2.7.2

Wind Cumulative Installed Capacity � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 97

2.7.3

Wind Gross Electricity Production � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 99

2.7.4

Wind Penetration Level � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 100

2.7.5

Wind Capacity Factor � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 101

2.7.6

Solar Collectors’ Surface � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 102

2.7.7

Solar Installed Capacity � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 103

2.7.8

Solar Gross Electricity Production � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 104

2.7.9

Solar Penetration Level� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 105

3


Statistical pocketbook 2018

2.8

2.9

CHP � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 106 2.8.1

CHP Electricity � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 106

2.8.2

CHP Heat � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 107

2.8.3

CHP Electricity and Heat � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 108

Heat � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 109 2.9.1

Gross Heat Generation� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 109

2.10 Transport� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 112 2.10.1

Fuels Final Consumption � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 112

2.10.2

Biofuels � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 113

2.11 Energy Efficiency� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 115 2.11.1

Energy Intensity � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 115

2.11.2

Energy Consumption per Capita � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 116

2.11.3

Final Electricity Consumption per Capita � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 117

2.11.4

Primary Energy Intensity � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 118

2 .11 .5

Carbon Intensity � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 119

2.12 RES Indicators � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 120 2.12.1

RES Shares � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 120

2.13 Energy Prices � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 123 2.13.1

Prices of Transport Fuels � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 123

2.13.2

Fuel Prices – Domestic Consumers � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 126

2.13.3

Fuel Prices – Industrial Consumers � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 128

PART 3 Socio-Economic Indicators in the EU 3.1

Classification of the Energy Sector� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 134 3.1.1

3.2

3.3

4

Comparative Table � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 134

Enterprises in the Energy Sector� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 135 3.2.1

Number of Enterprises in the Energy Sector � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 135

3.2.2

Turnover in the Energy Sector � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 139

3.2.3

Number of Persons Declared as Employed in the Energy Sector 143

Economy � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 147 3.3.1

GDP at Current Market Prices� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 147

3.3.2

GDP per Capita at Current Market Prices � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 148

3.3.3

GDP at 2010 Market Prices � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 149

3.3.4

GDP per Capita at 2010 Market Prices � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 150


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

3.4

Demography � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 151 3.4.1

3.5

Population � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 151

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Total Persons Employed in the Energy Sector (15-64 years) � � � 152

3.5.2

Employment Rate in all Economic Sectors � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 153

3.5.3

Unemployment Rate in all Economic Sectors � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 154

PART 4 Environment Indicators in the EU 4.1

4.2

Gases Emissions� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 158 4.1.1

GHGs Emissions� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 158

4.1.2

CO 2 Emissions � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 163

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CO 2 per Capita � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 168

4.2.2

Carbon GDP Intensity � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 169

PART 5 Country Profiles 5.0

European Union 28 � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 174

5.1

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5.2

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5.4

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Germany � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 184

5.6

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5.7

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5.8

Greece � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 190

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Spain � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 192

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Statistical pocketbook 2018

5.16 Luxembourg � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 206 5.17 Hungary� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 208 5.18 Malta� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 210 5.19 The Netherlands� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 212 5.20 Austria � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 214 5.21 Poland � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 216 5.22 Portugal � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 218 5.23 Romania � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 220 5.24 Slovenia� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 222 5.25 Slovak Republic � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 224 5.26 Finland � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 226 5.27 Sweden� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 228 5.28 United Kingdom� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 230

Appendices Appendices Methodology � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 236 Appendix 1 – Country Nomenclature � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 236 Appendix 2 – Main Indicators – EN � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 237 Appendix 3 – Main Indicators – DE � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 238 Appendix 4 – Main Indicators – FR � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 239 Appendix 5 – Main Products – EN � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 240 Appendix 6 – Main Products – DE � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 241 Appendix 7 – Main Products – FR � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 242 Appendix 8 – Symbols and Abbreviations � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 243 Appendix 9 – SI Units – Prefixes � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 244 Appendix 10 – Conversion Factors � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 245 Appendix 11 – Average Calorific Values � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 246

Appendix Glossary � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 247 Appendix 12 – Glossary � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 247

Appendix Notes� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 257 Appendix 13 – Notes� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 257

Notes � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 262

6


Overview

1


PART 1  Overview


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

Summary 1.1

1.2

1.3

Energy in the World (Overview) � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 10 1.1.1

World Energy Production by Region � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 10

1.1.2

World Energy Production by Fuel � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 11

1.1.3

World Gross Inland Consumption by Region � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 12

1.1.4

World Gross Inland Consumption by Fuel � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 13

1.1.5

World Final Energy Consumption by Region� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 14

1.1.6

World Final Energy Consumption by Fuel � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 15

1.1.7

World Electricity Generation by Fuel � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 16

1.1.8

World Heat Generation by Fuel � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 17

1.1.9

World CO 2 Emissions by Region � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 18

1.1.10

World CO 2 Intensity by Region� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 19

Energy in the EU (Overview) � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 20 1.2.1

EU-28 Energy Flow – 1995 � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 20

1.2.2

EU-28 Energy Flow – 2016 � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 21

1.2.3

EU-28 Gross Inland Consumption � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 22

1.2.4

EU-28 Energy Import Dependency � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 24

1.2.5

EU-28 Energy Import Dependency – Net Imports� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 25

1.2.6

EU-28 Imports by Country of Origin� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 26

EU 2020 Targets � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 27 1.3.1

Renewable Energy Targets � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 27

1.3.2

Renewable Energy Shares � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 29

1.3.3

GHG Emissions Targets � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 30

9


PART 1  Overview

1.1 Energy in the World (Overview) 1.1.1 World Energy Production by Region

(Mtoe) EU-28

1995 967

2000 951

2005 910

2010 843

2015 772

2016 759

China United States Middle East Asia* Russia Africa Rest of the World World

1 065 1 659 1 137 934 968 773 1 760 9 263

1 124 1 667 1 324 1 062 978 884 2 039 10 029

1 671 1 631 1 516 1 255 1 203 1 086 2 286 11 558

2 236 1 724 1 624 1 497 1 280 1 172 2 434 12 808

2 514 2 023 1 885 1 566 1 334 1 120 2 598 13 811

2 361 1 916 2 043 1 615 1 374 1 108 2 588 13 764

TOTAL 2016: 13 764 Mtoe 5.5 % 18.8 %

EU-28 China United States Middle East Asia* Russia Africa Rest of the World

17.2 %

8.0 % 13.9 %

10.0 % 11.7 %

14.8 %

Mtoe 3 000 2 500 2 000 1 500 1 000

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

500

EU-28 China

United States Middle East

* non OECD and OECD Asia, excluding China. Source: IEA, August 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 1

10

Asia* Russia

Africa Rest of the World


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1.1.2 World Energy Production by Fuel

(Mtoe) Petroleum and Products Solid Fuels Gas Renewables Nuclear Other Total

1995 3 397 2 219 1 812 1 210 608 17 9 263

2000 3 703 2 278 2 065 1 287 675 21 10 029

2005 4 050 2 998 2 369 1 396 722 23 11 558

2010 4 084 3 663 2 715 1 595 719 32 12 808

2015 4 411 3 886 2 989 1 814 670 40 13 811

2016 4 473 3 657 3 032 1 878 680 44 13 764

TOTAL 2016: 13 764 Mtoe 4.9 % 13.6 % 32.5 %

22.0 %

Petroleum and Products Solid Fuels Gas Renewables Nuclear Other (0.3 %)

26.6 %

Mtoe 5 000 4 000 3 000 2 000 1 000

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Petroleum and Products Renewables

Solid Fuels Nuclear

Gas Other

Source: IEA, August 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 1

11


PART 1  Overview

1.1.3 World Gross Inland Consumption by Region

(Mtoe) EU-28

1995 1 648

2000 1 695

2005 1 796

2010 1 730

2015 1 590

2016 1 599

China United States Asia* Russia Africa Middle East Rest of the World World

1 055 2 067 1 521 637 443 307 1 547 9 226

1 143 2 274 1 761 619 498 354 1 691 10 036

1 794 2 319 1 984 652 594 469 1 887 11 495

2 550 2 217 2 294 689 700 622 2 075 12 876

3 005 2 188 2 483 710 796 729 2 171 13 672

2 973 2 167 2 547 732 818 734 2 192 13 761

TOTAL 2016: 13 761 Mtoe

15.9 %

11.6 %

5.3 % 21.6 %

5.9 % 5.3 % 18.5 %

15.7 %

EU-28 China United States Asia* Russia Africa Middle East Rest of the World

Mtoe 3 500 3 000 2 500 2 000 1 500 1 000 500 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

EU-28 Asia*

China Russia

* non OECD and OECD Asia, excluding China. Source: IEA, August 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 1

12

United States Africa

Middle East Rest of the World


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1.1.4 World Gross Inland Consumption by Fuel

(Mtoe) Petroleum and Products Solid Fuels Gas Renewables Hydro* Geothermal* Solar/Wind/Other* Biofuels and Waste* Nuclear Other Total

1995 3 375 2 207 1 808 1 211 213 39 3 972 608 16 9 226

2000 3 663 2 316 2 072 1 288 225 52 8 1 022 675 22 10 036

2005 4 001 2 994 2 359 1 397 252 54 17 1 096 722 23 11 495

2010 4 140 3 652 2 735 1 598 296 62 48 1 222 719 32 12 876

2015 4 347 3 851 2 944 1 819 336 77 127 1 317 670 42 13 672

2016 4 390 3 731 3 035 1 882 349 81 145 1 349 680 44 13 761

TOTAL 2016: 13 761 Mtoe 4.9 % 13.7 %

31.9 %

22.1 %

Petroleum and Products Solid Fuels Gas Renewables Nuclear Other (0.3 %)

27.1 %

Mtoe

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

5 000 4 500 4 000 3 500 3 000 2 500 2 000 1 500 1 000 500 0

Petroleum and Products Renewables

Solid Fuels Nuclear

Gas Other

* Partial disaggregation of the Renewables group. Waste also includes non-RES wastes. Source: IEA, August 2018 Methodology and Notes:See Appendix 13 – No 1

13


PART 1  Overview

1.1.5 World Final Energy Consumption by Region

(Mtoe) EU-28

1995 1 132

2000 1 179

2005 1 242

2010 1 207

2015 1 118

2016 1 138

China United States Asia* Africa Russia Middle East Rest of the World World

791 1 378 1 077 324 458 202 1 181 6 543

791 1 546 1 212 368 418 241 1 280 7 035

1 234 1 563 1 359 436 412 313 1 419 7 978

1 635 1 513 1 552 506 447 415 1 557 8 832

1 966 1 508 1 706 579 457 481 1 613 9 428

1 978 1 515 1 745 594 470 483 1 632 9 555

TOTAL 2016: 9 555 Mtoe

17.1 %

11.9 %

5.1 % 20.7 %

4.9 % 6.2 %

15.9 %

18.3 %

EU-28 China United States Asia* Africa Russia Middle East Rest of the World

Mtoe 2 500 2 000 1 500 1 000 500

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

EU-28 Asia*

China Russia

* non OECD and OECD Asia, excluding China. Source: IEA, August 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 1

14

United States Africa

Middle East Rest of the World


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1.1.6 World Final Energy Consumption by Fuel

(Mtoe) 1995 2 804 661 1 006 847 934 287 4 6 543

Petroleum and Products Solid Fuels Gas Renewables Electricity Heat Other Total

2000 3 122 542 1 118 910 1 089 248 7 7 035

2005 3 445 825 1 192 949 1 301 260 7 7 978

2010 3 593 1 046 1 344 1 028 1 539 274 8 8 832

2015 3 846 1 081 1 407 1 075 1 738 271 10 9 428

2016 3 908 1 036 1 440 1 083 1 794 283 11 9 555

TOTAL 2016: 9 555 Mtoe 3.0 % 18.8 % 40.9 % 11.3 %

15.1 %

10.8 %

Petroleum and Products Solid Fuels Gas Renewables Electricity Heat Other (0.1 %)

Mtoe 4 000 3 000 2 000 1 000

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Petroleum and Products Renewables Other

Solid Fuels Electricity

Gas Heat

Source: IEA, August 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 1

15


PART 1  Overview

1.1.7 World Electricity Generation by Fuel

(TWh) 1995 4 996 1 237 2 016 2 636 2 479 33 130 40 2 332 47 13 264

Solid Fuels Petroleum and Products Gas Renewables Hydro* Solar/Wind/Other* Biofuels and Waste* Geothermal* Nuclear Other Total

2000 6 001 1 212 2 747 2 836 2 618 55 164 52 2 591 54 15 441

2005 7 331 1 135 3 701 3 294 2 935 141 226 58 2 768 68 18 297

2010 8 660 974 4 810 4 200 3 445 408 360 68 2 756 84 21 484

2015 9 552 973 5 552 5 536 3 905 1 132 517 80 2 570 102 24 284

2016 9 594 931 5 794 5 939 4 061 1 330 571 82 2 606 109 24 973

TOTAL 2016: 24 973 TWh 10.4 % 38.4 % 23.8 %

Solid Fuels Petroleum and Products Gas Renewables Nuclear Other (0.4 %)

3.7 % 23.2 %

TWh 10 000 8 000 6 000 4 000 2 000 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Solid Fuels Renewables

Petroleum and Products Nuclear

* Partial disaggregation of the Renewables group. Waste also includes non-RES wastes. Source: IEA, August 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 1

16

Gas Other


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1.1.8 World Heat Generation by Fuel

(PJ) 1995 7 156 4 367 1 939 254 17 10 345 20 162 13 899

Gas Solid Fuels Petroleum and Products Renewables Geothermal* Solar/Wind/Other* Biofuels and Waste* Nuclear Other Total

2000 6 231 4 332 1 160 296 18 13 414 19 204 12 242

2005 6 610 4 763 965 395 24 388 530 21 603 13 355

2010 6 586 5 481 840 593 26 350 799 27 645 14 171

2015 5 793 5 822 600 721 34 374 960 26 742 13 703

2016 6 092 6 053 617 787 44 407 1 054 27 815 14 390

TOTAL 2016: 14 390 PJ

5.5 %

5.7 %

4.3 % 42.3 %

42.1 %

Gas Solid Fuels Petroleum and Products Renewables Nuclear (0.2 %) Other

PJ

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

8 000 7 000 6 000 5 000 4 000 3 000 2 000 1 000 0

Solid Fuels Renewables

Gas Nuclear

Petroleum and Products Other

* Partial disaggregation of the Renewables group. Waste also includes non-RES wastes. Source: IEA, August 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 1

17


PART 1  Overview

1.1.9 World CO2 Emissions* by Region

(Mio ton CO2) 1995 4 012

2000 4 036

2005 4 207

2010 3 898

2014 3 426

2015 3 472

2 951 5 211 3 277 816 1 562 614 3 640 22 084

3 160 5 790 3 836 950 1 488 700 4 040 23 999

5 458 5 854 4 412 1 230 1 497 896 4 487 28 040

7 847 5 496 5 204 1 596 1 552 1 035 4 926 31 555

9 171 5 282 5 896 1 843 1 551 1 162 5 126 33 457

9 184 5 109 5 994 1 874 1 533 1 182 5 132 33 481

EU-28 China United States Asia** Middle East Russian Federation Africa Rest of the World World

TOTAL 2015: 33 481 Mio ton CO2

15.3 %

10.4 % EU-28 China United States Asia** Middle East Russian Federation Africa Rest of the World

3.5 % 4.6 % 27.4 %

5.6 %

17.9 % 15.3 %

Mio ton CO2

EU-28 Asia**

China Russian Federation

United States Africa

Middle East Rest of the World

* Contains CO2 emissions from fuel combustion and international maritime and aviation bunkers. ** non OECD and OECD Asia, excluding China. Source: IEA, June 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 1

18

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

10 000 9 000 8 000 7 000 6 000 5 000 4 000 3 000 2 000 1 000 0


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1.1.10 World CO2 Intensity* by Region

(Kg CO2 per toe – Average) EU-28

1995 2 434

2000 2 381

2005 2 342

2010 2 254

2014 2 183

2015 2 184

China United States Asia** Middle East Russia Africa Rest of the World World

2 797 2 521 2 155 2 661 2 453 1 386 2 352 2 394

2 764 2 546 2 178 2 688 2 402 1 406 2 389 2 391

3 042 2 524 2 223 2 625 2 297 1 508 2 378 2 439

3 078 2 479 2 269 2 565 2 253 1 480 2 374 2 451

3 080 2 389 2 398 2 549 2 141 1 471 2 364 2 456

3 056 2 335 2 414 2 570 2 160 1 485 2 364 2 449

WORLD AVERAGE 2015: 2 449 Kg CO2 per toe 3 500 3 000 2 500 2 000 1 500 1 000 500 0 EU-28 China

United States Asia**

Middle East Russia

Africa World Rest of the World

Kg CO2 per toe 3 500 3 000 2 500 2 000 1 500

EU-28 Asia**

China Russia

United States Africa

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1 000

Middle East Rest of the World World

* Per Unit of Gross Inland Consumption. ** non OECD and OECD Asia, excluding China and Middle East. Source: IEA, August 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 1

19


Total Production: 969.3

Net Imports: 736.4

Gross Inland Consumption: 1 674.6

Intermediary

Transformation Input: 1 396.7

Transformation Output: 1 026.2

Non-Transformed Energy

Demand

nL

tri

pti

n

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 1

m su

b

io ut

on

o

n nE

i

kC

Co

atio

e ss

s:

erg

oc

m for

os nL

St

Dis

9.2

ns Tra

s:

20

Available for Final Consumption: 1 192.9

Final

: 331.6 n – Industry Consumptio Final Final Energy Energy mption – Residential: 285.1 Consumption: Final Energy Consu 1 082.6 Final Energy Consum ption – Transport : 306.5 Final En ergy Co n Fin sumptio al E n – Serv ices: 11 Fin ner 4.7 a Fin l Ene gy Co ns. rgy al – En Ag erg Cons um ricult yC ure pti on on /Fo su res –F mp try i shi tio : 31 ng n– : .1 1.4 No nsp ec ifie d: 12 .2

l Fina

07.4 n: 1 ptio m u s Con rgy -Ene Non

(Mtoe)

ge

ha n

Supply

PART 1  Overview

1.2 Energy in the EU (Overview)

1.2.1 EU-28 Energy Flow – 1995

ses

: 37

0.5

26

.6

yS

to ec

r: 8

s:

ine ar lM a 4 ion : 5. at Use ern irect Int D

er nk Bu

7.4

34

.9


Total Production: 770.4

Net Imports: 903.7

Gross Inland Consumption: 1 640.6

Intermediary

Transformation Input: 1 295

Transformation Output: 963

Non-Transformed Energy

Demand

Co

atio

nL

pti

n

m su

b

io ut

on

o

i

n nE

oc kC h

m for

os nL

ses

e ss

s:

erg

St

tri

1.3

Dis

:2

ns Tra

es

Available for Final Consumption: 1 205.2

Final 7.8

: 276.8 n – Industry Consumptio Final Final Energy Energy mption – Residential: 284.8 Consumption: Final Energy Consu 1 107.8 Final Energy Consum ption – Transport : 367.3 Final En ergy Co Fin nsumpti on – Se a rvices: 1 Fin l Ene 50 rg al Fin Ene y Con rgy s. – al En C erg onsu Agric ult mp yC ure tio on /Fo n– su res mp Fis try hin tio : 24 n– g: .1 1.4 No nsp ec ifie d: 3.3

n-E

l No

Fina

n: 9

ptio nsum y Co nerg

an g

Supply

EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1.2.2 EU-28 Energy Flow – 2016 (Mtoe)

: 33

1.9

26

.4

yS

to ec

r: 8

0.1

s:

ine ar lM a 6 ion 10. at se: ern rect U i Int D

er nk Bu

44

.2

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 1

21


PART 1  Overview

1.2.3 EU-28 Gross Inland Consumption

ENERGY MIX (%) – PRIMARY PRODUCTS ONLY

TOTAL PRIMARY 1995: 1 672.8 Mtoe

(Total Primary and Secondary 1995: 1 674.6 Mtoe)

5.1 % 13.6 % 39.1 % 21.8 %

20.1 %

Petroleum and Products Gases Solid Fuels Nuclear Renewables Waste, Non-Renewable (0.3 %)

TOTAL PRIMARY 2016: 1 639 Mtoe

(Total Primary and Secondary 2016: 1 640.6 Mtoe)

13.2  %

0.9  %

34.6 %

13.2  %

14.7 % 23.4 %

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 1

22

Petroleum and Products Gases Solid Fuels Nuclear Renewables Waste, Non-Renewable


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1.2.3 EU-28 Gross Inland Consumption

ENERGY MIX* – 2016 (%) 0 %

20 %

40 %

60 %

EU-28

Petroleum and Products Gases Renewables Waste, Non-Renewable

80 %

Solid Fuels

100 %

Nuclear

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK 0 %

20 %

40 %

60 %

80 %

100 %

* Primary Products Only. Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 1

23


PART 1  Overview

1.2.4 EU-28 Energy Import Dependency

BY FUEL – (%) Total Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Natural Gas

1995 43.1

2000 46.7

2005 52.1

2010 52.7

2015 53.9

2016 53.6

21.4 29.7 74.1 73.0 43.4

30.6 42.5 75.7 74.4 48.9

39.4 55.6 82.2 81.3 57.1

39.4 57.9 84.5 84.6 62.5

42.4 63.6 88.8 88.4 69.0

40.2 61.2 86.7 87.4 70.4

1995-2016 (%) 100  % 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016

90 %

80 %

70 %

60 %

50 %

40 %

30 %

20 %

10 %

0 %

Total

Solid Fuels

of which Hard Coal

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 1

24

Petroleum and Products

of which Crude and NGL

Natural Gas


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1.2.5 EU-28 Energy Import Dependency – Net Imports 2016 ENERGY IMPORT DEPENDENCY (%) 0

20

40

60

80

100

BE

BE

BG

BG

CZ

CZ

DK

DK

DE

DE

EE

EE

IE

IE

EL

EL

ES

ES

FR

FR

HR

HR

IT

IT

CY

CY

LV

LV

LT

LT

LU

LU

HU

HU

MT

MT

NL

NL

AT

AT

PL

PL

PT

PT

RO

RO

SI

SI

SK

SK

FI

FI

SE

SE

UK

UK 0

20

40

60

80

100

NET IMPORTS (Mtoe)

0

40

80

120

160

200

0

40

80

120

160

200

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 1

25


PART 1  Overview

1.2.6 EU-28 Imports by Country of Origin EU-28 IMPORTS* OF NATURAL GAS – 2016 Total extra-EU = 14 745 784 TJ-GCV 39.9 %

Russia 24.8 %

Norway 13.0 %

Not specified

12.4 %

Algeria Qatar Nigeria Libya

5.6 % 2.0 % 1.3 %

Peru

0.5 %

Other extra-EU

0.5 %

EU-28 IMPORTS* OF CRUDE OIL – 2016 Total extra-EU = 528 924 kton Russia

31.6 %

Norway

12.8 %

Iraq Soudi Arabia Kazakhstan Nigeria

8.1 % 7.7 % 6.7 % 5.6 %

Azerbaijan 4.5 % Algeria

3.1 % 19.9 %

Other extra-EU

EU-28 IMPORTS* OF SOLID FUELS – 2016 Total extra-EU = 187 948 kton Russia

30.2 %

Colombia

23.4 %

Australia

14.6 % 14.1 %

United States South Africa

5.1 %

Not Specified 4.5 % Indonesia Canada Other extra-EU

3.0 % 2.0 % 3.0 %

* From non-EU suppliers and as a share of total non-EU imports. Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 1

26


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1.3 EU 2020 Targets 1.3.1 Renewable Energy Targets*

RES Heating and Cooling

Overall RES Share

Indicative Trajectory 2015/2016

2020 RES Target

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

RES Electricity

% EU-28

RES Transport

2016 Renewable Energy Shares

7.1

29.6

19.1

17.0

n.a.

20.0

5.9 7.3 6.4 6.8 6.9 0.4 5.0 1.4 5.3 8.9 1.3 7.2 2.7 2.8 3.6 5.9 7.4 5.4 4.6 10.6 3.9 7.5 6.2 1.6 7.5 8.4 30.3 4.9

15.8 19.2 13.6 53.7 32.2 15.5 27.2 23.8 36.6 19.2 46.7 34.0 8.6 51.3 16.8 6.7 7.2 5.6 12.5 72.6 13.4 54.1 42.7 32.1 22.5 32.9 64.9 24.6

8.1 30.0 19.9 41.7 13.0 51.2 6.8 24.5 16.8 21.1 37.6 18.9 23.0 51.9 46.5 7.3 20.8 15.3 5.5 33.3 14.7 35.1 26.9 34.0 9.9 53.7 68.6 7.0

8.7 18.8 14.9 32.2 14.8 28.8 9.5 15.2 17.3 16.0 28.3 17.4 9.3 37.2 25.6 5.4 14.2 6.0 6.0 33.5 11.3 28.5 25.0 21.3 12.0 38.7 53.8 9.3

7.1 12.4 9.2 22.9 11.3 21.2 8.9 11.9 13.8 16.0 15.9 10.5 7.4 35.9 18.6 5.4 8.2 4.5 7.6 28.1 10.7 25.2 20.6 20.1 10.0 32.8 43.9 7.5

13.0 16.0 13.0 30.0 18.0 25.0 16.0 18.0 20.0 23.0 20.0 17.0 13.0 40.0 23.0 11.0 13.0 10.0 14.0 34.0 15.0 31.0 24.0 25.0 14.0 38.0 49.0 15.0

* In % of the Gross Final Energy Consumption. Source: Eurostat-RES SHARES, February 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 1

27


PART 1  Overview

1.3.1 Renewable Energy Targets*

OVERALL RENEWABLE ENERGY SHARE 2016 (%) 0 %

10 %

20 %

30 %

40 %

50 %

60 %

EU-28 Overall RES Share 2016 Indicative Trajectory 2015/2016 2020 RES Target

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK 0 %

10 %

20 %

* In Gross Final Energy Consumption. Source: Eurostat-RES SHARES, February 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 1

28

30 %

40 %

50 %

60 %


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1.3.2 Renewable Energy Shares *

RES SHARES IN HEATING AND COOLING, ELECTRICITY, AND TRANSPORT – 2016 (%) 0 %

10 %

20 %

30 %

40 %

50 %

60 %

70 %

80 %

EU-28 RES in Transport 2016 RES Electricity 2016 RES Heating and Cooling 2016

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK 0 %

10 %

20 %

30 %

40 %

50 %

60 %

70 %

80 %

* In Gross Final Energy Consumption. Source: Eurostat-RES SHARES, February 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 1

29


PART 1  Overview

1.3.3 GHG Emissions Targets *

EMISSIONS COMPARED TO 1990 Index 100=1990 EU-28

1990 100.0

1995 94.2

2000 92.3

2005 93.6

2010 85.8

2015 78.0

2016 77.6

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

105.3 72.1 79.7 111.1 90.1 50.0 106.7 105.9 114.2 99.5 71.5 103.0 123.2 48.9 46.2 80.9 80.7 131.6 105.8 101.9 93.8 117.3 73.2 100.6 73.0 100.7 102.9 94.8

103.2 57.1 75.3 101.3 84.2 42.9 124.4 122.1 135.1 101.9 80.4 107.6 144.2 39.8 40.3 80.6 78.6 136.4 101.5 103.2 83.4 138.9 57.0 102.5 67.0 98.5 96.9 91.5

99.5 61.6 74.5 95.5 80.4 47.6 127.4 131.5 154.1 102.5 93.2 112.8 159.3 43.6 47.3 108.5 81.2 141.2 99.8 118.9 85.2 145.3 59.9 110.4 69.3 98.3 94.3 89.7

91.4 58.3 70.7 91.2 76.5 52.5 112.4 114.6 125.9 95.1 87.3 98.1 162.4 47.8 43.0 102.0 70.1 142.3 99.0 109.3 87.1 118.4 49.6 105.7 62.7 106.7 91.3 79.3

81.5 59.5 64.6 70.9 73.7 44.7 109.6 93.0 119.7 85.7 75.8 84.7 143.9 43.7 42.1 88.3 65.3 112.0 91.3 101.8 82.7 118.3 47.2 90.7 55.4 79.3 76.8 66.7

81.5 57.0 65.6 73.9 74.1 48.6 113.4 89.7 116.4 85.6 76.2 83.9 152.9 43.8 42.0 87.5 65.8 99.4 91.6 103.1 85.0 115.8 45.8 95.2 55.6 84.0 76.1 63.6

* Emissions of the Kyoto basket of GHG. EU-28 GHG emission target by 2020: 80 % of 1990 GHG emissions. Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 1

30


Energy in the EU

2


PART 2  Energy in the EU


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

Summary 2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

Energy Supply � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 35 2.1.1

Production � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 35

2.1.2

Net Imports� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 38

2.1.3

Gross Inland Consumption � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 41

Energy Imports � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 45 2.2.1

Imports – Solid Fuels � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 45

2.2.2

Imports – Petroleum and Products � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 50

2.2.3

Imports – Gases � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 55

2.2.4

Imports – Electricity � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 59

2.2.5

Imports by Country of Origin � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 63

Energy Import Dependency� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 66 2.3.1

Import Dependency – All Fuels � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 66

2.3.2

Import Dependency – By Fuel � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 67

2.3.3

Import Dependency – Solid Fuels � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 68

2.3.4

Import Dependency – Hard Coal  � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 69

2.3.5

Import Dependency – Petroleum and Products  � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 70

2.3.6

Import Dependency – Crude and NGL� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 71

2.3.7

Import Dependency – Natural Gas � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 72

Energy Transformation � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 73 2.4.1

Transformation Input – All Fuels � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 73

2.4.2

Transformation Input – By Fuel � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 74

2.4.3

Transformation Input – By Sector � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 75

2.4.4

Transformation Output – All Fuels� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 76

2.4.5

Transformation Output – By Fuel � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 77

2.4.6

Transformation Output – By Sector � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 78

Final Energy � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 79 2.5.1

Primary Energy Consumption � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 79

2.5.2

Available for Final Consumption � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 80

2.5.3

Final Non-Energy Consumption � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 81

2.5.4

Final Energy Consumption � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 82

Electricity � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 86 2.6.1

Installed Electricity Capacity � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 86

2.6.2

Gross Electricity Generation � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 89

2.6.3

Market Share of the Largest Electricity Producer � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 94 33


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.7

2.8

2.9

Solar and Wind Energy� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 95 2.7.1

Solar and Wind Energy – Cumulative Capacity � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 95

2.7.2

Wind Cumulative Installed Capacity � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 97

2.7.3

Wind Gross Electricity Production � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 99

2.7.4

Wind Penetration Level � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 100

2.7.5

Wind Capacity Factor � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 101

2.7.6

Solar Collectors’ Surface � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 102

2.7.7

Solar Installed Capacity � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 103

2.7.8

Solar Gross Electricity Production � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 104

2.7.9

Solar Penetration Level� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 105

CHP � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 106 2.8.1

CHP Electricity � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 106

2.8.2

CHP Heat � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 107

2.8.3

CHP Electricity and Heat � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 108

Heat � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 109 2.9.1

Gross Heat Generation� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 109

2.10 Transport� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 112 2.10.1

Fuels Final Consumption � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 112

2.10.2

Biofuels � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 113

2.11 Energy Efficiency� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 115 2.11.1

Energy Intensity � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 115

2.11.2

Energy Consumption per Capita � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 116

2.11.3

Final Electricity Consumption per Capita � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 117

2.11.4

Primary Energy Intensity � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 118

2 .11 .5

Carbon Intensity � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 119

2.12 RES Indicators � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 120 2.12.1

RES Shares � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 120

2.13 Energy Prices � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 123

34

2.13.1

Prices of Transport Fuels � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 123

2.13.2

Fuel Prices – Domestic Consumers � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 126

2.13.3

Fuel Prices – Industrial Consumers � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 128


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.1 Energy Supply 2.1.1 Production *

ALL FUELS Mtoe EU-28 Index 1995 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

1995 969.3 100 %

2000 952.7 98 %

2005 914.6 94 %

2010 851.3 88 %

2015 781.9 81 %

2016 770.4 79 %

11.83 10.27 32.69 16.26 145.26 3.86 4.10 9.36 31.43 127.37 5.00 29.83 0.04 1.43 3.78 0.05 13.90 0.00 70.04 8.77 99.38 3.38 32.31 2.96 5.06 13.13 31.38 256.46

13.61 9.87 30.81 28.77 135.60 3.55 2.16 10.01 31.49 130.14 4.26 28.49 0.04 1.47 3.28 0.06 11.60 0.00 62.51 9.79 79.59 3.89 28.47 3.09 6.39 15.16 30.05 268.55

13.72 10.70 33.17 30.78 138.78 4.39 1.64 10.33 30.09 136.26 4.75 30.33 0.05 1.87 3.96 0.11 10.87 0.00 66.76 9.77 78.60 3.62 28.22 3.49 6.68 16.95 34.17 204.60

16.19 10.53 32.03 22.92 132.44 5.60 1.89 9.46 34.53 135.86 5.16 33.07 0.09 1.98 1.33 0.12 11.92 0.00 75.63 11.66 67.44 5.80 27.82 3.78 6.35 17.99 32.58 147.15

11.63 12.13 28.90 15.76 123.68 6.55 2.02 8.51 33.60 138.38 4.47 36.13 0.13 2.35 1.61 0.15 11.29 0.02 52.13 12.00 68.64 5.50 26.74 3.39 6.74 17.80 33.73 117.89

16.24 11.46 27.37 14.97 119.55 5.50 4.31 6.78 34.15 131.43 4.50 33.80 0.13 2.46 1.64 0.16 11.45 0.02 50.91 12.35 67.37 6.19 25.15 3.57 6.59 17.85 34.72 119.75

PRODUCTION – ALL FUELS – 1990-2016 (Mtoe) 1 000 800 600

EU-28

400 200

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

* Primary Production and Receipt, Production from Other Sources and Recycled Products. Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

35


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.1.1 Production *

BY FUEL

Mtoe EU-28 Share (%)

Nuclear

Solid Fuels

Renewables

Gases

Petroleum and Products

Wastes, Non-Renewable

2016

216.7 28.1 %

132.3 17.2 %

210.7 27.4 %

107.5 14.0 %

88.6 11.5 %

14.5 1.9 %

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

11.23 4.08 6.24 0.00 21.83 0.00 0.00 0.00 15.13 104.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.16 0.00 1.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.91 1.47 3.86 5.99 16.28 18.50

0.01 5.11 16.12 0.00 39.73 3.15 0.68 3.97 0.74 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 1.46 0.00 0.00 0.00 52.31 0.00 4.24 0.94 0.45 0.72 0.13 2.50

3.07 1.92 4.28 3.49 39.48 1.46 0.97 2.50 17.69 23.90 2.28 23.82 0.12 2.44 1.50 0.13 3.19 0.02 4.71 9.77 9.03 5.82 6.10 1.11 1.60 10.52 17.38 12.43

0.00 0.08 0.18 4.07 6.55 0.00 2.48 0.01 0.05 0.04 1.37 4.74 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 1.43 0.00 38.18 0.98 3.55 0.00 7.78 0.00 0.08 0.01 0.01 35.96

1.26 0.23 0.25 7.03 7.45 0.82 0.11 0.24 0.32 1.84 0.83 4.06 0.01 0.01 0.08 0.00 1.08 0.00 6.33 0.79 1.74 0.19 4.04 0.00 0.40 0.35 0.15 49.02

0.68 0.03 0.30 0.38 4.51 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.24 1.65 0.01 1.18 0.01 0.01 0.05 0.03 0.13 0.00 0.68 0.82 0.74 0.17 0.08 0.05 0.20 0.27 0.79 1.35

* Primary Production and Receipt, Production from Other Sources and Recycled Products. Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

36


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.1.1 Production *

BY FUEL – EU-28 – 1990-2016 (Mtoe)

400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Solid Fuels Nuclear

Petroleum and Products Renewables

Gases Wastes, Non-Renewable

PRODUCTION – BY FUEL – EU-28 – 1990-2016 (% OF TOTAL) Total = 770.4 Mtoe

1.9 % 11.5 % 28.1 %

14.0 %

27.4 %

17.2 %

Nuclear Solid Fuels Renewables Gases Petroleum and Products Wastes, Non-Renewable

* Primary Production and Receipt, Production from Other Sources and Recycled Products. Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

37


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.1.2 Net Imports

ALL FUELS Mtoe EU-28 Index 1995

1995 736.43 100 %

2000 826.77 112 %

2005 980.27 133 %

2010 955.58 130 %

2015 901.62 122 %

2016 903.71 123 %

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

46.64 12.83 8.60 7.27 195.18 1.81 7.77 18.29 75.42 116.88 2.85 134.50 2.04 3.36 5.54 3.25 12.55 0.84 17.16 18.02 -1.16 18.02 14.03 3.09 12.14 15.91 20.43 -36.83

50.50 8.54 9.41 -7.37 204.71 1.63 12.37 22.15 99.34 133.93 4.08 152.07 2.57 2.36 4.25 3.64 13.96 1.46 34.50 19.01 8.77 22.07 7.99 3.41 12.00 18.22 20.44 -39.22

53.43 9.28 12.64 -10.15 208.41 1.50 13.77 23.50 123.83 143.81 5.15 160.37 2.84 3.10 5.03 4.68 17.42 1.59 37.54 24.52 15.94 24.85 10.84 3.86 12.43 18.95 19.58 31.61

53.56 7.08 11.59 -3.25 202.15 0.87 13.21 21.72 106.34 131.67 4.39 149.46 2.94 2.22 5.67 4.51 15.00 2.37 30.00 21.57 31.53 18.59 7.83 3.58 11.26 17.84 19.48 62.43

50.63 6.59 13.58 2.35 195.93 0.48 12.71 18.81 94.43 116.42 4.12 121.83 2.45 2.37 5.48 4.01 13.43 2.23 46.08 20.22 28.02 18.30 5.54 3.23 9.64 15.91 14.22 72.58

48.72 6.77 13.68 2.52 203.21 0.44 10.36 19.05 93.23 117.76 4.11 121.71 2.62 2.22 5.57 4.03 14.29 2.50 41.58 21.16 30.32 17.57 7.23 3.35 9.74 15.80 16.37 67.82

NET IMPORTS – ALL FUELS – 1990-2016 (Mtoe) 1 200 1 000 800 600

EU-28

400 200

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

38


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.1.2 Net Imports

BY FUEL

Gases

Solid Fuels

Renewables

Electricity

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

Petroleum and Products

Mtoe EU-28 Share (%)

Net imports

2016

903.7 100 %

529.8 58.6 %

269.5 29.8 %

96.7 10.7 %

5.8 0.6 %

1.6 0.2 %

48.72 6.77 13.68 2.52 203.21 0.44 10.36 19.05 93.23 117.76 4.11 121.71 2.62 2.22 5.57 4.03 14.29 2.50 41.58 21.16 30.32 17.57 7.23 3.35 9.74 15.80 16.37 67.82

30.15 4.14 8.03 0.21 107.54 0.68 7.44 14.50 60.49 74.70 2.52 52.32 2.57 1.97 2.88 2.64 6.26 2.36 42.48 11.28 24.81 11.00 5.30 2.53 3.24 9.29 13.43 25.09

14.38 2.59 6.72 -1.29 62.29 0.43 1.70 3.46 24.73 37.90 0.73 53.29 0.00 0.92 1.85 0.71 6.33 0.00 -9.85 6.16 11.47 4.26 1.18 0.70 3.62 2.06 0.82 32.34

2.80 0.56 -0.15 1.60 38.30 0.00 1.14 0.19 7.75 8.02 0.66 10.71 0.00 0.04 0.17 0.05 0.78 0.00 9.30 2.82 -5.88 2.91 1.08 0.20 2.69 2.72 2.23 5.98

0.85 0.03 0.03 1.50 -0.57 -0.50 0.14 0.14 -0.40 0.71 -0.28 2.20 0.03 -0.82 -0.04 0.10 -0.21 0.01 -0.96 0.28 -0.25 -0.21 0.11 0.02 -0.03 0.10 0.91 2.91

0.53 -0.55 -0.94 0.44 -4.34 -0.18 -0.06 0.76 0.66 -3.57 0.48 3.18 0.00 0.09 0.71 0.54 1.09 0.13 0.42 0.62 0.17 -0.44 -0.43 -0.10 0.23 1.63 -1.01 1.51

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

39


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.1.2 Net Imports

BY FUEL – EU-28 – 1990-2016 (Mtoe)

700 600 500 400 300 200 100

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Petroleum and Products Wastes, Non-Renewable

Gases Renewables

Solid Fuels Electricity

NET IMPORTS – BY FUEL – EU-28 – 2016 (% TOTAL) Total = 903.7 Mtoe 10.7 %

29.8 %

58.6 %

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

40

Petroleum and Products Gases Solid Fuels Renewables (0.6 %) Electricity (0.2 %) Wastes, Non-Renewable (0 %)


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.1.3 Gross Inland Consumption

ALL FUELS Mtoe EU-28 Index 1995 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

1995 1 674.62 100 %

2000 1 729.80 103 %

2005 1 831.07 109 %

2010 1 765.19 105 %

2015 1 629.32 97 %

2016 1 640.62 98 %

53.83 22.69 41.94 20.20 341.64 5.49 11.07 23.87 102.08 241.61 7.86 161.77 1.97 4.62 8.64 3.32 26.18 0.76 75.34 27.11 98.83 20.64 46.31 6.07 17.72 29.36 51.47 222.25

59.30 18.52 41.37 19.74 342.33 4.97 14.43 28.29 123.64 257.39 8.42 174.22 2.41 3.86 7.06 3.65 25.30 0.80 77.86 29.02 88.65 25.29 36.65 6.45 18.30 32.41 48.90 230.56

59.06 19.75 45.43 19.53 341.93 5.62 15.24 31.41 144.22 276.30 9.78 190.08 2.54 4.59 8.71 4.80 28.11 0.94 84.04 34.04 92.22 27.48 39.21 7.33 19.03 34.50 51.02 234.17

60.90 17.77 45.43 20.04 332.49 6.15 15.18 28.72 130.25 267.18 9.43 177.93 2.74 4.63 6.79 4.64 26.60 0.94 86.64 34.12 100.68 24.28 35.80 7.34 17.86 37.11 50.79 212.78

54.26 18.51 42.33 16.85 313.97 6.30 14.19 24.45 121.42 253.08 8.52 156.17 2.27 4.38 6.91 4.18 25.18 0.76 77.37 33.40 95.63 23.02 32.43 6.57 16.43 33.28 45.56 191.90

57.45 18.13 41.81 17.42 317.27 6.22 14.85 24.14 122.18 248.75 8.59 154.75 2.44 4.39 7.03 4.20 25.71 0.73 78.53 33.87 99.93 23.26 32.40 6.80 16.51 34.62 49.23 189.44

GROSS INLAND CONSUMPTION – ALL FUELS – 1990-2016 (Mtoe) 2 000 1 500 1 000

EU-28

500

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

41


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.1.3 Gross Inland Consumption

BY FUEL

Mtoe EU-28 Share (%)

Petroleum and Products

Gases

Solid Fuels

Nuclear

Renewables

Waste, Non-Renewable

Electricity

2016

567.1 34.6 %

383.0 23.3 %

240.7 14.7 %

216.7 13.2 %

216.6 13.2 %

14.9 0.9 %

1.6 0.1 %

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

23.84 4.23 8.27 6.75 108.80 1.13 7.41 12.83 53.49 75.19 3.28 55.30 2.27 1.49 2.77 2.64 7.01 0.57 32.19 12.24 26.54 10.73 9.31 2.40 3.53 9.53 12.02 71.40

14.30 2.69 7.02 2.90 70.33 0.43 4.24 3.49 25.04 38.31 2.17 58.08 0.00 1.11 1.84 0.71 8.03 0.00 30.13 7.18 14.63 4.30 9.01 0.71 3.90 2.07 0.83 69.55

2.96 5.70 16.62 1.90 77.23 3.80 2.09 4.37 10.19 8.58 0.65 10.99 0.00 0.04 0.19 0.05 2.26 0.00 10.21 2.96 49.08 2.85 5.33 1.15 3.23 4.53 2.05 11.76

11.23 4.08 6.24 0.00 21.83 0.00 0.00 0.00 15.13 104.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.16 0.00 1.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.91 1.47 3.86 5.99 16.28 18.50

3.92 1.95 4.31 5.01 38.92 0.97 1.11 2.64 17.43 24.59 2.00 26.02 0.15 1.62 1.46 0.22 3.00 0.03 3.70 10.05 8.77 5.62 6.19 1.13 1.58 10.61 18.28 15.36

0.68 0.03 0.30 0.44 4.51 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.24 1.65 0.01 1.18 0.02 0.04 0.05 0.03 0.16 0.00 0.86 0.82 0.74 0.21 0.08 0.05 0.20 0.27 0.79 1.35

0.53 -0.55 -0.94 0.44 -4.34 -0.18 -0.06 0.76 0.66 -3.57 0.48 3.18 0.00 0.09 0.71 0.54 1.09 0.13 0.42 0.62 0.17 -0.44 -0.43 -0.10 0.23 1.63 -1.01 1.51

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

42


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.1.3 Gross Inland Consumption RENEWABLES

Hydro

Wind

Solar

Geothermal

Tide, Wave and Ocean

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

Biomass and Renewable Wastes

Mtoe EU-28 Share (%)

Renewables

2016

216.6 13.2 %

140.4 8.6 %

30.1 1.8 %

26.0 1.6 %

13.4 0.8 %

6.7 0.4 %

0.0 0.0 %

3.92 1.95 4.31 5.01 38.92 0.97 1.11 2.64 17.43 24.59 2.00 26.02 0.15 1.62 1.46 0.22 3.00 0.03 3.70 10.05 8.77 5.62 6.19 1.13 1.58 10.61 18.28 15.36

3.13 1.31 3.89 3.79 26.18 0.91 0.51 1.17 6.90 16.50 1.30 13.18 0.05 1.39 1.32 0.19 2.77 0.01 2.75 5.86 7.42 2.89 3.88 0.66 1.14 8.99 11.60 10.74

0.03 0.34 0.17 0.00 1.77 0.00 0.06 0.48 3.13 5.16 0.59 3.65 0.00 0.22 0.04 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.01 3.43 0.18 1.35 1.55 0.39 0.38 1.36 5.33 0.46

0.47 0.12 0.04 1.10 6.76 0.05 0.53 0.44 4.21 1.84 0.09 1.52 0.02 0.01 0.10 0.01 0.06 0.00 0.70 0.45 1.08 1.07 0.57 0.00 0.00 0.26 1.33 3.21

0.29 0.14 0.20 0.11 3.95 0.00 0.01 0.54 3.18 0.80 0.02 2.10 0.08 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.02 0.16 0.28 0.06 0.16 0.16 0.03 0.05 0.00 0.02 0.95

0.00 0.04 0.00 0.01 0.27 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.24 0.01 5.57 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.12 0.00 0.07 0.03 0.02 0.16 0.04 0.05 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

43


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.1.3 Gross Inland Consumption

BY FUEL – EU-28 – 1990-2016 (Mtoe)

700 600 500 400 300 200 100

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Petroleum and Products Nuclear

Solid Fuels Renewables

Gases Wastes, Non-Renewable

GROSS INLAND CONSUMPTION – BY FUEL – EU-28 – 2016 (% TOTAL) Total = 1 640.6 Mtoe

0.9 % 13.2 % 34.6 %

13.2 %

14.7 % 23.4 %

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

44

Petroleum and Products Gases Solid Fuels Nuclear Renewables Wastes, Non-Renewable


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.2 Energy Imports 2.2.1 Imports – Solid Fuels TOTAL Mtoe EU-28 Index 1995

1995 116.2 100 %

2000 131.6 113 %

2005 153.4 132 %

2010 136.1 117 %

2015 150.6 130 %

2016 134.9 116 %

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

10.34 2.42 1.84 7.68 12.26 0.35 1.90 0.92 8.67 9.42 0.15 13.09 0.01 0.17 0.16 0.49 1.65 0.00 11.62 2.64 1.08 3.86 3.07 0.19 4.18 3.86 2.80 11.34

8.41 2.38 1.04 3.86 22.20 0.33 1.70 0.81 13.35 13.40 0.48 13.22 0.03 0.06 0.08 0.11 1.21 0.00 14.01 3.06 1.02 3.97 1.93 0.24 3.47 3.55 2.43 15.23

6.01 2.57 1.35 3.56 26.57 0.07 1.91 0.40 14.83 13.99 0.62 16.52 0.04 0.08 0.18 0.08 1.45 0.00 12.99 3.99 2.15 3.23 2.96 0.33 3.90 3.36 2.58 27.73

4.39 1.75 2.38 2.68 32.55 0.05 0.96 0.40 7.85 12.26 0.70 14.00 0.01 0.12 0.22 0.07 1.41 0.00 12.78 3.37 8.27 1.63 1.28 0.28 3.22 3.98 2.57 16.92

3.16 0.76 2.85 1.53 37.45 0.01 1.48 0.16 10.96 8.70 0.62 12.58 0.00 0.04 0.17 0.05 1.11 0.00 34.27 2.76 5.07 3.21 1.10 0.20 2.83 2.60 2.01 14.91

2.85 0.56 3.00 1.62 39.65 0.02 1.16 0.19 8.10 8.07 0.66 10.97 0.00 0.04 0.18 0.05 1.14 0.00 30.48 2.86 5.04 2.91 1.08 0.20 2.75 2.79 2.24 6.31

IMPORTS – SOLID FUELS – TOTAL – 1990-2016 (Mtoe) 200 150 100 EU-28

50

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

45


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.2.1 Imports – Solid Fuels

HARD COAL Mtoe EU-28 Index 1995

1995 105.7 100 %

2000 120.5 114 %

2005 144.0 136 %

2010 127.0 120 %

2015 142.6 135 %

2016 127.1 120 %

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

9.44 2.35 1.63 7.65 9.50 0.05 1.87 0.92 8.09 8.73 0.07 12.58 0.01 0.17 0.16 0.13 1.23 0.00 11.06 2.05 1.05 3.84 3.01 0.14 3.10 3.67 2.37 10.87

7.46 2.25 0.63 3.82 17.39 0.06 1.68 0.81 13.25 12.33 0.44 12.87 0.03 0.05 0.07 0.10 1.12 0.00 13.63 2.34 1.01 3.97 1.65 0.20 3.15 3.21 2.14 14.90

5.70 2.49 0.76 3.54 23.93 0.04 1.88 0.40 14.74 12.85 0.57 15.94 0.04 0.07 0.16 0.07 1.30 0.00 12.71 3.00 2.05 3.22 2.42 0.30 3.48 3.01 2.22 27.11

4.09 1.70 1.42 2.67 29.33 0.05 0.95 0.40 7.71 11.30 0.66 13.99 0.01 0.11 0.18 0.06 1.40 0.00 12.54 2.48 8.16 1.63 0.52 0.23 2.57 3.68 2.29 16.84

2.69 0.70 1.96 1.52 35.35 0.01 1.47 0.16 10.73 8.29 0.59 12.12 0.00 0.04 0.14 0.04 1.05 0.00 34.03 2.09 4.91 3.20 0.47 0.18 2.53 2.28 1.92 14.14

2.33 0.50 2.22 1.61 37.91 0.02 1.15 0.19 7.97 7.74 0.63 10.30 0.00 0.04 0.14 0.05 1.09 0.00 29.94 2.28 4.88 2.90 0.47 0.18 2.46 2.56 2.16 5.46

IMPORTS – SOLID FUELS – HARD COAL – 1990-2016 (Mtoe) 175 150 125 100

EU-28

75

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

50

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

46


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.2.1 Imports – Solid Fuels RANKING Mtoe and %

1995

Imports

13.1 12.3 11.6 11.3 10.3 9.4 8.7 7.7 4.2 3.9 58.6

11.3 % 10.6 % 10.0 % 9.8 % 8.9 % 8.1 % 7.5 % 6.6 % 3.6 % 3.3 % 50.5 %

DE NL IT ES FR UK PL CZ PT AT

39.6 30.5 11.0 8.1 8.1 6.3 5.0 3.0 2.9 2.9 97.3

29.4 % 22.6 % 8.1 % 6.0 % 6.0 % 4.7 % 3.7 % 2.2 % 2.2 % 2.1 % 72.1 %

116.2

100.0 %

134.9

100.0 %

12.6 11.1 10.9 9.5 9.4 8.7 8.1 7.6 3.8 3.7 53.4

11.9 % 10.5 % 10.3 % 9.0 % 8.9 % 8.3 % 7.7 % 7.2 % 3.6 % 3.5 % 50.6 %

37.9 29.9 10.3 8.0 7.7 5.5 4.9 2.9 2.6 2.5 93.9

29.8 % 23.6 % 8.1 % 6.3 % 6.1 % 4.3 % 3.8 % 2.3 % 2.0 % 1.9 % 73.8 %

105.7

100.0 %

127.1

100.0 %

Imports

Solid Fuels 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Top 5 Total

IT DE NL UK BE FR ES DK SK PT

Total EU-28

Total EU-28

IT NL UK DE BE FR ES DK PT FI

EU-28 Share

MS

MS

Of which: Hard Coal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Top 5 Total

2016 EU-28 Share

Top 10 Ranking

DE NL IT ES FR UK PL PT FI SK

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

47


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.2.1 Imports – Solid Fuels

BY MEMBER STATE – TOP 14 IMPORTERS 1990-2016 (Mtoe)

DE

NL

IT

ES

FR

UK 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016

PL

CZ

PT

AT

BE

FI

SK

SE 0

10

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

48

20

30

40


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.2.1 Imports – Solid Fuels

BY MEMBER STATE – LEAST 14 IMPORTERS 1990-2016 (Mtoe)

DK

IE

HU

RO

HR

BG 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016

SI

EL

LT

LU

LV

EE

CY

MT 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

49


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.2.2 Imports – Petroleum and Products TOTAL Mtoe EU-28 Index 1995 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

1995 800.8 100 %

2000 867.4 108 %

2005 954.1 119 %

2010 914.1 114 %

2015 934.9 117 %

2016 941.6 118 %

44.53 7.96 8.89 10.32 146.77 1.17 6.80 21.43 67.52 102.35 4.49 106.72 2.03 2.14 5.32 1.78 7.59 0.84 89.86 11.02 15.42 17.96 11.18 2.35 5.11 12.65 26.90 59.68

52.79 5.97 8.60 9.88 147.99 0.93 9.56 23.81 78.17 114.09 4.19 109.37 2.53 1.35 5.41 2.39 7.09 1.46 103.67 12.29 20.98 17.48 6.30 2.69 6.01 15.33 27.93 69.14

58.21 7.55 10.90 8.69 147.67 1.16 10.14 26.44 87.72 122.74 5.50 108.86 2.79 2.28 9.61 3.16 8.79 1.59 124.84 15.39 24.46 19.55 9.88 2.85 6.92 15.75 27.30 83.34

56.35 7.60 10.61 9.38 128.86 1.16 9.17 27.05 80.31 105.66 4.94 97.87 2.91 1.94 10.22 2.86 8.37 2.38 146.20 13.70 28.68 15.30 8.46 3.28 6.69 16.06 27.94 80.18

60.19 8.73 11.21 13.81 128.08 1.71 9.24 31.36 83.58 99.60 4.51 81.13 2.44 2.76 11.18 2.62 9.17 2.67 155.91 13.83 31.96 17.92 9.80 4.08 7.44 16.57 28.11 85.26

59.22 8.76 10.25 13.07 130.24 1.84 9.06 32.86 85.15 95.42 4.64 82.21 2.59 2.79 11.56 2.64 9.16 2.64 156.12 13.75 32.04 17.81 10.61 4.60 7.40 18.38 30.50 86.25

IMPORTS – PETROLEUM AND PRODUCTS – TOTAL – 1990-2016 (Mtoe) 1 200 1 000 800

EU-28

600

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

50


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.2.2 Imports – Petroleum and Products

CRUDE AND NGL Mtoe EU-28 Index 1995 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

1995 565.2 100 %

2000 609.4 108 %

2005 635.3 112 %

2010 572.9 101 %

2015 567.7 100 %

2016 560.2 99 %

26.18 7.39 7.06 5.43 102.37 0.00 2.27 15.51 55.34 78.65 4.23 73.82 0.80 0.00 3.10 0.00 5.89 0.00 60.64 7.56 11.95 13.04 8.31 0.49 5.09 8.67 19.50 41.91

34.04 5.18 5.68 3.77 104.69 0.00 2.98 19.60 57.70 86.84 3.95 83.27 1.16 0.00 4.86 0.00 5.88 0.00 60.16 7.28 17.48 11.63 4.76 0.13 5.74 11.56 21.97 49.11

31.77 5.84 7.70 2.71 112.04 0.00 3.16 18.92 59.94 85.22 4.02 89.91 0.00 0.00 9.05 0.00 6.25 0.00 61.72 7.88 17.74 13.46 8.86 0.00 5.46 10.57 19.49 53.57

33.11 5.37 7.83 2.69 92.77 0.00 3.08 20.40 52.69 64.77 3.56 79.59 0.00 0.00 9.16 0.00 5.68 0.00 60.17 6.70 22.48 11.39 6.11 0.00 5.33 11.21 19.62 49.24

32.26 5.91 7.27 4.15 90.01 0.00 3.69 22.34 64.97 57.93 2.34 62.87 0.00 0.00 8.73 0.00 6.19 0.00 60.26 8.03 26.31 14.18 6.77 0.00 5.78 11.09 19.95 46.71

32.07 5.98 5.35 3.89 90.70 0.00 3.21 23.83 64.21 55.72 2.51 61.32 0.00 0.00 9.38 0.00 5.98 0.00 61.68 7.27 24.35 13.95 7.67 0.00 5.65 12.33 19.37 43.83

IMPORTS – PETROLEUM AND PRODUCTS – CRUDE AND NGL – 1990-2016 (Mtoe) 700 600 500

EU-28

400

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

300

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

51


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.2.2 Imports – Petroleum and Products RANKING Mtoe and %

1995

2016 MS

Imports

146.8 106.7 102.3 89.9 67.5 59.7 44.5 26.9 21.4 18.0 513.2

18.3 % 13.3 % 12.8 % 11.2 % 8.4 % 7.5 % 5.6 % 3.4 % 2.7 % 2.2 % 64.1 %

NL DE FR UK ES IT BE EL PL SE

156.1 130.2 95.4 86.2 85.2 82.2 59.2 32.9 32.0 30.5 553.2

16.6 % 13.8 % 10.1 % 9.2 % 9.0 % 8.7 % 6.3 % 3.5 % 3.4 % 3.2 % 58.8 %

941.6

100.0 %

90.7 64.2 61.7 61.3 55.7 43.8 32.1 24.3 23.8 19.4 333.6

16.2 % 11.5 % 11.0 % 10.9 % 9.9 % 7.8 % 5.7 % 4.3 % 4.3 % 3.5 % 59.6 %

560.2

100.0 %

MS

Imports

Petroleum and Products 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Top 5 Total

DE IT FR NL ES UK BE SE EL PT

Total

800.8

100.0 %

Of which: Crude and NGL 1 DE 2 FR 3 IT 4 NL 5 ES 6 UK 7 BE 8 SE 9 EL 10 PT Top 5 Total

102.4 78.7 73.8 60.6 55.3 41.9 26.2 19.5 15.5 13.0 370.8

18.1 % 13.9 % 13.1 % 10.7 % 9.8 % 7.4 % 4.6 % 3.4 % 2.7 % 2.3 % 65.6 %

Total

565.2

100.0 %

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

52

EU-28 Share

EU-28 Share

Top 10 Ranking

DE ES NL IT FR UK BE PL EL SE


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.2.2 Imports – Petroleum and Products

BY MEMBER STATE – TOP 14 IMPORTERS 1990-2016 (Mtoe)

NL

DE

FR

UK

ES

IT 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016

BE

EL

PL

SE

FI

PT

AT

DK 0

50

100

150

200

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

53


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.2.2 Imports – Petroleum and Products

BY MEMBER STATE – LEAST 14 IMPORTERS 1990-2016 (Mtoe) LT

RO

CZ

HU

IE

BG 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016

SK

HR

SI

LV

LU

MT

CY

EE 0

5

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

54

10

15

20


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.2.3 Imports – Gases TOTAL Mtoe EU-28 Index 1995 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

1995 180.18 100 %

2000 242.43 135 %

2005 323.75 180 %

2010 366.96 204 %

2015 343.93 191 %

2016 357.10 198 %

10.42 4.56 6.43 0.00 55.32 0.58 0.09 0.00 7.52 28.11 0.22 28.56 0.00 1.00 2.03 0.56 5.53 0.00 2.76 5.47 5.84 0.00 4.79 0.75 4.53 2.84 0.76 1.51

13.28 2.74 7.48 0.00 61.09 0.66 2.48 1.69 15.47 36.46 0.91 47.05 0.00 1.11 2.07 0.67 7.35 0.00 12.48 5.32 6.64 2.04 2.71 0.82 5.71 3.43 0.78 2.01

14.82 2.46 7.60 0.00 78.90 0.80 3.01 2.33 30.25 41.62 0.93 60.16 0.00 1.43 2.49 1.18 9.81 0.00 16.44 8.03 8.57 3.89 4.19 0.93 6.05 3.61 0.84 13.42

19.55 2.13 6.98 0.14 78.80 0.56 4.48 3.23 31.96 42.11 0.87 61.72 0.00 0.90 2.49 1.20 7.91 0.00 18.45 10.19 8.91 4.51 1.82 0.86 5.00 3.84 1.47 46.92

15.32 2.52 6.16 0.59 85.92 0.39 3.62 2.67 28.18 39.38 0.87 50.18 0.00 1.08 2.14 0.77 5.68 0.00 29.16 9.43 9.99 4.07 0.16 0.66 3.69 2.24 0.72 38.34

14.96 2.59 6.72 0.61 81.61 0.43 1.70 3.46 28.19 41.23 1.05 53.47 0.00 0.92 1.89 0.71 7.23 0.00 32.89 11.86 12.19 4.26 1.18 0.70 3.62 2.06 0.82 40.76

IMPORTS – GASES – TOTAL – 1990-2016 (Mtoe) 400 300 200

EU-28

100

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

55


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.2.3 Imports – Gases RANKING Mtoe and %

1995

2016

EU-28 Ranking

MS

Imports

EU-28 Share

MS

Imports

EU-28 Share

Gases 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Top 5 Total

DE IT FR BE ES CZ PL HU AT RO BG SK FI NL LT UK LV SE SI EE LU HR IE DK EL CY MT PT

55.3 28.6 28.1 10.4 7.5 6.4 5.8 5.5 5.5 4.8 4.6 4.5 2.8 2.8 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 129.9

30.7 % 15.9 % 15.6 % 5.8 % 4.2 % 3.6 % 3.2 % 3.1 % 3.0 % 2.7 % 2.5 % 2.5 % 1.6 % 1.5 % 1.1 % 0.8 % 0.6 % 0.4 % 0.4 % 0.3 % 0.3 % 0.1 % 0.0 % 0.0 % 0.0 % 0.0 % 0.0 % 0.0 % 72.1 %

DE IT FR UK NL ES BE PL AT HU CZ PT SK EL BG FI LT IE RO HR LV SE LU SI DK EE CY MT

81.6 53.5 41.2 40.8 32.9 28.2 15.0 12.2 11.9 7.2 6.7 4.3 3.6 3.5 2.6 2.1 1.9 1.7 1.2 1.1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.4 0.0 0.0 250.0

22.9 % 15.0 % 11.5 % 11.4 % 9.2 % 7.9 % 4.2 % 3.4 % 3.3 % 2.0 % 1.9 % 1.2 % 1.0 % 1.0 % 0.7 % 0.6 % 0.5 % 0.5 % 0.3 % 0.3 % 0.3 % 0.2 % 0.2 % 0.2 % 0.2 % 0.1 % 0.0 % 0.0 % 70.0 %

180.2

100.0 %

357.1

100.0 %

Total

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

56


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.2.3 Imports – Gases

BY MEMBER STATE – TOP 14 IMPORTERS 1990-2016 (Mtoe)

DE

IT

FR

UK

NL

ES 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016

BE

PL

AT

HU

CZ

PT

SK

EL 0

25

50

75

100

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

57


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.2.3 Imports – Gases

BY MEMBER STATE – LEAST 14 IMPORTERS 1990-2016 (Mtoe)

BG

FI

LT

IE

RO 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016

HR

LV

SE

LU

SI

DK

EE

CY

MT 0

1

2

3

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

58

4

5

6

7


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.2.4 Imports – Electricity TOTAL Mtoe EU-28 Index 1995 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

1995 17.0 100 %

2000 22.9 135 %

2005 28.8 170 %

2010 25.7 151 %

2015 35.3 208 %

2016 32.9 193 %

0.81 0.17 0.58 0.35 3.42 0.02 0.00 0.12 0.66 0.25 0.38 3.32 0.00 0.23 0.45 0.49 0.28 0.00 1.03 0.63 0.38 0.23 0.07 0.06 0.30 0.73 0.66 1.41

1.00 0.08 0.75 0.72 3.88 0.03 0.02 0.15 1.06 0.32 0.38 3.86 0.00 0.18 0.44 0.55 0.82 0.00 1.97 1.19 0.28 0.40 0.07 0.36 0.51 1.05 1.57 1.23

1.23 0.07 1.06 1.11 4.89 0.03 0.18 0.48 0.88 0.69 0.75 4.32 0.00 0.25 0.49 0.55 1.35 0.00 2.04 1.75 0.43 0.83 0.20 0.80 0.69 1.54 1.25 0.96

1.07 0.10 0.57 0.91 3.69 0.10 0.07 0.73 0.45 1.68 1.07 3.95 0.00 0.34 0.70 0.63 0.85 0.00 1.34 1.71 0.54 0.50 0.07 0.74 0.63 1.35 1.28 0.61

2.04 0.37 1.39 1.35 3.18 0.47 0.15 0.95 1.29 0.86 1.13 4.37 0.00 0.45 0.68 0.65 1.71 0.09 2.65 2.53 1.24 0.69 0.39 0.78 1.29 1.85 0.80 1.95

1.26 0.39 1.19 1.29 2.44 0.31 0.08 0.85 1.88 1.71 1.07 3.71 0.00 0.42 0.96 0.66 1.54 0.13 2.09 2.27 1.21 0.40 0.36 0.72 1.14 1.90 1.23 1.69

IMPORTS – ELECTRICITY – TOTAL – 1990-2016 (Mtoe) 40 30 20

EU-28

10

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

59


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.2.4 Imports – Electricity RANKING Mtoe and %

1995

Imports

3.42 3.32 1.41 1.03 0.81 0.73 0.66 0.66 0.63 0.58 0.49 0.45 0.38 0.38 0.35 0.30 0.28 0.25 0.23 0.23 0.17 0.12 0.07 0.06 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 10.0

20.1 % 19.6 % 8.3 % 6.1 % 4.8 % 4.3 % 3.9 % 3.9 % 3.7 % 3.4 % 2.9 % 2.7 % 2.2 % 2.2 % 2.0 % 1.7 % 1.6 % 1.4 % 1.3 % 1.3 % 1.0 % 0.7 % 0.4 % 0.4 % 0.1 % 0.0 % 0.0 % 0.0 % 58.7 %

IT DE AT NL FI ES FR UK HU DK BE SE PL CZ SK HR LT EL SI LU LV PT BG RO EE MT IE CY

3.71 2.44 2.27 2.09 1.90 1.88 1.71 1.69 1.54 1.29 1.26 1.23 1.21 1.19 1.14 1.07 0.96 0.85 0.72 0.66 0.42 0.40 0.39 0.36 0.31 0.13 0.08 0.00 12.4

11.3 % 7.4 % 6.9 % 6.3 % 5.8 % 5.7 % 5.2 % 5.2 % 4.7 % 3.9 % 3.8 % 3.7 % 3.7 % 3.6 % 3.5 % 3.2 % 2.9 % 2.6 % 2.2 % 2.0 % 1.3 % 1.2 % 1.2 % 1.1 % 0.9 % 0.4 % 0.2 % 0.0 % 37.7 %

17.0

100.0 %

32.9

100.0 %

Imports

Electricity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Top 5 Total

DE IT UK NL BE FI SE ES AT CZ LU LT HR PL DK SK HU FR LV PT BG EL RO SI EE IE CY MT

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

60

EU-28 Share

MS

MS

Total

2016 EU-28 Share

EU-28 Ranking


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.2.4 Imports – Electricity

BY MEMBER STATE – TOP 14 IMPORTERS 1990-2016 (Mtoe) IT

DE

AT

NL

FI

ES 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016

FR

UK

HU

DK

BE

SE

PL

CZ 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

61


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.2.4 Imports – Electricity

BY MEMBER STATE – LEAST 14 IMPORTERS 1990-2016 (Mtoe)

SK

HR

LT

EL

SI

LU 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016

LV

PT

BG

RO

EE

MT

IE

CY 0

0.5

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

62

1.0

1.5


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.2.5 Imports by Country of Origin

EU-28 – HARD COAL TOP 15 EXTRA-EU – (ORDERED BY 2016 VOLUME) kton Russia Colombia Australia United States South Africa Not specified Indonesia Canada Mozambique Kazakhstan Ukraine Norway Venezuela China except Hong Kong Chile Other extra-EU kton Extra-EU

1995 8 800 11 181 19 551 41 140 32 108 6 604 3 411 4 237 0 262 348 329 2 822 2 446 0 421

2000 14 966 22 763 28 608 20 665 41 920 5 229 9 102 6 378 107 0 2 058 928 3 621 1 853 0 606

2005 48 784 24 253 27 120 15 737 51 988 3 359 14 949 6 642 0 932 4 229 1 124 2 003 587 0 258

2010 48 666 36 144 19 251 30 519 17 622 7 594 10 158 3 637 0 332 3 183 1 385 685 61 0 161

2015 61 048 50 977 20 729 34 307 16 631 11 593 7 626 3 366 1 100 1 001 835 673 337 116 254 253

2016 55 145 43 511 27 407 26 098 9 561 7 936 5 714 3 833 1 476 1 463 552 449 81 59 45 25

133 660 158 804 201 965 179 398 210 846 183 355

Intra-EU

30 115

Total Intra-EU and Extra-EU

31 206

26 519

22 090

18 764

18 971

163 775 190 010 228 484 201 488 229 610 202 326

EU-28 – HARD COAL – TOP 5 IMPORTS FROM EXTRA-EU (1990-2016) VOLUME (kton) 70 000 60 000 50 000 40 000 30 000 20 000 10 000 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Russia South Africa

Colombia Australia

United States

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

63


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.2.5 Imports by Country of Origin

EU-28 – CRUDE OIL AND NGL TOP 15 EXTRA-EU – (ORDERED BY 2016 VOLUME) kton Russia Norway Iraq Saudi Arabia Kazakhstan Nigeria Azerbaijan Algeria Iran Mexico Angola Libya Kuwait Egypt Other African countries Other extra-EU kton

1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 76 349 120 165 191 504 182 879 153 913 166 894 102 382 115 861 97 606 73 406 66 148 67 621 0 31 317 12 290 16 945 40 349 42 990 82 630 65 089 60 740 30 759 41 730 40 516 78 9 993 26 386 29 701 35 197 35 679 28 633 22 530 18 617 21 783 44 192 29 678 0 3 712 7 255 22 922 27 296 23 694 17 069 21 434 22 776 8 252 24 451 16 332 52 547 35 460 35 610 29 671 0 14 975 7 247 9 770 10 647 6 782 12 978 13 461 4 758 3 861 7 065 8 479 22 029 13 198 47 978 45 883 50 681 53 751 12 816 12 727 12 239 9 741 7 618 3 420 6 649 7 369 6 950 5 579 1 716 4 654 7 794 6 592 0 0 0 29 1 944 4 913 71 651 42 590 33 970 37 658 36 998 32 285

Extra-EU

510 511 542 985 584 481 531 091 534 484 528 924

Intra-EU

50 375

Total Intra-EU and Extra-EU

62 254

48 269

39 612

30 286

28 182

560 886 605 239 632 750 570 703 564 770 557 106

Mio barrels Extra-EU

3 743

3 981

4 285

3 894

3 919

Intra-EU

369

456

354

290

222

207

4 112

4 437

4 639

4 184

4 141

4 084

Total Intra-EU and Extra-EU

3 878

EU-28 – CRUDE OIL AND NGL – TOP 5 IMPORTS FROM EXTRA-EU (1990-2016) VOLUME (kton) 240 000 200 000 160 000 120 000 80 000 40 000 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Russia Kazakhstan

Norway

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

64

Iraq

Saudi Arabia


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.2.5 Imports by Country of Origin

EU-28 – NATURAL GAS TOP 8 EXTRA-EU SUPPLIERS – (ORDERED BY 2016 VOLUME) TJ (GCV) Russia Norway Not specified Algeria Qatar Nigeria Libya Peru Other extra-EU

1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 4 245 121 4 582 197 5 207 617 4 555 369 4 779 585 5 880 308 1 159 815 1 921 076 3 040 082 3 984 437 4 063 547 3 664 104 61 134 334 765 937 105 957 962 843 277 1 916 069 1 362 649 2 203 075 2 256 826 1 986 974 1 369 359 1 824 745 0 12 443 195 713 1 383 263 972 668 829 673 0 172 020 436 319 576 236 250 949 293 454 54 497 33 442 209 499 381 660 269 748 184 404 0 0 0 3 254 42 295 76 773 47 267 85 416 505 352 437 988 103 895 76 254

Extra-EU

6 930 483 9 344 434 12 788 513 14 267 143 12 695 323 14 745 784

Intra-EU Total Intra-EU and Extra-EU Mio m3 Russia Norway Not specified Algeria Qatar Nigeria Libya Peru Other extra-EU

1 451 242 1 933 308 2 272 266 2 803 992 3 304 181 1 866 605

Extra-EU Intra-EU Total Intra-EU and Extra-EU

8 381 725 11 277 742 15 060 779 17 071 135 15 999 504 16 612 389 112 079 28 968 1 473 33 607 0 0 1 353 0 1 172

120 699 47 879 8 126 55 513 309 4 385 830 0 2 174

136 283 79 256 23 859 57 004 4 859 10 586 5 445 0 12 713

119 665 102 695 24 111 50 360 34 996 14 025 9 980 82 10 919

124 346 105 371 21 886 34 217 24 752 6 212 7 080 1 042 2 648

153 220 94 911 49 592 46 106 20 931 7 247 4 840 1 903 1 926

178 652

239 915

330 005

366 833

327 554

380 676

41 582

54 625

60 169

74 336

86 765

49 854

220 234

294 540

390 174

441 169

414 319

430 530

EU-28 – NATURAL GAS – TOP 5 IMPORTS FROM EXTRA-EU (1990-2016) VOLUME (Mio m³) 160 000 120 000 80 000 40 000

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Russia Qatar

Norway

Not specified

Algeria

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

65


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.3 Energy Import Dependency 2.3.1 Import Dependency – All Fuels * (%)

Imports from Extra-EU 1995 EU-28 43.1 Index 1995 100.0 Intra and Extra-EU Imports BE 80.8 BG 55.9 CZ 20.5 DK 33.4 DE 56.8 EE 32.5 IE 69.5 EL 66.7 ES 71.7 FR 48.0 HR 36.1 IT 81.9 CY 100.5 LV 70.4 LT 63.1 LU 97.7 HU 47.9 MT 104.8 NL 19.9 AT 66.4 PL -1.2 PT 85.3 RO 30.3 SI 50.9 SK 68.5 FI 53.6 SE 38.9 UK -16.4

2000 46.7 108.3

2005 52.1 121.1

2010 52.7 122.3

2015 53.9 125.2

2016 53.6 124.5

78.1 46.0 22.8 -35.0 59.4 32.2 84.9 69.5 76.6 51.5 48.4 86.5 98.6 61.0 59.4 99.6 55.2 100.3 38.0 65.4 9.9 85.1 21.8 52.8 65.6 55.1 40.7 -16.9

80.1 46.7 27.8 -50.0 60.5 26.1 89.7 68.6 81.4 51.6 52.5 83.4 100.7 63.9 56.8 97.4 62.0 100.0 37.8 72.0 17.2 88.6 27.6 52.5 65.3 54.1 37.0 13.4

78.2 39.6 25.5 -15.7 60.3 13.6 86.6 69.1 76.7 48.9 46.6 82.6 100.8 45.5 81.8 97.1 56.4 99.0 29.9 63.2 31.3 75.1 21.9 48.7 63.1 47.8 36.9 29.0

84.3 35.4 32.1 13.4 61.9 7.3 88.6 71.7 73.3 45.7 48.3 77.1 97.7 51.2 78.4 95.9 53.3 97.3 51.4 60.5 29.2 77.3 17.1 48.8 58.7 47.4 30.0 37.3

76.0 37.2 32.7 13.9 63.5 6.8 69.1 73.7 71.9 47.1 47.8 77.5 96.2 47.2 77.4 96.1 55.6 100.8 45.8 62.4 30.3 73.5 22.3 48.4 59.0 45.3 32.0 35.3

* Negative Rate Indicates a Net Exporter. Values Over 100 % Indicate Stocks Build Up. Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

66


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.3.2 Import Dependency – By Fuel

EU-28 – IMPORTS FROM EXTRA-EU – 1990-2016 (%)

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

All Fuels Natural Gas

Solid Fuels

Hard Coal

Crude and NGL

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

67


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.3.3 Import Dependency – Solid Fuels * (%)

Imports from Extra-EU 1995 EU-28 21.4 Index 1995 100.0 Intra and Extra-EU Imports BE 108.9 BG 31.8 CZ -25.5 DK 117.9 DE 11.2 EE 8.5 IE 64.9 EL 11.0 ES 45.4 FR 56.3 HR 85.7 IT 105.9 CY 100.0 LV 61.6 LT 64.4 LU 100.0 HU 29.5 MT NL 97.9 AT 75.7 PL -30.2 PT 105.8 RO 26.5 SI 13.6 SK 76.7 FI 63.4 SE 95.4 UK 22.2

2000 30.6 142.6

2005 39.4 183.7

2010 39.4 183.9

2015 42.4 198.0

2016 40.2 187.4

91.2 35.1 -21.8 94.9 25.5 9.1 64.6 8.5 61.3 86.3 110.9 104.6 100.0 46.2 87.0 100.0 28.2

101.3 37.0 -16.1 94.4 31.7 0.8 71.4 4.1 70.1 94.4 91.4 99.4 119.4 93.9 94.6 100.0 42.9

98.3 24.7 -15.1 69.4 40.1 -0.6 48.8 5.1 85.5 101.0 102.3 101.0 64.7 102.8 92.0 100.0 41.9

97.1 11.2 -1.5 85.0 45.5 -0.3 66.5 2.8 78.3 98.5 103.1 100.2 100.0 87.0 87.2 100.0 34.0

94.9 9.8 -0.9 84.6 49.6 0.0 54.7 4.3 76.0 93.5 102.2 97.5

102.0 83.9 -29.1 102.9 25.6 18.7 80.2 68.9 98.3 39.6

101.5 100.7 -23.9 96.3 33.4 21.0 88.4 67.4 97.2 71.9

121.7 99.4 -5.2 98.3 17.6 19.2 75.7 57.5 102.2 51.9

112.4 85.2 -11.6 98.5 17.4 19.0 84.6 61.5 92.3 61.1

91.0 95.5 -12.0 102.3 20.2 17.2 83.3 60.1 108.5 50.8

* Negative Rate Indicates a Net Exporter. Values Over 100 % Indicate Stocks Build Up. Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

68

85.4 89.6 100.0 34.5


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.3.4 Import Dependency – Hard Coal * (%)

Imports from Extra-EU 1995 EU-28 29.7 Index 1995 100.0 Intra and Extra-EU Imports BE 108.5 BG 73.0 CZ -34.2 DK 118.0 DE 17.1 EE 101.9 IE 105.9 EL 95.2 ES 48.5 FR 57.4 HR 73.9 IT 105.6 CY 100.0 LV 93.6 LT 69.1 LU 100.0 HU 103.5 MT NL 97.4 AT 88.3 PL -31.7 PT 105.9 RO 81.7 SI 100.0 SK 92.9 FI 89.0 SE 101.6 UK 21.8

2000 42.5 143.3

2005 55.6 187.5

2010 57.9 195.0

2015 63.6 214.2

2016 61.2 206.4

90.4 100.5 -56.1 94.7 39.2 116.4 93.2 105.9 66.8 87.2 112.9 105.7 100.0 81.8 100.0 100.0 99.0

100.9 94.7 -49.4 94.3 57.5 97.2 100.8 112.5 74.4 92.8 90.5 99.7 119.4 97.3 102.6 100.0 105.1

100.7 88.3 -54.3 69.3 73.7 117.9 79.3 100.3 85.4 100.6 102.7 101.5 64.7 106.7 95.3 100.0 99.5

96.3 94.9 -8.6 85.0 87.6 26.3 102.7 91.4 78.2 96.9 102.5 100.5 100.0 87.0 90.1 100.0 99.3

94.3 84.2 -3.8 84.6 94.7 83.3 84.9 93.6 75.4 92.6 102.5 98.0

101.5 91.6 -29.9 103.4 96.0 100.5 103.8 97.7 107.7 39.4

100.3 107.1 -21.3 96.3 102.2 93.8 105.2 102.6 104.3 71.3

122.3 97.5 3.7 98.2 100.9 100.9 91.9 85.5 115.2 52.1

112.8 82.9 -2.4 98.5 95.3 100.6 97.5 89.8 99.5 60.0

90.9 96.8 -2.1 102.3 100.4 98.3 97.2 82.8 116.9 46.7

87.5 91.2 100.0 98.8

* Negative Rate Indicates a Net Exporter. Values Over 100 % Indicate Stocks Build Up. Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

69


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.3.5 Import Dependency – Petroleum and Products * (%)

Imports from Extra-EU 1995 EU-28 74.1 Index 1995 100.0 Intra and Extra-EU Imports BE 99.6 BG 99.6 CZ 98.0 DK 11.0 DE 95.8 EE 80.2 IE 100.1 EL 98.4 ES 101.5 FR 96.9 HR 55.6 IT 93.3 CY 102.6 LV 102.6 LT 114.5 LU 98.2 HU 71.0 MT 104.8 NL 85.7 AT 89.3 PL 95.9 PT 100.6 RO 48.6 SI 97.8 SK 100.6 FI 94.6 SE 95.6 UK -57.4

2000 75.7 102.1

2005 82.2 110.9

2010 84.5 114.1

2015 88.8 119.9

2016 86.7 117.0

100.2 95.4 95.3 -80.8 94.6 77.4 98.9 100.2 101.0 99.5 61.0 96.1 100.3 94.8 100.4 102.1 76.0 100.3 97.3 89.1 98.7 99.4 34.2 101.5 90.5 103.5 100.8 -54.9

100.8 102.2 97.5 -103.3 97.3 70.8 100.0 97.7 101.2 99.3 79.4 91.8 102.3 102.2 91.9 99.4 81.2 100.1 96.2 91.6 97.5 102.3 38.5 101.2 88.2 98.4 104.0 -3.2

101.4 101.1 96.5 -43.4 96.7 57.5 97.2 98.7 99.9 97.9 80.4 93.5 104.2 94.4 98.7 99.4 84.7 99.2 94.3 89.9 97.0 97.5 51.9 99.2 89.5 89.4 93.6 14.1

103.8 99.1 97.8 5.8 96.5 39.3 103.9 105.4 102.2 98.5 79.7 89.5 102.9 102.9 100.7 99.3 93.2 97.8 101.6 93.9 96.9 99.9 53.3 99.6 89.4 106.0 103.8 36.7

98.8 96.1 97.2 2.8 96.4 48.7 98.4 99.6 99.2 97.5 76.9 91.0 100.7 109.1 97.9 100.0 89.3 101.6 95.6 92.0 92.8 96.9 56.7 100.3 91.8 94.7 95.9 33.9

* Negative Rate Indicates a Net Exporter. Values Over 100 % Indicate Stocks Build Up. Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

70


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.3.6 Import Dependency – Crude and NGL * (%)

Imports from Extra-EU 1995 EU-28 73.0 Index 1995 100.0 Intra and Extra-EU Imports BE 99.8 BG 99.7 CZ 100.2 DK 6.3 DE 96.9 EE IE 100.2 EL 98.8 ES 99.1 FR 95.8 HR 69.2 IT 92.8 CY 96.3 LV LT 99.5 LU HU 71.9 MT NL 94.2 AT 87.6 PL 97.1 PT 100.0 RO 54.9 SI 95.9 SK 101.5 FI 94.1 SE 99.3 UK -47.7

2000 74.4 101.9

2005 81.3 111.3

2010 84.6 115.9

2015 88.4 121.1

2016 87.4 119.7

100.2 98.7 95.2 -120.5 93.8

99.5 97.7 99.3 -141.3 97.3

99.9 99.1 97.6 -68.8 97.3

100.0 100.5 98.4 -4.9 97.1

99.7 99.0 97.7 -0.6 96.7

89.8 99.5 100.6 98.5 72.1 95.1 98.5

98.8 95.2 100.1 98.2 78.9 94.0

101.6 99.5 99.3 98.2 82.2 94.5

108.2 101.5 99.5 98.8 79.6 92.2

100.1 100.5 98.7 97.0 76.4 93.3

94.5

95.3

99.0

99.5

99.4

78.6

81.2

85.2

91.3

86.2

96.7 86.9 99.1 99.0 43.5 87.5 97.6 101.5 100.6 -48.0

96.7 88.5 97.3 100.2 61.3

97.7 86.2 98.4 98.8 56.5

98.0 90.8 100.5 100.9 62.4

98.9 89.5 94.5 98.7 65.4

97.7 97.5 100.4 -0.2

99.9 101.1 99.0 12.7

99.3 104.1 100.7 22.9

100.7 100.5 100.0 16.2

* Negative Rate Indicates a Net Exporter. Values Over 100 % Indicate Stocks Build Up. Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

71


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.3.7 Import Dependency – Natural Gas * (%)

Imports from Extra-EU 1995 EU-28 43.4 Index 1995 100.0 Intra and Extra-EU Imports BE 98.2 BG 99.5 CZ 98.0 DK -47.2 DE 78.6 EE 100.0 IE 3.6 EL 0.0 ES 97.4 FR 93.0 HR 11.6 IT 63.9 CY LV 98.9 LT 100.0 LU 100.0 HU 60.3 MT NL -76.4 AT 84.8 PL 64.6 PT RO 24.9 SI 100.5 SK 86.8 FI 100.0 SE 100.0 UK 1.0

2000 48.9 112.7

2005 57.1 131.6

2010 62.5 144.1

2015 69.0 159.1

2016 70.4 162.3

99.3 93.6 99.8 -64.8 79.1 100.0 72.1 99.1 101.6 100.0 41.0 81.1

100.5 87.7 97.8 -113.9 79.6 100.0 86.7 99.1 101.4 99.3 23.7 84.7

100.3 92.7 84.8 -68.3 81.2 100.0 95.5 99.9 99.4 92.8 18.1 90.5

99.3 97.0 95.1 -48.2 90.1 100.0 96.5 99.9 96.9 98.5 27.1 90.4

100.6 96.5 95.7 -44.6 88.6 100.0 40.1 99.2 98.7 98.9 33.5 91.8

101.9 100.0 100.0 75.4

105.6 100.7 100.0 81.1

61.8 99.7 100.0 78.7

98.6 99.7 99.4 69.7

83.4 100.5 99.3 78.9

-49.1 80.6 66.3 100.2 19.8 99.3 98.8 100.0 100.0 -10.7

-59.3 88.5 69.7 103.8 30.1 99.6 97.5 100.0 100.0 7.0

-60.4 75.3 69.3 100.4 16.8 99.3 99.9 100.0 100.0 40.0

-36.5 72.5 72.2 99.8 1.8 99.7 95.1 99.7 100.0 42.8

-32.7 85.8 78.4 99.1 13.0 99.4 92.9 99.7 100.0 46.5

* Negative Rate Indicates a Net Exporter. Values Over 100 % Indicate Stocks Build Up. Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

72


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.4 Energy Transformation 2.4.1 Transformation Input – All Fuels Mtoe EU-28 Index 1995

1995 1.396.7 100 %

2000 1.433.5 103 %

2005 1.503.6 108 %

2010 1.398.3 100 %

2015 1.305.1 93 %

2016 1.295.0 93 %

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

51.36 23.49 33.11 19.19 268.82 3.68 6.30 27.08 94.09 198.67 6.50 141.98 1.48 1.49 8.46 0.28 20.05 0.45 82.30 15.90 68.92 19.53 36.90 3.30 14.26 25.67 45.28 178.14

61.54 18.20 30.61 16.81 264.63 3.41 8.33 34.06 106.42 217.94 6.64 150.89 2.07 1.09 8.85 0.10 18.95 0.49 82.64 15.20 69.51 19.52 26.90 2.78 15.55 28.35 44.24 177.78

60.49 20.19 35.46 15.38 276.08 3.89 8.03 33.95 114.63 228.31 6.81 165.68 1.08 1.06 13.94 0.58 18.75 0.61 85.07 17.42 69.86 21.87 29.77 3.12 16.64 29.38 46.58 178.99

58.68 18.85 35.55 15.68 250.59 4.68 7.64 33.42 102.18 206.40 5.68 149.47 1.18 1.16 11.29 0.56 19.58 0.58 85.88 16.73 75.97 17.94 23.88 3.08 15.01 33.54 45.86 157.26

50.55 19.06 32.55 14.16 234.01 4.17 7.33 36.60 110.68 191.28 4.60 124.22 0.92 1.19 10.39 0.24 16.85 0.26 86.13 16.77 77.86 22.36 23.33 2.67 15.07 28.65 43.46 129.71

53.12 18.63 30.21 14.83 236.16 4.50 7.59 37.91 107.32 183.78 5.11 122.59 1.01 1.29 11.16 0.15 16.93 0.17 85.99 16.06 76.97 22.22 23.42 2.77 14.72 30.79 45.41 124.18

TRANSFORMATION INPUT – ALL FUELS – 1990-2016 (Mtoe) 2 000 1 500 1 000

EU-28

500

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

73


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.4.2 Transformation Input – By Fuel

Petroleum and Products

Gases

Nuclear

Renewables

Wastes non-RES

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

Solid Fuels

Mtoe EU-28 Share (%)

Total, All Products

2016

1.295.0 100.0 %

224.5 17.3 %

654.7 50.6 %

125.1 9.7 %

216.7 16.7 %

61.9 4.8 %

11.0 0.9 %

53.12 18.63 30.21 14.83 236.16 4.50 7.59 37.91 107.32 183.78 5.11 122.59 1.01 1.29 11.16 0.15 16.93 0.17 85.99 16.06 76.97 22.22 23.42 2.77 14.72 30.79 45.41 124.18

1.87 6.13 14.88 1.84 75.66 3.64 1.71 4.16 10.67 6.28 0.58 10.40 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.00 2.50 0.00 10.24 2.46 44.22 2.83 4.62 1.10 3.02 4.35 1.72 9.62

33.92 7.27 5.76 9.39 103.13 0.06 3.31 31.39 69.03 60.52 3.80 76.87 1.00 0.00 9.98 0.00 7.34 0.17 62.18 8.71 27.41 15.71 12.85 0.01 6.36 15.09 21.00 62.44

4.07 1.03 2.12 0.90 19.88 0.26 2.38 2.23 8.32 7.10 0.58 23.50 0.00 0.77 0.42 0.08 2.10 0.00 9.65 2.38 3.26 2.60 2.84 0.10 0.88 1.51 0.47 25.70

11.23 4.08 6.24 0.00 21.83 0.00 0.00 0.00 15.13 104.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.16 0.00 1.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.91 1.47 3.86 5.99 16.28 18.50

1.27 0.10 1.13 2.28 12.30 0.50 0.16 0.09 3.94 4.37 0.15 10.91 0.01 0.51 0.63 0.05 0.73 0.00 1.73 2.04 1.95 0.96 0.21 0.08 0.58 3.56 4.96 6.69

0.51 0.00 0.06 0.41 3.37 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.23 1.49 0.00 0.91 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.02 0.09 0.00 0.83 0.48 0.11 0.12 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.22 0.79 1.23

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

74


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.4.3 Transformation Input – By Sector

Nuclear Power Stations

District Heating Plants

Refineries, Petroleum and sub-products

Other Transformation Input Industry

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

Conventional Thermal Power Stations

Mtoe EU-28 Share (%)

Total, All Sectors

2016

1.295.0 100.0 %

358.5 27.7 %

216.7 16.7 %

21.0 1.6 %

640.3 49.4 %

58.5 4.5 %

53.12 18.63 30.21 14.83 236.16 4.50 7.59 37.91 107.32 183.78 5.11 122.59 1.01 1.29 11.16 0.15 16.93 0.17 85.99 16.06 76.97 22.22 23.42 2.77 14.72 30.79 45.41 124.18

6.18 6.44 14.23 4.48 91.07 3.06 4.21 7.41 24.35 13.20 1.16 47.44 1.01 1.04 0.62 0.14 3.52 0.17 20.04 4.39 36.30 6.53 7.26 1.25 2.12 6.61 5.54 38.73

11.23 4.08 6.24 0.00 21.83 0.00 0.00 0.00 15.13 104.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.16 0.00 1.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.91 1.47 3.86 5.99 16.28 18.50

0.00 0.24 0.71 1.05 4.06 0.38 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.43 0.07 0.14 0.00 0.23 0.57 0.01 0.74 0.00 0.41 1.05 2.84 0.00 0.37 0.04 0.32 1.76 1.30 2.31

33.92 7.05 5.72 9.29 102.18 0.00 3.24 30.50 65.75 59.91 3.79 72.55 0.00 0.00 9.97 0.00 7.33 0.00 61.46 8.60 27.27 15.46 12.52 0.00 6.13 14.78 20.84 62.07

1.79 0.83 3.31 0.01 17.03 1.06 0.13 0.00 2.10 4.23 0.10 2.45 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 1.19 0.00 3.06 2.03 10.56 0.24 0.36 0.00 2.29 1.65 1.46 2.57

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

75


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.4.4 Transformation Output – All Fuels Mtoe EU-28 Index 1995

1995 1.026.2 100 %

2000 1.056.1 103 %

2005 1.102.7 107 %

2010 1.021.9 100 %

2015 963.8 94 %

2016 963.0 94 %

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

39.85 15.81 21.85 15.83 190.24 1.69 3.91 21.19 71.54 127.11 6.00 114.66 1.05 1.19 6.04 0.18 14.19 0.14 73.52 13.45 46.70 16.15 28.82 1.65 9.96 19.83 32.79 130.84

49.65 11.40 19.56 14.01 188.46 1.52 5.41 26.84 79.39 140.68 6.00 119.80 1.47 0.87 7.11 0.04 13.35 0.17 73.83 13.36 47.97 15.79 20.70 1.24 11.03 22.46 33.76 130.20

48.44 12.61 22.47 13.32 199.84 1.66 5.36 26.24 85.48 142.41 6.06 133.23 0.38 0.88 11.81 0.35 13.40 0.19 75.35 14.92 48.42 17.69 23.79 1.24 12.17 23.27 33.26 128.51

46.39 11.58 22.37 13.47 177.68 1.91 5.18 26.55 78.39 122.64 5.09 120.58 0.46 0.95 10.98 0.34 13.94 0.18 75.65 14.37 54.79 15.06 17.54 1.24 11.17 26.22 34.49 112.73

43.21 11.86 20.46 13.48 169.54 1.48 5.28 31.92 84.41 110.06 4.03 99.36 0.36 0.92 10.33 0.15 12.20 0.10 76.36 14.79 56.94 18.52 17.38 1.13 11.20 22.88 32.86 92.61

43.02 12.08 18.55 14.01 172.34 1.69 5.33 33.71 83.26 107.81 4.47 97.83 0.39 1.02 11.17 0.10 12.19 0.06 76.02 14.25 56.64 18.50 17.87 1.20 10.98 24.94 33.52 90.09

TRANSFORMATION OUTPUT – ALL FUELS – 1990-2016 (Mtoe) 1 200 1 000 800 600

EU-28

400 200

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

76


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.4.5 Transformation Output – By Fuel

Petroleum and Products

Gases

Electricity

Derived Heat

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

Solid Fuels

Mtoe EU-28 Share (%)

Total, All Products

2016

963.0 100.0 %

31.4 3.3 %

640.1 66.5 %

20.2 2.1 %

212.1 22.0 %

59.2 6.1 %

43.02 12.08 18.55 14.01 172.34 1.69 5.33 33.71 83.26 107.81 4.47 97.83 0.39 1.02 11.17 0.10 12.19 0.06 76.02 14.25 56.64 18.50 17.87 1.20 10.98 24.94 33.52 90.09

0.86 0.63 1.73 0.00 9.46 0.01 0.09 0.00 1.40 2.22 0.00 1.24 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.64 0.00 1.45 0.96 6.96 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.17 0.64 0.80 1.14

33.91 7.04 5.72 9.29 102.12 0.00 3.24 30.50 65.73 59.90 3.79 72.54 0.00 0.00 9.97 0.00 7.33 0.00 61.45 8.60 27.26 15.46 12.52 0.00 6.13 14.77 20.82 62.05

0.87 0.00 1.38 0.00 6.02 0.11 0.00 0.00 0.80 1.73 0.00 1.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.29 0.00 1.23 0.99 2.41 0.00 0.24 0.00 0.90 0.55 0.55 1.14

6.49 3.26 6.66 1.46 43.53 0.99 2.00 3.16 15.30 39.66 0.40 17.69 0.39 0.32 0.17 0.04 2.64 0.06 9.06 1.64 13.01 2.59 3.28 0.98 1.89 4.28 6.73 24.36

0.89 1.15 3.07 3.26 11.21 0.57 0.00 0.05 0.00 4.29 0.27 5.35 0.00 0.69 1.03 0.06 1.29 0.00 2.84 2.06 6.99 0.45 1.83 0.22 0.90 4.69 4.62 1.41

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

77


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.4.6 Transformation Output – By Sector

Nuclear Power Stations, Electricity

District Heating Plants, Heat

Refineries, Petroleum and sub-products

Other Transformation Output Industry

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

Conventional Thermal Power Stations

Mtoe EU-28 Share (%)

Total, All Sectors

2016

963.0 100.0 %

181.2 18.8 %

72.2 7.5 %

17.8 1.8 %

640.1 66.5 %

51.8 5.4 %

43.02 12.08 18.55 14.01 172.34 1.69 5.33 33.71 83.26 107.81 4.47 97.83 0.39 1.02 11.17 0.10 12.19 0.06 76.02 14.25 56.64 18.50 17.87 1.20 10.98 24.94 33.52 90.09

3.64 2.79 6.98 3.64 44.38 1.28 2.00 3.21 10.26 7.21 0.62 22.94 0.39 0.84 0.62 0.09 1.80 0.06 11.21 2.83 17.54 3.04 3.81 0.67 1.19 5.27 4.69 18.19

3.74 1.36 2.07 0.00 7.28 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.04 34.67 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.38 0.00 0.34 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.97 0.49 1.27 2.00 5.43 6.17

0.00 0.25 0.66 1.09 3.08 0.29 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.08 0.06 0.10 0.00 0.17 0.58 0.01 0.73 0.00 0.35 0.87 2.47 0.00 0.33 0.04 0.28 1.71 1.23 1.41

33.91 7.04 5.72 9.29 102.12 0.00 3.24 30.50 65.73 59.90 3.79 72.54 0.00 0.00 9.97 0.00 7.33 0.00 61.45 8.60 27.26 15.46 12.52 0.00 6.13 14.77 20.82 62.05

1.73 0.65 3.13 0.00 15.48 0.12 0.09 0.00 2.23 3.95 0.01 2.26 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.95 0.00 2.68 1.95 9.37 0.01 0.24 0.00 2.12 1.19 1.35 2.27

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

78


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.5 Final Energy 2.5.1 Primary Energy Consumption TOTAL Mtoe EU-28 Index 1995

1995 1 567.2 100 %

2000 1 617.6 103 %

2005 1 713.3 109 %

2010 1 657.5 106 %

2015 1 531.8 98 %

2016 1 542.8 98 %

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

47.91 21.46 39.63 19.88 318.02 5.31 10.49 23.37 94.20 225.75 7.05 152.03 1.90 4.58 8.10 3.28 24.55 0.76 64.27 25.73 95.12 18.55 45.07 5.95 16.79 28.24 49.48 209.76

52.32 17.54 39.27 19.44 317.27 4.79 13.75 27.57 114.25 241.21 7.77 165.79 2.33 3.79 6.40 3.60 23.71 0.80 65.88 27.30 84.29 22.89 34.77 6.21 16.94 31.37 47.17 219.23

51.33 18.91 42.48 19.24 317.26 5.39 14.73 30.65 135.87 260.18 9.11 181.47 2.47 4.50 7.98 4.77 25.94 0.92 68.82 32.33 87.65 24.89 36.74 7.02 17.75 33.35 48.73 222.81

53.54 17.35 42.62 19.78 309.90 6.06 14.84 27.61 123.22 253.23 8.83 168.37 2.66 4.56 6.13 4.61 24.63 0.93 70.42 32.28 95.72 22.55 34.33 7.13 16.80 35.88 48.68 204.87

45.74 17.90 39.88 16.60 292.71 6.20 13.98 23.75 117.11 239.22 7.99 149.56 2.25 4.27 5.80 4.15 23.28 0.75 64.40 31.47 89.96 21.69 31.30 6.44 15.38 31.77 43.79 184.47

48.99 17.63 40.04 17.17 295.84 6.13 14.58 23.55 117.24 235.40 8.07 148.44 2.40 4.29 5.99 4.16 23.86 0.72 64.85 31.84 94.32 22.12 31.26 6.67 15.53 33.06 47.05 181.66

PRIMARY ENERGY CONSUMPTION – 1990-2016 (Mtoe) 2 000 1 500 1 000

EU-28

500

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

79


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.5.2 Available for Final Consumption Mtoe EU-28 Index 1995

1995 1 192.9 100 %

2000 1 243.0 104 %

2005 1 313.7 110 %

2010 1 275.7 107 %

2015 1 184.1 99 %

2016 1 205.2 101 %

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

39.93 12.93 28.09 15.03 244.01 3.04 8.30 16.40 72.46 156.89 6.10 124.85 1.48 3.94 5.13 3.17 18.16 0.41 64.10 22.74 67.25 15.92 30.36 4.23 12.23 21.92 36.67 157.11

44.83 9.99 27.50 15.02 247.33 2.69 11.05 19.08 88.79 166.23 6.66 133.74 1.75 3.28 4.28 3.56 17.72 0.44 67.61 25.45 58.57 20.22 25.03 4.70 12.72 24.76 36.21 163.83

44.42 10.56 29.55 15.44 247.18 3.00 12.02 21.39 105.95 177.09 7.91 145.23 1.80 4.11 5.39 4.53 20.87 0.48 72.08 29.50 62.71 21.69 26.87 5.23 12.84 26.44 35.26 164.16

45.66 8.79 29.01 15.67 242.62 3.02 12.23 19.66 95.95 169.60 7.81 137.17 1.97 4.17 5.48 4.36 19.41 0.52 73.46 29.83 71.09 19.81 24.77 5.27 12.65 27.50 36.90 151.29

44.43 9.65 27.23 14.26 232.90 3.25 11.65 17.15 83.11 161.38 7.12 121.73 1.67 3.89 5.99 4.02 19.07 0.58 64.13 29.40 66.74 17.34 23.06 4.82 11.16 25.56 32.75 140.08

44.76 9.99 27.24 14.72 235.96 3.00 12.10 17.55 85.75 162.21 7.16 121.13 1.78 3.91 6.15 4.08 19.42 0.59 65.59 30.16 71.74 17.24 23.35 5.01 11.42 26.76 34.98 141.44

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

80


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.5.3 Final Non-Energy Consumption TOTAL Mtoe EU-28 Index 1995

1995 107.4 100 %

2000 112.2 104 %

2005 117.8 110 %

2010 107.7 100 %

2015 97.5 91 %

2016 97.8 91 %

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

5.92 1.23 2.32 0.32 23.62 0.18 0.57 0.49 7.87 15.86 0.81 9.73 0.06 0.04 0.54 0.05 1.63 0.00 11.07 1.38 3.71 2.08 1.24 0.12 0.93 1.13 1.99 12.49

6.99 0.98 2.09 0.30 25.06 0.18 0.68 0.72 9.40 16.18 0.66 8.43 0.09 0.08 0.66 0.06 1.59 0.00 11.99 1.72 4.36 2.39 1.88 0.24 1.37 1.04 1.73 11.33

7.73 0.85 2.95 0.29 24.66 0.23 0.52 0.76 8.35 16.12 0.68 8.61 0.07 0.10 0.73 0.03 2.17 0.02 15.22 1.71 4.57 2.59 2.47 0.31 1.28 1.15 2.29 11.37

7.36 0.42 2.81 0.26 22.58 0.09 0.34 1.11 7.03 13.95 0.60 9.56 0.09 0.07 0.66 0.03 1.97 0.01 16.23 1.84 4.96 1.73 1.47 0.21 1.05 1.22 2.11 7.91

8.52 0.61 2.45 0.25 21.27 0.10 0.22 0.70 4.31 13.87 0.53 6.61 0.02 0.11 1.12 0.03 1.91 0.01 12.97 1.93 5.66 1.34 1.13 0.13 1.05 1.51 1.77 7.43

8.46 0.50 1.76 0.25 21.43 0.09 0.27 0.59 4.94 13.35 0.52 6.31 0.04 0.10 1.05 0.04 1.85 0.01 13.68 2.03 5.61 1.15 1.14 0.13 0.98 1.57 2.18 7.78

FINAL NON-ENERGY CONSUMPTION – TOTAL – 1990-2016 (Mtoe) 125 100 75 EU-28 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

50

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

81


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.5.4 Final Energy Consumption TOTAL Mtoe EU-28 Index 1995

1995 1 082.6 100 %

2000 1 132.7 105 %

2005 1 192.7 110 %

2010 1 163.2 107 %

2015 1 086.2 100 %

2016 1 107.8 102 %

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

34.35 11.42 26.32 14.82 221.62 2.56 7.99 15.81 64.03 143.48 5.28 114.58 1.43 3.85 4.60 3.11 16.23 0.46 50.77 21.37 62.94 13.85 26.97 4.09 11.03 21.97 35.05 142.65

37.53 9.11 25.07 14.72 220.01 2.43 10.80 18.68 79.90 155.31 6.00 124.72 1.65 3.25 3.77 3.50 16.14 0.44 52.14 23.69 55.21 17.92 22.77 4.46 10.98 24.32 34.97 153.24

36.58 10.19 26.33 15.50 218.46 2.88 12.64 20.96 97.77 160.77 7.24 137.15 1.83 4.02 4.67 4.48 18.75 0.46 53.98 27.76 58.47 19.01 24.71 4.90 11.56 25.19 33.68 152.76

37.63 8.84 25.41 15.52 219.65 2.91 12.02 19.00 89.08 154.43 7.21 128.46 1.93 4.12 4.81 4.32 17.43 0.50 55.11 27.94 66.33 18.10 22.59 5.04 11.55 26.25 34.08 142.99

35.87 9.51 24.25 14.01 212.12 2.77 11.22 16.50 80.38 145.26 6.59 116.23 1.66 3.79 4.87 3.99 17.38 0.57 48.50 27.46 62.33 16.04 21.89 4.69 10.08 24.25 31.71 132.31

36.33 9.66 24.88 14.45 216.45 2.82 11.61 16.70 82.50 147.16 6.64 115.93 1.76 3.82 5.11 4.04 17.87 0.58 49.52 28.13 66.65 16.12 22.28 4.88 10.42 25.25 32.59 133.69

FINAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION – TOTAL – 1990-2016 (Mtoe) 1 500 1 000 EU-28

500

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

82


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.5.4 Final Energy Consumption

BY FUEL

Electricity

Renewables

Derived Heat

Solid Fuels

Wastes, Non-Renewable

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

Gases

Mtoe EU-28 Share (%)

Petroleum and Products

2016

437.1 39.5 %

245.3 22.1 %

239.4 21.6 %

88.9 8.0 %

47.9 4.3 %

45.3 4.1 %

3.8 0.3 %

15.30 3.45 6.80 6.01 82.23 1.01 6.75 9.50 41.92 59.79 2.82 43.83 1.25 1.40 2.01 2.59 5.30 0.39 17.67 10.13 21.63 8.03 7.36 2.28 2.34 7.19 8.77 59.41

9.73 1.31 5.68 1.50 54.39 0.25 1.77 1.05 13.67 29.87 1.03 33.47 0.00 0.32 0.55 0.63 5.71 0.00 17.86 5.13 9.69 1.62 5.36 0.60 3.21 0.85 0.64 39.39

7.04 2.49 4.82 2.68 44.49 0.63 2.20 4.60 19.99 38.04 1.32 24.59 0.38 0.56 0.84 0.55 3.19 0.18 9.08 5.32 11.42 3.99 3.72 1.12 2.15 6.95 10.96 26.13

1.88 1.27 2.78 1.56 14.27 0.41 0.37 1.29 5.49 12.37 1.18 8.04 0.11 0.89 0.69 0.15 2.15 0.01 1.17 4.05 5.54 2.17 3.68 0.63 0.57 5.39 6.74 4.10

0.50 0.78 2.13 2.57 9.78 0.47 0.00 0.05 0.00 3.37 0.22 3.95 0.00 0.58 0.83 0.05 1.06 0.00 2.14 1.74 5.67 0.21 1.28 0.18 0.67 4.13 4.43 1.14

1.75 0.34 2.42 0.11 10.16 0.03 0.48 0.20 1.41 3.61 0.07 1.77 0.00 0.04 0.19 0.05 0.39 0.00 1.55 1.43 12.07 0.01 0.79 0.04 1.29 0.70 1.05 3.40

0.14 0.03 0.25 0.02 1.13 0.01 0.04 0.03 0.01 0.13 0.01 0.28 0.02 0.04 0.00 0.01 0.06 0.00 0.03 0.34 0.64 0.09 0.08 0.04 0.18 0.05 0.00 0.12

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

83


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.5.4 Final Energy Consumption

BY SECTOR

Industry

Services

Agriculture and Fishing

Other

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

Residential

Mtoe EU-28 Share (%)

Transport

2016

367.3 33.2 %

284.8 25.7 %

276.8 25.0 %

150.0 13.5 %

25.5 2.3 %

3.3 0.3 %

10.51 3.49 6.73 5.11 65.17 0.81 4.95 6.79 34.97 49.62 2.16 39.11 0.93 1.16 1.96 2.42 4.54 0.32 14.30 9.19 19.24 6.78 6.03 1.90 2.48 4.96 9.05 52.60

8.14 2.25 6.99 4.46 56.05 0.93 2.67 4.29 15.06 39.83 2.39 32.19 0.33 1.14 1.44 0.49 6.16 0.08 9.86 6.32 19.75 2.62 7.42 1.15 2.03 5.29 7.46 38.05

12.21 2.64 7.42 2.14 61.12 0.45 2.45 3.07 18.97 29.37 1.09 26.17 0.21 0.75 0.99 0.67 4.26 0.05 14.66 9.45 15.62 4.33 6.32 1.24 4.45 11.04 11.43 24.25

4.66 1.08 3.05 1.98 34.00 0.49 1.32 2.04 10.63 23.20 0.76 15.44 0.23 0.59 0.61 0.43 2.23 0.12 6.81 2.65 8.51 1.94 1.81 0.49 1.31 2.86 4.30 16.52

0.77 0.19 0.64 0.75 0.00 0.13 0.23 0.28 2.65 4.50 0.23 2.87 0.05 0.18 0.11 0.02 0.65 0.01 3.87 0.52 3.54 0.42 0.45 0.07 0.15 0.72 0.34 1.16

0.05 0.02 0.04 0.01 0.11 0.00 0.00 0.24 0.22 0.64 0.00 0.16 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.26 0.02 0.00 0.38 0.00 1.10

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

84


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.5.4 Final Energy Consumption

BY SECTOR – EU-28 – 1990-2016 (Mtoe)

450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Industry Services

Transport Agriculture and Fishing

Residential Other

FINAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION – BY FUEL – EU-28 – 1990-2016 (Mtoe) 600 500 400 300 200 100

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Solid Fuels Petroleum and Products Renewables Electricity Wastes, Non-Renewable

Gases Derived Heat

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

85


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.6 Electricity 2.6.1 Installed Electricity Capacity TOTAL MW EU-28* Index 1995

1995 618 490 100 %

2000 680 930 110 %

2005 757 871 123 %

2010 883 774 143 %

2015 984 772 159 %

2016 990 918 160 %

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

14 917 1 975 13 803 10 823 116 226 1 4 060 8 942 45 621 107 616 2 072 65 923 690 2 068 5 866 1 250 7 404 0 19 034 17 395 29 482 9 384 5 998 2 518 7 238 14 434 33 625 70 125

15 685 11 085 15 323 12 316 118 884 2 800 4 711 10 904 53 924 114 518 2 079 75 510 988 2 092 5 716 1 217 8 282 0 21 062 17 802 30 559 10 908 6 120 2 614 7 454 16 260 33 724 78 393

16 096 12 260 17 406 13 036 128 485 2 559 6 175 13 306 76 574 115 730 3 866 85 498 1 125 2 166 4 556 1 682 8 586 0 21 800 18 898 32 257 13 374 18 951 2 992 8 257 16 468 33 390 82 378

18 690 10 031 20 073 13 438 162 874 2 751 8 019 15 312 101 788 124 138 4 121 106 610 1 560 2 557 3 570 1 711 8 993 572 26 688 21 187 33 360 18 932 19 912 3 193 7 873 15 682 36 454 93 685

21 157 10 913 21 866 14 002 203 419 2 857 9 557 18 942 106 901 129 939 4 798 116 964 1 756 2 933 3 587 2 023 8 636 667 33 866 24 443 37 327 19 625 23 830 3 359 7 782 16 612 39 712 97 299

21 554 10 739 21 989 14 337 208 500 2 567 9 945 19 165 106 185 130 794 4 878 114 162 1 760 2 928 3 665 1 709 8 750 573 34 176 24 789 38 104 20 561 23 580 3 537 7 742 16 273 40 316 97 640

INSTALLED ELECTRICITY CAPACITY – TOTAL – 1990-2016 (MW) 1 000 000 800 000 600 000 EU-28 400 000

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

200 000

* No complete EU-28 data available for 1990-2004. Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

86


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.6.1 Installed Electricity Capacity

BY FUEL

Other Sources 4 0 0 0 379 0 0 0 2 300 222 0 1 101 0 0 25 0 37 0 37 1 2 25 0 0 32 0 0 13

8 542 3 822 13 087 8 231 95 716 2 251 6 583 10 799 48 454 23 138 2 134 62 096 1 518 1 292 2 184 137 6 107 480 27 311 7 273 29 783 7 990 11 038 1 318 2 710 8 659 7 495 55 435

1 425 3 223 2 262 10 11 300 6 529 3 392 20 056 25 517 2 205 22 298 0 1 565 877 1 330 57 0 37 13 689 2 385 6 960 6 734 1 293 2 524 3 250 16 466 4 579

2 370 699 282 5 245 49 592 310 2 827 2 370 23 003 11 467 483 9 384 158 70 509 120 329 0 4 257 2 730 5 747 5 124 3 025 5 3 1 565 6 434 16 217

Nuclear

21 554 10 739 21 989 14 337 208 500 2 567 9 945 19 165 106 185 130 794 4 878 114 162 1 760 2 928 3 665 1 709 8 750 573 34 176 24 789 38 104 20 561 23 580 3 537 7 742 16 273 40 316 97 640

Wind

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

Hydro

4 178 0.4 %

Combustible Fuels

990 918 455 583 153 969 154 325 122 051 100 812 100.0 % 46.0 % 15.5 % 15.6 % 12.3 % 10.2 %

Installed Electricity Capacity

MW EU-28 Share ( %)

Solar PV

2016

5 913 1 967 4 290 0 10 799 0 0 0 7 399 63 130 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 000 0 485 0 0 0 1 411 688 1 940 2 764 9 768 9 497

3 300 1 028 2 068 851 40 714 0 6 2 604 4 973 7 320 56 19 283 84 1 70 122 220 93 2 049 1 096 187 462 1 372 233 533 35 153 11 899

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

87


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.6.1 Installed Electricity Capacity * RENEWABLES

Solar Thermal

Geothermal

Tide  Wave and Ocean

824 0.1 %

233 0.0 %

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

7 095 4 950 4 612 6 106 101 637 316 3 362 8 366 50 332 44 526 2 744 51 732 242 1 636 1 456 1 572 606 93 6 343 17 516 8 319 12 571 11 131 1 531 3 060 4 850 23 053 32 708

0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 300 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 29 0 0 0 0 2 0 767 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 25 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 220 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 13

1 425 3 223 2 262 10 11 300 6 529 3 392 20 056 25 517 2 205 22 298 0 1 565 877 1 330 57 0 37 13 689 2 385 6 960 6 734 1 293 2 524 3 250 16 466 4 579

Wind

2 302 0.2 %

Hydro

412 465 153 969 154 325 100 812 41.6 % 15.5 % 15.6 % 10.2 %

Total Renewables

MW EU-28 Share (%)

Solar PV

2016

2 370 699 282 5 245 49 592 310 2 827 2 370 23 003 11 467 483 9 384 158 70 509 120 329 0 4 257 2 730 5 747 5 124 3 025 5 3 1 565 6 434 16 217

* Net maximum capacity. Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

88

3 300 1 028 2 068 851 40 714 0 6 2 604 4 973 7 320 56 19 283 84 1 70 122 220 93 2 049 1 096 187 462 1 372 233 533 35 153 11 899


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.6.2 Gross Electricity Generation TOTAL TWh EU-28 Index 1995

1995 2 743.6 100%

2000 3 035.8 111%

2005 3 325.8 121%

2010 3 366.6 123%

2015 3 235.2 118%

2016 3 255.1 119%

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

74.41 41.79 60.85 36.76 537.28 8.69 17.86 41.55 167.09 494.27 9.28 241.49 2.50 3.98 13.90 1.23 34.02 1.63 81.17 56.23 139.01 33.27 59.27 12.91 26.77 64.04 148.35 334.04

84.01 40.92 73.47 36.05 576.54 8.51 23.98 53.84 224.47 539.95 11.28 276.64 3.37 4.14 11.43 1.17 35.19 1.92 89.63 61.26 145.18 43.76 51.93 13.62 31.16 69.98 145.27 377.07

87.03 44.37 82.58 36.25 622.58 10.21 25.97 60.02 294.08 576.06 13.16 303.70 4.38 4.91 14.78 4.13 35.76 2.24 99.92 66.83 156.94 46.58 59.41 15.12 31.46 70.58 158.44 398.36

95.19 46.65 85.90 38.86 632.98 12.96 28.35 57.39 301.53 569.29 14.90 302.06 5.32 6.63 5.75 4.59 37.37 2.11 119.27 71.13 157.66 54.09 60.98 16.44 27.86 80.67 148.56 382.07

69.85 49.23 83.89 28.95 646.89 10.42 28.39 51.87 281.02 570.32 11.40 282.99 4.53 5.53 4.93 2.77 30.34 1.30 110.07 65.30 164.94 52.42 66.30 15.10 26.90 68.60 162.06 338.92

85.52 45.28 83.31 30.52 649.12 12.18 30.42 51.41 274.78 556.18 12.82 289.77 4.89 6.43 4.27 2.20 31.86 0.86 115.17 68.35 166.64 60.28 65.10 16.50 27.06 68.75 156.01 339.40

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

89


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.6.2 Gross Electricity Generation

BY FUEL

Renewables

Nuclear

Gases

Petroleum and Products

Wastes non-RES

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

Solid Fuels

TWh EU-28 Share (%)

Gross Electricity Generation

2016

3 255.1 100.0 %

701.3 21.5 %

981.5 30.2 %

839.7 25.8 %

642.3 19.7 %

59.5 1.8 %

25.9 0.8 %

85.52 45.28 83.31 30.52 649.12 12.18 30.42 51.41 274.78 556.18 12.82 289.77 4.89 6.43 4.27 2.20 31.86 0.86 115.17 68.35 166.64 60.28 65.10 16.50 27.06 68.75 156.01 339.40

0.39 19.36 41.97 8.87 261.75 9.67 7.02 17.05 36.43 8.47 2.60 35.61 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.63 0.00 36.72 2.04 130.32 12.63 15.88 5.01 2.80 9.88 0.48 30.71

15.29 7.73 10.59 18.46 193.93 1.51 7.81 14.92 108.11 102.09 8.57 109.85 0.42 3.48 2.68 1.87 3.22 0.13 14.73 53.85 23.29 33.45 27.48 5.34 6.88 30.41 89.25 86.19

43.52 15.78 24.10 0.00 84.63 0.00 0.00 0.00 58.63 403.20 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 16.05 0.00 3.96 0.00 0.00 0.00 11.29 5.72 14.77 23.20 63.10 71.73

24.36 2.05 6.38 2.17 93.75 0.61 15.23 13.67 53.84 36.92 1.59 128.94 0.00 2.94 0.99 0.26 6.61 0.00 56.57 10.52 10.44 12.58 9.76 0.42 1.99 4.37 1.20 144.13

0.19 0.32 0.09 0.32 5.85 0.26 0.29 5.57 16.92 2.54 0.07 12.13 4.46 0.00 0.22 0.00 0.06 0.72 1.28 0.99 2.30 1.30 0.70 0.01 0.47 0.20 0.40 1.84

1.26 0.00 0.08 0.71 7.33 0.13 0.07 0.21 0.74 2.42 0.00 2.50 0.00 0.00 0.11 0.07 0.21 0.00 1.71 0.93 0.21 0.32 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.43 1.59 4.81

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

90


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.6.2 Gross Electricity Generation RENEWABLES

Wind

Biomass and Renewable

Solar

Geothermal

Tide, Wave and Ocean

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

Hydro

TWh EU-28 Share (%)

Renewables

2016

981.5 100.0 %

380.2 38.7 %

302.9 30.9 %

180.5 18.4 %

110.8 11.3 %

6.6 0.7 %

0.5 0.1 %

15.29 7.73 10.59 18.46 193.93 1.51 7.81 14.92 108.11 102.09 8.57 109.85 0.42 3.48 2.68 1.87 3.22 0.13 14.73 53.85 23.29 33.45 27.48 5.34 6.88 30.41 89.25 86.19

1.49 4.57 3.20 0.02 26.14 0.04 0.97 5.57 39.87 64.89 7.06 44.26 0.00 2.53 1.04 1.53 0.26 0.00 0.10 42.92 2.62 16.91 18.54 4.78 4.61 15.80 62.14 8.35

5.44 1.43 0.50 12.78 78.60 0.59 6.15 5.15 48.91 21.40 1.01 17.69 0.23 0.13 1.14 0.10 0.68 0.00 8.17 5.24 12.59 12.47 6.59 0.01 0.01 3.07 15.48 37.37

5.28 0.35 4.76 4.92 50.92 0.89 0.68 0.27 5.69 7.13 0.43 19.51 0.05 0.82 0.43 0.14 2.07 0.01 4.90 4.60 7.96 3.07 0.53 0.28 1.73 11.52 11.49 30.04

3.09 1.39 2.13 0.74 38.10 0.00 0.00 3.93 13.65 8.16 0.07 22.10 0.15 0.00 0.07 0.10 0.20 0.13 1.56 1.10 0.12 0.82 1.82 0.27 0.53 0.02 0.14 10.42

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.18 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.29 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.17 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

91


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.6.2 Gross Electricity Generation

BY FUEL – EU-28

Nuclear

Renewables

Gases

Petroleum and Products

Share of Total (%) 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

Solid Fuels

2016

39.3 38.7 37.2 35.5 35.1 34.5 33.6 31.6 31.2 29.8 30.8 30.2 30.4 31.1 29.8 28.9 29.2 29.1 26.6 25.5 24.6 25.8 27.3 26.7 25.3 24.5 21.5

30.6 31.1 31.5 32.8 32.2 32.1 32.5 32.8 31.9 31.9 31.1 31.4 31.5 30.8 30.5 30.0 29.4 27.6 27.7 27.7 27.2 27.5 26.8 26.8 27.5 26.5 25.8

12.6 13.0 13.6 13.9 14.1 13.9 13.6 13.9 14.4 14.4 14.8 15.3 13.9 13.6 14.8 14.9 15.5 16.2 17.6 19.5 21.1 21.4 24.2 27.2 29.2 29.9 30.2

8.6 8.2 8.1 9.1 10.2 10.7 12.0 13.8 14.6 16.6 16.9 17.0 17.7 18.7 19.8 21.2 21.3 23.0 24.4 23.5 23.7 22.4 18.7 16.6 15.4 16.4 19.7

8.6 8.8 9.2 8.3 8.1 8.4 8.0 7.5 7.5 6.9 6.0 5.6 5.9 5.3 4.5 4.3 4.0 3.4 3.2 3.1 2.6 2.2 2.2 1.9 1.8 1.9 1.8

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

92


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.6.2 Gross Electricity Generation

BY FUEL – EU-28 – ALL FUELS – 1990-2016 (TWh)

1 200 1 000 800 600 400 200

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Solid Fuels Nuclear

Petroleum and Products Renewables

Gases Wastes non-RES

GROSS ELECTRICITY GENERATION – EU-28 – RENEWABLES – 1990-2016 (TWh) 500

400

300

200

100

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Hydro Solar

Wind Geothermal

Biomass and Renewable Wastes Tide, Wave and Ocean

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

93


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.6.3 Market Share of the Largest Electricity Producer % BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

2000 91.1

2005 85.0

2010 79.1

2014 59.8

2015 48.5

2016 62.6

69.2 36.0 34.0 91.0 97.0 97.0 42.4 90.2 46.7 99.6 95.8 72.8

72.0 33.0 31.0 92.0 71.0 97.0 35.0 89.1 87.0 38.6 100.0 92.7 70.3

41.3 100.0

38.7 100.0

73.0 46.0 28.4 89.0 34.0 85.1 24.0 86.5 88.0 28.0 100.0 88.0 35.4 85.4 42.1 100.0

57.5 36.6 32.0 84.8 51.0 71.5 23.8 86.8 80.3 29.0 100.0 54.8 20.6 61.3 54.0 100.0

55.4 33.0 32.0 79.8 55.0 70.7 24.5 85.7 77.8 27.0 100.0 57.4 22.7 43.8 53.1 100.0

52.4 35.2 33.5 80.8 47.0 72.0 25.4 82.5 80.7 24.0 100.0 58.6 14.3 18.0 52.9 100.0

18.5 53.9 36.4 50.1 83.6 23.0 47.0 20.5

17.4 47.2 33.6 56.3 80.9 26.6 42.0 21.0

17.9 46.5 29.9 52.4 81.8 25.2 42.9

17.4 42.5 25.7 51.3 73.1 25.9 40.6

16.0 47.0 28.5 53.9 71.3 25.6 42.0

32.6 19.5 58.5

85.1 23.3 49.5 20.6

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

94


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.7 Solar and Wind Energy 2.7.1 Solar and Wind Energy – Cumulative Capacity TOTAL MW EU-28

1995 2 479

2000 12 890

2005 42 570

2010 115 032

2015 238 396

2016 257 439

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

5 0 0 599 1 155 0 6 27 105 5 0 38 0 1 0 0 0 0 252 2 0 8 0 0 0 7 69 200

14 0 1 2 391 6 209 0 119 226 2 218 45 0 382 0 2 0 14 0 0 460 55 4 84 0 0 0 40 212 414

169 8 23 3 131 20 304 31 517 492 9 978 703 6 1 669 1 26 1 59 17 0 1 275 808 121 1 066 1 0 5 86 497 1 576

1 816 513 1 940 3 809 44 910 108 1 375 1 500 25 346 6 956 79 9 386 89 30 133 73 295 1 2 327 1 135 1 108 3 930 389 12 22 204 2 030 5 516

5 298 1 728 2 356 5 858 83 825 300 2 442 4 695 30 099 16 972 466 28 038 234 69 505 180 497 74 4 906 3 426 4 994 5 384 4 456 243 536 1 020 5 944 23 851

5 670 1 727 2 350 6 096 90 308 310 2 833 4 974 30 276 18 787 539 28 667 242 71 579 242 549 93 6 306 3 826 5 934 5 586 4 397 238 536 1 600 6 587 28 116

SOLAR AND WIND ENERGY – CUMULATIVE CAPACITY – TOTAL – 1990-2016 (MW) 300 000 200 000 100 000

EU-28 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

95


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.7.1 Solar and Wind Energy – Cumulative Capacity

SHARE OF TOTAL INSTALLED ELECTRICITY CAPACITY % EU-28 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

1995 0.4

2000 1.9

2005 5.6

2010 13.0

2015 24.2

2016 26.0

0.03 0.00 0.00 5.53 0.99 0.00 0.15 0.30 0.23 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.32 0.01 0.00 0.09 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.21 0.29

0.09 0.00 0.01 19.41 5.22 0.00 2.53 2.07 4.11 0.04 0.00 0.51 0.00 0.10 0.00 1.15 0.00 0.00 2.18 0.31 0.01 0.77 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.25 0.63 0.53

1.05 0.07 0.13 24.02 15.80 1.21 8.37 3.70 13.03 0.61 0.16 1.95 0.09 1.20 0.02 3.51 0.20 0.00 5.85 4.28 0.38 7.97 0.01 0.00 0.06 0.52 1.49 1.91

9.72 5.11 9.66 28.34 27.57 3.93 17.15 9.80 24.90 5.60 1.92 8.80 5.71 1.17 3.73 4.27 3.28 0.17 8.72 5.36 3.32 20.76 1.95 0.38 0.28 1.30 5.57 5.89

25.04 15.83 10.77 41.84 41.21 10.50 25.55 24.79 28.16 13.06 9.71 23.97 13.33 2.35 14.08 8.90 5.75 11.09 14.49 14.02 13.38 27.43 18.70 7.23 6.89 6.14 14.97 24.51

26.31 16.08 10.69 42.52 43.31 12.08 28.49 25.95 28.51 14.36 11.05 25.11 13.75 2.42 15.80 14.16 6.27 16.23 18.45 15.43 15.57 27.17 18.65 6.73 6.92 9.83 16.34 28.80

SOLAR AND WIND ENERGY – CUMULATIVE CAPACITY – SHARE OF TOTAL – 1990-2016 (%) 30 20 10

EU-28 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

96


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.7.2 Wind Cumulative Installed Capacity TOTAL MW EU-28

1995 2 430

2000 12 711

2005 40 273

2010 84 309

2015 141 416

2016 154 325

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

5 0 0 599 1 137 0 6 27 98 3 0 22 0 1 0 0 0 0 250 1 0 8 0 0 0 6 67 200

14 0 1 2 390 6 095 0 119 226 2 206 38 0 363 0 2 0 14 0 0 447 50 4 83 0 0 0 38 209 412

167 8 22 3 128 18 248 31 517 491 9 918 690 6 1 635 0 26 1 35 17 0 1 224 778 121 1 064 1 0 5 82 493 1 565

912 488 213 3 802 26 903 108 1 374 1 298 20 693 5 912 79 5 794 82 30 133 44 293 0 2 237 981 1 108 3 796 389 0 3 197 2 019 5 421

2 176 699 281 5 076 44 580 300 2 440 2 091 22 943 10 217 418 9 137 158 69 436 64 329 0 3 391 2 489 4 886 4 937 3 130 5 3 1 005 5 840 14 316

2 370 699 282 5 245 49 592 310 2 827 2 370 23 003 11 467 483 9 384 158 70 509 120 329 0 4 257 2 730 5 747 5 124 3 025 5 3 1 565 6 434 16 217

WIND CUMULATIVE INSTALLED CAPACITY – TOTAL – 1990-2016 (MW) 200  000 150 000 100 000 50 000

EU-28 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

97


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.7.2 Wind Cumulative Installed Capacity

SHARE OF TOTAL INSTALLED ELECTRICITY CAPACITY % EU-28 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

1995 0.4

2000 1.9

2005 5.3

2010 9.5

2015 14.4

2016 15.6

0.0 0.0 0.0 5.5 1.0 0.0 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.3 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.3

0.1 0.0 0.0 19.4 5.1 0.0 2.5 2.1 4.1 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.1 0.0 1.2 0.0 0.0 2.1 0.3 0.0 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.6 0.5

1.0 0.1 0.1 24.0 14.2 1.2 8.4 3.7 13.0 0.6 0.2 1.9 0.0 1.2 0.0 2.1 0.2 0.0 5.6 4.1 0.4 8.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.5 1.5 1.9

4.9 4.9 1.1 28.3 16.5 3.9 17.1 8.5 20.3 4.8 1.9 5.4 5.3 1.2 3.7 2.6 3.3 0.0 8.4 4.6 3.3 20.1 2.0 0.0 0.0 1.3 5.5 5.8

10.3 6.4 1.3 36.3 21.9 10.5 25.5 11.0 21.5 7.9 8.7 7.8 9.0 2.4 12.2 3.2 3.8 0.0 10.0 10.2 13.1 25.2 13.1 0.1 0.0 6.0 14.7 14.7

11.0 6.5 1.3 36.6 23.8 12.1 28.4 12.4 21.7 8.8 9.9 8.2 9.0 2.4 13.9 7.0 3.8 0.0 12.5 11.0 15.1 24.9 12.8 0.1 0.0 9.6 16.0 16.6

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

98


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.7.3 Wind Gross Electricity Production TOTAL TWh EU-28 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

1995 4.1

2000 22.2

2005 70.5

2010 149.4

2015 301.9

2016 302.9

0.0 0.0 0.0 1.2 1.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.4

0.0 0.0 0.0 4.2 9.4 0.0 0.2 0.5 4.7 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.5 0.9

0.2 0.0 0.0 6.6 27.2 0.1 1.1 1.3 21.2 1.0 0.0 2.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 2.1 1.3 0.1 1.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.9 2.9

1.3 0.7 0.3 7.8 37.8 0.3 2.8 2.7 44.3 9.9 0.1 9.1 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.5 0.0 4.0 2.1 1.7 9.2 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.3 3.5 10.3

5.6 1.5 0.6 14.1 79.2 0.7 6.6 4.6 49.3 21.2 0.8 14.8 0.2 0.1 0.8 0.1 0.7 0.0 7.6 4.8 10.9 11.6 7.1 0.0 0.0 2.3 16.3 40.3

5.4 1.4 0.5 12.8 78.6 0.6 6.1 5.1 48.9 21.4 1.0 17.7 0.2 0.1 1.1 0.1 0.7 0.0 8.2 5.2 12.6 12.5 6.6 0.0 0.0 3.1 15.5 37.4

WIND GROSS ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION – TOTAL – 1990-2016 (TWh) 400 300 200 100

EU-28 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

99


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.7.4 Wind Penetration Level

IN TOTAL GROSS ELECTRICITY GENERATION % EU-28 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

1995 0.1

2000 0.7

2005 2.1

2010 4.4

2015 9.3

2016 9.3

0.0 0.0 0.0 3.2 0.3 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1

0.0 0.0 0.0 11.8 1.6 0.0 1.0 0.8 2.1 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.0 2.3 0.0 0.0 0.9 0.1 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.3 0.3

0.3 0.0 0.0 18.2 4.4 0.5 4.3 2.1 7.2 0.2 0.1 0.8 0.0 1.0 0.0 1.3 0.0 0.0 2.1 2.0 0.1 3.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.6 0.7

1.4 1.5 0.4 20.1 6.0 2.1 9.9 4.7 14.7 1.7 0.9 3.0 0.6 0.7 3.9 1.2 1.4 0.0 3.3 2.9 1.1 17.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.4 2.4 2.7

8.0 2.9 0.7 48.8 12.2 6.9 23.2 8.9 17.6 3.7 7.0 5.2 4.9 2.7 16.4 3.7 2.3 0.0 6.9 7.4 6.6 22.1 10.7 0.0 0.0 3.4 10.0 11.9

6.4 3.1 0.6 41.9 12.1 4.9 20.2 10.0 17.8 3.8 7.9 6.1 4.6 2.0 26.6 4.6 2.1 0.0 7.1 7.7 7.6 20.7 10.1 0.0 0.0 4.5 9.9 11.0

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

100


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.7.5 Wind Capacity Factor

ANNUAL AVERAGE % EU-28 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

1995 20.9

2000 21.9

2005 21.9

2010 22.1

2015 26.7

2016 24.5

22.5 0.0 0.0 24.6 18.8 0.0 33.3 15.7 34.4 20.8 0.0 5.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 15.9 12.5 0.0 25.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 22.9 18.5 24.4

14.3 0.0 12.5 22.2 19.2 0.0 25.6 24.9 26.8 15.8 0.0 19.4 0.0 25.0 0.0 24.1 0.0 0.0 23.2 16.8 15.6 25.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 25.7 27.3 28.7

17.0 7.8 11.9 26.4 18.7 21.8 26.9 32.2 26.7 17.4 20.8 17.9 0.0 22.6 25.0 18.6 7.4 0.0 21.1 21.4 13.9 20.8 0.0 0.0 15.0 25.9 23.7 23.2

17.7 17.4 19.7 25.7 17.6 32.1 25.6 26.1 26.7 21.0 22.0 19.7 4.7 20.4 21.1 15.6 22.8 0.0 22.3 26.3 18.8 30.2 9.8 0.0 25.0 18.7 21.7 23.7

32.0 26.0 25.5 34.8 22.2 29.8 33.7 27.6 26.9 26.0 23.8 20.3 17.5 26.6 23.2 19.9 26.3 0.0 27.8 24.3 27.8 29.4 28.2 15.0 25.0 28.9 34.8 35.2

28.7 25.5 22.0 30.5 19.8 24.0 27.2 27.1 26.6 23.3 26.2 23.6 17.9 22.9 27.9 10.5 26.0 0.0 24.0 24.0 27.4 30.4 27.2 15.0 25.0 24.5 30.1 28.8

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

101


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.7.6 Solar Collectors’ Surface 1 000 m2 EU-28

1995 6 543

2000 11 052

2005 18 291

2010 35 537

2015 48 333

2016 50 070

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

36 0 0 144 1 166 0 2 2 101 319 598 0 174 0 0 0 0 27 0 139 1 241 0 200 0 0 0 7 135 254

41 0 0 243 3 251 0 4 2 941 403 513 20 271 0 0 0 0 36 0 276 2 202 0 238 0 0 0 10 207 396

77 0 85 286 7 099 0 13 3 047 797 583 41 680 730 0 0 6 45 0 422 3 083 95 289 0 0 64 16 371 462

371 194 309 480 14 044 0 185 4 100 2 373 1 447 92 2 415 909 0 0 29 140 40 576 4 441 656 752 104 178 123 31 510 1 038

661 344 538 1 016 18 625 0 320 4 390 3 582 2 171 183 3 724 1 009 0 0 56 280 65 647 5 221 1 900 1 121 159 239 171 50 478 1 383

705 354 569 1 369 19 122 0 343 4 477 3 796 2 219 204 3 891 1 025 0 0 59 292 65 652 5 210 2 016 1 176 174 245 177 55 475 1 400

SOLAR COLLECTORS’ SURFACE – TOTAL – 1990-2016 (1 000 m2) 60 000 40 000 20 000

EU-28 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

102


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.7.7 Solar Installed Capacity TOTAL MW EU-28 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

1995 49

2000 179

2005 2 297

2010 30 723

2015 96 980

2016 103 114

0 0 0 0 18 0 0 0 7 2 0 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0

0 0 0 1 114 0 0 0 12 7 0 19 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 5 0 1 0 0 0 2 3 2

2 0 1 3 2 056 0 0 1 60 13 0 34 1 0 0 24 0 0 51 30 0 2 0 0 0 4 4 11

904 25 1 727 7 18 007 0 1 202 4 653 1 044 0 3 592 7 0 0 29 2 1 90 154 0 134 0 12 19 7 11 95

3 122 1 029 2 075 782 39 245 0 2 2 604 7 156 6 755 48 18 901 76 0 69 116 168 74 1 515 937 108 447 1 326 238 533 15 104 9 535

3 300 1 028 2 068 851 40 716 0 6 2 604 7 273 7 320 56 19 283 84 1 70 122 220 93 2 049 1 096 187 462 1 372 233 533 35 153 11 899

SOLAR INSTALLED CAPACITY – TOTAL – 1990-2016 (MW) 150 000 100 000

EU-28

50 000 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

103


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.7.8 Solar Gross Electricity Production TOTAL TWh EU-28 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

1995 0.0

2000 0.1

2005 1.5

2010 23.3

2015 107.9

2016 110.8

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

0.6 0.0 0.6 0.0 11.7 0.0 0.0 0.2 7.2 0.6 0.0 1.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

3.1 1.4 2.3 0.6 38.7 0.0 0.0 3.9 13.9 7.3 0.1 22.9 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.1 0.9 0.1 0.8 2.0 0.3 0.5 0.0 0.1 7.5

3.1 1.4 2.1 0.7 38.1 0.0 0.0 3.9 13.6 8.2 0.1 22.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 1.6 1.1 0.1 0.8 1.8 0.3 0.5 0.0 0.1 10.4

SOLAR GROSS ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION – TOTAL – 1990-2016 (TWh) 150

EU-28

100 50

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

104


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.7.9 Solar Penetration Level

IN TOTAL GROSS ELECTRICITY GENERATION % EU-28 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

1995 0.0

2000 0.0

2005 0.0

2010 0.7

2015 3.3

2016 3.4

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

0.6 0.0 0.7 0.0 1.9 0.0 0.0 0.3 2.4 0.1 0.0 0.6 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0

4.4 2.8 2.7 2.1 6.0 0.0 0.0 7.5 4.9 1.3 0.5 8.1 2.8 0.0 1.5 3.8 0.4 7.1 1.0 1.4 0.0 1.5 3.0 1.8 1.9 0.0 0.1 2.2

3.6 3.1 2.6 2.4 5.9 0.0 0.0 7.6 5.0 1.5 0.5 7.6 3.0 0.0 1.5 4.6 0.6 14.6 1.4 1.6 0.1 1.4 2.8 1.6 2.0 0.0 0.1 3.1

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

105


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.8 CHP 2.8.1 CHP Electricity

GENERATION AND CAPACITY CHP Electricity Generation

CHP Electrical Capacity

TWh EU-28 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

2015 362.9

2016 358.4

2014 119.3

2015 119.7

2016 123.9

12.2 3.0 11.8 11.5 74.8 1.2 2.0 1.9 23.3 11.6 0.9 36.7 0.1 2.4 1.5 0.4 3.8 0.0 30.0 8.5 24.1 6.8 6.1 1.2

12.5 2.9 11.8 11.6 78.8 1.2 2.1 2.0 22.7 13.9 0.8 39.5 0.0 2.5 1.5 0.4 4.1 0.0 29.8 9.0 26.5 6.5 5.6 1.2 21.1 21.7 13.7 19.4

12.2 3.6 8.4 12.0 87.9

2.4 0.9 4.6 6.2 37.2 0.5 0.3 0.6 3.9 6.2 0.7 8.6 0.0 1.1 1.1 0.1 2.3 0.0 9.2 4.0 8.6 1.4 1.8 0.4

2.4 1.1 4.6 6.1 37.1 0.4 0.3 0.6 3.5 5.6 0.6 9.0 0.0 1.1 1.0 0.1 1.6 0.0 9.2 2.8 8.6 1.3 1.8 0.4 3.7 5.8 4.9 5.9

2.2 1.5 9.0 5.9 37.2

23.0 12.1 20.3

Source: Eurostat July 2018, preliminary 2016 data Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

106

GW

2014 331.1

2.2 2.6 27.2 15.0 1.5 40.3 0.0 3.1 1.1 0.3 4.8 0.2 30.8 10.9 27.6 6.2 5.3 1.2 3.0 21.8 9.2 19.8

6.0 5.0 6.3

0.3 0.5 8.5 6.1 0.8 8.5 0.0 1.3 0.6 0.1 1.5 0.1 9.0 3.4 8.7 1.2 1.9 0.4 1.0 5.9 3.9 4.6


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.8.2 CHP Heat

PRODUCTION AND CAPACITY CHP Heat Production

CHP Heat Capacity*

PJ EU-28 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

GW

2014 2015 2016 2 767.9 2 791.7 2 794.7 107.4 33.4 105.6 91.1 651.4 12.7 11.6 10.1 138.2 132.0 11.3 202.5 0.2 11.8 13.1 2.5 25.9 0.0 196.3 102.5 237.6 69.3 55.4 10.2 247.6 145.1 143.3

104.4 31.9 106.0 93.3 669.9 12.5 12.6 10.9 120.3 154.9 10.0 213.2 0.2 12.4 12.4 2.4 24.4 0.0 189.6 105.9 238.6 59.3 51.0 10.4 27.3 242.4 151.3 124.2

104.4 39.3 101.6 94.9 698.0 11.2 18.9 124.2 163.9 16.3 219.8 0.1 14.5 9.5 2.3 24.7 0.1 174.3 114.9 246.5 61.7 45.9 10.8 34.4 241.6 91.1 129.8

2014 285.7

2015 303.8

2016 271.5

5.5 3.4 21.0 9.6 92.2 1.4 0.6 0.8 5.5 13.7 1.7 19.8 0.0 1.3 2.2 0.2 4.8 0.0 18.3 8.9 25.2 4.6 10.0 0.7

5.1 3.7 21.0 9.5 95.1 1.3 0.6 0.7 5.0 14.1 1.6 14.2 0.0 1.2 1.9 0.2 3.2 0.0 18.1 8.6 23.9 4.3 9.8 0.7 24.3 15.2 12.8 7.6

5.0 4.7 20.8 8.8 94.6

15.4 10.7 8.2

0.6 1.3 5.8 14.9 2.1 14.0 0.0 1.2 1.2 0.2 2.8 0.0 16.0 8.9 23.8 3.8 6.3 0.7 4.0 14.6 8.4 7.1

Source: source: Eurostat July 2018, preliminary 2016 data Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

107


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.8.3 CHP Electricity and Heat

CHP ELECTRICITY AND HEAT GENERATION EU-28 (PJ – GCV)*

3 500

3 000

2 500

2 000

1 500

1 000 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 CHP Electricity Generation

* Data before 2009 is not consistent across the EU28 Source: Eurostat July 2018, preliminary 2016 data Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

108

CHP Heat Production


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.9 Heat * 2.9.1 Gross Heat Generation TOTAL PJ (GCV) EU-28 Index 1995 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

1995 2 286.7 100 %

2000 2 187.3 96 %

2005 2 593.1 113 %

2010 2 710.5 119 %

2015 2 399.6 105 %

2016 2 478.2 108 %

10.0 133.5 175.9 119.1 416.6 30.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 23.0 13.2 0.0 0.0 46.1 66.9 0.0 61.3 0.0 130.1 39.2 420.8 1.5 287.0 8.9 42.1 97.7 163.1 0.0

23.2 50.8 139.2 119.2 315.9 27.0 0.0 1.2 0.0 135.5 11.5 0.0 0.0 31.9 48.2 0.5 69.2 0.0 172.4 47.9 340.7 5.6 190.8 9.4 36.8 150.6 157.9 102.1

22.4 52.1 139.2 129.0 494.0 26.8 0.0 2.0 0.0 178.3 13.3 193.1 0.0 31.1 49.9 3.2 63.6 0.0 178.5 58.7 336.3 13.7 127.7 10.1 52.5 179.3 181.1 57.2

38.3 59.4 148.6 152.1 515.2 25.5 0.0 1.9 0.0 169.2 12.5 205.3 0.0 28.7 48.8 3.1 53.0 0.0 159.9 82.4 335.8 21.1 99.1 9.8 48.6 211.0 224.2 57.0

37.9 50.3 121.3 130.6 457.6 21.2 0.0 2.1 0.0 162.5 11.1 216.9 0.1 25.5 41.5 2.4 52.1 0.0 139.3 84.1 281.4 19.6 76.6 8.7 36.7 177.6 183.5 59.1

37.4 48.2 128.4 136.7 469.3 23.9 0.0 2.1 0.0 179.8 11.4 223.9 0.1 29.0 43.1 2.4 54.0 0.0 118.7 86.3 292.8 18.8 76.8 9.0 37.5 196.3 193.4 59.0

* Only Heat sold, as considered currently in the energy balances. Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

109


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.9.1 Gross Heat Generation

BY FUEL

Solid Fuels

Renewables

Petroleum and Products

Wastes non-RES

Nuclear

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

Gases

PJ (GCV) EU-28 Share (%)

Gross Heat Generation

2016

2 478.2 100.0 %

939.6 37.9 %

620.7 25.0 %

601.3 24.3 %

106.9 4.3 %

133.8 5.4 %

4.3 0.2 %

37.4 48.2 128.4 136.7 469.3 23.9 0.0 2.1 0.0 179.8 11.4 223.9 0.1 29.0 43.1 2.4 54.0 0.0 118.7 86.3 292.8 18.8 76.8 9.0 37.5 196.3 193.4 59.0

22.8 21.9 41.3 25.3 212.2 6.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 64.5 10.0 144.1 0.0 17.3 11.3 1.8 38.4 0.0 79.6 31.0 32.1 18.7 48.0 2.2 16.9 28.1 12.9 52.8

0.0 16.8 72.2 24.9 140.1 2.7 0.0 2.1 0.0 6.2 0.0 1.9 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 2.6 0.0 3.5 3.2 241.2 0.0 18.7 5.1 8.0 61.3 6.7 3.4

1.9 0.7 8.8 68.2 66.7 12.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 69.8 1.2 38.9 0.1 11.5 21.0 0.6 8.5 0.0 13.5 39.7 14.0 0.0 3.4 1.5 5.9 81.6 130.2 0.6

0.5 6.3 1.1 1.4 5.2 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 8.7 0.2 33.8 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.1 0.0 12.7 5.4 3.6 0.2 6.5 0.2 4.6 9.5 4.3 1.5

1.6 0.0 1.4 12.6 37.7 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 25.5 0.0 5.2 0.0 0.0 0.9 0.0 1.2 0.0 9.5 6.8 1.4 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 5.7 22.4 0.7

0.0 0.6 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

110


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.9.1 Gross Heat Generation TOTAL – EU-28 – 1990-2016 (PJ – GCV) 3 000 2 500 2 000 1 500 EU-28 1 000 500

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

GROSS HEAT GENERATION – BY FUEL – 1990-2016 (PJ – GCV) 1 600 1 400 1 200 1 000 800 600 400 200

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Solid Fuels Nuclear Other

Petroleum and Products Renewables

Gases Wastes non-RES

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

111


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.10 Transport 2.10.1 Fuels Final Consumption

Motor Gasoline

LPG

Final Consumption Biofuels

Biodiesel

Biogasoline

ktoe 1990 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

Gas/Diesel Oil

PETROLEUM PRODUCTS AND BIOFUELS – EU-28 Final Consumption Petroleum Products

278 355 300 163 310 233 315 825 327 064 336 371 336 943 339 316 342 181 346 588 355 842 357 761 363 573 367 370 359 279 345 856 342 695 339 826 328 620 325 970 329 918 335 479 344 648

106 322 123 470 130 103 133 966 142 201 148 441 153 195 158 840 164 033 171 836 181 281 186 198 193 814 199 610 197 764 192 228 195 050 194 736 190 931 191 136 194 872 200 028 206 900

138 030 137 901 139 450 138 956 139 249 139 850 133 773 131 425 129 397 124 387 120 551 115 037 111 144 107 227 101 430 97 213 91 483 87 638 81 728 78 964 78 744 77 223 77 299

2 707 3 046 3 182 3 470 3 552 3 531 3 653 3 872 4 132 4 292 4 632 4 774 4 936 4 897 5 050 5 267 5 312 5 510 5 478 5 788 5 857 5 985 5 984

6 216 317 432 408 455 709 836 1 109 1 420 1 927 3 216 5 394 7 597 9 753 11 553 13 104 13 583 14 280 12 982 14 077 13 850 13 708

6 187 274 368 335 383 636 752 930 1 168 1 603 2 470 3 905 5 802 7 694 9 258 10 262 10 697 11 448 10 303 11 412 11 159 11 083

0 24 39 55 63 60 58 65 158 241 304 591 898 1 172 1 800 2 238 2 804 2 874 2 820 2 674 2 657 2 686 2 620

EU-28 – FUELS CONSUMPTION IN THE TRANSPORT SECTOR – 1990-2016 (ktoe) 225 000 200 000 175 000 150 000 125 000 100 000 75 000 50 000

Gas/Diesel Oil Biodiesel

Motor Gasoline LPG

Biogasoline

25 000 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

112


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.10.2 Biofuels BY FUEL – EU-28

ktoe 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

6 7 20 48 136 223 314 402 385 442 711 888 1 188 1 498 2 193 3 278 5 343 7 133 8 517 10 346 11 570 10 360 11 187 12 658 13 996 13 573 13 772

6 7 16 25 96 188 269 339 311 371 635 791 998 1 185 1 773 2 502 3 644 5 119 6 378 7 825 8 879 8 388 8 905 9 701 11 376 10 983 10 762

of Biodiesel in Gas/Diesel Oil

of Biogasoline in Motor Gasoline

Share in Transport Fuels

Biogasoline

Biodiesel

Total Biofuels

Production

Total Biofuels

% 0 0 2 18 25 25 39 54 63 59 60 71 160 263 311 382 628 887 1 315 1 575 1 868 1 645 1 957 2 571 2 283 2 191 2 254

0.0 % 0.0 % 0.0 % 0.0 % 0.0 % 0.1 % 0.1 % 0.1 % 0.1 % 0.1 % 0.2 % 0.2 % 0.3 % 0.4 % 0.5 % 0.9 % 1.5 % 2.0 % 2.6 % 3.2 % 3.7 % 3.8 % 4.2 % 3.8 % 4.1 % 4.0 % 3.8 %

0.0 % 0.0 % 0.0 % 0.0 % 0.0 % 0.0 % 0.0 % 0.0 % 0.0 % 0.0 % 0.0 % 0.0 % 0.1 % 0.2 % 0.3 % 0.5 % 0.8 % 1.1 % 1.7 % 2.3 % 3.0 % 3.2 % 3.3 % 3.3 % 3.3 % 3.4 % 3.3 %

0.0 % 0.0 % 0.0 % 0.0 % 0.1 % 0.2 % 0.2 % 0.3 % 0.2 % 0.3 % 0.4 % 0.5 % 0.6 % 0.7 % 0.9 % 1.3 % 2.0 % 2.8 % 3.7 % 4.6 % 5.0 % 5.2 % 5.7 % 5.1 % 5.5 % 5.3 % 5.1 %

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

113


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.10.2 Biofuels

PRODUCTION BIOFUELS – EU-28 – 1990-2016 (ktoe)

14 000 12 000 10 000 8 000 6 000 4 000 2 000

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Biogasoline

Total Biofuels Other Liquid Biofuels

Biodiesel

BIOFUELS SHARE IN TRANSPORT FUELS – EU-28 – 1990-2016 (%) 6 % 5% 4 % 3% 2 % 1% 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0 %

Total Biofuels

of Biogasoline in Motor Gasoline of Biodiesel in Gas/Diesel Oil

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

114


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.11 Energy Efficiency 2.11.1 Energy Intensity

ALL FUELS toe/M€ '2010 EU-28 Index 1995 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

1995 173 100 %

2000 155 89 %

2005 149 86 %

2010 138 79 %

2015 120 69 %

2016 119 68 %

200 947 399 104 159 692 140 150 144 157 263 115 166 483 592 144 375 175 168 124 519 151 550 268 503 238 205 166

191 759 361 88 145 466 117 149 142 145 239 112 169 314 386 119 313 149 140 114 360 151 441 231 437 205 163 146

174 614 327 81 141 374 94 137 141 144 223 117 149 252 330 135 281 157 142 123 322 157 356 220 355 192 150 129

167 465 290 82 129 418 91 127 121 134 209 111 142 260 242 116 269 142 137 115 278 135 285 202 264 198 138 116

141 448 249 65 112 358 59 132 113 121 191 100 128 207 205 90 232 89 118 107 228 134 225 178 215 178 111 94

148 423 239 66 111 346 59 131 110 117 186 99 133 203 204 88 231 81 117 107 231 133 215 178 209 181 116 91

ENERGY INTENSITY – ALL FUELS – 1990-2016 (toe/M€ '2010) 200 150 100

EU-28

50

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Source: Eurostat, DG Economic and Financial Affairs, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

115


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.11.2 Energy Consumption per Capita

GROSS INLAND CONSUMPTION – ALL FUELS kgoe/cap EU-28 Index 1995

1995 3 475 100 %

2000 3 550 102 %

2005 3 702 107 %

2010 3 508 101 %

2015 3 204 92 %

2016 3 215 93 %

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

5 314 2 692 4 059 3 873 4 190 3 791 3 076 2 265 2 575 4 073 1 686 2 846 3 045 1 849 2 371 8 194 2 533 2 006 4 884 3 413 2 562 2 062 2 039 3 052 3 308 5 759 5 838 3 836

5 792 2 261 4 025 3 703 4 166 3 549 3 819 2 626 3 055 4 251 1 872 3 061 3 495 1 622 2 011 8 427 2 475 2 060 4 908 3 627 2 317 2 467 1 632 3 245 3 390 6 267 5 518 3 922

5 654 2 569 4 454 3 609 4 145 4 132 3 707 2 863 3 331 4 402 2 269 3 284 3 464 2 041 2 596 10 407 2 784 2 324 5 154 4 151 2 416 2 618 1 834 3 667 3 542 6 589 5 662 3 891

5 618 2 395 4 342 3 621 4 065 4 613 3 337 2 583 2 802 4 132 2 191 3 006 3 345 2 183 2 160 9 244 2 656 2 270 5 227 4 085 2 648 2 297 1 764 3 584 3 312 6 934 5 437 3 404

4 828 2 570 4 017 2 978 3 867 4 789 3 034 2 252 2 614 3 808 2 017 2 569 2 682 2 205 2 366 7 425 2 555 1 722 4 578 3 890 2 516 2 219 1 632 3 184 3 030 6 082 4 674 2 958

5 079 2 534 3 961 3 053 3 861 4 726 3 141 2 239 2 631 3 728 2 049 2 551 2 879 2 227 2 435 7 283 2 615 1 612 4 625 3 892 2 632 2 250 1 640 3 293 3 043 6 309 4 998 2 897

ENERGY CONSUMPTION PER CAPITA – ALL FUELS – 1990-2016 (kgoe/cap) 4 000 3 000 2 000

EU-28

1 000

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

116


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.11.3 Final Electricity Consumption per Capita

ALL FUELS kWh/cap EU-28 Index 1995 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

1995 4 685 100 %

2000 5 189 111 %

2005 5 630 120 %

2010 5 641 120 %

2015 5 411 115 %

2016 5 456 116 %

6 757 3 404 4 653 5 922 5 534 3 146 4 128 3 235 3 555 5 780 2 129 4 192 3 444 1 786 1 744 12 316 2 684 3 345 5 245 5 881 2 325 2 878 1 601 4 696 4 057 12 791 14 129 5 086

7 573 2 961 4 804 6 089 5 884 3 579 5 371 4 005 4 657 6 357 2 631 4 795 4 339 1 880 1 764 13 319 2 880 4 031 6 020 6 441 2 563 3 744 1 511 5 293 4 077 14 636 14 526 5 611

7 678 3 345 5 421 6 184 6 330 4 445 5 923 4 640 5 595 6 735 3 344 5 199 5 402 2 547 2 377 13 334 3 203 4 614 6 419 6 987 2 751 4 414 1 817 6 379 4 253 15 420 14 504 5 797

7 686 3 652 5 183 5 792 6 509 5 181 5 588 4 777 5 266 6 868 3 686 5 057 5 960 2 931 2 652 13 132 3 416 4 406 6 516 7 172 3 122 4 718 2 036 5 835 4 477 15 603 14 048 5 263

7 271 3 933 5 185 5 456 6 339 5 211 5 360 4 677 4 995 6 541 3 631 4 729 4 830 3 253 3 198 11 058 3 682 4 808 6 101 7 113 3 363 4 416 2 166 6 199 4 495 14 340 12 810 4 679

7 236 4 040 5 311 5 459 6 296 5 547 5 411 4 958 5 007 6 629 3 651 4 715 5 186 3 292 3 375 11 049 3 776 4 693 6 221 7 109 3 499 4 482 2 189 6 310 4 605 14 730 12 942 4 648

FINAL ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION PER CAPITA – ALL FUELS – 1990-2016 (kWh/cap) 8 000 6 000 4 000

EU-28

2 000 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

117


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.11.4 Primary Energy Intensity

ALL FUELS toe/M€ '2010 EU-28 Index 1995 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

1995 162 100 %

2000 145 89 %

2005 140 86 %

2010 129 80 %

2015 113 70 %

2016 112 69 %

178 896 377 102 148 670 133 147 133 147 236 108 161 479 555 142 352 175 143 117 499 136 535 263 477 229 197 156

168 719 342 86 135 450 111 145 132 136 220 107 163 308 349 117 293 149 119 107 342 137 418 223 404 198 157 139

151 588 306 80 131 359 91 133 133 135 207 111 145 247 302 134 260 153 116 117 306 143 334 211 331 186 143 123

147 454 272 81 120 412 89 122 114 127 196 105 138 256 219 115 249 141 112 109 265 125 273 197 249 192 132 111

119 434 234 64 105 352 59 128 109 114 179 96 127 202 172 90 214 88 98 101 214 126 217 174 201 170 107 90

126 411 229 65 104 341 58 128 106 111 175 94 131 198 173 87 215 80 96 100 218 126 207 175 197 173 111 87

PRIMARY ENERGY INTENSITY – ALL FUELS – 1990-2016 (toe/M€ '2010) 200 150 100 EU-28 50

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Source: Eurostat, DG Economic and Financial Affairs, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

118


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2 .11 .5 Carbon Intensity

ALL FUELS kg CO2/toe EU-28 Index 1995

1995 2 516 100 %

2000 2 423 96 %

2005 2 359 94 %

2010 2 244 89 %

2015 2 185 87 %

2016 2 159 86 %

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

2 236 2 546 3 201 2 963 2 778 3 272 3 304 3 267 2 607 1 665 2 191 2 788 3 278 1 945 1 723 2 910 2 374 3 539 2 102 2 415 3 656 2 683 2 709 2 520 2 535 1 993 1 156 2 599

2 034 2 445 3 110 2 732 2 671 3 038 3 224 3 311 2 480 1 645 2 372 2 722 3 050 1 861 1 658 2 631 2 342 1 992 2 007 2 340 3 571 2 632 2 564 2 403 2 272 1 760 1 128 2 553

1 937 2 575 2 803 2 695 2 584 3 013 3 297 3 402 2 502 1 577 2 422 2 619 3 118 1 657 1 607 2 774 2 181 1 840 1 900 2 387 3 479 2 567 2 585 2 313 2 262 1 669 1 054 2 547

1 719 2 703 2 629 2 516 2 558 3 004 2 882 3 180 2 137 1 502 2 283 2 397 3 027 1 849 2 001 2 675 1 986 1 212 1 922 2 180 3 302 2 253 2 347 2 233 2 171 1 761 1 044 2 508

1 742 2 616 2 515 2 171 2 596 2 424 2 854 2 967 2 218 1 397 2 152 2 309 3 049 1 657 1 915 2 536 1 875 919 1 969 2 060 3 260 2 346 2 417 2 062 2 072 1 381 961 2 328

1 632 2 522 2 590 2 224 2 587 2 705 2 835 2 879 2 134 1 429 2 165 2 298 3 005 1 629 1 868 2 500 1 874 724 1 955 2 058 3 228 2 252 2 341 2 091 2 068 1 431 880 2 233

CARBON INTENSITY – ALL FUELS – 1990-2016 (kg CO2/toe) 3 000 2 500 2 000 1 500

EU-28

1 000 500 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Sources: EEA/UNFCCC, Eurostat, June 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

119


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.12 RES Indicators 2.12.1 RES Shares *

OVERALL AND HEATING & COOLING Overall RES with Aviation Cap** % EU-28 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

RES-H&C – Heating and Cooling

2005 9.0

2010 12.9

2015 16.7

2016 17.0

2005 10.9

2010 15.0

2015 18.7

2016 19.1

2.3 9.4 7.1 16.0 6.7 17.5 2.9 7.0 8.5 9.6 23.8 7.5 3.1 32.3 16.8 1.4 6.9 0.1 2.5 23.7 6.9 19.5 17.3 16.0 6.4 28.8 40.6 1.3

5.7 14.1 10.5 22.1 10.5 24.6 5.7 9.8 13.8 12.7 25.1 13.0 6.0 30.4 19.6 2.9 12.7 1.0 3.9 30.2 9.3 24.2 23.4 20.4 9.1 32.4 47.2 3.7

7.9 18.2 15.0 31.0 14.6 28.6 9.2 15.4 16.2 15.1 29.0 17.5 9.4 37.6 25.8 5.0 14.4 5.0 5.8 32.8 11.7 28.0 24.8 21.9 12.9 39.2 53.8 8.5

8.7 18.8 14.9 32.2 14.8 28.8 9.5 15.2 17.3 16.0 28.3 17.4 9.3 37.2 25.6 5.4 14.2 6.0 6.0 33.5 11.3 28.5 25.0 21.3 12.0 38.7 53.8 9.3

3.4 14.3 10.9 22.8 6.8 32.2 3.5 12.8 9.4 12.3 30.0 8.2 10.0 42.7 29.3 3.6 9.9 1.0 2.4 22.0 10.2 32.1 18.0 18.9 5.0 39.1 51.9 0.8

6.1 24.4 14.0 31.0 9.8 43.3 4.5 17.9 12.6 16.2 32.8 15.6 18.2 40.7 32.5 4.7 18.1 7.8 3.1 29.0 11.7 33.9 27.2 28.1 7.9 44.2 60.9 2.7

7.8 28.6 19.6 40.1 12.9 49.6 6.6 25.6 16.8 19.7 38.5 19.3 22.5 51.8 46.1 7.1 21.2 14.1 5.5 32.4 14.5 33.4 25.9 33.9 10.8 52.5 68.6 6.3

8.1 30.0 19.9 41.7 13.0 51.2 6.8 24.5 16.8 21.1 37.6 18.9 23.0 51.9 46.5 7.3 20.8 15.3 5.5 33.3 14.7 35.1 26.9 34.0 9.9 53.7 68.6 7.0

* Of the Gross Final Energy. ** Break in Series between 2010 and 2011 due to the Application of the Biofuels Compliance Rules. Source: Eurostat-RES SHARES, February 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

120


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.12.1 RES Shares *

ELECTRICITY AND TRANSPORT RES-E – Electricity Generation % EU-28 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

RES-T – Transport**

2005 14.8

2010 19.7

2015 28.8

2016 29.6

2005 1.8

2010 5.2

2015 6.6

2016 7.1

2.4 9.3 3.7 24.6 10.5 1.1 7.2 8.2 19.1 13.7 35.6 16.3 0.0 43.0 3.8 3.2 4.4 0.0 6.3 61.9 2.7 27.7 26.9 28.7 15.7 26.9 50.9 4.1

7.1 12.7 7.5 32.7 18.2 10.4 14.6 12.3 29.8 14.8 37.6 20.1 1.4 42.1 7.4 3.8 7.1 0.0 9.6 65.7 6.6 40.7 30.4 32.2 17.8 27.7 56.0 7.5

15.5 19.1 14.1 51.3 30.8 15.1 25.2 22.1 37.0 18.7 45.4 33.5 8.4 52.2 15.5 6.2 7.3 4.2 11.1 70.3 13.4 52.6 43.2 32.7 22.7 32.5 65.8 22.3

15.8 19.2 13.6 53.7 32.2 15.5 27.2 23.8 36.6 19.2 46.7 34.0 8.6 51.3 16.8 6.7 7.2 5.6 12.5 72.6 13.4 54.1 42.7 32.1 22.5 32.9 64.9 24.6

0.6 0.8 0.9 0.4 4.0 0.2 0.1 0.1 1.3 2.1 1.0 1.0 0.0 2.4 0.6 0.1 0.9 0.0 0.4 4.8 1.6 0.5 1.6 0.8 1.6 0.9 6.2 0.5

4.7 1.4 5.1 1.1 6.4 0.4 2.5 1.9 5.0 6.5 1.1 4.8 2.0 4.0 3.8 2.1 6.0 0.0 3.3 10.7 6.6 5.5 3.8 3.1 5.3 4.4 9.2 3.3

3.8 6.5 6.5 6.7 6.6 0.4 5.7 1.4 1.2 8.5 3.6 6.4 2.5 3.9 4.6 6.5 7.0 4.7 5.3 11.4 5.6 7.4 5.5 2.2 8.5 22.0 24.0 4.4

5.9 7.3 6.4 6.8 6.9 0.4 5.0 1.4 5.3 8.9 1.3 7.2 2.7 2.8 3.6 5.9 7.4 5.4 4.6 10.6 3.9 7.5 6.2 1.6 7.5 8.4 30.3 4.9

* Of the Gross Final Energy. ** Break in Series between 2010 and 2011 due to the Application of the Biofuels Compliance Rules. Source: Eurostat-RES SHARES, February 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

121


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.12.1 RES Shares *

IN THE GROSS FINAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION – EU-28 (%)

30 % 29.6 % 25 %

19.1 %

20 %

17.0 %

15 %

10 % 7.1 %

5 %

0 % 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Overall RES with Aviation Cap – All Fuels RES-H&C – Heating and Cooling RES-E – Electricity Generation RES-T – Transport

* Break in Series between 2010 and 2011 due to the Application of the Biofuels Compliance Rules. Source: Eurostat-RES SHARES, February 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

122


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.13 Energy Prices 2.13.1 Prices of Transport Fuels

AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL OIL – ALL TAXES INCLUDED* Current Prices (€/litre) EU-28

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

2009 1.01

2010 1.17

2015 1.24

2016 1.12

2017 1.21

2018 1.30

0.95 0.84 0.99 1.05 1.07 0.91 1.02 0.97 0.91 1.00

1.14 0.98 1.21 1.21 1.20 1.10 1.22 1.24 1.07 1.14

1.08 0.83 0.92 0.89 0.85 0.96 0.96 1.00 0.97 0.84 1.00 0.83 1.01 1.10 0.99 1.04 1.17

1.21 1.00 1.06 1.02 0.99 1.16 1.04 1.15 1.10 1.06 1.15 1.03 1.15 1.11 1.13 1.25 1.39

1.16 1.13 1.15 1.28 1.18 1.08 1.26 1.18 1.12 1.15 1.16 1.41 1.23 1.06 1.07 1.02 1.16 1.27 1.24 1.12 1.08 1.19 1.20 1.18 1.14 1.31 1.37 1.59

1.10 0.95 1.01 1.17 1.08 1.03 1.15 1.07 1.01 1.10 1.07 1.28 1.13 0.95 0.95 0.92 1.06 1.17 1.13 1.03 0.94 1.13 1.07 1.07 1.03 1.20 1.34 1.35

1.25 1.01 1.12 1.25 1.17 1.17 1.24 1.26 1.10 1.23 1.17 1.38 1.20 1.05 1.03 0.99 1.16 1.18 1.22 1.11 1.04 1.24 1.04 1.18 1.13 1.30 1.43 1.37

1.35 1.07 1.20 1.33 1.22 1.28 1.31 1.35 1.18 1.41 1.27 1.46 1.27 1.15 1.11 1.07 1.21 1.18 1.31 1.18 1.12 1.32 1.19 1.25 1.21 1.36 1.48 1.43

* First semester 2018. Sources: DG Energy, Member States, Weekly Oil Bulletin 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

123


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.13.1 Prices of Transport Fuels

EURO-SUPER 95 – ALL TAXES INCLUDED* Current Prices (€/litre) EU-28 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

2009 1.16

2010 1.33

2015 1.40

2016 1.29

2017 1.35

2018 1.40

1.24 0.88 1.03 1.28 1.26 0.92 1.11 1.00 1.01 1.21

1.40 1.02 1.25 1.44 1.39 1.11 1.30 1.43 1.16 1.34

1.23 0.88 0.96 1.02 1.03 1.00 1.12 1.35 1.04 0.96 1.23 0.84 1.05 1.11 1.28 1.12 1.12

1.36 1.04 1.09 1.18 1.16 1.22 1.19 1.49 1.19 1.13 1.37 1.06 1.20 1.25 1.43 1.34 1.36

1.37 1.10 1.15 1.50 1.40 1.11 1.37 1.48 1.23 1.36 1.26 1.54 1.23 1.13 1.16 1.18 1.16 1.36 1.56 1.20 1.11 1.43 1.20 1.29 1.29 1.47 1.41 1.54

1.26 0.98 1.06 1.41 1.31 1.06 1.28 1.39 1.15 1.30 1.18 1.44 1.15 1.07 1.06 1.09 1.07 1.29 1.48 1.11 1.00 1.38 1.09 1.19 1.21 1.38 1.38 1.33

1.35 1.03 1.15 1.50 1.37 1.19 1.36 1.51 1.22 1.38 1.27 1.53 1.21 1.15 1.13 1.16 1.15 1.31 1.55 1.18 1.08 1.46 1.05 1.27 1.28 1.46 1.46 1.34

1.38 1.07 1.22 1.57 1.39 1.32 1.41 1.57 1.27 1.49 1.34 1.58 1.26 1.25 1.19 1.20 1.19 1.31 1.61 1.23 1.14 1.53 1.17 1.32 1.34 1.49 1.49 1.39

* First semester 2018. Sources: DG Energy, Member States, Weekly Oil Bulletin 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

124


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.13.1 Prices of Transport Fuels

CONSUMER PRICES OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS EU-28 WEIGHTED AVERAGE * (€ per LITRE)

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Euro-Super 95 LPG

Automotive Diesel Oil

Heating Gas Oil

* All Taxes Included, weekly prices. First semester 2018. Incomplete EU-28 series for the period 2005-2013 due to later accession to the EU of Bulgaria, Croatia and Romania. Sources: DG Energy, Member States, Weekly Oil Bulletin 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

125


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.13.2 Fuel Prices * – Domestic Consumers GAS – BAND D2 20GJ < CONSUMPTION < 200GJ – 2ND SEMESTER** €/GJ (GCV) EU-28

2009 14.60

2010 15.85

2015 19.75

2016 17.67

2017 17.58

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

14.33 9.67 13.11 23.64 16.35 10.07 15.29

16.78 11.98 14.35 26.81 15.86 11.14 14.63 15.00 15.98 10.54 21.86

14.83 8.65 15.65 20.59 17.83 9.10 18.83 18.12 23.82 18.79 10.28 23.29

15.32 10.42 15.73 24.30 16.93 11.46 18.04

14.88 16.20 9.10 14.84

17.24 10.86 16.21 21.22 18.93 10.68 20.11 20.83 26.57 20.35 12.76 25.13

24.03 19.31 10.16 24.28

10.52 11.29 12.82 13.23

11.28 12.59 13.13 15.38

13.47 12.12 13.40 9.78

11.29 10.76 11.62 9.99

10.91 10.98 11.06 10.14

18.73 17.23 12.78 16.52 7.45 14.96 13.21

19.99 16.71 14.04 17.49 7.73 18.68 12.39

22.30 19.75 13.84 27.28 9.45 16.91 13.74

22.45 18.71 12.26 22.63 8.98 15.64 12.37

22.65 19.41 12.27 22.19 8.58 14.76 12.36

26.12 11.84

29.48 11.72

32.58 18.56

31.73 13.93

31.26 13.32

* All Taxes and Levies Included. **Prices from second semester each year. Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

126


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.13.2 Fuel Prices * – Domestic Consumers ELECTRICITY – BAND DC 2 500 kWh < CONSUMPTION < 5 000 kWh 2ND SEMESTER** €/100 kWh EU-28

2009 16.38

2010 17.31

2015 21.03

2016 20.53

2017 20.48

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

18.64 8.18 15.33 25.55 22.94 9.20 18.55 10.32 16.84 12.07 11.64 19.97 16.42 10.54 9.26 18.82 16.62 15.13 19.06 19.09 12.91 15.94 9.79 13.41 15.60 12.89 16.46 14.07

19.74 8.30 15.49 27.08 24.38 10.04 18.75 12.11 18.51 13.50 11.53 19.20 20.21 10.48 12.16 17.47 15.74 16.53 17.89 19.30 13.82 16.66 10.52 14.26 16.37 13.70 19.58 14.49

23.52 9.57 14.08 30.42 29.46 12.91 24.54 17.71 23.70 16.82 13.12 24.28 18.38 16.50 12.43 17.67 11.45 12.69 18.46 19.83 14.18 22.85 13.19 16.31 15.17 15.30 18.74 21.83

27.45 9.38 14.21 30.84 29.77 12.38 23.38 17.23 22.84 17.11 13.31 23.40 16.21 16.24 11.71 16.98 11.25 12.74 15.92 20.10 13.52 22.98 12.33 16.29 15.37 15.45 19.62 18.31

28.77 9.83 14.88 30.10 30.48 13.19 23.55 16.20 21.77 17.56 12.36 20.80 18.26 15.82 11.07 16.18 11.34 13.64 15.56 19.78 14.51 22.30 12.89 16.13 14.42 15.99 19.93 18.56

* All Taxes and Levies Included. **Prices from second semester each year. Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

127


PART 2  Energy in the EU

2.13.3 Fuel Prices * – Industrial Consumers GAS – BAND I3 10 000 GJ < CONSUMPTION < 100 000 GJ 2ND SEMESTER** €/GJ (GCV) EU-28 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

2009 8.34

2010 9.04

2015 9.55

2016 8.31

2017 7.82

8.50 5.96 7.56 6.85 9.61 6.39 7.31

8.20 8.41 10.07 10.72 11.09 7.85 8.80 8.08 9.69 10.95 8.34

7.15 5.34 7.16 8.37 9.21 6.50 9.43 7.85 7.22 10.51 7.63 7.58

6.36 7.02 6.82 9.30 8.51 7.69 8.96

7.53 8.80 7.43 7.83

7.94 7.49 8.17 9.54 10.47 7.54 10.28 10.00 8.81 10.19 9.74 8.87

7.40 9.59 6.87 7.02

7.69 7.55 10.03 10.06

8.84 9.40 11.72 9.93

8.17 6.05 10.33 9.38

6.89 6.81 9.17 7.63

7.92 9.19 8.71 6.84

9.72 9.07 8.36 7.22 5.93 9.61 8.91 8.00 12.47 6.06

8.62 9.78 9.02 9.28 6.11 11.81 10.22 9.13 13.43 6.33

8.91 10.50 9.39 10.52 8.05 10.57 9.63 11.73 11.61 9.75

7.91 9.48 7.26 7.68 7.27 9.07 8.67 12.21 10.67 6.91

7.48 9.06 7.66 7.52 7.16 8.88 8.07 14.79 12.95 6.22

* Excluding VAT and other recoverable Taxes and Levies. **Prices from second semester each year. Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

128


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

2.13.3 Fuel Prices * – Industrial Consumers ELECTRICITY – BAND IC 2 000 MWh < CONSUMPTION < 20 000 MWh 2ND SEMESTER** €/100 kWh EU-28

2009 10.15

2010 10.41

2015 11.83

2016 11.33

2017 11.21

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

10.79 6.39 11.22 9.20 11.34 6.45 11.75 9.36 11.20 6.48 9.04 13.70 14.94 8.93 7.90 11.58 12.97 12.91 10.61 11.62 9.33 9.44 8.28 9.62 14.03 6.83 6.89 10.12

10.54 6.64 10.81 9.61 11.90 7.27 11.31 10.26 10.93 7.16 9.04 14.43 17.30 9.07 10.46 10.24 10.53 18.10 9.70 11.28 9.87 9.20 8.08 10.05 11.98 6.83 8.41 10.00

10.81 7.82 7.83 9.06 14.93 9.58 13.57 11.50 11.33 9.51 9.28 15.97 14.12 11.83 9.97 8.93 8.70 14.05 8.46 10.47 8.61 11.54 8.02 8.70 11.22 7.06 5.90 15.20

11.58 7.88 7.32 9.36 14.92 8.96 12.45 11.15 10.29 9.03 8.77 15.56 12.95 12.01 8.82 8.58 7.96 13.99 8.05 10.04 8.15 11.32 7.71 8.32 11.12 6.94 6.56 12.78

10.87 7.42 7.10 9.78 15.14 8.46 12.41 11.90 10.32 9.20 9.20 14.49 13.92 11.59 8.25 8.03 7.79 13.77 7.64 9.97 8.62 11.47 7.86 7.84 11.13 6.76 6.47 12.46

* Excluding VAT and other recoverable Taxes and Levies. **Prices from second semester each year. Source: Eurostat, May 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 2

129


Socio-Economic

Indicators

in the EU

3


PART 3â&#x20AC;&#x192; Socio-Economic Indicators in the EU


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

Summary 3.1

Classification of the Energy Sector� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 134 3.1.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

Enterprises in the Energy Sector� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 135 3.2.1

Number of Enterprises in the Energy Sector � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 135

3.2.2

Turnover in the Energy Sector � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 139

3.2.3

Number of Persons Declared as Employed in the Energy Sector 143

Economy � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 147 3.3.1

GDP at Current Market Prices� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 147

3.3.2

GDP per Capita at Current Market Prices � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 148

3.3.3

GDP at 2010 Market Prices � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 149

3.3.4

GDP per Capita at 2010 Market Prices � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 150

Demography � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 151 3.4.1

3.5

Comparative Table � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 134

Population � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 151

Employment� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 152 3.5.1

Total Persons Employed in the Energy Sector (15-64 years) � � � 152

3.5.2

Employment Rate in all Economic Sectors � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 153

3.5.3

Unemployment Rate in all Economic Sectors � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 154

133


PART 3  Socio-Economic Indicators in the EU

3.1 Classification of the Energy Sector * 3.1.1 Comparative Table

EUROSTAT (NACE) AND UN (ISIC) CLASSIFICATIONS NACE rev 2 B05: Mining of Coal and Lignite 05.10: Mining of Hard Coal 05.20: Mining of Lignite B06: Extraction of Crude Petroleum and Natural Gas 06.10: Extraction of Crude Petroleum 06.20: Extraction of Natural Gas B07: Mining of Metal Ores 07.21: Mining of Uranium and Thorium Ores B08: Other Mining and Quarrying 08.92: Extraction of Peat B09: Mining Support Service Activities 09.10: Support Activities for Petroleum and Natural Gas Extraction C19: Manufacture of Coke and Refined Petroleum Products 19.10: Manufacture of Coke Oven Products 19.20: Manufacture of Refined Petroleum Products D35: Electricity, Gas, Steam and Air Conditioning Supply 35.11: Production of Electricity Power Generation, Hydroelectric Power Generation, Fossil Fuel Power Generation, Nuclear Electric Power Generation, Solar Electric Power Generation, Wind Electric Power Generation, Geothermal Electric Power Generation, Biomass Electric Power Generation, Tidal 35.12: Transmission of Electricity 35.13: Distribution of Electricity 35.14: Trade of Electricity

05.10 05.20 06.10 06.20 07.21 08.92 09.10 19.10 19.20 35.10

35.21: Manufacture of Gas 35.22: Distribution of Gaseous Fuels through Mains 35.23: Trade of Gas through Mains

35.20

35.30: Steam and Air Conditioning Supply

35.30

* Broad Definition, The Narrow Definition only Includes Division D35. Sources: Eurostat, UN, June 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 3

134

ISIC 4


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

3.2 Enterprises in the Energy Sector 3.2.1 Number of Enterprises in the Energy Sector

ENTERPRISES SURVEY – EU-28 2013 236

2015 260

2016* 229

416

463

420

5 917

4 1 000

4 950

1 050

1 151

1 158

B05: Mining of Coal and Lignite B06: Extraction of Crude Petroleum and Natural Gas B07.21: Mining of Uranium and Thorium Ores B08.92: Extraction of Peat B09.1: Support Activities for Petroleum and Natural Gas Extraction C19: Manufacture of Coke and Refined Petroleum Products D35: Electricity, Gas, Steam and Air Conditioning Supply D35.1: Electricity Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution 35.11: Production of Electricity 35.12: Transmission of Electricity 35.13: Distribution of Electricity 35.14: Trade of Electricity D35.2: Manufacture of Gas; Distribution of Gaseous Fuels through Mains 35.21: Manufacture of Gas 35.22: Distribution of Gaseous Fuels through Mains 35.23: Trade of Gas through Mains D35.3: Steam and Air Conditioning Supply 35.30: Steam and Air Conditioning Supply

2 070 3 472

2 235 4 450

1 857

2 000

341

400

Broad Sector – no. of Enterprises Reported

1 108

1 050

1 039

78 601

101 173

107 027

70 000

90 000

100 000

65 958

86 842

2 000

726

716

785 5 000

874 5 379

5 388

5 000

5 379

5 388

82 333

105 101

110 827

* Provisional data. Italics: DG Energy Estimates. Sources: Eurostat, Structural Business Statistics Survey (SBS), Áugust 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 3

135


PART 3  Socio-Economic Indicators in the EU

3.2.1 Number of Enterprises in the Energy Sector

ENTERPRISES SURVEY

EU-28 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

Mining of Coal and Lignite (B05)

Extraction of Crude Petroleum and Natural Gas (B06)

2008 298

2013 236

2015 260

2016* 229

2008 315

0 23

0 24 12 0 5 0

0 22 12 0 7 0

0 22 12 0 7 0

12 81 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 14 0 0 0 62 0 27 1

11 77 1 0

0 0

0 0

0 7 0 4 110 10 0 0 3 0 0 12 0

56 0

0 44 0 38 2

0 0 0 0 17 0 0 0 57 0 35 1

0

0

22

20

0 0 0 0 11 0 0 0 59 0 23 1

9 10 4 1

2013 416

2015 463

2016* 420

0 6 5 10 4 2

0 4 5 12 4 2

0 4 5 13 4 2

19

3 22

4 61 7 5 0 0 4 0 10 0 45 2 28 0 10 1

58 4 12 0 1 4 0 10 0 45 2 52 0 34 1

0

0

105

158

* Provisional data. Italics: DG Energy Estimates. Sources: Eurostat, Structural Business Statistics Survey (SBS), August 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 3

136

4 12 0 2 4 0 8 0 41 2 62 0 38 1

5 0 2 5 0 13 0 42 2 57 0 35 3

0 0 140

0 0 139


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

3.2.1 Number of Enterprises in the Energy Sector

ENTERPRISES SURVEY Support Activities for Petroleum and Natural Gas Extraction (B09.1)

Extraction of Peat (B08.92) EU-28 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

2008 1 010

2013 917

2015 1 000

2016* 895

2008 810

2013 1 050

2015 1 151

2016* 1 158

0

0 10

0 4 17 2 91 41

0 3 13

4 47

11 5 52

14 6 55

12 6 55

0 28

0 41

7 39 0 4 0 91 26 0 13 0 6 5 32 1 5 0 42 450 70 19

7 12 0

24

48 45 6 42

0 35 9 46 54 4 52

1 35 9 43 45 4

0 0 0 0 29

1 0 0 35

2 0 0 37

2 0 0 34

103 6 52 1 93 3

201 8 92 2 90 4

251 7 104 4 106 2

256 7 109 6 109 2

0 39 267

0 58 286

0 63 251

0 63 237

7 90 38

2 83 42

0 8 7 49 1 10 0

0 5 21 0 4 0 50 25 0 15 0 7 6 34 0 5 0

519 87 24

473 73 21

6 2 0 0 54 20 0

97 37

95 23 14 0 5 5 31 1 0

8

* Provisional data. Italics: DG Energy Estimates. Sources: Eurostat, Structural Business Statistics Survey (SBS), August 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 3

137


PART 3  Socio-Economic Indicators in the EU

3.2.1 Number of Enterprises in the Energy Sector

ENTERPRISES SURVEY Manufacture of Coke and Refined Petroleum Products (C19) EU-28 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

2008 1 274

2013 1 108

2015 1 050

2016* 1 039

21 22 4 86 9

17 10 33 4 80 7

20 11 25 3 54 5

11 10 29 6 73 6

7 13 88 19 353

48 14 56 15 297

40 14 43 14 281

39 18 37 15

3 5 0 10

10 7 0 14

16 9 0 8

11 5 0 8

37 5 158 6 33 5

38 4 175 17 42 7

45 5 176 18 44 4

29 5 203 15 37 2

13 44 245

17 40 134

17 34 132

17 120

Electricity, Gas, Steam and Air Conditioning Supply (D35) 2008 33 758

583 1 264 1 692 1 589 181 204 5 12 004 3 866 133 2 472 1 279 213 60 542 558 1 512 1 788 678 506 417 203 722 1 528 478

2013 2015 2016* 78 601 101 173 10 7027 618 1 784 8 446 1 845 1 974 226 485 32 13 867 20 756 513 10 169 480 1 214 74 675 950 2 256 2 546 925 1 345 1 526 430 816 2 287 2 577

* Provisional data. Italics: DG Energy Estimates. Sources: Eurostat, Structural Business Statistics Survey (SBS), August 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 3

138

851 1 745 10 996 1 745 2 059 230 515 7 036 14 044 27 062 573 10 775 58 533 1 489 80 610 3 1 130 2 390 3 192 1 209 1 460 1 530 451 907 4 221 4 279

727 1 704 11 026 1 601 1 974 235 551 6 733 14 077 29 687 670 65 567 1 441 72 678 14 1 201 2 430 3 670 3 977 1 349 1 503 551 930 5 897 4 999


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

3.2.2 Turnover in the Energy Sector

ENTERPRISES SURVEY – EU-28 Mio EUR 2013 2015 2016* B05: Mining of Coal and Lignite 13 282.4 11 102.3 9 639.5 B06: Extraction of Crude Petroleum and 172 599.5 118 176.1 96 631.0 Natural Gas B07.21: Mining of Uranium and Thorium Ores B08.92: Extraction of Peat 1 749.8 1 698.4 1 700.0 B09.1: Support Activities for Petroleum and 16 389.7 20 196.9 14 384.0 Natural Gas Extraction C19: Manufacture of Coke and 606 176.5 422 998.2 368 997.1 Refined Petroleum Products D35: Electricity, Gas, Steam and 1 539 990.8 1 460 000.0 1 390 000.0 Air Conditioning Supply D35.1: Electricity Power Generation, 1 233 856.6 1 203 380.0 1 151 055.8 Transmission and Distribution 35.11: Production of Electricity 335 039.1 321 171.0 35.12: Transmission of Electricity 68 751.2 73 471.4 35.13: Distribution of Electricity 237 541.8 244 506.9 35.14: Trade of Electricity 592 524.5 564 230.8 D35.2: Manufacture of Gas; Distribution 265 273.3 220 200.7 206 274.0 of Gaseous Fuels through Mains 35.21: Manufacture of Gas 5 794.6 6 230.8 35.22: Distribution of Gaseous Fuels 83 482.4 50 063.3 through Mains 35.23: Trade of Gas through Mains 175 988.6 163 893.1 D35.3: Steam and Air Conditioning Supply 40 860.9 36 000.0 36 000.0 35.30: Steam and 40 860.9 36 000.0 36 000.0 Air Conditioning Supply Broad Sector – Turnover Reported

2 350 188.7 2 034 171.9 1 881 351.6

* Provisional data. Italics: DG Energy Estimates. Sources: Eurostat, Structural Business Statistics Survey (SBS), August 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 3

139


PART 3  Socio-Economic Indicators in the EU

3.2.2 Turnover in the Energy Sector

ENTERPRISES SURVEY Mining of Coal and Lignite (B05)

Mio EUR 2008 2013 2015 2016* EU-28 16 674.9 13 282.4 11 102.3 9 639.5 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

0.0 326.6

0.0 0.0 0.0 287.5 348.8 301.0 2 097.4 1 578.0 1 391.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4 015.8 2 387.2 2 161.5 1 968.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 82.0 858.2 47.6 0.0 0.0

433.8 0.0

0.0 7 212.1 0.0 485.1

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 13.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 6 669.3 0.0 102.0

0.0

0.0

0.0 0.0 53.2 0.0

1 024.8

92.7 235.6 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 8.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 5 754.9 0.0 20.5

88.5 187.7 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.3 0.0 0.0 0.0

0.0 0.0

0.0 0.0

0.0 18.1

Extraction of Crude Petroleum and Natural Gas (B06) 2008 2013 2015 2016* 176 436.0 172 599.5 11 8 176.1 96 631.0

40.9

0.0 80.7

0.0 30.4

9 239.9 6 823.6 3 896.0 3 120.0 3 829.2 3 431.5 2 978.4 2 479.0

77.9 851.0

126.2

26.2 225.6

729.1

48 042.4 63 194.3 46 394.8 46 394.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 91.2 77.1 38.6 29.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 89.1 135.1 33.2 36.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 37 828.5 46 068.0 26 734.8 17 614.2 124.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5 472.7 5 051.5 4 246.2 3 657.7

0.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 65 153.9 41 147.4 28 916.7 21 722.9

* Provisional data. Italics: DG Energy Estimates. Sources: Eurostat, Structural Business Statistics Survey (SBS), August 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 3

140

0.0 30.4

0.0


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

3.2.2 Turnover in the Energy Sector

ENTERPRISES SURVEY Support Activities for Petroleum and Natural Gas Extraction (B09.1)

Extraction of Peat (B08.92) Mio EUR 2008 2013 2015 2016* EU-28 1 651.4 1 749.8 1 698.4 1 700.0 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

0.0

348.8 71.5

11.6

0.0 0.0 32.5 0.0 0.0

39.3 1.1 0.0 460.1 38.3

0.0 1.7

413.4 79.8 0.0 9.1 63.3 0.0 2.6 0.0 132.6 58.5 0.0 3.0 0.0 2.7 49.3 0.0 0.7 0.0 494.2 40.8 80.2

0.0

0.0

6.7

6.8

399.6 83.5

334.5 85.8

9.9 51.9 0.0 4.7 0.0 150.7 61.1 0.0 5.3 0.0

10.0 44.1 0.0

1.2

0.2

358.5

377.5

633.0

314.9

0.0 49.5

0.0 38.1

60.1

226.1

0.0 10.0 28.9 98.6 266.1

12.8 29.4 57.8 240.3

486.2 2 238.1 2 038.1 167.2

5.0 0.0

50.5 0.7 0.0 12.3 472.0 29.3 101.6

2008 2013 2015 2016* 13 587.4 16 389.7 20 196.9 14 384.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 146.1

0.0 0.0 130.0

0.0 0.0 133.4

0.0 0.0 100.9

11.3 213.9

35.6 424.9

325.5

190.7

973.4

796.4

637.5

425.5

0.0 0.0

0.0 0.0 0.0 168.6 83.8 178.7 7 537.0 9 101.7 9 776.7 6 133.0

* Provisional data. Italics: DG Energy Estimates. Sources: Eurostat, Structural Business Statistics Survey (SBS), August 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 3

141


PART 3  Socio-Economic Indicators in the EU

3.2.2 Turnover in the Energy Sector

ENTERPRISES SURVEY Manufacture of Coke and Refined Petroleum Products (C19)

Mio EUR 2008 2013 2015 2016* EU-28 547 992.2 606 176.5 422 998.2 368 997.1 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

60 047.0

Electricity, Gas, Steam and Air Conditioning Supply (D35) 2008

35 665.9

4 837.5

2016*

7 993.7

8 357.4

7 751.6

30 927.4 45 257.8 40 927.3 36 571.0 20 410.1 26 655.8 21 487.0 23 733.2

134 361.4 140 054.5 107 407.8 97 982.7 179.9

297.0

253.8

17 296.6 19 688.0 14 818.1 12 973.5

357 896.1 581 264.4 537 677.0 491 909.7 1 542.3

2 245.2

1 764.7

1 772.2

6 891.7

8 711.8

8 012.8

8 212.8

5 977.0 12 353.6 19 683.8 20 053.4

44 349.3 52 243.3 36 051.4 30 810.1

74 338.8 93 620.4 93 787.0 83 242.0

69 128.4 53 048.3 39 383.1 33 732.1

106 500.6 119 162.0 110 123.2 109 833.4

48 947.8 51 131.3 35 595.7 34 093.8

156 801.7 212 610.2 195 056.2 179 796.9

3 147.9

4 336.7

738.2 7.5

2 390.8

2 819.9

4 358.9

4 270.5

630.0

570.0

2 081.6

2 011.2

2 690.3

3 234.6

2 431.0

2 305.3

2 252.1

4 133.7

4 646.6

4 333.4

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

9 384.0

8 728.3

6 529.2

5 860.7

26 852.9 18 953.1 16 726.6 14 392.5

52 344.4 34 361.9 26 441.9

38 660.1 38 759.4 31 408.8 28 410.2

9 698.2

7 225.8

6 400.0

27 553.5 38 505.7 35 906.3 33 871.1

28 312.7 34 880.3 27 045.0 24 091.8

44 091.4 46 297.7 47 825.8 44 374.7

7 841.7

9 659.7

7 130.6

5 736.0

18 485.1 21 552.4 21 119.1 20 571.5

4 112.9

4 323.3

3 374.3

3 100.0

13 180.6 12 671.6 13 174.7 12 749.1

14.6

8.1

3 580.0

5 949.9

6 075.6

5 583.3

11 021.1 12 834.5 11 283.9 11 486.6 6 546.4

12 012.3 13 630.5 12 422.2 12 913.1

49 837.4 57 903.5 40 197.8 62 601.6

107 875.7 130 805.0 148 344.2 132 795.1

1 526.2

11 224.9

24 823.9 30 323.3 26 217.7 25 143.2

* Provisional data. Italics: DG Energy Estimates. Sources: Eurostat, Structural Business Statistics Survey (SBS), August 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 3

142

2015

44 457.8 36 969.2 31 311.1 7 313.3

5 021.9

2013

1 149  803.8 1 539 990.8 1 460 000.0 1 390 000.0


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

3.2.3 Number of Persons Declared as Employed in the Energy Sector 

ENTERPRISES SURVEY – EU-28 B05: Mining of Coal and Lignite B06: Extraction of Crude Petroleum and Natural Gas B07.21: Mining of Uranium and Thorium Ores B08.92: Extraction of Peat B09.1: Support Activities for Petroleum and Natural Gas Extraction C19: Manufacture of Coke and Refined Petroleum Products D35: Electricity, Gas, Steam and Air Conditioning Supply D35.1: Electricity Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution 35.11: Production of Electricity 35.12: Transmission of Electricity 35.13: Distribution of Electricity 35.14: Trade of Electricity D35.2: Manufacture of Gas; Distribution of Gaseous Fuels through Mains 35.21: Manufacture of Gas 35.22: Distribution of Gaseous Fuels through Mains 35.23: Trade of Gas through Mains D35.3: Steam and Air Conditioning Supply 35.30: Steam and Air Conditioning Supply Broad Sector – Employment Reported

2013 194 900

2015 156 135

2016* 150 350

77 000

77 025

65 391

11 200

11 114

10 200

56 100

56 816

49 000

119 600

124 733

126 295

1 216 300

1 232 167

1 233 195

916 300

941 130

939 876

457 800 54 800 309 700 94 000

450 642 57 236 337 511 95 743

152 300

146 716

8 800

7 801

102 700

70 531

40 800 147 700

68 370 144 321

147 700

144 321

1 675 100

1 657 990

148 784

144 534

1 634 431

* Provisional data. Italics: DG Energy Estimates. Sources: Eurostat, Structural Business Statistics Survey (SBS), August 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 3

143


PART 3  Socio-Economic Indicators in the EU

3.2.3 Number of Persons Declared as Employed in the Energy Sector

ENTERPRISES SURVEY Mining of Coal and Lignite (B05) 2008 2013 2015 2016* EU-28 232 883 194 900 156 135 150 350 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

0 13 905 0 38 415 0

0 12 534 21 595 0 22 511 0

159 7 311

4 012

0

0

0 18 0 0 121 0 0 138 338 0 20 804

0 0 0 0 243 0 0 0 116 760 0 5 758

0

0

5 944

5 421

0 11 995 18 716 0 17 468 0

0 11 332 17 299 0 16 729 0

316 1 684 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 124 0 0 0 96 076 0 1 843

319 1 690 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 97 0 0 0

0 0 2 844

Extraction of Crude Petroleum and Natural Gas (B06) 2008 88 205

444 3 544

2013 77 000

2015 77 025

2016* 65 391

0

0

0

971 3 764

1 051 3 927

929 3 679

368

39 908

7 852 12 681 0 20 212 0 68 0 3 913

63 12 681 0 15 154 0 134 0 3 764

215 672 13 047 0 0 351 0 36 0 3 076

12 354 0 15 269 0 82 0 3 627

0 1 246

0 38 538

0 25 680 1

0 23 486

653 0 20 823

0 0 1 420

0

0

13 405

14 363

0 0 17 127

0 0 16 475

* Provisional data. Italics: DG Energy Estimates. Sources: Eurostat, Structural Business Statistics Survey (SBS), August 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 3

144


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

3.2.3 Number of Persons Declared as Employed in the Energy Sector

ENTERPRISES SURVEY Support Activities for Petroleum and Natural Gas Extraction (B09.1)

Extraction of Peat (B08.92) EU-28 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

2008 12 537

2013 11 200

0

0 107

1 912 1 276

1 844 1 076

41 0

0 34 195 0 17 0 2 081 1 091 0 94 0 110 29 532 0 29 0

1 735 358 634

2 044 311 29

57

0 0 1 970 1 229 0 0 36 711

2015 2016* 11 114 10 200 0 55 71

48

1 762 963

1 585 859

36 130 0 21 0 2 158 1 149 0 97 0 104

2013 56 100

2015 56 816

2016* 49 000

38

25

24

1 716

2 044

1 587

1 690

0 46

0 59

224

217

28 281 176 411 2 005 1 940

0

39 123 0

2 157

94 0 107 523

25 0 114 1 977 165

2008 47 333

1 815

0 29 276 191 386 2 273 2 188

0 0 0 0 1 275

1 0 0 1 190

2 0 0 1 062

2 0 0 877

2 270 19 2 181

88 5 118

4 638

3 345

9 882

7 526 69

6 771

5 202

0

0 77

0 75

0 62

0

18 489

* Provisional data. Italics: DG Energy Estimates. Sources: Eurostat, Structural Business Statistics Survey (SBS), August 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 3

145


PART 3  Socio-Economic Indicators in the EU

3.2.3 Number of Persons Declared as Employed in the Energy Sector

ENTERPRISES SURVEY

EU-28 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

Manufacture of Coke and Refined Petroleum Products (C19)

Electricity, Gas, Steam and Air Conditioning Supply (D35)

2008 2013 2015 2016* 135 372 119 600 124 733 126 295

2008 2013 2015 2016* 1 243 616 1 216 300 1 232 167 1 233 195

2 078

2 926

4 453 2 208 2 173

19 611 1 330

19 269 1 644

22 302 1 679

22 251

4 557 8 823

3 945 8 855

3 588 8 453

3 516 8 918

16 383

13 292

262 11 065

5 018 10 955

9

30

65

56

0 6 538

0 6 106

0 5 691

0 5 648

6 652

5 213 1 124 13 220 1 990 2 516 34

5 299 1 180 13 495 1 830 2 560 26

5 416 1 217 13 587 1 790 2 382

16 606 2 132 5 017 93

4 650 1 989

2 807 2 748 9 998

2 879

20 181 20 293 18 394 36 197 32 809 31 751 32 137 32 652 33 495 34 536 34 799 13 206 11 265 13 815 13 941 221 450 219 936 224 669 227 843 6 290 5 218 4 949 4 930 9 235 8 246 8 846 9 206 23 955 20 481 25 764 29 652 47 622 38 974 39 764 41 022 181 335 190 364 189 412 16 849 15 472 14 893 15 076 84 224 87 908 89 109 88 213 2 347 2 130 2 089 12 185 11 109 11 344 11 320 18 303 13 781 13 881 12 692 1 091 1 435 1 529 1 613 27 387 24 608 24 601 24 712 10 23 869 27 056 27 969 27 721 28 218 29 402 29 168 29 340 153 286 139 998 128 183 125 805 10 336 8 913 9 589 12 343 89 511 77 393 72 333 70 554 7 828 8 942 8 958 8 861 21 641 17 885 17 873 17 525 13 430 13 729 13 368 13 679 31 151 31 264 31 379 31 292 121 447 129 496 141 099 140 703

* Provisional data. Italics: DG Energy Estimates. Sources: Eurostat, Structural Business Statistics Survey (SBS), August 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 3

146


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

3.3 Economy 3.3.1 GDP at Current Market Prices Mrd EUR* EU-28

1995 7 358.0

2000 2005 2010 2016 2017 9 663.2 11 602.4 12 828.0 14 909.1 15 327.2

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

221.4 11.0 45.7 141.4 1 982.1 2.9 52.9 104.7 468.9 1 231.4 17.1 895.3 7.6 4.1 5.1 16.5 35.5 2.8 341.6 184.4 108.7 91.0 28.8 16.3 15.3 102.7 201.8 1 020.9

258.2 14.3 66.8 178.0 2 116.5 6.2 108.4 143.0 646.3 1 485.3 23.6 1 239.3 10.8 8.6 12.5 23.1 51.3 4.4 448.1 213.6 186.4 128.5 40.8 21.9 22.3 136.3 281.9 1 787.0

311.5 23.9 109.6 212.8 2 300.9 11.3 170.2 199.2 930.6 1 772.0 36.5 1 489.7 15.0 13.7 21.0 30.0 90.9 5.1 545.6 254.1 246.2 158.7 80.2 29.2 39.3 164.4 313.2 2 027.5

365.1 38.2 156.7 243.2 2 580.1 14.7 167.6 226.0 1 080.9 1 998.5 45.1 1 604.5 19.3 17.8 28.0 40.2 98.8 6.6 631.5 295.9 361.8 179.9 125.7 36.3 67.6 187.1 369.1 1 841.7

423.0 48.1 176.6 277.5 3 144.1 21.1 275.6 174.2 1 118.5 2 228.9 46.4 1 680.9 18.2 24.9 38.7 53.0 113.7 10.2 702.6 353.3 425.9 185.5 169.8 40.4 81.2 215.8 465.2 2 395.8

438.5 50.4 192.0 288.4 3 263.4 23.0 296.2 177.7 1 163.7 2 287.6 48.7 1 716.9 19.2 26.9 41.9 55.4 123.5 11.1 733.2 369.2 465.6 193.0 187.9 43.3 85.0 223.5 477.9 2 324.3

* Units in Milliard – Long Scale = 1 000 Million €. Source: DG Economic and Financial Affairs, AMECO, July 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 3

147


PART 3  Socio-Economic Indicators in the EU

3.3.2 GDP per Capita at Current Market Prices Thousand EUR/cap* EU-28 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

1995 15.3

2000 19.8

2005 23.5

2010 25.5

2016 29.2

2017 30.0

21.9 1.3 4.4 27.1 24.3 2.0 14.7 9.9 11.8 20.8 3.7 15.8 11.8 1.7 1.4 40.7 3.4 7.5 22.1 23.2 2.8 9.1 1.3 8.2 2.8 20.1 22.9 17.6

25.2 1.7 6.5 33.4 25.8 4.4 28.7 13.3 16.0 24.5 5.2 21.8 15.6 3.6 3.6 53.2 5.0 11.3 28.2 26.7 4.9 12.5 1.8 11.0 4.1 26.3 31.8 30.4

29.8 3.1 10.7 39.3 27.9 8.3 41.4 18.2 21.5 28.2 8.5 25.7 20.5 6.1 6.3 65.1 9.0 12.8 33.5 31.0 6.4 15.1 3.8 14.6 7.3 31.4 34.8 33.7

33.7 5.2 15.0 43.9 31.5 11.0 36.8 20.3 23.3 30.9 10.5 27.1 23.6 8.4 8.9 80.0 9.9 15.9 38.1 35.4 9.5 17.0 6.2 17.7 12.5 35.0 39.5 29.5

37.4 6.7 16.7 48.6 38.3 16.0 58.3 16.2 24.1 33.4 11.1 27.7 21.5 12.7 13.4 92.0 11.6 22.6 41.4 40.6 11.2 17.9 8.6 19.6 15.0 39.3 47.2 36.6

38.6 7.1 18.2 50.2 39.5 17.5 61.9 16.5 25.0 34.1 11.7 28.3 22.5 13.8 14.7 93.8 12.6 24.1 42.9 42.1 12.3 18.7 9.6 20.9 15.6 40.6 47.8 35.3

* 1 000 €' per Capita. Sources: DG Economic and Financial Affairs, AMECO, July 2018; Eurostat, Demography and Migration, July 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 3

148


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

3.3.3 GDP at 2010 Market Prices Mrd EUR* EU-28

1995 2000 2005 2010 2016 2017 9 655.9 11 163.8 12 270.6 12 828.0 13 824.9 14 162.2

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

269.6 24.0 105.0 194.1 2 145.1 7.9 78.9 158.8 710.5 1 535.1 29.8 1 409.1 11.8 9.6 14.6 23.1 69.8 4.3 448.7 219.3 190.5 136.9 84.2 22.6 35.2 123.4 251.4 1 342.7

310.9 24.4 114.7 225.2 2 358.7 10.7 123.4 189.9 867.9 1 771.7 35.3 1 555.6 14.3 12.3 18.3 30.8 80.9 5.4 554.7 254.1 246.2 167.1 83.1 27.9 41.9 158.1 299.7 1 580.7

340.2 32.2 138.9 240.6 2 426.5 15.0 161.8 229.8 1 025.4 1 923.2 44.0 1 629.9 17.0 18.2 26.4 35.6 99.9 6.0 592.8 277.3 286.7 174.5 110.0 33.3 53.6 179.6 341.2 1 810.9

365.1 38.2 156.7 243.2 2 580.1 14.7 167.6 226.0 1 080.9 1 998.5 45.1 1 604.5 19.3 17.8 28.0 40.2 98.8 6.6 631.5 295.9 361.8 179.9 125.7 36.3 67.6 187.1 369.1 1 841.7

389.3 42.9 174.7 262.4 2 855.4 18.0 250.9 184.6 1 105.8 2 122.1 46.1 1 571.0 18.4 21.6 34.5 47.7 111.1 9.0 672.1 317.1 432.3 175.0 151.1 38.1 79.0 190.8 423.5 2 080.4

395.8 44.4 182.4 268.3 2 918.8 18.8 270.5 187.1 1 139.5 2 160.7 47.4 1 594.6 19.1 22.6 35.9 48.8 115.5 9.6 693.3 326.4 452.4 179.7 161.5 40.0 81.7 195.8 433.7 2 117.6

* Units in Milliard – Long Scale = 1 000 Million €. Sources: DG Economic and Financial Affairs, AMECO, July 2018; Eurostat, Demography and Migration, July 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 3

149


PART 3  Socio-Economic Indicators in the EU

3.3.4 GDP per Capita at 2010 Market Prices Thousand EUR/cap* EU-28 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

1995 20.0

2000 22.9

2005 24.8

2010 25.5

2016 27.1

2017 27.7

26.6 2.8 10.2 37.2 26.3 5.5 21.9 15.1 17.9 25.9 6.4 24.8 18.3 3.8 4.0 56.9 6.8 11.5 29.1 27.6 4.9 13.7 3.7 11.4 6.6 24.2 28.5 23.2

30.4 3.0 11.2 42.3 28.7 7.6 32.7 17.6 21.4 29.3 7.8 27.3 20.7 5.2 5.2 71.0 7.9 13.9 35.0 31.7 6.4 16.3 3.7 14.0 7.8 30.6 33.8 26.9

32.6 4.2 13.6 44.5 29.4 11.1 39.4 20.9 23.7 30.6 10.2 28.2 23.2 8.1 7.9 77.2 9.9 14.8 36.4 33.8 7.5 16.6 5.1 16.7 10.0 34.3 37.9 30.1

33.7 5.2 15.0 43.9 31.5 11.0 36.8 20.3 23.3 30.9 10.5 27.1 23.6 8.4 8.9 80.0 9.9 15.9 38.1 35.4 9.5 17.0 6.2 17.7 12.5 35.0 39.5 29.5

34.4 6.0 16.6 46.0 34.7 13.7 53.1 17.1 23.8 31.8 11.0 25.9 21.6 11.0 12.0 82.8 11.3 20.0 39.6 36.5 11.4 16.9 7.6 18.5 14.6 34.8 43.0 31.8

34.9 6.3 17.2 46.7 35.4 14.3 56.5 17.4 24.5 32.3 11.4 26.3 22.3 11.6 12.6 82.7 11.8 20.9 40.6 37.2 11.9 17.4 8.2 19.4 15.0 35.6 43.4 32.2

* 1 000 €' 2010 per Capita. Sources: DG Economic and Financial Affairs, AMECO, July 2018; Eurostat, Demography and Migration, July 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 3

150


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

3.4 Demography 3.4.1 Population

ON 1ST JANUARY Thousand Inhabitants EU-28 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

1995

2000

2005

2010

2016

2017

481 904.0 487 259.1 494 598.3 503 170.6 510 277.2 511 522.7 10 130.6 8 427.4 10 333.2 5 215.7 81 538.6 1 448.1 3 597.6 10 536.0 39 639.7 59 315.1 4 658.9 56 844.4 645.4 2 500.6 3 643.0 405.7 10 336.7 376.4 15 424.1 7 943.5 38 580.6 10 008.7 22 712.4 1 989.5 5 356.2 5 098.8 8 816.4 57 943.5

10 239.1 8 190.9 10 278.1 5 330.0 82 163.5 1 401.3 3 777.6 10 775.6 40 470.2 60 545.0 4 497.7 56 923.5 690.5 2 381.7 3 512.1 433.6 10 221.6 388.8 15 864.0 8 002.2 38 263.3 10 249.0 22 455.5 1 987.8 5 398.7 5 171.3 8 861.4 58 785.2

10 445.9 7 688.6 10 198.9 5 411.4 82 500.8 1 358.9 4 111.7 10 969.9 43 296.3 62 772.9 4 310.9 57 874.8 733.1 2 249.7 3 355.2 461.2 10 097.5 402.7 16 305.5 8 201.4 38 173.8 10 494.7 21 382.4 1 997.6 5 372.7 5 236.6 9 011.4 60 182.1

10 839.9 7 421.8 10 462.1 5 534.7 81 802.3 1 333.3 4 549.4 11 119.3 46 486.6 64 658.9 4 302.8 59 190.1 819.1 2 120.5 3 142.0 502.1 10 014.3 414.0 16 575.0 8 351.6 38 022.9 10 573.5 20 294.7 2 047.0 5 390.4 5 351.4 9 340.7 62 510.2

11 311.1 7 153.8 10 553.8 5 707.3 82 175.7 1 315.9 4 726.3 10 783.7 46 440.1 66 730.5 4 190.7 60 665.6 848.3 1 969.0 2 888.6 576.2 9 830.5 450.4 16 979.1 8 700.5 37 967.2 10 341.3 19 760.3 2 064.2 5 426.3 5 487.3 9 851.0 65 382.6

11 351.7 7 101.9 10 578.8 5 748.8 82 521.7 1 315.6 4 784.4 10 768.2 46 528.0 66 989.1 4 154.2 60 589.4 854.8 1 950.1 2 847.9 590.7 9 797.6 460.3 17 081.5 8 772.9 37 973.0 10 309.6 19 644.4 2 065.9 5 435.3 5 503.3 9 995.2 65 808.6

Source: Eurostat, Demography and Migration, July 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 3

151


PART 3  Socio-Economic Indicators in the EU

3.5 Employment 3.5.1 Total Persons Employed in the Energy Sector (15-64 years)

MEMBER STATES DATA – EU-28 Thousands

2008

2012

2015

2016

2017

B05 Mining of Coal and Lignite

342.5

328.8

294.5

274.1

258.9

B06 Extraction of Crude Petroleum and Natural Gas

98.9

96.2

88.9

81.4

70.0

B0892 Extraction of Peat*

12.5

11.6

11.1

10.2

10.0

47.3

53.2

56.8

49.0

50.0

243.2

205.9

190.0

186.4

188.5

1 545.4

1 652.3

1 550.6

1 552.4

1 545.4

2 289.9

2 348.0

2 191.9

2 153.5

2 122.8

B091 Support Activities for Petroleum and Natural Gas Extraction* C19 Manufacture of Coke and refined Petroleum Products D35 Electricity, Gas, Steam and Air Conditioning Supply Broad Sector Total Employment**

* According to the Structural Business Survey (SBS), August 2018. ** Estimate of total employment as a sum of available figures presented in the table. Italics: DG Energy Estimates Sources: Eurostat, Labour Force Survey (LFS), July 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 3

152


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

3.5.2 Employment Rate in all Economic Sectors

MEMBER STATES’ DATA – ALL SECTORS (15-64 YEARS) % EU-28

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

2005 63.4

2010 64.1

2012 64.1

2015 65.7

2016 66.7

2017 67.7

61.1 55.8 64.8 75.9 65.5 64.8 70.4 59.6 63.6 63.8 55.0 57.6 68.5 62.1 62.9 63.6 56.9 53.6 73.2 67.4 52.8 67.3 57.6 66.0 57.7 68.4 72.3 71.8

62.0 59.8 65.0 73.3 71.3 61.2 61.0 59.1 58.8 64.0 57.4 56.8 68.9 58.5 57.6 65.2 54.9 56.2 74.7 70.8 58.9 65.3 60.2 66.2 58.8 68.1 72.1 69.4

61.8 58.8 66.5 72.6 73.0 67.1 59.9 50.8 55.8 64.0 53.5 56.6 64.6 63.0 62.0 65.8 56.7 59.1 74.4 71.4 59.7 61.4 60.2 64.1 59.7 69.4 73.8 69.9

61.8 62.9 70.2 73.5 74.0 71.9 64.7 50.8 57.8 64.3 56.0 56.3 62.7 68.1 67.2 66.1 63.9 63.9 74.1 71.1 62.9 63.9 61.4 65.2 62.7 68.5 75.5 72.7

62.3 63.4 72.0 74.9 74.7 72.1 66.5 52.0 59.5 64.6 56.9 57.2 63.7 68.7 69.4 65.6 66.5 65.8 74.8 71.5 64.5 65.2 61.6 65.8 64.9 69.1 76.2 73.5

63.1 66.9 73.6 74.2 75.2 74.1 67.7 53.5 61.1 65.2 58.9 58.0 65.4 70.1 70.4 66.3 68.2 67.6 75.8 72.2 66.1 67.8 63.9 69.3 66.2 70.0 76.9 74.1

Sources: Eurostat, Labour Force Survey (LFS), July 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 3

153


PART 3  Socio-Economic Indicators in the EU

3.5.3 Unemployment Rate in all Economic Sectors *

MEMBER STATES’ DATA – ALL SECTORS % EU-28

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

2005 9.0

2010 9.6

2012 10.5

2015 9.4

2016 8.6

2017 7.6

8.5 10.1 7.9 4.8 11.2 8.0 4.6 10.0 9.2 8.9 13.0 7.7 5.3 10.0 8.3 4.6 7.2 6.9 5.9 5.6 17.9 8.8 7.1 6.5 16.4 8.4 7.7 4.8

8.3 10.3 7.3 7.5 7.0 16.7 14.6 12.7 19.9 9.3 11.8 8.4 6.3 19.5 17.8 4.6 11.2 6.9 5.0 4.8 9.7 12.0 7.0 7.3 14.5 8.4 8.6 7.8

7.6 12.3 7.0 7.5 5.4 10.0 15.5 24.5 24.8 9.8 15.8 10.7 11.9 15.0 13.4 5.1 11.0 6.3 5.8 4.9 10.1 15.8 6.8 8.9 14.0 7.7 8.0 7.9

8.5 9.2 5.1 6.2 4.6 6.2 10.0 24.9 22.1 10.4 16.1 11.9 15.0 9.9 9.1 6.5 6.8 5.4 6.9 5.7 7.5 12.6 6.8 9.0 11.5 9.4 7.4 5.3

7.8 7.6 4.0 6.2 4.1 6.8 8.4 23.6 19.6 10.1 13.4 11.7 13.0 9.6 7.9 6.3 5.1 4.7 6.0 6.0 6.2 11.2 5.9 8.0 9.7 8.8 6.9 4.8

7.1 6.2 2.9 5.7 3.8 5.8 6.7 21.5 17.2 9.4 11.1 11.2 11.1 8.7 7.1 5.6 4.2 4.0 4.9 5.5 4.9 9.0 4.9 6.6 8.1 8.6 6.7 4.4

* Percentage of active population. Sources: Eurostat, Labour Force Survey (LFS), July 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 3

154


Environment Indicators in the EU

4


PART 4â&#x20AC;&#x192; Environment Indicators in the EU


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

Summary 4.1

4.2

Gases Emissions� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 158 4.1.1

GHGs Emissions� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 158

EU-28 and Member States – Total� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 158

EU-28 and Member States – Fuel Combustion  � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 159

EU-28 and Member States – Other Than Fuel Combustion  � � � � � 160

EU-28 – Total and Fuel Combustion � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 161

EU-28 – Other Than Fuel Combustion � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 162

4.1.2

CO 2 Emissions � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 163

EU-28 and Member States – Total� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 163

EU-28 and Member States – Fuel Combustion � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 164

EU-28 and Member States – Other Than Fuel Combustion  � � � � � 165

EU-28 – Total and Fuel Combustion � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 166

EU-28 – Other Than Fuel Combustion � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 167

Main Emissions Indicators � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 168 4.2.1

CO 2 per Capita � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 168

4.2.2

Carbon GDP Intensity � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 169

157


PART 4  Environment Indicators in the EU

4.1 Gases Emissions 4.1.1 GHGs Emissions

EU-28 AND MEMBER STATES – TOTAL Million ton CO2 equiv. EU-28 Index 1995

1995 5 386.7 100.0 %

2000 5 277.7 98.0 %

2005 5 351.2 99.3 %

2010 4 909.1 91.1 %

2015 4 460.5 82.8 %

2016 4 440.8 82.4 %

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

157.7 75.5 159.4 80.2 1 138.3 20.3 60.3 111.8 334.0 552.1 23.2 538.5 7.8 13.0 22.4 10.7 76.0 3.0 238.9 81.1 438.9 72.1 181.1 18.8 54.0 72.8 75.0 769.6

154.5 59.8 150.8 73.1 1 064.3 17.4 70.4 128.9 395.2 565.3 26.0 562.5 9.1 10.6 19.5 10.6 74.1 3.1 229.4 82.1 390.4 85.4 141.2 19.1 49.6 71.2 70.6 743.4

149.0 64.5 149.0 68.9 1 016.0 19.3 72.1 138.9 450.6 568.6 30.2 589.4 10.1 11.6 23.0 14.3 76.6 3.2 225.4 94.6 398.6 89.3 148.2 20.6 51.3 71.1 68.7 728.1

136.9 61.1 141.5 65.8 967.0 21.2 63.6 121.0 368.3 527.7 28.3 512.9 10.3 12.7 20.9 13.4 66.1 3.3 223.7 87.0 407.4 72.8 122.7 19.7 46.4 77.2 66.5 643.7

122.0 62.3 129.3 51.2 931.2 18.1 62.0 98.2 350.0 475.5 24.5 442.5 9.1 11.7 20.4 11.6 61.6 2.6 206.2 81.0 387.1 72.7 116.9 16.9 41.1 57.4 56.0 541.4

122.1 59.7 131.3 53.3 935.8 19.7 64.2 94.7 340.5 475.4 24.7 438.2 9.7 11.7 20.4 11.5 62.1 2.3 207.0 82.0 397.8 71.2 113.4 17.8 41.2 60.8 55.5 516.8

* GHG emissions without LULUCF, with indirect CO2 and including international aviation. Source: EEA_UNFCCC v_20 June 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 4

158


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

4.1.1 GHGs Emissions

EU-28 AND MEMBER STATES – FUEL COMBUSTION

13.3 2.9 9.4 3.9 126.4 0.5 4.6 5.4 40.9 49.1 2.2 47.9 0.6 0.6 1.2 1.1 4.7 0.0 26.6 10.8 28.5 7.4 11.3 1.6 6.7 7.2 7.6 51.8

26.4 9.4 18.4 13.0 166.8 2.4 12.3 17.4 86.1 132.8 6.2 104.5 2.0 3.2 5.5 5.5 12.5 0.6 30.5 23.5 53.4 16.7 16.8 5.7 6.7 12.6 16.9 123.5

Other Combustion and Fugitive Emissions

20.0 27.1 54.4 14.0 332.2 13.8 12.5 37.0 71.1 45.2 4.9 104.4 3.3 1.9 3.0 0.3 13.6 0.6 67.7 10.6 163.2 17.4 25.8 4.9 7.5 19.1 9.2 110.4

Other Sectors

85.9 42.4 100.3 36.3 771.9 17.5 37.9 66.8 244.1 321.9 17.1 347.1 6.5 7.2 11.4 8.5 44.6 1.4 161.9 54.3 326.5 47.1 75.4 14.2 27.5 44.1 37.8 390.5

Agriculture/ Forestry/ Fisheries

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

Residential

Million ton CO2 equiv. EU-28 3 348.3 1 195.2 474.3 931.5 Share ( %) 75.4 % 26.9 % 10.7 % 21.0 %

Commercial/ Institutional

Transport

Manufacturing Industries and Construction

Energy Industries

Fuel Combustion Activities

2016

160.2 3.6 %

414.9 9.3 %

80.9 1.8 %

6.8 0.2 %

84.4 1.9 %

5.9 0.3 2.9 0.7 37.5 0.1 1.9 0.7 11.4 25.1 0.6 23.3 0.1 0.4 0.3 0.6 3.3 0.1 7.9 1.5 8.6 1.1 2.1 0.5 1.5 1.1 0.8 19.9

17.2 1.1 9.4 2.3 91.5 0.3 6.0 4.8 18.0 53.3 2.0 51.5 0.4 0.5 0.9 1.1 8.1 0.0 17.5 6.6 38.8 2.0 7.2 0.9 2.9 1.5 1.0 68.1

2.3 0.5 1.2 1.6 6.6 0.3 0.6 0.5 11.6 12.1 0.7 7.8 0.1 0.5 0.2 0.0 1.5 0.0 9.9 0.9 11.0 1.2 1.1 0.2 0.4 1.4 1.4 5.3

0.1 0.0 0.4 0.2 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.1 1.1 0.2 1.6

0.6 1.0 4.0 0.4 10.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 4.5 4.2 0.5 7.2 0.0 0.1 0.3 0.0 0.8 0.0 1.7 0.4 22.9 1.2 10.6 0.4 1.7 0.1 0.7 9.9

Source: EEA_UNFCCC v_20 June 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 4

159


PART 4  Environment Indicators in the EU

4.1.1 GHGs Emissions

EU-28 AND MEMBER STATES – OTHER THAN FUEL COMBUSTION

Source: EEA_UNFCCC v_20 June 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 4

160

430.0 9.7 %

138.5 3.1 %

1.5 0.0 %

148.0 3.3 %

20.5 6.1 15.2 2.1 61.8 0.5 3.4 12.4 31.8 43.4 0.0 32.1 1.3 0.7 3.3 0.7 6.5 0.3 10.7 16.5 28.7 7.3 12.9 1.1 9.3 6.1 6.9 30.7

9.9 6.5 8.5 10.5 65.2 1.3 19.3 7.8 34.4 76.7 0.0 30.4 0.5 2.7 4.4 0.8 6.9 0.1 19.2 7.3 30.1 6.8 18.3 1.8 2.7 6.5 6.9 41.7

1.5 4.1 5.6 1.3 10.5 0.3 1.0 4.5 14.4 16.2 0.0 18.3 0.6 0.7 1.0 0.1 3.5 0.2 3.3 1.6 10.6 6.5 5.8 0.6 1.5 2.0 1.3 20.0

0.0 0.0 0.8 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0

4.4 0.6 1.0 2.9 26.4 0.1 2.6 3.1 15.8 17.2 0.0 10.4 0.9 0.4 0.3 1.5 0.6 0.4 11.8 2.3 2.0 3.4 0.9 0.1 0.2 2.0 2.6 34.0

International aviation

374.5 8.4 %

Indirect CO2

Waste and Others

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

Agriculture

Million ton CO2 equiv. EU-28 Share (%)

Industrial Processes and Solvent Use

2016


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

4.1.1 GHGs Emissions

Residential

787.1 843.2 870.2 881.3 909.3 928.0 924.0 937.0 948.4 957.3 976.6 975.9 983.4 992.8 968.2 940.7 935.0 922.8 893.4 886.3 894.1 910.8 931.5

201.7 176.8 194.1 180.2 181.7 182.6 175.3 188.3 178.6 180.3 185.5 186.4 192.5 171.0 188.1 180.2 188.9 167.9 166.4 168.3 149.0 156.3 160.2

529.8 520.5 567.9 533.7 519.6 507.2 492.2 526.2 505.2 518.8 511.2 505.9 496.0 443.4 475.0 463.1 499.0 427.4 446.5 449.7 378.9 400.0 414.9

99.1 97.3 99.9 96.8 93.9 93.6 91.5 91.5 89.3 89.7 90.2 90.5 87.2 84.1 84.6 82.8 85.1 83.5 82.1 81.6 80.5 79.7 80.9

Other Sectors

Commercial/ Institutional

841.1 750.5 741.1 732.6 697.6 679.4 686.1 668.6 648.8 654.2 646.1 635.9 628.3 631.3 604.5 501.3 536.1 518.7 497.1 487.9 479.7 483.9 474.3

Agriculture/ Forestry/ Fisheries

Transport

5 720 4 350.8 1 677.9 5 387 4 083.5 1 521.4 5 500 4 191.8 1 551.1 5 403 4 090.8 1 504.4 5 364 4 074.3 1 521.7 5 264 4 012.5 1 477.3 5 278 4 017.3 1 507.9 5 334 4 101.1 1 550.7 5 286 4 070.9 1 566.7 5 374 4 150.2 1 617.7 5 382 4 141.8 1 606.7 5 351 4 118.1 1 600.4 5 344 4 116.8 1 610.2 5 301 4 061.6 1 624.0 5 184 3 980.6 1 548.4 4 804 3 696.3 1 423.8 4 909 3 795.5 1 448.0 4 755 3 647.1 1 424.1 4 690 3 603.5 1 417.3 4 596 3 513.9 1 341.5 4 427 3 335.2 1 257.4 4 460 3 371.1 1 245.4 4 441 3 348.3 1 195.2

Manufacturing Industries and Construction

Energy Industries

Million ton CO2 equiv. 1990 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

GHG Emissions National Total (including intern) Fuel Combustion Activities

EU-28 – TOTAL AND FUEL COMBUSTION

23.6 13.9 12.4 12.4 11.8 10.6 9.9 9.1 9.1 9.7 10.8 10.9 10.8 11.1 10.2 9.0 8.7 8.4 7.6 7.3 7.0 6.9 6.8

GHGs EMISSIONS – EU-28 – FUEL COMBUSTION (MILLION ton CO2 EQUIV.) 2 000 1 500 1 000 500

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Energy Industries Manufacturing Industries and Construction Transport

Commercial/Institutional Residential Agriculture/Forestry/Fisheries Other Sectors

Source: EEA_UNFCCC v_20 June 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 4

161


PART 4  Environment Indicators in the EU

4.1.1 GHGs Emissions

541.9 471.6 472.0 469.4 465.8 464.0 458.0 451.3 444.6 440.8 441.0 434.3 430.4 432.7 430.2 424.8 419.7 420.2 418.0 421.3 428.4 429.5 430.0

236.0 244.1 243.2 240.5 237.4 232.0 228.8 224.7 221.2 215.5 207.1 199.9 193.8 187.2 178.8 173.0 165.9 160.4 156.4 149.2 143.5 140.5 138.5

International aviation

Waste and Other

517.5 498.4 499.5 505.1 482.3 443.2 455.7 440.5 436.6 450.6 466.8 465.7 464.5 476.1 450.8 376.6 394.4 390.0 377.1 375.7 381.9 376.8 374.5

Indirect CO2

Agriculture

Million ton CO2 equiv. 1990 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

Industrial Processes and Solvent Use

EU-28 – OTHER THAN FUEL COMBUSTION

4.3 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.3 3.0 2.7 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.1 1.9 2.0 1.8 1.8 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.5

69.2 85.5 89.6 93.8 101.1 109.2 115.3 113.5 110.3 114.8 122.6 130.8 136.3 141.0 141.5 131.0 131.6 135.3 133.3 134.6 136.8 141.0 148.0

GHGs EMISSIONS – EU-28 – OTHER THAN FUEL COMBUSTION (MILLION ton CO2 EQUIV.) 600 500 400 300 200 100

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Industrial Processes and Solvent Use Waste and Others Source: EEA_UNFCCC v_20 June 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 4

162

International Aviation Agriculture Indirect CO2


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

4.1.2 CO2 Emissions *

EU-28 AND MEMBER STATES – TOTAL Million ton CO2 EU-28 Index 1995

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

1995 4 301.4 100.0 % 129.0 58.4 134.3 64.5 954.8 18.3 36.9 89.6 274.3 405.7 17.3 457.8 6.7 9.3 15.1 9.7 62.2 2.8 181.1 65.5 361.8 56.7 125.5 15.3 44.9 59.2 60.7 584.0

2000 2005 4 293.9 4 434.5 99.8 % 103.1 % 131.5 45.5 128.6 57.4 920.1 15.4 47.0 105.5 321.5 428.0 20.0 478.7 7.9 7.2 11.9 9.6 59.3 2.9 182.2 68.0 317.6 68.3 94.0 15.5 41.6 58.2 56.7 594.0

129.2 51.2 127.3 54.7 889.9 17.3 50.6 116.5 380.4 439.9 23.7 503.7 8.8 8.0 14.2 13.3 61.3 2.9 188.7 81.3 322.0 72.0 101.3 17.0 43.0 58.4 55.8 601.7

2010 4 071.0 94.6 %

2015 3 651.9 84.9 %

2016 3 637.3 84.6 %

117.8 48.3 119.4 52.2 857.7 19.1 44.0 99.9 296.2 404.8 21.5 433.7 8.8 9.0 13.9 12.4 52.8 2.9 192.6 74.4 333.1 55.7 84.0 16.4 38.8 65.7 55.0 540.6

104.6 48.7 106.5 38.2 821.3 16.0 41.0 77.8 285.8 355.8 18.4 365.1 7.7 7.7 13.4 10.6 47.2 2.1 176.6 68.8 312.4 55.5 78.5 13.7 34.0 46.4 45.5 452.7

104.6 45.9 108.3 40.2 827.9 17.6 42.5 74.5 276.7 357.5 18.6 360.6 8.2 7.7 13.4 10.5 48.2 1.8 177.4 69.7 323.2 53.8 75.9 14.5 34.2 49.9 45.1 428.9

* CO2 emissions without LULUCF, with indirect CO2 and including international aviation. Source: EEA_UNFCCC v_20 June 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 4

163


PART 4  Environment Indicators in the EU

4.1.2 CO2 Emissions

EU-28 AND MEMBER STATES – FUEL COMBUSTION

Other Sectors

Other Combustion and Fugitive Emissions

2.2 0.4 1.2 1.5 6.1 0.3 0.5 0.4 11.4 11.0 0.6 7.0 0.1 0.4 0.2 0.0 1.5 0.0 9.0 0.8 9.9 1.1 1.1 0.2 0.3 1.3 1.4 4.8

0.1 0.0 0.4 0.2 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.1 1.1 0.2 1.5

0.1 0.0 0.2 0.3 2.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.8 3.0 0.3 2.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 1.1 0.1 3.4 1.1 0.9 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.7 4.5

84.2 40.7 94.6 35.5 754.1 17.2 37.3 65.4 239.6 315.0 16.3 334.9 6.4 6.8 10.7 8.4 42.9 1.4 159.1 53.1 300.8 46.1 64.3 13.7 25.5 43.2 36.7 380.0

19.8 13.2 26.1 27.0 2.9 9.2 54.2 9.3 18.0 13.9 3.9 12.8 326.5 125.3 165.0 13.7 0.5 2.3 12.4 4.5 12.1 36.9 5.3 17.1 70.6 39.9 85.1 44.9 48.5 131.1 4.9 2.2 6.1 103.8 47.0 103.4 3.3 0.6 2.0 1.8 0.6 3.1 2.9 1.2 5.4 0.2 1.1 5.4 13.5 4.7 12.3 0.6 0.0 0.6 67.3 26.5 30.2 10.4 10.7 23.3 162.4 28.2 52.8 17.3 7.3 16.5 25.7 11.3 16.6 4.9 1.6 5.7 7.5 6.7 6.7 18.8 7.0 12.5 8.9 7.4 16.7 109.3 50.9 122.2

Source: EEA_UNFCCC v_20 June 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 4

164

Commercial/ Institutional

24.6 0.7 %

Transport

6.7 0.2 %

Manufacturing Industries and Construction

75.0 2.1 %

Energy Industries

Agriculture/ Forestry/ Fisheries

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

3 233.9 1 183.4 468.2 920.6 158.8 396.7 88.9 % 32.5 % 12.9 % 25.3 % 4.4 % 10.9 %

Fuel Combustion Activities

Million ton CO2 EU-28 Share (%)

Residential

2016

5.9 0.3 2.9 0.7 37.4 0.1 1.9 0.7 11.3 25.0 0.6 22.8 0.1 0.4 0.3 0.6 3.3 0.1 7.9 1.5 8.5 1.1 2.1 0.5 1.4 1.0 0.8 19.8

16.9 0.8 8.5 2.1 90.3 0.2 5.9 4.7 17.0 51.6 1.5 48.0 0.4 0.5 0.7 1.0 7.4 0.0 17.0 6.3 35.7 1.7 6.2 0.7 2.8 1.3 0.7 67.0


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

4.1.2 CO2 Emissions

EU-28 AND MEMBER STATES – OTHER THAN FUEL COMBUSTION

10.7 0.3 %

3.4 0.1 %

1.5 0.0 %

146.7 4.0 %

15.7 4.5 11.5 1.4 44.9 0.3 2.1 6.0 20.8 21.8 1.9 14.8 0.9 0.4 2.4 0.6 4.5 0.0 6.4 14.2 18.6 4.1 10.6 0.7 8.5 4.4 5.7 13.7

0.2 0.0 0.4 0.2 2.8 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.5 2.0 0.1 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.1 1.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.3 0.1 1.3

0.2 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.6 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.3

0.0 0.0 0.8 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0

4.4 0.6 1.0 2.8 26.2 0.1 2.6 3.1 15.7 17.1 0.4 10.3 0.9 0.4 0.3 1.5 0.6 0.4 11.7 2.3 2.0 3.4 0.9 0.1 0.2 2.0 2.5 33.6

International aviation

241.1 6.6 %

Indirect CO2

Waste and Others

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

Agriculture

Million ton CO2 EU-28 Share (%)

Industrial Processes and Product Use

2016

Source: EEA_UNFCCC v_20 June 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 4

165


PART 4  Environment Indicators in the EU

4.1.2 CO2 Emissions

Commercial/ Institutional

Residential

772.7 827.2 853.7 864.6 892.4 912.3 909.2 923.1 935.3 944.6 964.1 964.1 971.8 981.3 957.1 930.3 924.6 912.5 883.2 876.2 883.7 900.1 920.6

199.1 175.4 192.7 178.8 180.4 181.3 174.0 187.0 177.3 179.0 184.1 185.1 191.0 169.6 186.6 178.7 187.3 166.4 164.9 166.9 147.6 154.9 158.8

506.1 499.8 545.7 513.1 500.3 488.4 474.5 508.4 489.0 501.5 494.5 488.6 478.5 425.6 456.0 443.8 478.4 409.5 427.1 430.2 361.6 382.0 396.7

93.9 91.8 94.2 91.0 88.4 88.1 86.0 86.1 84.0 84.3 84.8 85.0 81.8 78.5 78.7 76.9 79.0 77.5 75.9 75.6 74.5 73.9 75.0

Other Sectors

Transport

833.6 743.6 734.3 725.8 690.6 672.5 679.1 661.5 641.5 646.7 638.3 628.1 620.9 623.6 597.1 495.1 529.5 512.2 490.7 481.6 473.5 477.5 468.2

4 545 4 126.0 1 668.3 4 301 3 892.9 1 512.2 4 409 4 003.6 1 541.7 4 323 3 909.7 1 495.2 4 322 3 903.1 1 512.4 4 265 3 847.4 1 468.2 4 294 3 858.1 1 498.6 4 364 3 941.9 1 541.1 4 337 3 919.0 1 556.8 4 433 3 999.7 1 607.2 4 450 3 998.1 1 596.0 4 434 3 978.1 1 589.6 4 446 3 981.3 1 599.0 4 404 3 929.9 1 612.5 4 304 3 849.0 1 536.8 3 951 3 571.1 1 412.5 4 071 3 668.6 1 436.2 3 929 3 523.9 1 412.3 3 868 3 479.2 1 405.2 3 781 3 393.3 1 329.4 3 614 3 219.1 1 245.7 3 652 3 254.0 1 233.5 3 637 3 233.9 1 183.4

Agriculture/ Forestry/ Fisheries

Manufacturing Industries and Construction

Energy Industries

Million ton CO2 1990 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

Fuel Combustion Activities

EU-28 – TOTAL AND FUEL COMBUSTION CO2 emissions National total (including international aviation)

23.0 13.6 12.1 12.2 11.6 10.5 9.7 8.9 8.9 9.5 10.5 10.7 10.5 10.8 10.0 8.8 8.5 8.3 7.4 7.2 6.9 6.7 6.7

CO2 EMISSIONS – EU-28 – TOTAL AND FUEL COMBUSTION (MILLION ton CO2) 5 000 4 000 3 000 2 000

Fuel Combustion Activities Manufacturing Industries and Construction Commercial/Institutional

Agriculture/Forestry/Fisheries Energy Industries Transport Residential

1 000

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Source: EEA_UNFCCC v_20 June 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 4

166


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

4.1.2 CO2 Emissions

14.8 10.7 10.7 10.4 10.7 10.6 10.2 9.8 9.8 10.4 10.3 9.9 9.6 9.7 9.6 9.6 9.3 9.7 9.6 10.0 10.4 10.3 10.7

5.3 4.6 4.4 3.9 3.8 3.5 3.4 3.5 3.7 4.0 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.0 3.4

4.3 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.3 3.0 2.7 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.1 1.9 2.0 1.8 1.8 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.5

International aviation

326.1 304.8 297.6 302.5 301.0 292.6 305.3 293.7 292.6 302.6 314.7 310.7 313.6 318.6 299.4 234.9 257.1 255.8 241.8 239.6 243.9 243.3 241.1

Indirect CO2

Waste and Others

Million ton CO2 1990 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

Agriculture

EU-28 – OTHER THAN FUEL COMBUSTION Industrial Processes and Product Use

68.6 84.7 88.8 92.9 100.1 108.2 114.2 112.5 109.3 113.8 121.5 129.7 135.1 139.7 140.3 129.8 130.4 134.1 132.1 133.4 135.5 139.7 146.7

CO2 EMISSIONS – EU-28 – OTHER THAN FUEL COMBUSTION (MILLION ton CO2) 350 300 250 200 150

Industrial Processes and Product Use Waste and Others International Aviation

Agriculture Indirect CO2

100 50 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Source: EEA_UNFCCC v_20 June 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 4

167


PART 4  Environment Indicators in the EU

4.2 Main Emissions Indicators 4.2.1 CO2 per Capita kg CO2/cap EU-28 Index 1995 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

1995 8 926 100.0 % 12 733 6 935 12 995 12 372 11 710 12 606 10 269 8 503 6 921 6 840 3 710 8 053 10 321 3 710 4 151 23 845 6 014 7 513 11 742 8 250 9 379 5 661 5 524 7 691 8 385 11 605 6 886 10 079

2000 2005 8 812 8 966 98.7 % 100.4 %

2010 8 091 90.6 %

2015 7 181 80.5 %

2016 7 128 79.9 %

12 842 5 549 12 516 10 772 11 198 11 009 12 443 9 791 7 943 7 070 4 450 8 410 11 493 3 025 3 376 22 170 5 797 7 450 11 483 8 492 8 300 6 662 4 185 7 797 7 702 11 256 6 393 10 104

10 864 6 507 11 414 9 423 10 485 14 345 9 670 8 987 6 371 6 261 5 006 7 327 10 799 4 253 4 411 24 723 5 276 6 991 11 622 8 912 8 762 5 271 4 141 8 024 7 190 12 280 5 892 8 648

9 311 6 756 10 103 6 757 10 115 12 142 8 758 7 168 6 154 5 354 4 343 6 005 9 036 3 866 4 582 18 830 4 790 4 794 10 451 8 018 8 220 5 351 3 949 6 628 6 279 8 473 4 673 6 978

9 249 6 420 10 258 7 049 10 075 13 343 8 996 6 904 5 958 5 357 4 438 5 944 9 648 3 887 4 654 18 210 4 901 3 985 10 449 8 014 8 512 5 203 3 842 7 005 6 294 9 102 4 577 6 560

12 369 6 653 12 483 10 107 10 787 12 717 12 308 10 622 8 787 7 008 5 509 8 704 12 012 3 572 4 241 28 873 6 072 7 283 11 574 9 916 8 435 6 862 4 740 8 505 8 012 11 156 6 189 9 998

CO2 PER CAPITA – EU-28 – kg CO2 / cap 12 000 10 000 8 000 6 000

EU-28

4 000 2 000 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Source: EEA_UNFCCC v_20 June 2017, Eurostat 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 4

168


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

4.2.2 Carbon GDP Intensity ton CO2/M€'10 EU-28 Index 1995

1995 445.5 100.0 %

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

478.4 2.439.3 1.278.6 332.4 445.1 2.301.0 468.2 564.2 386.1 264.3 579.2 324.9 564.1 970.0 1.036.8 419.3 890.6 655.0 403.7 298.9 1.899.1 413.9 1.489.8 676.1 1.275.3 479.5 241.5 435.0

2000 384.6 86.3 %

2005 361.4 81.1 %

2010 317.4 71.2 %

2015 269.3 60.5 %

2016 263.1 59.1 %

422.9 379.8 322.6 272.7 268.8 1.862.0 1.589.9 1.263.2 1.179.0 1.070.5 1.121.6 916.5 762.0 625.1 619.6 254.9 227.3 214.5 148.6 153.3 390.1 366.8 332.4 293.2 290.0 1.446.8 1.150.7 1.299.6 906.4 976.7 381.0 312.7 262.5 171.6 169.4 555.6 507.1 442.1 420.6 403.3 370.4 371.0 274.0 267.0 250.2 241.6 228.7 202.6 169.7 168.5 567.3 540.2 477.3 410.8 0.0 307.8 309.0 270.3 234.4 229.6 554.4 516.6 458.4 431.1 445.9 586.1 440.8 507.0 363.0 354.0 647.3 538.2 494.4 396.7 389.3 312.2 374.0 308.9 229.0 219.9 732.9 613.7 534.6 434.3 433.6 537.2 491.1 438.6 246.8 199.3 328.4 318.4 305.0 268.6 264.0 267.5 293.3 251.5 220.2 219.9 1.289.9 1.123.2 920.8 744.1 747.6 408.5 412.6 309.7 322.4 307.5 1.130.2 921.4 668.4 544.6 502.6 555.8 510.6 453.1 369.8 379.2 992.5 803.3 573.5 445.0 432.1 368.2 325.2 351.2 248.2 261.8 189.0 163.5 149.1 111.0 106.5 375.8 332.3 293.5 221.8 206.2

CARBON GDP INTENSITY – EU-28 – ton CO2 / M€'10 600 500 400 300 200

EU-28

100 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

0

Source: EEA_UNFCCC v_20 June 2017, Eurostat 2018 Methodology and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 4

169


Country Profiles

5


PART 5â&#x20AC;&#x192; Country Profiles


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

Summary 5.0

European Union 28 � � � � � �EU-28 � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 174

5.1

Belgium � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �BE � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 176

5.2

Bulgaria� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �BG � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 178

5.3

Czech Republic � � � � � � � � � � � �CZ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 180

5.4

Denmark � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �DK � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 182

5.5

Germany � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �DE � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 184

5.6

Estonia � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �EE � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 186

5.7

Ireland� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �IE � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 188

5.8

Greece � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �GR � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 190

5.9

Spain � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �ES � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 192

� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 194 5.10 France � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �FR � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 196 5.11 Croatia � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �HR � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 198 5.12 Italy � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �IT � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 200 5.13 Cyprus � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �CY � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 202 5.14 Latvia � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �LV � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 204 5.15 Lithuania � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �LT � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 206 5.16 Luxembourg � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �LU � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 208 5.17 Hungary� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �HU � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 210 5.18 Malta� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �MT � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 212 5.19 The Netherlands� � � � � � � � � �NL � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 214 5.20 Austria � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �AT � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 216 5.21 Poland � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �PL � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 218 5.22 Portugal � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �PT � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 220 5.23 Romania � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �RO � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 222 5.24 Slovenia� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �SI � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 224 5.25 Slovak Republic � � � � � � � � � � �SK � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 226 5.26 Finland � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �FI � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 228 5.27 Sweden� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �SE � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 230 5.28 United Kingdom� � � � � � � � � � �UK

Sources: ESTAT – Database – June 2018; EEA – UNFCCC Database – June 2018; ECFIN – AMECO Database – May 2018; ESTAT – SHARES – January 2017; ESTAT – CHP Survey, preliminary data 2016 – July 2018; ESTAT – Market Survey – April 2018

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PART 5  Country Profiles

5.0 European Union 28 Mtoe, unless otherwise stated 1995 Production 969.3 Solid Fuels 279.8 of which Hard Coal 174.9 Petroleum and Products 180.8 of which Crude and NGL 172.2 Gases 191.4 of which Natural Gas 191.0 Nuclear 227.3 Renewables 84.3 Wastes, Non-Renewable 5.7 Net Imports 736.4 Solid Fuels 78.2 of which Hard Coal 76.4 Petroleum and Products 510.6 of which Crude and NGL 471.0 Gases 145.6 of which Natural Gas 145.6 Renewables 0.3 Electricity 1.8 Gross Inland Consumption 1 674.6 Solid Fuels 364.8 of which Hard Coal 257.5 Petroleum and Products 654.3 of which Crude and NGL 645.1 Gases 336.1 of which Natural Gas 335.7 Nuclear 227.3 Renewables 84.6 Electricity 1.8 Wastes, Non-Renewable 5.7 Primary Energy Consumption 1 567.2 Available for Final Consumption 1 192.9 Final Non-Energy Consumption 107.4 Final Energy Consumption 1 082.6 by Fuel/Product Solid Fuels 83.0 Petroleum and Products 465.9 Gases 247.5 Biomass and Renewable Wastes 43.6 Solar 0.3 Geothermal 0.4 Electricity 194.1 Derived heat 46.3 Wastes, Non-Renewable 1.6 by Sector Industry 331.6 Transport 306.5 Residential 285.1 Services 114.7 Agriculture and Fishing 32.5 Other 12.2

2000 952.7 214.6 120.7 180.0 169.9 210.0 209.8 243.8 98.2 6.1 826.8 98.1 94.1 532.8 500.6 193.5 193.5 0.3 2.0 1 729.8 321.1 221.4 662.1 673.1 396.2 396.0 243.8 98.5 2.0 6.1 1 617.6 1 243.0 112.2 1 132.7

2005 914.6 196.2 100.2 142.2 129.9 190.6 190.5 257.5 120.3 7.9 980.3 125.2 122.6 598.1 563.6 254.1 254.1 1.6 1.4 1 831.1 318.0 220.4 679.3 693.6 445.2 445.1 257.5 121.8 1.4 7.9 1 713.3 1 313.7 117.8 1 192.7

2010 851.3 165.0 75.0 109.9 94.9 159.4 159.3 236.6 169.2 11.2 955.6 111.6 111.0 557.6 522.4 279.7 279.7 6.0 0.6 1 765.2 283.2 191.9 610.6 617.6 447.7 447.6 236.6 175.2 0.6 11.3 1 657.5 1 275.7 107.7 1 163.2

2015 781.9 145.3 58.0 88.7 72.9 107.5 107.5 221.2 205.8 13.3 901.6 111.5 111.7 535.7 528.4 247.0 247.0 5.9 1.2 1 629.3 262.7 175.8 560.9 597.6 357.9 357.9 221.2 211.7 1.2 13.6 1 531.8 1 184.1 97.5 1 086.2

2016 770.4 132.3 51.4 88.6 72.2 107.5 107.5 216.7 210.7 14.5 903.7 96.7 97.5 529.8 520.2 269.5 269.5 5.8 1.6 1 640.6 240.7 159.2 567.1 595.2 383.0 382.9 216.7 216.6 1.6 14.9 1 542.8 1 205.2 97.8 1 107.8

61.9 490.3 267.6 48.3 0.4 0.4 217.4 45.3 1.0

53.9 503.7 282.0 58.2 0.7 0.4 239.4 52.7 1.5

50.2 458.1 272.0 80.9 1.5 0.4 244.0 53.5 2.7

45.9 429.9 236.9 84.4 2.0 0.5 236.6 46.5 3.5

45.3 437.1 245.3 86.3 2.1 0.5 239.4 47.9 3.8

333.4 344.5 290.9 121.7 29.5 12.7

331.2 369.2 309.4 144.6 29.1 9.3

290.8 363.7 320.0 157.7 26.3 4.7

276.1 358.1 276.4 147.1 24.8 3.7

276.8 367.3 284.8 150.0 25.5 3.3

Methodology, Sources and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 5

174


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 Installed Electricity Capacity (GW) 618.5 680.9 757.9 883.8 984.8 990.9 Combustible Fuels 353.3 391.3 435.1 487.8 470.1 455.6 Nuclear 128.4 136.6 135.0 131.7 122.0 122.1 Hydro 133.5 139.0 143.4 147.3 152.4 154.0 Wind 2.4 12.7 40.3 84.3 141.4 154.3 Solar PV 0.0 0.2 2.3 30.0 94.7 100.8 Geothermal 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 Tide, Wave and Ocean 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 Other Sources 0.1 0.2 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 Gross Electricity Generation, 2 743.6 3 035.8 3 325.8 3 366.6 3 235.2 3 255.1 by Fuel (TWh) Solid Fuels 945.9 933.9 960.3 829.2 791.8 701.3 Petroleum and Products 230.3 181.3 142.8 86.9 61.0 59.5 Gases 294.4 513.1 704.0 799.4 530.3 642.3 Nuclear 880.8 945.0 997.7 916.6 857.1 839.7 Renewables 382.6 448.6 496.0 710.8 965.7 981.5 Wastes, non-RES 8.7 12.1 14.4 19.0 23.1 25.9 Cogeneration Heat and Power * CHP Electrical Capacity (GW) 119.7 124.4 CHP Electricity Generation (TWh) 394.6 362.9 359.6 CHP in Total Electricity Generation (%) 11.8 % 11.2 % 11.0 % CHP Heat Production (PJ) 3 038.4 2 791.7 2 807.9 Transport Fuels (ktoe) Final Consumption 300 163 336 943 357 761 342 695 335 479 344 648 Petroleum Products Motor Gasoline 137 901 133 773 115 037 91 483 77 223 77 299 Gas/Diesel Oil 123 470 153 195 186 198 195 050 200 028 206 900 Final Consumption Biofuels 216 709 3 216 13 104 13 850 13 708 Biogasoline 24 58 591 2 804 2 686 2 620 Biodiesel 187 636 2 470 10 262 11 159 11 083 Main Energy Indicators Energy Intensity (toe/M€'10) 173.4 154.9 149.2 137.6 120.2 118.7 Energy per Capita (kgoe/cap) 3 475.0 3 550.1 3 702.1 3 508.1 3 203.9 3 215.1 Final Electricity per Capita 4 685.2 5 188.9 5 630.0 5 640.7 5 411.4 5 456.4 (KWh/cap) Primary Energy Intensity 162.3 144.9 139.6 129.2 113.0 111.6 (toe/M€'10) Import Dependency (%) 43.1 % 46.7 % 52.1 % 52.7 % 53.9 % 53.6 % of Solid Fuels 21.4 % 30.6 % 39.4 % 39.4 % 42.4 % 40.2 % of Hard Coal 29.7 % 42.5 % 55.6 % 57.9 % 63.6 % 61.2 % of Petroleum Fuels 74.1 % 75.7 % 82.2 % 84.5 % 88.8 % 86.7 % of Crude and NGL 73.0 % 74.4 % 81.3 % 84.6 % 88.4 % 87.4 % of Natural Gas 43.4 % 48.9 % 57.1 % 62.5 % 69.0 % 70.4 % Renewables in Gross Final Energy (%) Overall RES with Aviation Cap 9.0 % 12.9 % 16.7 % 17.0 % RES-H&C – Heating and Cooling 10.9 % 15.0 % 18.7 % 19.1 % RES-E – Electricity Generation 14.8 % 19.7 % 28.8 % 29.6 % RES-T – Transport 1.8 % 5.2 % 6.6 % 7.1 % Gases Emissions (Mio ton CO 2) CO2 Emissions** 4 301.4 4 293.9 4 434.5 4 071.0 3 651.9 3 637.3 GHGs Emissions** 5 386.7 5 277.7 5 351.2 4 909.1 4 460.5 4 440.8 Main Emissions Indicators CO2 per Capita (kg CO2/cap) 8 925.9 8 812.3 8 965.8 8 090.7 7 181.1 7 128.0 Carbon Intensity (kg CO2/toe) 2 516.2 2 423.5 2 359.0 2 244.0 2 184.7 2 158.9 CO2 GDP Intensity (ton CO2/M€'10) 445.5 384.6 361.4 317.4 269.3 263.1 * Preliminary 2016 CHP data from Eurostat. ** Total emissions without LULUCF, with ind. CO2, including international aviation, excl. international maritime transport.

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PART 5  Country Profiles

5.1 Belgium Mtoe, unless otherwise stated Production Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Wastes, Non-Renewable Net Imports Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Renewables Electricity Gross Inland Consumption Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Electricity Wastes, Non-Renewable Primary Energy Consumption Available for Final Consumption Final Non-Energy Consumption Final Energy Consumption by Fuel/Product Solid Fuels Petroleum and Products Gases Biomass and Renewable Wastes Solar Geothermal Electricity Derived heat Wastes, Non-Renewable by Sector Industry Transport Residential Services Agriculture and Fishing Other

1995 11.83 0.31 0.31 0.00

2000 13.61 0.21 0.21 0.00

2005 13.72 0.06 0.06 0.01

2010 16.19

2015 11.63

2016 16.24

0.01 0.80

0.01 1.22

0.01 1.26

0.00 0.00 10.67 0.44 0.41 46.64 9.42 8.90 26.37 26.18 10.42 10.42 0.09 0.35 53.83 8.65 8.21 22.61 26.23 10.61 10.61 10.67 0.53 0.35 0.41 47.91 39.93 5.92 34.35

0.00 0.00 12.42 0.53 0.44 50.50 7.30 6.56 29.45 34.04 13.28 13.28 0.10 0.37 59.30 8.00 7.26 24.06 33.97 13.37 13.37 12.42 0.64 0.37 0.44 52.32 44.83 6.99 37.53

12.28 0.88 0.50 53.43 5.24 4.96 32.55 31.77 14.82 14.82 0.28 0.54 59.06 5.17 4.91 24.67 31.92 14.74 14.74 12.28 1.16 0.54 0.50 51.33 44.42 7.73 36.58

12.37 2.27 0.74 53.56 3.70 3.72 32.45 33.11 16.79 16.79 0.57 0.05 60.90 3.76 3.69 24.41 33.13 16.75 16.75 12.37 2.83 0.05 0.74 53.54 45.66 7.36 37.63

6.73 2.99 0.68 50.63 3.10 2.64 31.18 32.26 13.87 13.87 0.68 1.81 54.26 3.19 2.74 24.22 32.24 13.97 13.97 6.73 3.66 1.81 0.68 45.74 44.43 8.52 35.87

11.23 3.07 0.68 48.72 2.80 2.29 30.15 32.07 14.38 14.38 0.85 0.53 57.45 2.96 2.43 23.84 32.17 14.30 14.30 11.23 3.92 0.53 0.68 48.99 44.76 8.46 36.33

3.33 16.03 8.44 0.35 0.00

3.40 16.54 9.89 0.41 0.00

2.03 16.52 9.94 0.64 0.00

1.63 16.10 10.44 1.52 0.01

5.89 0.23 0.09

6.67 0.49 0.12

6.90 0.43 0.12

7.16 0.64 0.14

1.61 15.72 9.25 1.58 0.02 0.00 7.03 0.51 0.14

1.75 15.30 9.73 1.86 0.02 0.00 7.04 0.50 0.14

11.91 8.57 9.30 3.46 1.10 0.00

14.10 9.66 9.47 3.48 0.78 0.03

11.71 9.95 9.93 4.15 0.81 0.03

12.06 10.35 9.41 5.03 0.76 0.03

11.90 10.44 8.16 4.61 0.72 0.03

12.21 10.51 8.14 4.66 0.77 0.05

Methodology, Sources and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 5

176


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 Installed Electricity Capacity (GW) 14.92 15.69 16.10 18.69 21.16 21.55 Combustible Fuels 7.88 8.55 8.71 9.52 8.52 8.54 Nuclear 5.63 5.71 5.80 5.93 5.91 5.91 Hydro 1.40 1.41 1.41 1.43 1.42 1.43 Wind 0.01 0.01 0.17 0.91 2.18 2.37 Solar PV 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.90 3.12 3.30 Geothermal 0.00 0.00 Tide, Wave and Ocean Other Sources 0.00 0.00 Gross Electricity Generation, 74.41 84.01 87.03 95.19 69.85 85.52 by Fuel (TWh) Solid Fuels 16.52 12.92 8.20 4.20 2.21 0.39 Petroleum and Products 1.31 0.80 1.74 0.41 0.21 0.19 Gases 12.94 19.09 25.14 33.18 24.07 24.36 Nuclear 41.36 48.16 47.60 47.94 26.10 43.52 Renewables 1.56 2.28 3.42 7.85 15.55 15.29 Wastes, non-RES 0.72 0.77 0.66 1.36 1.25 1.26 Cogeneration Heat and Power * CHP Electrical Capacity (GW) 1.89 2.58 2.38 2.2 CHP Electricity Generation (TWh) 7.36 15.20 12.48 12.2 CHP in Total Electricity Generation (%) 8.5 % 16.0 % 17.7 % 14.2 % CHP Heat Production (PJ) 75.86 0.00 104.41 104.4 Transport Fuels (ktoe) Final Consumption 8 440 9 537 9 803 9 748 9 996 9 895 Petroleum Products Motor Gasoline 2 977 2 359 1 846 1 236 1 321 1 429 Gas/Diesel Oil 4 283 5 416 6 522 7 075 7 155 6 958 Final Consumption Biofuels 366 261 441 Biogasoline 57 41 43 Biodiesel 309 221 398 Main Energy Indicators Energy Intensity (toe/M€'10) 199.6 190.7 173.6 166.8 141.4 147.6 Energy per Capita (kgoe/cap) 5 313.7 5 791.8 5 653.9 5 618.3 4 828.3 5 079.2 Final Electricity per Capita 6 756.6 7 573.1 7 677.9 7 685.6 7 271.2 7 236.1 (KWh/cap) Primary Energy Intensity 177.7 168.3 150.9 146.7 119.2 125.9 (toe/M€'10) Import Dependency (%) 80.8 % 78.1 % 80.1 % 78.2 % 84.3 % 76.0 % of Solid Fuels 108.9 % 91.2 % 101.3 % 98.3 % 97.1 % 94.9 % of Hard Coal 108.5 % 90.4 % 100.9 % 100.7 % 96.3 % 94.3 % of Petroleum Fuels 99.6 % 100.2 % 100.8 % 101.4 % 103.8 % 98.8 % of Crude and NGL 99.8 % 100.2 % 99.5 % 99.9 % 100.0 % 99.7 % of Natural Gas 98.2 % 99.3 % 100.5 % 100.3 % 99.3 % 100.6 % Renewables in Gross Final Energy (%) Overall RES with Aviation Cap 2.3 % 5.7 % 7.9 % 8.7 % RES-H&C – Heating and Cooling 3.4 % 6.1 % 7.8 % 8.1 % RES-E – Electricity Generation 2.4 % 7.1 % 15.5 % 15.8 % RES-T – Transport 0.6 % 4.7 % 3.8 % 5.9 % Gases Emissions (Mio ton CO 2) CO2 Emissions** 128.99 131.49 129.21 117.76 104.64 104.62 GHGs Emissions** 157.68 154.52 149.01 136.93 122.03 122.14 Main Emissions Indicators CO2 per Capita (kg CO2/cap) 12 732.9 12 841.8 12 369.3 10 864.0 9 311.5 9 249.0 Carbon Intensity (kg CO2/toe) 2 235.6 2 034.0 1 937.4 1 719.2 1 741.7 1 631.7 CO2 GDP Intensity (ton CO2/M€'10) 478.4 422.9 379.8 322.6 272.7 268.8 * Preliminary 2016 CHP data from Eurostat. ** Total emissions without LULUCF, with ind. CO2, including international aviation, excl. international maritime transport.

177


PART 5  Country Profiles

5.2 Bulgaria Mtoe, unless otherwise stated Production Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Wastes, Non-Renewable Net Imports Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Renewables Electricity Gross Inland Consumption Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Electricity Wastes, Non-Renewable Primary Energy Consumption Available for Final Consumption Final Non-Energy Consumption Final Energy Consumption by Fuel/Product Solid Fuels Petroleum and Products Gases Biomass and Renewable Wastes Solar Geothermal Electricity Derived heat Wastes, Non-Renewable by Sector Industry Transport Residential Services Agriculture and Fishing Other

1995 10.27 5.29 0.97 0.06 0.04 0.04 0.04 4.46 0.42 0.00 12.83 2.42 2.35 5.87 7.39 4.56 4.56 -0.01 -0.01 22.69 7.62 3.21 5.63 7.41 4.58 4.58 4.46 0.41 -0.01 0.00 21.46 12.93 1.23 11.42

2000 9.87 4.30 0.05 0.07 0.04 0.01 0.01 4.70 0.78 0.01 8.54 2.26 2.25 3.94 5.18 2.74 2.74 0.00 -0.40 18.52 6.43 2.23 4.07 5.25 2.93 2.93 4.70 0.78 -0.40 0.01 17.54 9.99 0.98 9.11

2005 10.70 4.18 0.00 0.13 0.03 0.38 0.38 4.83 1.12 0.06 9.28 2.55 2.49 4.94 5.84 2.46 2.46 -0.03 -0.65 19.75 6.90 2.63 4.72 5.98 2.80 2.80 4.83 1.10 -0.65 0.06 18.91 10.56 0.85 10.19

2010 10.53 4.94 0.02 0.06 0.02 0.06 0.06 3.96 1.50 0.01 7.08 1.70 1.67 4.03 5.37 2.13 2.13 -0.06 -0.73 17.77 6.89 1.89 3.89 5.41 2.30 2.30 3.96 1.46 -0.73 0.01 17.35 8.79 0.42 8.84

2015 12.13 5.87 0.03 0.14 0.02 0.09 0.09 3.98 2.03 0.03 6.59 0.74 0.70 4.25 5.91 2.52 2.52 -0.02 -0.91 18.51 6.62 0.74 4.20 5.88 2.60 2.60 3.98 1.99 -0.91 0.03 17.90 9.65 0.61 9.51

2016 11.46 5.11 0.03 0.23 0.02 0.08 0.08 4.08 1.92 0.03 6.77 0.56 0.50 4.14 5.98 2.59 2.59 0.03 -0.55 18.13 5.70 0.59 4.23 6.04 2.69 2.69 4.08 1.95 -0.55 0.03 17.63 9.99 0.50 9.66

1.26 2.93 1.79 0.18

0.88 3.03 1.68 0.55

2.47 2.80 0.00

2.09 0.88 0.01

0.98 3.72 1.57 0.69 0.00 0.03 2.21 0.94 0.05

0.41 3.13 1.06 0.91 0.01 0.03 2.33 0.96 0.01

0.33 3.37 1.31 1.15 0.02 0.03 2.44 0.82 0.03

0.34 3.45 1.31 1.21 0.02 0.04 2.49 0.78 0.03

6.01 1.85 2.47 0.19 0.38 0.51

3.97 2.01 2.16 0.65 0.31 0.01

4.04 2.90 2.12 0.82 0.30 0.00

2.56 2.86 2.25 0.99 0.19 0.00

2.71 3.40 2.20 0.99 0.19 0.02

2.64 3.49 2.25 1.08 0.19 0.02

Methodology, Sources and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 5

178


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Installed Electricity Capacity (GW) 1.98 11.09 12.26 10.03 10.91 Combustible Fuels 0.00 5.67 6.68 4.58 3.99 Nuclear 0.00 3.53 2.72 1.89 1.98 Hydro 1.98 1.88 2.85 3.05 3.22 Wind 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.49 0.70 Solar PV 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.03 1.03 Geothermal Tide, Wave and Ocean Other Sources Gross Electricity Generation, 41.79 40.92 44.37 46.65 49.23 by Fuel (TWh) Solid Fuels 17.32 16.94 18.46 22.61 22.52 Petroleum and Products 1.44 0.66 0.61 0.39 0.18 Gases 3.45 2.18 1.90 1.97 1.86 Nuclear 17.26 18.18 18.65 15.25 15.38 Renewables 2.31 2.95 4.74 6.42 9.25 Wastes, non-RES 0.00 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.00 Cogeneration Heat and Power * CHP Electrical Capacity (GW) 1.2 1.0 1.1 CHP Electricity Generation (TWh) 2.7 3.7 2.9 CHP in Total Electricity Generation (%) 6.1 % 8.0 % 6.0 % CHP Heat Production (PJ) 50.4 40.4 31.9 Transport Fuels (ktoe) Final Consumption 1 776 1 804 2 624 2 608 2 987 Petroleum Products Motor Gasoline 1 161 707 571 611 520 Gas/Diesel Oil 278 779 1 416 1 441 1 815 Final Consumption Biofuels 13 146 Biogasoline 32 Biodiesel 10 114 Main Energy Indicators Energy Intensity (toe/M€'10) 947.0 758.8 614.0 464.9 448.5 Energy per Capita (kgoe/cap) 2 692.3 2 261.4 2 569.3 2 394.8 2 570.2 Final Electricity per Capita 3 404.2 2 960.7 3 344.7 3 651.8 3 933.0 (KWh/cap) Primary Energy Intensity 895.5 718.7 587.6 453.9 433.8 (toe/M€'10) Import Dependency (%) 55.9 % 46.0 % 46.7 % 39.6 % 35.4 % of Solid Fuels 31.8 % 35.1 % 37.0 % 24.7 % 11.2 % of Hard Coal 73.0 % 100.5 % 94.7 % 88.3 % 94.9 % of Petroleum Fuels 99.6 % 95.4 % 102.2 % 101.1 % 99.1 % of Crude and NGL 99.7 % 98.7 % 97.7 % 99.1 % 100.5 % of Natural Gas 99.5 % 93.6 % 87.7 % 92.7 % 97.0 % Renewables in Gross Final Energy (%) Overall RES with Aviation Cap 9.4 % 14.1 % 18.2 % RES-H&C – Heating and Cooling 14.3 % 24.4 % 28.6 % RES-E – Electricity Generation 9.3 % 12.7 % 19.1 % RES-T – Transport 0.8 % 1.4 % 6.5 % Gases Emissions (Mio ton CO 2) CO2 Emissions** 58.44 45.45 51.16 48.29 48.66 GHGs Emissions** 75.48 59.81 64.48 61.05 62.28 Main Emissions Indicators CO2 per Capita (kg CO2/cap) 6 934.7 5 549.3 6 653.4 6 507.1 6 756.5 Carbon Intensity (kg CO2/toe) 2 545.8 2 445.2 2 574.9 2 702.5 2 616.5 CO2 GDP Intensity (ton CO2/M€'10) 2 439.3 1 862.0 1 589.9 1 263.2 1 179.0

2016 10.74 3.82 1.97 3.22 0.70 1.03

45.28 19.36 0.32 2.05 15.78 7.73 0.00 1.5 3.6 8.0 % 39.3 3 068 492 1 849 163 33 130 422.6 2 534.0 4 039.5 411.0 37.2 % 9.8 % 84.2 % 96.1 % 99.0 % 96.5 % 18.8 % 30.0 % 19.2 % 7.3 % 45.92 59.70 6 419.5 2 522.5 1 070.5

* Preliminary 2016 CHP data from Eurostat. ** Total emissions without LULUCF, with ind. CO2, including international aviation, excl. international maritime transport.

179


PART 5  Country Profiles

5.3 Czech Republic Mtoe, unless otherwise stated Production Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Wastes, Non-Renewable Net Imports Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Renewables Electricity Gross Inland Consumption Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Electricity Wastes, Non-Renewable Primary Energy Consumption Available for Final Consumption Final Non-Energy Consumption Final Energy Consumption by Fuel/Product Solid Fuels Petroleum and Products Gases Biomass and Renewable Wastes Solar Geothermal Electricity Derived heat Wastes, Non-Renewable by Sector Industry Transport Residential Services Agriculture and Fishing Other

1995 32.69 27.57 10.80 0.30 0.15 0.20 0.20 3.16 1.43 0.03 8.60 -5.78 -2.86 7.91 6.96 6.42 6.42 0.01 0.04 41.94 22.66 8.35 8.08 6.95 6.55 6.55 3.16 1.43 0.04 0.03 39.63 28.09 2.32 26.32

2000 30.81 25.05 9.42 0.39 0.17 0.17 0.17 3.51 1.61 0.09 9.41 -4.72 -3.52 7.51 5.57 7.48 7.48 0.00 -0.86 41.37 21.64 6.28 7.88 5.85 7.50 7.50 3.51 1.62 -0.86 0.09 39.27 27.50 2.09 25.07

2005 33.17 23.57 8.41 0.59 0.31 0.15 0.15 6.41 2.27 0.17 12.64 -3.27 -2.77 9.65 7.65 7.54 7.54 -0.19 -1.09 45.43 20.25 5.61 9.90 7.70 7.70 7.70 6.41 2.09 -1.09 0.17 42.48 29.55 2.95 26.33

2010 32.03 20.83 7.50 0.30 0.18 0.20 0.20 7.25 3.25 0.20 11.59 -2.83 -2.73 8.98 7.81 6.85 6.85 -0.12 -1.29 45.43 18.77 5.03 9.30 8.01 8.07 8.07 7.25 3.13 -1.29 0.20 42.62 29.01 2.81 25.41

2015 28.90 16.91 5.42 0.28 0.13 0.21 0.21 6.95 4.28 0.28 13.58 -0.25 -0.42 8.75 7.24 6.16 6.16 -0.01 -1.08 42.33 16.47 4.92 8.96 7.35 6.48 6.48 6.95 4.28 -1.08 0.28 39.88 27.23 2.45 24.25

2016 27.37 16.12 4.61 0.25 0.12 0.18 0.18 6.24 4.28 0.30 13.68 -0.15 -0.19 8.03 5.32 6.72 6.72 0.03 -0.94 41.81 16.62 4.96 8.27 5.45 7.02 7.02 6.24 4.31 -0.94 0.30 40.04 27.24 1.76 24.88

6.12 5.09 6.17 1.12 0.00

5.13 5.32 6.49 1.20 0.00

3.77 6.82 6.74 1.64 0.00

2.71 6.58 6.53 2.24 0.01

4.13 3.66 0.02

4.25 2.62 0.06

4.75 2.48 0.13

4.66 2.53 0.16

2.39 6.72 5.43 2.71 0.02 0.00 4.70 2.07 0.22

2.42 6.80 5.68 2.77 0.02 0.00 4.82 2.13 0.25

12.51 2.84 6.58 2.42 1.23 0.74

10.13 4.37 6.42 2.97 0.66 0.52

9.68 6.10 6.65 3.11 0.55 0.25

7.92 6.23 7.40 3.24 0.55 0.08

7.45 6.49 6.69 2.94 0.61 0.07

7.42 6.73 6.99 3.05 0.64 0.04

Methodology, Sources and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 5

180


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 Installed Electricity Capacity (GW) 13.80 15.32 17.41 20.07 21.87 21.99 Combustible Fuels 10.64 11.47 11.46 12.04 12.96 13.09 Nuclear 1.76 1.76 3.76 3.90 4.29 4.29 Hydro 1.40 2.10 2.17 2.20 2.26 2.26 Wind 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.21 0.28 0.28 Solar PV 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.73 2.08 2.07 Geothermal Tide, Wave and Ocean Other Sources Gross Electricity Generation, 60.85 73.47 82.58 85.90 83.89 83.31 by Fuel (TWh) Solid Fuels 44.34 52.75 49.52 46.90 41.14 41.97 Petroleum and Products 0.59 0.37 0.33 0.20 0.09 0.09 Gases 1.00 3.91 4.22 4.20 4.96 6.38 Nuclear 12.23 13.59 24.73 28.00 26.84 24.10 Renewables 2.68 2.84 3.78 6.49 10.70 10.59 Wastes, non-RES 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.08 0.08 Cogeneration Heat and Power * CHP Electrical Capacity (GW) 5.20 4.79 4.64 9.0 CHP Electricity Generation (TWh) 13.87 12.24 11.79 8.4 CHP in Total Electricity Generation (%) 16.8 % 14.2 % 14.0 % 10.1 % CHP Heat Production (PJ) 150.67 135.67 106.04 101.6 Transport Fuels (ktoe) Final Consumption 2 601 4 076 5 866 5 784 5 988 6 236 Petroleum Products Motor Gasoline 1 694 1 922 2 125 1 868 1 570 1 617 Gas/Diesel Oil 704 1 886 3 322 3 492 3 981 4 156 Final Consumption Biofuels 16 62 3 231 297 301 Biogasoline 0 0 0 58 63 48 Biodiesel 16 62 3 173 233 253 Main Energy Indicators Energy Intensity (toe/M€'10) 399.4 360.7 327.0 289.9 248.5 239.2 Energy per Capita (kgoe/cap) 4 059.1 4 024.8 4 453.9 4 342.2 4 016.5 3 961.3 Final Electricity per Capita 4 653.2 4 804.5 5 421.3 5 182.8 5 184.7 5 310.9 (KWh/cap) Primary Energy Intensity 377.3 342.4 305.8 272.0 234.1 229.2 (toe/M€'10) Import Dependency (%) 20.5 % 22.8 % 27.8 % 25.5 % 32.1 % 32.7 % of Solid Fuels -25.5 % -21.8 % -16.1 % -15.1 % -1.5 % -0.9 % of Hard Coal -34.2 % -56.1 % -49.4 % -54.3 % -8.6 % -3.8 % of Petroleum Fuels 98.0 % 95.3 % 97.5 % 96.5 % 97.8 % 97.2 % of Crude and NGL 100.2 % 95.2 % 99.3 % 97.6 % 98.4 % 97.7 % of Natural Gas 98.0 % 99.8 % 97.8 % 84.8 % 95.1 % 95.7 % Renewables in Gross Final Energy (%) Overall RES with Aviation Cap 7.1 % 10.5 % 15.0 % 14.9 % RES-H&C – Heating and Cooling 10.9 % 14.0 % 19.6 % 19.9 % RES-E – Electricity Generation 3.7 % 7.5 % 14.1 % 13.6 % RES-T – Transport 0.9 % 5.1 % 6.5 % 6.4 % Gases Emissions (Mio ton CO 2) CO2 Emissions** 134.28 128.64 127.32 119.42 106.47 108.26 GHGs Emissions** 159.43 150.75 149.02 141.50 129.31 131.31 Main Emissions Indicators CO2 per Capita (kg CO2/cap) 12 994.6 12 516.3 12 483.5 11 414.2 10 103.2 10 258.3 Carbon Intensity (kg CO2/toe) 3 201.4 3 109.8 2 802.8 2 628.6 2 515.4 2 589.6 CO2 GDP Intensity (ton CO2/M€'10) 1 278.6 1 121.6 916.5 762.0 625.1 619.6 * Preliminary 2016 CHP data from Eurostat. ** Total emissions without LULUCF, with ind. CO2, including international aviation, excl. international maritime transport.

181


PART 5  Country Profiles

5.4 Denmark Mtoe, unless otherwise stated Production Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Wastes, Non-Renewable Net Imports Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Renewables Electricity Gross Inland Consumption Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Electricity Wastes, Non-Renewable Primary Energy Consumption Available for Final Consumption Final Non-Energy Consumption Final Energy Consumption by Fuel/Product Solid Fuels Petroleum and Products Gases Biomass and Renewable Wastes Solar Geothermal Electricity Derived heat Wastes, Non-Renewable by Sector Industry Transport Residential Services Agriculture and Fishing Other

1995 16.26

2000 28.77

2005 30.78

2010 22.92

2015 15.76

2016 14.97

9.99 9.29 4.73 4.70

19.28 18.09 7.43 7.41

18.46 18.46 9.40 9.38

12.04 12.04 7.36 7.34

7.67 7.67 4.16 4.14

7.03 7.03 4.07 4.05

1.29 0.25 7.27 7.66 7.63 1.17 0.62 -1.50 -1.50 0.01 -0.07 20.20 6.50 6.47 9.03 9.77 3.20 3.17

1.74 2.51 0.33 0.41 -7.37 -10.15 3.78 3.51 3.75 3.48 -8.39 -9.09 -9.86 -10.87 -2.88 -5.01 -2.88 -5.01 0.06 0.33 0.06 0.12 19.74 19.53 3.99 3.71 3.96 3.69 9.10 8.04 8.18 7.70 4.47 4.41 4.45 4.40

3.11 0.41 -3.25 2.64 2.63 -3.59 -4.94 -3.02 -3.02 0.81 -0.10 20.04 3.81 3.79 7.57 7.18 4.44 4.42

3.56 0.37 2.35 1.48 1.47 0.42 -0.36 -1.38 -1.38 1.26 0.51 16.85 1.74 1.73 6.48 7.23 2.87 2.85

3.49 0.38 2.52 1.60 1.60 0.21 -0.04 -1.29 -1.29 1.50 0.44 17.42 1.90 1.89 6.75 7.01 2.90 2.88

1.30 -0.07 0.25 19.88 15.03 0.32 14.82

1.80 0.06 0.33 19.44 15.02 0.30 14.72

2.84 0.12 0.41 19.24 15.44 0.29 15.50

3.92 -0.10 0.41 19.78 15.67 0.26 15.52

4.82 0.51 0.43 16.60 14.26 0.25 14.01

5.01 0.44 0.44 17.17 14.72 0.25 14.45

0.38 7.26 1.69 0.58 0.01

0.29 7.06 1.67 0.63 0.01

0.25 7.30 1.71 0.91 0.01

2.66 2.24 0.01

2.79 2.25 0.02

2.88 2.42 0.03

0.14 6.75 1.75 1.26 0.01 0.00 2.76 2.84 0.02

0.12 5.84 1.45 1.45 0.01 0.00 2.66 2.46 0.02

0.11 6.01 1.50 1.55 0.01 0.00 2.68 2.57 0.02

3.00 4.54 4.48 1.84 0.94 0.02

2.92 4.82 4.16 1.84 0.96 0.01

2.85 5.32 4.45 2.00 0.86 0.01

2.41 5.18 4.91 2.13 0.88 0.01

2.09 4.95 4.30 1.90 0.76 0.01

2.14 5.11 4.46 1.98 0.75 0.01

Methodology, Sources and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 5

182


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1995 2000 2005 2010 Installed Electricity Capacity (GW) 10.82 12.32 13.04 13.44 Combustible Fuels 10.21 9.92 9.89 9.62 Nuclear Hydro 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 Wind 0.60 2.39 3.13 3.80 Solar PV 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 Geothermal Tide, Wave and Ocean Other Sources Gross Electricity Generation, 36.76 36.05 36.25 38.86 by Fuel (TWh) Solid Fuels 27.36 16.67 15.46 17.01 Petroleum and Products 3.63 4.44 1.38 0.77 Gases 3.64 8.77 8.78 7.91 Nuclear Renewables 1.85 5.57 9.81 12.43 Wastes, non-RES 0.27 0.56 0.82 0.75 Cogeneration Heat and Power * CHP Electrical Capacity (GW) 5.69 5.81 CHP Electricity Generation (TWh) 18.89 19.10 CHP in Total Electricity Generation (%) 52.1 % 49.2 % CHP Heat Production (PJ) 118.98 124.74 Transport Fuels (ktoe) Final Consumption 4 522 4 786 5 292 5 118 Petroleum Products Motor Gasoline 1 944 2 019 1 922 1 574 Gas/Diesel Oil 1 814 1 863 2 372 2 649 Final Consumption Biofuels 27 Biogasoline 27 Biodiesel 0 Main Energy Indicators Energy Intensity (toe/M€'10) 104.1 87.6 81.2 82.4 Energy per Capita (kgoe/cap) 3 873.5 3 702.8 3 609.0 3 621.5 Final Electricity per Capita 5 921.5 6 089.5 6 183.6 5 792.1 (KWh/cap) Primary Energy Intensity 102.4 86.3 80.0 81.3 (toe/M€'10) Import Dependency (%) 33.4 % -35.0 % -50.0 % -15.7 % of Solid Fuels 117.9 % 94.9 % 94.4 % 69.4 % of Hard Coal 118.0 % 94.7 % 94.3 % 69.3 % of Petroleum Fuels 11.0 % -80.8 % -103.3 % -43.4 % of Crude and NGL 6.3 % -120.5 % -141.3 % -68.8 % of Natural Gas -47.2 % -64.8 % -113.9 % -68.3 % Renewables in Gross Final Energy (%) Overall RES with Aviation Cap 16.0 % 22.1 % RES-H&C – Heating and Cooling 22.8 % 31.0 % RES-E – Electricity Generation 24.6 % 32.7 % RES-T – Transport 0.4 % 1.1 % Gases Emissions (Mio ton CO 2) CO2 Emissions** 64.53 57.42 54.69 52.15 GHGs Emissions** 80.19 73.12 68.88 65.77 Main Emissions Indicators CO2 per Capita (kg CO2/cap) 12 371.9 10 772.3 10 107.0 9 422.7 Carbon Intensity (kg CO2/toe) 2 962.7 2 731.8 2 695.0 2 515.6 CO2 GDP Intensity (ton CO2/M€'10) 332.4 254.9 227.3 214.5

2015 14.00 8.14

2016 14.34 8.23

0.01 5.08 0.78 0.00

0.01 5.25 0.85 0.00

28.95

30.52

7.11 0.31 1.81

8.87 0.32 2.17

18.97 0.75

18.46 0.71

6.13 5.9 11.57 12.0 40.0 % 39.4 % 93.31 94.9 4 685

4 835

1 317 2 436 232 0 232

1 306 2 532 236 0 236

65.5 66.4 2 977.7 3 052.6 5 456.1 5 458.7 64.5

65.4

13.4 % 85.0 % 85.0 % 5.8 % -4.9 % -48.2 %

13.9 % 84.6 % 84.6 % 2.8 % -0.6 % -44.6 %

31.0 % 32.2 % 40.1 % 41.7 % 51.3 % 53.7 % 6.7 % 6.8 % 38.24 51.15

40.23 53.33

6 757.1 7 048.5 2 170.6 2 223.8 148.6 153.3

* Preliminary 2016 CHP data from Eurostat. ** Total emissions without LULUCF, with ind. CO2, including international aviation, excl. international maritime transport.

183


PART 5  Country Profiles

5.5 Germany Mtoe, unless otherwise stated 1995 Production 145.26 Solid Fuels 78.94 of which Hard Coal 38.10 Petroleum and Products 4.30 of which Crude and NGL 2.97 Gases 15.10 of which Natural Gas 15.10 Nuclear 39.51 Renewables 5.98 Wastes, Non-Renewable 1.44 Net Imports 195.18 Solid Fuels 10.27 of which Hard Coal 8.17 Petroleum and Products 131.60 of which Crude and NGL 101.60 Gases 52.90 of which Natural Gas 52.90 Renewables 0.00 Electricity 0.42 Gross Inland Consumption 341.64 Solid Fuels 91.64 of which Hard Coal 47.71 Petroleum and Products 135.37 of which Crude and NGL 104.82 Gases 67.30 of which Natural Gas 67.30 Nuclear 39.51 Renewables 5.98 Electricity 0.42 Wastes, Non-Renewable 1.44 Primary Energy Consumption 318.02 Available for Final Consumption 244.01 Final Non-Energy Consumption 23.62 Final Energy Consumption 221.62 by Fuel/Product Solid Fuels 13.89 Petroleum and Products 105.63 Gases 51.83 Biomass and Renewable Wastes 2.69 Solar 0.04 Geothermal 0.00 Electricity 38.80 Derived heat 8.75 Wastes, Non-Renewable 0.00 by Sector Industry 60.14 Transport 63.66 Residential 66.25 Services 25.89 Agriculture and Fishing 1.99 Other 3.69

2000 135.60 60.63 24.16 4.73 3.20 15.82 15.80 43.75 8.98 1.68 204.71 21.66 17.19 125.92 101.44 56.87 56.87 0.00 0.26 342.33 84.80 43.80 130.98 108.09 71.88 71.85 43.75 8.98 0.26 1.68 317.27 247.33 25.06 220.01

2005 138.78 56.48 18.03 7.20 3.46 14.33 14.33 42.06 16.85 1.85 208.41 25.97 23.76 120.54 111.34 61.94 61.94 0.36 -0.39 341.93 81.95 41.30 121.48 114.47 77.78 77.78 42.06 17.21 -0.39 1.85 317.26 247.18 24.66 218.46

2010 132.44 45.91 9.25 7.54 2.47 11.11 11.11 36.26 27.71 3.91 202.15 31.65 29.15 110.29 92.07 61.65 61.65 -0.14 -1.29 332.49 78.82 39.57 111.32 94.64 75.91 75.91 36.26 27.57 -1.29 3.91 309.90 242.62 22.58 219.65

2015 123.68 43.00 4.60 7.53 2.38 6.34 6.34 23.68 38.89 4.25 195.93 36.17 35.22 105.77 89.68 58.68 58.68 -0.53 -4.15 313.97 79.52 40.19 107.17 92.34 65.15 65.15 23.68 38.35 -4.15 4.25 292.71 232.90 21.27 212.12

2016 119.55 39.73 2.84 7.45 2.34 6.55 6.55 21.83 39.48 4.51 203.21 38.30 37.71 107.54 90.60 62.29 62.29 -0.57 -4.34 317.27 77.23 39.83 108.80 93.70 70.33 70.33 21.83 38.92 -4.34 4.51 295.84 235.96 21.43 216.45

10.96 99.74 56.08 4.72 0.11 0.00 41.57 6.83 0.00

8.24 90.31 55.14 8.54 0.26 0.04 44.91 10.75 0.28

9.38 83.17 56.43 12.14 0.48 0.05 45.78 11.27 0.95

10.40 81.12 51.76 13.22 0.67 0.07 44.26 9.59 1.03

10.16 82.23 54.39 13.52 0.67 0.08 44.49 9.78 1.13

57.57 66.77 65.24 25.79 0.29 4.35

59.09 62.32 63.50 33.19 0.02 0.34

60.56 61.10 62.45 35.36 0.00 0.18

60.95 63.17 53.17 34.72 0.00 0.12

61.12 65.17 56.05 34.00 0.00 0.11

Methodology, Sources and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 5

184


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 Installed Electricity Capacity (GW) 116.23 118.88 128.49 162.87 203.42 208.50 Combustible Fuels 83.36 80.79 76.38 85.82 96.97 95.72 Nuclear 22.83 22.40 20.38 20.47 10.80 10.80 Hydro 8.88 9.49 10.86 11.22 11.40 11.30 Wind 1.14 6.10 18.25 26.90 44.58 49.59 Solar PV 0.02 0.11 2.06 18.01 39.24 40.71 Geothermal 0.01 0.03 0.03 Tide, Wave and Ocean Other Sources 0.00 0.00 0.57 0.45 0.40 0.35 Gross Electricity Generation, 537.28 576.54 622.58 632.98 646.89 649.12 by Fuel (TWh) Solid Fuels 289.14 296.69 288.14 262.90 272.20 261.75 Petroleum and Products 8.98 4.79 12.00 8.74 6.21 5.85 Gases 50.40 59.97 83.61 100.91 74.53 93.75 Nuclear 153.09 169.61 163.06 140.56 91.79 84.63 Renewables 30.40 39.71 69.28 111.21 193.29 193.93 Wastes, non-RES 5.26 5.79 3.25 6.35 7.06 7.33 Cogeneration Heat and Power * CHP Electrical Capacity (GW) 20.8 37.1 37.2 CHP Electricity Generation (TWh) 77.9 83.2 78.8 87.9 CHP in Total Electricity Generation (%) 12.5 % 13.2 % 12.2 % 13.5 % CHP Heat Production (PJ) 652.5 675.8 669.9 698.0 Transport Fuels (ktoe) Final Consumption 62 229 65 139 58 489 56 660 59 205 61 146 Petroleum Products Motor Gasoline 32 059 30 651 23 722 18 859 16 926 16 938 Gas/Diesel Oil 24 099 27 047 26 364 28 449 32 944 34 278 Final Consumption Biofuels 36 236 1 859 2 884 2 537 2 540 Biogasoline 153 749 744 745 Biodiesel 31 222 1 552 2 104 1 792 1 792 Main Energy Indicators Energy Intensity (toe/M€'10) 159.3 145.1 140.9 128.9 112.1 111.1 Energy per Capita (kgoe/cap) 4 189.9 4 166.5 4 144.5 4 064.5 3 866.8 3 860.9 Final Electricity per Capita 5 533.7 5 884.0 6 330.4 6 508.7 6 339.2 6 296.0 (KWh/cap) Primary Energy Intensity 148.3 134.5 130.7 120.1 104.5 103.6 (toe/M€'10) Import Dependency (%) 56.8 % 59.4 % 60.5 % 60.3 % 61.9 % 63.5 % of Solid Fuels 11.2 % 25.5 % 31.7 % 40.1 % 45.5 % 49.6 % of Hard Coal 17.1 % 39.2 % 57.5 % 73.7 % 87.6 % 94.7 % of Petroleum Fuels 95.8 % 94.6 % 97.3 % 96.7 % 96.5 % 96.4 % of Crude and NGL 96.9 % 93.8 % 97.3 % 97.3 % 97.1 % 96.7 % of Natural Gas 78.6 % 79.1 % 79.6 % 81.2 % 90.1 % 88.6 % Renewables in Gross Final Energy (%) Overall RES with Aviation Cap 6.7 % 10.5 % 14.6 % 14.8 % RES-H&C – Heating and Cooling 6.8 % 9.8 % 12.9 % 13.0 % RES-E – Electricity Generation 10.5 % 18.2 % 30.8 % 32.2 % RES-T – Transport 4.0 % 6.4 % 6.6 % 6.9 % Gases Emissions (Mio ton CO 2) CO2 Emissions** 954.84 920.06 889.94 857.68 821.29 827.92 GHGs Emissions** 1 138.26 1 064.25 1 016.02 967.00 931.19 935.82 Main Emissions Indicators CO2 per Capita (kg CO2/cap) 11 710.3 11 197.9 10 787.0 10 484.8 10 114.7 10 075.0 Carbon Intensity (kg CO2/toe) 2 778.1 2 670.6 2 584.1 2 558.4 2 596.0 2 586.7 CO2 GDP Intensity (ton CO2/M€'10) 445.1 390.1 366.8 332.4 293.2 290.0 * Preliminary 2016 CHP data from Eurostat. ** Total emissions without LULUCF, with ind. CO2, including international aviation, excl. international maritime transport.

185


PART 5  Country Profiles

5.6 Estonia Mtoe, unless otherwise stated Production Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Wastes, Non-Renewable Net Imports Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Renewables Electricity Gross Inland Consumption Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Electricity Wastes, Non-Renewable Primary Energy Consumption Available for Final Consumption Final Non-Energy Consumption Final Energy Consumption by Fuel/Product Solid Fuels Petroleum and Products Gases Biomass and Renewable Wastes Solar Geothermal Electricity Derived heat Wastes, Non-Renewable by Sector Industry Transport Residential Services Agriculture and Fishing Other

1995 3.86 3.03

2000 3.55 2.67

2005 4.39 3.18

2010 5.60 3.94

2015 6.55 4.25

2016 5.50 3.15

0.48

0.37

0.52

0.67

0.95

0.82

0.35

0.51

0.69

0.99

1.81 0.30 0.05 1.01

1.63 0.27 0.06 0.79

1.50 0.02 0.04 0.92

0.87 -0.02 0.05 0.76

1.29 0.07 0.48 -0.01 0.01 0.55

1.46 0.07 0.44 0.00 0.02 0.68

0.58 0.58 -0.01 -0.07 5.49 3.46 0.05 1.17

0.66 0.66 -0.01 -0.08 4.97 2.97 0.06 0.91

0.80 0.80 -0.11 -0.14 5.62 3.19 0.04 1.18

0.56 0.56 -0.15 -0.28 6.15 3.92 0.04 1.10

0.39 0.39 -0.37 -0.08 6.30 3.89 0.02 1.12

0.43 0.43 -0.50 -0.18 6.22 3.80 0.02 1.13

0.58 0.58

0.66 0.66

0.80 0.80

0.56 0.56

0.39 0.39

0.43 0.43

0.34 -0.07 0.00 5.31 3.04 0.18 2.56

0.51 -0.08 0.00 4.79 2.69 0.18 2.43

0.59 -0.14 0.00 5.39 3.00 0.23 2.88

0.85 -0.28 0.00 6.06 3.02 0.09 2.91

0.91 -0.08 0.07 6.20 3.25 0.10 2.77

0.97 -0.18 0.07 6.13 3.00 0.09 2.82

0.19 0.85 0.25 0.28 0.00 0.00 0.39 0.59 0.00

0.12 0.77 0.18 0.43 0.00 0.00 0.43 0.51 0.00

0.12 0.98 0.26 0.45 0.00 0.00 0.52 0.55 0.00

0.08 0.94 0.21 0.55 0.00 0.00 0.59 0.53 0.00

0.04 0.99 0.22 0.48 0.00 0.00 0.59 0.43 0.01

0.03 1.01 0.25 0.41 0.00 0.00 0.63 0.47 0.01

0.84 0.50 0.96 0.17 0.08 0.00

0.57 0.59 0.93 0.29 0.06 0.00

0.72 0.77 0.89 0.39 0.11 0.00

0.58 0.79 1.03 0.42 0.10 0.00

0.52 0.79 0.86 0.47 0.13 0.00

0.45 0.81 0.93 0.49 0.13 0.00

Methodology, Sources and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 5

186


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 Installed Electricity Capacity (GW) 0.00 2.80 2.56 2.75 2.86 2.57 Combustible Fuels 0.00 2.80 2.52 2.64 2.55 2.25 Nuclear Hydro 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 Wind 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.11 0.30 0.31 Solar PV Geothermal Tide, Wave and Ocean Other Sources Gross Electricity Generation, 8.69 8.51 10.21 12.96 10.42 12.18 by Fuel (TWh) Solid Fuels 8.29 7.68 9.30 11.17 8.04 9.67 Petroleum and Products 0.10 0.06 0.03 0.04 0.13 0.26 Gases 0.30 0.76 0.76 0.71 0.62 0.61 Nuclear Renewables 0.01 0.02 0.11 1.04 1.50 1.51 Wastes, non-RES 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.13 0.13 Cogeneration Heat and Power * CHP Electrical Capacity (GW) 0.38 0.45 0.43 CHP Electricity Generation (TWh) 1.04 1.34 1.24 CHP in Total Electricity Generation (%) 10.2 % 10.3 % 11.9 % CHP Heat Production (PJ) 11.46 12.32 12.47 Transport Fuels (ktoe) Final Consumption 487 578 765 778 775 801 Petroleum Products Motor Gasoline 264 299 309 289 241 254 Gas/Diesel Oil 204 257 408 451 509 519 Final Consumption Biofuels 3 3 Biogasoline 3 3 Biodiesel Main Energy Indicators Energy Intensity (toe/M€'10) 692.0 466.4 373.9 417.9 357.5 345.9 Energy per Capita (kgoe/cap) 3 791.2 3 549.0 4 132.2 4 612.6 4 789.1 4 725.9 Final Electricity per Capita 3 146.2 3 578.9 4 444.9 5 181.2 5 211.2 5 546.6 (KWh/cap) Primary Energy Intensity 669.7 449.5 358.6 411.8 352.0 341.0 (toe/M€'10) Import Dependency (%) 32.5 % 32.2 % 26.1 % 13.6 % 7.3 % 6.8 % of Solid Fuels 8.5 % 9.1 % 0.8 % -0.6 % -0.3 % 0.0 % of Hard Coal 101.9 % 116.4 % 97.2 % 117.9 % 26.3 % 83.3 % of Petroleum Fuels 80.2 % 77.4 % 70.8 % 57.5 % 39.3 % 48.7 % of Crude and NGL of Natural Gas 100.0 % 100.0 % 100.0 % 100.0 % 100.0 % 100.0 % Renewables in Gross Final Energy (%) Overall RES with Aviation Cap 17.5 % 24.6 % 28.6 % 28.8 % RES-H&C – Heating and Cooling 32.2 % 43.3 % 49.6 % 51.2 % RES-E – Electricity Generation 1.1 % 10.4 % 15.1 % 15.5 % RES-T – Transport 0.2 % 0.4 % 0.4 % 0.4 % Gases Emissions (Mio ton CO 2) CO2 Emissions** 18.25 15.43 17.28 19.13 15.96 17.56 GHGs Emissions** 20.26 17.37 19.29 21.24 18.12 19.69 Main Emissions Indicators CO2 per Capita (kg CO2/cap) 12 606.0 11 008.6 12 717.3 14 345.2 12 141.7 13 342.7 Carbon Intensity (kg CO2/toe) 3 272.0 3 037.8 3 013.2 3 004.0 2 424.0 2 705.0 CO2 GDP Intensity (ton CO2/M€'10) 2 301.0 1 446.8 1 150.7 1 299.6 906.4 976.7 * Preliminary 2016 CHP data from Eurostat. ** Total emissions without LULUCF, with ind. CO2, including international aviation, excl. international maritime transport.

187


PART 5  Country Profiles

5.7 Ireland Mtoe, unless otherwise stated 1995 Production 4.10 Solid Fuels 1.70 of which Hard Coal 0.00 Petroleum and Products 0.00 of which Crude and NGL Gases 2.25 of which Natural Gas 2.25 Nuclear Renewables 0.16 Wastes, Non-Renewable 0.00 Net Imports 7.77 Solid Fuels 1.88 of which Hard Coal 1.87 Petroleum and Products 5.80 of which Crude and NGL 2.27 Gases 0.09 of which Natural Gas 0.09 Renewables 0.00 Electricity 0.00 Gross Inland Consumption 11.07 Solid Fuels 2.90 of which Hard Coal 1.76 Petroleum and Products 5.68 of which Crude and NGL 2.27 Gases 2.33 of which Natural Gas 2.33 Nuclear Renewables 0.16 Electricity 0.00 Wastes, Non-Renewable 0.00 Primary Energy Consumption 10.49 Available for Final Consumption 8.30 Final Non-Energy Consumption 0.57 Final Energy Consumption 7.99 by Fuel/Product Solid Fuels 0.94 Petroleum and Products 4.89 Gases 0.80 Biomass and Renewable Wastes 0.09 Solar 0.00 Geothermal Electricity 1.28 Derived heat Wastes, Non-Renewable 0.00 by Sector Industry 1.95 Transport 2.39 Residential 2.22 Services 1.09 Agriculture and Fishing 0.34 Other 0.00

2000 2.16 0.97

2005 1.64 0.82

2010 1.89 1.00

2015 2.02 0.77

2016 4.31 0.68

0.00

0.00

0.04

0.09

0.11

0.96 0.96

0.46 0.46

0.22 0.22

0.11 0.11

2.48 2.48

0.24 0.00 12.37 1.68 1.67 8.20 2.98 2.48 2.48 0.00 0.01 14.43 2.60 1.80 8.14 3.32 3.44 3.44

0.37 0.00 13.77 1.89 1.87 8.69 3.16 3.01 3.01 0.00 0.18 15.24 2.64 1.86 8.59 3.20 3.47 3.47

0.62 0.01 13.21 0.95 0.95 7.70 2.98 4.48 4.48 0.04 0.04 15.18 1.94 1.19 7.84 2.94 4.69 4.69

0.99 0.07 12.71 1.46 1.46 7.48 3.69 3.62 3.62 0.09 0.06 14.19 2.20 1.42 7.04 3.41 3.75 3.75

0.97 0.07 10.36 1.14 1.14 7.44 3.21 1.70 1.70 0.14 -0.06 14.85 2.09 1.34 7.41 3.20 4.24 4.24

0.24 0.01 0.00 13.75 11.05 0.68 10.80

0.37 0.18 0.00 14.73 12.02 0.52 12.64

0.66 0.04 0.01 14.84 12.23 0.34 12.02

1.08 0.06 0.07 13.98 11.65 0.22 11.22

1.11 -0.06 0.07 14.58 12.10 0.27 11.61

0.67 7.07 1.20 0.12 0.00

0.75 8.25 1.36 0.18 0.00

0.60 7.33 1.59 0.29 0.01

0.51 6.46 1.72 0.32 0.01

0.48 6.75 1.77 0.36 0.01

1.75

2.09

2.19

2.16

2.20

0.00

0.00

0.01

0.04

0.04

2.50 4.11 2.51 1.33 0.35 0.00

2.58 5.13 2.95 1.60 0.38 0.00

2.15 4.78 3.30 1.50 0.30 0.00

2.39 4.62 2.71 1.26 0.24 0.00

2.45 4.95 2.67 1.32 0.23 0.00

Methodology, Sources and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 5

188


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 Installed Electricity Capacity (GW) 4.06 4.71 6.18 8.02 9.56 9.95 Combustible Fuels 3.54 4.06 5.13 6.41 6.59 6.58 Nuclear Hydro 0.52 0.53 0.53 0.24 0.53 0.53 Wind 0.01 0.12 0.52 1.37 2.44 2.83 Solar PV 0.00 0.00 0.01 Geothermal Tide, Wave and Ocean Other Sources Gross Electricity Generation, 17.86 23.98 25.97 28.35 28.39 30.42 by Fuel (TWh) Solid Fuels 9.04 8.59 8.84 5.73 7.39 7.02 Petroleum and Products 2.68 4.64 3.34 0.60 0.41 0.29 Gases 5.16 9.26 11.57 18.11 12.37 15.23 Nuclear 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Renewables 0.98 1.49 2.22 3.91 8.15 7.81 Wastes, non-RES 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.07 0.07 Cogeneration Heat and Power * CHP Electrical Capacity (GW) 0.11 0.29 0.31 0.3 CHP Electricity Generation (TWh) 0.60 1.92 2.13 2.2 CHP in Total Electricity Generation (%) 2.3 % 6.7 % 7.5 % 7.1 % CHP Heat Production (PJ) 4.40 11.96 12.63 11.2 Transport Fuels (ktoe) Final Consumption 2 386 4 105 5 123 4 679 4 532 4 826 Petroleum Products Motor Gasoline 1 104 1 590 1 823 1 527 1 020 1 003 Gas/Diesel Oil 851 1 856 2 417 2 365 2 665 2 951 Final Consumption Biofuels 1 93 88 118 Biogasoline 30 24 32 Biodiesel 1 63 64 86 Main Energy Indicators Energy Intensity (toe/M€'10) 140.2 116.9 94.2 90.6 59.5 59.2 Energy per Capita (kgoe/cap) 3 075.9 3 818.6 3 707.3 3 336.7 3 034.2 3 141.2 Final Electricity per Capita 4 127.7 5 370.9 5 922.7 5 587.5 5 360.0 5 411.0 (KWh/cap) Primary Energy Intensity 133.0 111.4 91.0 88.5 58.6 58.1 (toe/M€'10) Import Dependency (%) 69.5 % 84.9 % 89.7 % 86.6 % 88.6 % 69.1 % of Solid Fuels 64.9 % 64.6 % 71.4 % 48.8 % 66.5 % 54.7 % of Hard Coal 105.9 % 93.2 % 100.8 % 79.3 % 102.7 % 84.9 % of Petroleum Fuels 100.1 % 98.9 % 100.0 % 97.2 % 103.9 % 98.4 % of Crude and NGL 100.2 % 89.8 % 98.8 % 101.6 % 108.2 % 100.1 % of Natural Gas 3.6 % 72.1 % 86.7 % 95.5 % 96.5 % 40.1 % Renewables in Gross Final Energy (%) Overall RES with Aviation Cap 2.9 % 5.7 % 9.2 % 9.5 % RES-H&C – Heating and Cooling 3.5 % 4.5 % 6.6 % 6.8 % RES-E – Electricity Generation 7.2 % 14.6 % 25.2 % 27.2 % RES-T – Transport 0.1 % 2.5 % 5.7 % 5.0 % Gases Emissions (Mio ton CO 2) CO2 Emissions** 36.95 47.00 50.61 43.99 40.97 42.52 GHGs Emissions** 60.35 70.38 72.07 63.57 61.97 64.16 Main Emissions Indicators CO2 per Capita (kg CO2/cap) 10 269.4 12 443.0 12 308.0 9 670.4 8 757.8 8 995.8 Carbon Intensity (kg CO2/toe) 3 303.7 3 224.3 3 297.1 2 882.1 2 854.4 2 834.8 CO2 GDP Intensity (ton CO2/M€'10) 468.2 381.0 312.7 262.5 171.6 169.4 * Preliminary 2016 CHP data from Eurostat. ** Total emissions without LULUCF, with ind. CO2, including international aviation, excl. international maritime transport.

189


PART 5  Country Profiles

5.8 Greece Mtoe, unless otherwise stated Production Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Wastes, Non-Renewable Net Imports Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Renewables Electricity Gross Inland Consumption Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Electricity Wastes, Non-Renewable Primary Energy Consumption Available for Final Consumption Final Non-Energy Consumption Final Energy Consumption by Fuel/Product Solid Fuels Petroleum and Products Gases Biomass and Renewable Wastes Solar Geothermal Electricity Derived heat Wastes, Non-Renewable by Sector Industry Transport Residential Services Agriculture and Fishing Other

1995 9.36 7.51

2000 10.01 8.22

2005 10.33 8.54

2010 9.46 7.32

2015 8.51 5.68

2016 6.78 3.97

0.46 0.46 0.06 0.04

0.28 0.28 0.04 0.04

0.10 0.10 0.02 0.02

0.13 0.12 0.01 0.01

0.10 0.06 0.01 0.01

0.24 0.18 0.01 0.01

1.29 0.04 18.29 0.92 0.92 17.30 14.86 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.07 23.87 8.39 0.96 14.02 15.05 0.06 0.04

1.40 0.06 22.15 0.77 0.77 19.70 19.60 1.69 1.69 0.00 0.00 28.29 9.04 0.73 16.09 19.70 1.71 1.71

1.64 0.03 23.50 0.36 0.39 20.48 17.99 2.33 2.33 0.00 0.33 31.41 8.94 0.34 18.12 18.90 2.35 2.35

1.97 0.03 21.72 0.40 0.40 17.44 19.54 3.23 3.23 0.16 0.49 28.72 7.86 0.40 14.97 19.64 3.24 3.24

2.64 0.09 18.81 0.16 0.16 15.02 22.26 2.67 2.67 0.13 0.83 24.45 5.61 0.17 12.48 21.94 2.68 2.68

2.50 0.06 19.05 0.19 0.19 14.50 23.67 3.46 3.46 0.14 0.76 24.14 4.37 0.20 12.83 23.55 3.49 3.49

1.29 0.07 0.04 23.37 16.40 0.49 15.81

1.40 0.00 0.06 27.57 19.08 0.72 18.68

1.64 0.33 0.03 30.65 21.39 0.76 20.96

2.13 0.49 0.03 27.61 19.66 1.11 19.00

2.78 0.83 0.09 23.75 17.15 0.70 16.50

2.64 0.76 0.06 23.55 17.55 0.59 16.70

1.04 10.84 0.01 0.90 0.08 0.00 2.93 0.00

0.89 12.74 0.26 0.95 0.10 0.00 3.71 0.03

0.46 14.41 0.59 0.96 0.10 0.01 4.38 0.05

0.30 12.11 0.78 0.99 0.18 0.02 4.57 0.05

0.22 9.39 0.97 1.23 0.20 0.01 4.37 0.05

0.20 9.50 1.05 1.08 0.20 0.01 4.60 0.05

4.01 6.52 3.33 0.94 1.01 0.00

4.45 7.30 4.50 1.31 1.12 0.00

4.16 8.19 5.51 1.95 1.15 0.00

3.47 8.16 4.62 1.95 0.80 0.00

3.13 6.58 4.40 1.87 0.27 0.25

3.07 6.79 4.29 2.04 0.28 0.24

Methodology, Sources and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 5

190


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 Installed Electricity Capacity (GW) 8.94 10.90 13.31 15.31 18.94 19.17 Combustible Fuels 6.39 7.61 9.71 10.60 10.86 10.80 Nuclear 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Hydro 2.52 3.07 3.11 3.22 3.39 3.39 Wind 0.03 0.23 0.49 1.30 2.09 2.37 Solar PV 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.20 2.60 2.60 Geothermal 0.00 Tide, Wave and Ocean Other Sources Gross Electricity Generation, 41.55 53.84 60.02 57.39 51.87 51.41 by Fuel (TWh) Solid Fuels 28.70 34.31 35.54 30.80 22.11 17.05 Petroleum and Products 8.86 8.89 9.21 6.09 5.66 5.57 Gases 0.08 5.92 8.17 9.83 9.09 13.67 Nuclear Renewables 3.82 4.56 7.00 10.55 14.90 14.92 Wastes, non-RES 0.10 0.16 0.10 0.13 0.11 0.21 Cogeneration Heat and Power * CHP Electrical Capacity (GW) 0.24 0.59 0.63 0.5 CHP Electricity Generation (TWh) 1.02 2.48 2.03 2.6 CHP in Total Electricity Generation (%) 1.7 % 4.3 % 3.9 % 5.0 % CHP Heat Production (PJ) 9.70 12.71 10.85 18.9 Transport Fuels (ktoe) Final Consumption 6 504 7 278 8 157 8 004 6 387 6 592 Petroleum Products Motor Gasoline 2 921 3 464 4 170 3 867 2 574 2 537 Gas/Diesel Oil 2 037 2 247 2 483 2 730 2 254 2 419 Final Consumption Biofuels 124 142 149 Biogasoline Biodiesel 124 142 149 Main Energy Indicators Energy Intensity (toe/M€'10) 150.3 149.0 136.7 127.1 132.1 130.8 Energy per Capita (kgoe/cap) 2 265.2 2 625.6 2 863.3 2 582.7 2 251.7 2 238.7 Final Electricity per Capita 3 235.3 4 004.5 4 640.3 4 777.3 4 677.4 4 957.7 (KWh/cap) Primary Energy Intensity 147.2 145.2 133.4 122.2 128.3 127.6 (toe/M€'10) Import Dependency (%) 66.7 % 69.5 % 68.6 % 69.1 % 71.7 % 73.7 % of Solid Fuels 11.0 % 8.5 % 4.1 % 5.1 % 2.8 % 4.3 % of Hard Coal 95.2 % 105.9 % 112.5 % 100.3 % 91.4 % 93.6 % of Petroleum Fuels 98.4 % 100.2 % 97.7 % 98.7 % 105.4 % 99.6 % of Crude and NGL 98.8 % 99.5 % 95.2 % 99.5 % 101.5 % 100.5 % of Natural Gas 0.0 % 99.1 % 99.1 % 99.9 % 99.9 % 99.2 % Renewables in Gross Final Energy (%) Overall RES with Aviation Cap 7.0 % 9.8 % 15.4 % 15.2 % RES-H&C – Heating and Cooling 12.8 % 17.9 % 25.6 % 24.5 % RES-E – Electricity Generation 8.2 % 12.3 % 22.1 % 23.8 % RES-T – Transport 0.1 % 1.9 % 1.4 % 1.4 % Gases Emissions (Mio ton CO 2) CO2 Emissions** 89.58 105.51 116.53 99.93 77.83 74.45 GHGs Emissions** 111.81 128.89 138.90 120.97 98.20 94.71 Main Emissions Indicators CO2 per Capita (kg CO2/cap) 8 502.6 9 791.4 10 622.3 8 986.8 7 168.1 6 904.1 Carbon Intensity (kg CO2/toe) 3 267.4 3 310.9 3 401.7 3 179.6 2 967.0 2 878.9 CO2 GDP Intensity (ton CO2/M€'10) 564.2 555.6 507.1 442.1 420.6 403.3 * Preliminary 2016 CHP data from Eurostat. ** Total emissions without LULUCF, with ind. CO2, including international aviation, excl. international maritime transport.

191


PART 5  Country Profiles

5.9 Spain Mtoe, unless otherwise stated 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 Production 31.43 31.49 30.09 34.53 33.60 34.15 Solid Fuels 10.15 7.97 6.27 3.30 1.25 0.74 of which Hard Coal 8.28 6.46 5.09 3.30 1.25 0.74 Petroleum and Products 0.80 0.24 0.21 0.36 0.40 0.32 of which Crude and NGL 0.80 0.23 0.17 0.12 0.23 0.14 Gases 0.45 0.23 0.19 0.08 0.05 0.05 of which Natural Gas 0.38 0.15 0.14 0.05 0.05 0.05 Nuclear 14.31 16.05 14.84 15.99 14.78 15.13 Renewables 5.51 6.82 8.40 14.64 16.87 17.69 Wastes, Non-Renewable 0.21 0.19 0.19 0.17 0.25 0.24 Net Imports 75.42 99.34 123.83 106.34 94.43 93.23 Solid Fuels 8.61 12.84 14.42 6.98 10.36 7.75 of which Hard Coal 8.09 13.25 14.74 7.09 10.23 7.72 Petroleum and Products 58.91 70.65 79.28 68.70 60.70 60.49 of which Crude and NGL 55.34 57.70 59.94 52.69 64.97 64.21 Gases 7.52 15.47 30.25 30.95 23.78 24.73 of which Natural Gas 7.52 15.47 30.25 30.95 23.78 24.73 Renewables 0.42 -0.40 -0.40 Electricity 0.39 0.38 -0.12 -0.72 -0.01 0.66 Gross Inland Consumption 102.08 123.64 144.22 130.25 121.42 122.18 Solid Fuels 18.99 20.94 20.57 8.16 13.24 10.19 of which Hard Coal 16.68 19.83 19.82 8.30 13.08 10.23 Petroleum and Products 54.89 63.97 70.46 60.44 52.00 53.49 of which Crude and NGL 55.82 57.33 59.91 53.04 65.27 65.03 Gases 7.79 15.31 29.89 31.16 24.54 25.04 of which Natural Gas 7.72 15.22 29.84 31.13 24.54 25.04 Nuclear 14.31 16.05 14.84 15.99 14.78 15.13 Renewables 5.51 6.82 8.40 15.05 16.62 17.43 Electricity 0.39 0.38 -0.12 -0.72 -0.01 0.66 Wastes, Non-Renewable 0.21 0.19 0.19 0.17 0.25 0.24 Primary Energy Consumption 94.20 114.25 135.87 123.22 117.11 117.24 Available for Final Consumption 72.46 88.79 105.95 95.95 83.11 85.75 Final Non-Energy Consumption 7.87 9.40 8.35 7.03 4.31 4.94 Final Energy Consumption 64.03 79.90 97.77 89.08 80.38 82.50 by Fuel/Product Solid Fuels 2.24 1.77 1.71 1.26 1.31 1.41 Petroleum and Products 39.51 46.31 53.46 46.79 40.47 41.92 Gases 6.84 12.14 17.98 14.65 13.37 13.67 Biomass and Renewable Wastes 3.23 3.43 3.72 5.14 4.99 5.18 Solar 0.03 0.03 0.06 0.18 0.28 0.29 Geothermal 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 Electricity 12.12 16.21 20.83 21.05 19.95 19.99 Derived heat Wastes, Non-Renewable 0.08 by Sector Industry 20.54 25.38 30.98 21.45 18.91 18.97 Transport 26.44 33.23 39.94 37.19 33.61 34.97 Residential 10.01 12.00 15.13 16.92 14.88 15.06 Services 4.33 6.71 8.42 9.80 10.02 10.63 Agriculture and Fishing 2.20 2.57 3.11 2.24 2.50 2.65 Other 0.51 0.00 0.19 1.49 0.47 0.22

Methodology, Sources and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 5

192


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1995 2000 2005 Installed Electricity Capacity (GW) 45.62 53.92 76.57 Combustible Fuels 21.94 26.24 40.80 Nuclear 7.07 7.50 7.58 Hydro 16.51 17.96 18.22 Wind 0.10 2.21 9.92 Solar PV 0.01 0.01 0.06 Geothermal Tide, Wave and Ocean Other Sources Gross Electricity Generation, 167.09 224.47 294.08 by Fuel (TWh) Solid Fuels 65.91 79.09 79.05 Petroleum and Products 14.62 22.58 24.42 Gases 4.92 21.94 80.73 Nuclear 55.46 62.21 57.54 Renewables 25.87 38.05 46.90 Wastes, non-RES 0.31 0.61 0.45 Cogeneration Heat and Power * CHP Electrical Capacity (GW) 3.05 CHP Electricity Generation (TWh) 22.88 CHP in Total Electricity Generation (%) 7.8 % CHP Heat Production (PJ) 192.5 Transport Fuels (ktoe) Final Consumption 26 101 32 791 39 227 Petroleum Products Motor Gasoline 9 152 9 141 7 786 Gas/Diesel Oil 13 373 18 859 25 977 Final Consumption Biofuels 70 256 Biogasoline 113 Biodiesel 70 142 Main Energy Indicators Energy Intensity (toe/M€'10) 143.7 142.5 140.7 Energy per Capita (kgoe/cap) 2 575.1 3 055.1 3 331.1 Final Electricity per Capita 3 554.8 4 656.7 5 594.5 (KWh/cap) Primary Energy Intensity 132.6 131.6 132.5 (toe/M€'10) Import Dependency (%) 71.7 % 76.6 % 81.4 % of Solid Fuels 45.4 % 61.3 % 70.1 % of Hard Coal 48.5 % 66.8 % 74.4 % of Petroleum Fuels 101.5 % 101.0 % 101.2 % of Crude and NGL 99.1 % 100.6 % 100.1 % of Natural Gas 97.4 % 101.6 % 101.4 % Renewables in Gross Final Energy (%) Overall RES with Aviation Cap 8.5 % RES-H&C – Heating and Cooling 9.4 % RES-E – Electricity Generation 19.1 % RES-T – Transport 1.3 % Gases Emissions (Mio ton CO 2) CO2 Emissions** 274.33 321.46 380.43 GHGs Emissions** 334.04 395.19 450.63 Main Emissions Indicators CO2 per Capita (kg CO2/cap) 6 920.7 7 943.2 8 786.7 Carbon Intensity (kg CO2/toe) 2 606.9 2 480.3 2 501.7 CO2 GDP Intensity (ton CO2/M€'10) 386.1 370.4 371.0

2010 2015 2016 101.79 106.90 106.19 50.46 49.35 48.45 7.45 7.40 7.40 18.54 20.05 20.06 20.69 22.94 23.00 3.92 4.86 4.97

301.53 281.02 274.78 25.33 51.37 36.43 16.56 17.24 16.92 95.84 53.81 53.84 61.99 57.31 58.63 100.98 100.32 108.11 0.66 0.77 0.74 3.38 22.42 7.4 % 153.3

3.47 22.70 8.1 % 120.3

8.5 27.2 9.9 % 124.2

35 409

31 803

33 069

5 696 24 171 1 412 230 1 181

4 623 21 383 958 189 769

4 832 21 931 1 088 133 955

120.5 113.4 110.5 2 801.9 2 614.0 2 630.8 5 266.1 4 995.5 5 006.8 114.0

109.4

106.0

76.7 % 85.5 % 85.4 % 99.9 % 99.3 % 99.4 %

73.3 % 78.3 % 78.2 % 102.2 % 99.5 % 96.9 %

71.9 % 76.0 % 75.4 % 99.2 % 98.7 % 98.7 %

13.8 % 16.2 % 17.3 % 12.6 % 16.8 % 16.8 % 29.8 % 37.0 % 36.6 % 5.0 % 1.2 % 5.3 % 296.18 285.83 276.69 368.29 350.03 340.54 6 371.3 6 153.5 5 958.0 2 137.0 2 218.5 2 134.4 274.0 267.0 250.2

* Preliminary 2016 CHP data from Eurostat. ** Total emissions without LULUCF, with ind. CO2, including international aviation, excl. international maritime transport.

193


PART 5  Country Profiles

5.10 France Mtoe, unless otherwise stated 1995 Production 127.37 Solid Fuels 6.02 of which Hard Coal 5.45 Petroleum and Products 3.48 of which Crude and NGL 2.98 Gases 2.79 of which Natural Gas 2.79 Nuclear 97.31 Renewables 17.04 Wastes, Non-Renewable 0.72 Net Imports 116.88 Solid Fuels 8.96 of which Hard Coal 8.49 Petroleum and Products 86.44 of which Crude and NGL 78.65 Gases 27.49 of which Natural Gas 27.49 Renewables 0.00 Electricity -6.01 Gross Inland Consumption 241.61 Solid Fuels 15.91 of which Hard Coal 14.78 Petroleum and Products 87.06 of which Crude and NGL 82.08 Gases 29.58 of which Natural Gas 29.58 Nuclear 97.31 Renewables 17.04 Electricity -6.01 Wastes, Non-Renewable 0.72 Primary Energy Consumption 225.75 Available for Final Consumption 156.89 Final Non-Energy Consumption 15.86 Final Energy Consumption 143.48 by Fuel/Product Solid Fuels 6.49 Petroleum and Products 69.82 Gases 27.25 Biomass and Renewable Wastes 9.67 Solar 0.03 Geothermal 0.13 Electricity 29.48 Derived heat 0.55 Wastes, Non-Renewable 0.08 by Sector Industry 36.20 Transport 45.70 Residential 35.40 Services 21.11 Agriculture and Fishing 4.07 Other 1.01

2000 130.14 2.48 2.36 2.39 1.69 1.51 1.51 107.09 15.74 0.93 133.93 12.85 12.28 91.27 86.84 35.78 35.78 0.01 -5.97 257.39 14.89 14.09 88.94 88.19 35.77 35.77 107.09 15.74 -5.97 0.93 241.21 166.23 16.18 155.31

2005 136.26 0.38 0.38 1.64 1.24 0.91 0.91 116.47 15.79 1.06 143.81 13.36 12.66 94.97 85.22 40.72 40.72 -0.05 -5.19 276.30 14.15 13.65 93.04 86.80 41.03 41.03 116.47 15.74 -5.19 1.06 260.18 177.09 16.12 160.77

2010 135.86 0.16 0.16 1.98 0.94 0.65 0.65 110.54 21.07 1.47 131.67 12.09 11.21 82.52 64.77 39.55 39.55 0.16 -2.64 267.18 11.97 11.14 82.00 65.95 42.62 42.62 110.54 21.23 -2.64 1.47 253.23 169.60 13.95 154.43

2015 138.38 0.00 0.00 1.93 0.85 0.03 0.03 112.84 21.95 1.64 116.42 8.68 8.29 78.30 57.89 34.52 34.52 0.44 -5.51 253.08 8.82 8.55 77.90 58.62 35.05 35.05 112.84 22.35 -5.51 1.64 239.22 161.38 13.87 145.26

2016 131.43 0.00 0.00 1.84 0.83 0.04 0.04 104.01 23.90 1.65 117.76 8.02 7.74 74.70 55.72 37.90 37.90 0.71 -3.57 248.75 8.58 8.36 75.19 57.43 38.31 38.31 104.01 24.59 -3.57 1.65 235.40 162.21 13.35 147.16

5.78 73.18 30.91 8.82 0.02 0.13 33.10 3.24 0.15

5.22 71.45 34.34 9.14 0.03 0.02 36.35 4.16 0.06

4.55 64.16 32.77 11.49 0.06 0.02 38.19 3.10 0.10

3.82 60.74 28.62 11.44 0.10 0.03 37.38 3.00 0.13

3.61 59.79 29.87 12.24 0.10 0.03 38.04 3.37 0.13

37.35 50.41 40.52 18.63 4.28 4.14

36.74 50.22 42.92 20.94 4.68 5.26

31.60 49.06 44.33 23.95 4.50 1.00

29.51 49.71 38.09 22.74 4.49 0.73

29.37 49.62 39.83 23.20 4.50 0.64

Methodology, Sources and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 5

194


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1995 2000 Installed Electricity Capacity (GW) 107.62 114.52 Combustible Fuels 23.87 25.92 Nuclear 58.52 63.18 Hydro 24.99 25.15 Wind 0.00 0.04 Solar PV 0.00 0.01 Geothermal Tide, Wave and Ocean 0.24 0.21 Other Sources Gross Electricity Generation, 494.27 539.95 by Fuel (TWh) Solid Fuels 24.18 27.00 Petroleum and Products 7.75 7.17 Gases 6.22 15.37 Nuclear 377.23 415.16 Renewables 78.53 74.17 Wastes, non-RES 0.37 1.08 Cogeneration Heat and Power * CHP Electrical Capacity (GW) CHP Electricity Generation (TWh) CHP in Total Electricity Generation (%) CHP Heat Production (PJ) Transport Fuels (ktoe) Final Consumption 44 879 49 276 Petroleum Products Motor Gasoline 16 711 14 655 Gas/Diesel Oil 23 352 28 172 Final Consumption Biofuels 154 325 Biogasoline 24 58 Biodiesel 130 266 Main Energy Indicators Energy Intensity (toe/M€'10) 157.4 145.3 Energy per Capita (kgoe/cap) 4 073.3 4 251.2 Final Electricity per Capita 5 780.1 6 357.3 (KWh/cap) Primary Energy Intensity 147.1 136.1 (toe/M€'10) Import Dependency (%) 48.0 % 51.5 % of Solid Fuels 56.3 % 86.3 % of Hard Coal 57.4 % 87.2 % of Petroleum Fuels 96.9 % 99.5 % of Crude and NGL 95.8 % 98.5 % of Natural Gas 93.0 % 100.0 % Renewables in Gross Final Energy (%) Overall RES with Aviation Cap RES-H&C – Heating and Cooling RES-E – Electricity Generation RES-T – Transport Gases Emissions (Mio ton CO 2) CO2 Emissions** 405.72 428.03 GHGs Emissions** 552.13 565.32 Main Emissions Indicators CO2 per Capita (kg CO2/cap) 6 840.1 7 069.6 Carbon Intensity (kg CO2/toe) 1 664.7 1 645.1 CO2 GDP Intensity (ton CO2/M€'10) 264.3 241.6

2005 2010 2015 2016 115.73 124.14 129.94 130.79 26.42 28.41 24.32 23.14 63.26 63.13 63.13 63.13 25.13 25.43 25.30 25.52 0.69 5.91 10.22 11.47 0.01 1.04 6.76 7.32 0.00 0.00 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.00 0.00 576.06 569.29 570.32 556.18 27.52 23.36 9.76 8.47 7.93 5.52 2.14 2.54 26.26 26.71 23.69 36.92 451.53 428.52 437.43 403.20 61.18 83.01 94.37 102.09 1.66 2.03 2.25 2.42 6.60 4.61 5.59 23.21 15.69 13.94 4.0 % 2.8 % 2.5 % 209.20 173.95 154.93

6.1 15.0 2.7 % 163.9

48 779 45 761 45 745 45 591 11 428 7 713 6 732 6 835 30 814 31 532 32 139 31 964 582 2 400 2 949 3 030 100 396 421 447 482 2 005 2 528 2 582 143.7 133.7 120.7 117.2 4 401.5 4 132.2 3 808.3 3 727.6 6 734.9 6 868.2 6 540.7 6 629.2 126.7

114.1

110.9

51.6 % 48.9 % 94.4 % 101.0 % 92.8 % 100.6 % 99.3 % 97.9 % 98.2 % 98.2 % 99.3 % 92.8 %

135.3

45.7 % 98.5 % 96.9 % 98.5 % 98.8 % 98.5 %

47.1 % 93.5 % 92.6 % 97.5 % 97.0 % 98.9 %

9.6 % 12.7 % 15.1 % 16.0 % 12.3 % 16.2 % 19.7 % 21.1 % 13.7 % 14.8 % 18.7 % 19.2 % 2.1 % 6.5 % 8.5 % 8.9 % 439.89 404.85 355.81 357.49 568.64 527.73 475.52 475.36 7 007.6 6 261.3 5 354.1 5 357.2 1 577.5 1 502.3 1 397.0 1 428.8 228.7 202.6 169.7 168.5

* Preliminary 2016 CHP data from Eurostat. ** Total emissions without LULUCF, with ind. CO2, including international aviation, excl. international maritime transport.

195


PART 5  Country Profiles

5.11 Croatia Mtoe, unless otherwise stated Production Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Wastes, Non-Renewable Net Imports Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Renewables Electricity Gross Inland Consumption Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Electricity Wastes, Non-Renewable Primary Energy Consumption Available for Final Consumption Final Non-Energy Consumption Final Energy Consumption by Fuel/Product Solid Fuels Petroleum and Products Gases Biomass and Renewable Wastes Solar Geothermal Electricity Derived heat Wastes, Non-Renewable by Sector Industry Transport Residential Services Agriculture and Fishing Other

1995 5.00 0.05 0.05 1.80 1.80 1.61 1.61

2000 4.26

2005 4.75

2010 5.16

2015 4.47

2016 4.50

1.35 1.35 1.36 1.36

1.03 1.03 1.87 1.87

0.77 0.76 2.22 2.22

0.76 0.69 1.47 1.47

0.83 0.75 1.37 1.37

1.54 0.00 2.85 0.15 0.07 2.21 3.98 0.22 0.22

1.56 0.00 4.08 0.48 0.44 2.41 3.91 0.91 0.91

1.86 0.00 5.15 0.62 0.57 3.58 4.02 0.56 0.56

0.27 7.86 0.18 0.09 3.94 5.76 1.93 1.93

0.29 8.42 0.43 0.39 3.93 5.43 2.21 2.21

0.38 9.78 0.68 0.63 4.49 5.10 2.37 2.37

2.17 0.01 4.39 0.70 0.66 2.98 3.56 0.48 0.48 -0.10 0.34 9.43 0.68 0.64 3.70 4.33 2.63 2.63

2.23 0.01 4.12 0.62 0.59 2.62 2.34 0.56 0.56 -0.27 0.58 8.52 0.61 0.57 3.28 2.94 2.08 2.08

2.28 0.01 4.11 0.66 0.63 2.52 2.51 0.73 0.73 -0.28 0.48 8.59 0.65 0.61 3.28 3.29 2.17 2.17

1.54 0.27 0.00 7.05 6.10 0.81 5.28

1.56 0.29 0.00 7.77 6.66 0.66 6.00

1.86 0.38 0.00 9.11 7.91 0.68 7.24

2.07 0.34 0.01 8.83 7.81 0.60 7.21

1.96 0.58 0.01 7.99 7.12 0.53 6.59

2.00 0.48 0.01 8.07 7.16 0.52 6.64

0.11 2.11 0.91 1.05

0.07 2.68 1.01 1.00 0.00

0.15 3.11 1.24 1.24 0.00

0.85 0.25 0.00

1.02 0.21 0.00

1.24 0.26 0.00

0.15 2.90 1.29 1.24 0.01 0.01 1.36 0.25 0.01

0.08 2.75 0.98 1.22 0.01 0.01 1.32 0.21 0.01

0.07 2.82 1.03 1.16 0.01 0.01 1.32 0.22 0.01

1.25 1.20 2.19 0.44 0.20

1.38 1.55 2.29 0.49 0.29

1.56 1.92 2.82 0.69 0.24

1.37 2.07 2.76 0.78 0.25

1.09 2.11 2.42 0.74 0.23

1.09 2.16 2.39 0.76 0.23

Methodology, Sources and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 5

196


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1995 2000 Installed Electricity Capacity (GW) 2.07 2.08 Combustible Fuels Nuclear Hydro 2.07 2.08 Wind Solar PV Geothermal Tide, Wave and Ocean Other Sources Gross Electricity Generation, 9.28 11.28 by Fuel (TWh) Solid Fuels 0.24 1.55 Petroleum and Products 2.46 1.69 Gases 0.88 1.57 Nuclear Renewables 5.69 6.47 Wastes, non-RES 0.00 0.00 Cogeneration Heat and Power * CHP Electrical Capacity (GW) CHP Electricity Generation (TWh) CHP in Total Electricity Generation (%) CHP Heat Production (PJ) Transport Fuels (ktoe) Final Consumption 1 186 1 526 Petroleum Products Motor Gasoline 594 815 Gas/Diesel Oil 477 623 Final Consumption Biofuels Biogasoline Biodiesel Main Energy Indicators Energy Intensity (toe/M€'10) 263.3 238.7 Energy per Capita (kgoe/cap) 1 686.5 1 872.5 Final Electricity per Capita 2 129.5 2 630.9 (KWh/cap) Primary Energy Intensity 236.1 220.1 (toe/M€'10) Import Dependency (%) 36.1 % 48.4 % of Solid Fuels 85.7 % 110.9 % of Hard Coal 73.9 % 112.9 % of Petroleum Fuels 55.6 % 61.0 % of Crude and NGL 69.2 % 72.1 % of Natural Gas 11.6 % 41.0 % Renewables in Gross Final Energy (%) Overall RES with Aviation Cap RES-H&C – Heating and Cooling RES-E – Electricity Generation RES-T – Transport Gases Emissions (Mio ton CO2) CO2 Emissions** 17.29 20.02 GHGs Emissions** 23.18 26.03 Main Emissions Indicators CO2 per Capita (kg CO2/cap) 3 710.2 4 450.4 Carbon Intensity (kg CO2/toe) 2 191.1 2 371.7 CO2 GDP Intensity (ton CO2/M€'10) 579.2 567.3

2005 3.87 1.80

2010 4.12 1.90

2015 4.80 2.12

2016 4.88 2.13

2.06 0.01

2.14 0.08

2.21 0.42 0.05

2.21 0.48 0.06

13.16

14.90

11.40

12.82

2.33 1.86 1.81

2.39 0.56 2.55

2.31 0.22 1.20

2.60 0.07 1.59

7.17 0.00

9.40 0.00

7.68 0.00

8.57 0.00

0.69 2.02 14.3 % 14.92

0.64 0.8 0.81 1.5 7.1 % 11.5 % 10.00 16.3

1 901

2 042

2 059

2 137

739 1 038

678 1 186 3

554 1 303 24 0 24

557 1 366 1 0 1

3

222.5 208.9 190.8 186.3 2 269.2 2 190.9 2 017.4 2 048.6 3 344.3 3 686.4 3 631.2 3 651.0 207.2

195.7

179.0

175.1

52.5 % 46.6 % 48.3 % 47.8 % 91.4 % 102.3 % 103.1 % 102.2 % 90.5 % 102.7 % 102.5 % 102.5 % 79.4 % 80.4 % 79.7 % 76.9 % 78.9 % 82.2 % 79.6 % 76.4 % 23.7 % 18.1 % 27.1 % 33.5 % 23.8 % 25.1 % 29.0 % 28.3 % 30.0 % 32.8 % 38.5 % 37.6 % 35.6 % 37.6 % 45.4 % 46.7 % 1.0 % 1.1 % 3.6 % 1.3 % 23.75 30.19

21.54 28.28

18.35 24.55

18.60 24.68

5 508.7 5 006.1 4 343.0 4 437.6 2 421.7 2 283.3 2 151.8 2 164.9 540.2 477.3 410.8 403.5

* Preliminary 2016 CHP data from Eurostat. ** Total emissions without LULUCF, with ind. CO2, including international aviation, excl. international maritime transport.

197


PART 5  Country Profiles

5.12 Italy Mtoe, unless otherwise stated 1995 Production 29.83 Solid Fuels 0.04 of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products 5.57 of which Crude and NGL 5.26 Gases 16.56 of which Natural Gas 16.35 Nuclear Renewables 7.49 Wastes, Non-Renewable 0.16 Net Imports 134.50 Solid Fuels 13.00 of which Hard Coal 12.58 Petroleum and Products 89.52 of which Crude and NGL 73.67 Gases 28.53 of which Natural Gas 28.53 Renewables 0.23 Electricity 3.22 Gross Inland Consumption 161.77 Solid Fuels 12.28 of which Hard Coal 11.91 Petroleum and Products 93.52 of which Crude and NGL 79.35 Gases 44.87 of which Natural Gas 44.65 Nuclear Renewables 7.72 Electricity 3.22 Wastes, Non-Renewable 0.16 Primary Energy Consumption 152.03 Available for Final Consumption 124.85 Final Non-Energy Consumption 9.73 Final Energy Consumption 114.58 by Fuel/Product Solid Fuels 3.93 Petroleum and Products 54.06 Gases 34.65 Biomass and Renewable Wastes 1.14 Solar 0.01 Geothermal 0.21 Electricity 20.49 Derived heat Wastes, Non-Renewable 0.08 by Sector Industry 36.02 Transport 38.57 Residential 26.32 Services 9.82 Agriculture and Fishing 3.25 Other 0.59

2000 28.49 0.00 5.01 4.56 13.63 13.62

2010 33.07 0.06 0.06 5.68 5.14 6.89 6.89

2015 36.13 0.05 0.05 5.82 5.51 5.55 5.55

2016 33.80 0.00 0.00 4.06 3.77 4.74 4.74

9.60 13.33 19.40 23.56 23.82 0.26 0.67 1.04 1.15 1.18 152.07 160.37 149.46 121.83 121.71 13.13 16.37 13.79 12.32 10.71 12.87 15.94 13.98 12.07 10.30 87.60 79.15 67.78 52.83 52.32 83.27 89.10 79.21 62.15 60.69 47.01 59.84 61.60 50.00 53.29 47.01 59.84 61.60 50.00 53.29 0.52 0.78 2.50 2.69 2.20 3.81 4.23 3.80 3.99 3.18 174.22 190.08 177.93 156.17 154.75 12.55 16.46 13.66 12.30 10.99 12.18 15.98 13.78 12.00 10.50 89.54 83.96 69.51 57.16 55.30 87.52 94.76 83.87 67.43 65.05 57.95 70.65 68.06 55.30 58.08 57.94 70.65 68.06 55.30 58.08 10.11 14.11 21.86 26.27 26.02 3.81 4.23 3.80 3.99 3.18 0.26 0.67 1.04 1.15 1.18 165.79 181.47 168.37 149.56 148.44 133.74 145.23 137.17 121.73 121.13 8.43 8.61 9.56 6.61 6.31 124.72 137.15 128.46 116.23 115.93 3.59 57.84 38.02 1.52 0.01 0.21 23.47 0.06

3.98 59.01 40.61 4.30 0.03 0.21 25.87 3.08 0.06

2.86 48.73 38.50 8.81 0.13 0.13 25.74 3.33 0.22

1.50 44.34 33.19 8.06 0.19 0.11 24.72 3.85 0.27

1.77 43.83 33.47 7.72 0.20 0.13 24.59 3.95 0.28

39.74 42.52 27.59 11.54 3.16 0.17

39.86 44.84 33.92 15.05 3.32 0.16

31.25 41.73 35.39 16.98 2.94 0.16

25.81 39.54 32.49 15.39 2.85 0.14

26.17 39.11 32.19 15.44 2.87 0.16

Methodology, Sources and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 5

198

2005 30.33 0.06 0.06 6.38 6.15 9.89 9.89


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1995 2000 Installed Electricity Capacity (GW) 65.92 75.51 Combustible Fuels 45.48 54.03 Nuclear Hydro 19.84 20.35 Wind 0.02 0.36 Solar PV 0.02 0.02 Geothermal 0.47 0.59 Tide, Wave and Ocean Other Sources 0.09 0.16 Gross Electricity Generation, 241.49 276.64 by Fuel (TWh) Solid Fuels 24.12 26.27 Petroleum and Products 120.80 85.88 Gases 50.44 105.61 Nuclear Renewables 45.58 57.58 Wastes, non-RES 0.17 0.51 Cogeneration Heat and Power * CHP Electrical Capacity (GW) CHP Electricity Generation (TWh) CHP in Total Electricity Generation (%) CHP Heat Production (PJ) Transport Fuels (ktoe) Final Consumption 37 665 41 461 Petroleum Products Motor Gasoline 18 279 17 556 Gas/Diesel Oil 15 238 18 415 Final Consumption Biofuels Biogasoline Biodiesel Main Energy Indicators Energy Intensity (toe/M€'10) 114.8 112.0 Energy per Capita (kgoe/cap) 2 845.8 3 060.6 Final Electricity per Capita 4 191.7 4 795.5 (KWh/cap) Primary Energy Intensity 107.9 106.6 (toe/M€'10) Import Dependency (%) 81.9 % 86.5 % of Solid Fuels 105.9 % 104.6 % of Hard Coal 105.6 % 105.7 % of Petroleum Fuels 93.3 % 96.1 % of Crude and NGL 92.8 % 95.1 % of Natural Gas 63.9 % 81.1 % Renewables in Gross Final Energy (%) Overall RES with Aviation Cap RES-H&C – Heating and Cooling RES-E – Electricity Generation RES-T – Transport Gases Emissions (Mio ton CO 2) CO2 Emissions** 457.78 478.72 GHGs Emissions** 538.49 562.49 Main Emissions Indicators CO2 per Capita (kg CO2/cap) 8 053.2 8 409.9 Carbon Intensity (kg CO2/toe) 2 788.2 2 722.1 CO2 GDP Intensity (ton CO2/M€'10) 324.9 307.8

2005 2010 2015 2016 85.50 106.61 116.96 114.16 61.93 74.66 65.62 62.10 20.99 1.64 0.03 0.67

21.52 5.79 3.59 0.73

22.22 9.14 18.90 0.77

22.30 9.38 19.28 0.77

0.23

0.32

0.32

0.33

303.70 302.06 282.99 289.77 43.61 39.73 43.20 35.61 47.12 21.71 13.38 12.13 155.08 157.44 113.05 128.94 55.30 1.48

80.26 110.34 109.85 2.15 2.43 2.50

5.89 7.35 9.02 8.5 27.39 34.71 39.52 40.3 9.0 % 11.5 % 14.0 % 13.9 % 193.07 202.51 213.20 219.8 43 427

38 702

36 353

36 004

14 175 23 793 177

10 276 22 703 1 419 122 1 297

8 192 22 090 1 167 25 1 142

7 650 22 136 1 041 33 1 008

177

116.6 110.9 100.3 98.5 3 284.4 3 006.0 2 568.8 2 550.8 5 198.8 5 056.8 4 728.7 4 714.8 104.9

96.0

94.5

83.4 % 82.6 % 99.4 % 101.0 % 99.7 % 101.5 % 91.8 % 93.5 % 94.0 % 94.5 % 84.7 % 90.5 %

111.3

77.1 % 100.2 % 100.5 % 89.5 % 92.2 % 90.4 %

77.5 % 97.5 % 98.0 % 91.0 % 93.3 % 91.8 %

7.5 % 13.0 % 17.5 % 17.4 % 8.2 % 15.6 % 19.3 % 18.9 % 16.3 % 20.1 % 33.5 % 34.0 % 1.0 % 4.8 % 6.4 % 7.2 % 503.72 433.69 365.06 360.62 589.41 512.88 442.53 438.25 8 703.7 7 327.0 6 004.7 5 944.5 2 619.2 2 397.4 2 309.5 2 297.5 309.0 270.3 234.4 229.6

* Preliminary 2016 CHP data from Eurostat. ** Total emissions without LULUCF, with ind. CO2, including international aviation, excl. international maritime transport.

199


PART 5  Country Profiles

5.13 Cyprus Mtoe, unless otherwise stated Production Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Wastes, Non-Renewable Net Imports Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Renewables Electricity Gross Inland Consumption Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Electricity Wastes, Non-Renewable Primary Energy Consumption Available for Final Consumption Final Non-Energy Consumption Final Energy Consumption by Fuel/Product Solid Fuels Petroleum and Products Gases Biomass and Renewable Wastes Solar Geothermal Electricity Derived heat Wastes, Non-Renewable by Sector Industry Transport Residential Services Agriculture and Fishing Other

1995 0.04

2000 0.04

2010 0.09

2015 0.13

2016 0.13

0.00

0.01

0.01

0.05 0.00 2.84 0.04 0.04 2.79

0.08 0.01 2.94 0.01 0.01 2.91

0.12 0.00 2.45 0.00 0.00 2.42

0.12 0.01 2.62 0.00 0.00 2.57

0.04

0.04

2.04 0.01 0.01 2.03 0.80

2.57 0.03 0.03 2.53 1.16

0.00

0.00

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.03

1.97 0.01 0.01 1.91 0.83

2.41 0.03 0.03 2.33 1.18

2.54 0.04 0.04 2.45

2.74 0.02 0.02 2.61

2.27 0.00 0.00 2.11

2.44 0.00 0.00 2.27

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.11

0.15

0.15

0.00 1.90 1.48 0.06 1.43

0.00 2.33 1.75 0.09 1.65

0.00 2.47 1.80 0.07 1.83

0.01 2.66 1.97 0.09 1.93

0.01 2.25 1.67 0.02 1.66

0.02 2.40 1.78 0.04 1.76

0.01 1.18

0.03 1.32

0.04 1.40

0.02 1.38

0.00 1.18

0.00 1.25

0.01 0.03 0.00 0.19

0.01 0.04 0.00 0.26

0.01 0.04 0.00 0.34

0.04 0.06 0.00 0.42

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.01

0.04 0.07 0.00 0.35 0.00 0.01

0.04 0.07 0.00 0.38 0.00 0.02

0.39 0.76 0.14 0.07 0.01 0.05

0.44 0.86 0.18 0.11 0.01 0.05

0.32 0.98 0.32 0.16 0.04 0.02

0.24 1.05 0.33 0.25 0.04 0.02

0.21 0.87 0.32 0.21 0.04 0.02

0.21 0.93 0.33 0.23 0.05 0.02

Methodology, Sources and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 5

200

2005 0.05


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 Installed Electricity Capacity (GW) 0.69 0.99 1.13 1.56 1.76 1.76 Combustible Fuels 0.69 0.99 1.12 1.47 1.52 1.52 Nuclear Hydro Wind 0.08 0.16 0.16 Solar PV 0.00 0.01 0.08 0.08 Geothermal Tide, Wave and Ocean Other Sources Gross Electricity Generation, 2.50 3.37 4.38 5.32 4.53 4.89 by Fuel (TWh) Solid Fuels Petroleum and Products 2.50 3.37 4.38 5.25 4.14 4.46 Gases Nuclear Renewables 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.07 0.40 0.42 Wastes, non-RES 0.00 Cogeneration Heat and Power * CHP Electrical Capacity (GW) 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 CHP Electricity Generation (TWh) 0.0 0.06 0.00 0.0 CHP in Total Electricity Generation (%) 0.3 % 1.0 % 0.1 % 0.6 % CHP Heat Production (PJ) 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 Transport Fuels (ktoe) Final Consumption 760 860 982 1 035 858 922 Petroleum Products Motor Gasoline 194 218 321 413 365 375 Gas/Diesel Oil 293 359 355 338 247 271 Final Consumption Biofuels 15 10 9 Biogasoline Biodiesel 15 10 9 Main Energy Indicators Energy Intensity (toe/M€'10) 166.4 168.6 149.0 142.0 128.0 133.0 Energy per Capita (kgoe/cap) 3 044.6 3 494.6 3 463.5 3 345.0 2 682.4 2 878.6 Final Electricity per Capita 3 444.4 4 338.9 5 402.0 5 959.9 4 829.9 5 185.5 (KWh/cap) Primary Energy Intensity 161.1 162.6 144.7 137.6 126.6 130.9 (toe/M€'10) Import Dependency (%) 100.5 % 98.6 % 100.7 % 100.8 % 97.7 % 96.2 % of Solid Fuels 100.0 % 100.0 % 119.4 % 64.7 % 100.0 % of Hard Coal 100.0 % 100.0 % 119.4 % 64.7 % 100.0 % of Petroleum Fuels 102.6 % 100.3 % 102.3 % 104.2 % 102.9 % 100.7 % of Crude and NGL 96.3 % 98.5 % of Natural Gas Renewables in Gross Final Energy (%) Overall RES with Aviation Cap 3.1 % 6.0 % 9.4 % 9.3 % RES-H&C – Heating and Cooling 10.0 % 18.2 % 22.5 % 23.0 % RES-E – Electricity Generation 0.0 % 1.4 % 8.4 % 8.6 % RES-T – Transport 0.0 % 2.0 % 2.5 % 2.7 % Gases Emissions (Mio ton CO2) CO2 Emissions** 6.66 7.94 8.81 8.85 7.65 8.18 GHGs Emissions** 7.78 9.11 10.06 10.25 9.08 9.66 Main Emissions Indicators CO2 per Capita (kg CO2/cap) 10 321.0 11 493.4 12 011.5 10 799.1 9 036.2 9 648.4 Carbon Intensity (kg CO2/toe) 3 278.1 3 050.0 3 118.0 3 027.4 3 049.3 3 004.8 CO2 GDP Intensity (ton CO2/M€'10) 564.1 554.4 516.6 458.4 431.1 445.9 * Preliminary 2016 CHP data from Eurostat. ** Total emissions without LULUCF, with ind. CO2, including international aviation, excl. international maritime transport.

201


PART 5  Country Profiles

5.14 Latvia Mtoe, unless otherwise stated Production Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Wastes, Non-Renewable Net Imports Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Renewables Electricity Gross Inland Consumption Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Electricity Wastes, Non-Renewable Primary Energy Consumption Available for Final Consumption Final Non-Energy Consumption Final Energy Consumption by Fuel/Product Solid Fuels Petroleum and Products Gases Biomass and Renewable Wastes Solar Geothermal Electricity Derived heat Wastes, Non-Renewable by Sector Industry Transport Residential Services Agriculture and Fishing Other

1995 1.43 0.08

2000 1.47 0.02

2005 1.87 0.00

2010 1.98 0.00

2015 2.35 0.00

2016 2.46 0.00

0.00

0.06

0.01

0.00

0.01

0.01

1.35

1.39

3.36 0.17 0.16 2.09

2.36 0.06 0.05 1.24

1.85 0.00 3.10 0.08 0.07 1.78

1.96 0.01 2.22 0.11 0.11 1.67

2.33 0.01 2.37 0.04 0.04 1.79

2.44 0.01 2.22 0.04 0.04 1.97

1.00 1.00 -0.09 0.19 4.62 0.27 0.17 1.89

1.11 1.11 -0.20 0.15 3.86 0.13 0.07 1.30

1.43 1.43 -0.38 0.18 4.59 0.08 0.08 1.49

0.90 0.90 -0.56 0.08 4.63 0.11 0.11 1.52

1.08 1.08 -0.74 0.16 4.38 0.05 0.05 1.49

0.92 0.92 -0.82 0.09 4.39 0.04 0.04 1.49

1.01 1.01

1.09 1.09

1.36 1.36

1.46 1.46

1.10 1.10

1.11 1.11

1.26 0.19 0.00 4.58 3.94 0.04 3.85

1.19 0.15 0.00 3.79 3.28 0.08 3.25

1.48 0.19 0.00 4.50 4.11 0.10 4.02

1.44 0.08 0.03 4.56 4.17 0.07 4.12

1.54 0.16 0.06 4.27 3.89 0.11 3.79

1.62 0.09 0.04 4.29 3.91 0.10 3.82

0.13 1.16 0.37 0.88

0.06 1.06 0.33 0.82

0.07 1.32 0.51 1.01

0.09 1.45 0.50 0.95

0.04 1.37 0.32 0.94

0.04 1.40 0.32 0.89

0.38 0.93 0.00

0.39 0.60 0.00

0.49 0.60 0.00

0.53 0.58 0.03

0.56 0.50 0.06

0.56 0.58 0.04

0.70 0.72 1.60 0.66 0.17 0.00

0.58 0.75 1.33 0.47 0.13 0.00

0.70 1.07 1.50 0.59 0.15 0.00

0.77 1.20 1.39 0.60 0.16 0.00

0.79 1.15 1.11 0.59 0.16 0.00

0.75 1.16 1.14 0.59 0.18 0.00

Methodology, Sources and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 5

202


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 Installed Electricity Capacity (GW) 2.07 2.09 2.17 2.56 2.93 2.93 Combustible Fuels 0.56 0.58 0.60 0.95 1.28 1.29 Nuclear Hydro 1.51 1.51 1.54 1.58 1.59 1.57 Wind 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.03 0.07 0.07 Solar PV Geothermal Tide, Wave and Ocean Other Sources Gross Electricity Generation, 3.98 4.14 4.91 6.63 5.53 6.43 by Fuel (TWh) Solid Fuels 0.10 0.08 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Petroleum and Products 0.42 0.11 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 Gases 0.53 1.13 1.49 2.99 2.76 2.94 Nuclear Renewables 2.94 2.82 3.41 3.64 2.78 3.48 Wastes, non-RES Cogeneration Heat and Power * CHP Electrical Capacity (GW) 0.59 0.87 1.10 1.3 CHP Electricity Generation (TWh) 1.51 2.98 2.48 3.1 CHP in Total Electricity Generation (%) 30.7 % 45.0 % 44.7 % 48.5 % CHP Heat Production (PJ) 11.91 10.45 12.35 14.5 Transport Fuels (ktoe) Final Consumption 699 734 1 050 1 163 1 113 1 136 Petroleum Products Motor Gasoline 430 347 352 294 205 200 Gas/Diesel Oil 242 340 613 728 737 752 Final Consumption Biofuels 3 27 25 13 Biogasoline 0 8 8 8 Biodiesel 3 19 17 4 Main Energy Indicators Energy Intensity (toe/M€'10) 483.3 314.3 251.9 260.2 207.1 202.8 Energy per Capita (kgoe/cap) 1 848.8 1 622.4 2 041.1 2 183.0 2 205.3 2 227.1 Final Electricity per Capita 1 785.6 1 879.7 2 546.5 2 930.9 3 253.1 3 292.1 (KWh/cap) Primary Energy Intensity 478.9 308.2 246.6 256.1 201.7 198.4 (toe/M€'10) Import Dependency (%) 70.4 % 61.0 % 63.9 % 45.5 % 51.2 % 47.2 % of Solid Fuels 61.6 % 46.2 % 93.9 % 102.8 % 87.0 % 85.4 % of Hard Coal 93.6 % 81.8 % 97.3 % 106.7 % 87.0 % 87.5 % of Petroleum Fuels 102.6 % 94.8 % 102.2 % 94.4 % 102.9 % 109.1 % of Crude and NGL of Natural Gas 98.9 % 101.9 % 105.6 % 61.8 % 98.6 % 83.4 % Renewables in Gross Final Energy (%) Overall RES with Aviation Cap 32.3 % 30.4 % 37.6 % 37.2 % RES-H&C – Heating and Cooling 42.7 % 40.7 % 51.8 % 51.9 % RES-E – Electricity Generation 43.0 % 42.1 % 52.2 % 51.3 % RES-T – Transport 2.4 % 4.0 % 3.9 % 2.8 % Gases Emissions (Mio ton CO 2) CO2 Emissions** 9.28 7.20 8.04 9.02 7.68 7.65 GHGs Emissions** 13.04 10.62 11.64 12.75 11.67 11.68 Main Emissions Indicators CO2 per Capita (kg CO2/cap) 3 710.2 3 025.1 3 571.6 4 253.4 3 865.5 3 886.9 Carbon Intensity (kg CO2/toe) 1 944.6 1 860.8 1 656.7 1 849.0 1 657.1 1 629.0 CO2 GDP Intensity (ton CO2/M€'10) 970.0 586.1 440.8 507.0 363.0 354.0 * Preliminary 2016 CHP data from Eurostat. ** Total emissions without LULUCF, with ind. CO2, including international aviation, excl. international maritime transport.

203


PART 5  Country Profiles

5.15 Lithuania Mtoe, unless otherwise stated Production Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Wastes, Non-Renewable Net Imports Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Renewables Electricity Gross Inland Consumption Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Electricity Wastes, Non-Renewable Primary Energy Consumption Available for Final Consumption Final Non-Energy Consumption Final Energy Consumption by Fuel/Product Solid Fuels Petroleum and Products Gases Biomass and Renewable Wastes Solar Geothermal Electricity Derived heat Wastes, Non-Renewable by Sector Industry Transport Residential Services Agriculture and Fishing Other

1995 3.8 0.02

2000 3.3 0.01

2005 4.0 0.02

2010 1.3 0.01

2015 1.6 0.02

2016 1.6 0.01

0.15 0.13

0.37 0.32

0.33 0.22

0.14 0.12

0.10 0.08

0.08 0.06

3.11 0.50

2.22 0.68

2.71 0.90

1.19

5.54 0.16 0.15 3.58 3.10 2.03 2.03 0.00 -0.23 8.64 0.25 0.22 2.99 3.11 2.03 2.03

4.25 0.08 0.07 2.22 4.55 2.07 2.07 -0.01 -0.12 7.06 0.09 0.07 2.13 4.82 2.06 2.06

5.03 0.18 0.16 2.62 8.90 2.49 2.49 -0.01 -0.26 8.71 0.19 0.15 2.71 9.34 2.48 2.48

5.67 0.20 0.16 2.61 9.05 2.49 2.49 -0.14 0.52 6.79 0.21 0.17 2.50 9.14 2.49 2.49

1.47 0.02 5.48 0.16 0.14 2.69 8.68 2.06 2.06 -0.06 0.62 6.91 0.19 0.15 2.60 8.73 2.07 2.07

1.50 0.05 5.57 0.17 0.14 2.88 9.33 1.85 1.85 -0.04 0.71 7.03 0.19 0.15 2.77 9.38 1.84 1.84

0.49 -0.23 0.00 8.10 5.13 0.54 4.60

0.68 -0.12 0.00 6.40 4.28 0.66 3.77

0.88 -0.26 0.00 7.98 5.39 0.73 4.67

1.07 0.52 0.00 6.13 5.48 0.66 4.81

1.42 0.62 0.02 5.80 5.99 1.12 4.87

1.46 0.71 0.05 5.99 6.15 1.05 5.11

0.23 1.67 0.51 0.45

0.08 1.36 0.36 0.61

0.18 1.62 0.59 0.70

0.21 1.61 0.62 0.74

0.18 1.87 0.52 0.70

0.19 2.01 0.55 0.69

0.55 1.19

0.53 0.83

0.69 0.91

0.72 0.92

0.80 0.80

0.84 0.83

1.02 1.04 1.64 0.69 0.20 0.00

0.78 1.06 1.37 0.46 0.10 0.00

1.06 1.43 1.51 0.56 0.11 0.00

0.95 1.55 1.60 0.60 0.11 0.01

0.98 1.83 1.37 0.58 0.10 0.01

0.99 1.96 1.44 0.61 0.11 0.01

Methodology, Sources and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 5

204


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1995 2000 2005 Installed Electricity Capacity (GW) 5.87 5.72 4.56 Combustible Fuels 2.46 2.46 2.47 Nuclear 2.73 2.37 1.18 Hydro 0.67 0.86 0.88 Wind 0.00 Solar PV Geothermal Tide, Wave and Ocean Other Sources 0.01 0.03 0.03 Gross Electricity Generation, 13.90 11.43 14.78 by Fuel (TWh) Solid Fuels Petroleum and Products 1.07 0.66 0.40 Gases 0.23 1.62 3.02 Nuclear 11.82 8.42 10.34 Renewables 0.75 0.64 0.83 Wastes, non-RES Cogeneration Heat and Power * CHP Electrical Capacity (GW) 1.04 CHP Electricity Generation (TWh) 2.30 CHP in Total Electricity Generation (%) 15.5 % CHP Heat Production (PJ) 19.90 Transport Fuels (ktoe) Final Consumption 1 031 1 050 1 405 Petroleum Products Motor Gasoline 618 390 351 Gas/Diesel Oil 346 513 779 Final Consumption Biofuels 3 Biogasoline 1 Biodiesel 3 Main Energy Indicators Energy Intensity (toe/M€'10) 592.4 385.5 329.5 Energy per Capita (kgoe/cap) 2 371.4 2 011.1 2 596.3 Final Electricity per Capita 1 744.4 1 764.5 2 377.5 (KWh/cap) Primary Energy Intensity 555.1 349.4 301.8 (toe/M€'10) Import Dependency (%) 63.1 % 59.4 % 56.8 % of Solid Fuels 64.4 % 87.0 % 94.6 % of Hard Coal 69.1 % 100.0 % 102.6 % of Petroleum Fuels 114.5 % 100.4 % 91.9 % of Crude and NGL 99.5 % 94.5 % 95.3 % of Natural Gas 100.0 % 100.0 % 100.7 % Renewables in Gross Final Energy (%) Overall RES with Aviation Cap 16.8 % RES-H&C – Heating and Cooling 29.3 % RES-E – Electricity Generation 3.8 % RES-T – Transport 0.6 % Gases Emissions (Mio ton CO 2) CO2 Emissions** 15.12 11.86 14.23 GHGs Emissions** 22.43 19.54 22.96 Main Emissions Indicators CO2 per Capita (kg CO2/cap) 4 150.8 3 376.4 4 240.6 Carbon Intensity (kg CO2/toe) 1 722.8 1 657.6 1 607.2 CO2 GDP Intensity (ton CO2/M€'10) 1 036.8 647.3 538.2

2010 3.57 2.54

2015 3.59 2.18

2016 3.67 2.18

0.88 0.13 0.00

0.88 0.44 0.07

0.88 0.51 0.07

0.03

0.03

0.03

5.75

4.93

4.27

0.65 3.19

0.28 1.98

0.00 0.22 0.99

1.67

2.35 0.06

2.68 0.11

1.10 0.96 0.6 1.99 1.54 1.1 34.6 % 31.3 % 25.9 % 19.34 12.40 9.5 1 469

1 728

1 866

296 951 45 10 34

200 1 313 68 10 58

216 1 429 57 6 50

242.2 204.9 203.7 2 160.1 2 366.4 2 435.1 2 651.8 3 197.9 3 375.4 218.5 81.8 % 92.0 % 95.3 % 98.7 % 99.0 % 99.7 %

171.8

173.4

78.4 % 77.4 % 87.2 % 89.6 % 90.1 % 91.2 % 100.7 % 97.9 % 99.5 % 99.4 % 99.7 % 100.5 %

19.6 % 25.8 % 25.6 % 32.5 % 46.1 % 46.5 % 7.4 % 15.5 % 16.8 % 3.8 % 4.6 % 3.6 % 13.86 20.86

13.39 20.42

13.44 20.37

4 410.6 4 582.5 4 654.3 2 000.6 1 915.4 1 868.0 494.4 396.7 389.3

* Preliminary 2016 CHP data from Eurostat. ** Total emissions without LULUCF, with ind. CO2, including international aviation, excl. international maritime transport.

205


PART 5  Country Profiles

5.16 Luxembourg Mtoe, unless otherwise stated Production Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Wastes, Non-Renewable Net Imports Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Renewables Electricity Gross Inland Consumption Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Electricity Wastes, Non-Renewable Primary Energy Consumption Available for Final Consumption Final Non-Energy Consumption Final Energy Consumption by Fuel/Product Solid Fuels Petroleum and Products Gases Biomass and Renewable Wastes Solar Geothermal Electricity Derived heat Wastes, Non-Renewable by Sector Industry Transport Residential Services Agriculture and Fishing Other

1995 0.05

2000 0.06

2010 0.12

2015 0.15

2016 0.16

0.01 0.01

0.01 0.01

0.04 0.01 3.25 0.49 0.13 1.77

0.04 0.03 3.64 0.11 0.10 2.37

0.07 0.04 4.68 0.08 0.07 3.14

0.09 0.03 4.51 0.07 0.06 2.85

0.12 0.03 4.01 0.05 0.04 2.62

0.13 0.03 4.03 0.05 0.05 2.64

0.56 0.56

0.67 0.67

1.18 1.18

0.43 3.32 0.49 0.13 1.80

0.49 3.65 0.11 0.10 2.32

0.28 4.80 0.08 0.07 3.16

1.20 1.20 0.04 0.35 4.64 0.07 0.06 2.87

0.77 0.77 0.09 0.48 4.18 0.05 0.04 2.64

0.71 0.71 0.10 0.54 4.20 0.05 0.05 2.64

0.56 0.56

0.67 0.67

1.18 1.18

1.20 1.20

0.77 0.77

0.71 0.71

0.04 0.43 0.01 3.28 3.17 0.05 3.11

0.04 0.49 0.03 3.60 3.56 0.06 3.50

0.07 0.28 0.04 4.77 4.53 0.03 4.48

0.13 0.35 0.03 4.61 4.36 0.03 4.32

0.21 0.48 0.03 4.15 4.02 0.03 3.99

0.22 0.54 0.03 4.16 4.08 0.04 4.04

0.34 1.75 0.58 0.02

0.11 2.26 0.61 0.02

0.08 3.11 0.63 0.04

0.07 2.84 0.68 0.09 0.00

0.05 2.61 0.60 0.13 0.00

0.05 2.59 0.63 0.14 0.00

0.43 0.00 0.00

0.50 0.01 0.01

0.53 0.07 0.02

0.57 0.07 0.01

0.54 0.05 0.01

0.55 0.05 0.01

1.17 1.30 0.56 0.07 0.01 0.01

0.74 1.91 0.47 0.36 0.02 0.01

0.78 2.78 0.53 0.37 0.02

0.76 2.60 0.51 0.43 0.03

0.64 2.42 0.51 0.40 0.02

0.67 2.42 0.49 0.43 0.02

Methodology, Sources and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 5

206

2005 0.11


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 Installed Electricity Capacity (GW) 1.25 1.22 1.68 1.71 2.02 1.71 Combustible Fuels 0.12 0.07 0.49 0.50 0.51 0.14 Nuclear Hydro 1.13 1.13 1.13 1.13 1.33 1.33 Wind 0.01 0.04 0.04 0.06 0.12 Solar PV 0.02 0.03 0.12 0.12 Geothermal Tide, Wave and Ocean Other Sources Gross Electricity Generation, 1.23 1.17 4.13 4.59 2.77 2.20 by Fuel (TWh) Solid Fuels Petroleum and Products 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Gases 0.34 0.22 3.11 2.92 0.84 0.26 Nuclear 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Renewables 0.85 0.92 1.00 1.63 1.86 1.87 Wastes, non-RES 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.07 0.07 Cogeneration Heat and Power * CHP Electrical Capacity (GW) 0.10 0.12 0.12 0.1 CHP Electricity Generation (TWh) 0.42 0.44 0.35 0.3 CHP in Total Electricity Generation (%) 10.1 % 9.6 % 12.7 % 15.7 % CHP Heat Production (PJ) 1.19 3.21 2.37 2.3 Transport Fuels (ktoe) Final Consumption 1 291 1 909 2 772 2 552 2 326 2 319 Petroleum Products Motor Gasoline 529 595 514 360 293 285 Gas/Diesel Oil 569 990 1 823 1 760 1 574 1 519 Final Consumption Biofuels 1 42 83 90 Biogasoline 1 7 9 Biodiesel 41 76 81 Main Energy Indicators Energy Intensity (toe/M€'10) 144.1 118.7 134.8 115.5 90.3 87.9 Energy per Capita (kgoe/cap) 8 194.3 8 427.1 10 407.0 9 243.8 7 425.1 7 283.3 Final Electricity per Capita 12 316.0 13 318.7 13 333.9 13 131.7 11 057.7 11 049.0 (KWh/cap) Primary Energy Intensity 142.1 116.9 134.0 114.7 89.6 87.2 (toe/M€'10) Import Dependency (%) 97.7 % 99.6 % 97.4 % 97.1 % 95.9 % 96.1 % of Solid Fuels 100.0 % 100.0 % 100.0 % 100.0 % 100.0 % 100.0 % of Hard Coal 100.0 % 100.0 % 100.0 % 100.0 % 100.0 % 100.0 % of Petroleum Fuels 98.2 % 102.1 % 99.4 % 99.4 % 99.3 % 100.0 % of Crude and NGL of Natural Gas 100.0 % 100.0 % 100.0 % 100.0 % 99.4 % 99.3 % Renewables in Gross Final Energy (%) Overall RES with Aviation Cap 1.4 % 2.9 % 5.0 % 5.4 % RES-H&C – Heating and Cooling 3.6 % 4.7 % 7.1 % 7.3 % RES-E – Electricity Generation 3.2 % 3.8 % 6.2 % 6.7 % RES-T – Transport 0.1 % 2.1 % 6.5 % 5.9 % Gases Emissions (Mio ton CO 2) CO2 Emissions** 9.67 9.61 13.32 12.41 10.60 10.49 GHGs Emissions** 10.66 10.62 14.29 13.44 11.63 11.53 Main Emissions Indicators CO2 per Capita (kg CO2/cap) 23 845.4 22 170.1 28 873.1 24 723.4 18 830.1 18 209.6 Carbon Intensity (kg CO2/toe) 2 910.0 2 630.8 2 774.4 2 674.6 2 536.0 2 500.2 CO2 GDP Intensity (ton CO2/M€'10) 419.3 312.2 374.0 308.9 229.0 219.9 * Preliminary 2016 CHP data from Eurostat. ** Total emissions without LULUCF, with ind. CO2, including international aviation, excl. international maritime transport.

207


PART 5  Country Profiles

5.17 Hungary Mtoe, unless otherwise stated Production Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Wastes, Non-Renewable Net Imports Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Renewables Electricity Gross Inland Consumption Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Electricity Wastes, Non-Renewable Primary Energy Consumption Available for Final Consumption Final Non-Energy Consumption Final Energy Consumption by Fuel/Product Solid Fuels Petroleum and Products Gases Biomass and Renewable Wastes Solar Geothermal Electricity Derived heat Wastes, Non-Renewable by Sector Industry Transport Residential Services Agriculture and Fishing Other

1995 13.90 3.27

2000 11.60 2.89

2005 10.87 1.75

2010 11.92 1.59

2015 11.29 1.52

2016 11.45 1.46

2.33 2.33 3.79 3.79 3.62 0.87 0.03 12.55 1.36 1.23 5.44 5.89 5.53 5.53 0.00 0.21 26.18 4.62 1.19 7.67 8.20 9.18 9.18 3.62 0.87 0.21 0.03 24.55 18.16 1.63 16.23

1.70 1.69 2.48 2.48 3.67 0.83 0.03 13.96 1.09 1.12 5.29 5.88 7.28 7.28 0.00 0.30 25.30 3.85 1.13 6.96 7.48 9.66 9.66 3.67 0.83 0.30 0.03 23.71 17.72 1.59 16.14

1.46 1.39 2.33 2.33 3.59 1.69 0.06 17.42 1.30 1.30 5.78 5.90 9.81 9.81 0.00 0.54 28.11 3.03 1.24 7.12 7.27 12.09 12.09 3.59 1.69 0.54 0.06 25.94 20.87 2.17 18.75

1.18 1.06 2.24 2.24 4.08 2.74 0.09 15.00 1.14 1.39 5.64 5.66 7.73 7.73 0.04 0.45 26.60 2.73 1.40 6.67 6.65 9.82 9.82 4.08 2.78 0.45 0.09 24.63 19.41 1.97 17.43

0.94 0.84 1.37 1.37 4.10 3.25 0.11 13.43 0.80 1.05 6.43 6.07 5.22 5.22 -0.23 1.18 25.18 2.36 1.05 6.90 6.65 7.49 7.49 4.10 3.02 1.18 0.13 23.28 19.07 1.91 17.38

1.08 0.97 1.43 1.43 4.16 3.19 0.13 14.29 0.78 1.09 6.26 5.87 6.33 6.33 -0.21 1.09 25.71 2.26 1.10 7.01 6.81 8.03 8.03 4.16 3.00 1.09 0.16 23.86 19.42 1.85 17.87

1.16 4.20 6.37 0.73

0.67 4.22 6.50 0.69

0.08 2.39 1.30

0.08 2.53 1.45

0.73 4.90 7.84 1.08 0.00 0.08 2.78 1.31 0.03

0.52 4.59 6.28 1.88 0.01 0.09 2.94 1.09 0.03

0.44 5.14 5.46 2.11 0.01 0.05 3.12 0.99 0.06

0.39 5.30 5.71 2.09 0.01 0.05 3.19 1.06 0.06

3.85 2.70 6.26 2.64 0.66 0.13

3.51 3.31 5.60 3.03 0.67 0.02

3.40 4.31 6.97 3.50 0.56 0.00

2.92 4.32 6.65 3.05 0.49 0.00

4.24 4.36 5.97 2.20 0.58 0.03

4.26 4.54 6.16 2.23 0.65 0.04

Methodology, Sources and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 5

208


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1995 Installed Electricity Capacity (GW) 7.40 Combustible Fuels 5.52 Nuclear 1.84 Hydro 0.05 Wind Solar PV Geothermal Tide, Wave and Ocean Other Sources Gross Electricity Generation, 34.02 by Fuel (TWh) Solid Fuels 9.08 Petroleum and Products 5.28 Gases 5.36 Nuclear 14.03 Renewables 0.22 Wastes, non-RES 0.05 Cogeneration Heat and Power * CHP Electrical Capacity (GW) CHP Electricity Generation (TWh) CHP in Total Electricity Generation (%) CHP Heat Production (PJ) Transport Fuels (ktoe) Final Consumption 2 609 Petroleum Products Motor Gasoline 1 530 Gas/Diesel Oil 897 Final Consumption Biofuels Biogasoline Biodiesel Main Energy Indicators Energy Intensity (toe/M€'10) 375.1 Energy per Capita (kgoe/cap) 2 533.0 Final Electricity per Capita 2 684.0 (KWh/cap) Primary Energy Intensity 351.7 (toe/M€'10) Import Dependency (%) 47.9 % of Solid Fuels 29.5 % of Hard Coal 103.5 % of Petroleum Fuels 71.0 % of Crude and NGL 71.9 % of Natural Gas 60.3 % Renewables in Gross Final Energy (%) Overall RES with Aviation Cap RES-H&C – Heating and Cooling RES-E – Electricity Generation RES-T – Transport Gases Emissions (Mio ton CO 2) CO2 Emissions** 62.16 GHGs Emissions** 76.05 Main Emissions Indicators CO2 per Capita (kg CO2/cap) 6 013.7 Carbon Intensity (kg CO2/toe) 2 374.1 CO2 GDP Intensity (ton CO2/M€'10) 890.6

2000 8.28 6.38 1.85 0.05

2005 8.59 6.65 1.87 0.05 0.02

2010 8.99 6.65 2.00 0.05 0.29 0.00

2015 8.64 6.07 2.00 0.06 0.33 0.17

2016 8.75 6.11 2.00 0.06 0.33 0.22

0.01

0.04

35.19

35.76

37.37

30.34

31.86

9.59 4.40 6.72 14.18 0.24 0.06

7.02 0.46 12.50 13.83 1.87 0.07

6.23 0.49 11.71 15.76 3.02 0.15

5.79 0.08 5.23 15.83 3.21 0.14

5.63 0.06 6.61 16.05 3.22 0.21

2.05 1.86 1.57 1.5 6.84 7.31 4.09 4.8 19.1 % 19.6 % 13.5 % 15.1 % 47.42 42.18 24.37 24.7 3 220

4 208

4 021

4 047

4 199

1 433 1 553

1 589 2 323 3 3

1 348 2 414 175 57 118

1 283 2 559 175 43 133

1 388 2 591 187 44 143

312.9 281.4 269.2 231.7 231.4 2 474.9 2 784.0 2 656.1 2 555.3 2 614.8 2 880.3 3 202.6 3 415.8 3 682.3 3 775.8 259.7

249.2

214.2

214.7

55.2 % 62.0 % 28.2 % 42.9 % 99.0 % 105.1 % 76.0 % 81.2 % 78.6 % 81.2 % 75.4 % 81.1 %

293.2

56.4 % 41.9 % 99.5 % 84.7 % 85.2 % 78.7 %

53.3 % 34.0 % 99.3 % 93.2 % 91.3 % 69.7 %

55.6 % 34.5 % 98.8 % 89.3 % 86.2 % 78.9 %

6.9 % 12.7 % 14.4 % 14.2 % 9.9 % 18.1 % 21.2 % 20.8 % 4.4 % 7.1 % 7.3 % 7.2 % 0.9 % 6.0 % 7.0 % 7.4 % 59.26 74.11

61.31 76.58

52.83 66.06

47.21 61.56

48.18 62.07

5 797.4 6 071.8 5 275.6 4 790.0 4 900.8 2 342.4 2 180.9 1 986.2 1 874.5 1 874.2 732.9 613.7 534.6 434.3 433.6

* Preliminary 2016 CHP data from Eurostat. ** Total emissions without LULUCF, with ind. CO2, including international aviation, excl. international maritime transport.

209


PART 5  Country Profiles

5.18 Malta Mtoe, unless otherwise stated Production Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Wastes, Non-Renewable Net Imports Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Renewables Electricity Gross Inland Consumption Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Electricity Wastes, Non-Renewable Primary Energy Consumption Available for Final Consumption Final Non-Energy Consumption Final Energy Consumption by Fuel/Product Solid Fuels Petroleum and Products Gases Biomass and Renewable Wastes Solar Geothermal Electricity Derived heat Wastes, Non-Renewable by Sector Industry Transport Residential Services Agriculture and Fishing Other

1995

2000

2010 0.00

2015 0.02

2016 0.02

0.001

0.00

0.00

0.02

0.02

0.84

1.46

1.59

2.37

2.23

2.50

0.84

1.46

1.59

2.37

2.14

2.36

0.00

0.01

0.01

0.76

0.80

0.94

0.94

0.76

0.73

0.76

0.80

0.94

0.93

0.65

0.57

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.76 0.41 0.00 0.46

0.80 0.44 0.00 0.44

0.92 0.48 0.02 0.46

0.93 0.52 0.01 0.50

0.75 0.58 0.01 0.57

0.72 0.59 0.01 0.58

0.35

0.31

0.30

0.34

0.38

0.39

0.00

0.00 0.00

0.01 0.00

0.01 0.00

0.11

0.14

0.16

0.16

0.18

0.18

0.04 0.31 0.07 0.03 0.00 0.00

0.04 0.28 0.08 0.04 0.00 0.00

0.05 0.25 0.07 0.06 0.01 0.02

0.04 0.29 0.07 0.09 0.01 0.00

0.05 0.31 0.08 0.13 0.01 0.00

0.05 0.32 0.08 0.12 0.01 0.00

Methodology, Sources and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 5

210

2005 0.00


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1995 2000 2005 Installed Electricity Capacity (GW) Combustible Fuels Nuclear Hydro Wind Solar PV Geothermal Tide, Wave and Ocean Other Sources Gross Electricity Generation, 1.63 1.92 2.24 by Fuel (TWh) Solid Fuels 0.09 Petroleum and Products 1.54 1.92 2.24 Gases Nuclear Renewables Wastes, non-RES Cogeneration Heat and Power * CHP Electrical Capacity (GW) CHP Electricity Generation (TWh) CHP in Total Electricity Generation (%) CHP Heat Production (PJ) Transport Fuels (ktoe) Final Consumption 308 277 253 Petroleum Products Motor Gasoline 129 76 67 Gas/Diesel Oil 106 78 94 Final Consumption Biofuels Biogasoline Biodiesel Main Energy Indicators Energy Intensity (toe/M€'10) 174.9 148.6 156.7 Energy per Capita (kgoe/cap) 2 005.7 2 060.4 2 324.5 Final Electricity per Capita 3 344.6 4 030.8 4 614.2 (KWh/cap) Primary Energy Intensity 174.9 148.6 153.4 (toe/M€'10) Import Dependency (%) 104.8 % 100.3 % 100.0 % of Solid Fuels of Hard Coal of Petroleum Fuels 104.8 % 100.3 % 100.1 % of Crude and NGL of Natural Gas Renewables in Gross Final Energy (%) Overall RES with Aviation Cap 0.1 % RES-H&C – Heating and Cooling 1.0 % RES-E – Electricity Generation 0.0 % RES-T – Transport 0.0 % Gases Emissions (Mio ton CO2) CO2 Emissions** 2.83 2.90 2.93 GHGs Emissions** 3.03 3.14 3.25 Main Emissions Indicators CO2 per Capita (kg CO2/cap) 7 512.7 7 449.8 7 282.9 Carbon Intensity (kg CO2/toe) 3 539.4 1 991.9 1 839.8 CO2 GDP Intensity (ton CO2/M€'10) 655.0 537.2 491.1

2010 0.57 0.57

2015 0.67 0.59

2016 0.57 0.48

0.00

0.07

0.09

2.11

1.30

0.86

2.11

1.20

0.72

0.00

0.10

0.13

286

307

315

74 108 1

77 111 4

78 110 6

1

4

6

142.4 88.6 80.6 2 270.4 1 721.7 1 611.8 4 405.5 4 807.9 4 693.4 140.9

87.9

79.6

99.0 % 97.3 % 100.8 %

99.2 % 97.8 % 101.6 %

1.0 % 5.0 % 6.0 % 7.8 % 14.1 % 15.3 % 0.0 % 4.2 % 5.6 % 0.0 % 4.7 % 5.4 % 2.89 3.27

2.11 2.58

1.80 2.29

6 990.8 4 793.5 3 985.5 1 211.5 918.8 724.4 438.6 246.8 199.3

* Preliminary 2016 CHP data from Eurostat. ** Total emissions without LULUCF, with ind. CO2, including international aviation, excl. international maritime transport.

211


PART 5  Country Profiles

5.19 The Netherlands Mtoe, unless otherwise stated Production Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Wastes, Non-Renewable Net Imports Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Renewables Electricity Gross Inland Consumption Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Electricity Wastes, Non-Renewable Primary Energy Consumption Available for Final Consumption Final Non-Energy Consumption Final Energy Consumption by Fuel/Product Solid Fuels Petroleum and Products Gases Biomass and Renewable Wastes Solar Geothermal Electricity Derived heat Wastes, Non-Renewable by Sector Industry Transport Residential Services Agriculture and Fishing Other

1995 70.04

2000 62.51

2015 52.13

2016 50.91

6.90 6.69 6.85 6.07 6.15 3.51 2.39 2.30 1.43 1.84 60.87 52.77 56.19 64.75 39.53 60.87 52.77 56.19 64.75 39.53 1.04 1.01 1.03 1.02 1.05 0.92 1.45 1.97 3.06 4.75 0.32 0.58 0.72 0.73 0.65 17.16 34.50 37.54 30.00 46.08 8.74 7.92 8.22 9.18 12.30 8.96 7.94 8.21 9.06 12.46 33.81 42.23 48.39 44.67 44.49 59.02 59.84 60.64 59.56 59.93 -26.37 -17.19 -20.94 -24.21 -10.49 -26.37 -17.19 -20.94 -24.21 -10.49 0.00 -0.10 0.29 0.13 -1.12 0.98 1.63 1.57 0.24 0.75 75.34 77.86 84.04 86.64 77.37 8.93 7.77 8.09 7.54 10.94 9.20 7.82 8.19 7.40 11.04 28.66 30.50 35.02 33.83 31.47 62.64 61.86 62.73 60.99 61.12 34.50 35.02 35.34 40.10 28.72 34.50 35.02 35.34 40.10 28.72 1.04 1.01 1.03 1.02 1.05 0.92 1.35 2.27 3.19 3.64 0.98 1.63 1.57 0.24 0.75 0.32 0.58 0.72 0.73 0.80 64.27 65.88 68.82 70.42 64.40 64.10 67.61 72.08 73.46 64.13 11.07 11.99 15.22 16.23 12.97 50.77 52.14 53.98 55.11 48.50

6.33 1.27 38.18 38.18 1.02 4.71 0.68 41.58 9.30 9.35 42.48 61.29 -9.85 -9.85 -0.96 0.42 78.53 10.21 10.28 32.19 61.95 30.13 30.13 1.02 3.70 0.42 0.86 64.85 65.59 13.68 49.52

1.45 15.76 23.32 0.44 0.01

1.38 17.27 21.05 0.49 0.01

1.55 18.43 20.51 0.58 0.02

6.96 2.83 0.01

8.21 3.70 0.03

16.08 12.38 11.79 5.77 4.63 0.12

16.51 13.94 10.83 6.24 4.51 0.10

Methodology, Sources and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 5

212

2005 66.76

2010 75.63

9.00 3.85 0.05

1.36 18.44 22.02 0.92 0.02 0.01 9.29 3.00 0.06

1.53 17.20 17.17 1.15 0.03 0.06 8.87 2.46 0.04

1.55 17.67 17.86 1.08 0.03 0.07 9.08 2.14 0.03

17.02 15.03 10.74 6.93 4.17 0.08

15.44 15.07 12.46 7.80 4.23 0.12

14.27 14.25 9.56 6.56 3.77 0.10

14.66 14.30 9.86 6.81 3.87 0.03


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 Installed Electricity Capacity (GW) 19.03 21.06 21.80 26.69 33.87 34.18 Combustible Fuels 18.20 20.07 19.97 23.74 28.40 27.31 Nuclear 0.51 0.45 0.45 0.51 0.49 0.49 Hydro 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 Wind 0.25 0.45 1.22 2.24 3.39 4.26 Solar PV 0.00 0.01 0.05 0.09 1.52 2.05 Geothermal Tide, Wave and Ocean Other Sources 0.05 0.05 0.07 0.07 0.04 0.04 Gross Electricity Generation, 81.17 89.63 99.92 119.27 110.07 115.17 by Fuel (TWh) Solid Fuels 27.40 24.28 23.50 22.59 38.44 36.72 Petroleum and Products 2.81 2.64 2.26 1.25 1.43 1.28 Gases 44.63 54.36 61.03 78.55 49.39 56.57 Nuclear 4.02 3.93 4.00 3.97 4.08 3.96 Renewables 1.41 2.97 7.45 11.20 13.70 14.73 Wastes, non-RES 0.60 1.21 1.43 1.56 1.63 1.71 Cogeneration Heat and Power * CHP Electrical Capacity (GW) 7.16 9.30 9.18 9.0 CHP Electricity Generation (TWh) 29.47 39.24 29.78 30.8 CHP in Total Electricity Generation (%) 29.4 % 33.2 % 27.1 % 26.7 % CHP Heat Production (PJ) 220.28 233.61 189.64 174.3 Transport Fuels (ktoe) Final Consumption 12 248 13 803 14 885 14 677 13 770 13 850 Petroleum Products Motor Gasoline 3 948 3 964 4 039 4 048 3 774 3 910 Gas/Diesel Oil 4 874 5 916 6 738 6 863 5 962 5 853 Final Consumption Biofuels 229 297 242 Biogasoline 134 142 121 Biodiesel 95 156 121 Main Energy Indicators Energy Intensity (toe/M€'10) 167.9 140.4 141.8 137.2 117.7 116.8 Energy per Capita (kgoe/cap) 4 884.4 4 908.2 5 153.9 5 227.3 4 577.8 4 625.0 Final Electricity per Capita 5 244.7 6 020.1 6 419.1 6 515.8 6 101.0 6 221.1 (KWh/cap) Primary Energy Intensity 143.3 118.8 116.1 111.5 97.9 96.5 (toe/M€'10) Import Dependency (%) 19.9 % 38.0 % 37.8 % 29.9 % 51.4 % 45.8 % of Solid Fuels 97.9 % 102.0 % 101.5 % 121.7 % 112.4 % 91.0 % of Hard Coal 97.4 % 101.5 % 100.3 % 122.3 % 112.8 % 90.9 % of Petroleum Fuels 85.7 % 97.3 % 96.2 % 94.3 % 101.6 % 95.6 % of Crude and NGL 94.2 % 96.7 % 96.7 % 97.7 % 98.0 % 98.9 % of Natural Gas -76.4 % -49.1 % -59.3 % -60.4 % -36.5 % -32.7 % Renewables in Gross Final Energy (%) Overall RES with Aviation Cap 2.5 % 3.9 % 5.8 % 6.0 % RES-H&C – Heating and Cooling 2.4 % 3.1 % 5.5 % 5.5 % RES-E – Electricity Generation 6.3 % 9.6 % 11.1 % 12.5 % RES-T – Transport 0.4 % 3.3 % 5.3 % 4.6 % Gases Emissions (Mio ton CO 2) CO2 Emissions** 181.12 182.17 188.72 192.64 176.63 177.41 GHGs Emissions** 238.94 229.37 225.37 223.72 206.25 207.02 Main Emissions Indicators CO2 per Capita (kg CO2/cap) 11 742.5 11 483.1 11 574.0 11 622.5 10 450.9 10 448.7 Carbon Intensity (kg CO2/toe) 2 102.4 2 007.4 1 900.2 1 922.5 1 969.0 1 954.6 CO2 GDP Intensity (ton CO2/M€'10) 403.7 328.4 318.4 305.0 268.6 264.0 * Preliminary 2016 CHP data from Eurostat. ** Total emissions without LULUCF, with ind. CO2, including international aviation, excl. international maritime transport.

213


PART 5  Country Profiles

5.20 Austria Mtoe, unless otherwise stated Production Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Wastes, Non-Renewable Net Imports Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Renewables Electricity Gross Inland Consumption Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Electricity Wastes, Non-Renewable Primary Energy Consumption Available for Final Consumption Final Non-Energy Consumption Final Energy Consumption by Fuel/Product Solid Fuels Petroleum and Products Gases Biomass and Renewable Wastes Solar Geothermal Electricity Derived heat Wastes, Non-Renewable by Sector Industry Transport Residential Services Agriculture and Fishing Other

1995 8.77 0.34 0.00 1.08 1.07 1.27 1.27

2000 9.79 0.29

2005 9.77

2010 11.66

2015 12.00

2016 12.35

1.09 1.07 1.55 1.55

1.00 0.97 1.33 1.33

1.04 1.00 1.40 1.40

0.87 0.87 1.04 1.04

0.79 0.79 0.98 0.98

5.85 0.23 18.02 2.64 2.05 10.10 7.56 5.46 5.46 0.04 -0.21 27.11 3.48 2.32 11.29 8.63 6.44 6.44

6.61 0.25 19.01 3.02 2.34 10.84 7.22 5.31 5.31 -0.03 -0.12 29.02 3.60 2.56 12.13 8.31 6.59 6.59

7.00 0.44 24.52 3.97 2.99 13.21 7.88 7.15 7.15 -0.04 0.23 34.04 3.94 2.80 14.40 8.90 8.09 8.09

8.61 0.62 21.57 3.36 2.48 11.50 6.70 6.12 6.12 0.39 0.20 34.12 3.38 2.54 12.77 7.78 8.12 8.12

9.33 0.76 20.22 2.71 2.08 11.26 8.03 4.99 4.99 0.40 0.87 33.40 3.18 2.51 11.98 8.85 6.88 6.88

9.77 0.82 21.16 2.82 2.28 11.28 7.27 6.16 6.16 0.28 0.62 33.87 2.96 2.35 12.24 8.12 7.18 7.18

5.89 -0.21 0.23 25.73 22.74 1.38 21.37

6.57 -0.12 0.25 27.30 25.45 1.72 23.69

6.95 0.23 0.44 32.33 29.50 1.71 27.76

9.02 0.20 0.62 32.28 29.83 1.84 27.94

9.74 0.87 0.76 31.47 29.40 1.93 27.46

10.05 0.62 0.82 31.84 30.16 2.03 28.13

1.58 8.83 3.79 2.15 0.04 0.00 4.02 0.85 0.12

1.40 9.78 4.50 2.34 0.06 0.01 4.43 1.02 0.15

1.36 12.04 5.19 2.63 0.09 0.01 4.93 1.30 0.23

1.25 10.50 5.32 3.44 0.16 0.01 5.15 1.82 0.27

1.44 9.87 4.95 3.72 0.18 0.01 5.25 1.70 0.34

1.43 10.13 5.13 3.86 0.18 0.01 5.32 1.74 0.34

6.41 5.83 6.32 2.27 0.54

7.30 6.98 6.34 2.55 0.53

8.62 9.03 6.00 3.61 0.50

9.08 8.74 6.24 3.36 0.51

9.13 9.02 6.16 2.64 0.52

9.45 9.19 6.32 2.65 0.52

Methodology, Sources and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 5

214


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1995 Installed Electricity Capacity (GW) 17.40 Combustible Fuels 6.13 Nuclear Hydro 11.26 Wind 0.00 Solar PV 0.00 Geothermal Tide, Wave and Ocean Other Sources Gross Electricity Generation, 56.23 by Fuel (TWh) Solid Fuels 4.32 Petroleum and Products 2.12 Gases 9.76 Nuclear Renewables 39.95 Wastes, non-RES 0.07 Cogeneration Heat and Power * CHP Electrical Capacity (GW) CHP Electricity Generation (TWh) CHP in Total Electricity Generation (%) CHP Heat Production (PJ) Transport Fuels (ktoe) Final Consumption 5 444 Petroleum Products Motor Gasoline 2 429 Gas/Diesel Oil 2 537 Final Consumption Biofuels 10 Biogasoline Biodiesel 10 Main Energy Indicators Energy Intensity (toe/M€'10) 123.6 Energy per Capita (kgoe/cap) 3 413.0 Final Electricity per Capita 5 880.5 (KWh/cap) Primary Energy Intensity 117.4 (toe/M€'10) Import Dependency (%) 66.4 % of Solid Fuels 75.7 % of Hard Coal 88.3 % of Petroleum Fuels 89.3 % of Crude and NGL 87.6 % of Natural Gas 84.8 % Renewables in Gross Final Energy (%) Overall RES with Aviation Cap RES-H&C – Heating and Cooling RES-E – Electricity Generation RES-T – Transport Gases Emissions (Mio ton CO 2) CO2 Emissions** 65.53 GHGs Emissions** 81.07 Main Emissions Indicators CO2 per Capita (kg CO2/cap) 8 249.9 Carbon Intensity (kg CO2/toe) 2 415.4 CO2 GDP Intensity (ton CO2/M€'10) 298.9

2000 17.80 6.13

2005 18.90 6.46

2010 21.19 7.35

2015 24.44 7.67

2016 24.79 7.27

11.61 0.05 0.01

11.63 0.78 0.03 0.00

12.71 0.98 0.15 0.00

13.35 2.49 0.94 0.00

13.69 2.73 1.10 0.00

61.26

66.83

71.13

65.30

68.35

5.73 1.70 8.86

7.17 1.64 14.35

4.92 1.27 16.14

2.98 0.86 9.88

2.04 0.99 10.52

44.82 0.13

43.23 0.45

48.18 0.61

50.78 0.78

53.85 0.93

2.17 3.16 2.81 3.4 7.68 10.96 9.00 10.9 11.6 % 15.4 % 13.8 % 16.0 % 100.11 110.61 105.91 114.9 6 515

8 536

7 763

7 842

8 128

2 016 3 892 16

2 109 5 721 49

16

49

1 700 5 330 495 79 417

1 546 5 541 645 60 585

1 528 5 783 532 57 475

114.2 122.8 115.3 106.8 106.8 3 626.9 4 150.9 4 084.9 3 890.2 3 892.3 6 440.9 6 987.1 7 172.0 7 112.7 7 109.0 116.6

109.1

100.7

100.4

65.4 % 72.0 % 83.9 % 100.7 % 91.6 % 107.1 % 89.1 % 91.6 % 86.9 % 88.5 % 80.6 % 88.5 %

107.5

63.2 % 99.4 % 97.5 % 89.9 % 86.2 % 75.3 %

60.5 % 85.2 % 82.9 % 93.9 % 90.8 % 72.5 %

62.4 % 95.5 % 96.8 % 92.0 % 89.5 % 85.8 %

23.7 % 22.0 % 61.9 % 4.8 %

30.2 % 29.0 % 65.7 % 10.7 %

32.8 % 32.4 % 70.3 % 11.4 %

33.5 % 33.3 % 72.6 % 10.6 %

81.33 94.64

74.43 87.00

68.83 81.01

69.73 82.02

67.96 82.14

8 492.3 9 916.2 8 912.3 8 017.7 8 014.2 2 339.6 2 387.1 2 180.3 2 060.0 2 057.9 267.5 293.3 251.5 220.2 219.9

* Preliminary 2016 CHP data from Eurostat. ** Total emissions without LULUCF, with ind. CO2, including international aviation, excl. international maritime transport.

215


PART 5  Country Profiles

5.21 Poland Mtoe, unless otherwise stated Production Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Wastes, Non-Renewable Net Imports Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Renewables Electricity Gross Inland Consumption Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Electricity Wastes, Non-Renewable Primary Energy Consumption Available for Final Consumption Final Non-Energy Consumption Final Energy Consumption by Fuel/Product Solid Fuels Petroleum and Products Gases Biomass and Renewable Wastes Solar Geothermal Electricity Derived heat Wastes, Non-Renewable by Sector Industry Transport Residential Services Agriculture and Fishing Other

1995 99.38 91.07 78.19 0.37 0.27 3.18 3.17

2000 79.59 71.30 59.18 1.06 0.63 3.32 3.31

2010 67.44 55.38 43.82 1.12 0.68 3.70 3.69

2015 68.64 53.87 41.57 1.73 0.92 3.68 3.68

2016 67.37 52.31 40.63 1.74 0.99 3.55 3.55

3.92 3.81 4.55 6.85 0.84 0.10 0.16 0.40 -1.16 8.77 15.94 31.53 -21.25 -16.35 -13.04 -2.81 -18.94 -13.85 -9.70 1.80 14.52 19.07 21.47 25.16 11.95 17.36 17.53 22.28 5.81 6.61 8.53 8.87 5.81 6.61 8.53 8.87 0.00 0.00 -0.07 0.43 -0.24 -0.55 -0.96 -0.12 98.83 88.65 92.22 100.68 70.31 56.29 54.61 54.61 59.72 46.35 45.55 47.94 15.00 19.04 21.69 25.71 12.31 17.51 18.02 22.63 9.00 9.96 12.24 12.81 9.00 9.96 12.24 12.81

8.84 0.52 28.02 -5.61 -0.96 23.56 26.06 9.95 9.95 0.14 -0.03 95.63 48.26 40.69 24.13 25.93 13.78 13.78

9.03 0.74 30.32 -5.88 -0.90 24.81 24.13 11.47 11.47 -0.25 0.17 99.93 49.08 42.33 26.54 25.54 14.63 14.63

3.92 -0.24 0.84 95.12 67.25 3.71 62.94

3.80 -0.55 0.10 84.29 58.57 4.36 55.21

4.49 -0.96 0.16 87.65 62.71 4.57 58.47

7.27 -0.12 0.40 95.72 71.09 4.96 66.33

8.97 -0.03 0.52 89.96 66.74 5.66 62.33

8.77 0.17 0.74 94.32 71.74 5.61 66.65

22.58 11.65 7.76 3.73

13.22 15.50 7.57 3.52

12.21 17.84 8.77 3.85

7.71 8.82 0.70

0.00 8.43 6.89 0.08

0.01 9.03 6.63 0.14

13.77 20.73 9.46 5.22 0.01 0.01 10.21 6.55 0.38

11.69 19.30 8.98 5.37 0.05 0.02 10.99 5.46 0.49

12.07 21.63 9.69 5.47 0.05 0.02 11.42 5.67 0.64

23.03 8.30 22.67 4.16 4.78 0.01

18.45 9.92 17.19 4.97 4.64 0.04

15.32 12.54 19.45 6.73 4.43 0.00

14.10 17.70 21.97 8.83 3.73 0.00

15.04 17.21 18.92 7.83 3.33 0.00

15.62 19.24 19.75 8.51 3.54 0.00

Methodology, Sources and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 5

216

2005 78.60 68.86 56.12 1.15 0.84 3.89 3.88


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1995 Installed Electricity Capacity (GW) 29.48 Combustible Fuels 27.42 Nuclear Hydro 2.06 Wind Solar PV Geothermal Tide, Wave and Ocean Other Sources Gross Electricity Generation, 139.01 by Fuel (TWh) Solid Fuels 131.77 Petroleum and Products 1.52 Gases 1.50 Nuclear Renewables 3.92 Wastes, non-RES 0.30 Cogeneration Heat and Power * CHP Electrical Capacity (GW) CHP Electricity Generation (TWh) CHP in Total Electricity Generation (%) CHP Heat Production (PJ) Transport Fuels (ktoe) Final Consumption 7 891 Petroleum Products Motor Gasoline 4 610 Gas/Diesel Oil 2 796 Final Consumption Biofuels Biogasoline Biodiesel Main Energy Indicators Energy Intensity (toe/M€'10) 518.7 Energy per Capita (kgoe/cap) 2 561.6 Final Electricity per Capita 2 324.8 (KWh/cap) Primary Energy Intensity 499.2 (toe/M€'10) Import Dependency (%) -1.2 % of Solid Fuels -30.2 % of Hard Coal -31.7 % of Petroleum Fuels 95.9 % of Crude and NGL 97.1 % of Natural Gas 64.6 % Renewables in Gross Final Energy (%) Overall RES with Aviation Cap RES-H&C – Heating and Cooling RES-E – Electricity Generation RES-T – Transport Gases Emissions (Mio ton CO 2) CO2 Emissions** 361.83 GHGs Emissions** 438.93 Main Emissions Indicators CO2 per Capita (kg CO2/cap) 9 378.5 Carbon Intensity (kg CO2/toe) 3 656.1 CO2 GDP Intensity (ton CO2/M€'10) 1 899.1

2000 30.56 28.37

2005 32.26 29.78

2010 33.36 29.91

2015 37.33 29.96

2016 38.10 29.78

2.18 0.00

2.32 0.12

2.34 1.11

2.37 4.89 0.11

2.39 5.75 0.19

0.04

0.00

0.00

0.00

145.18 156.94 157.66 164.94 166.64 135.89 141.88 136.51 130.52 130.32 1.92 2.76 2.89 2.12 2.30 2.96 6.53 6.67 8.83 10.44 4.34 0.08

5.42 0.04

11.46 0.05

23.29 0.08

23.29 0.21

8.31 8.69 8.55 8.7 26.30 27.71 26.54 27.6 16.8 % 17.6 % 16.1 % 16.6 % 275.43 277.10 238.61 246.5 9 459

11 911

16 320

15 930

18 117

5 319 3 396

4 230 5 657 49 34 15

4 243 9 740 867 170 698

3 654 9 817 653 153 500

3 860 11 654 457 168 290

360.0 321.7 278.3 227.8 231.2 2 316.8 2 415.9 2 647.9 2 516.1 2 632.0 2 563.1 2 750.7 3 121.5 3 363.2 3 498.8 342.3

305.8

264.6

214.3

218.2

9.9 % -29.1 % -29.9 % 98.7 % 99.1 % 66.3 %

17.2 % -23.9 % -21.3 % 97.5 % 97.3 % 69.7 %

31.3 % -5.2 % 3.7 % 97.0 % 98.4 % 69.3 %

29.2 % -11.6 % -2.4 % 96.9 % 100.5 % 72.2 %

30.3 % -12.0 % -2.1 % 92.8 % 94.5 % 78.4 %

6.9 % 9.3 % 11.7 % 11.3 % 10.2 % 11.7 % 14.5 % 14.7 % 2.7 % 6.6 % 13.4 % 13.4 % 1.6 % 6.6 % 5.6 % 3.9 % 317.60 321.99 333.14 312.40 323.18 390.38 398.56 407.42 387.06 397.84 8 300.4 8 434.8 8 761.6 8 219.9 8 512.2 3 571.4 3 479.3 3 301.9 3 260.3 3 228.2 1 289.9 1 123.2 920.8 744.1 747.6

* Preliminary 2016 CHP data from Eurostat. ** Total emissions without LULUCF, with ind. CO2, including international aviation, excl. international maritime transport.

217


PART 5  Country Profiles

5.22 Portugal Mtoe, unless otherwise stated Production Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Wastes, Non-Renewable Net Imports Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Renewables Electricity Gross Inland Consumption Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Electricity Wastes, Non-Renewable Primary Energy Consumption Available for Final Consumption Final Non-Energy Consumption Final Energy Consumption by Fuel/Product Solid Fuels Petroleum and Products Gases Biomass and Renewable Wastes Solar Geothermal Electricity Derived heat Wastes, Non-Renewable by Sector Industry Transport Residential Services Agriculture and Fishing Other

1995 3.38

2000 3.89

2010 5.80

2015 5.50

2016 6.19

0.20

0.19

5.18 0.12 18.30 3.21 3.20 11.00 14.18 4.07 4.07 -0.21 0.19 23.02 3.26 3.25 10.38 14.06 4.07 4.07

5.82 0.17 17.57 2.91 2.90 11.00 13.95 4.26 4.26 -0.21 -0.44 23.26 2.85 2.84 10.73 14.13 4.30 4.30

0.07

0.05

3.32 18.02 3.81 3.84 14.14 13.04 0.00 0.00

3.76 0.09 22.07 3.91 3.97 16.04 11.63 2.04 2.04

3.48 0.14 24.85 3.23 3.22 17.14 13.46 3.89 3.89

0.08 20.64 3.60 3.63 13.57 13.04 0.07 0.00

0.08 25.29 3.81 3.84 15.48 11.76 2.08 2.03

0.59 27.48 3.35 3.35 16.17 13.44 3.75 3.75

5.64 0.16 18.59 1.63 1.63 12.44 11.39 4.51 4.51 -0.21 0.23 24.28 1.66 1.66 12.29 11.53 4.49 4.49

3.32 0.08 0.00 18.55 15.92 2.08 13.85

3.76 0.08 0.09 22.89 20.22 2.39 17.92

3.48 0.59 0.14 24.89 21.69 2.59 19.01

5.46 0.23 0.16 22.55 19.81 1.73 18.10

4.97 0.20 0.16 21.69 17.34 1.34 16.04

5.62 -0.44 0.21 22.12 17.24 1.15 16.12

0.54 8.27 0.11 2.40 0.02 0.00 2.48 0.04

0.47 10.71 0.87 2.41 0.02 0.00 3.30 0.13

0.02 10.81 1.31 2.51 0.02 0.00 3.98 0.33 0.03

0.05 9.28 1.56 2.48 0.05 0.00 4.29 0.34 0.06

0.01 7.96 1.64 2.10 0.08 0.00 3.94 0.24 0.06

0.01 8.03 1.62 2.08 0.08 0.00 3.99 0.21 0.09

4.93 4.94 2.56 0.91 0.49 0.03

6.32 6.64 2.80 1.40 0.73 0.04

5.80 7.19 3.22 2.20 0.58 0.03

5.45 7.30 2.97 1.88 0.46 0.03

4.45 6.61 2.54 1.96 0.44 0.04

4.33 6.78 2.62 1.94 0.42 0.03

Methodology, Sources and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 5

218

2005 3.62


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Installed Electricity Capacity (GW) 9.38 10.91 13.37 18.93 19.63 Combustible Fuels 4.89 6.28 7.28 9.87 8.05 Nuclear Hydro 4.48 4.54 5.02 5.11 6.17 Wind 0.01 0.08 1.06 3.80 4.94 Solar PV 0.00 0.00 0.13 0.45 Geothermal 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.03 Tide, Wave and Ocean Other Sources Gross Electricity Generation, 33.27 43.76 46.58 54.09 52.42 by Fuel (TWh) Solid Fuels 13.41 14.60 15.23 7.10 14.73 Petroleum and Products 10.31 8.42 8.79 3.01 1.31 Gases 0.05 7.23 13.61 14.90 10.56 Nuclear Renewables 9.50 13.26 8.65 28.75 25.51 Wastes, non-RES 0.00 0.26 0.31 0.33 0.30 Cogeneration Heat and Power * CHP Electrical Capacity (GW) 1.08 1.31 1.33 CHP Electricity Generation (TWh) 5.42 6.36 6.47 CHP in Total Electricity Generation (%) 11.6 % 11.8 % 12.3 % CHP Heat Production (PJ) 59.61 67.22 59.28 Transport Fuels (ktoe) Final Consumption 4 913 6 604 7 137 6 940 6 245 Petroleum Products Motor Gasoline 2 022 2 272 1 935 1 450 1 099 Gas/Diesel Oil 2 273 3 523 4 286 4 366 3 886 Final Consumption Biofuels 309 328 Biogasoline 22 Biodiesel 305 302 Main Energy Indicators Energy Intensity (toe/M€'10) 150.8 151.3 157.4 135.0 133.7 Energy per Capita (kgoe/cap) 2 061.7 2 467.1 2 618.0 2 296.5 2 219.1 Final Electricity per Capita 2 877.9 3 744.1 4 413.9 4 718.2 4 415.7 (KWh/cap) Primary Energy Intensity 135.6 137.0 142.6 125.3 126.0 (toe/M€'10) Import Dependency (%) 85.3 % 85.1 % 88.6 % 75.1 % 77.3 % of Solid Fuels 105.8 % 102.9 % 96.3 % 98.3 % 98.5 % of Hard Coal 105.9 % 103.4 % 96.3 % 98.2 % 98.5 % of Petroleum Fuels 100.6 % 99.4 % 102.3 % 97.5 % 99.9 % of Crude and NGL 100.0 % 99.0 % 100.2 % 98.8 % 100.9 % of Natural Gas 100.2 % 103.8 % 100.4 % 99.8 % Renewables in Gross Final Energy (%) Overall RES with Aviation Cap 19.5 % 24.2 % 28.0 % RES-H&C – Heating and Cooling 32.1 % 33.9 % 33.4 % RES-E – Electricity Generation 27.7 % 40.7 % 52.6 % RES-T – Transport 0.5 % 5.5 % 7.4 % Gases Emissions (Mio ton CO 2) CO2 Emissions** 56.66 68.28 72.01 55.73 55.51 GHGs Emissions** 72.10 85.38 89.32 72.80 72.75 Main Emissions Indicators CO2 per Capita (kg CO2/cap) 5 660.7 6 662.4 6 861.6 5 271.0 5 350.6 Carbon Intensity (kg CO2/toe) 2 682.6 2 631.6 2 567.2 2 252.7 2 345.7 CO2 GDP Intensity (ton CO2/M€'10) 413.9 408.5 412.6 309.7 322.4

2016 20.56 7.99 6.96 5.12 0.46 0.03 0.00 60.28 12.63 1.30 12.58 33.45 0.32 1.2 6.2 10.4 % 61.7 6 458 1 082 3 984 264 26 236 133.0 2 249.6 4 482.3 126.4 73.5 % 102.3 % 102.3 % 96.9 % 98.7 % 99.1 % 28.5 % 35.1 % 54.1 % 7.5 % 53.81 71.17 5 203.1 2 251.9 307.5

* Preliminary 2016 CHP data from Eurostat. ** Total emissions without LULUCF, with ind. CO2, including international aviation, excl. international maritime transport.

219


PART 5  Country Profiles

5.23 Romania Mtoe, unless otherwise stated Production Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Wastes, Non-Renewable Net Imports Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Renewables Electricity Gross Inland Consumption Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Electricity Wastes, Non-Renewable Primary Energy Consumption Available for Final Consumption Final Non-Energy Consumption Final Energy Consumption by Fuel/Product Solid Fuels Petroleum and Products Gases Biomass and Renewable Wastes Solar Geothermal Electricity Derived heat Wastes, Non-Renewable by Sector Industry Transport Residential Services Agriculture and Fishing Other

1995 32.31 7.89 0.65 6.82 6.72 14.45 14.45 0.00 2.80 0.37 14.03 2.86 3.01 6.36 8.31 4.79 4.79 0.00 0.03 46.31 10.79 3.69 13.09 15.14 19.24 19.24 0.00 2.80 0.03 0.37 45.07 30.36 1.24 26.97

2000 28.47 5.60 0.16 6.36 6.30 10.97 10.97 1.41 4.04 0.09 7.99 1.92 1.65 3.42 4.76 2.71 2.71 0.00 -0.06 36.65 7.49 1.72 9.99 10.96 13.68 13.68 1.41 4.04 -0.06 0.10 34.77 25.03 1.88 22.77

2005 28.22 5.80 0.02 6.23 5.58 9.70 9.70 1.43 4.98 0.09 10.84 2.94 2.42 3.96 8.86 4.19 4.19 0.00 -0.25 39.21 8.79 2.37 10.29 14.44 13.92 13.92 1.43 4.94 -0.25 0.09 36.74 26.87 2.47 24.71

2010 27.82 5.90 0.00 4.57 4.52 8.62 8.62 3.00 5.71 0.03 7.83 1.23 0.47 4.84 6.03 1.82 1.82 0.14 -0.20 35.80 7.01 0.47 9.31 10.67 10.79 10.79 3.00 5.86 -0.20 0.03 34.33 24.77 1.47 22.59

2015 26.74 4.71 0.01 4.24 4.13 8.79 8.79 3.00 5.94 0.07 5.54 1.03 0.47 4.89 6.72 0.16 0.16 0.04 -0.58 32.43 5.91 0.49 9.13 10.78 8.92 8.92 3.00 5.97 -0.58 0.07 31.30 23.06 1.13 21.89

2016 25.15 4.24 0.00 4.04 3.92 7.78 7.78 2.91 6.10 0.08 7.23 1.08 0.47 5.30 7.61 1.18 1.18 0.11 -0.43 32.40 5.33 0.47 9.31 11.63 9.01 9.01 2.91 6.19 -0.43 0.08 31.26 23.35 1.14 22.28

1.64 5.70 10.34 1.28

1.05 5.53 6.91 2.74

1.61 6.63 7.75 3.17

0.00 3.13 4.68 0.20

0.01 2.92 3.57 0.06

0.02 3.34 2.14 0.06

0.94 6.19 6.19 4.02 0.00 0.02 3.55 1.65 0.03

0.84 7.01 5.47 3.51 0.00 0.02 3.70 1.27 0.07

0.79 7.36 5.36 3.66 0.00 0.03 3.72 1.28 0.08

15.15 3.11 6.33 0.51 1.00 0.87

9.30 3.46 8.41 0.67 0.40 0.54

10.01 4.28 7.99 1.67 0.22 0.56

6.88 5.12 8.10 1.88 0.39 0.21

6.47 5.58 7.38 1.76 0.46 0.25

6.32 6.03 7.42 1.81 0.45 0.26

Methodology, Sources and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 5

220


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1995 Installed Electricity Capacity (GW) 6.00 Combustible Fuels Nuclear Hydro 6.00 Wind Solar PV Geothermal Tide, Wave and Ocean Other Sources Gross Electricity Generation, 59.27 by Fuel (TWh) Solid Fuels 20.59 Petroleum and Products 5.80 Gases 15.97 Nuclear Renewables 16.69 Wastes, non-RES 0.00 Cogeneration Heat and Power * CHP Electrical Capacity (GW) CHP Electricity Generation (TWh) CHP in Total Electricity Generation (%) CHP Heat Production (PJ) Transport Fuels (ktoe) Final Consumption 2 912 Petroleum Products Motor Gasoline 1 082 Gas/Diesel Oil 1 583 Final Consumption Biofuels Biogasoline Biodiesel Main Energy Indicators Energy Intensity (toe/M€'10) 549.8 Energy per Capita (kgoe/cap) 2 038.8 Final Electricity per Capita 1 600.6 (KWh/cap) Primary Energy Intensity 535.1 (toe/M€'10) Import Dependency (%) 30.3 % of Solid Fuels 26.5 % of Hard Coal 81.7 % of Petroleum Fuels 48.6 % of Crude and NGL 54.9 % of Natural Gas 24.9 % Renewables in Gross Final Energy (%) Overall RES with Aviation Cap RES-H&C – Heating and Cooling RES-E – Electricity Generation RES-T – Transport Gases Emissions (Mio ton CO 2) CO2 Emissions** 125.46 GHGs Emissions** 181.11 Main Emissions Indicators CO2 per Capita (kg CO2/cap) 5 523.9 Carbon Intensity (kg CO2/toe) 2 709.4 CO2 GDP Intensity (ton CO2/M€'10) 1 489.8

2000 6.12

2005 18.95 11.95 0.71 6.29 0.00

2010 19.91 11.64 1.41 6.47 0.39

2015 23.83 11.23 1.41 6.73 3.13 1.33

2016 23.58 11.04 1.41 6.73 3.03 1.37

51.93

59.41

60.98

66.30

65.10

18.93 3.40 9.00 5.46 14.78 0.00

21.92 1.89 9.83 5.56 20.21 0.00

20.68 0.69 7.32 11.62 20.66 0.00

18.13 0.47 9.48 11.64 26.58 0.00

15.88 0.70 9.76 11.29 27.48 0.00

5.25 4.58 15.55 6.54 26.2 % 10.8 % 95.39 69.00

1.83 5.60 8.4 % 50.98

1.9 5.3 8.1 % 45.9

6.12

3 273

4 103

4 882

5 280

5 680

1 321 1 756

1 600 2 298

1 412 3 172 115 47 69

1 269 3 676 202 61 141

1 326 3 961 257 81 176

440.8 356.4 284.7 225.0 214.5 1 632.1 1 833.6 1 764.0 1 632.1 1 639.8 1 511.4 1 817.3 2 035.9 2 165.5 2 189.1 418.2

334.0

273.0

21.8 % 27.6 % 21.9 % 25.6 % 33.4 % 17.6 % 96.0 % 102.2 % 100.9 % 34.2 % 38.5 % 51.9 % 43.5 % 61.3 % 56.5 % 19.8 % 30.1 % 16.8 %

217.2

206.9

17.1 % 22.3 % 17.4 % 20.2 % 95.3 % 100.4 % 53.3 % 56.7 % 62.4 % 65.4 % 1.8 % 13.0 %

17.3 % 23.4 % 24.8 % 25.0 % 18.0 % 27.2 % 25.9 % 26.9 % 26.9 % 30.4 % 43.2 % 42.7 % 1.6 % 3.8 % 5.5 % 6.2 % 93.97 101.34 84.05 78.48 75.92 141.17 148.21 122.69 116.91 113.42 4 184.6 4 739.6 4 141.4 3 949.4 3 842.1 2 564.0 2 584.9 2 346.7 2 416.5 2 340.9 1 130.2 921.4 668.4 544.6 502.6

* Preliminary 2016 CHP data from Eurostat. ** Total emissions without LULUCF, with ind. CO2, including international aviation, excl. international maritime transport.

221


PART 5  Country Profiles

5.24 Slovenia Mtoe, unless otherwise stated Production Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Wastes, Non-Renewable Net Imports Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Renewables Electricity Gross Inland Consumption Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Electricity Wastes, Non-Renewable Primary Energy Consumption Available for Final Consumption Final Non-Energy Consumption Final Energy Consumption by Fuel/Product Solid Fuels Petroleum and Products Gases Biomass and Renewable Wastes Solar Geothermal Electricity Derived heat Wastes, Non-Renewable by Sector Industry Transport Residential Services Agriculture and Fishing Other

1995 2.96 1.19

2000 3.09 1.06

2005 3.49 1.18

2010 3.78 1.20

2015 3.39 0.86

2016 3.57 0.94

0.00 0.00 0.02 0.02 1.23 0.51 0.00 3.09 0.19 0.14 2.26 0.49 0.75 0.75 0.03 -0.14 6.07 1.38 0.14 2.32 0.51 0.75 0.75 1.23 0.54 -0.14 0.00 5.95 4.23 0.12 4.09

0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 1.23 0.79 0.00 3.41 0.24 0.20 2.46 0.13 0.82 0.82 0.00 -0.11 6.45 1.31 0.19 2.42 0.14 0.83 0.83 1.23 0.79 -0.11 0.00 6.21 4.70 0.24 4.46

0.00

0.01

0.00

0.00

0.00 0.00 1.52 0.77 0.01 3.86 0.32 0.29 2.63

0.01 0.01 1.46 1.09 0.02 3.58 0.28 0.23 2.60

0.00 0.00 1.46 1.02 0.04 3.23 0.20 0.18 2.34

0.00 0.00 1.47 1.11 0.05 3.35 0.20 0.18 2.53

0.93 0.93 0.00 -0.03 7.33 1.54 0.30 2.58

0.86 0.86 0.03 -0.18 7.34 1.45 0.23 2.60

0.66 0.66 0.03 0.00 6.57 1.07 0.17 2.29

0.70 0.70 0.02 -0.10 6.80 1.15 0.18 2.40

0.93 0.93 1.52 0.77 -0.03 0.01 7.02 5.23 0.31 4.90

0.86 0.86 1.46 1.12 -0.18 0.02 7.13 5.27 0.21 5.04

0.66 0.66 1.46 1.05 0.00 0.04 6.44 4.82 0.13 4.69

0.71 0.71 1.47 1.13 -0.10 0.05 6.67 5.01 0.13 4.88

0.11 2.13 0.58 0.26

0.09 2.26 0.57 0.44

0.08 2.41 0.67 0.44

0.80 0.21 0.00

0.91 0.20 0.00

1.10 0.20 0.01

0.05 2.47 0.62 0.62 0.01 0.03 1.03 0.19 0.02

0.04 2.17 0.56 0.57 0.01 0.04 1.10 0.17 0.04

0.04 2.28 0.60 0.58 0.01 0.04 1.12 0.18 0.04

1.18 1.35 1.16 0.40 0.00 0.00

1.42 1.26 1.13 0.53 0.08 0.04

1.64 1.49 1.19 0.48 0.08 0.02

1.27 1.81 1.33 0.53 0.07 0.03

1.23 1.80 1.11 0.46 0.07 0.02

1.24 1.90 1.15 0.49 0.07 0.02

Methodology, Sources and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 5

222


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Installed Electricity Capacity (GW) 2.52 2.61 2.99 3.19 3.36 Combustible Fuels 1.10 1.12 1.36 1.26 1.13 Nuclear 0.66 0.66 0.66 0.67 0.69 Hydro 0.76 0.84 0.98 1.25 1.30 Wind 0.01 Solar PV 0.01 0.24 Geothermal Tide, Wave and Ocean Other Sources Gross Electricity Generation, 12.91 13.62 15.12 16.44 15.10 by Fuel (TWh) Solid Fuels 4.60 4.61 5.27 5.29 4.39 Petroleum and Products 0.26 0.06 0.04 0.01 0.02 Gases 0.02 0.29 0.34 0.55 0.40 Nuclear 4.78 4.76 5.88 5.66 5.65 Renewables 3.25 3.90 3.58 4.93 4.64 Wastes, non-RES 0.01 0.01 0.01 Cogeneration Heat and Power * CHP Electrical Capacity (GW) 0.34 0.33 0.36 CHP Electricity Generation (TWh) 1.10 1.14 1.16 CHP in Total Electricity Generation (%) 7.3 % 6.9 % 7.7 % CHP Heat Production (PJ) 15.00 11.60 10.38 Transport Fuels (ktoe) Final Consumption 1 334 1 236 1 476 1 746 1 754 Petroleum Products Motor Gasoline 880 860 698 600 437 Gas/Diesel Oil 433 350 754 1 111 1 276 Final Consumption Biofuels 46 29 Biogasoline 4 7 Biodiesel 41 23 Main Energy Indicators Energy Intensity (toe/M€'10) 268.3 231.3 220.1 202.4 177.6 Energy per Capita (kgoe/cap) 3 052.1 3 245.4 3 666.9 3 584.3 3 183.9 Final Electricity per Capita 4 696.2 5 292.9 6 378.7 5 835.4 6 199.1 (KWh/cap) Primary Energy Intensity 263.1 222.8 210.9 196.6 174.2 (toe/M€'10) Import Dependency (%) 50.9 % 52.8 % 52.5 % 48.7 % 48.8 % of Solid Fuels 13.6 % 18.7 % 21.0 % 19.2 % 19.0 % of Hard Coal 100.0 % 100.5 % 93.8 % 100.9 % 100.6 % of Petroleum Fuels 97.8 % 101.5 % 101.2 % 99.2 % 99.6 % of Crude and NGL 95.9 % 87.5 % of Natural Gas 100.5 % 99.3 % 99.6 % 99.3 % 99.7 % Renewables in Gross Final Energy (%) Overall RES with Aviation Cap 16.0 % 20.4 % 21.9 % RES-H&C – Heating and Cooling 18.9 % 28.1 % 33.9 % RES-E – Electricity Generation 28.7 % 32.2 % 32.7 % RES-T – Transport 0.8 % 3.1 % 2.2 % Gases Emissions (Mio ton CO 2) CO2 Emissions** 15.30 15.50 16.99 16.43 13.67 GHGs Emissions** 18.79 19.14 20.61 19.74 16.93 Main Emissions Indicators CO2 per Capita (kg CO2/cap) 7 691.3 7 797.2 8 505.1 8 024.2 6 628.3 Carbon Intensity (kg CO2/toe) 2 520.0 2 402.6 2 312.8 2 233.2 2 062.3 CO2 GDP Intensity (ton CO2/M€'10) 676.1 555.8 510.6 453.1 369.8

2016 3.54 1.32 0.69 1.29 0.01 0.23

16.50 5.01 0.01 0.42 5.72 5.34 0.01 0.4 1.2 7.3 % 10.8 1 869 434 1 397 18 4 14 178.2 3 292.8 6 310.0 174.9 48.4 % 17.2 % 98.3 % 100.3 % 99.4 % 21.3 % 34.0 % 32.1 % 1.6 % 14.46 17.78 7 005.4 2 091.2 379.2

* Preliminary 2016 CHP data from Eurostat. ** Total emissions without LULUCF, with ind. CO2, including international aviation, excl. international maritime transport.

223


PART 5  Country Profiles

5.25 Slovak Republic Mtoe, unless otherwise stated Production Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Wastes, Non-Renewable Net Imports Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Renewables Electricity Gross Inland Consumption Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Electricity Wastes, Non-Renewable Primary Energy Consumption Available for Final Consumption Final Non-Energy Consumption Final Energy Consumption by Fuel/Product Solid Fuels Petroleum and Products Gases Biomass and Renewable Wastes Solar Geothermal Electricity Derived heat Wastes, Non-Renewable by Sector Industry Transport Residential Services Agriculture and Fishing Other

1995 5.06 1.02

2000 6.39 1.02

2005 6.68 0.64

2010 6.35 0.61

2015 6.74 0.50

2016 6.59 0.45

0.13 0.07 0.26 0.26 2.95 0.50 0.21 12.14 4.14 3.10 3.36 5.09 4.53 4.53

0.17 0.06 0.13 0.13 4.26 0.50 0.32 12.00 3.43 3.15 3.09 5.72 5.71 5.71

0.12 17.72 5.39 3.34 3.34 5.01 5.22 5.22 2.95 0.50 0.12 0.21 16.79 12.23 0.93 11.03

-0.23 18.30 4.28 3.03 3.42 5.86 5.78 5.78 4.26 0.49 -0.23 0.32 16.94 12.72 1.37 10.98

0.38 0.04 0.13 0.13 4.63 0.86 0.05 12.43 3.74 3.48 3.27 5.43 5.74 5.74 -0.04 -0.28 19.03 4.23 3.31 3.71 5.56 5.88 5.88 4.63 0.81 -0.28 0.05 17.75 12.84 1.28 11.56

0.39 0.02 0.09 0.09 3.82 1.40 0.03 11.26 2.95 2.57 3.30 5.31 5.00 5.00 -0.08 0.09 17.86 3.90 2.79 3.68 5.32 5.01 5.01 3.82 1.33 0.09 0.04 16.80 12.65 1.05 11.55

0.43 0.01 0.08 0.08 3.95 1.59 0.19 9.64 2.77 2.53 2.99 5.77 3.69 3.69 -0.02 0.21 16.43 3.28 2.59 3.34 5.81 3.88 3.88 3.95 1.58 0.21 0.19 15.38 11.16 1.05 10.08

0.40 0.01 0.08 0.08 3.86 1.60 0.20 9.74 2.69 2.46 3.24 5.64 3.62 3.62 -0.03 0.23 16.51 3.23 2.53 3.53 5.60 3.90 3.90 3.86 1.58 0.23 0.20 15.53 11.42 0.98 10.42

2.56 1.61 4.07 0.08

1.75 1.70 4.70 0.09

1.57 2.18 4.54 0.33

1.87 0.72 0.12

1.89 0.62 0.23

0.00 1.97 0.95 0.02

1.64 2.30 4.12 0.54 0.00 0.00 2.08 0.85 0.02

1.32 2.12 3.09 0.63 0.01 0.00 2.10 0.63 0.17

1.29 2.34 3.21 0.57 0.01 0.00 2.15 0.67 0.18

4.69 1.41 1.98 2.66 0.30

4.53 1.45 2.59 2.20 0.21

4.71 2.39 2.54 1.75 0.17

4.36 2.63 2.31 2.11 0.13

4.43 2.21 1.99 1.30 0.15

4.45 2.48 2.03 1.31 0.15

Methodology, Sources and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 5

224


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1995 2000 2005 Installed Electricity Capacity (GW) 7.24 7.45 8.26 Combustible Fuels 3.22 2.39 3.09 Nuclear 1.76 2.64 2.64 Hydro 2.26 2.42 2.51 Wind 0.01 Solar PV Geothermal Tide, Wave and Ocean Other Sources 0.01 Gross Electricity Generation, 26.77 31.16 31.46 by Fuel (TWh) Solid Fuels 6.46 5.58 5.54 Petroleum and Products 0.74 0.20 0.74 Gases 2.92 3.87 2.63 Nuclear 11.44 16.49 17.73 Renewables 5.23 4.98 4.78 Wastes, non-RES 0.03 0.02 Cogeneration Heat and Power * CHP Electrical Capacity (GW) 5.41 CHP Electricity Generation (TWh) 4.80 CHP in Total Electricity Generation (%) 15.3 % CHP Heat Production (PJ) 33.68 Transport Fuels (ktoe) Final Consumption 1 294 1 372 1 731 Petroleum Products Motor Gasoline 512 605 667 Gas/Diesel Oil 742 740 1 011 Final Consumption Biofuels 11 Biogasoline Biodiesel 11 Main Energy Indicators Energy Intensity (toe/M€'10) 503.1 436.9 355.1 Energy per Capita (kgoe/cap) 3 308.1 3 390.1 3 541.8 Final Electricity per Capita 4 057.0 4 076.9 4 253.0 (KWh/cap) Primary Energy Intensity 476.8 404.3 331.2 (toe/M€'10) Import Dependency (%) 68.5 % 65.6 % 65.3 % of Solid Fuels 76.7 % 80.2 % 88.4 % of Hard Coal 92.9 % 103.8 % 105.2 % of Petroleum Fuels 100.6 % 90.5 % 88.2 % of Crude and NGL 101.5 % 97.6 % 97.7 % of Natural Gas 86.8 % 98.8 % 97.5 % Renewables in Gross Final Energy (%) Overall RES with Aviation Cap 6.4 % RES-H&C – Heating and Cooling 5.0 % RES-E – Electricity Generation 15.7 % RES-T – Transport 1.6 % Gases Emissions (Mio ton CO 2) CO2 Emissions** 44.91 41.58 43.05 GHGs Emissions** 54.05 49.62 51.29 Main Emissions Indicators CO2 per Capita (kg CO2/cap) 8 385.5 7 702.0 8 012.2 Carbon Intensity (kg CO2/toe) 2 534.8 2 271.9 2 262.2 CO2 GDP Intensity (ton CO2/M€'10) 1 275.3 992.5 803.3

2010 7.87 3.50 1.82 2.52 0.00 0.02

2015 7.78 2.75 1.94 2.52 0.00 0.53

2016 7.74 2.71 1.94 2.52 0.00 0.53

0.02

0.03

0.03

27.86

26.90

27.06

3.57 0.60 2.72 14.57 6.33 0.02

2.83 0.38 2.11 15.15 6.31 0.03

2.80 0.47 1.99 14.77 6.88 0.02

2.82 3.7 1.0 4.43 21.1 3.0 15.9 % 78.5 % 11.1 % 20.06 27.3 34.4 2 093

1 924

2 146

600 1 450 98 24 74

577 1 267 144 23 121

609 1 451 140 16 124

264.2 214.7 208.9 3 312.4 3 029.9 3 042.8 4 477.4 4 495.4 4 604.8 248.6 63.1 % 75.7 % 91.9 % 89.5 % 99.9 % 99.9 %

201.0

196.5

58.7 % 59.0 % 84.6 % 83.3 % 97.5 % 97.2 % 89.4 % 91.8 % 99.3 % 100.7 % 95.1 % 92.9 %

9.1 % 12.9 % 12.0 % 7.9 % 10.8 % 9.9 % 17.8 % 22.7 % 22.5 % 5.3 % 8.5 % 7.5 % 38.76 46.39

34.04 41.05

34.15 41.19

7 190.3 6 279.2 6 293.6 2 170.7 2 072.4 2 068.4 573.5 445.0 432.1

* Preliminary 2016 CHP data from Eurostat. ** Total emissions without LULUCF, with ind. CO2, including international aviation, excl. international maritime transport.

225


PART 5  Country Profiles

5.26 Finland Mtoe, unless otherwise stated Production Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Wastes, Non-Renewable Net Imports Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Renewables Electricity Gross Inland Consumption Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Electricity Wastes, Non-Renewable Primary Energy Consumption Available for Final Consumption Final Non-Energy Consumption Final Energy Consumption by Fuel/Product Solid Fuels Petroleum and Products Gases Biomass and Renewable Wastes Solar Geothermal Electricity Derived heat Wastes, Non-Renewable by Sector Industry Transport Residential Services Agriculture and Fishing Other

1995 13.13 2.03

2000 15.16 1.09

2005 16.95 2.14

2010 17.99 1.81

2015 17.80 0.84

2016 17.85 0.72

0.02

0.46

0.54

0.72

0.33

0.35

5.88 9.43 0.15 17.84 3.95 3.68 9.23 11.21 3.84 3.84 -0.08 0.90 37.11 6.87 4.31 10.12 11.09 3.84 3.84 5.88 9.35 0.90 0.15 35.88 27.50 1.22 26.25

0.01 0.01 6.00 10.39 0.24 15.91 2.51 2.28 9.67 11.09 2.24 2.24 0.09 1.41 33.28 4.08 2.54 8.83 10.65 2.24 2.24 6.00 10.49 1.41 0.24 31.77 25.56 1.51 24.25

0.01 0.01 5.99 10.52 0.27 15.80 2.72 2.56 9.29 12.33 2.06 2.06 0.10 1.63 34.62 4.53 3.09 9.53 12.27 2.07 2.07 5.99 10.61 1.63 0.27 33.06 26.76 1.57 25.25

4.96 6.12 0.01 15.91 3.83 3.67 8.51 8.67 2.84 2.84

5.80 7.75 0.07 18.22 3.51 3.21 10.26 11.56 3.43 3.43

0.72 29.36 6.05 4.12 8.66 9.21 2.84 2.84 4.96 6.13 0.72 0.01 28.24 21.92 1.13 21.97

1.02 32.41 5.09 3.28 9.25 11.39 3.43 3.43 5.80 7.75 1.02 0.07 31.37 24.76 1.04 24.32

6.00 8.16 0.11 18.95 3.31 3.01 10.65 10.57 3.61 3.61 -0.08 1.46 34.50 4.90 2.93 10.33 10.83 3.61 3.61 6.00 8.09 1.46 0.11 33.35 26.44 1.15 25.19

1.30 7.67 1.33 3.94

1.03 7.81 1.21 4.48

0.89 8.15 1.10 4.23

0.85 7.70 1.03 4.89 0.00

0.60 6.78 0.85 5.38 0.00

0.70 7.19 0.85 5.39 0.00

5.61 2.13 0.00

6.51 3.27 0.02

6.94 3.85 0.03

7.18 4.55 0.04

6.75 3.83 0.05

6.95 4.13 0.05

9.86 4.18 5.44 1.01 0.76 0.72

12.20 4.28 4.49 2.32 0.77 0.26

11.88 4.65 5.02 2.62 0.75 0.27

11.34 4.84 5.81 3.08 0.81 0.36

10.75 4.79 4.90 2.71 0.73 0.37

11.04 4.96 5.29 2.86 0.72 0.38

Methodology, Sources and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 5

226


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 Installed Electricity Capacity (GW) 14.43 16.26 16.47 15.68 16.61 16.27 Combustible Fuels 9.34 10.70 10.68 9.61 9.59 8.66 Nuclear 2.31 2.64 2.67 2.72 2.75 2.76 Hydro 2.78 2.88 3.04 3.16 3.25 3.25 Wind 0.01 0.04 0.08 0.20 1.01 1.57 Solar PV 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.04 Geothermal Tide, Wave and Ocean Other Sources Gross Electricity Generation, 64.04 69.98 70.58 80.67 68.60 68.75 by Fuel (TWh) Solid Fuels 16.62 12.45 11.00 20.83 8.21 9.88 Petroleum and Products 1.45 0.59 0.50 0.48 0.21 0.20 Gases 7.21 10.82 11.92 11.85 5.77 4.37 Nuclear 19.22 22.48 23.27 22.80 23.25 23.20 Renewables 19.55 23.38 23.47 24.20 30.53 30.41 Wastes, non-RES 0.00 0.07 0.18 0.21 0.39 0.43 Cogeneration Heat and Power * CHP Electrical Capacity (GW) 5.83 6.17 5.85 5.9 CHP Electricity Generation (TWh) 27.46 29.24 21.74 21.8 CHP in Total Electricity Generation (%) 38.9 % 36.2 % 31.7 % 31.8 % CHP Heat Production (PJ) 249.98 272.84 242.43 241.6 Transport Fuels (ktoe) Final Consumption 4 127 4 213 4 569 4 624 4 223 4 710 Petroleum Products Motor Gasoline 2 024 1 748 1 835 1 531 1 359 1 358 Gas/Diesel Oil 1 650 1 943 2 167 2 433 2 152 2 640 Final Consumption Biofuels 140 498 177 Biogasoline 78 66 68 Biodiesel 63 432 109 Main Energy Indicators Energy Intensity (toe/M€'10) 237.9 205.0 192.1 198.3 178.1 181.5 Energy per Capita (kgoe/cap) 5 758.9 6 267.1 6 588.8 6 933.7 6 082.0 6 309.1 Final Electricity per Capita 12 790.8 14 635.6 15 420.1 15 603.3 14 340.2 14 730.4 (KWh/cap) Primary Energy Intensity 228.8 198.4 185.6 191.8 170.1 173.2 (toe/M€'10) Import Dependency (%) 53.6 % 55.1 % 54.1 % 47.8 % 47.4 % 45.3 % of Solid Fuels 63.4 % 68.9 % 67.4 % 57.5 % 61.5 % 60.1 % of Hard Coal 89.0 % 97.7 % 102.6 % 85.5 % 89.8 % 82.8 % of Petroleum Fuels 94.6 % 103.5 % 98.4 % 89.4 % 106.0 % 94.7 % of Crude and NGL 94.1 % 101.5 % 97.5 % 101.1 % 104.1 % 100.5 % of Natural Gas 100.0 % 100.0 % 100.0 % 100.0 % 99.7 % 99.7 % Renewables in Gross Final Energy (%) Overall RES with Aviation Cap 28.8 % 32.4 % 39.2 % 38.7 % RES-H&C – Heating and Cooling 39.1 % 44.2 % 52.5 % 53.7 % RES-E – Electricity Generation 26.9 % 27.7 % 32.5 % 32.9 % RES-T – Transport 0.9 % 4.4 % 22.0 % 8.4 % Gases Emissions (Mio ton CO 2) CO2 Emissions** 59.17 58.21 58.42 65.72 46.36 49.95 GHGs Emissions** 72.84 71.22 71.07 77.20 57.38 60.77 Main Emissions Indicators CO2 per Capita (kg CO2/cap) 11 604.6 11 256.4 11 156.3 12 280.0 8 473.0 9 102.3 Carbon Intensity (kg CO2/toe) 1 992.6 1 760.0 1 669.1 1 761.1 1 380.9 1 431.0 CO2 GDP Intensity (ton CO2/M€'10) 479.5 368.2 325.2 351.2 248.2 261.8 * Preliminary 2016 CHP data from Eurostat. ** Total emissions without LULUCF, with ind. CO2, including international aviation, excl. international maritime transport.

227


PART 5  Country Profiles

5.27 Sweden Mtoe, unless otherwise stated Production Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Wastes, Non-Renewable Net Imports Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Renewables Electricity Gross Inland Consumption Solid Fuels of which Hard Coal Petroleum and Products of which Crude and NGL Gases of which Natural Gas Nuclear Renewables Electricity Wastes, Non-Renewable Primary Energy Consumption Available for Final Consumption Final Non-Energy Consumption Final Energy Consumption by Fuel/Product Solid Fuels Petroleum and Products Gases Biomass and Renewable Wastes Solar Geothermal Electricity Derived heat Wastes, Non-Renewable by Sector Industry Transport Residential Services Agriculture and Fishing Other

1995 31.38 0.22

2000 30.05 0.16

2005 34.17 0.21

2010 32.58 0.24

2015 33.73 0.11

2016 34.72 0.13

0.00 0.00 0.04

0.00

0.03

0.07

0.13

0.15

0.04

0.04

0.02

0.01

0.01

18.04 12.84 0.24 20.43 2.75 2.37 17.07 19.22 0.76 0.76

14.79 14.74 0.32 20.44 2.41 2.14 16.85 21.97 0.78 0.78

18.67 14.73 0.48 19.58 2.56 2.22 16.70 19.49 0.84 0.84

14.92 16.82 0.52 19.48 2.55 2.29 15.10 19.62 1.47 1.47

-0.14 51.47 2.88 2.33 16.82 19.36 0.80 0.76 18.04 12.84 -0.15 0.24 49.48 36.67 1.99 35.05

0.40 48.90 2.45 1.98 15.38 21.83 0.82 0.78 14.79 14.74 0.40 0.32 47.17 36.21 1.73 34.97

-0.64 51.02 2.63 2.12 14.14 19.40 0.89 0.84 18.67 14.85 -0.64 0.48 48.73 35.26 2.29 33.68

0.18 50.79 2.49 1.99 14.20 19.81 1.48 1.47 14.92 17.00 0.18 0.52 48.68 36.90 2.11 34.08

14.54 18.32 0.62 14.22 1.95 1.92 12.68 19.95 0.72 0.72 0.81 -1.94 45.56 2.12 1.93 10.40 19.82 0.73 0.72 14.54 19.09 -1.94 0.62 43.79 32.75 1.77 31.71

16.28 17.38 0.79 16.37 2.23 2.16 13.43 19.37 0.82 0.82 0.91 -1.01 49.23 2.05 1.85 12.02 19.37 0.83 0.82 16.28 18.28 -1.01 0.79 47.05 34.98 2.18 32.59

1.19 13.93 0.61 5.07 0.01

1.11 13.27 0.67 5.29 0.01

1.35 11.42 0.76 4.73 0.01

1.20 10.04 0.73 5.68 0.01

1.04 8.52 0.75 6.46 0.01

1.05 8.77 0.64 6.73 0.01

10.71 3.54 0.00

11.07 3.55 0.00

11.24 4.17 0.00

11.28 5.14 0.00

10.74 4.19 0.00

10.96 4.43 0.00

13.82 7.79 7.74 4.86 0.84 0.01

14.27 8.19 7.30 4.41 0.76 0.05

12.63 8.63 7.31 4.30 0.80 0.02

12.21 8.60 8.04 4.55 0.68 0.01

11.53 8.61 7.20 4.01 0.37

11.43 9.05 7.46 4.30 0.34

Methodology, Sources and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 5

228


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 Installed Electricity Capacity (GW) 33.63 33.72 33.39 36.45 39.71 40.32 Combustible Fuels 7.35 7.53 7.08 8.72 7.75 7.50 Nuclear 10.06 9.46 9.47 8.98 9.69 9.77 Hydro 16.15 16.53 16.35 16.73 16.33 16.47 Wind 0.07 0.21 0.49 2.02 5.84 6.43 Solar PV 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.10 0.15 Geothermal Tide, Wave and Ocean Other Sources Gross Electricity Generation, 148.35 145.27 158.44 148.56 162.06 156.01 by Fuel (TWh) Solid Fuels 2.45 1.71 1.17 1.77 0.57 0.48 Petroleum and Products 3.95 1.53 1.38 1.77 0.25 0.40 Gases 1.34 1.29 1.34 3.78 1.12 1.20 Nuclear 69.94 57.32 72.38 57.83 56.35 63.10 Renewables 70.61 83.18 81.30 82.20 102.57 89.25 Wastes, non-RES 0.07 0.24 0.87 1.21 1.20 1.59 Cogeneration Heat and Power * CHP Electrical Capacity (GW) 3.49 5.10 4.85 3.9 CHP Electricity Generation (TWh) 10.67 18.53 13.66 9.2 CHP in Total Electricity Generation (%) 6.7 % 12.5 % 8.4 % 5.9 % CHP Heat Production (PJ) 132.73 187.20 151.35 91.1 Transport Fuels (ktoe) Final Consumption 7 550 7 907 8 217 7 959 7 308 7 488 Petroleum Products Motor Gasoline 4 559 4 265 4 142 3 320 2 568 2 416 Gas/Diesel Oil 2 100 2 671 3 154 3 653 3 848 4 069 Final Consumption Biofuels 152 377 951 1 202 Biogasoline 145 203 138 109 Biodiesel 7 174 813 1 093 Main Energy Indicators Energy Intensity (toe/M€'10) 204.7 163.2 149.5 137.6 111.1 116.2 Energy per Capita (kgoe/cap) 5 837.9 5 518.1 5 661.7 5 437.3 4 674.2 4 997.6 Final Electricity per Capita 14 128.9 14 526.4 14 503.6 14 047.9 12 809.5 12 942.4 (KWh/cap) Primary Energy Intensity 196.8 157.4 142.8 131.9 106.7 111.1 (toe/M€'10) Import Dependency (%) 38.9 % 40.7 % 37.0 % 36.9 % 30.0 % 32.0 % of Solid Fuels 95.4 % 98.3 % 97.2 % 102.2 % 92.3 % 108.5 % of Hard Coal 101.6 % 107.7 % 104.3 % 115.2 % 99.5 % 116.9 % of Petroleum Fuels 95.6 % 100.8 % 104.0 % 93.6 % 103.8 % 95.9 % of Crude and NGL 99.3 % 100.6 % 100.4 % 99.0 % 100.7 % 100.0 % of Natural Gas 100.0 % 100.0 % 100.0 % 100.0 % 100.0 % 100.0 % Renewables in Gross Final Energy (%) Overall RES with Aviation Cap 40.6 % 47.2 % 53.8 % 53.8 % RES-H&C – Heating and Cooling 51.9 % 60.9 % 68.6 % 68.6 % RES-E – Electricity Generation 50.9 % 56.0 % 65.8 % 64.9 % RES-T – Transport 6.2 % 9.2 % 24.0 % 30.3 % Gases Emissions (Mio ton CO 2) CO2 Emissions** 60.71 56.65 55.77 55.03 45.55 45.09 GHGs Emissions** 75.00 70.60 68.68 66.55 55.95 55.45 Main Emissions Indicators CO2 per Capita (kg CO2/cap) 6 886.4 6 393.0 6 188.8 5 891.7 4 673.1 4 577.5 Carbon Intensity (kg CO2/toe) 1 156.3 1 127.5 1 053.5 1 043.7 961.5 880.4 CO2 GDP Intensity (ton CO2/M€'10) 241.5 189.0 163.5 149.1 111.0 106.5 * Preliminary 2016 CHP data from Eurostat. ** Total emissions without LULUCF, with ind. CO2, including international aviation, excl. international maritime transport.

229


PART 5  Country Profiles

5.28 United Kingdom Mtoe, unless otherwise stated 1995 Production 256.46 Solid Fuels 32.07 of which Hard Coal 32.07 Petroleum and Products 135.72 of which Crude and NGL 134.40 Gases 63.72 of which Natural Gas 63.72 Nuclear 22.95 Renewables 1.84 Wastes, Non-Renewable 0.16 Net Imports -36.83 Solid Fuels 10.48 of which Hard Coal 10.26 Petroleum and Products -49.35 of which Crude and NGL -43.68 Gases 0.64 of which Natural Gas 0.64 Renewables Electricity 1.40 Gross Inland Consumption 222.25 Solid Fuels 47.18 of which Hard Coal 47.09 Petroleum and Products 83.61 of which Crude and NGL 91.60 Gases 65.12 of which Natural Gas 65.12 Nuclear 22.95 Renewables 1.84 Electricity 1.40 Wastes, Non-Renewable 0.16 Primary Energy Consumption 209.76 Available for Final Consumption 157.11 Final Non-Energy Consumption 12.49 Final Energy Consumption 142.65 by Fuel/Product Solid Fuels 8.22 Petroleum and Products 61.02 Gases 47.14 Biomass and Renewable Wastes 0.86 Solar 0.01 Geothermal 0.00 Electricity 25.34 Derived heat 0.00 Wastes, Non-Renewable 0.06 by Sector Industry 34.87 Transport 47.67 Residential 39.34 Services 16.32 Agriculture and Fishing 1.27 Other 3.18

2000 2005 268.55 204.60 18.66 12.07 18.66 12.07 127.94 87.94 127.81 87.62 97.55 79.40 97.55 79.40 21.94 21.05 2.26 3.49 0.19 0.66 -39.22 31.61 14.45 27.24 14.43 26.71 -45.58 -2.74 -41.82 -0.19 -9.31 5.97 -9.31 5.97 0.42 1.22 0.72 230.56 234.17 36.52 37.91 36.60 37.48 81.03 84.46 87.15 87.23 87.40 85.47 87.40 85.47 21.94 21.05 2.26 3.91 1.22 0.72 0.19 0.66 219.23 222.81 163.83 164.16 11.33 11.37 153.24 152.76

2015 117.89 5.12 5.12 46.73 46.71 35.04 35.04 18.15 11.85 1.01 72.58 14.56 13.87 26.86 13.89 26.47 26.47 2.89 1.80 191.90 23.83 23.09 70.58 60.60 61.78 61.78 18.15 14.76 1.80 1.01 184.47 140.08 7.43 132.31

2016 119.75 2.50 2.50 49.02 49.02 35.96 35.96 18.50 12.43 1.35 67.82 5.98 5.14 25.09 9.46 32.34 32.34 2.91 1.51 189.44 11.76 11.01 71.40 58.46 69.55 69.55 18.50 15.36 1.51 1.35 181.66 141.44 7.78 133.69

5.95 63.67 52.18 0.57 0.01 0.00 28.36 2.44 0.05

4.57 65.85 50.38 0.55 0.03 0.00 30.00 1.27 0.12

4.08 59.53 46.94 2.77 0.04 0.00 28.29 1.27 0.09

4.37 58.57 38.26 3.71 0.05 0.00 26.10 1.14 0.11

3.40 59.41 39.39 4.05 0.05 0.00 26.13 1.14 0.12

36.93 52.90 43.03 16.86 1.15 2.37

33.33 55.49 44.24 16.75 0.94 2.01

27.58 51.39 45.50 16.52 0.99 1.01

25.46 51.64 36.93 16.16 1.03 1.09

24.25 52.60 38.05 16.52 1.16 1.10

Methodology, Sources and Notes: See Appendix 13 – No 5

230

2010 147.15 10.84 10.84 64.26 64.26 49.79 49.79 16.03 5.78 0.46 62.43 16.06 16.33 10.68 9.39 33.90 33.90 1.57 0.23 212.78 30.92 31.33 72.98 73.86 84.82 84.82 16.03 7.35 0.23 0.46 204.87 151.29 7.91 142.99


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

1995 2000 Installed Electricity Capacity (GW) 70.13 78.39 Combustible Fuels 52.94 61.22 Nuclear 12.76 12.49 Hydro 4.22 4.27 Wind 0.20 0.41 Solar PV 0.00 Geothermal Tide, Wave and Ocean 0.00 Other Sources Gross Electricity Generation, 334.04 377.07 by Fuel (TWh) Solid Fuels 153.84 119.95 Petroleum and Products 17.30 8.45 Gases 65.10 150.43 Nuclear 88.96 85.06 Renewables 8.42 12.66 Wastes, non-RES 0.41 0.52 Cogeneration Heat and Power * CHP Electrical Capacity (GW) CHP Electricity Generation (TWh) CHP in Total Electricity Generation (%) CHP Heat Production (PJ) Transport Fuels (ktoe) Final Consumption 46 975 52 154 Petroleum Products Motor Gasoline 23 543 23 167 Gas/Diesel Oil 15 322 17 754 Final Consumption Biofuels Biogasoline Biodiesel Main Energy Indicators Energy Intensity (toe/M€'10) 165.5 145.9 Energy per Capita (kgoe/cap) 3 835.6 3 922.1 Final Electricity per Capita 5 086.4 5 610.7 (KWh/cap) Primary Energy Intensity 156.2 138.7 (toe/M€'10) Import Dependency (%) -16.4 % -16.9 % of Solid Fuels 22.2 % 39.6 % of Hard Coal 21.8 % 39.4 % of Petroleum Fuels -57.4 % -54.9 % of Crude and NGL -47.7 % -48.0 % of Natural Gas 1.0 % -10.7 % Renewables in Gross Final Energy (%) Overall RES with Aviation Cap RES-H&C – Heating and Cooling RES-E – Electricity Generation RES-T – Transport Gases Emissions (Mio ton CO 2) CO2 Emissions** 584.02 593.97 GHGs Emissions** 769.63 743.41 Main Emissions Indicators CO2 per Capita (kg CO2/cap) 10 079.2 10 104.0 Carbon Intensity (kg CO2/toe) 2 599.3 2 553.3 CO2 GDP Intensity (ton CO2/M€'10) 435.0 375.8

2005 82.38 64.66 11.85 4.29 1.57 0.01

2010 93.69 72.91 10.87 4.39 5.42 0.10

2015 97.30 59.43 9.49 4.52 14.32 9.54

2016 97.64 55.44 9.50 4.58 16.22 11.90

0.00

0.01

0.01

398.36 382.07 338.92 339.40 134.64 107.59 75.88 30.71 5.34 4.81 2.04 1.84 154.34 176.79 100.97 144.13 81.62 62.14 70.35 71.73 19.87 29.33 86.14 86.19 2.56 1.41 3.55 4.81 5.44 6.10 5.91 27.24 23.64 19.40 6.8 % 6.2 % 5.7 % 185.24 155.52 124.15

4.6 19.8 5.8 % 129.8

55 072 49 873 50 309 51 243 19 975 15 598 12 926 12 784 21 497 22 392 25 390 26 377 69 1 151 933 946 43 321 404 386 26 830 529 560 129.3 115.5 94.0 91.1 3 891.1 3 403.9 2 958.0 2 897.4 5 797.0 5 262.6 4 679.1 4 648.1 123.0

111.2

90.4

87.3

13.4 % 71.9 % 71.3 % -3.2 % -0.2 % 7.0 %

29.0 % 51.9 % 52.1 % 14.1 % 12.7 % 40.0 %

37.3 % 61.1 % 60.0 % 36.7 % 22.9 % 42.8 %

35.3 % 50.8 % 46.7 % 33.9 % 16.2 % 46.5 %

1.3 % 0.8 % 4.1 % 0.5 %

3.7 % 8.5 % 9.3 % 2.7 % 6.3 % 7.0 % 7.5 % 22.3 % 24.6 % 3.3 % 4.4 % 4.9 %

601.70 540.61 452.67 428.92 728.14 643.71 541.39 516.80 9 998.0 8 648.3 6 977.6 6 560.2 2 547.5 2 508.4 2 328.4 2 232.8 332.3 293.5 221.8 206.2

* Preliminary 2016 CHP data from Eurostat. ** Total emissions without LULUCF, with ind. CO2, including international aviation, excl. international maritime transport.

231


Appendices

7 1 %


Appendices

2

5

8 3 A B C D E F G


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

Summary Appendices Methodology � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 236 Appendix 1 – Country Nomenclature � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 236 Appendix 2 – Main Indicators – EN � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 237 Appendix 3 – Main Indicators – DE � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 238 Appendix 4 – Main Indicators – FR � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 239 Appendix 5 – Main Products – EN � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 240 Appendix 6 – Main Products – DE � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 241 Appendix 7 – Main Products – FR � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 242 Appendix 8 – Symbols and Abbreviations � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 243 Appendix 9 – SI Units – Prefixes � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 244 Appendix 10 – Conversion Factors � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 245 Appendix 11 – Average Calorific Values � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 246

Appendix Glossary � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 247 Appendix 12 – Glossary � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 247

Appendix Notes� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 257 Appendix 13 – Notes� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 257

Notes � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 262

235


Appendices

Appendices Methodology ESTAT – Energy Numeric Code

Belgique/België Bulgaria* Česká republika Danmark Deutschland Eesti Éire/Ireland Elláda* España France Hrvatska Italia Kýpros Latvija Lietuva Luxembourg Magyarország Malta Nederland Österreich Polska Portugal România Slovenija Slovensko Suomi/Finland Sverige United Kingdom

ESTAT Partner Code

ISG Short Name, Source Language*

Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Croatia Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom

ISO 3166 Alpha-2 Country Codes

ISG Short Name EN

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

ISG Protocol Order

Interinstitutional Style Guide (ISG) Country Code

Appendix 1 – Country Nomenclature

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE GR ES FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE GB

0012 0068 0061 0008 0004 0053 0007 0009 0042 0001 0092 0005 0600 0055 0054 0022 0064 0085 0003 0038 0060 0040 0066 0091 0063 0032 0030 0006

09 82 22 10 04 85 12 11 15 06 84 07 21 24 25 13 23 27 08 16 87 14 83 86 26 18 17 05

* Latin transliterated. EU Interinstitutional Style Guide (ISG): http://publications.europa.eu/code/ Eurostat Website: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ ISO 3166 Country Codes Maintenance Agency: http://www.iso.org/iso/country_codes/iso_3166_code_lists.htm

236


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

Appendix 2 – Main Indicators – EN ESTAT Energy Database – EN Indicator B_100100 B_100200 B_100300 B_100400 B_100500 B_100600 B_101700 B_100800 B_100900 B_101000 B_101100 B_101200 B_101300 B_101400 B_101500 B_101700 B_101800 B_101805 B_101810 B_101815 B_101820 B_101825 B_101830 B_101835 B_101840 B_101851 B_101852 B_101900 B_101910 B_101920 B_101930 B_101940 B_102000 B_102010 B_102030 B_102035 B_102020 B_102040 B_102200

Code Primary production Recovered products Imports Stock changes Exports Net imports Final energy consumption Bunkers Gross inland consumption Transformation input Transformation output Exchanges, transfers, returns Consumption in energy sector Distribution losses Energy available for final consumption Final energy consumption Final energy consumption – industry Iron and steel Non-ferrous metals Chemical and petrochemical Non-metallic minerals Mining and quarrying Food and tobacco Textile and leather Paper, pulp and print Wood and wood products Construction Final energy consumption – transport Final energy consumption – rail transport Final energy consumption – road transport Final energy consumption – air transport Final energy consumption – inland navigation Final energy consumption – Residential, commerce, etc. Residential Final energy consumption – agriculture Final energy consumption – services Final energy consumption – fisheries Final energy consumption – other sectors Statistical difference

Source: Coded, Eurostat’s Concepts and Definitions Database: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/

237


Appendices

Appendix 3 – Main Indicators – DE ESTAT Energy Database – DE Indicator B_100100 B_100200 B_100300 B_100400 B_100500 B_100600 B_101700 B_100800 B_100900 B_101000 B_101100 B_101200 B_101300 B_101400 B_101500 B_101700 B_101800 B_101805 B_101810 B_101815 B_101820 B_101825 B_101830 B_101835 B_101840 B_101851 B_101852 B_101900 B_101910 B_101920 B_101930 B_101940 B_102000 B_102010 B_102030 B_102035 B_102020 B_102040 B_102200

Code Primärerzeugung Wiedergewinnung Gesamteinfuhren Bestandsveränderungen Gesamtausfuhren Nettoeinfuhren Energetischer Endverbrauch Bunker Bruttoinlandsverbrauch Umwandlungseinsatz Umwandlungsausstoß Austausch, Übertragung, Rückläufe Verbrauch des Produktionsbereichs Energie Netzverluste Für den Endverbrauch zur Verfügung stehende Energie Energetischer Endverbrauch Energetischer Endverbrauch der Industrie Energetischer Endverbrauch der Stahlindustrie Energetischer Endverbrauch der NE-Metallindustrie Energetischer Endverbrauch der chemischen Industrie Energetischer Endverbrauch der Nichtmetallische Mineralstoffe verarbeitenden Industrie Energetischer Endverbrauch der Erzgewinnungsindustrie (mit Ausnahme der Brenn- und Kraftstoffgewinnung) Energetischer Endverbrauch der Nahrungs- und Genussmittelindustrie Energetischer Endverbrauch der Textil-, Lederwaren- und Bekleidungsindustrie Energetischer Endverbrauch der Papier- und Druckindustrie Energetischer Endverbrauch der Holz Energetischer Endverbrauch – Baugewerbe Energetischer Endverbrauch im Verkehrssektor Energetischer Endverbrauch des Bahnverkehrs Energetischer Endverbrauch des Strassenverkehrs Energetischer Endverbrauch des Luftverkehrs Energetischer Endverbrauch der Binnenschifffahrt Energetischer Endverbrauch der Privathaushalte, des Handels usw.. Energetischer Endverbrauch der Privathaushalte Energetischer Endverbrauch der Landwirtschaft Energetischer Endverbrauch des Dienstleistungssektors Energetischer Endverbrauch des Fischereisektors Energetischer Endverbrauch anderer Sektoren Statistische Differenz

Source: Coded, Eurostat Datenbank für Konzepte und Begriffe: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/

238


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

Appendix 4 – Main Indicators – FR ESTAT Energy Database – FR Indicator B_100100 B_100200 B_100300 B_100400 B_100500 B_100600 B_101700 B_100800 B_100900 B_101000 B_101100 B_101200 B_101300 B_101400 B_101500 B_101700 B_101800 B_101805 B_101810 B_101815 B_101820 B_101825 B_101830 B_101835 B_101840 B_101851 B_101852 B_101900 B_101910 B_101920 B_101930 B_101940 B_102000 B_102010 B_102030 B_102035 B_102020 B_102040 B_102200

Code Production primaire Récupération Importations totales Variations de stocks Exportations totales Importations nettes Consommation finale énergétique Soutes maritimes Consommation intérieure brute Entrées en transformation Sorties de transformation Échanges, transferts, restitutions Consommation de la branche énergie Pertes sur les réseaux Disponible pour la consommation finale Consommation finale énergétique Consommation finale énergétique – industrie Consommation finale énergétique – sidérurgie Consommation finale énergétique – métaux non ferreux Consommation finale énergétique – chimie et pétrochimie Consommation finale énergétique – minéraux non métalliques Consommation finale énergétique – extraction Consommation finale énergétique – aliments, boissons Consommation finale énergétique – textile, cuir, habillement Consommation finale énergétique – papier, carton, imprimerie Consommation finale énergétique – bois Consommation finale énergétique – construction Consommation finale énergétique – transports Consommation finale énergétique – transports ferroviaires Consommation finale énergétique – transports routiers Consommation finale énergétique – transports aériens Consommation finale énergétique – navigation intérieure Consommation finale énergétique – foyers, etc. Consommation finale énergétique – ménages Consommation finale énergétique – agriculture Consommation finale énergétique – services Consommation finale énergétique – pêche Consommation finale énergétique – autres Écart statistique

Source: Coded, Base de Données de Concepts et Définitions d’Eurostat: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/

239


Appendices

Appendix 5 – Main Products – EN ESTAT Energy Database – EN Indicator 0000 2000 2100 2111 2112 2120 2200 3000 3100 3105 3110 3190 3200 3220 3230 3234 3240 3250 3260 3270A 4000 4100 4200 5100 5200 5500 5510 5520 5530 5535 5540 5541 5542 55431 5545 5546 5547 5550 6000 7100

Code All products Solid fuels Hard coal and derivatives Hard coal Patent fuels Coke Lignite and derivatives Total petroleum and products Crude oil and feedstocks Crude oil Crude oil and NGL Feedstocks All petroleum product LPG Motor spirit Motor gasoline, unleaded motor spirit Kerosenes – jet fuels Naphtha Gas / diesel oil Residual fuel oil Gas Natural gas Derived gas Nuclear power Derived heat Renewable energies Hydro power Wind energy Solar energy Tide/wave/ocean energy Biomass and wastes Wood and wood waste Biogas Municipal solid wastes – RES Biofuels Biogasoline Biodiesel Geothermal energy Electrical energy Industrial waste

Source: Coded, Eurostat’s Concepts and Definitions Database: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/

240


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

Appendix 6 – Main Products – DE ESTAT Energy Database – DE Indicator 0000 2000 2100 2111 2112 2120 2200 3000 3100 3105 3110 3190 3200 3220 3230 3234 3240 3250 3260 3270A 4000 4100 4200 4100 5200 5500 5510 5520 5530 5535 5540 5541 5542 55431 5545 5546 5547 5550 6000 7100

Code Alle produkte Feste Brennstoffe Steinkohle und Nebenprodukte Steinkohle Steinkohlebriketts Koks Braunkohle und Nebenprodukte Rohöl und Mineralölerzeugnisse Rohöl und Feedstocks Rohöl Rohöl und Erdgaskondensate Feedstocks Alle Mineralölerzeugnisse Flüssiggas Motorenbenzin Unverbleites Benzin Petroleum und Flugturbinenkraftstoffe Rohbenzin Dieselkraftstoffe und Destillatheizöle Rückstandsheizöle Gas Naturgas Abgeleitete Gase Kernenergie Abgeleitete Wärme Erneuerbare Energien Wasserkraftenergie Windenergie Sonnenenergie Gezeiten-/Wellen-/Meeresenergie Biomasse und Abfälle Holz und Holzabfälle Biogas Hausmüll Erneuerbare Biotreibstoff Biobenzin Biodiesel Geothermische Energie Elektrizität Industrieabfälle

Source: Coded, Eurostat Datenbank für Konzepte und Begriffe: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/

241


Appendices

Appendix 7 – Main Products – FR ESTAT Energy Database – FR Indicator 0000 2000 2100 2111 2112 2120 2200 3000 3100 3105 3110 3190 3200 3220 3230 3234 3240 3250 3260 3270A 4000 4100 4200 5100 5200 5500 5510 5520 5530 5535 5540 5541 5542 55431 5545 5546 5547 5550 6000 7100

Code Tous produits Combustibles solides Houille et dérivés solides Houille Agglomérés de houille Coke Lignite et dérivés Pétrole brut et produits pétroliers Pétrole brut et feedstocks Pétrole brut Pétrole brut et liquides de gaz naturel Feedstocks Tous produits pétroliers GPL Essences moteurs Essences sans plomb Pétrole lampant et carburéacteurs Naphta Gasoil et fuel oil fluide Fuel oil résiduel Gaz Gaz naturel Gaz dérivés Énergie nucléaire Chaleur dérivée Énergies renouvelables Hydro-électricité Énergie éolienne Énergie solaire Énergie hydrocinétique/houlomotrice/marémotrice Biomasse/déchets Bois – déchets de bois Biogaz Déchets urbains solides renouvelables Biocarburants Bioessence Biodiesel Énergie géothermique Énergie électrique Déchets industriels

Source: Coded, Base de Données de Concepts et Définitions d’Eurostat: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ramon/

242


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

Appendix 8 – Symbols and Abbreviations % € 0 bbl bcm Blank CHP CO2 DG EEA equiv. ESTAT GCV GDP GHG GJ IEA k kgoe ktoe kton kWh LPG M€ '2010 m3 Mio MS MSW Mtoe MW MWh NCV NGL p/cap PJ PV RES RES-E RES-H&C RES-T SI Units TJ toe ton TPES TWh UNFCCC VAT

per cent euro zero or figure less than half of the unit represented barrel billion cubic meters data not available combined heat & power carbon dioxide Directorate-General of the European Commission European Environment Agency equivalent Eurostat, Statistical Office of the European Union gross calorific value gross domestic product greenhouse gas gigajoule International Energy Agency thousand kilogram of oil equivalent kiloton of oil equivalent kiloton kilowatt hour liquefied petroleum gas millions of euro, chain-linked volumes, reference year 2010, at 2010 exchange rates cubic meter million European Union Member State municipal solid waste million ton of oil equivalent megawatt megawatt hour net calorific value natural gas liquid per capita petajoule photovoltaic renewable energy renewable energy – electricity generation renewable energy – heating and cooling renewable energy – transport International System of Units terajoule ton of oil equivalent metric ton, metric tonne, mt Total Primary Energy Supply terawatt hour United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change value added tax

243


Appendices

Appendix 9 – SI Units – Prefixes Standard Prefixes for the SI Units of Measure 10 1 10 2 10 3 10 6 10 9 10 12 10 15 10 18 10 21 10 24

244

Multiple deca (da) hecto (h) kilo (k) mega (M) giga (G) tera (T) peta (P) exa (E) zetta (Z) yotta (Y)

10 -1 10 -2 10 -3 10 -6 10 -9 10 -12 10 -15 10 -18 10 -21 10 -24

Sub-Multiple deci (d) centi (c) milli (m) micro (µ) nano (n) pico (p) femto (f) atto (a) zepto (z) yocto (y)


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

Appendix 10 – Conversion Factors ENERGY 

TO:

TJ

Gcal

Mtoe

GWh

238.8

2.388 x 10 -5

0.2778

1

1 x 10 -7

1.163 x 10 -3

1 x 10 7

1

11 630

860

8.6 x 10 -5

1

bbl

gal US

gal UK

1

0.6290 x 10 -2

0.2642

0.2200

158.99

1

42

34.9723

Multiply by FROM:

Terajoule (TJ)

1

Gigacalorie (Gcal) 4.1868 x 10 Million ton of oil 4 equivalent (Mtoe) 4.1868 x 10  Gigawatt-hour GWh 3.6

-3

VOLUME 

TO:

l Multiply by

FROM:

Litre (l) Barrel (bbl) US gallon (gal US)

3.7854

0.2381 x 10 -1

1

0.8327

UK gallon (gal UK)

4.5461

0.2859 x 10 -1

1.2009

1

t

lt

st

MASS 

TO:

FROM:

Multiply by Ton, Tonne (t)

1

0.9842

1.1023

Long ton (lt) UK

1.0160

1

1.1200

Short ton (st) US

0.9072

0.8929

1

245


Appendices

Appendix 11 – Average Calorific Values Energy Content Hard Coal Recovered Hard Coal Patent Fuels Hard Coke Brown Coal Black Lignite Peat Brown Coal Briquettes Tar Benzol Oil Equivalent Crude Oil Feedstocks Refinery Gas LPG Motor Spirit Kerosenes, Jet Fuel Naphtha Gas Diesel Oil Residual Fuel Oil White Spirit Lubricants Bitumen Petroleum Cokes Other Petro. Products Electrical Energy

246

1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kg 1 kWh

kJ (NCV) 17 200 – 30 700 13 800 – 28 300 26 800 – 31 400 28 500 5 600 – 10 500 10 500 – 21 000 7 800 – 13 800 20 000 37 700 39 500 41 868 41 600 – 42 800 42 500 50 000 46 000 44 000 43 000 44 000 42 300 40 000 44 000 42 300 37 700 31 400 30 000 3 600

kgoe (NCV) 0.411 – 0.733 0.330 – 0.676 0.640 – 0.750 0.681 0.134 – 0.251 0.251 – 0.502 0.186 – 0.330 0.478 0.900 0.943 1 0.994 – 1.022 1.015 1.194 1.099 1.051 1.027 1.051 1.010 0.955 1.051 1.010 0.900 0.750 0.717 0.086


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

Appendix Glossary Appendix 12 – Glossary In parenthesis EUROSTAT Energy database/EUROBASE, (Energy section) codes for products (p:) and indicators (B_), as of June 2018. ALL FUELS The code ‘all fuels’, (p: 0000), covers all energy products. These consist of hard coal and derivatives, lignite and derivatives, peat and derivatives, oil shale and oil sands, petroleum (crude oil) and petroleum products (such as LPG, refinery gas, motor spirit, kerosene, gas/diesel oil, residual fuel oil), natural gas, manufactured gases, derived heat, renewable energies (such as hydro power, wind energy, biomass, wastes, geothermal energy), electrical energy and nuclear power. ANNUAL INSTALLED CAPACITY Annual installed or new installed capacity of a given source refers to the capacity entering in operation, during a year period. AUTOPRODUCER THERMAL POWER STATIONS Autoproducer thermal power stations are defined as undertakings which generate electricity wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. AVAILABLE FOR FINAL CONSUMPTION (ENERGY) Energy available for final consumption covers the energy placed at the disposal of final users. This code is calculated as follows: gross inland consumption (B_100900) + transformation output (B_101100) - transformation input (B_101000) + exchanges, transfers, returns (B_101200) - consumption of the energy sector (B_101300) - distribution losses (B_101400). BIOFUELS Liquid or gaseous fuels used primarily for transport, produced from biomass, and wastes (p:5545). Liquid biofuels cover bioethanol (ethanol produced from biomass), biodiesel (diesel produced from biomass or used fried oil), bio methanol, bio-dimethylether and bio-oil (a pyrolysis oil fuel produced from biomass). The code biofuels (p:5545), groups biogasoline (p:5546), biodiesel (p:5547), bio jet kerosene (p:5549) and other liquid biofuels (p:5548).

247


Appendices

BIOMASS AND RES WASTES Biomass and RES wastes (p: 5540), covers organic, non-fossil material of biological origin, which may be used for heat production or electricity generation. They comprise wood and wood waste (p: 5541), biogas (p: 5542), municipal RES solid waste (p:55431), charcoal (p:5544) and biofuels (p: 5545). The non-renewable part of municipal waste (p: 55432) and the industrial waste (p:7100) are included in Wastes non-RES (p:7200). CAPACITY FACTOR – ANNUAL AVERAGE It is a measure of efficiency, which is defined as the ratio of actual energy output of a source against its annual maximum potential output, or in other words, to the energy it would produce if operated at full rated power for 24 hours per day during a year. It is equal to the total annual energy production, divided by the cumulative capacity converted to average statistical year base. CARBON ENERGY INTENSITY This is the average emission rate of CO2 relative to the intensity of the energy activity. It is calculated, in the tables, in kg CO2 emissions per ton of oil equivalent of energy used. CARBON GDP INTENSITY This represents the average emission rate of CO2 emissions of an economy relative to its GDP. CHP – COMBINED HEAT AND POWER A combined heat and power unit is an installation in which energy released from fuel combustion is partly used for generating electrical energy and partly for supplying heat for various purposes. The definition of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) or ‘cogeneration’ implies that heat and electricity are produced simultaneously in one process. CO2 ENERGY INTENSITY Carbon Energy Intensity represents the average emission rate of CO2 emissions of an economy relative to its energy consumption. CONVENTIONAL THERMAL POWER It is a technology for the production of electricity by fuel combustion. It will include biomass use, which is also considered a renewable source of electricity. Thermal power stations cover conventional public utility power stations for the production of electricity and heat, as well as in auto-producer power stations for the generation of electricity and heat sold to third parties only. CUMULATIVE INSTALLED CAPACITY This represents the running sum for consecutive periods of a given installed source. It indicates the total capacity availability in each of those periods.

248


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

ELECTRICITY MIX The electricity mix is the proportion of different sources in electricity production. While energy mix is measured at gross inland consumption level, electricity mix is measured at energy transformation level. ENERGY AVAILABLE FOR FINAL CONSUMPTION Energy available for final consumption, (B_101500), covers the energy placed at the disposal of final users. This code is calculated as follows: gross inland consumption + transformation output - transformation input + exchanges, transfers, returns - consumption of the energy sector distribution losses. It includes final non energy consumption, (B_101600). ENERGY IMPORT DEPENDENCY Energy dependency shows the extent to which a country relies upon imports in order to meet its energy needs. It is calculated using the following formula: net imports (B_100300–B_100500)/(gross inland consumption (B_100900) + bunkers (B_100800)). ENERGY INTENSITY Energy intensity gives an indication of the effectiveness with which energy is being used to produce added value. It is defined as the ratio of gross inland consumption of energy (B_100900), to gross domestic product. ENERGY MIX The energy mix is the proportion of different sources in energy production, supply side, at gross inland consumption level. ENERGY SECTOR BROAD DEFINITION It includes the electricity, gas, steam, and air conditioning supply sector as well as the energy commodities production activities, mining and extraction, support activities and manufacture of energy products. ENERGY SECTOR NARROW DEFINITION It includes the electricity, gas, steam, and air conditioning supply sector. EUROBASE The Eurostat, web based, dissemination database contains the full range of publically available data from Eurostat. FINAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION (FEC) Final energy consumption covers energy supplied to the final consumer’s door for all energy uses, (B_101700). It excludes deliveries to the energy transformation sector (B_101000…) and to the energy industries themselves (B_101300…). It is the sum of final energy consumption by industry (B_101800), transport (B_101900), household (B_102010), services (B_102035), agriculture/forestry (B_102030), fishing (B_102020) and other unspecified (B_102040). 249


Appendices

FINAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION – TRANSPORT Final energy consumption – transport, (B_101900), covers the consumption in all types of transportation, i.e., rail, road, air transport and inland navigation. FINAL NON-ENERGY CONSUMPTION (FNEC) Final non-energy consumption covers the use of energy products for nonenergy purposes (B_101600). It is the sum of final non-energy consumption in the chemical industry, (B_101601) and in non-chemical industries (B_101602). GASES, GASEOUS FUELS Gases covers fossil natural gas and derived gases, coke oven gas (p:4210), blast furnace gas (p:4220), gas work gas (p:4230), and oxygen steel furnace gas (p:4240). Gases (p:4000) is the sum of natural gas (p:4100) and derived gases (p:4200). GDP – GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT The gross domestic product is the value of the output of all goods and services produced within the borders of a country. The income measure of gross domestic product (GDP) is derived as compensation of employees plus gross operating surplus plus gross mixed incomes plus taxes less subsidies on both production and imports. GDP AT CONSTANT MARKET PRICES GDP values, used, were referenced to year 2010, in millions of euro, chainlinked volumes, at 2010 exchange rates. GHG – GREEN HOUSES GASES GHG includes gases that contribute to the natural greenhouse effect. The Kyoto Protocol covers a basket of six greenhouse gases (GHGs) produced by human activities: Carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydro fluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride. GROSS CALORIFIC VALUE (GCV) The gross calorific value is the total amount of heat released by a unit quantity of fuel, when it is burned completely with oxygen, and when the products of combustion are returned to ambient temperature. This quantity includes the heat of condensation of any water vapour contained in the fuel and of the water vapour formed by the combustion of any hydrogen contained in the fuel. GROSS ELECTRICITY GENERATION The gross electricity generation is measured at the outlet of the main transformers, i.e. the consumption of electricity in the plant auxiliaries and in transformers is included.

250


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

GROSS ELECTRICITY GENERATION PENETRATION LEVEL Electricity penetration level refers to the fraction of gross electricity production of a source, compared with the total gross electricity generation, all sources. GROSS FINAL CONSUMPTION OF ENERGY Gross final consumption of energy means the energy commodities delivered for energy purposes, including the consumption of electricity and heat, by the energy branch for electricity and heat production including losses of electricity and heat in distribution. It excludes the final non energy use (FNEC). The gross (overall) final consumption of energy from renewable sources is calculated as the sum of: (a) gross final consumption of electricity from renewable energy sources; (b) gross final consumption of energy from renewable sources for heating and cooling; and (c) final consumption of energy from renewable sources in transport. GROSS HEAT PRODUCED It is the total heat produced, including losses in the installations/network heat exchanges, as well as heat from chemical processes used as primary energy form. For auto-producers, the heat used by the undertaking for its own processes is not included here. Only heat sold to third parties should be reported. GROSS INLAND CONSUMPTION (GIC) Gross inland consumption represents the quantity of energy necessary to satisfy inland consumption of the geographical entity under consideration, (B_100900). It is calculated using the following formula: indigenous production (B_100100) + primary product receipts (B_100110) + recovered products from other sources (B_100200) + recycled products (B_100210) + imports (B_100300) + stock changes (B_100400) - exports (B_100500) - international marine bunkers (B_100800). GROSS INSTALLED (ELECTRICITY) CAPACITY This covers the gross installed electrical capacity of thermal, nuclear, hydro, geothermal, wind and any other types of power plants. ISIC The International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities is a United Nations system for classifying economic activity data, in the fields of production, employment, gross domestic product and other statistical areas. ISG The Inter-institutional style guide is intended to serve as a reference tool for written works for all European Union institutions, bodies and organisations, representing an achievement in linguistic harmonisation.

251


Appendices

INHABITANTS This represents the group of persons fulfilling the requirements for legal permanent residency in a region/country. LFS The EU Labour Force Survey (LFS) is a large sample survey among private residential which provides detailed annual and quarterly data on: employment, unemployment and inactivity. The LFS is an important source of information about the situation and trends in the EU labour market, with a sample size is about 1.5 million people every quarter. The data can be broken down along many dimensions including age, sex, educational attainment, and distinctions between permanent/temporary and full-time/part-time employment. In terms of employment figures are more representative of the total sector, but unfortunately not so disaggregated as the SBS survey. LONG SCALE – SHORT SCALE The long and short scales are two of several different large-number naming systems used for integer powers of ten. Many countries, including most in continental Europe, use the long scale whereas most English-speaking countries and Arabic-speaking countries use the short scale. In the long scale every new term greater than a million is a million times the previous term. Thus, billion means a million millions, trillion means a million billions, and so on. In the short scale every new term greater than million is 1 000 times the previous term. Thus, billion means a thousand millions, trillion means a thousand billions. Name

Long Scale Value in Scientific notation

Short Scale Value in Scientific notation

million

10 6

10 6

billion

10 

10 9

trillion

12

10 

10 12

to the next:

to the next:

multiply by 1 000 000

multiply by 1 000

18

Milliard, is used in several languages that use the long scale to represent a corresponding value to billions in short scale, i.e. 10 9.

NACE NACE is the acronym used to designate the various statistical classifications of economic activities developed since 1970 in the European Union. It provides the framework for collecting and presenting a large range of statistical data according to economic activity in the fields of economic statistics (e.g. production, employment, national accounts) and in other statistical domains.

252


EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

NET CALORIFIC VALUE (NCV) The net calorific value is the amount of heat released by a unit quantity of fuel, when it is burned completely with oxygen, and when the products of combustion are returned to ambient temperature. This quantity does not include the heat of condensation of any water vapour contained in the fuel nor of the water vapour formed by the combustion of any hydrogen contained in the fuel. NET IMPORTS Net import is calculated as the difference between imports (B_100300) and exports (B_100500). NET ELECTRICITY GENERATION It is the amount of gross generation a generator produces less the electricity used to operate the plant. PETROLEUM AND PRODUCTS Petroleum and (petroleum) sub-products include crude oil (p: 3105), natural gas liquids (p:3106), feedstocks (p:3190) and all petroleum sub-products such as LPG (p:3220), refinery gas (p:3210), motor gasoline (p:3234) aviation gasoline (p:3235), kerosene and jet fuels (p:3240), naphtha (p:3250), gas/diesel oil (p:3260), residual fuel oil (p:3270A), white spirit, lubricants, bitumen, petroleum coke (p:3280) and other petroleum products (p:3295). Petroleum and petroleum products (p:3000) is the sum of Crude oil, NGL, feedstocks, and other hydrocarbon (p:3100) and all petroleum sub-products (p:3200). PRIMARY ENERGY CONSUMPTION Primary energy corresponds to the gross inland consumption minus the energy included in the final non-energy consumption. PRIMARY ENERGY INTENSITY Primary energy intensity gives an indication of the effectiveness with which primary energy consumption produces added value. It is defined as the ratio of primary energy consumption to gross domestic product. PRIMARY ENERGY PRODUCTION â&#x20AC;&#x201C; INDIGENOUS PRODUCTION Any kind of extraction of energy products from natural sources to a usable form is called primary production. Primary production takes place when the natural sources are exploited, for example in coal mines, crude oil fields, hydro power plants or fabrication of biofuels. Transformation of energy from one form to another, such as electricity or heat generation in thermal power plants, or coke production in coke ovens, is not included in primary production (B_100100).

253


Appendices

The precise definition depends on the fuel involved: > SOLID FOSSIL FUELS: HARD COAL, LIGNITE, PEAT AND PRODUCTS, OIL SHALE AND OIL SANDS Quantities of fuels extracted or produced, calculated after any operation for removal of inert matter. In general, production includes the quantities consumed by the producer during the production as well as any quantities supplied to other on-site producers of energy for transformation or other uses. > LIQUID FOSSIL FUELS: PETROLEUM AND PETROLEUM SUB PRODUCTS Quantities of fuels extracted or produced within national boundaries, including off-shore production. Production includes only marketable production, and excludes any quantities returned to formation. Production includes all crude oil, natural gas liquids (NGL), condensates and oil from shale and tar sands, etc. > GAS FOSSIL FUELS: NATURAL GAS AND DERIVED GAS Quantities of dry gas, measured after purification and extraction of natural gas liquids and sulphur. The production includes only marketable production, and excludes any quantities re-injected, vented and flared, and any extraction losses. The production includes all quantities used within the natural gas industry, in gas extraction, pipeline systems and processing plants. > NUCLEAR HEAT Quantities of heat produced in a reactor. Production is the actual heat produced or the heat calculated on the basis of the gross electricity generated and the thermal efficiency of the nuclear plant. > RENEWABLE ENERGY > Hydropower, Wind energy, Solar thermal, Solar photovoltaic energy... Quantities of electricity generated. Production is calculated on the basis of the gross electricity generated and a conversion factor of 3â&#x20AC;&#x2030;600 kJ/kWh. > Geothermal energy Quantities of heat extracted from geothermal fluids. Production is calculated on the basis of the difference between the enthalpy of the fluid produced in the production borehole and that of the fluid disposed of via the re-injection borehole. > Biomass/Wastes In the case of municipal solid wastes (MSW), wood, wood wastes and other solid wastes, production is the heat produced after combustion and corresponds to the heat content (NCV) of the fuel. In the case of anaerobic digestion of wet wastes, production is the heat content (NCV) of the biogases produced. The production includes all quantities of gas consumed in the installation for the fermentation processes, and excludes all quantities of flared gases. In the case of biofuels, the production is the heat content (NCV) of the fuel .In the case of biofuels, the production is the heat content (NCV) of the fuel.

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EU ENERGY IN FIGURES 2018

PUMPING, PUMPED STORAGE Method for storing electrical energy at hydroelectric installations by pumping water between reservoirs at different altitudes. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES (RES) See the definition at Primary Energy Production. PUBLIC SUPPLY THERMAL POWER STATIONS Are defined as undertakings which generate electricity (and heat) for sale to third parties as their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. SOLAR ENERGY Solar radiation exploited for hot water production - solar thermal (p:5532) and electricity generation – solar photovoltaic (p:5534). This energy production (p:5530), is the heat available to the heat transfer medium, i.e. the incident solar energy less the optical and collectors’ losses. SOLID FUELS Solid fuels cover solid fossil fuels such as hard coal (p: 2111), coal patent fuels (p: 2112), coke (p: 2120), coal tar (p: 2130), lignite (p: 2210), browncoal briquettes and peat briquettes (p: 2230), peat (p: 2310) and oil shale and oil sands (p: 2410). Solid fuels (p: 2000) is the sum of the codes hard coal & derivatives (p: 2100), lignite and derivatives (p: 2200) and oil shale and oil sands (p: 2410). SBS Structural business statistics cover industry, construction, trade and services. Presented according to the NACE activity classification, they describe the structure, conduct and performance of businesses across the European Union. TONNE OF OIL EQUIVALENT (toe) The tonne of oil equivalent is a conventional standardised unit for measuring energy, defined on the basis of a tonne of oil with a net calorific value of 41 868 kilojoules/kg. TPES Total primary energy supply, an IEA definition, represents the quantity of energy necessary to satisfy inland consumption of the geographical entity under consideration. It corresponds to EUROSTAT gross inland consumption. It is equal to the indigenous production + imports - exports - international marine bunkers +/- stock changes.

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TRANSFORMATION INPUT Covers all inputs into the transformation plants destined to be converted into derived products, (B_101000). Transformation is only recorded when the energy products are physically or chemically modified to produce other energy products, electricity and/or heat. It is the sum of the Input to conventional thermal power stations (B_101001), Input to nuclear power stations (B_101002), Input to patent fuel and briquetting plants (B_101003), Input to coke-oven plants (B_101004), Input to blast furnace plants (B_101006), Input to gas-works (B_101007), Input to refineries (B_101008), Input to district heating plants and (B_ 101009). TRANSFORMATION OUTPUT It is the result of the transformation process of energy, (B_101100). This output covers derived products, namely: patent fuel, coke, brown-coal and peat briquettes, pitch, tar, benzol, refined petroleum products, derived gases, electricity from conventional thermal and nuclear power stations and derived heat. Transformation output refers always to gross production of derived products, i.e. the own consumption of the transformation plants is included. It is the sum of the Output from conventional thermal power stations (B_101101), Output from nuclear power stations (B_101102), Output from patent fuel and briquetting plants (B_101103), Output from coke-oven plants (B_101104), Output from blast furnace plants (B_101106), Output from gas-works (B_101107), Output from refineries (B_101108) and Output from district heating plants (B_101109). TRANSFORMATION LOSSES The difference between transformation input and transformation output constitutes transformation losses. TURNOVER Or Gross Premium Written comprises the totals invoiced by the observation unit during the reference period, and this corresponds to market sales of goods or services supplied to third parties. UNEMPLOYMENT RATE The unemployment rate represents unemployed persons as a percentage of the active population.

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Appendix Notes Appendix 13 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Notes APPENDIX 13.1 1.1.1, 1.1.2 PAGES 10, 11 Energy production corresponds to the indigenous energy production (IEA methodology). It does not include production from other sources. Asia aggregation does not include China data. 1.1.2, 1.1.4, 1.1.6, 1.1.8, PAGES 11, 13, 15 AND 17 Solid fuels, includes hard coal, lignite and peat, as well as derived fuels. Petroleum and (petroleum) sub-products comprises crude oil, NGL, feedstock, additives as well as other hydrocarbons. RES (renewables) is equal to the sum of hydro, geothermal, solar PV, solar thermal, tide, wind, municipal waste, primary solid biofuels, biogases, bio gasoline, biodiesel, other liquid biofuels, non-specified biofuels and charcoal energy. Industrial waste not included. 1.1.3, 1.1.4, PAGES 12, 13 Gross inland consumption, EUROSTAT methodology (see glossary), corresponds to the Total primary energy supply (see glossary TPES), of the IEA methodology. Asia aggregation does not include China data. 1.1.5, 1.1.6, PAGES 14, 15 Final energy consumption covers energy supplied to the final consumerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s door for all energy uses. Asia aggregation does not include China data. 1.1.8, PAGE 17 It is the total heat produced, including losses in the installations/network heat exchanges. However only autoproducers heat sold to third parties is here included. Autoproducers heat, used by the undertaking for their own processes, is excluded. 1.1.10, PAGE 19 CO2 Intensity refers to CO2 emissions activity intensity, measured by its energy gross inland consumption. 1.2.5, PAGE 25 Natural gas, crude oil and solid fuels (p:4100, p:3105 and p:2000). 1.3.1, PAGE 27 Overall RES share, measured against the total gross final energy consumption.

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APPENDIX 13.2 2.1.1, PAGES 35-37 Production comprises primary production and products recovered from other sources, (B_100100 + B_100110+ B_100200+ B_100210). 2.1.2, PAGES 38-40 Net imports correspond to the total imports minus the total exports, (B_100300 – B_100500). 2.1.3, PAGES 41-44 Gross inland consumption represents the quantity of energy necessary to satisfy inland consumption of the geographical entity under consideration, (B_100900). 2.2.1, PAGES 45-49 Solid fuels, (p:2000), cover solid fossil fuels such as hard coal, coal patent fuels, coke, coal tar, lignite, brown-coal briquettes, peat briquettes, peat and oil sands. Hard coal, (p:2111), comprises, only, coking coal and steam coal. 2.2.2, PAGES 50-54 Total Petroleum and sub-petroleum products, (p:3000), include crude oil (p: 3105), natural gas liquids (p:3106), feedstock (p:3190) and all petroleum sub-products. Crude oil and NGL (p:3110) is a subgroup containing only crude oil (p: 3105) and natural gas liquids (p:3106) codes. 2.2.3, PAGES 55-58 Gases, (p:4000), include natural gas (p:4100) and derived gases (p:4200). 2.2.5, PAGES 63-65 For products see former points 2.2.1 to 2.2.3. 2.3, PAGES 66-72 See, glossary energy import dependency, appendix 12. Please note that hard coal dependency is a part of the solid fuels dependency, natural gas, of the gases dependency, and crude and NGL of the total petroleum and petroleum sub-products dependency. The total import dependency – covers all fuels, and it is not a simple average of the upper mentioned products. 2.5.1, PAGE 79 Energy available for final consumption covers the energy placed at the disposal of final users. It includes final non energy consumption. 2.5.2, PAGES 80-83 Final energy consumption covers energy supplied to the final consumer’s door for all energy uses. It does not include final non-energy consumption.

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2.5.3, PAGE 84 Final non-energy consumption covers the use of energy products in nonenergy purposes. 2.5.4, PAGE 85 Primary energy intensity corresponds to the gross inland consumption minus the energy included in the final non-energy consumption, (B_100900B_101600). 2.6.1, PAGES 86-88 Installed capacity represents the maximum active power that can be supplied, continuously, with all systems running. Please note that combustible fuels include not only fossil fuels, as well as biomass and wastes, that are later included, also, in the renewables installed capacity. 2.6.2, PAGES 89-93 The gross electricity generation is measured at the outlet of the main transformers, i.e. the consumption of electricity in the plant auxiliaries and in transformers is included. 2.7.1, PAGES 95-96 Intermittent energy only includes wind and solar energy. Tide is not included in the totals. The share of the intermittent energy is measured against to total installed capacity, all sources. 2.7.2-2.7.8, PAGES 97-104 Wind and solar energy generated by all producers. Annual installed capacity includes new installations and replacement of former wind or solar systems. 2.7.3, 2.7.4, PAGES 99-100 Gross electricity production wind share measures the percentage of wind produced electricity in the total production. Average capacity factor it is the ratio of actual energy output of wind sources against its annual maximum potential output. It is equal to the total annual electricity production, divided by the cumulative capacity converted to an average statistical year base. 2.7.8, PAGE 104 Gross electricity production solar share measures the percentage of solar produced electricity in the total production. 2.8, PAGES 106-108 The data collection for CHP generation is not based in the annual Heat survey, but instead in a specific survey in accordance with the Community Directive 2004/8/EC. Differences can appear between the two datasets, especially due to the more restrictive methodology employed in the CHP Directive. 259


Appendices

While the Directive includes the production of all heat, sold to third parties, under the Directive approach only heat/electricity obeying high-efficiency criteria, is considered. However own heat used by the undertaking for its own processes, is here included. 2.9, PAGES 109-111 Data is generated by the annual heat survey. Heat, in these tables, include the total heat produced, including losses in the installations/network heat exchanges, as well as heat from chemical processes used as primary energy form. Only heat sold to third parties is here reported. 2.10, PAGES 112-114 The tables include the total final energy consumption of petroleum products, and two of its main products: motor gasoline (p:3234), and gas diesel (p:3260), and the total final energy consumption of biofuels (p:5545), and its two main products: biogasoline (p:5546) and biodiesel (p:5547). 2.11.1, PAGE 115 Energy intensity gives an indication of the effectiveness with which energy is being used (GIC) to produce an added value (GDP). 2.11.4, PAGE 118 Primary energy intensity gives an indication of the effectiveness with which primary energy is being used (GIC-FNEC) to produce an added value (GDP). 2.13, PAGES 123-129 All available price data has been used in the calculation of EU-wide fuel price averages. The overall EU price is an average of the prices in the individual countries weighted by their consumption. PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Heating gasoil, low sulphur fuel oil, unleaded petrol and automotive diesel prices are supplied to Energy DG by the Member States as those being the most frequently encountered for the specific categories of sales. The prices given are as of January 15th in each year. The heating gasoil prices given are for deliveries of between 2 000 and 5 000 litres while those for low sulphur fuel oil are for monthly deliveries of less than 2 000 tonnes or annual deliveries of less than 24 000 tonnes. The average pump prices are given for motor fuels. The EU average prices are calculated by weighting the prices from each country by the corresponding final energy consumption. ELECTRICITY AND GAS The legal basis for the collection of industrial gas and electricity prices is defined by EC Directive 2008/92/EC. The collection of prices includes national average prices of the last 6 months reported by different consumer bands. All taxes are included in the current prices. Consumption bands have been selected as the most representative for the exercise. 260


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APPENDIX 13.3 3.1.1, PAGE 134 Energy activities sector in its broad and narrow definition (sector d35), as defined by EUROSTAT/NACE and UN/SIC nomenclatures. 3.2, PAGES 135-137 Data from the LFS survey. At employment level, this dataset presents larger figures than the SBS, due to the difference of methodology, and its sample size. 3.3, PAGES 138-149 Includes data on number of enterprises, turnover, and persons declared as employed, as originated from the SBS survey that targets especially enterprises business. At employment level is more disaggregated but less complete than the LFS survey. 3.4, PAGES 150-154 Data is extracted from DG Economic and Financial Affairs, AMECO database. Differences mainly due to data freshness, constant revisions, and methodology can appear when comparing with Eurostat economic data. APPENDIX 13.4 4.1.1, PAGES 158-162 GHG, greenhouse gases, are gases that contribute to the natural greenhouse effect. GHG emissions aggregate includes Fuel combustion emissions and other non-fuel linked emissions (Industrial processes, agriculture, etc.). Fuel combustion emissions include combustion in Energy industries, Manufacturing Industries and construction, Transport, Commercial and Institutional, Residential, Agriculture, Forestry/Fisheries and other combustion and fugitive emissions. 4.1.2 PAGES 163-167 Structure of emissions similar to the GHG emissions. 4.2.2 PAGE 169 Carbon GDP intensity is the average emission rate of CO2 relative to the total intensity of the economic activity, measured by its GDP. APPENDIX 13.5 For products see appendices 5-7 and glossary appendix 12. For indicators see appendices 2-4 and glossary appendix 12. For units see appendices 8-11.

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Notes

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MJ-AB-18-001-EN-N

https://ec.europa.eu/energy/en/data-analysis

ISBN 978-92-79-88735-2 doi:10.2833/105297

EU ENERGY in Figures  

Statistical PocketBook 2018

EU ENERGY in Figures  

Statistical PocketBook 2018

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