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DIVERCITY

Group 2 aalborg university 2010


“

Architecture creates conduct. Therefore we seek to create sites where people can unfold and become bigger inside. We believe that buldings like people are more than the sum of its parts, they are composed of. That it is possible to achieve a synthesis of design, function and context. - 3xNIELSEN

“


4

Architecture and Design MSc Architecture 2nd Sem. 2010 Group 2 Supervisor: Lars Fich Technical Supervisor: Camilla Brunsgaard To be handle in: 27 May 2010

Alejandro Fortes

Elena Ardighieri

Maria Margarida Videira Pires

Mia Rosengaard Hansen

Sanne Birk Vilsen


preface

preface

synopsis

This project �DIVERCITY� is developed as a master project at Architecture & Design at Aalborg University, specializing in architecture. The project has been composed during the spring semestre in the period from Marts 8th to May 27th 2010.

The project deals with the development and modeling of a housing containing the quali es of a passive house. The topic sustainability is therefore used as a design parameter in the development of the new energy- and climate op mized passive houses of high architectural quality.

The main theme of this semester project is to develop a sustainable building based on the integrated design process. Hereby a synthesis between the fields technique, aesthe cs, form and func on mf. is created. Similarly, a social and local angle has to be incorporated into the finished building design that must be a result of the urban life, the culture and the acvi es which is soughed in that area. Furthermore, demands related to energy from the Main Project Descrip on make the founda on for work with simula ng computa on programs, which are used as a part of the itera ve process in which all results have influence and depend on each other. The report is structured on the basis of an established rolling program that is updated con nuously, but ensures that the group shares the same guidelines and goals throughout the project. The report is structured as follows with the program in the first part and a presenta on in the second half. In the back of the report relevant appendixes, a drawing folder and a CD can be found. Regarding references, they can be found structured by pages in the back.

In addi on to sustainability as the main theme, work is further more done from the topics of ven la on, daylight, temperatures, etc., which are influen al factors in rela on to indoor climate. Besides the theore cal issues as guiding parameters and criterias from the Project Descrip on, the project group work from an analysis of the site which, with its characteris c city features set up a series of expecta ons for an a rac ve place to live and reside. Therefore various user groups are incorporated. Both the permanent residents living in the buildings and temporary guests enjoying outdoor ac vi es. Studies related to housing and social construc ons are also an important part of the basic understanding prior to the design process, both at an architectural, social and func onal level. In the report these reference and inspira on projects from all around the world can be found.


6

table of contents introduc on

9

ini al problem methods metable

11 12 14

analysis

17

SITE ANALYSIS history municipality plan pollu on es ma on housing typology sec ons climate infrastructure day rhythm sensing the place USERS PROFILE danes dwellings targets FUNCTIONS case-studies highline SUSTAINABILITY what is sustainability?

18 20 21 22 24 25 26 27 28 30 31 34 36 36 38 40 42 44 45 46 46

why sustainability today? why sustainability in Denmark? sustainability in the compact city passive house how to design a sustainable building? tools case studie _Greenwich Millennium Village _Co-op-Canyon _case studies

47 48 48 52 54 56 58 58 59 59

programme

61

programming urban programme building programme roomprogramme compactness density/compactness/diversity building programme -sustainability produce/reduce/reuse design criterias delinia on

62 63 64 64 66 67 68 69 70 71

presenta on

73

vision concept

74 75


table of content

the site the complex the units the block user views

79 80 92 100 106

technical strategy

109

design process

125

passive housing energy strategy I ven la on strategy natural ven la on ligh ng strategy construc on strategy energy strategy II B-sim acous c strategy fire strategy materials

intro phase 1: first sketching phase 2: second sketching phase 3: apartments phase 4: building

110 111 112 113 114 115 116 118 120 121 122

126 127 131 137 145

at last

153

appendix

159

conclusion reflec on illustra ons

appendix I -solar cells appendix II -ven la on appendix III - natural ven la on appendix III - natural ven la on appendix IV - Daylight appendix V - PHPP appendix VI - Bsim

154 155 157

160 162 164 166 168 170 171


1

introduc on


10

introduction

dilemma, sustainability or housing quality, must “This be solved during the Main Project by creating high

density housing with some of the qualities (...) normally only found in more wide spread housing areas

Through an integrated design process, create a new type of dwelling with innova ve quali es as a reflec on on future soluons for a more sustainable way of living – that is our challenge.

city infrastructures could be the solu on although having in considera on that the opposite solu on (widespread housing) is more popular between the Danes.

As a star ng point we have to understand how present life style behaviours will determine the design of new solu ons in the spa al development. Not only decreasing the energy demand of the buildings is an important task but also poin ng towards a more compact design to reduce the energy used in transportaon. Consequently crea ng high density housing close to good

A er this athesis statement above, this program comprises the next project phase – the analysis phase - that allowed the defini on of our main goals and the development of the global and building program as base for the next project phase – sketching phase.


Intro

initial problem

?

How can we satisfy isfy t the needs of our present lifestyle ifesty esty and the desire of an open pen s suburban way of dwelling and nd a ac achieving, at the same time, , t the goals of a sustainable compact omp ompact city


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methods “

The Integrated Design Process are using the professional knowledge and design method from architecture and parameters from engineering in an integrated process. Knudstrup

“

To create an overview of the various phases of the project they are divided in broad segments, which also are shown in the metable on the next page. The diagram above illustrates the chronic proceed of the 5 segments, and current loops which are done during the process. This methodological working model is used mainly at the studio of Architecture & Design to develop building design, with a view to integrate the design symbiosis parameters in the design of architectural buildings of high quality. The integrated design process contains 5 segments; it begins with a problem statement that should summarize ideas and objec ves of the project. Then an analysis phase which includes the program and otherwise includes studies of reference projects and other types of inspira on, and numerous site visits, to achieve a perceptual understanding of the current area. etc.. This is followed by an outline stage, especially when a series of workshops, sketching and modeling, provides a basis for crea ve thinking. Based on the solu on of the sketch design stage, construc on begins to take shape. In the syntheses phase the architectural, func onal and construc ve quali es, and energy

problem formulation analysis phase sketching phase synthesis phase presentation phase

ill. 1 -Integrated Design Process


Intro

passive houses energy

construcƟon principles

users references sƵn ͬ ǁŝnĚ cŽnĚŝƟŽns venƟlaƟon project indoor climate funcƟons

architecture

site

comsump ons is connected in a integrated design process. Finally is the presenta on phase of the project visualized through programs such as AutoCad and the Adope Crea ve Suite. Method’s founda on consists of the desirability of integrated architectural, technical design, func onal, energy, technical, technical environment and construc ve aspects from the outset of the project, so these should not be “glued” later. This forms the basis for the so-called itera ve process which involves the aforemen oned loops, where the different phases, work through several mes. This may mean that the design process may occasionally jump from the synthesis back to the analysis, because the different phases has a major influence on each other.

sustainability

Several of the phases are based on the semester lectures, called PE-courses, which provides inspira on and knowledge about relevant subjects.

ill. 2 Parametres in the Integrated Design Process


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timetable Week 10

Week 11

Week 12

Week 13

Week 14

Week 15

M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S 19/03 26/03 Analysis Workshops Sketching 1 Sketching 2 Designprocess Technical process

set milestones own milestones

Submission of programme

Pinup programme and workshops

Overall design koncept done


Intro

Week 16

Week 17

Week 18

Week 19

Week 20

Week 21

M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S M T W T F S S 26/04 21/5 28/5

Designprocess Technical process

Detailing Presenta on Prin ng

Midterm Building design done

Deliver report to press

Submission of report


16


2

site analysis

analysis users profile

func ons

sustainability


18

site analysis

NĂ˜RRESUNDBY

AALBORG

ill. 3 -site Aalborg, Denmark


e gad

Ågade

Rantzausgade

Boulewarden

Pri

ns nse

Vesterbro

Jyllandsgade 10000

15.000sqm

e

150

sk er

m

m

a gH

Østr e Al

41

l

66.200sq 6

0

d ga ds

Hobrovej

Da

Østr e Al

Post m

este

rvej

Hjulmagervej

ill. 4 -site Aalborg


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history

The area named railwayarea has for decades been used by the Danish railways associa on. Even today there are clear traces of railway lines, and miscellaneous storage buildings for safe storage and cleaning of trains. There have been no changes in the local planning for this area, which is clearly shown on site. There is a high lack of interac on with the rest of the city. The lack of development on site and interac on with the city, has led to a comprehensive municipality plan in which several strategies and wishes for the area are presented. At the end of the 1800s a river named Østerå ran from Lim orden down south through the center of Aalborg, across the site and further south in the Østerå valley. This stream has throughout me been dug underground to maximize the use of the area in the city.

ill. 5 & 6 -old maps from the site


site analysis

municipality plan

There are three main desires for the site. The first point relates to the area’s history, where they wish to retain elements from the area as a testament to the me when it was used for freight railways and earlier on. Among them are the railway tracks and the stream Østerå. The second is based on dragging the green from the south in Kærby and the Østerå valley through the area and thus create a greater coherence between the site and its surroundings. The last point is based on the new architecture in the area, here the site has been selected as one of three in Aalborg, where there is given an opportunity to build highrise buildings, ie. buildings of 35m or 11 storeys and above.

ill. 7 -green area and water extends into the area

ill. 8- skyline of city


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pollution The area is affected by many exogenous factors that adversely affect the quality of the area. The site is located few meters from one of Aalborg’s largest hubs, this give a high percentage of pollu on from cars, buses, trains and taxis. Especially the busses and taxis wai ng for passengers in front of the sta on, is a breeding ground for air pollu on. Furthermore the groundpolu on goes down 15 cen metres , it would have to be considered how to treat this problem. The loca on on the border of the dense city makes the area characterized by a lot of waste which sadly disfigures the visit on the site. Specifically, the surrounding basement stairs and gu ers are vic m of people’s indifferent a tude toward nature.

ill. 8

ill. 9

ill. 10

The comprehensive graffi creates an underground subculture like atmosphere, because of the fact that graffi is an illegal art that links to stereotypes of criminals. This gives the area an unapproachable and raw nature. The graffi is also a proof of the area being used, even in periods when the area seems otherwise deserted. The skyline to the east is marked by the industry of Aalborg. Aalborg Portland’s tall smokestack reminds the ci zens of the reali es, and makes them remember the clima changes and maybe think more about conserve CO2 in the everyday life. In the eastern part of the site is an old petrol tank, where the soil is thick with pollu on.

ill. 11

il ill. 12


Air

Visual

Noise

ill. 13 -The illustration visualises the worst sources of each kind of disturbing and polutive parametres


24

estimation By drawing up a value analysis, there would be created a conserva on plan in which all elements in the area will be judged on whether they should be preserved, restored or removed en rely. It is es mated that the areas facili es are currently ineďŹƒcient and the railway tracks is for example no longer in use. However, there is a certain cultural heritage and iden ty of these and according to the municipal plan the railway tracks is evaluated as conservable. The car park at Europcar is contribu ng to the high traďŹƒc in the area, which is not considered as quality worth preserving for future housing. Similarly, the old gas sta on which is no longer in use and therefore can equally well be demolished. The large storage sheds belonging to BaneDanmark where used for storage and cleaning of rolling stock. These buildings differen ates itself from the rest of the buildings on site and in the area with their curved roofing. It is es mated however that these buildings do not have quali es worth preservable as their size, loca on and design do not take dwellings in account and in general they do not contribute posi vely to the new master plan.

ill. 14 -value analysis


site analysis

housing The func ons of the surrounding area have a great influence on the life and use of the current site. As the map on the le illustrates there are a variety of public facili es and services in the surrounding area. In addi on to bus and train sta ons, there are hotels, cafes and other services that are part of the characteriscs of urban life and a ract many people. To the east are the police and fire sta on located, which is o en ac vated when there is an emergency response. A number of shopping opportuni es, both in terms of Ne o in Danmarksgade and the dierent shops of the Kennedy Arcade serve as a breeding ground for a steady daily crowd. Overall, there are both oďŹƒces, sports, shopping, etc., which leaves no lack of specific new features in the area. ill. 15 -surrounding activities and functions

On this map the city is divided into major segments such as industrial, service and recrea onal areas. In par cular, the recrea onal areas are relevant because of their relavely small distance from the site, and may be integrated or extended into the area. The illustra on also shows a rela vely large industrial area adjacent southeast of the site. This is worth taking into account in rela on to shielding and direc on of view from the new buildings on site.

ill. 16 -activities are divided into zones

recrea onal

suburb living

dense city

industry

service


26

typology

The pictures on the right illustrates the diversity experienced within the areas typology. The first picture from the top shows the police sta on from 1996, with its simple mode of expression, simple materials and few colors which radiate pure modernism. The sta on is built as two seperate buildings connected by a horizontal glass sec on. Next picture shows the most prominent edifice; the Kennedy Arcade built in 2003. Built as a massive square box in red bricks with integrated parking. Along Jyllandsgade and on the side streets are mainly old neoclassical block buildings with courtyards in the middle. These buildings vary between red and yellow bricks but does not otherwise dieren ates itself significantly from each other. At the site itself is located the large building of Banedanmark that visually appears an en re building but with a three-part roof. The building is from the 1960s and is a hybrid of brown brick and corrugated steel sheets.

ill. 17

ill. 18

ill. 19

ill. 20

ill. 21


site analysis

sections

To obtain an understanding of the topology of the area a sec on is created through the area and context, also to understand the surrounding building volumes. The map on the le shows that there are made two perpendicular cuts from west to east and from south to north. At the first cut parallel to Jyllandsgade the Kennedy Arcade appear as a significant building, with its 30meter it is the tallest building in the area. On the cut from south to north the Banedanmark building is the most dominant in area but not in height. Sec ons of the site together with solar diagrams gives an insight to how the shadow reflec on occurs on the site. ill. 22 -place of sections through the site

ill. 23 -two different sections through site


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climate

N 0

30

33 15%

30

0

60

10%

5%

W

0

0

21

0

The wind varies in strength and direc on over the years, making it necessary to examine how it can be used in the most effec ve way. The solar power is much stronger in the summer and there is an increased need for ven la on during this period. The wind will then be assessed from two different tools, a wind rose showing how the average wind strength and direc on is spread across the en re year, and a wind square that shows how wind speed and direc on is during the day in all twelve months.

12

0

24

15

To create an energy-efficient building it is important to consider the climate from the very start of the designing process. Two very important factors are the sun and wind. The heat of the sun is important to use in the winter to minimize energy needs for hea ng, while the sun’s heat and radia on should be minimized in the summer to avoid the use of cooling. The wind can be u lized as part of the ven la on of the building. To create a low energy building is the most op mal to use natural ven la on. This must be planned with knowledge from how the wind moves over the year and with what strength it affects the building.

E

ill. 24 -wind diagram Jan

Febr

March

April

Mai

S

June

Juli

Aug

03

06

09

12

15

18

21

24

0-3 m/s

3-6 m/s

ill. 25 -wind diagram

6-9 m/s

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec


site analysis altitude

NORTH

0

33

azim

uth 30

10

20

30

20h

4h

30

60

0

40

50 19h

5h 60

70 18h

6h

EAST

WEST

80 17h

7h

16h

8h

15h

9h

Jun 14h Jul 21 21

10h 13h

12h

11h

summer solstice

21 Jun 21 May

20 Apr

22

12

24

0

Aug

0

Sep 22

Mar

20

equinox

Oct

Feb

21

Nov Dec 21 21

20

21 Jan 21 Dec 15

winter solstice

0

0

21

ill. 26 -sun diagram

SOUTH

Global solar radiation Globalstråling

75-89 DRY

10000

2 Global solar radiation in Wh/m² dag day Globalstråling i Wh/m

9000 8000 7000 6000

The sun considered by how it moves across the sky, ie. in what height the sun is posi oned in the sky (ac nic cry) and from which direc on it comes (azimuth). In addi on, it is essen al to look at the radia on, ie. with what strength the sun affects the building. This has a major impact on how much heat the sunrays accumulate.

5000 4000

Summer

3000 2000 1000

Equinox

0 1

31

61

91

121

151

ill. 27 -sun diagram

181

211

241

271

301

331

361

Day Dage

Winther

Global solar radiation Globalstråling

75-89 DRY

10000

2 GlobalGlobalstråling solar radiation in Wh/m² dag day i Wh/m

9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000

Kennedy 30m

3000

13m

30m

2000 1000 0 1

31

61

ill. 28 -sun diagram

91

121

151

181

Dag Day

211

241

271

301

331

361

ill. 29 -shadow diagram

113m


30

infrastructure As the map illustrates the area in ques on is situated in the middle of the utmost importance. Main roads from Aalborg and Aalborg East runs along the southern and eastern part of the site. On the northern side runs a big road on the border of the central Aalborg towards the train sta on and busses. The western side is primarily guarded by the Kennedy Arcade but many of the busses from behind the arcade has their route on the narrow road between the site and the arcade. Overall the area is mainly guarded all around by roads, which both have a posi ve and nega ve effect. Given this infrastructure the site is constantly filled with life and dynamics all around the clock, but it can also be interfering with the con nuous stream of trains, buses and cars. The infrastructure on site can appear a bit messy and unreadable. There is no real road and path system planned on the site and therefore people just move around haphazardly on the large asphalt areas. The area is used primarily as access and parking lots for the offices located to the south. Most of the area is covered with old railway tracks, making it impossible maneuver here. However, over me there has been developed a series of small shortcuts for pedestrians who live in and nearby the site, as well as bicycles cross the area to avoid the main roads as Østre Allé. In the planning of a new housing complex on site it would be necessary to establish a more apparent and direct entrance to the area, as well as a more extensive road and path planning throughout the site.

P

P

P train busses cyclists/pedestrians heavy traffic light traffic ill. 30 - infrastructure


site analysis

day rhythm many

moderat

few

morning

lunch me a en a ernoon late morning

midnight

ill. 31 -weekly acitivity on the site done from own observations

The extent of the use of the area varies throughout the year. In the summer me the area around the Kennedy arcade and the train sta on acts as a transit point for the users of Kildeparken, and the square opposite Kennedy, is used as a recrea onal semi green area of the ci zens. A number of cafes and bars are allowed to provide outdoor facili es for the guests, who o en enjoy a beer at the seats in front of them. In the winter me the area is influenced by the infrastructure and appears as a traďŹƒc junc on between buses, trains, cars and taxis, and thus spread the use of the area evenly throughout the week. During the weekdays the shops in the Kennedy Arcade are open and thereby create a steady flow of people, on weekends the area is mainly used by cinema-goers of all ages.


32


site analysis

ill. 32 -sensing the place


34

sensing the place In the area there are, in addi on to the significant building volumes and domains are in the area, a wide range of items and factors that creates the given atmosphere. Both the permanent and temporary details emphasize the iden ty of the area, such as the graďŹƒ on the large concrete pillars of the bridge to the south. GraďŹƒ is a part of the raw and unpolished expressions which involve the whole area and reveals it as a bit unapproachable and unused. The big round lamps hanging over the whole area and illuminates the area in the evening. At day me this jumble of masts and lights appear as a network of func ons from a bygone era, as they hang in the context of the old railway tracks. Railway tracks soars throughout the site and creates a connec on to the nearby areas with bus and train sta ons, and give a character as an industrial place of transit. Buses, cars and bicycles, are the temporary detail that adds dynamic and life to the site, beside variability. Unfortunately, this kind of traďŹƒcal node also have to put up an extensive sign system that visually appeals to and guide the users.

ill. 33 -the site


site analysis

materials, surfaces and colors The impressions are mul ple by a tour of the area. Most of the various materials, structures and surfaces in the area, are a result of needs from the buildings on site. Building materials like concrete, brick and steel seems prominent, while just a bit of flora and fauna are exposed between buildings and asphalt. Furthermore the old infrastructure is leaving materials such as iron, asphalt and rust. These different surfaces and visual tac lity’s differen ate the objects and expressions on site. Thus it creates the basis for an alterna ng color and material spectrum that contributes to the area’s appearance and character. scale The area appears rela vely flat and open, and a lack of height in topology allows an overview of the cataly c site. That the site seems surrounded and protected by large solid volumes, leaves the bare area as a central protected oasis. The undisturbed view enables full view of the impressive skyline 360grader, when you get just a few storages up. The large volumes make scale propor ons overwhelming for the recent visitor. Large buses, long trains, giant buildings like the Kennedy arcade and a con nuous stream of cars in service, leaves the ci zens feeling very small and having no impact on their surroundings.

ill. 34 -The site


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users profile danes

Consequently Danes have good, large, but also expensive homes

The way to this situa on started a er Second World War when there was a housing shortage in Denmark, which led to poli cal developments in this area. During the 50s and 60s people become more and more concern in finding good houses and this tendency had a self-fuelling effect which made the average floor area of dwellings increased every year. This Danish extreme preoccupa on with their houses has several reasons: in the last decades each individual’s personal and family life has been displayed in the characteris cs of his house (dimension, loca on, equipment, and furniture). In addi on, the very cold and windy winters and the months with great deal of precipita-

love their homes. Danes talk a lot about their homes. And “ Danes Danes spend a large proportion of their income on their homes.

on does not give Denmark the same condi ons as southern European countries to enjoy outside ac vi es and so Danes spend a lot of me feeling cosy indoors. The subsidy of housing as an important element for the welfare society is also a reason for this increase in number and size of housing in Denmark. It is possible to sum up the development of Danish housing in several phases: the build-up phase 1945-66, the expansion phase 1966-80, the management phase 1980-2001, and finally since then, a new phase that we project today: a change; and perhaps our search for sustainability can be the guide for this change.


user profile

people in Denmark have exhausted hau the standard d t to topics “ When an a of weather and work, they can always ask questions abo about where people live, what thei their ei home is like, , where they hey y hey want to live in the future r lived before and where they

“

ill. 35 -family


38

dwellings detached single-family houses (low-open-houses) low density

linked/row houses (low-dense-residen al area) medium density

This type of house consists of an independent building with a garden for one family. It has a great degree of freedom since the owners can do individual changes and adapta ons with no constraints in terms of decora on and use. Usually are situated in zones of differen ated traffic being child-friendly areas. However, nowadays the age of residents have increased (only 1/3 of families have children, main group are couples whose children moved out). This is the most popular type of house in Denmark and also the one with biggest average of area: 140m2

These houses are a combina on between the individual type and the collec ve. As autonomous houses they are organized in clusters increasing the density of construc on. It is also an alterna ve for families with children and the majority have own garden. This type of housing requires less land, connec ons and distribu on systems than the detached single-family house but have less average area. Since it has more popula on the area has an opportunity to develop community services such as shops and several ins tu ons.

ill. 36

ill. 37 [according to: Residen al preferences, choice of housing, and lifestyle. Ph.D. thesis, Ærø 2002]


user profile

mul storey buildings (high-open-residen a area) high density

block of mul storey buildings (high-dense-residen al area) very high density

This type of dwellings is organized in mul storey buildings close to large open green areas with playgrounds and recrea on facili es. Close to public ins tu ons and shops, some mes these services are even integrated on the buildings. Generally the dwellings are large, well equipped and with a balcony as exterior private space. Most of these buildings appeared when it was possible to build in a new way with pre-fabricated components. This type of buildings brought a new way of living in the city and increased the density comparing with the low types of housing.

These are dense city block structures where the dwellings are smaller than all the other types, appeared to sa sfy the house needs of the workers in the late 1800s. During the 80s and 90s were part of urban plans and their backyards were transformed to accommodate green areas and playgrounds. Nowadays, these dwellings are very func onal for one of the biggest group of residents: the single. It oers up to date facili es and it is the closest to the sustainable idea of compact city. This descrip on can also be applied to the new compact buildings constructed these days.

ill. 38

ill. 39

[according to: Residen al preferences, choice of housing, and lifestyle. Ph.D. thesis, Ærø 2002]


40

targets ownership type

owner-occupied (single family) 42%

social 21%

private rental flats 17%

coopera ve flats 7%

freehold flats 8%

main user

1/3

main architectural type

some aspects

2/3

2/3

1/3

and

and

and

private outdoor space bigger average area the most expensive one

and

small areas the cheapest one

common to first house to good op on for families youngs moving out and new that can not aord a single couples house

no main group

and

more expensive per m2 but smaller areas being more afordable

ill. 40 -usergroups and demands

the favorite vs sustainability The detached single family house is by far the Danish most popular way of living due to some of its a rac ve benefits. However, is the future of housing going on the right track to sustainability if we just keep building in this type of architecture? It is possible to imagine other solu ons that could be more appropriated: First by convert and renovate existent old buildings, opposite to construc on, we could decrease the amount of used resources and be er prepare our buildings for lower use of everyday en-

ergy and resources, by crea ng the single house of the future as a modernized single house of the present. Other way is consider density as the way of achieve a sustainable ideal, in this way we would develop the denser types of housing, that even not being the most a rac ve types, are the physical answer for a compact living. The challenge will be combining the desired quali es (found in single houses) with the demand for energy eďŹƒcient and compact buildings.


user profile

needs and a rac ve characteris cs:

family

global user

inhabitants

Reasonable large apartment that must offer the main quali es that a single house may offer, plus good connec ons to transports, goods, schools and recrea onal areas.

user outdoor private space, generous social area, car/bike parking

provide new connec ons, a rac ve during the day, public character

young: singles/couple

elderly: single/couple

inhabitants

The compact apartment presents, to young students or first workers (single or couple), an economic way of living close to all the city offers and connec ons. ill. 41 -usergroups and demands

For the common global user of the city this area should be the connec on of the surrounding different areas and offered extra func ons that should be useful and needed on the area and at the same me warrantee the use of the site during the working hours.

inhabitants proximity to transports, economic dwellings, close to culture and nightlife

proximity to green areas, shops and ins tu ons, peaceful environment

For the increasing number of elderly people living in the city center the apartment should provide a peaceful and func onal place close to all the center facili es and green spaces.


42

functions

In this dwelling project is considered a 20% of area for other func ons use. These func ons will not only a ract the future users of the complex to this area but also bring life to the buildings during the work hours. The mix use of residen al buildings also supports the idea of sustainability since it economizes the resources and it meets the needs of a compact city by improving the networks and offers. In addi on, the plan of areas with several uses is one architectural way of mee ng the demands of our present life style.

however the difference is that in the hybrids the mix func ons create intensity and vitality in the city and a ract flux of outside users, whereas social condensers use mix func ons to achieve self-sufficient and complete buildings that can be isolated from the conven onal city. The social condenser has as aim to concentrate every need of its residents, which can be interpreted as a way of decreasing some needs of transporta on. However, it goes against the idea of diverse city by isola ng instead of being a connec on element on the city, as the hybrid aims for.

Looking at existent examples of residen al mix-use buildings it is possible to separate them in 2 groups: the hybrids and the social condensers. The first one opens to the city, encourages the contact among strangers, intensifies the land use and densifies rela onships. The second type by inser ng func ons parallel to dwell and focus on their residents converts func ons of private life into public func ons to assure the maximum use of space. It is possible to find the same kind of func ons in both types

Our project needs to go in the same direc on as the hybrids do, so that it improves the city networks, towards a more compact and mul func onal city. Therefore, in the next pages, we present one hybrid example; a mixed-use complex in Milan, that has a site area and density close to the ones we work with and deals with the same background of merging different city fabrics, like our industrial and residen al areas.


func ons

Hybrids _Diversity of users, including residen al _Joint development of different ini a ves _Inser on adapted to the urban fabric _Public uses Lynked Hybrid _ Beijing, China, 2003-2009 _ Steven Holl Architects [www.stevenholl.com]

ill. 42

_Residen al buildings with a service program associated to the dwellings _Public ini a ve _Isolated loca on in the urban fabric _Exclusive use of the service program by residents Unité d’Habita on _ Marseilles, France, 1946-1952 _ Le Corbusier [www.founda onlecorbusier.fr] [Hybrids III, Residen al mixed-use buildings, a+t 2009]

ill. 43


44

case-studies

Mixed-use complex Milan, Italy 2008- DEMO architecs plot area: 17.786m2, gross floor area: 17.617m2, FAR (density): 80% func ons: 66.7% residen al, 14% parking, 7.4% oďŹƒces, 5.6% shopping, 4.4% civic use, 1.9% educa on The complex is situated in a neighbourhood isolated from the city by rail tracks and highway, in a mono func onal open block with disperse residen al buildings in green areas. The solu on integrates several uses in a lot stuck between residen al area and industrial area. The public func ons are housed in a low-rise body that corresponds to scale and material to the industrial buildings, whereas the housing blocks rise up in 4 towers with similar highs to the surrounding housing. The new building is a blend between old residen al and the mass of former industries and is permeable and publicly opens towards the inside. It works as connec on to a public park for the new comers and the actual residents of the surroundings and con nues the actual pedestrian routes.

ill. 44 -building complex

private space communal area for residents public space ill. 45

ill. 46 -Southwest eleva on (rela on between the dierent highs of the surroundings and the building)


func ons ill. 47

ill. 48

ill. 49

ill. 50

ill. 51

highline

In Manha an an old high line build in the 1930’s has been redesigned and is now used as a public park. When the en re high line project is finished it is one and a half mile long park elevated from the street level, containing concrete pathways and sca ered natural planted areas with visible rail tracks besides sea ng and well illuminated areas. The project is designed by landscape architects James Corner Field Opera ons in coorpera on with architects Diller Scofidio + Renfro. The idea for redesigning the highline came from a support group that had observed that the old line had blossomed and now had several trees, bushes and suchlike growing. They then formed a associa on that collected local founds and raised money for the park, this then got the a en on of the mayor of New York and soon a er the project was in progress. The Park is now a popular recrea onal area li ed from the jumble of the city. This project has many very well func oning elements and tells a very beau ful story of the history on site. There is many quali es in the highline project that could make a good base for the masterplan of the railwayarea in Aalborg. A recrea onal area that creates a good framework for relaxa on or social ac vi es for the inhabitants near the site.


46

sustainability What is sustainability?

The economic sustainability is generally how sustainability is seen in order of investment and returns. It is important that the benefits of sustainability covers or provide profit rela ve to investment.

Three rules to accomplish that goal are: _ the sustainable use of renewable resources can not be faster than the regenera on. _

_

Social

the sustainable use of non-renewable resources can not be faster than it can be replaced by sustainable use of renewable resources. waste cannot be emi ed faster than the natural eco system can recirculate, obtain or neutralize it.

Sustainable development revolves around three no ons: economy, society and environment. None of them can exist or develop without the others. The social sustainability involves responsibility to our descendants, so we work together in order of maintaining a prudent use of natural resources. The environmental sustainability is the most basic of which involves striking a balance between what you take from nature and what it can regenerate. Thus it is essen al to avoid excessive and unnecessary wastage.

bearable

equitable

sustainable Environment

viable

Economic

ill. 52 -main themes

“

...development

that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs...

Gro Harlem Brundtland, 1987

“

The concept of sustainability can be summed up in the responsible use of the natural resources guaranteeing life-quality of mankind and the Nature recovery. This means we need to work along Nature as dynamic system instead of taking what we want without thinking of the consequences.


sustainability Why sustainability today? problem

solution

GLOBAL WARMING

SUSTAINABILITY

what’s it?

what’s it?

Climate changes are the chain reaction resulting from the rising of the avarage of global temperatures.

It’s the engine that makes order and resolves the problem both recovering it and finding more solutions that can prevent future problems.

is caused by:

who is involved:

HUMANS’ UNAWARENESS

AWARE HUMANS

causes: glaciers begin to melt sea levels rise a little precipitations increase ...

sustainable develepment: economy society environment

ill. 53 -keypoint in the problems that deal with sustainability

Because we have become aware of the problem that clima c change represents. The excessive consump on of the world’s energies and resources is beginning to disturb the climate balance and at the same me damaging the environment with pollu on. Indeed for over the past 200 years the burning of fossil fuel and deforesta ons have caused the increasing concentraon of “heat–trapping greenhouse gases” in our atmosphere. These gases prevent heat from escaping to space, but, as the concentra ons of these gases con nue to increase, the Earth’s temperature will climb above past levels. According to NOAA and NASA data, the Earth’s average surface temperature has increased from 1.2 to 1.4ºF in the last 100 years. If greenhouse gases con nue to increase, climate models predict that the average temperature at the Earth’s surface could increase from 3.2 to 7.2ºF above 1990 levels by the end of this century. Therefore, nowadays the problem is became bigger than the past and the awareness of this problem is becoming asserted in different fields and many countries. COP15 is the culmina on of this awareness and it has started to produce a global agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by enough to prevent “dangerous anthropogenic interference” in the climate. this means limi ng global temperature rise to below 2˚C above pre-industrial temperatures. The task now is to prevent catastrophic climate change, working in favour of the sustainability. Furthermore to maintain a balance so that the natural ressources will not be emp ed.


48

Why sustainability in Denmark?

Sustainability in the compact city

Since the 1973 oil crisis the debate on the available natural resources for human ac vi es and the effects of using them has become more and more important.

Ci es around the world are growing and for years they have spread without limits and formed larger regional networks. For the experts on the urban environment this has a nega ve effect on the resource consump on and should change. For example, transporta on is one of the human ac vi es that has a larger consump on of energy and it is essen al for big ci es. This is the reason why a compact urban approach is needed to support sustainability in two levels:

“Should we keep consuming and producing like this?” was one of the main ques ons. For Denmark the answer was nega ve, it was the first country to implement an environmental law and one of the firsts to have a Ministry of Environment with the goal of not depending in this kind of non-renewable resources. Nowadays, Denmark has one of the strongest policy posi ons of any developed country and it has voluntarily commi ed to doubling its Kyoto targets regarding CO2 emissions. Copenhagen has achieved to be one of the most environmental friendly ci es and has planned to be CO2 neutral by 2025, having 100% of its electricity produced by wind turbines. It will not be possible without taking ac ons, such as limi ng the emissions of cars and buses, encouraging the use of electric and hydrogen-powered cars, offering environmental counseling to enterprises, etc. On the heels of Copenhagen, Aarhus has signed up as CO2 neutral in 2030 and is already working on environmental plans and green accoun ng.

City level: by op mizing and minimizing the use of land area, mixing and stacking of func ons, therefore reducing the use of private transport and raising the intensity of social, cultural and economical interac on between the many different groups in society. Building level: by using a lower surface area in rela on to volume, therefore using less energy and material, and op mizing construc on and installa ons. In the dense ci es it is s ll important to consider the requirements for architectural quality such as good light and wind condi ons, spa al quality and a rac ve open areas. At the same me, this approach introduces new spa al quali es by using cu ngs into the building to ensure access to daylight, li ing up open spaces, etc.


sustainability

FAR Floor Area Ra o = the ra o of the total floor space of a built area/total size of its lot. From these diagrams it can be concluded that a compact building is more sustainable because it results in a smaller surface area.

ill. 54 50% Gellerup Parken, Aarhus, DK

20% on 160ha

180% Frederikbjerg, Aarhus, DK

ill. 55

100% on 37ha 200% on 10ha 400% on 5ha ill. 56 410% Chaoyang District, Bejiing, CH

500% on 4ha ill. 57 -density and area


50

We have already taken a look at sustainability in an urban level. In this sec on the different sustainable approaches and their focal points will be defined based on a PhD Thesis by Hanne Hansen. The six approaches are defined as self-sufficient architecture, ecological architecture, green architecture, bioclima c architecture, environmental design and solar architecture. 1. Self-sufficient architecture: It is based on social-cultural concerns and the no on of everyone’s right to food and shelter. This kind of architecture resulted on flexible, cheap and removable housing which consumes the energy it produces. 2. Ecological architecture: this approach is associated with selfbuilders who use ecological renewable materials, the climate, etc. in order to live in harmony with nature. 3. Green architecture: is a term used to describe sustainable development that concerns economy and energy saving while being environmental-friendly. 4. Bioclima c architecture: this approach considerate working with natural forces and rela ng indoor condi ons with the clima c context. 5. Environmental architecture: it also works with the rela onship between internal and external environments in order to reduce energy consump on. 6. Solar architecture: it uses passive solar energy and daylight as the strategy to achieve internal thermal comfort. The main concerns related to sustainability are climate, nature, culture, technology and economy. These are the general sustainable aspects. Our own approach can be seen in the next chapter, programming.

nature climate concerns sulture technology economy preserve or improve biodiversity life cycle assessment of materials reduce private transportaion thermal mass of materials insula on of building envelope window area to orienta on ra o surface to floor area ra o strategies window to floor area ra o u liza on of daylight zoning mobility (of building) ven la on natural ven la on mechanical renewable energy sources energy producing elements energy-efficient installa ons embodied energy of materials

1 2 3 4 5 6

ill. 58 -general sustainable aspects


1_SELF-SUFFICIENT

sustainability

ill. 59

2_ECOLOGICAL ill. 60

3_GREEN ill. 61

4_BIOCLIMATIC ill. 62

5_ENVIRONMENTAL ill. 63

6_SOLAR

ill. 64

1_Eden Project_Nicholas Grimshaw._UK_ 2001 2_Nine Houses by Peter Vetsch_Switzerland_1993 3_Car er Founda on by Jean Nouvel_Paris_1994 4_Marie Tjibaou Cultural Centre_Renzo Piano 5_Reichstag Dome_Norman Foster_Berlin_1999 6_Heliotrop Rota ng House_Rolf Disch_Germany


52

Passive house “A Passive House is a very well-insulated, virtually air-Ɵght building that is primarily heated by passive solar gain and by internal gains from people, electrical equipment, etc. Energy losses are minimized. Any remaining heat demand is provided by an extremely small source. Avoidance of heat gain through shading and window orientaƟon also helps to limit any cooling load, which is similarly minimized” As the quote explains, one of the main characteris cs of the passive house is the use of passive solar hea ng and avoid mechanical hea ng. Due to the insula on, the heat is not able to come out through thermal bridges and the temperature stabil. Also, the term can be used for office buildings, kindergartens, supermarkets, and not only for dwellings.

characteristics Indisturbed airthight envelope <0,6 air changes/hours at 50Pascal pressure

annual heat requirement <15 kWh/m2

primary energy per year <120 kWh/m3

recommendations low emissivity, triple pane glazing, super isolated frames U value <0,8W/m2K

ven la on system with heat recovery >75%

thermal bridge free Y<0,01 W/mK thermal transmitance

super insula ng envelope U value ca. 0,1 W/m3K

passive solar gain with south-facing glazing ca.40% contribu on ill. 65 -examples of sustainable actions


sustainability Secondary school -Klaus Weiler Fraxern ill. 66

ill. 67

ill. 68

To further understanding of the passive house concept this project is a good case to be analyzed. The building fulfills the passive house main requirement of the annual energy consump on, which is less than 15 kWh/m² and is 70% less compared to the former building in that site. Besides other passive house guidelines achieved, they have taken into account some points listed below. - Exterior solar shading in order to prevent glare and heat gain. - Its south façade is completely glazed for hea ng and to ensure indoor comfort the use of solar shading is required. Copper profiles, 30% perforated, make it happen while ensuring the views from the inside but not from the outside. - The air is pre-heated or pre-cooled to 18° C via Earth coupling. - The heat is produced by gas which will be replaced by biomass hea ng. - Use of technology and controlled ven la on. - Orienta on and zoning of the rooms, arranging regular classrooms to face east and special classrooms to face west.


54

How to design a sustainable building? The science and strategy which use the element of nature: wind, sun, earth, air temperatures, water and moisture, to create passive energy-efficient and environmental buildings is called clima c design.

The clima c design principles of passive hea ng, passive cooling, daylight and natural ven la on has the aim to heat the building in winter, cool it in summer and light and ven late it all the year.

The procedure is to well use the component of nature to create a system which works in a parallel way with the nature’s requests and not against them. A strategy that can reduce the demand from both the users and the environment, that uses passive renewable-energy sources instead the energy consump on of nonrenewable ones, that uses just when it’s extremely needed the fuel energy sources, but in a limita ve and efficient way.

Architects and engineers have to work together to find the right strategy according to these clima c design principles.

ill. 69 -Climatic Design Diagram

PASSIVE HEATING

PASSIVE COOLING

DAYLIGHTING

VENTILATION

direct gain

evaporative cooling

skylights

single sided ventilation

thermal storage wall convective cooling

light shelves

cross or stuck ventilation

sunspace

light wells

air distribution

radiant cooling

control strategy


sustainability

passive heating H

daylighting

Find the correct rela on between the height and depth of a specific space to allow the influence of thermal mass. Reduce the infiltra ons of cold air from the outside and the heat loss from the inside.

Find the correct strategy that can avoid the use of ar ficial lights, source of heat gain and consump on of energy, in favour of the natural light. Therefore it is important to chose the right rela on between space and volume.

clima c design principles: minimise conduc ve heat flow: use insula on and other techniques to retain hea ng inside or outside the building promote solar gain:use sun-heat and sun-hea ng techniques

clima c design principles: minimise solar gain: use shading and solar-protec ons maximize daylight: by using the orienta on

passive cooling C

natural ventilation

Find the right strategy to avoid mechanical cooling in favour of natural and passive cooling, combined together in an hybrid system. Reduce the excess of hea ng due to occupa on, equipment , ar ficial lights, solar radia on and reflec on.

Find the right ven la on strategy according to the surroundings, the outdoor climate and the building design, a strategy that it’s flexible according to the uses and func ons of the building, that can be used in every kind of outdoor temperature and wind direc on’s varia on.

clima c design principles: promote earth cooling: use the earth as a heat storage promote evapora ve cooling: use water to create evapora on and cooling the air and the facades promote radiant cooling: promote the night exposure to cool the building’s structure minimise solar gain: use shading and solar-protec ons

V

clima c design principles: minimise infiltra on: reduce heat lose by undesirable air infiltra on and exfiltra on minimise external air flow: reduce winter wind-chill and cooling effects promote ven la on: maximise air cooling by natural ven la on


56

tools 1. heart sheltering: use ground contact through floors, walls and roofs for hea ng and direct ground cooling 2. thermal envelope: provide both thermal resistance, insulaon and temperature retard

5. indoor/outdoor C

V

3. orienta on: a south orienta on for day me living areas, a southwest orienta on for direct sunspaces, a southeast se ng of windows for the bedrooms and kitchens to benefit of the first light of the day, especially during winter. 4. plants and water: use vegeta on and water for evapora ve cooling and circula on of fresh air (2-3째C) through water pools, tower cooling, water droplets or vegeta ve landscaping, this solu on has also advantage on the control of noise and vibraon, preserva on of open spaces with visual impact and environmental benefit, but the disadvantages of daylight limita on and condensa on (satura on > 70%).

6. proportion depth/height C

V

7. cooling paths C

8. shadows H

5. indoor/outdoor rooms: use alterna on of spaces to promote natural hea ng and cooling and create a natural aera on of the occupied spaces 6. room depth/heigh: a good rela on between the depth and the heigh of the room allowed the single natural ven la on of the room and maximum dayligh ng.

8. solar walls H

D

D


t

sustainability

7. radiant cooling systems: white paint on roof, movable insulaon and movable thermal mass.

9. overhang/louversx2

8. solar walls and windows: use solar hea ng, daylight and venla on

9. C

10.

11. C

permanent shading D

wind being breaked

natural ventilation V

9. sun shading: deep reveals and brise soleil and blinds reduce solar gain by shading, they could be permanent (low cost, low maintenance) or movable: interior blinds, exterior blinds or louvers, blinds between layers of glass (more expensive, considerable maintenance, provide privacy, glare control, insula on). 10. natural ven la on: create cooling by op mal air flow, no fans are needed, and therefore no electric energy consump on and low noise pollu on, improved air quality in summer season 11. wind breaks: provide wind buďŹ&#x20AC;ering and reduce wind cooling, increase ven la on cooling 12. wind towers and solar chimney: can increase natural ven la onâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s eďŹ&#x20AC;ec veness. 13. light shelves: provides indirect dayligh ng

12. C

wind towers V

ill. 70 -different tools concerning sustainability


58

case studies Greenwich Millennium Village - Crea on of an inclusive, sustainable community - Innova on in environmental standards - Passive hea ng and cooling - Waste recycling and low impact materials - Water eďŹ&#x192;cient, rain water recycling - Energy suďŹ&#x192;cient, renewable-sourcesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; produc on on the site The Greenwich Millennium Village (GMV) has delivered high sustainability and design standards across the development. The project is an ambi ous mixed use development which will comprise over 2,700 homes, community facili es and commercial space. Contemporary architecture and high quality public spaces are designed to suit the local microclimate. Materials have been selected for green creden als and the modern technology ensures the construc on of an environmentally sustainable village. GMV was the first substan al private development in the UK to achieve Ecohomes excellent. Homes benefit from large high performance windows, thermal insula on standards and non-pollu ng paint. The Combined Heat and Power system reduces CO2 emissions by producing heat through energy genera on.

ill. 71

ill. 72

The sense of community is enhanced through a design which places homes around garden squares and links neighbourhoods with tree lined streets. Public transport links help to make this a highly prac cal place to live. ill. 73-74


sustainability

Co-op-Canyon - Crea on of an inclusive, sustainable community - Innova on in favour of the solar-energy use - Passive hea ng and cooling - Sustainable in opera on - Carbon neutral - Self suďŹ&#x192;cient by collec ng and reusing waste and water ill. 75

Inspired by the cliďŹ&#x20AC;-side villages of Anasazi Indians and their strong connec on to nature, Co Op Canyon is a terraced urban oasis full of ver cal gardens and lush spaces that aims to create a holis c, community-centered, sustainable city block. Designed by LA-based architecture and design firm, Standard for the Re:Vision Dallas compe on, the canyon harvests enough rainwater, solar energy, and agriculture to completely sustain its 1,000 residents. The structure resembles a terraced canyon with housing units tucked into the canyon wall. On the canyon floor, there are community agricultural gardens and each residen al unit has also its own garden and yard space. The co-op is not only centered around the produc on of food, but also on community: retail spaces and small live/work units allow some of the residents to remain local for their work and shopping. The sustainable city block is a zero carbon and a structure that wastes no water. On-site power from solar panels will meet the energy demands of the community, while waste and rain water will be collected for use in landscape irriga on.

ill. 76


3

urban programme building programme

density

programme

delinia on design parametres


62

programming

As we saw in the analysis our main concerns can be organized around big four interconnected points: the site, users, func ons and sustainability. The site offers a lot of opportuni es for ideas to be developed due to its loca on in the city and direct rela on with Aalborg downtown, suburban and green areas, main transporta on hubs like the busterminal and the train sta on, etc. So basically this means that all kind of ac vi es are within walking distance, such as sports, shopping, cinemas and so on. Some of other focus points are the stream that runs below it, the possibility to become a high-rise building area and the conserva on of the old unused train tracks. Regarding the users, we are targe ng to 2 very different profiles: the single-family and the global one. The first one shows a

preference for single-house living and its own outdoor private space. The global user profile has different priori es like the proximity to other areas and func ons. Besides, the loca on of the project has the poten al to a ract both user profiles. About the future possible func ons we talked through two different approaches: the hybrid building and the social condenser. The hybrid one is the approach we chose since it improves social interac on and it is more sustainable. Sustainability is also a big concern, since it affects the project in a urban and a architectural way. It has been proofed that dense and mix-used buildings are more sustainable because it reduces the need of transporta on and the energy consump on that comes with it. At the building level, there are some sustainable guidelines and strategies to achieve zero energy consump on.


programming

urban programme

The project only contain a housing project for at frac on of the whole Railwayarea. This gives the possibility for crea ng a masterplan for the whole site. Before crea ng the masterplan it is necessary to determine some goals, that is based on the previous analysis. There is a big need of connec ng the greens from south in Kærby with the greens being created on the harborfront. Furthermore the stream Østerå, now present on the south side of Øster Alle has to be expanded into the area and maybe restored throughout the whole center of the city. The use of water in the city also has good qualitys in being able to help the city be more sustainable for example in the use of cooling of houses. The tracks on site have a high quality in crea ng flows through the site either as they are posi oned now ore moved to create flows in other direc ons. Recycling these track have to good inten ons; one is to preserve the more than a hundred years old history of the site and the other one is to recycle the old materials in a new way and by that preserve energy. Another wish for the masterplan is to involve the Kennedy arcade in the masterplan. There is a lot of free space for shops and offices in the building and with the sustainable approach it would be more efficient to replan the Kennedy arcade crea ng a flow from the site into the arcade. Hopefully the reuse of the Ken-

nedy arcade would solve the problem of the unused shops and give the site some func on that would decrease the need for transporta on. In Manha an an old high line build in the 1930’s has been redesigned and is now used as a public park. When the en re high line project is finished it is one and a half mile long park elevated from the street level, containing concrete pathways and sca ered natural planted areas with visible rail tracks besides sea ng and well illuminated areas. The project is designed by landscape architects James Corner Field Opera ons in coorpera on with architects Diller Scofidio + Renfro. The idea for redesigning the highline came from a support group that had observed that the old line had blossomed and now had several trees, bushes and suchlike growing. They then formed a associa on that collected local founds and raised money for the park, this then got the a en on of the mayor of New York and soon a er the project was in progress. The Park is now a popular recrea onal area li ed from the jumble of the city. This project has many very well func oning elements and tells a very beau ful story of the history on site. There is many qualies in the highline project that could make a good base for the masterplan of the railwayarea in Aalborg.


64

building programme family dwell 110m2 north

east

roomprogramme In this complex we will design with futher detail two delling units, a family apartment with 110m2 and a single apartment with 60m2. A sketch of their room programs are presented on the next pages.

private 50m2 livingroom 30m2

kitchen 30m2 outdoor 20m2 west ill. 77 -the squaremeters in the family dwell

south


programming

single dwellings 50m2 65m2 north

east

private rooms 20m2 private rooms 18m2

social rooms 26m2

social rooms 32m2

outdoor 20m2 west ill. 78 -the squaremeters in the two different single dwellings

south


66

compactness family dwell : total area 110m2 20m2 outdoor private space 3 bedrooms bigger social area 4 people: 27.5 m2 / per person outdoor space

social area

private area

50m2

20m2

40m2

single dwell : total area 60m2 18m2 outdoor semi-private space (3 single dwells share 18m2 outside space - 6m2 per each) 1 bedroom more compact social area 1 or 2 people: 40 m2 / per person outdoor space

social area

6m2 ill. 79 -distribution of squaremeters

private area

40m2

14m2


programming

density/compactness/diversity site area: 15000m2; min density: 80%

family dwell floor area: 110m2; -

single dwell floor area: 60m2

floor area: 12000m2

propor on of dwellings number (family dwell vs. single dwell)

number of dwellings total family single

50% family / 50% single

142

71

71

total number of people in the complex 390

60% family / 40% single

133

80

53

399

70% family / 30% single

126

88

38

409

density

diversity

(more people per m2)

(more diďŹ&#x20AC;erent types of users)

density

diversity

(more people per m2)

(more diďŹ&#x20AC;erent types of users)

max density: 120% - floor area: 18000m2 propor on of dwellings number (family dwell vs. single dwell)

number of dwellings total family single

50% family / 50% single

212

106

106

total number of people in the complex 583

60% family / 40% single

200

120

80

600

70% family / 30% single

189

132

57

614

ill. 80 -density


68

building programme -sustainability nature climate sustainable energy proposal concerns sulture technology Our aim is to fulfil the demand of a passive house. Therefore economy we would like to choose a sustainable strategy which can both preserve or improve biodiversity reduce the energy consump on and produce a self sufficient life cycle assessment of materials building system, that use solar energy. reduce private transportaion thermal mass of materials Regarding how to avoid the consump on we have analysed the insula on of building envelope right strategy which can reduce the loss of hea ng, promote a window area to orienta on ra o passive cooling, passive ven la on and adequate daylight illusurface to floor area ra o mina on of the different habita ve cells. strategies window to floor area ra o u liza on of daylight Our approach regarding the sustainable building has also taken zoning a en on on these different focal points: thermal mass of matemobility (of building) rials and insula on of the envelope to enhance heat loss; winven la on natural dow area orienta on ra o towards south and west to enhance ven la on mechanical daylight; surfaces and windows to floor area ra o toward a renewable energy sources compact shape of the building to enhance heat loss; u liza on energy producing elements of daylight, zoning and natural ven la on to enhance a passive energy-efficient installa ons sustainability; renewable energy sources, energy-producing elembodied energy of materials ements and energy efficient installa ons to produce a sustainill.81 -our sustainable aspects able energy.

1 2 3 4 5 6


programming

produce/reduce/reuse

1 2 3

PRODUCE ENERGY

photovoltaic modules that use solar cells to convert sunlight di rectly into energy thermal collectors that use the solar energy to heat up water

H C

avoid cold bridges (isolation, glazing, thermal envelope) ground contact for heating and cooling use shading and solar-protection techniques to promote cooling vegetation for evaporative cooling and circulation of fresh air

D

take care to not obstruct the daylight to the surrounding sites orientation of building to not cast permanent shadows on itself

V

leave rooms for ventilation alternation of indoor-outdoor rooms to improve natural ventilation provide wind buffering by wind breaks

REDUCE CONSUMPTION OF ENERGY

REUSE MATERIALS AND WASTE ENERGY

use wasted heat for dry-rooms use low impact materials (wood and natural materials) use â&#x20AC;&#x153;zero kmâ&#x20AC;? materials consider the life cycle of the materials reuse wasted water for toilets and irrigation system and rainwater for showering and washing


70

design criterias

architecture is creative foresight. Therefore we always seek to understand the relationship we build in both the natural environment and social and cultural and historical context in the broad sense. It is a process that is ultimately all about the people who must live with the houses well into the future. - 3XNielsen

During the analysis phase many subjects has been examined. In order to secure that every aspect of the analysis will be used or considered during the design process, it is essen al to pin point every criteria made during the analysis. This is a way to ensure that the integrated design process is used all the way from the beginning. Thus the building will then be designed specifically for the given site and with all of the sustainable aspects fully integrated. To the right can be seen all of the points taken from the previous chapters. Brief • • •

the buildings have to be higher than 3floors Create a housing complex with a density between 80%-120% Up ll 20% of the floor area must contain other func ons

• • • • • • Site • • • • • • • • •

There must be created at least one type of dwelling and one other unit of either dwelling or other func on The one type of dwelling must have 110 sqm and with an outdoor area of 20 sqm The building in general must have a zero energy consumpon The exis ng local plan is not to be followed ½ a parking lot per housing unit Adequate parking for bicycles Add green areas to connect the site with other parts of the city Reestablish the old stream Østerå running through the site Consider the history of the site in the new project Consider that it is to use high rise buildings in the new area Take the three types of pollu on; air, visual, earth and noise, into account Consider the shading from the Kennedy arcade in the a ernoon Take advantage of the winds in summer me for natural ven la on Decrease direct sun light in the building during the summer Consider flow possibili es across the site, which would expand the dayrhythm


programming

deliniation

Users • • •

on the dwellings social areas (south), outdoor spaces (south west) graduated hights and plans to relate with the differen on of the city single houses quali es (outdoor spaces will be a big % of the total built – 20m2per each family dwell + 6m2 for each single dwell )

• • • • •

Functions the func on we choose must : • compensate the use of the building during work hours • a ract outside users • use areas not suitable for dwellings for other func ons ground floor • connec on with surrounding areas Sustainability • produce energy by photovoltaic modules that use solar cells to convert sunlight into electrical energy • avoid heat loss by a good insula on and lack of thermal bridges • maintain a good thermal quality of the inside by roof gar dens • use vegeta on to promote cooling of the inside common ar

eas and to maintain a thermal comfort take care to not obstruct the daylight of the surrounding site orienta on of building to not cast permanent shadows on itself leave common rooms for ven la on and aera on alterna on of indoor-outdoor rooms to improve natural ven la on (avoid the mechanical one) use low impact materials (wood and natural materials)

To get proper in depth with the key points such as sustainability, it is important to set some limita ons for the project. This allows the detailing of the project to achieve the desired quality. Thus, during the project there will be made several limita ons of the various subjects. • •

• •

The master plan will only be made as a concept and not de tailed. The 20% other func ons on site will not be a focus point. There will be le area for the func ons but they will not be detailed. There will not be made calcula ons on the strength of the buildings only on things that have to do with sustainability. There will not be given special considera on to disabled people. Besides that there will be made ramps and elevators to ensure their access to the area. The economics of the building will not be taken in consider a on in any aspects.


4

vision

presenta on

concept

public area

building complex


74

vision

this housing complex will aspire to: First create a place for the city that people can iden fy with and use even not living there. Being a building for everyone the shape should connect with the exis ng city but at the same me showing that it is diďŹ&#x20AC;erent from the exis ng neighbourhood in character and use. Secondly the building should give every inhabitant his own individual home by assuring that each type of apartement is directed to its specific user by working with combina ons of diďŹ&#x20AC;erent units. And finally by working integrated with the aims of at sustainable housing complex guarantee that the energy consumed in the building is well thought through and not treated as an addi onal subject. Thus crea ng a building not from random combina ons or formal experiments but from these 3 main wills.


presenta on

concept

city - energy optimal shape - units composition

City: direc on of the housing complex according to the grid of the city blocks direc on of the public according to the grid of the green area Energy op mal shape: the sustainability and the energy goals led the fingers shape orien ng south and the roof decreasing from the city towards south Units composi on: each user can have his own house, and the quality and the identy of each unit is kept, as well as the compactness aim of the whole building.


76

the site

Considering the main aims of the concept, a final complex solution was found to completely fulfill the energy, techniill.2 cal and architectural requests.


presenta on

ill.2: general preview of the project on its Aalborg context. ill.3: master plan, scale 1:2500

N


78

areas

accesses

The public functions were placed under the housing complex, leaving the space between the fingers free for a public open area. Therefore these space is divided in 2 parts: one with a rougher material path and presence of the old stream; and softer one with a major presence of green areas.

The building is made of 20 blocks and in between these the accesses cores as independent spaces. These are directly connected to the ground public level and the openings towards the surrounding streets, being the separation between the private dwellings areas and the public areas.

plot area: 15000sqm total floor area: 18000sqm (120% of density) heated floor area: 15600sqm (apts.13430sqm + shops 2170sqm) dwelling area: 15840sqm (apts.+accesses 2409sqm) functions percentage: 87% dwellings, 13% shops total apts.124 units: 63family,22single,39couple parking area: 2985sqm, storage: 450sqm

ill.4: diagram illustrating the general organization of functions on the ground floor.

ill.5: diagram showing the private accesses in pink and the main street connections in blue.


presenta on vehicular circulation

energy source

The car circulation inside the plot is avoided in order to leave all the ground floor for a pedestrian use. Thus the accesses for the cars and their parking area are placed under the 2 external fingers.

Due to the optimal orientation of the building the solar cells can be placed on the top of the roof, facing south and with inclinations of 0, 15 and 30 degrees.

ill.6: diagram illustrating the position of the parking and car accesses.

ill.7: diagram of the solar cells distribution, showing the 15 and 30 degrees panels in light grey.


80

the complex Composed by groups of blocks, the complex is illustrated in the next drawings.

N

ill.8: ground floor plan, scale 1:1000


presenta on

N

ill.9: 2 floor plan, scale 1:1000


82

N

ill.12: 3 floor plan, scale 1:1000


presenta on

N

ill.11: 4 floor plan, scale 1:1000


84

N

ill.13: 7 floor plan, scale 1:1000


presenta on

N

ill.14: -1 floor plan, scale 1:1000


86


presenta on

ill.15: west finger, section A, scale 1:50

A B

ill.16: north finger, section B, scale 1:500


88

ill.17: east facade, scale 1:500

ill.18: west facade, scale 1:500


presenta on


90


presenta on

ill.19: north facade, scale 1:500

[ill.20: south facade, scale 1:500]


92

the units

ill.21: family apartment main and top plans (110sqm), scale 1:100

The modules that composed together to build the blocks are divided in family, couple and single

N


presenta on

ill.22: Afternoon view from the living room of the family apartment type, showing its direct connection with the outdoor space and its diagonal one with the kitchen.


94

ill.23: View of the first floor, where 2 bedrooms and a small work area are located with the possibility of becoming one single room.


presenta on

ill.24: Perspective from the family apartment kitchen and dining room towards the living room, enlightened with the late afternoon sun.

[ill.3: -1 floor plan, scale 1:1000]


96

ill.25: couple apartment main and top plans (85sqm), scale 1:100

N


presenta on

ill.26: Picture of the social area of the couple apartment type, which has a similar arrangement as the single one.


98

ill.27: single apartment main and top plans (67sqm), scale 1:100

ill.3

N


presenta on

ill.28: Single apartment view showing the difference in floor level between the kitchen and living room. ill.29: First floor of the single apartment. This one consists of a bathroom, a bedroom and a work area, even though this layout could be changed as required by the user.

ill.4


100

the block From the combina ons of units, the blocks were created following the complex main criteria.

ill.30-32: second block of the west finger: ill.30: east elevation, scale 1:200 ill.31: west elevation, scale 1:200 ill.32: section A, scale 1:200


presenta on


102

ill.33,34: second block of the west finger: ill.33: section C, scale 1:200 ill.34: section B, scale 1:200


presenta on


104

a

a

a

a

b c ill.35: second block of the west finger plans, respectively from left to right, first floor - seventh floor; scale 1:200


presenta on a

a

a

a

N

b c


106

user views

ill.36: view of the public courtyard showing the interaction of the two different main directions: the north-south of the â&#x20AC;&#x153;fingersâ&#x20AC;? and the diagonal one of the ground floor


presenta on


108

ill.37: perspective from the passageway through the middle finger which connects both public and semi-private courtyards


presenta on ill.38: semi-private courtyard perspective showing the two different facades types: with or without outdoor spaces, south/west or north/east, respectively


110


presenta on

ill.39: view from Jyllandsgade towards south and the public entrance


112

ill.40: close view of the different types of outdoor areas


presenta on


114

ill.41: north view of the dwelling complex. The permeability of the building is possible due to the gap entrances (the main public and the smaller semi-private ones) and by the roof level differences


presenta on

ill.42: west boundary street picture, next to the Kennedy Arkade


116


presenta on

ill.43: view from one of the platforms built for parking ventilation and natural lighting towards the main public entrance


5

technical aspects

technical strategy materials

detail


120

passive housing The society has in the recent years gone in a direc on in which one is constantly made aware of nature and manâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s treatment of it. In par cular, global warming and the impact of this has been the founda on for a wide range of debates, new bills and changes in fields like architecture. The main statement is that buildings in the future should not be a burden to the environment. This semesterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s primary topic is hereby passive housing, which is a further development of the already known low-energy housing. There are three categories which should fulfilled in order to obtain the cer fica on. _max specific space heat demand of 15kWh/m2 _max 0.6 / h infiltra on in pressure test _max specific primary energy demand of 80 kWh/m2

ill. 1

ill. 2

The aim of the primary energy demand is at the given moment 120 kWh/m2, but in the near future this will be heavily increased. In order to future proof the project it has been chosen that the aim of the primary energy is 80 kWh/m2. Passive housing is then characterized by a careful interplay between materials, loca on, orienta on, indoor environment and much more. An air ght construc on, minimal heat loss, controlled ven la on, windows with low heat transmission, etc., are all necessary factors to be merged together in order to create a passive house. Subsequently is summarized the main features of each technical aspect, the rest is found in appendix at the back of the report.

ill. 3

h p://www.passivhus.dk/kriterier_for_passivhusboliger.htm

ill.

4


technical aspects

energy strategy I The main focus of the passive housing concept is the low energy level that the apartment consumes in its annual opera on, which may not exceed 80 kWh/m2 a year. To be self-sufficient in energy and thus qualify as zero-energy building, an appropriate amount of solar cells will be posi oned on the roof of the building.

ill.5

-placement of the solar cells

The outcome of the solar cells should cover the whole buildings energy need. The effects of the cells is determined by orientaon, slope, type, quality and how they are placed on the building. The used cells are monocrystalline solar cells, which have a high efficiency. A er a series of scenarios that are available in appendix II it is chosen to place most of the cells with a 15-degree slope on the fingers and horizontally on the part along Jyllandsgade. Covering the whole building with horizontal cells was not working, as their effec veness was not high enough for the area of the roof. The solar cells with 30 degree lt was also not working as their expression was very marked compared to the other parts of the building. The solar cells should be integrated into the building, which give a somewhat lower efficiency compared to freestanding. This, however, chosen as it is a wish that the solar cells is not prominent in the façade or exterior of the building. In order to compare the energy produced by the solar cells with the energy aim of the building, all of the energy is calculated into primary energy with a factor 2,7. The outcome of primary energy of the solar cells is 80.16 kWh/m2 where it should just be above 80kWh/m2. It can then be concluded that the area and orienta on of solar cells is sufficient and thereby covers the energy demand of the building, making the building self-sufficient.


122

ventilation strategy ven la on The indoor climate is crucial for our well being at home. In par cular, air quality and temperature are important factors. A high degree of air pollu on caused by cooking, playing and candles, etc. gives headaches and fa gue and makes one oďŹ&#x20AC;color for todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s chores. The building will be equipped with a ven la on system that provides each apartment with the necessary air change. The selected system is a hybrid of mechanical and natural ven la on. The natural ven la on is driven by the forces of nature, such as pressure, wind and temperatures in the summer months where there are no problems with heat loss, whereas the mechanical ven la on operated using electric fans and only used in winter months when there is a need for heat recovery of the polluted air.

ill.6 -Hybrid ventilation: In the living room it is possible to use cross ventilation. In the bedroom a single sided ventilation is used.

The ven la on strategy is immersion, which briefly works by sending fresh cooler air into the top of the room, the clean air mixes with the used warmer air and the warmer used air is then sucked out through vents or windows at the opposite end of the room due to lower density, thereby enabling cross ven la on.

ill. 7 -ventilation coming ind out. On the section it is shown how the fresh air are injected in the less poluted area and the used air are sucked out from the more poluted rooms, like the bathroom.


technical aspects

natural ventilation natural ven la on The star ng point when discussing natural ven la on is whether it is physically possible at the given site. Natural ven la on works by two principles. One by using the thermal buoyancy in the air due to temperature diďŹ&#x20AC;erences between indoor and outdoor and another where the winds eďŹ&#x20AC;ect on the building creates pressure and suc on on the facades. This form of venla on is essen al during the summer me when indoor and outdoor temperatures are equal. The scenario for the calcula on of ven la on is a family apartment situated in the building complex, ie. with three floors below. It is oriented east / west and has four family members living. In the figures to the le are shown the windows which are expected to open in the calcula ons of natural ven la on. There have also been calculated on the wind and temperatures for the month of July, while this month is es mated to be most cri cal in rela on to overhea ng of the apartment.

Ill.8 -the family apartment on which the calculations of natural ventilation are made. The given windows are marked with purple.

The ven la on need are generally calculated using the 24 hour avarage spreadsheet. Here the necessary air exchange was found to be around of 3.8 h-1, which corresponds to 0,254 m3/s. In spreadsheet for calcula on of natural ven la on, this air exchange was tested under condi ons with thermal buoyancy and wind pressure. Here it was found that it is possible to achieve natural ven la on of the desired strength, simply by opening two vindows in the kitchen 50% and a window on the first floor in the staircase. (Appendix III)


124

lighting strategy The dwellings are posi oned from a perspec ve of the desire to use as much daylight as possible. On the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s fingers is chosen to exploit the morning sun from the east and a ernoon/ evening sun from the west. This is jus fied by a recital of an average Dane with an average job who only stays in his house before and a er work. On weekends it is assumed that citydwellers use the city and thus do not stay in their flat all day. The building along Jyllandsgade have other condi ons, these apartments have light through its south and north facades. These apartments are then suitable for people with another dayrythm than the others, such as elderly and students. There has been chosen ver cal and rectangular windows with a measure of 1x1,5m, since these dimensions fit with the smallest space and subsequently summed in width for larger spaces. In connec on with toilet and bath the window is scaled by 50% in width. As a result of the current building regula ves (6.5.2, paragraph. 1) is sought as a minimum daylight factor of 2%. Through the program Ecotect / Radiance the apartments are modelled and checked to ensure the desired quan ty of daylight. All apartments are judged on 21th March at. 12 oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;clock with an amount of light corresponding to an overcast day. Thus there is no diďŹ&#x20AC;erence in orienta on of the apartments, since only indirect light is available.

07.00 home

08.00 work

16.00 home

ill.9 -En gennemsnitsdag for en almindelig dansker med ors fuldtidsarbejde. %DF 0 %DF

10.0+ 9.0 8.0 7.0 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0

It is seen from the illustra ons to the right that all spaces meets the requirements, with a small cri cal zone around the entrance, which resolved with a materet transparent door. h p://www.ebst.dk/br08.dk/br07_00_id102/0/54

ill.10 -En gennemsnitsdag for en almindelig dansker med fuldtidsarbejde.


technical aspects

construction strategy The construc on and strength of the building is treated on a theore cal level in this 8.semesters project, whereas there will not be performed any technical calcula ons of strength, durability and deflec on.

Reinforcet concrete 108mm Ven lated gap 20mm Windboard 2mm Insula on hard 95mm Insula on [5% wood] 160mm Insula on 95mm Plasterboard + PE-foil 26mm

ill. 11 -Pillars on the ground level support the building. ill. 12 -detail of the exterior wall (up/horizontal and left/vertical section)

The building is done as a mediumheavy construc on of steel reinforced concrete with plaster on the inside. The floor structure will also be performed in steel reinforced concrete, as a structure of plates and discs with columns at the bo om ground floor, where it is not possible to con nue the slices down to level 0 due to the divergent public-floor. In accordance with the requirements for passive houses the building constructed compact and with a wall of 50cm and inner walls of 20cm, because of increased insula on. The roof structure is a light wooden structure covered with roofing felt, all being s ll obscured by solar cells. An important factor in the development of passive houses is to construct the building with a heat transmission through building components as minimal as possible. This is done by avoiding thermal bridges in the construc ons and with an insula on thickness of the walls giving U-values around 0,1W/m2K. The program BuildDesk is here used precisely to ensure this u value. In Builddesk the various structural parts are modeled and the specific u value can be read.


126

energy strategy II

PHPP - passive house planning package Passive houses must complie with several strict requirements in rela on to the buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s energy consump on. In order to be verifiable as a passive house, the building must not in its total energy exceed 80 kWh/m2 and the specific heat demand must not exceed 15 kWh/m2. Essen ally the building is formed of the same building block, families and single apartments. These are oriented in two different direc ons; East-west in the fingers and North-south along Jyllandsgade. Each building block is separated by a staircase and elevator tower, which are created as unheated spaces. These are treated as outdoor space and therefore not counted in PHPP. Therefore two PHPP energy calcula ons on the building, one for each direc on, but both excis ng of six family apartments and 5 single apartments.

ill. 13 -The building block calculated in the PHPP


technical aspects

Building:

Block of 6 family and 5 single EastWest

Year of Construction:

11

Number of Dwelling Units: Enclosed Volume Ve: Number of Occupants:

3170,4

m3

Interior Temperature:

20,0

Internal Heat Gains:

2,1

°C W/m2

23,4

Specific Demands with Reference to the Treated Floor Area Treated Floor Area:

819,2 Applied:

Annual Method

16

Specific Space Heat Demand:

m2

kWh/(m2a) -1

PH Certificate:

Fulfilled?

15 kWh/(m2a)

No

Pressurization Test Result:

0,6

h

0,6 h

Yes

Specific Primary Energy Demand

75

kWh/(m2a)

120 kWh/(m2a)

Yes

(DHW, Heating, Cooling, Auxiliary and Household Electricity):

Building:

-1

Block of 6 family and 5 single FINAL NorthSouth

Year of Construction:

11

Number of Dwelling Units: Enclosed Volume Ve: Number of Occupants:

3170,4

m3

Interior Temperature:

20,0

Internal Heat Gains:

2,1

°C W/m2

23,4

Specific Demands with Reference to the Treated Floor Area Treated Floor Area:

819,2 Applied:

Specific Space Heat Demand:

ill. 14

m2 Annual Method

12

kWh/(m2a) -1

PH Certificate:

15 kWh/(m2a)

Fulfilled?

Yes

Pressurization Test Result:

0,6

h

0,6 h

Yes

Specific Primary Energy Demand

72

kWh/(m2a)

120 kWh/(m2a)

Yes

(DHW, Heating, Cooling, Auxiliary and Household Electricity):

The geometric of the building is typed into PHPP categorized according to whether they are adjoining heated spaces or if their outer surface are facing the outside. Moreover, all windows, their size, orienta on, shade and similar are given, like parameters for the indoor climate. The values can be found in appendix III.

-Results from the PHPP

-1

The illustra ons to the le show that the building only has a small extra allowance for hea ng of the east-west orientated apartments. However, the addi onal concump on is only 1 kWh/m2 and if the results are gathered for the two calcula ons it is shown that there is an average value of 13.5 kWh/m2 in heat demand and an overall energy needs on 73.5 kWh/m2. Doing so, it is es mated that with the small differences which are building blocks in between then the total building does not exceed the criteria used for passive houses.


128

B-sim

The simula ng programme B-sim is used for tes ng the indoor climate. The programme can have many focus point, such as energy use in the building, use of hea ng, cooling, ven la on, amount of co2, etc. In this project it has ben used in labora on with PHPP as this has not been used to calculate overhea ng and solar shading. Therefore the focuspoint of B-sim has been to connect the ven la on with the use of shading in mes with problems of overhea ng. The main subject for this project is passive housing and by that the use of â&#x20AC;&#x153;freeâ&#x20AC;? contribu ons for the indoor environment. By that is meant the use of daylight, natural ven la on and shading during periods with suitable weather. In a counry as Denmark situated on the northern la tude, the free contribu ons mainly happens during the summer me. So in order of ge ng results from B-sim the focus has been in july where the most overhea ng hours are present. In the results can be seen af table and a diagram of the results from the family apartement. The one to the right is without shading devices on the windows and the one to the le is with shading cutains added. On the diagrams are seen some graphs telling about the outdoor factors and some telling about the indoor climate as a func on of the outdoor parameters. The black

Aim - limited overheating and draft as a result

max 100 hours with air change above 4 h-1

max 100 hours above 25,5 oC


technical aspects

B-sim

one is the outdoor temperature and the purple the amount of clouds (0=sun, 8=fully clouded). When ever the temperature rises, the cloud is fading and so on the airchange is rising.

Week 31 2008 35

without Shading 30

25

Top(ThermalZone)째C

20

AirChange(ThermalZone)/h CldCover([Outdoor])15

ExtTmp([Outdoor])째C WindSpeed([Outdoor])m/s SolarShd(WinDoor1153)-

10

5

0 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Day in Week

Week 31 2008 35

with Shading 30

25

Top(ThermalZone)째C

20

AirChange(ThermalZone)/h CldCover([Outdoor])15

ExtTmp([Outdoor])째C WindSpeed([Outdoor])m/s

It is quickly shown in the one without shading that the aims of <100 hours above 25,50oC is crossed. This can be solved by adding shading devices as seen to the le . This brings the temperature down remarkable. Unfortunately this creates a new problem, which is concerned about daylight in the apartement. The green curve called SolarShd is the shading device and with an factor of 1 it is fully closed. During the hot summerdays the shading devices will then minimize the sun from hea ng the apartement but also from the daylight. The next step i then to op mize the system so that a balance between the natural ven la on air change and the shading devices gives the best indoor environment. A higher airchange could minimize the use of solar shading and by that let some daylight into the rooms.

SolarShd(WinDoor1153)10

5

0 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Day in Week

ill. 15 -Results from Bsim, one with shading and one without

The next steps are then itera ve, in order of trying out several levels of shading and ven la on. This can also involve other types of shading devices. The main results is however that the results are useful and manageable. It seems quite possible to reach a suitable and acceptable level for the indoor environment. h p://www.ebst.dk/br08.dk/br07_00_id102/0/54


130

acoustic strategy acoustics in the building The acous c indoor environment is an important factor when discussing rooms and the wellness while being in them. The acous cs includes both what we want to hear and what we do not want to hear, as it includes what we know we hear, and the unno ced noise that irritates our ability to concentrate. The acous cal indoor climate includes for an example insulaon to prevent airnoise, subsonic noise, reverbera on, absorponsareal and noise from ducts. It is wanted to minimize the transmi ed sound through the construc on and ven la on ducts and op mize the sound that conscious is in the room. Music, speech, etc. Since the project only concerns housing, furnishings and interiors will automa cally be almost complete for the reverbera on, echo and absorp ons. The problem concerning subsonic noise and ducts noise are wished to be fulfilled in accordance with the requirements of the Building Regula ons. Otherwise, noise from ven la on ducts in the suspended ceiling could be a enuated by hanging pipes with vibra on moun ngs, as well as insulated and fi ed with silencers. However the head channels run into elevator sha s and will not have direct contact with the apartments. The large dimensions of thickness, the large amount of insula on and the desire of a convenient design will result in minimal unwanted sound transmission.

ill. 16 -Lydkilder i forhold til det akustisk indeklima


technical aspects

fire strategy fireproofing of the building

<25m

The design measures in rela on to fire are treated in the Building Regula ons 2009, Chapter 5. The residence is es mated to be in a applica on categori 4, which includes parts of buildings that are used both day and night, and where users that stays in the buildings sec on, have a knowledge to roads of escape and thus is able to bring themselves into safety unaided.

<25m

To achieve a sa sfactory protec on against possible fire and the spread of this, the building is segmented into fire units called fire cells and fire sec ons. The boundary between a cell and a sec on is if the room exceeds 150m2, which makes it possible to look at each apartment as a cell and arrange low transverse ver cal sec ons, that runs up along the elevator sha s.

<22m

ill. 17 -Brandforhold

C

Since the building does not exceed a height of 22m and non of the apartments are broader than 25m it is not necessary to create escape routes.

C C

S

C ill.18 -Brandceller og sektioner

Furthermore, a variety of measures in rela on to the applicaon category 4 are made. For an example, any fire engines can easily acces the buildings in case of fire.


132

materials teak wood

The three parallel buildings and the main building are different from each other in terms of material. On the “fingers” the single apartments differen ate from the family apartments by a wooden, which is in harmony with windows in the same woods. This interac on between the apartments create a dynamic overall facade that creates visual legibility. It is chosen to use dark wood, which nevertheless has a greyish surface, for an example teak wood, because it quickly gets a gray pa na. Moreover, this is a type of tree that requires minimal maintenance because it naturally contains a large amount of oil and therefore is resistant to the harsh climate that can occur in these Northern la tudes. On the façade facing Jyllandsgade and the facade facing east, represen ng the two access facades, wood are not used, however, an interac on between concrete structure and plain sleek concrete are planned. As with the tree, the single apartments are adorned with the structured concrete. Furthermore creates differen a on between the ground floor, which is the public housing of the building and part of the overlying floors by building the ground floor with brick facades in pale gray stone that matches the gray concrete.

grey concrete structure

grey concrete simpel

grey bricks


technical aspects

ill. 19 -wood versus concrete

ill. 20 -concrete textured and simple

ill. 21 -bricks and concrete


6

intro design process phase 1 phase 2

phase 3

phase 4


136

intro

A er the analysis of the site the a en on was at first concentrated to the vision of our building related to the surrounding area, and the research of a spa al organiza on of the buildings and the func ons inside the site area. These were not enough to reach a defined and func onal shape, thus the op mal one began to be formed with the formula on of the sustainable criteria and the experimenta on of the units composi ons. With the help of diďŹ&#x20AC;erent organized working exercises the crea vity phases of the group work were structured in diďŹ&#x20AC;erent phases, these included the first workshop a er the programme delivery, the pin-up session, the sketching periods and the midterm review.

The process that brings to the presenta on of our concept is consequently organized into four phases, regarding respecvely: - phase 1: the sketching phase of the area in a urban point of view, looking for a main concept which de scribes the aims of city connec on and op mal energy shape. - phase 2: the sketching phase of diďŹ&#x20AC;erent solu ons of the building complex, and the choice of the most representa ve one, focusing the a en on on the compactness of each solu on. - phase 3: the apartments phase, and therefore the choice of the units which would be combined to form blocks. - phase 4: the building phase, thus the final combina on of units in blocks and consequently the whole building.


design process

phase 1: first sketching

The first approach regarding the process started using the design criteria and tools from to the analysis phase. During this workshop, the objec ve was to find several ideas for the shape of the building complex, rela ng it to the surrounding area. Although the rela on with the city was always clear in every soluon, the shape of the building according to a sustainability aim and to the different targets of users was considerate just in few ideas. Thus the posi ve features of the different op ons were kept and connected to the main objec ve, and the final concept was established.

Main urban guide lines: the direc on of surrounding streets the connec ons with other green areas of Aalborg the rela on between 2 different scale of buildings city block and industrial buildings the old stream - Østerå the history of the place - old tracks direc on towards the green areas ill.1: sketch with the main urban guide lines


138

city-complex experimentations -permeability -linear volume towards Jyllandsgade -decrease in heights from the city towards the green areas

U shape -dwelling and public shapes follow diďŹ&#x20AC;erent direc ons: city and green -linear volume towards Jyllandsgade -permeability

aligned blocks -decrease in heights from the city towards the green areas -fusion of 2 scales -permeability on the shape - spreading out eďŹ&#x20AC;ect

montain


design process

ill.2-13: pictures and sketches showing the several experiments done


140

Main conclu ons of the first experimenta ons that were aplied to the final solu on on the urban scale: - 3 fingers structure related to the shape of the surrounding blocks - straight line along Jyllandsgade - open view from Ă&#x2026;gade and down, dragging people into the area and towards the park - rising hights towards Jyllandsgade and Kennedy Arcade, to create a connec on with the city and op mize the energy produc on - fingers facing south and decreasing roof to further adapt to the solar cell instala on - connec on between the public and semi-private inner courtyards - visual readability of func ons - public and other func ons following the direc on of the park

ill.14-16: diagram and pictures of the first the urban solution.

models of


design process

phase 2: second sketching

Based on the previous phase and the main concept, the a enon was focused on the development of the design concerning the experimenta on of different units and modules combina on. Doing that, it was essen al to keep in every solu on: the principles of compactness, the different uses of the units according to different kind of users and the technical aspects following the sustainability aim. At the end of this workshop the main solu on was composed of 2 modules of apartments regarding 2 different targets: families and singles/couples.

ill.17-18: Immeuble Villa 1922, by Le Corbusier (p.1) and Kitagata apartment building 2001, by Kazuyo Sejima (p.2). Inspiration projects that are also based on the use of units to built a complex and with compactness and outdoor spaces concerns.


142

phase 2: modules experimentations

ill.19: combination based in room modules that form several types of apartments that use the absence of one module ule for their exterior spaces. ill.20-21: combination the modules illustrated on ill.22. ill.22: example of a module strategy in which each family (in white) has one exterior space and each 3 singles (in grey) share one outdoor space similar to the ones of the family apartments. ill.23-26: example of another module strategy that uses the space left in between 2 modules for the outdoor spaces.


design process

ill.27-31: combination the modules illustrated on ill.32. ill.32: modules strategy where the single apartments use the top of the family for their outside spaces but since they occupy the space in between the family modules they have only one floor height which can result in excessive shadow. ill.33: same type of logic applied to the ill.32 modules but with a new type of single apartment that has 2 floor height exterior spaces. ill.34-36: combination of the modules illustrated on ill.33, trying to avoid the one floor single apartments and using a new bigger type of apartment, also the attempt of piling family modules and place the singles next to the accesse.


144

Main conclu ons of the modules experimenta ons that were aplied to the proposal solu on on the urban scale: -

Distribu on a ached to the main blocks Different possible combina ons of the modules, creat ing different facade layouts Apartments entrance always through the exterior space 2 types of apartments according to the 2 types of users Openings of the rooms follow the day use hours and avoid the areas shadowed by the outdoorspaces single apartment

family apartment

ill.37-39-3: the 2 modules

and how they are assembled

-

Outside and social areas always to west (or south) Bed rooms always to east (or north) Module design and its combina ons avoid shadowing over the below modules Double height spaces just on the outside Avoid “holes” trough the building Single outdoor space uses top of the family module


design process

ill.40-41: illustrations of possible combinations of the 2 modules and their outside spaces ill.42-43: roof strategy for placing the solar cells, by adapting the modules with extra rooms to use the areas under the slops ill.44: facade scheme where the single apartments stripes are visible by the difference of volume. ill.45-47: possible combinations showing the dynamic facades created by the intercalation


146

1

1

2

3

2

3

family apartment plans sec on 1

single apartment plans sec on 2

sec on 3

single

family

ill.48-50: sketching plans and sections of the mid term proposal, illustrating the join of the 2 modules

3


design process

phase 3: apartments

WEST

a ernoon use

morning use

EAST

ill.51: diagram illustrating the position of the W-E apartments on the complex and the relation with the day light. This type of apartment is more suitable for a type of user that is not using it during the main working hours of the day but during the morning and afternoon.

This phase started a er the midterm review and the cri cs regarding the previous organiza on of the plans were taken into considera on to further developments. Having as main focus the east-west orientated apartments the first step was refining the room organiza on, therefore changing the work scale. Our goal was to focus on the right distribu on of the rooms regarding the diďŹ&#x20AC;erent use during the day, in this way we also had a start point for the distribu on of the windows and the avoidance of hea ng and cooling. Furthermore the shape of each unit brings into account other aspects regarding diďŹ&#x20AC;erent architectural solu ons and spa al rela ons, which are illustrated next.


148

Plan research relation between functio functions

proportion of the outdoor space

ill.52

ill.55

ill.58

ill.53

ill.56

ill.59

ill.54

ill.57

ill.60

ill.52-57: analysis of the functions distribution on the plan, respectively from up-down: relation between living room and kitchen/dinning area; relation between the private and social areas, and relation between the outdoor and the social areas. (ill.52-54 before midterm review, ill.55-57 improvements made in the stage after.) ill.58-60: analysis on the proportion of the outdoor areas, 3 examples where the deepness of the space varies according to different plan solutions, being the optimal solution illustrated in ill.7 where the light conditions of the outdoor space and the room placed behind is improved due to the decrease of depth.


design process

distribution

ill.61

stairs

ill.63

ill. 64

ill.67

ill.62 ill. 61-63: sum up of the distribution strategies; ill. 59,60 are based in the use of a main axis connecting the entrance to the rest of the apartment. (ill.61 the best solution: placing a central distribution hall connecting all the different areas and the entrance of the apartment.) ill.64-69: analysis of the stair placement, respectively from up-down: central, west and south. Due to the need of opening the rooms upstairs towards east the stairs, independently of its position on the plan, have to reach the top floor on the west side. The connection between the private areas on the top to the bathroom placed downstairs was the other main researched factor illustrated on the diagrams.

ill.65

ill.66

ill.68

ill.69


150

windows_light_day rhythm use

ill. 70,71: analysis on the distribution of the openings having in account the amount of light and hours of exposure of the rooms. (on ill.70 it is possible to see that only the living room opens towards west for the afternoon light and turns the private areas to the east except the ones on the top that are opened towards west, opposite of the ideal bedroom orientation. However in ill.71 the relation between the functions and day light is improved since all the social areas have openings towards west with the oportunity of having also openings towards east in the living area and all the bedrooms have morning light.)

ill.72,73: diagram complementing the analysis on the use of spaces according to the day light, and the users rhythm. This type of apartment will be preferable use by someone that will not be at home in the middle hours of the day but that has the best conditions in the morning and afternoon/ evening when the use of the house is improved. In this way the morning activities and rooms associated have as main goal to turn towards east to receive the morning light and the social areas including the outside area turn towards west to get most of the last hours of light.


design process family apartment conclusion the final plans for the family apartment were a result of this research.

ill. 74-75: Final family apartment plans with diagrammatic annotations concerning the researches done on the previous pages. Regarding the functions, the kitchen/dining and the living room are placed around the outside space which allows to open all the social areas towards west light. Opposite, all the bedrooms have openings towards east leaving the private areas for a more morning use. The direct connection between living and dining areas is made in a diagonal way crossing the apartment in its central hall that connects the vertical connection, the social, private and outside areas. Upstairs the users can adapt the space to their needs like is expressed in ill.75,76. The position of the bathroom and kitchen have in account the connection to the technical shafts shared with all the other apartments.


152

single and couple apartment conclusion The final plans for the family apartment were a result of this research. A er the conclusion of the final family apartment plans the single apartments were finished having the family ones as guide and constraint element, since they have to follow the same rules of organiza on, share technical sha s and match dimensions so that they could be combined together. Furthermore all the conclusions from the family apartmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s research were taken into account and applied to these apartments. Due to the dimensions of the family apartments it was necessary to create two modules to fit the family one. In this way besides the normal single apartment it was created an apartment more suitable for students or couples similar to the single one but with one extra room. ill.77: Final couple apartment plans with diagrammatic annotations. The social areas of the apartment are in the main floor and the private ones in the top one. Sharing the same floor the only separation between the kitchen and living room is a step which divides the social space for this two areas that are open towards both east and west, upstairs the rooms open towards east light and there is the possibility of having working area with west light. The entrace is directly to the social area and to the vertical connection.


design process

ill.78: Final single apartment plans with diagrammatic annotations. The social area and entrance have the same layout and characteristics as the couple apartment. The private area on the top floor, with openings towards both east and west light, have the possibility of different arrangements depending on the users, as illustrated on the 3 top plans presented. As the family apartment, both the single and the couple apartment follow the same rules for the kitchen and bathrooms that are always connected to one of the 2 technical shafts of the building


154

technical aspects During the design process all of the technical aspects has ben tried out with the diďŹ&#x20AC;erent solu ons. At first on the daylight factors has ben tested of every solu on end whenever at sugges an worked in the Ecotect/radiance program then they where tested in PHPP in order to check the energy consumpon. All of the sugges ons have had the same start point in order of construc on elements. According to the design the exterior wall of 50 cm has ben of big influence. The influence of the ven la on systems has mainly been on the windows. That they are able to let in the enough air to prevent from overheating, this combined with som type of solar shading system In the chapter about the technical aspects all these will be showed in more details and even further detailed in the appendix.

Reinforcet concrete 108mm Ven lated gap 20mm Windboard 2mm

%DF 10.0+ 9.0

Insula on hard 95mm

8.0 7.0 6.0

Insula on [5% wood] 160mm

5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0

Insula on 95mm

1.0 0.0

ill.79: Shown in the two illustrations above is excamples of results of daylight in ecotect/radiance and energyconsumption in PHPP.

Plasterboard + PE-foil 26mm ill. 80: Technical detail of an exteriør wall with 50 cm depth. On top horizontal section and to left vertical section


design process

phase 4: building the North-south block A er tes ng and concluding the W-E block apartments in terms of architectural and technical ma ers: func ons organiza on, distribu on, users habits, daylight, indoor climate, demand of energy, ven la on, and others; it was necessary to proof that also the N-S apartments fulfill the demands and had the same quali es as the ones before. As just illustrated before, not only the N-S apartments also fulfill the PHPP requirements but do it even be er. In terms of light condi ons it was not necessary to modify any window since all of the simula ons of daylight has been with an overcast sky similar to the northern light. The main diďŹ&#x20AC;erence between the apartments is the op mal me period of use since these ones are more suitable for users that spend more me at home during the day me hours as students or elderly. It could then also be considered to do some of the N-S apartements in only one plan so it would be more suitable for elderly.

Finally, a er achieving the final plans, the objec ve was to get the best combina on that would synthesize all our goals, in small and big scale, comple ng, in this way, everything started in the previous design phases. The final 3 modules could be combined in 2 main ways and their mul plica ons resulted in diďŹ&#x20AC;erent types of blocks. These had to be chosen to best fulfil, independently, the design criteria of both the North building and the South fingers, including the main type of user for each area and the facade global layout.

C S F

ill.81: diagram illustrating the position of the N-S apartments on the complex and the relation with the day light.

C F

ill.82 combination of the 3 modules (family, single and couple) in the 2 possible ways: family with family or 2 couples plus a single on top of the family ones.


156

combinations Finally, a er achieving the final plans, the objec ve was to get the best combina on that would synthesize all our goals, in small and big scale, comple ng, in this way, everything started in the previous design phases. The final 3 modules could be combined in 2 main ways and their mul plica ons resulted in diďŹ&#x20AC;erent types of blocks. These had to be chosen to best fulfil, independently, the design criteria of both the North building and the South fingers, including the main type of user for each area and the facade global layout.

ill. 83: plans diagram illustrating the two possible combinations, respectively from top to bottom: the family with family and after the couple/single/couple on top of the family ones.


design process

ill.84: organization grid where is possible to identificate the space distribution for each unit. ill.85-87: the 2 possible combination (ill.85: option with single and couples on the top of 4 family units. ill.86,87: option with single and couples in between family combinations, the simetric option is visible in ill.87)

ill.88-91: projection of the modules distribution on the facades. (ill.88,91 facades of the ill.85 option; ill.90,91 facades of the ill.86,87 option)


158

the north

the Fingers

When designing the final combina on for the whole complex, more specifically the N-S part of the building the main concerns were: assuring the high compactness and density; consider the streets connec ons, thus the openings to it; and finally have a higher amount of single/couple apartments to best suit the user group expected.

For the combina on of blocks in the rest of the building, the W-E fingers have the same demands at an energe c level, assuring compactness, high density, and avoid unnecessary holes through the building, but the main concern in this area was having a stepped form on the top to allow a decreasing roof with the right inclina on towards south for placement of solar cells.

ill. 92-94: Different combinations to form the N-S part of the building. ill.92 shows the option of combining only family apartments whereas in ill.93,94 is possible to see options with respectively an increase number of single apartments

ill.95: Final combination of blocks to form the complex. In evidence the top of the fingers shape decreasing in height.


design process Building development roof possibilities

parking

Due to the decreased tops towards south there are 3 main possibili es to install the solar cells: horizontally, on 15 degrees or 30 degrees of sloop. However for the first op on there is not enough area to fulfill the energy demand. So the best solu ons are combina ons of horizontals with 15 or 30 degrees panels. Finally the chosen solu on was a mix of these 3 op ons, in which the 15 degrees panels have the biggest visual impact.

The organiza on of vehicular viability and the parking area inside the site is concentrated under the 2 external fingers, leaving the space between the whole building free for the pedestrian circula on. Furthermore to guarantee a good ven la on of the parking area were designed pla orms of 1m above it, and visible on the ground floor. The car connec on towards the city is made in 2 direct accesses to Jyllandsgade.

ill.96-98: roof inclination options. ill.96: horizontal panels; ill.97: mainly 15 degrees panels; and ill.98: mainly 30 degrees panels.

ill.99: plan of the parking area on the west finger where the ventilation platforms are highlighted. ill.100: plan of the complex with the position of the parking areas.


160

structure

public and ground floor

Due to the combina on of 3 different types of modules the final housing structure disposi on was the result of the assemblage of these 3 shapes. To avoid the presence of pillars inside each module, the organiza on of the structure fit the shortage distance between the external walls of the single/couple apartments. Instead the struture of the underground level follows the same grid of the housing complex, increasing the distance of 7,6m. The different orienta on of the public buildings induced the addi on of a linear structure to a punctual one assuring the its stability. Furthermore, different is also the structure of the main entrance towards the public courtyard where, due to the absence of some columns, it was necessary to design thicker pillars in the access.

The organiza on of the ground floor does not follow the perpendicular grid (N-S) used to design the housing complex, emphasizing in this way the different typology of construc on and func on. Thus, while the over ground level is reserved to the housing typology, keeping its private feature, the ground level is more available to a public use. Therefore the public buildings projected were placed under the blocks, and taking advantage of the above slabs of the dwellings for covering, were created pla orms of 1m height with the func on of ven la ng the parking area bellow, and serving at the same me as recrea onal auxiliary areas to the commercial spaces, like for example an esplanade for a park cafe.

ill.101: plans where is visible the structure strategy respectively from left to right: parking level; one family apartment; and a single apartment.

As explained before the ground floor was kept to public funcons, differen ate it from the building above and to involve all the city to profit from it and its various func ons. In addi on, the area was divided in 2 sectors: a public one, more connected to the city, and so to the main entrance; and a semi-private one more reserved for the inhabitants of the complex. to increase the difference between these 2 courtyards, in a visual way, they were designed like 2 contras ng paths: a heavy one, used like a public square with the presence of the old stream; and a so one used as semi-private area, with more presence of green. Moreover, the direc on of green strips and the stream follow the same grid of the public building that is based in the main direc on that connects the site to the south green areas.


design process

accesses

bike parking

1m high terrace

ubllic public semi-private mi-priva

commercial areas

ill.102: 3d plans showing the 3 types of spaces present in the ground floor

ill.103: diagram illustrating the public level dynamic, having on the left a courtyard with a more public character connected on the right with a more semi-private courtyard.


7

conclusion reflec on

at last

bibliography list of illustra ons


164

conclusion The concept for the project was briefly to create a building complex with differen ated apartments that would contain all of the quali es combined with living in the suburbs. By that meaning it has been a wish to combine these features with the qualies of the city. So that people living in the complex, wether they are a family, singles, couple or elderly, would have the outdoor safe and private environment of the suburbs but s ll within the range of the hustling city. Everything is within reach and there should not be a need for long driving hours to get to job, school, shopping, sports etc. This is a sustainable approach because it eliminates the use of co2 producing cars and safes people for a lot of me. The other sustainable approach is the architectural design. Thereby the geometry of the building, its material and..... has been made following the main aim of design a sustainable building. The complex is designed to fulfil a whole amount of demands, such as compactness, low heat transmi ance, low need of ven la on, use of natural ven la on, use of solar cells between others factors. The building has, in every aspect, been thought as a sustainable building, meaning that whenever something had to be decided, it was first considered the effect it would have for the architectural quali es as well as the consump on of energy. For instance, the orienta on of the building, its shape and the roof inclina on had a significant influence on the sustainable part regarding the installa on of solar cells. The first aim of the project was to involve the whole city to use this forgo en corner in an “interac ve” way: crea ng a “city in

the city”, but in the same me a con nua on of the city itself. Thus the public area was created as an a rac ve magnet, and the private one was designed in a way that followed the same layout of the surrounding area, avoiding the crea on of a “parasi c” and promo ng the con nuity of the urban scheme. Thus the city, the iden ty and the sustainability were the guidelines of the whole project. Thereby the areas created between the building contains different quali es in a mixture between the city and the semi private courtyards of the countryside. It has also been important to consider the history of the site. Both in terms of pollu on from the past, which made it almost impossible to keep any remains from the site and in terms of what have been located there from earlier mes. For example a reflec on of the past can be seen in the grid of the public ground floor. The direcon of the old railways is shown both in the building shape and in the pavements. This direc on was withal chosen because of its good orienta on towards the green areas of Østerådal and considering its possible development in the future. There is also a remnant of the old stream Østerå, which is restored because of the social quali es of bringing water into the heavy city. Many gaps have also been created in ground plan so that the life of the city float through the site and plait together with the inhabitants of the building. The main line of sight is made through the building from the street Ågade, which creates an obvious flow into the area and both the city and building complex will gain from each others quali es.


at last

reflection The re-evalua on and development of the building in the future can be done in several aspects. We will focus on two main subjects: the capacity of transform and join the city and sustainability in the future. The city is a dynamic structure and will therefore keep changing over me. O en, when new buildings are raised, it takes a while for the city to accept and integrate them being even more apparent when a building covers en re areas and try to modify the use of part of the city. This will most definitely be one of the biggest challenges for the complex and one example of it is just next to the site in the Kennedy Arcade. One of the problems with the area in the present is that there are no driving forces on the other site. Crea ng an area with a des na on on the other side could then increase the possibili es of a flow through. Combining this flow with stops would bring the possibility of crea ng a base for an a rac ve area, invi ng even people that do not live on the complex. Se ng condi ons for the city to use the area would start the process of integra ng the complex. When the complex is absorbed by the city and acts as a normal part of it, the most desirable life is created and this life can never be bought or build because it is a result of human behaviour. This therefore highlights the importance of the public floor and the surrounding open areas. Crea ng the public floor, focusing on flows, areas for residence, the oďŹ&#x20AC;ers of the area, between others, is then a whole project in itself however in order to secure the life and atmosphere it is essen al.

As men on before, the focus of the project was the sustainability concern. During many of the technical aspects of sustainability it was shown that it is an ever changing story due to its fast evolu on and change. The demands for energy consump on keep ge ng stricter, the solar cells are ge ng be er and the materials for passive housing are being developed all the me. In the calcula on of the energy consump on of the building it was decided that the building should aim lower that the rules at the moment. This choice was made in order to secure the building in the nearest future. Right now the building is sustainable, but what will happen in 20 years when all the rules are changed and none of todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s limits are valid anymore? Consequently, another focus could be over the possibility of making the complex energy contribu ng, reusable, or in some way changeable. In instance, the modular system used for the apartments was developed for the building, but could this have been turned in an even more sustainable approach? The modular system could, for example, have been combined with a system that improved the compactness and the passive housing ideas, by combining the modular system in a way that could contribute for the venla on. At the end, there are several aspects that could be improved and adapted to the future concerning both of these big areas of reflec on.


166

bibliography Source references are divided into chapters, so the text on the current page is wri en based on the theory found in the source. If something is taken directly from a source, this is in italics. This deals exclusively with the quota ons. 1. Intro s. 3 s. 5 s. 10

Quata on: Global Danish Architecture #3 Main Project Brief, 8th. Sem., Feb 2010 Quta on: Main Project Brief, 8th. Sem., Feb 2010

2. Analysis s. 20-23 www.aalborgkommune.dk s. 28-29 Observed Wind Speed and Direc ons, Denmark 1999, DMI, DRY Spreadsheet s. 36-37 Housing in Denmark, Hans Kristensen, 2007, s. 40 Housing in Denmark, Hans Kristensen, 2007 s. 42-44 [Hybrids III, Residen al mixed-use buildings, a+t 2009] s. 45 h p://www.thehighline.org s. 48 h p://www.co2030.dk/Udsyn/Aarhus%20CO2%20neu tral%20i%202030.aspx s. 52 [h p://www.passivehouse.us] www.passiv.dk www.cepheus.de [www.wikipedia.com] s. 53 h p://www.dietrich.untertrifaller.com/proj ect.php?id=107&type=KULTUR&lang=en s. 55 Lecture: Passive Energy Technology and Energy Simula on_first lesson, second lesson, third lesson, fouth lesson] s. 56-57 Lecture: Passive Energy Technology and Energy Simula on_first lesson, second lesson, third lesson, fouth lesson

s. 58 s. 59

www.urbandesigncompendium.co.uk/greenwichmillenni umvillage, www.union-gmv.co.uk, www.cabe.org. www.inhabitat.com, www.arcspace.com

5. Technical strategy s. 90

h p://www.passivhus.dk/kriterier_for_passivhus boliger.htm DS/CEN/CR 1752, 1. ed. 2001, Ven la on for buildings Design criteria for indoor environment SBi 202, 1. ed. 2002, Naturlig ven la on i erhvervsbygninger Ven la ons Stübi, 17. ed. 2008. Cappellen J. and Jørgensen B., 1999, Heiselberg, P., 2006, Modelling of natural and hybrid ven la on


at last

illustrations Those illustra ons that are not listed here are our own pictures. 2. analysis

ill. 75/76: www.inhabitat.com, www.arcspace.com

ill. 3: h p://geography.about.com/library/blank/blxdenmark.htm ill. 5/6: h p://www.aalborgkommune.dk/om_kommunen/kort-overkommunen/historiske-kort/sider/historiske-kort-over-aalborg.aspx ill. 14: www.googlemaps.dk ill. 24-29: based on DRY-Spreadsheet and Observed Wind Speed and Direc ons, Denmark 1999, DMI ill. 35: C:\Documents and Se ngs\Sanne\Skrivebord\Report17_5_10 Folder\Links\family_drawing.gif ill. 36-39: Residen al preferences, choice of housing, and lifestyle. Ph.D. thesis, Ærø 2002 ill. 42: www.Stevenholl.com ill. 43: h p://www.essen al-architecture.com/IMAGES2/unite-dhabita on-marseille.jpg ill. 54-57: Scanned from a book “Sustainable compact ci es” ill. 59: www.self-catering-breaks.com ill. 60: www.greenroofs.com ill. 61; www.kalleswork.net ill. 62. www.aedesign.files.wordpress.com ill. 63 www.images.travelpod.com ill. 64. www.faircompanies.com ill. 65. based on the lectures ill. 66-68: ://www.dietrich.untertrifaller.com/project. php?id=107&type=KULTUR&lang=en ill. 69: Passive Energy Technology and Energy Simula on_first lesson ill. 70: based on lectures, Passive Energy Technology and Energy Simula on ill. 74: www.urbandesigncompendium.co.uk/greenwichmillenniumvillage, www.union-gmv.co.uk, www.cabe.org.uk

4. Technical strategy ill. 1-4: www.komforthusene.dk

5. Process ill. 1: www.aalborgkommune.dk ill. 17-18: www.flickr.com, book: Le Corbusier, by Paco Asensie, 2004


8

solarcells

ven la on

appendix B-sim

daylight

PHPP


170

appendix I -solar cells

A: Density The overall heated area of the whole complex. B: Efficiency The effiency of the chosen type of solar cells. [High efficiency solarcells - 20%] C: Installed effekt The installed effect of the solar cells given from the area and the type of solarcells. D: Systemfactor The factor of how the solar cells are installed and wether the area is shadowed from one me to another and the quality of the elctricity inverter. [medium system with an average eltricity inverter] E: Orienta on The orienta on of the solarcells is a very important factor. In the scheme on the right side the values for the direc on and orienta on can be seen. The best efficiency is with an orientaon to south in 45o, so for the project the focus has been within a perimeter of that. F: Yearly effect The yearly effect of the solarcells, given as a product of the installed effect, the systemfactor and the orienta on. A erwards this is converted into primary energy with an factor 2,7. [h p://www.dsbo.dk/Home/area1/Leksikon/prim%C3%A6renergi/tabid/480/Default. aspx]

AͲDensity 80% 100% ourfinalarea104%

12000 15000 15600

sqm sqm sqm

20

%

BͲEfficiency high,mono

DͲSystemfactor 0,65

integrated,medium

EͲOrientation south,30degrees south,15degrees south,0degrees

1153 1097 999

kWh/sqm kWh/sqm kWh/sqm

covered 53,2 sqm 43,1 sqm 53,2 sqm 43,1 sqm 77,4 sqm 35,2 sqm

uncovered 41,1 sqm 33,3 sqm 33,3 sqm 43,1 sqm 77,4 sqm 35,2 sqm

Horizontalroofareas Sbig Ssmall Foutside Fcomplete accessbig accesssmall

Energi midt, January 2010


appendix The calcula ons are done with three scenarios. One with all of them in horisontal, one with 15o and horizontal and the last one with 30o and horizontal. The area are then also calculated in two different ways. One called covered where the area is covering the outdoor areas of the apartements below and one where they only cover the top of the building and therefore are not visible from the ground. In the final one is chosen a combina on of covered in the familys to keep the expression as the others and undcovered in the single ones. Then there one sec on with 30o in order to get it all to fit. FINAL SolarCellarea 15degrees 30degrees Horizontal Shopefull Shopeless Foutside Fcomplete accessbig accesssmall Totalhorizontalarea TotalareaͲsolarcells CͲInstalledeffect Percentageof0 Percentageof15 Percentageof30 YearlyͲsouth,0 YearlyͲsouth,15 YearlyͲsouth,30 FͲYearlyͲtotal PrimaryEnergy 104%Ͳsouth,0+15+30

covered 1422,8 sqm 101,2 sqm 0 0 12 2 3 12 1379,8 3407,4 681,5 55,3 41,8 3,0 244714,5 203119,6 15322,1 463156,3

units units units units units units sqm sqm kWpeak % % % kWh kWh kWh kWh

 80,16 kWh/sqm

uncovered

9 4 0 0 0 0 503,5

units units units units units units sqm

Aonlyhorizontal SolarCellarea Shopefull Shopeless Foutside Fcomplete accessbig accesssmall TotalareaͲsolarcells CͲInstalledeffect FͲYearlyͲsouth,0 PrimaryEnergy 104%Ͳsouth,0 B15andhorizontal SolarCellarea 15degrees Horizontal Shopefull Shopeless Foutside Fcomplete accessbig accesssmall Totalhorizontalarea TotalareaͲsolarcells CͲInstalledeffect Percentageof15 Percentageof0 YearlyͲsouth,15 YearlyͲsouth,0 FͲYearlyͲtotal PrimaryEnergy 104%Ͳsouth,15+0

covered 18 10 20 10 3 15 3645,84 729,2 473485,2

units units units units units sqm kWpeak kWh

uncovered 18 10 20 10 3 15 2930,84 586,2 380628,2

units units units units units units sqm kWpeak kWh

 81,95 kWh/sqm

covered 1819,0 sqm 9 4 13 2 0 13 1887,6 3706,6 741,3 49,1 50,9 259538,9 245017,8 504556,7

units units units units units units sqm sqm kWpeak % % kWh kWh kWh

65,88 kWh/sqm

uncovered 1405,6 sqm 9 4 13 2 0 13 1480,0 2885,6 577,1 48,7 51,3 200406,6 192246,9 392653,5

units units units units units units sqm sqm kWpeak % % kWh kWh kWh

 87,33 kWh/sqm

67,96 kWh/sqm

C30andhorizontal SolarCellarea 30degrees Horizontal Shopefull Shopeless Foutside Fcomplete accessbig accesssmall Totalhorizontalarea TotalareaͲsolarcells CͲInstalledeffect Percentageof30 Percentageof0 YearlyͲsouth,30 YearlyͲsouth,0 FͲYearlyͲtotal PrimaryEnergy 104%Ͳsouth,30+0

covered 1203,8 sqm 15 7 16 2 0 14 2531,3 3735,2 747,0 32,2 67,8 180275,9 328887,8 509163,7

units units units units units units sqm kWpeak % % kWh kWh kWh

uncovered 930,2 sqm 15 7 16 2 0 14 1961,9 2892,1 578,4 32,2 67,8 139586,0 254654,8 394240,8

units units units units units units sqm kWpeak % % kWh kWh kWh

 88,12 kWh/sqm

68,23 kWh/sqm


172

appendix II -ventilation

Thermal indoor climate a) Users ac vity level: b) Clothing isolans:

cat. B

70W/m2 1,2 met 0,5 clo 0,08m C/W 0,7 clo 0,11m C/W 25 oC 23 oC < 10% + - 2oC < 20%

cat. B < 5%

< 3 oC

cat. B < 10%

19 - 29 oC

cat. B varmt lo kold væg koldt lu varm væg

< 5% <5 oC <10 oC <14 oC <23 oC

summer

2o

winter

2o

c) Opera ve temperature: d) Max PPD:

summer winter cat. B permissible varia on

e) Unsa sfied because of row DR: f) Unsa sfied because of ver cal air temperature difference: g) Unsa sfied because of hot or cold floor: h) Unsa sfied because of radia on assymetri:


appendix


174

appendix III - natural ventilation

In the summer me the mechanical ven la on is disabled an the buildning has to be able to maintain the needed airchange by thermal buoyancy or windpressure. In the spreedsheet below is listed a lot of factors according to the geometry of the building, the weather condi ons and wishes for the indoor climate.

aim for the natural ven la on calcula on that AFR is able to produce this air change. Furthermore the massebalance of both thermal buoyancy and windpressure has to be 0 in order to have reached the goal. The AFR is in both cases way over the limit and the masse is balanced in zero. All the needed factors and calcula ons for the natural ven la on can be seen on the following pages.

From the spredsheet 24 hour average there has ben calculated a needed airchange of 2,6 h-1 or 0,103 m3/s. This is then the Pressure Coefficient Windward 0,2 Leeward -0,25 roof -0,5 Location of neutral plan, H Outdoor temperature Zone temperature Discharge coefficient Air density

1. floor 1. floor 2. floor 2.floor Roof

Windfactor Vmeteo Vref 12,0 21 25 0,65 1,25

0,62 6,6 m/s 4,092 m/s

m C C

Pwind Pmin Pmax

Buildingvol. Volume

10,5 pa -5,2 pa 2,1 pa

232,065 m3 m3/section/floor

Internal pressure,

pa

1,15

1,15

kg/m3

Area m2

Eff. Area m2

Height m

Thermal Buoyancy AFR (thermal) pa m3/s

Pres Coefficient

Wind pressure pa

AFR Wind) m3/s

Wind pressure pa

AFR total m3/s

1,5 1,5 1,5 0

0,375 0,375 0,375 0,000

11,4 11,4 14,4 0

0,099 0,099 -0,395 1,977

0,15 0,15 -0,30 0,00

0,2 0,2 -0,25 0

0,943 0,943 -3,766 -1,150

0,461 0,461 -0,921 0,000

0,943 0,943 -3,766 -1,150

0,484 0,484 -0,968 0,000

0

0,000

0

1,977 Massebalance

0,00 0,00

0

-1,150 Massebalance

0,00 0,00

-1,150

0,000 0,00


appendix

Results Project: Family Choosen month:

ti July

tu =

Bt t u  ÂŚ Br t r  BL t L  )i  )s Bt  ÂŚ Br  BL

21 qC

If the ventlation air has same temperature as outdoor air 24-hour average ti = 25,0 qC 'ti = Temperature variation 3,8 qC Max. Temperature timax = 26,9 qC

't i ')k

t imax  t imin

' )k 1 =

Additional calculations

') k 2

') K B t  ÂŚ B r  B L  B akk

')k 1  ')k 2 2 [() i + )s )max - ) i,min ] 3 't u ( B u , vin  B L )

If the ventilation air has the same temperature as the outdoor 24-hour average temperature 24-hour average ti = 25,0 qC 'ti = Temperature variation 1,9 qC Max. Temperature timax = 25,9 qC

C l l ti where Calculation h the th ventilation til ti air i has h a constant t t inlet i l t temperature t t which hi h is i 't = If the ventilation air has a constant temperature of 19 °C 24-hour average ti = 23,5 qC 'ti = Temperature variation 1,9 qC Max. Temperature timax = 24,5 qC

than the th outdoor td 24-hour 24 h average temperature t t 2 qC llower th

24 hour Average With 24 hour average the worst case of hea ng is cheked. This is in july where the average outdoor temperature is highest. The outcom is an air change that the natural ven la on needs to be able to provide with thermal boyancy or windpressure according to the weather. Area: Volume:

meassured i AutoCad 52,75 m2*2,7m =

Average indoor temp.: Infiltra on: max. 0,6 h-1 Air change:

= = =

= 52,75 m2 142,425 m3 25 oC = 0,1 h-1 -1 2,6 h 0,103 m3/s


176

appendix III - natural ventilation Natural Ventilation spreedsheet Pressure Coefficient windward: leeward: roof: windfactor: vmeteo:

Cp1 Cp2

(6,9+6,3)m/s /2

outdoor temp.: zone temp.:

= = =

0,2 -0,25 -0,5

= =

0,62 6,6 m/s

= =

21 oC 25 oC

= =

0,65 1,25 kg/m3

SBi 202, 2002, 1. ed., Naturlig ven la on i erhvervsbygninger, s. 110

discharge coefficient: normal 0,6-0,7 round edges -> 1,0: Cd

air density:

Jensen, H. T., 2005, DTU -Naturlig Ven la on, s. 18 DS/CR 1752, 2001, 1. ed., Ven la on i bygninger

Jensen, H. T., 2005, DTU -Naturlig Ven la on,

Cappelen, J. og Jørgensen, B., DMI, 1999, Observed windspeed and direc on in Denmark, s. 23


appendix Neutral Plan Apartement located in the middle of the building block, with three floors underneath. All windows open inclined inwards with 15 cm. In the kitchen two windows are open and i the staircase one window is open. H1 : H2 : Cd :

3m*3+2,4m 3m*4+2,4m Cd1 = Cd2 ; Cv * Ck 0,98*0,7 ρi = ρu

= = = = = (1m*0,15m)+(1,5m*0,15m) = 2(0,375m2) = 1(0,375m2) =

ρ: A: A1: A2: Ho =

Heiselberg, P., 2006, Modelling of Natural an Hybrid Ven la on, s. 35

11,4 m 14,4 m 0,686 1,25 kg/m3 0,375 m2 0,750 m2 0,375 m2

(0,750m2)2 * 11,4m + (0,375m2)2 * 14,4m (0,750m2)2 + (0,375m2)2 6,4125m3 + 2,025m3 0,703125m4 = 12m

Internal pressure: ρ: ρi = ρu vref : 0,62*6,6 m/s Cp1 Cp2

= = = =

1,25 kg/m3 4,092 m/s 0,2 -0,25

(0,75m2)2 *0,2 + (0,375m2)2 *(-0,25) pi = ½ * 1,25 kg/m * 4,092 /s * (0,75m2)2 + (0,375m2)2 3

0,1125m2 + (-0,0352m2) pi = (2,5575 kg/m * /s) * 0,56m2 + 0,14m2 = 3

Heiselberg, P., 2006, Modelling of Natural an Hybrid Ven la on, s. 35

2m

m

1,15 Pa


178

appendix IV - Daylight In the following is shown the daylight results of the three apartments. The daylight is simulated trough Ecotoct with a rendering programme called Radiance. Radiance render with more factors than Ecotect and is therefore more reliable. In all the

illustra ons are shown that the minimum of 2 % of daylight in the rooms. There is only zones in the bathroom and under the stairs where the daylight is not quite enough. This is considered acceptable.


appendix

%DF 10.00+ 9.10 8.20 7.30 6.40 5.50 4.60 3.70 2.80 1.90 1.00


180

appendix V - PHPP

In the spreadsheet PHPP are done several values of the building here is shown the u values of the building elements and the values of the windows. On the CD a ached are the whole spreadsheet with all the results.

Passive House Planning REDUCTION Building:

Block of 6 family and 5 single EastWest

Annual Heat Demand:

SOLAR 16

RADIATION,

WINDOW

82,5

Window Area Orientation

Global Radiation (Cardinal Points)

Shading

Dirt

NonPerpendicular Incident Radiation

maximum:

kWh/(m²a)

0,75

0,95

0,85

75 192 407 193 264

0,33 0,63 0,75 0,37 0 75 0,75

0,95

0,85

0,95

0,85

0,95

0,85

0,95

0,85

North East South West H i Horizontal t l

09 0,95

0,85 08

Glazing Fraction

0,762 0,757 0,000 0,760 0 000 0,000

Total or Average Value for All Windows.

Window Rough Openings Description

f,1 f,2 f,3 f,4 f,5 f,6 f,7 f,8 f,9 f,10 f,11 f,12 s,1 s,2 s,3 s,4 s,5 s,6 s,7 s,8 s,9 s,10

g-Value

West West North North West West West East East East East West West West East East East West West West West East

1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 0,500 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 0,500 1,000 1,000

2,100 0,300 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,500

Wall, West

6 6

Window f,13 Window f,14

270 90

90 90

West East

1,000 1,000

kWh/(m2a)

kWh/a

kWh/a

75 192 407 193 264

1073 7441 0 7193 0

126 4079 0 2431 0

15707

6636

190,6

90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90

1,000

m2

0,76

270 270 0 0 270 270 270 90 90 90 90 270 270 270 90 90 90 270 270 270 270 90

West

W/(m2K)

251,25

Glazing

g-Value

U-Value

Window Frame Dimensions

<-Value

Installation

Results

<Spacer

<Installation

Window Area

Glazing Area

U-Value Window

W/(mK)

W/(mK)

m2

m2

W/(m2K)

Glazed Fraction per Window %

0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

0,038 0,038 0,038 0,038 0,038 0,038 0,038 0,038 0,038 0,038 0,038 0,038 0,038 0,038 0,038 0,038 0,038 0,038 0,038 0,038 0,038 0,038

0,040 0,040 0,040 0,040 0,040 0,040 0,040 0,040 0,040 0,040 0,040 0,040 0,040 0,040 0,040 0,040 0,040 0,040 0,040 0,040 0,040 0,040

12,6 1,8 9,0 9,0 9,0 9,0 9,0 9,0 9,0 36,0 4,5 9,0 7,5 7,5 30,0 12,0 4,5 6,0 6,0 3,8 3,0 3,0

9,91 0,75 6,86 6,86 6,86 6,86 6,86 6,86 6,86 27,43 2,81 6,86 5,72 5,72 22,86 9,14 3,43 4,57 4,57 2,35 2,29 2,29

0,73 1,07 0,74 0,70 0,70 0,70 0,74 0,74 0,70 0,78 0,95 0,74 0,74 0,74 0,78 0,74 0,74 0,74 0,74 0,95 0,78 0,78

0,79 0,42 0,76 0,76 0,76 0,76 0,76 0,76 0,76 0,76 0,63 0,76 0,76 0,76 0,76 0,76 0,76 0,76 0,76 0,63 0,76 0,76

2

iPlus 3 CE - INTERPA

2

RAICO - THERM+ 76

2

Wall, North

4

iPlus 3 CE - INTERPA

2

RAICO - THERM+ 76

2

Wall, North

4

iPlus 3 CE - INTERPA

2

RAICO - THERM+ 76

2

Wall, West

2

iPlus 3 CE - INTERPA

2

RAICO - THERM+ 76

2

Wall, West

2

iPlus 3 CE - INTERPA

2

RAICO - THERM+ 76

2

Wall, West

2

iPlus 3 CE - INTERPA

2

RAICO - THERM+ 76

2

Wall, East

1

iPlus 3 CE - INTERPA

2

RAICO - THERM+ 76

2

Wall, East

1

iPlus 3 CE - INTERPA

2

RAICO - THERM+ 76

2

Wall, East

1

iPlus 3 CE - INTERPA

2

RAICO - THERM+ 76

2

Wall, East

1

iPlus 3 CE - INTERPA

2

RAICO - THERM+ 76

2

Wall, West

2

iPlus 3 CE - INTERPA

2

RAICO - THERM+ 76

2

Wall, 1,500 West

2

iPlus 3 CE - INTERPA

2

RAICO - THERM+ 76

2

Wall, West

2

iPlus 3 CE - INTERPA

2

RAICO - THERM+ 76

2

Wall, East

1

iPlus 3 CE - INTERPA

2

RAICO - THERM+ 76

2

Wall, East

1

iPlus 3 CE - INTERPA

2

RAICO - THERM+ 76

2

Wall, East

1

iPlus 3 CE - INTERPA

2

RAICO - THERM+ 76

2

Wall, West

2

iPlus 3 CE - INTERPA 2

RAICO - THERM+ 76

2

Wall, West

2

iPlus 3 CE - INTERPA

2

RAICO - THERM+ 76

2

Wall, West

2

iPlus 3 CE - INTERPA

2

RAICO - THERM+ 76

2

Wall, West

2

iPlus 3 CE - INTERPA

2

RAICO - THERM+ 76

2

Wall, East

1

iPlus 3 CE - INTERPA

2

RAICO - THERM+ 76

2

0,47 0,47 0,47 0,47 0,47 0,47 0,47 0,47 0,47 0,47 0,47 0,47 0,47 0,47 0,47 0,47 0,47 0,47 0,47 0,47 0,47

2,100

Wall, West

2

iPlus 3 CE - INTERPA

2

RAICO - THERM+ 76

2

0,47

0,49

0,69

0,08

0,08

0,08

0,08

1

1

1

1

0,038

0,040

23,1

18,17

0,75

0,79

1,500 1,500

Wall, West

2

iPlus 3 CE - INTERPA

2

RAICO - THERM+ 76

2

Wall, West

2

iPlus 3 CE - INTERPA

2

RAICO - THERM+ 76

2

0,47 0,47

0,49 0,49

0,69 0,69

0,08 0,08

0,08 0,08

0,08 0,08

0,08 0,08

0 0

1 1

1 1

1 1

0,038 0,038

0,040 0,040

9,0 9,0

6,86 6,86

0,74 0,74

0,76 0,76

Nr.

Select glazing from the WinType worksheet Select:

Frame

Select window Perpenfrom the Nr. dicular WinType Radiation worksheet Select: 0,47 RAICO - THERM+ 76 2

Select:

90

Heat Gains Solar Radiation

m2

0,30

m

270

Transmission Losses

0,47

Installed

m

Door

Average Global Radiation

13,7 88,5 0,0 88,3 0,0 0 0

in Area in the Areas worksheet

11

Glazing Area

0,72 0,77 0,00 0,75 0,00 0 00

Height

Window Window Window Window Window Window Window Window Window Window Window Window Window Window Window Window Window Window Window Window Window Window

Window U-Value

18,00 117,00 0,00 116,25 0,00 0 00

Width

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 24 6 6 5 5 20 8 3 4 4 5 2 2

Window Area

0,20 0,39 0,00 0,23 0,00 0 00

Degrees

Orientation

Reduction Factor for Solar Radiation

0,47 0,47 0,00 0,47 0,00 0 00

Angle of Inclination from the Horizontal Degrees

Deviation from North

U-VALUE

Heating Degree Hours:

kWh/(m²a)

DK - København

Climate:

Quantity

FACTOR

2

iPlus 3 CE - INTERPA

Wall, West

2

Nr.

Glazing

Frames

Width Left

Width Right

Width Below

Width Above

Left 1/0

Right 1/0

Sill 1/0

W/(m2K)

W/(m2K)

m

m

m

m

0,49 0,49 0,49 0,49 0,49 0,49 0,49 0,49 0,49 0,49 0,49 0,49 0,49 0,49 0,49 0,49 0,49 0,49 0,49 0,49 0,49 0,49

0,69 0,69 0,69 0,69 0,69 0,69 0,69 0,69 0,69 0,69 0,69 0,69 0,69 0,69 0,69 0,69 0,69 0,69 0,69 0,69 0,69 0,69

0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08

0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08

0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08

0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08 0,08

1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1

1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1

1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Head 1/0


appendix

appendix VI - Bsim

A bunch of informa on has been entered in B-sim, but the focus here will only be on the ones that are changeable in order to op mize the indoor environment. In previous pages many of the factors for the indoor environment has ben handled and calculated. Beneath is a list of the faktors arranged in the groups as B-sim uses them. PeopleLoad:

number of people 4 (2 adults, 2 children) heat genera on 0,118 kW/person (1,2 met) moisture genera on 0,06 kg/h Time_ all sleeping 67% from 24-06 (0,8 met, 79W/person) all home 100% from 8-9 and 19-23 2 home 50% from 15-18

Equipment:

Refrigeator 0,175 kWh, 24 hours/day, 100% morning from 8-9 150% dinner from 18-19 200% people home from 16-18 and 19-23 150%

Infiltra on:

basic air change 0,1/h (max 0,6/h, PHPP) me all year around general light 0,688kW (8W/m2 x 41,65m2) gen. light level 200lux light type incandescent

Ligh ng:

Ven la on:

supply input/output 0,1 m3/s (24 hour average) pressure rise 200Pa

total effect 0,5 (ven lator size factor; small) VAV max factor 2 ( + - 2 oC in air temp.) min inlet temperature 18oC setp indoor temp 23oC (wanted temp.) me 100% all year minus may to august Ven ng:

basic air change 0,5/h temp factor 0,5 (the window openings) dH 1,5m aefflin 0,1m2 aefflout 0,1m2 epsilon 0,6 (0,5-0,9) TmpPower 0,5 windfactor 0,05 max airchange 5 m/s max wind 0 m/s ven ng ctrl - set point 25oC

Shading:

external curtains (con nous) max Sun 100w/m2 max Wind 10m/s max Temp 25oC

Aims:

limited overhea ng and dra as a result max 100 hours above 25,5 oC max 100 hours with air change above 4 h-1


Zero Energy housing complex  

Zero Energy housing complex in Aalborg, Denmark

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