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From
Trans­disciplinary
to
Undisciplined
Design
Learning:
 Educating
through/to
Disruption
 Flaviano
Celaschi,
Elena
Formia,
Eleonora
Lupo
 Politecnico
di
Milano,
Politecnico
di
Torino
 3rd
International
Forum
of
Design
as
a
Process
 3‐5
November
2011,
Torino



1


Inter­disciplinarity
in
design
teaching:
historical
approaches


2


From
trans­disciplinarity
to
undisciplined
design
teaching:
existing
approaches


3


A
proposal:
disruption
as
undisciplined
attitude
in
education



Hypothesis
 Which
are
the
challenges
of
the
new
learning
in
design?
 Is
it
possible
to
innovate
the
design
teaching
processes
in
order
to
train
 designer
more
and
more
able
to
innovate?
 We
start
from
a
historical
point
of
view…


Educating
through/to
Disruption
|
Celaschi,
Formia,
Lupo
|
4
november
2011




Inter­disciplinarity
in
design
teaching:
historical
approaches

 The
history
of
design
courses
and
schools,
and
of
related
approaches,
 demonstrates
how
design
occupied
the
middle
of
an
“ideal”
convergence
of
 knowledge,
following
a
process
of
study
and
assimilation
of
interpretative
 models,
theoretical
and
methodological
apparatus,
research
tools.



Educating
through/to
Disruption
|
Celaschi,
Formia,
Lupo
|
4
november
2011



1



Inter­disciplinarity
in
design
teaching:
historical
approaches

 The
literature
about
this
topic
agrees
in
deIining
a
dualism:
 The
tradition
of
the
Arts
&
 Crafts,
which
dates
back
to
the
 critic
to
the
industrialisation
 emerged
in
the
XIX
Century,
and
 more
in
general
the
tradition
of
the
 artistic
disciplines
 (i.e.
creative
art
and
applied
art)


The
research
for
the
 legitimisation
of
design
as
a
 science
(i.e.
which
produces
 products
and
technic
contents),
 which
emerged
in
a
relevant
 manner
from
the
half
of
XX
 Century


We
can
also
read
this
conIlict
as
a
double
line
of
approaches
to
design
 teaching:
 The
cultivation
of
the
“artistic”
 dimension
of
the
designer
(the
 creativity
of
the
subject)
 subjectivity


The
research
for
innovative
 methods
for
designing
(the
 creativity
of
the
processes)


<<
 >>
 objectivity


Educating
through/to
Disruption
|
Celaschi,
Formia,
Lupo
|
4
november
2011



1



Inter­disciplinarity
in
design
teaching:
historical
approaches

 The
pioneer
contests
in
which
design
education
was
born
show
this
 ambivalent
nature,
both
inside
the
evolution
of
the
basic
courses
developed
 during
their
life,
both
in
a
general
overview
of
the
historical
continuity
of
the
 experiences.
 subjectivity
 objectivity
 


<< >>


The
Bauhaus
School
(1919­1933) 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Educating
through/to
Disruption
|
Celaschi,
Formia,
Lupo
|
4
november
2011




the
Hochschule
fur
Gestaltung
 
of
Ulm
(1953­1968)


1



Inter­disciplinarity
in
design
teaching:
historical
approaches

 Archetype
of
Design
Curriculum
(A.
Findeli,
Rethinking
Design
Education
for
 the
21st
Century:
Theoretical,
Methodological,
and
Ethical
Discussion,
“Design
 Issues”,
v.
17,
n.
1,
2001)
 A
New
World
 Bauhaus
 A
 T
 Gropius
 1919‐1928
 S
 Weimar‐Dessau
 Art


Science
 A


S
 T


Technology
 S


T
 A


Purpose/Project
 Educating
through/to
Disruption
|
Celaschi,
Formia,
Lupo
|
4
november
2011



A
New
“Man”
 New
Bauhaus
 Moholy‐Nagy
 1937‐1955
 Chicago
 A
New
Culture
 UfG
 Maldonado,
Aicher,
 Ohl,
Rittel,
etc. 1958‐1968
 Ulm


1



Inter­disciplinarity
in
design
teaching:
historical
approaches

 A
practical
exempliVication:
the
Italian
case
 When
in
the
half
of
XX
Century
the
debates
on
the
need
of
industrial
design
 inside
universities
disciplines
emerged
(La
memoria
e
il
futuro.
I
Congresso
 Internazionale
dell’Industrial
Design.
Triennale
di
Milano
1954),
the
country
 counts
of
an
empirical
inheritance:
 subjectivity


<<
 >>
objectivity


The
schools
of
Art
(academies
of
 art,
schools
of
applied
arts
and
arts
 and
crafts)


Educating
through/to
Disruption
|
Celaschi,
Formia,
Lupo
|
4
november
2011



The
schools
of
Engineering,
in
 particular
the
two
Polytechnics
 (Torino
and
Milano)


1



Inter­disciplinarity
in
design
teaching:
historical
approaches

 In
the
meantime,
other
initiatives
demonstrate
the
increasing
debate
and
the
 need
of
new
training
courses
for
the
designer:
many
others
design
courses
 and
schools
were
founded,
mostly
of
them
were
private.
 subjectivity


<<
 >>


ISIA,
Istituti
Superiori
 Industrie
Artistiche
(1974,
 Roma)
 Industrial
Design
Course
at
 Academia
Ligustica
di
Belle
 Arti
(1970,
Genova)
 Scuola
Politecnica
del
Design
 (Milano,
1970)
 Domus
Academy
 (Milano,
1980)

 Futurarium
 (Milano,
1995)

 Educating
through/to
Disruption
|
Celaschi,
Formia,
Lupo
|
4
november
2011



objectivity
 The
schools
Architecture
 (inside
Polytechnics
or
 independent:
 ‐  Industrial
design
 courses
(1955,
 Firenze;
1958,
Napoli;
 1969.
Torino)
 ‐  Foundation
of
the
Virst
 Design
Faculty,
 Milano
(1995)


1



Transdisciplinary
approach

 M.
Cometa
(Studi
Culturali)
 La
transdisciplinarità
è
la
capacità
di
traghettare
da
 una
disciplina
all’altra
frammenti
di
sapere.
 Dunque
si
tratta
(…)
del
reale
spostamento
di
 metodi
e
soggetti
da
un
ambito
all’altro.
(…)

 Trans‐
richiama
il
carattere
performativo
di
queste
 transizioni.
 John
Marshall
(Perimeters,
Boundaries
and
 Borders)
 A
‘transdisciplinary’
approach
recognises
the
 boundaries
of
the
problem
being
addressed,
not
 the
artiVicial
boundaries
of
disciplines



Educating
through/to
Disruption
|
Celaschi,
Formia,
Lupo
|
4
november
2011



1



from
a
subjective
to
an
objective
educational
approach


1


subjectivity


objectivity


2


Educating
through/to
Disruption
|
Celaschi,
Formia,
Lupo
|
4
november
2011




from
trans­disciplinary
to
undisciplinary/indisciplined
approach
 Trans­disciplinary


1


2
 undisciplined


Educating
through/to
Disruption
|
Celaschi,
Formia,
Lupo
|
4
november
2011




The
blurring
of
design
boundaries
 “We
are
in
a
post­disciplinary
age”
 Rodgers,
Smyth,
Digital
blur.
Creative
practices
at
 the
boundaries
of
architecture,
design,
art,
2010


1


designers
no
longer
Iit
into
orderly
categories
 and
design
is
being
described
as
 multidisciplinary,
cross­disciplinary,
 interdisciplinary
and
trans­disciplinary
 (Brown
et
al.,
2010;
Turnbull
Hocking,
2010)


2


Educating
through/to
Disruption
|
Celaschi,
Formia,
Lupo
|
4
november
2011




The
blurring
of
design
boundaries
 New
designer
hybrids
 Tony
Dunne,
Head
of
Interaction
Design
at
the
RCA,
states:
“New
hybrids
of
 design
are
emerging.
People
don’t
Qit
in
neat
categories;
they’re
a
mixture
of
 artists,
engineers,
designers,
thinkers.
They’re
in
that
fuzzy
space
and
might
be
 Qinding
it
quite
tough,
but
the
results
are
really
exciting.”
(West,
2007)
 Richard
Seymour
(2006)
has
claimed
that
design
is
splitting
into
two
separate
 disciplines.
He
proposed
that
the
world
needs
a
different
breed
of
designer
in
 this
modern,
dynamic
and
highly
competitive
environment
–
the
“hybrid”
 designer:
 ‐ 
the
“polymath
interpolator”
uses
his
or
her
experience
and
“broad
 bandwidth”
to
deIine
the
area
where
the
solution
might
lie
and

 ‐ 
the
“specialist
executor”
then
implements
it
speciIically
within
the
format
 that
is
needed



Educating
through/to
Disruption
|
Celaschi,
Formia,
Lupo
|
4
november
2011



1


2



Inter­multi­trans
actions
 one
day
symposium
with
a
number
of
leading
practitioners
from
the
Iields
of
 art,
architecture
and
design
who
each
share
a
common
desire
to
exploit
their
 creative
practice.



1


2


Educating
through/to
Disruption
|
Celaschi,
Formia,
Lupo
|
4
november
2011




The
blurring
of
design
boundaries
 Implication
in
education
(Rodgers,
2007)
 ‐
Design
students
should
not
attempt
to
develop
deep
expertise
in
any
one
Iield,
 but,
rather,
take
in
information
from
many
sources.
Far
from
being
a
weakness
 this
represents
real
generalist
strength;
 ‐Designing
is
no
longer
a
localised
activity.
Every
individual
designer
and
 design
practice
competes
and
has
access
to
every
level
of
practice
and
expertise;
 ‐
Designers
need
ever
greater
Ilexibility
and
networking
skills;
 ‐
Designers
must
be
comfortable
working
with
others,
and
being
skilled
in
 managing
the
dynamics
of
group
activity
as
it
is
rare
now
for
design
projects
to
 be
completed
by
an
individual;
 ‐
Designing
is
increasingly
about
intellectual
capital
and
less
about
delivering
a
 trade
or
craft
ability;
 ‐
Designers
must
be
skilled
in
creating
the
right
environment
to
promote
 creative
thinking
and
design
activity
that
develops
vital
intellectual
capital;


Educating
through/to
Disruption
|
Celaschi,
Formia,
Lupo
|
4
november
2011



1


2



undisciplinarity
 The
epistemological
shift
towards
undisciplinarity
 (Bauwens,
2009)
 It's
not
"interdisciplinary”,
neither
is
it
transdisciplinary.

 It’s
an
evolution
from
disciplinarity,
to
interdisciplinarity,
via
transdisciplinarity,
 to
undisciplinarity;
forgetting
about
disciplines
altogether
being
a
more
radical
 step
than
merely
‘transcending’
the
disciplines.


1


It's
an
epistemological
shift.


2


Educating
through/to
Disruption
|
Celaschi,
Formia,
Lupo
|
4
november
2011




undisciplinarity
 "undisciplinarity
is
as
much
a
way
of
doing
work
as
it
is
a
departure
from
 ways
of
doing
work.”
 (John
Marshall
&
Julian
Bleecker
in
Digital
blur,
2010)


1


new
knowledge
is
created
rather
than
incremental
contributions
to
a
body
of
 existing
knowledge.

 it
is
a
way
of
working
and
an
approach
to
creating
and
circulating
culture
that
 can
go
its
own
way,
without
worrying
about
working
outside
of
what
histories‐ of‐disciplines
say
is
“proper”
work.
In
other
words,
it
is
“undisciplined”


2
 We
don’t
say
design
as
a
discipline
doesn’t
exist;
neither
we
say
design
has
 no
thematic
speciVicity!


Educating
through/to
Disruption
|
Celaschi,
Formia,
Lupo
|
4
november
2011




Undisciplined!
DRS
2008
Conference
 On
being
Undisciplined
 Alan
Blackwell,
2008
 Crucible
network
for
research
in
interdisciplinary
design
 (Blackwell
&
Good
2008)
 Academic
disciplines
address
well‐formulated
problems,
they
must
agree
on
 what
kind
of
a
problem
they
are
addressing
(i.e.
which
discipline
it
belongs
to),
 that
there
are
agreed
methods
for
addressing
the
problem,
and
agreed
criteria
 for
what
constitutes
an
answer.
All
of
these
attributes
are
at
the
centre
of
 academic
rigour,
and
of
the
intellectual
‘discipline’
that
constitutes
an
academic
 discipline.

 Yet
these
qualities
of
rigour
and
discipline
are
mostly
in
direct
opposition
 to
the
practices
and
values
of
design
 Design
research
Iields
are
ever
likely
to
become
engaged
in
problems
that
defy
 conventional
concepts
of
academic
rigour.


Educating
through/to
Disruption
|
Celaschi,
Formia,
Lupo
|
4
november
2011



1


2



from
a
subjective
to
an
objective
educational
approach


1


subjectivity


objectivity


2


Educating
through/to
Disruption
|
Celaschi,
Formia,
Lupo
|
4
november
2011




from
a
subjective
to
an
objective
educational
approach
 from
trans­disciplinary
to
undisciplined
approach
 Trans­disciplinary


1


subjectivity


objectivity


2


undisciplined


Educating
through/to
Disruption
|
Celaschi,
Formia,
Lupo
|
4
november
2011




From
trans­disciplinarity
to
undisciplined
design
learning:
existing
 approaches

 TRANS­DISCIPLINARITY



Self‐taught
designer


1


Designer
as
mediator


SUBJECTIVITY


OBJECTIVITY


Situationist
designer


Disruptive
designer


UNDISCIPLINED


Educating
through/to
Disruption
|
Celaschi,
Formia,
Lupo
|
4
november
2011



2



a
proposal:
from
undisciplinarity
to
disruptive
 Towards
disruptive
designer
through
undisciplined
education?
 Is
it
possible
to
use
an
undisciplined
design
teaching
processes
in
order
to
 train
designer
more
and
more
able
to
be
disruptive?


1


‐
Can
we
lead
students,
stimulating
an
undisciplined
attitude,
to
become
 disruptive?
 ‐
In
not
innate,
can
a
codiIied
(therefore
transmissible)
undisciplined
attitude
in
 the
design
education
processes
be
induced
in
the
students?
 ‐ Can
we,
disrupting
the
teaching
process
itself,
educate
students
to
be
 disruptive?



2


‐ Can
we
codify
an
undisciplined
approach?
It’s
not
a
paradox?


Educating
through/to
Disruption
|
Celaschi,
Formia,
Lupo
|
4
november
2011



3



Disruption

 The
concept
of
disruption
is
still
disputed
within
the
design
community:
it
 comes
from
business
(“open
innovation”,
Chesbrough,
2003)
and
technology
 literature
(
from
Christensen,
1997
to
Williams,
2011
)


performance


“An
innovation
that
creates
a
new
market
by
applying
a
different
set
of
 values,
which
ultimately
(and
unexpectedly)
overtakes
an
existing
market”


1


disruptive
innovation

 Sustaining
innovation

 (improvements)


2
 Medium
quality
in���use


time
 Educating
through/to
Disruption
|
Celaschi,
Formia,
Lupo
|
4
november
2011



3



disruption
as
undisciplined
attitude
in
education
 the
paradigm
of
“disruption”
becomes,
at
the
same
time,
content
(how
to
 manage
a
“disruptive”
process)
and
objective
(how
to
obtain
a
“disruptive”
 result)
of
the
didactic
of
design.

 Our
hypothesis:
a
set
of
possible
“triggering
actions”
of
the
educational
 process,
already
experimented
and
borrowed
from
other
design
domains
 (product,
production,
enterprises,
market…)

 under
the
statement
of
“rules
disobeying
or
discharging”:
 ‐ Technical‐functional
rules;
 ‐ Socio‐economical
rules;
 ‐ Aesthetic
rules


Educating
through/to
Disruption
|
Celaschi,
Formia,
Lupo
|
4
november
2011



1


2


3



possible
rules
disobeying
and
discharging
to
be
applied
in
design
learning
 socio­economical


technical­functional



 UNDISCIPLINED
 PROCESS
 how
to
 manage
a
 disruptive
 process


fragment
the
 process
 invert
the
 linearity
of
the
 process
(“start
 with
the
end”)


aesthetic
rules


transgression
of
the
 authoriality
of
the
work
 (design
2.0,
post­ production)


Shape
the
 meaning
to
the
 not
existent
 (Reys,
2011)


design
out
of
context


transgression
of
the
 aesthetic
rules


1


discharg
any
process
 UNDISCIPLINED
 RESULT


transgression
of
 tecniques


how
to
obtain
 a
disruptive
 result


transgression
of
the
 use
of
materials


transgression
of
the
 unicity
of
the
work



2


transgression
of
the
 ergonomic
rules


Educating
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Disruption
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Formia,
Lupo
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4
november
2011



3



possible
rules
disobeying
and
discharging
to
be
applied
in
design
learning
 socio­economical


technical­functional



 UNDISCIPLINED
 PROCESS
 how
to
 manage
a
 disruptive
 process


fragment
the
 process
 invert
the
 linearity
of
the
 process
(“start
 with
the
end”)


transgression
of
the
 authoriality
of
the
work
 (design
2.0,
post­ production)


aesthetic
rules
 Shape
the
 meaning
to
the
 not
existent
 (Reys,
2011)


1


discharg
any
process
 Cadavre
exquis

 Pic.
by
Man
Ray,
Joan
Miró,
Max
Morise
and
Yves
 Tanguy


2


ConSequenze
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x2AFSNaNEwU


Educating
through/to
Disruption
|
Celaschi,
Formia,
Lupo
|
4
november
2011



3



possible
rules
disobeying
and
discharging
to
be
applied
in
design
learning

 socio­economical


technical­functional



 UNDISCIPLINED
 RESULT
 how
to
obtain
 a
disruptive
 result


transgression
of
 tecniques
 transgression
of
the
 use
of
materials


to
design
out
of
context
 transgression
of
the
 unicity
of
the
work



aesthetic
rules
 transgression
of
the
 aesthetic
rules


1


transgression
of
the
 ergonomic
rules


2


Educating
through/to
Disruption
|
Celaschi,
Formia,
Lupo
|
4
november
2011



3



possible
rules
disobeying
and
discharging
to
be
applied
in
design
learning

 socio­economical


technical­functional



 UNDISCIPLINED
 RESULT
 how
to
obtain
 a
disruptive
 result


transgression
of
 tecniques
 transgression
of
the
 use
of
materials


to
design
out
of
context
 transgression
of
the
 unicity
of
the
work



aesthetic
rules
 transgression
of
the
 aesthetic
rules


1


transgression
of
the
 ergonomic
rules


Final
Synthesis
design
studio
 in
Product
design


2


Against
gravity
rules


Against
perfection
rules
 Educating
through/to
Disruption
|
Celaschi,
Formia,
Lupo
|
4
november
2011



3



conclusions
 “Triggering
actions”
for
dusrupting
the
learning
design
process
 Providing
a
set
of
“undisciplined
rules
disobeying”
that
can
trigger
the
 disruption
of
the
learning
process,
in
order
to
educate
more
disruptive
 designers


1


2


Educating
through/to
Disruption
|
Celaschi,
Formia,
Lupo
|
4
november
2011



3



conclusions
 “Triggering
actions”
for
dusrupting
the
learning
design
process
 Providing
a
set
of
“undisciplined
rules
disobeying”
that
can
trigger
the
 disruption
of
the
learning
process,
in
order
to
educate
more
disruptive
 designers…



1


In
fact:
putting
in
question
the
rules
of
designing,
while
doing
and
teaching
 design.


2


Educating
through/to
Disruption
|
Celaschi,
Formia,
Lupo
|
4
november
2011



3



“Personally,
I
am
less
concerned
about
how
we,
 as
individual
faculty
member,
will
fare
in
the
future
 than
in
how
we
will
prepare
a
new
generation
of
students
 who
will
understand
the
legacy
of
design
 and
rise
to
the
challenge
of
the
new
learning”
 Richard
Buchanan,
1999


Thanks
 Flaviano
Celaschi,
Elena
Formia,
Eleonora
Lupo
 Politecnico
di
Milano,
Politecnico
di
Torino
 3rd
International
Forum
of
Design
as
a
Process
 3‐5
November
2011,
Torino



Educating through/to disruption