Online Learning Pack Methods, Techniques and Designs for creating effective e-learning material Dominic Gore, Saima Akhtar
Preface So you have decided to move towards the online/blended learning path for your teaching and learning, but are unsure as to where to start. Well this pack has been devised in order to give you a guided step on the elearning ladder, and help prepare you for your journey into computer mediated teaching. Whilst it is important for you to focus on specific areas of e-learning, we highly recommend that you read and familiarise yourself with the entire contents of this pack (both sections), to give yourself a clear understanding of what to expect when planning and developing material for your online or blended learning course. Section A will only need to be read once (but continue to familiarise yourself with all aspects in this section), whereas in Section B, you should follow the guidance carefully and apply the advice given throughout your planning and development process. This pack will play a key role in helping you fully apply your own tacit knowledge in your field of study, and help you understand how it can be delivered to students learning online and at a distance. Happy Reading!
Section A - Material for Subject Matter Expert Guidance for Considering Online Learning Development Page 1 A Planning Guide for Subject Matter Experts
Copyright - A Lecturers View
Section B - Material for Instructional Designer Principles and Practices of Effective Online Design - An Instructional Designers Guide Page 22 Blended and Online Learning Development Process
Online Development Quality Checklist for Instructional Designers Page 34 Re-usable Learning Objects Page 36 Blackboard design specification Page 38 Appendix (A - I) E-learning Tools in UCB Online - A Expectations of an Online Learner - B Data Flow diagram of online/blended design process - C Glossary of Terms - D Storyboard Template - E Storyboard Template 2 and Example Final Learning Object Design - F Learning Object Repository Information - G Flow Diagram of Recording Lectures - H Copyright Model Consent Form - I
Section A - Material for Subject Matter Expert
“When designing an online course, teachers should employ a variety of techniques and active learning experiences for students.” Burd and Buchanan, (2004, p5) At UCB we are able to make use of a variety of methods and techniques using the existing tools available within UCB Online (see Appendix A) and also some of the more creative software used by the e-learning team to produce interactive and engaging learning materials (login to UCB Online, click the Help tab and select the link ‘Showcase of Good Practice in e-Learning’ and then visit the ‘Good Practice’ section to view examples of interactive and engaging material produced using the creative software). In order to get us thinking about how online tools and technologies can help us in teaching and learning, the Seven Principles of Good Practice in Undergraduate Education (first published in 1987) is a good place to begin because it focuses on the types of teaching and learning activities that are most likely to improve learning outcomes. A further publication of this article was written in 1996 by Chickering and Ehrmann, entitled ‘Implementing the Seven Principles: Technology as Lever’. It describes some of the most cost-effective and appropriate ways in which to use ICT to advance the Seven Principles. The table below offers some key examples of how UCB Online (a VLE) can be used to support these seven principles. Many more ideas and examples are available online from http://www. tltgroup.org/seven/Library_TOC.htm. Encourage student-staff contact
Encourage co-operation among students
A VLE can help contact between tutors and their students through the communication tools in a VLE. Students can post messages at a time and place convenient for them. For example, tutors can set up a Q&A area in the discussion board (in some VLEs this could be anonymous) which tutors read and respond to on a regular basis. The discussion tools can be used to encourage student co-operation in small or large groups, face-to-face or online. Areas can also be created in a VLE for students to share work. For example, groups of students can have a private area where they develop their group presentation. They may choose to work together face-to-face and then load their work into the VLE for others, including the tutor, to review.
Encourage active learning
Through careful course design, focusing on student activities, you can encourage active learning. For example, before loading materials into the VLE, think about what you want the students to do and how these activities will help fulfil the learning outcomes. For example, if you want them to review a poem from World War 1, you would divide the class into groups and ask them to review the poem from different perspectives: from the reader, the poet, the narrator, the friend. These could all be housed in the VLE with groups commenting on each other’s work. Give prompt feedback The assessment tools including quizzes and the assessment dropbox assist timely feedback. Quizzes can provide a wealth of feedback for students. Not only can they inform students if the answers are correct but they can provide pointers to further study, hints and tips and links to additional readings. Emphasise time on task By using a VLE to link to Library resources and online resources, students can spend time working through activities that you have developed rather than searching through shelves and surfing the web. This means they focus on the task rather than getting the materials for the task. Communicate high expectations As the tutor, you can use a VLE to show what you expect of your students. With agreement from students, you can use examples of previous students’ work to show the level of work that you expect and why. Respect diverse talents and ways of learning The online discussion area can be used to build a community of learners which shows how the diverse talents of its learners can all contribute to everyone’s learning. For example, a distance learning programme in marketing can call upon its students from all over the world to provide examples of how they would market a product. Source: JISC Infokit on ‘Effective use of VLE’s’
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Guidance for considering online learning development
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Key components required for blended and online teaching & learning When thinking about moving from face-to-face delivery to blended and online delivery, it is important to consider the key components that would be required for an online course, module or activity. Four key components are described within this context below. Student One of the greatest advantages of online learning is that of the convenience and flexibility that it offers. Therefore we can assume that this mode of learning would be most attractive to those students that may otherwise be restricted due to geographical location or even because they need to balance their family life with work and study. However this is not to say that the traditional classroom-based learner would not be attracted to or even suitable for online learning. As with any of our students who are taught using the traditional methods, we must be clear about our expectations of online students too. Due to the nature of online learning, learners must take on an active role as they need to be proactive in seeking information and not just expect to receive information. The visual cues that are present in a classroom-based approach will not always, if at all, be available in an online environment and while the lecturers (or facilitators) must fulfil their responsibility in supporting their learners, it is also important for the learner to raise concerns etc. Self discipline and motivation are key attributes of a successful online learner, particularly in an open and distance learning environment. Good written communication skills are an advantage because in the main this will be the primary method of communication, and especially if a significant amount of the teaching and learning activities will rely on text-based communication such as asynchronous discussions and the like. See Appendix B for some further pointers on the characteristics that can be expected of online learners. Staff An experienced member of staff is equally as important in an online environment as within the traditional face-to-face environment. However, the role of the lecturer becomes more the role of a facilitator when learning is transferred to the virtual arena because the responsibility for the learning shifts to the learner. Therefore it would be worthwhile to consider some of the key challenges for an online facilitator. For instance, the learners may never have met with fellow students or even the lecturer, visual cues are often very limited if not completely absent in an online learning environment and it can also be more challenging to keep a track of individual studentsâ€™ progress when learning is taking place at a distance. To become a successful online facilitator it is important to be competent in the use of the online tools and technologies that will be used as well as having a positive attitude for online teaching and learning. One of the key attributes that is mentioned in most literature relating to the role of the online tutor is that of flexibility. Being able to adapt to the online environment and being responsive to student needs is important.
The most common classification of roles for the online tutor have been identified by Berge (2005) as cited in Online Tutoring e-book by Higgison and Cornelius (2001). These are as follows: - Pedagogical role This role is based around the strategies and techniques that may be used to facilitate the educational process. For instance, encouraging interaction and discussion among the learners, providing them with different experiences or activities, giving feedback and fostering deep learning are examples that you may already use in your traditional classroom based environment, but can adapt for use as part of your pedagogical role within the online environment. In doing so, your role as a lecturer will shift from being a distributor of information to that of a facilitator or a guide, helping the learners to discover and understand the material available to them and supporting them to become independent and autonomous learners. Due to the very nature of online/distance learning, this is the type of approach that is required. Dr Gilly Salmon offers a useful model outlining key e-moderating skills. This can be accessed from http://www.atimod.com/e-moderating/5stage.shtml - Social role With little or no face-to-face interaction, it is important to create a friendly and supportive atmosphere in which the learners will feel a sense of belonging and be willing to participate. This is also known as building an online learning community. Taking a leading role and attending to individual needs, encouraging participation by all, monitoring progress, giving feedback and developing group cohesiveness are all important factors that will help to promote a successful online learning experience. - Managerial role This role constitutes organisational, administration and procedural tasks that are associated with the online learning environment such as setting the agenda, objectives, procedures and rules of the educational activities. Managing interaction with strong leadership and direction, managing discussions by setting clear expectations and rules of use, co-ordinating assignments and providing structured content and timetables to clearly set out the expectations are examples of the types of activities that are involved in the managerial role.
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Most of the examples above are already in use at UCB and can be further developed in moving towards blended and online forms of learning.
- Technical role It is important to make the learners feel comfortable with the technology that they will be using so that it is not seen to be an obstacle in their learning as otherwise they will easily become dissatisfied. The ultimate goal in this role is to make the technology transparent. Allowing time for the students to become familiar with the technology and software and addressing their technical problems or referring them to technical support can all help to promote a successful learning experience as this will allow the learners to focus on the content and not the technology. The table below outlines further roles that have been identified as an expansion to the four roles outlined above which remain as the most widely used. OTIS Discussion group 2000
Harasim, Hiltz, Telles and Turoff 1997
Collins and Berge 1997
Information giving and recieving Development Knowledge construction
Access and motivation
Assessor Adviser/counsellor Tutor
When considering the learning strategies that are best suited to online learning, it would be worthwhile to bear in mind the collaborative nature of online learning. Therefore based on the specific needs of the online or blended learning activity, the amount of emphasis that would need to be made on collaboration may be an important consideration in order to encourage a deeper learning experience. Technology Due to the fast-paced developments in technology, more and more new tools and technologies are being made available, often providing various useful features for online learning and are free to use as long as you have access to the Internet. However tempting it may be to use the latest technologies available, we must not let such developments drive our developments for online learning if we wish to provide a successful learning experience for our learners. Therefore it is essential that the most appropriate tools and technologies are selected based upon the needs and objectives of the online programme or module. Some of the key points to consider when selecting the appropriate tools or technologies include ease of use, if it is fit for purpose and how well it supports the learning process without becoming an obstacle e.g the more transparent the better. For this reason, it may be worthwhile to consider a pre-course activity that will allow the learners to become familiar with the technology that they will use and also help to address any initial problems or issues they may encounter. Another vital consideration is learnersâ€™ access to the required technologies. For example what are the minimum hardware and software requirements for all learners to be able to participate, what do they have access to in their location of learning and whether the technology is reliable, accessible and affordable. After addressing all of these factors, technical support must also be in place so that the learners know who they can contact when the technology becomes a cause for their learning to be disrupted. A minimum hardware and software specification can be provided by the e-learning team but the point here is to be mindful of the developments that are intended which can impact on the learnersâ€™ ability to participate if they do not have access to the necessary tools and resources. For example, one consideration may be based around the use of audio or video content for which it would be necessary for the learner to have a speaker or headphones .
Mentor Source: Online Tutoring e-Book (2000) Curriculum The development of an online programme or module should follow the same process of approval as any other programme or module that is to be taught using the conventional classroom based setting. The curriculum should be appropriate for online delivery and the reasons for adopting such a method should be explicit to students in their understanding of how they will benefit from learning in this medium. For example, the reason may be due to geographical location, but other reasons would be for the specific benefits of a particular learning experience that online learning offers.
Now that we have considered the role of the key components required for online teaching and learning, and have some understanding of the ways in which online tools and technologies can help to improve learning outcomes, the following questions must be addressed when planning for a blended or online learning experience.
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The choice of software, tools or technologies should be determined by the curriculum otherwise we may run the risk of encouraging only surface level learning.
The answers to these questions should help to determine a successful implementation and guide thinking about the appropriate use of ICT 1.
Focus on the Context of Learning:
Who are the learners (age, experience of learning independently etc.?)
• What is the most appropriate location for these learners to engage in independent learning activities (home, work, other)? •
What kinds of technologies are available in those locations?
What level of technological expertise do the learners have?
• What level of learner support is available in their location of learning and from the institution? 2.
Focus on Information Technology:
Is this technology available and accessible for this group of learners?
What is the cost of this technology to the learner?
Does this technology support the most suitable learning design for this content?
What kinds of interaction are possible with this technology?
What level of support does this technology require?
Before you make the decision to provide blended, online or distance modes of learning, the most important question that you must ask yourself is why you are undertaking this activity. What issues are you trying to solve? How might technology help you to solve these issues? It is always good to get in the mindset of thinking about an area or aspect of your module or course that is proving difficult if there are issues with knowledge, retention in class, poor results and which could benefit from the use of technology in either a blended, online or distance mode of learning. Once this has been identified, it is then a good idea to write down any ideas you might have that could solve these issues and bring this to the attention of the Instructional Designer when you meet with him/her during your first meeting. Once the area of the module or course that requires attention has been identified, it is then good to review the tools that are available within UCB Online (Appendix A) and discuss with the Instructional Designer which would be the best tools to facilitate an understanding of concepts or development of skills etc for the area in question so that the intended learning outcomes can be successfully met. Once these have been discussed and agreed, only then can the real work start to take place with the structure, design and development of the new learning material. At this stage the Instructional Designer will put you in the direction of relevant case studies to help you to conceptualise some of the ideas that are discussed.
Focus on Teaching/Learning design
This document has been designed in order to give a definitive guide to planning and developing blended or fully online modules. You are required to complete the document by answering successfully the given question criteria below, and then fill out the sections labelled ‘Current Learning Delivery’ and ‘Online Learning Delivery’. Following this, input your targeted learning options and then break down your current weekly delivery model using the tables provided. Use the five – stage plan to help you visualise, design and develop your online/blended modules.
What are the core concepts to be communicated to the learner?
What activities should the learners be asked to do to learn this concept?
How will you know the learners have understood the concept?
1. Q: Can you identify any areas with your current teaching responsibilities that could benefit from an online environment?
• Is this technology a viable option in this context, and does it enable the most appropriate learning strategies to be used for this particular content, and for this group of learners?
• When is it appropriate to find out if learners have understood the concept (by assessment)? •
What feedback will the learners get and from whom/what?
How does the technology add value to this process?
Source: e-Learning Developments and Experiences (2001)
A: Use this question to identify areas such as student retention data, assessment marking, specific syllabus topics that are proving difficult for students and then to communicate with the Instructional Designers to see how they can be resolved in an online environment. 2. Q: Are you competent with the use of tools in UCB Online? A: This question means you are able to navigate, upload, download and communicate through UCB Online. If the answer is no to any of these, then talk to the e-learning team for more information and guidance. 3. Q: Is your target audience competent with the use of the tools in Blackboard? A: ALWAYS REMEMBER TO IDENTIFY YOUR TARGET AUDIENCE! This will stand you in good stead when designing your material. Make sure that you have made explicit, the level of technical and academic skills required from the students before they embark on the course.
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A Planning Guide for Subject Matter Experts
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10. Q: How will you provide support to your students?
A: These students are learning from a distance (i.e. not in a face-to-face environment), therefore it is imperative that you make the learning objectives for each section of the material clear, concise and explicit so the students know what they will be learning and covering.
A: Support should be made explicit from the start of the online course, and how and where the students should communicate for this should be made clear. Tools such as discussion boards, Wimba Pronto/Voice, Wikis and/or Blogs can be used for this purpose. Ask the Instructional Designer for more information on this topic
5. Q: Will the teaching material stimulate and motivate the learners?
11. Q: In what style will you write the assessments to be delivered within the online material?
A: REMEMBER! AS THE STUDENTS ARE NOT IN A CLASSROOM ENVIRONMENT YOUR MATERIAL MUST ENGAGE AND STIMULATE THEM! Breakdown your material into sizable, manageable sections or chunks rather than having continuous notes or handouts. Introduce each section or introduce the material and detail the contents contained in them. This is far more manageable for students to digest and understand, than having pages of notes or PowerPoint Slides. Also have a way of checking that they are engaging and understanding what you have intended for them. 6. Q: Will the material cater for different learning styles and abilities? A: AGAIN, IDENTIFY YOUR TARGET AUDIENCE! Write your material at a level you think the students should be able to understand, too simple and the students won’t engage, too difficult and the same will happen. Look at the UCB Online site ‘Showcase of Good Practice in E-Learning’ to see an example of online work created for managers studying at a distance on the Tourism Operations Management Course. 7. Q: Will the design stimulate response and interaction from the learner? A: Identify an area in the sections of the teaching material, that you feel would benefit from interactive elements and the use of the Articulate and Wimba tools (see showcase of good practice site in UCB Online). Perhaps use the tools to highlight key points in a section, or to replace bulleted lists around a topic area, in ways that will enable the learners to extract relevant meaning. 8. Q: Will feedback be provided to the learner from online discussions, assessments etc? A: Assessments and other forms of communication should be set up in order to benefit both the student and academic staff, so make sure your feedback to the students is in a form that they will understand and which is easy for them to take on board and learn from, NOT JUST SAYING CORRECT OR INCORRECT FOR AN ANSWER! Write, communicate and give feedback in a style as if you are teaching a single student on their own at their home, DON’T LECTURE THEM. Students will engage better when the communication and feedback is of a chattier, one-to-one, personable style. 9. Q: How will you monitor student participation within UCB Online? A: The Performance Dashboard, Statistics Tracking, Adaptive Release Functions and Gradecentre can be used to monitor student participation within UCB Online. It’s a good idea to plan how one or more of these tools could be used to facilitate student participation in UCB Online.
A: When referring to any type of assessment, be it formative or summative, make the question names informative, snappy and unique. For example, the use of names of films, or books or TV programmes can be used NOT JUST QUESTION 1 SECTION A as this will prove difficult for the student to remember if the outcome of the assessment is covered in a topic later on in the course. Having a name they can remember will aid their memory recall and ultimately help their own development. 12. Q: What methods of assessment will you use and can they easily be supported in the online environment? A: Consider how your assessment could be supported by online discussions, personal blogs (for reflection/diary entry-based assessments), Wikis (for collaborative assessments), tests/ quizzes (to check knowledge), written essays (reports for online submission or e-portfolios). UCB Online cannot support Examination-based assessments at present. 13. Q: Will the course materials to be used be free from copyright and permission acceptances? A: When you update or create new material for the online course, make sure that any external images, content, references, web addresses etc are copyright free. THIS IS IMPORTANT IN ANY ONLINE ENVIRONMENT! Always ask the permission from the original source, before using any external material that is not your own. For more information contact the Subject Librarians regarding any copyright issues or refer to ‘Copyright - A lecturer’s view’ document contained within this pack. 14. Q: How should the online content be structured in the teaching material? A: All material will need to be broken down into small chunks of learning. Each chunk of learning should provide an introduction which relates to the Learning Outcomes, learning material and assessment. When writing or updating your teaching material, it’s always good to get into the habit of repeating your instructions carefully but consistently through each section. Refer back to points previously raised at the start of each new section, and always provide a summary at the end of each section. This will help to reinforce knowledge and guidance for the students.
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4. Q: Are the learning objectives clearly stated for the learners?
When structuring and writing your module/course material for online delivery, it is important to break your material down into small manageable learning chunks called ‘Learning Objects’ (see document ‘re-usable learning objects’ for a better understanding’). REMEMBER you are not just re-writing your PowerPoint presentations, you need to get into the mindset of the online learner and ask yourself the question ‘what would I want to know if I was studying online’? The three key areas to always remember when creating your learning objects online are:
Write clearly and concisely: Clear writing is simple, direct and engages the learner right from the beginning. Follow these guidelines for a better understanding on how to structure your content for online delivery:
1. Clearly defined Learning Objectives. These need to be stated in each section of the material
- Keep paragraphs and sections short and concise
2. Teaching material must be designed in a way, so as to meet these objectives
- Give examples and ideas as learners are more likely to read and understand examples rather than reading the standard text
3. Assessment of the learning objectives Before you re-write any of your current learning material, you need to think about these three points and it’s good to set about writing in draft how these areas will be accomplished in each of the sections of your learning objects. Discuss these with your Instructional Designer and talk about the best ways in which to convey the section topics, and how to successfully ensure that the online learner will gain the most out of the course material. See Appendix B to get an understanding of what the learners will engage with and want to know more about. How should you write material for online delivery? Think about writing your content in a way that is both visually and intellectually appealing. It’s all about keeping the learners attention. REMEMBER you are not lecturing or teaching a large class of students, get in the mindset of teaching just one person therefore the style and language of the online content must be in a format that is conducive to this idea. Include humour (with caution!) and informal chat to engage the user and to make the learning experience more personal to them. Follow these simple guidelines: - Write short sentences - Limit paragraphs to 2/3 sentences - Use bulleted or numbered points - Use tables to make complex information easier to understand - Use images, diagrams and illustrations representative of the ideas expressed in the content - Use headings and subheadings to offer learners a set of landmarks - Use white space to separate chunks of information - Provide introductions and summaries for each learning object
- Present the main or essential message/information first (remember each section’s learning objectives!) - Cut out words that are not essential and try to avoid prepositions - Use words and phrases that are familiar to your target audience
5 – Stage Plan for Delivery 1. Module Preparation – Why are you using UCB Online and its tools? In a blended learning environment, how do classroom-based activities and online activities complement each other? How can the learning objectives be achieved online? How do classroom-based activities and online activities differ from each other? 2. Socialisation of the Learner – Introduce students to learning outcomes and objectives of the module/course. Induction of the students to the module and tools. Include a set of introductory exercises to build confidence and start collaboration between the students. Welcome feedback from students and staff for future improvements. 3. Supporting Student Participation – Provide support and guidance throughout to minimise anxiety and build students confidence. Encourage participation between students and peers. Keep modules up-to-date and fresh by adding new and exciting activities, resources, announcements etc. Actively facilitate online discussions between students and respond accordingly. 4. Sustaining Student Participation – Monitor student participation, maintain academic and technical support to the students and give advice if necessary. Provide feedback on group and individual assessment tasks in a timely manner. 5. Evaluation of module/course – Any outstanding online problems need to be resolved in the final stages of delivery. Student feedback on online activities and assessment is critical. Encouraging student reflection and self development is important. Highlight the main learning outcomes of the module/course and share any issues that arose with the students and use for improvement in future deliveries.
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What format should the online learning material take?
Use this section to map out your blended/online module design approach using the boxes provided. Current Learning Delivery: Example ‘Online module - Understanding Finance and IT’ Title: Understanding Finance and IT Learning Objectives: To provide students with the ability to use a variety of paper based information sources relevant to track and present quantitative and qualitative data. To give the students a greater understanding of cost structures and cost systems, and the ability to analyse the role of financial cost structures and ratios in decision making. Learning Activities: • Delivery of 12 weekly lectures and tutorials, which provide outlines of the major theoretical approaches to each week’s topic, with detailed financial costing and analysis examples. • Individual report involving analysis of statistical data and individual self-reflection of data needs • Creation of financial costing and analysis exercise • Assessment is provided in document form and students are required to write or word process their report, and handin via resource centre. Assessment (3 assessments forming 100%): • Preparation of final accounts (25%) – written document handed in via resource centre • Costing and Breakeven Analysis (25%) – written document handed in via resource centre • Graphical analysis of financial data (50%) – Computer based assignment, but printed and handed in via resource centre, including any online work produced (saved on disk) and submitted in the same way.
Online Learning Delivery: Title: Understanding Finance and IT Learning Objectives: To provide students with a variety of interactive IT based information sources, to encourage independent learning and research skills in the area of quantitative and qualitative data analysis. To promote independent discussions and idea exchange using UCB Online, and with the use of interactive tools such as Articulate, provide detailed learning examples in the areas of cost structure, cost systems and ratios in decision making. Learning Activities: • Individual reading and research using reading lists provided in UCB Online and interactive sections • Completion of online sections with understanding being tested by formative assessment pieces completed via UCB Online • Contributions to online discussion forums for support and guidance on section material uploaded to online module site • Assessments are word processed and emailed/uploaded onto UCB Online via ‘Assignment Tool’. Assessment: • Preparation of final accounts (25%) – Written document and uploaded to UCB Online via Assignment Tool for marking and feedback. Marks and feedback given through Gradecentre • Costing and Breakeven Analysis (25%) – Written document and uploaded to UCB Online via Assignment Tool for marking and feedback. Marks and feedback given through Gradecentre • Graphical analysis of financial data (50%) – Computer based assignment and uploaded to online environment through the Assignment Tool. Marks and feedback given through Gradecentre
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Assignment 1 of 4
Detail the role that the online tools will facilitate by targeting specific learning behaviours in your course material: Example module ‘Online module - Understanding Finance and IT’ Targeted Learning Be- Current Completion haviour Mechanism Module information Review of MDS and discusfor reference and sion with module tutor understanding Revision purposes
Communication with course lecturers
Understanding of course material and testing knowledge Awareness of plagiarism detection and avoidance
Online Tool Option Information provided in Module via UCB Online, and Interactive Section Outline
Review of weekly learning Interactive sections in UCB Onmaterial and each assign- line (Articulate learning Matement rials, PowerPoint, Excel Workbooks, Wimba etc.) Staff Profile information via Use of online discussion boards UCB Online, Email and Phone via UCB Online, or Staff Profile Information if given (communication options must be outlined at start of online course!) Assignment coursework sub- Interactive formative assessmission ment pieces throughout learning sections, to test knowledge on specific topic areas Submission of work using Using the PLATO tool in UCB normal UCB policy proce- Online, and submission of asdures signment through ‘Assignment Tool’ in UCB Online.
Assignment 2 of 4
Course Material Plan Structure your course sections detailing the online learning activities: Example module sections ‘Online module - Understanding Finance and IT’ Course Section Section 0
Learning Material Introduction - Introduction to the module and online walkthrough of MDS and Assignments. Review of online learning procedures. Profit and Loss Accounts – Overview of section topic and objectives. Individual study using topic material.
Learning Method Online using VLE. MS Word used to highlight MDS and UCB Online Procedures of use. Online using VLE. MS Word, Excel and Wimba Create to highlight key points within the material.
Assignment 1 – First assignment is made available via UCB Online at the end of section 1. (Weighting = 10%) Balance Sheets – Overview of section topic and objectives. Individual study using topic material. Depreciation – Overview of section topic and objectives. Individual study using the online material and documentation available. Final Accounts - Overview of the section topic and objectives. Each sub-section is created for individual study using online section material. Assignment 2 – Second of the assignments to be made available after section 4 of the online material. (Weighting = 40%) Concepts of Cost – Overview of section topic including objectives. Detailed online material made available for self directed study by the students. Breakeven Analysis – Overview and objectives released at the start of the topic, along with detailed self directed online course material for the student to learn and understand.
Online using VLE. Assignment remit and hand-in instructions are made available to the students online at the end of section 1. Online using VLE. MS Excel, PowerPoint and Wimba Create highlight key points within the material. Online using VLE. Wimba Create and MS Excel provide course materials and information for assignment 2. Online using VLE. MS Office files, Wimba Create and embedded audio files are used to aid in the learning experience of the student. Online using VLE. Assignment remit and hand-in instructions are made available to the students online at the end of section 4. Online using VLE. Online course material available for students to view onscreen or download. Variety of tools and media used to highlight and revise key points in the material. Online using VLE. Online course material available for students to view onscreen or download. Variety of tools and media used to highlight and revise key points in the material.
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Targeted Learning Options
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Assignment 4 of 4
Product Pricing - Overview and objectives released at the start of the topic, along with detailed self directed online course material for the student Excel Spreadsheets – Overview of topic and individual study of the section using the online learning materials. Package Pricing - Overview of topic and individual study of the section using the online learning materials. Forecasting and Planning - Overview and objectives released at the start of the topic, along with detailed self-directed online course material for the student Budgetary Control – Overview of the section including section objectives. Online course material available via VLE, and students undertake the self-directed study Performance Measurements - Overview of the section including section objectives. Online course material available via VLE, and students undertake the self-directed study Assignment 4 – Fourth and final assignment to be made available along with submission information. (Weighting = 10%)
Online using VLE. Online course material available for students to view onscreen or download. Variety of tools and media used to highlight and revise key points in the material. Online using VLE. Section material comprised of MS Office files, Wimba Create Files and audio files to highlight key points to the student. Online using VLE. Section material comprised of MS Office files, Wimba Create Files and audio files to highlight key points to the student. Online using VLE. Online course material available for students to view onscreen or download. Variety of tools and media used to highlight and revise key points in the material. Online using VLE. Course materials available for download by the students using variety of software tools, including MS Office, Wimba Create etc. Audio and other media used to enhance the learning experience. Online using VLE. Course materials available for download by the students using variety of software tools, including MS Office, Wimba Create etc. Audio and other media used to enhance the learning experience. Online using VLE. Assignment remit and hand-in instructions are made available to the students online at the end of section 9.
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It is important to remember that you may not need to stick rigidly to all elements of this document. However you will find that it is a useful guide to aiding in your thinking and will hopefully help you to start planning your delivery of a module in an online environment. The e-Learning team will act as key consultants to assist you in any way, from content creation, and assessment, right through to final evaluation and production. Should you need any further advice on any aspect of this document or online design, please call the e-Learning team on extensions: 631 or 273.
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When designing and creating any new online or blended learning content, it is important to consider the wider aspects and implications of copyright. Copyright of materials on the web is a constantly developing and changing area, and it’s important that advice is given to highlight any potential risks that can occur for developing material inclusive of interactive media content.
When considering any aspect of copyright, it is important to have a good working bank of resources that you can access should you need general guidance on using copyrighted material. One area for consideration surrounds using ‘Creative Commons’ resources for images, video, audio and case studies etc. “Creative Commons is a non-profit corporation dedicated to making it easier for people to share and build upon the work of others, consistent with the rules of copyright” (creativecommons.org (2010) last accessed on 13/08/2010 at http://
Copyright clearance can be a time-consuming and laborious process, and can often lead to the individual lecturer becoming frustrated and confused. However, when using any material from a website, e-book or an image bank online, it is important to request permission to use the item from the original publisher. Often lecturers like to source video clips and articles from areas such as YouTube. This can pose a significant copyright issue, due to the nature of YouTube and the fact that ultimately it is difficult to track the original publisher of the footage. ALWAYS TRY TO REQUEST PERMISSION FOR ANY MATERIAL THAT IS NOT YOUR OWN if you plan on using this in your newly developed online or blended learning material. Areas for consideration Linking to Websites: - Deep linking in websites can be an issue e.g. a lecturer adds a long URL link to his/her material that details an image or diagram rather than directing the user to the main homepage of the site and requesting that the user search for the image in question. IN THE CASE THAT DEEP LINKING IS USED, COPYRIGHT CLEARANCE FOR THE IMAGE MUST BE OBTAINED FROM THE ORIGINAL PUBLISHER Interactive Elements and Images: - If an interaction has been solely developed by the Instructional Designer from material given by the Subject Matter Expert, then this is acceptable and can be added to any material. However, if an image/video/diagram has been sourced from a website directly then the lecturer must check the ‘use conditions’ of the material and if any doubt occurs then copyright clearance should be obtained from the original publisher/author. Sourcing Articles from Books/Journals: - UCB has a licence with The Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd that permits the photocopying, scanning and digital re-use of limited extracts from books, journals, magazines and other print and electronic options (e-books/e-journals). Access the following link to read more>>> or contact your subject librarian. Recording Lectures: - When recording lecturer’s as part of online or blended learning, institutions should think carefully about the implications of copyright and data protection. Although this needs to be addressed by the individual, it affects the institution’s policies and therefore must be considered if recordings of lectures made by an academic are to be provided to students/learners. JISC Legal has provided a detailed document considering all the implications surrounding Lecture Recording. It is important to note also, that any material that is videoed and recorded within the college as part of the individual’s contract to UCB belongs to the college and not the lecturer, and this must be stated prior to any formal recording taking place . Access the following to read more >>> Should you have any issues regarding lecture recording and copyright, please refer to Appendix G which is a detailed flow chart of legal issues with regards to recording lectures.
Look for the Creative Commons Logo when sourcing images, video, audio and other interactive media for your teaching material. If you are required to ask for consent to use material from authors/publishers you should make clear how you will use it. In doing so, you might find the following question bank useful: 1. Would it be OK for me to include a link to [Insert hyperlink here] in a VLE lesson which I am designing just for me and the class I am teaching? 2. Suppose the material I am creating is put into a large database/repository to which other FE and HE lecturers will have access to. Would you have any objections? 3. Would it be OK for me to make modifications/additions to the [Insert Object Here] at [Insert Hyperlink Here] for the VLE lesson? Again this will just be for use by me and my class. 4. Suppose the modified [Insert Object Here] was put into a large database/repository to which other FE and HE lecturers will have access. They many want to include the [Insert Object Here] in their own lessons. Would you have any objections? (Questions taken from online article ‘Copyright Issues – Repurposing Guidelines’, Healthier Nation Project funded by JISC. Last accessed on 13/08/2010 at http://extranet.lauder.ac.uk/x4l/guidelines/copyright.htm)
You can request access through email or by sending a letter (as long as you know the publisher/author’s details), and REMEMBER TO ALWAYS KEEP COPIES OF ANY CONVERSATION YOU HAVE. (NB: Copies of any correspondence of this nature needs to be recorded by the e-learning team!) With regards to video production and lecture recording, copyright consent would also be required. For this reason included in this pack is a model consent form that you can use to gain copyright permission. This is located in the pack as Appendix I. Summary When creating your teaching material, it is important to take into consideration copyright and its implications to you as a lecturer and to the institution as a whole. Think carefully about where you source media and how you use it, and think about the wider issues concerning data protection, accessibility, and any legal ramifications copyright might incur. For more advice on copyright and legal issues, you can access the JISC Legal website at www.jisclegal.ac.uk
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Copyright - A Lecturer’s View
Principles and Practices of Effective Online Design An Instructional Designer’s Guide This section has been devised in order to give guidelines of good practice on instructional design, and focuses on key points to consider when developing any material for an online environment. The following information contained within this document has been sourced from Usability.gov website at http://usability.gov
• Clear headings • Consistent and clearly defined navigation • Bulleted text, short sentences • Avoid use of underlining (except for hyperlinks) Think about the needs of the general user: • Plan your time effectively • Collect relevant data/information from the Academic • Develop prototypes from the information given, and consult all the time with the Academic • Conduct usability testing before actual release of online material Effective online design techniques • Testing: Iterative user testing is an effective way to find out how students are managing and progressing through an online module. Look back at the previous ways in which the material was taught and how well the students responded, and then focus on and analyse the ways in which the students are engaging and learning from the new tools and features added into the online environment. Then a picture can be drawn of the ability, confidence and attitude of the students from the original means of learning through to online. • Usability: Usability must be considered in all design and development stages. It is a combination of factors surrounding the following: 1. Ease of Learning – How quick can a user learn to use the online tools, once they log in to the system for the first time 2. Efficiency of Use – Once an experienced user has learned the online environment, how well can he/she accomplish the tasks set in the learning material. This is very important in design, because with any student there are always some who have the ability to learn and complete tasks quicker than the majority. Design each of the learning objects and material accordingly to facilitate the learners.
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Section B - Material for Instructional Designer
Read through the sections carefully and consider all aspects of the topics that are raised, before you embark on any development within UCB Online. Think about the following:
3. Memorability – If the learner has used the system before, can he/she remember how to use the online environment after a period away or will he/she be required to start again. Building an option to save the last point of reference for the students is an important aspect to ensure in the design.
5. Subjective Satisfaction – How well does the user engage with and enjoy the learning material? Build in interactive components, tests and user orientated functionality to help engage the learner. • Prototyping: This often refers to all aspects of development of learning objects, right through to the final finished product before evaluation and testing. Prototyping can take the form of many different options in development, from storyboarding to actual design on a PC or laptop. Begin your prototype design at an early stage and make sure that you show and discuss the ideas with the Subject Matter Experts. This way you are forming the initial design as expected and envisaged by the academic. (See Appendices E and F for more details) • Accessibility: When designing any aspect of a project, it is vitally important that accessibility is considered at all levels of the development. This can take the form of making the text on screen easy to read (colour, style, size etc.) right through to adding text transcripts for audio, video or media-based content that is used in the online environment. Consider the Accessibility features of the Articulate, Ms Office and Adobe products in your design, and see if they are 508 compliant (Rehabilitation Act). With reference to the Rehabilitation Act and 508 compliance, access the following web resources to find out more; - http://www.section508.gov/index.cfm - Guidance for implementation of 508 compliance - http://www.hhs.gov/web/508/index.html - Detailed information on 508 compliance - http://usability.gov/methods/design_site/launch.html - Accessibility and usability on design • Learning Material Chunking: Chunking is often used to describe the process of breaking down learning material into smaller more manageable sized pieces of learning. This is done so that the learners, can remember and understand each of the sections of the material and not have to read and remember large amounts of information. The process of creating Reusable Learning Objects plays an integral role in chunking, whereby small snippets or pockets of learning material can be developed online, stored on a central system (such as the Blackboard CMS) and then reused by others. To find out more about chunking and strategies relating to this topic, access the following resources online:
- http://www.eduworks.com/index2.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=152&pop =1&page=1&Itemid=123 – Eduworks guide to Reusable Learning Objects - http://www.bellaonline.com/articles/art45143.asp - Article on Chunking
Blended and Online Learning Development Process This section sets out the process that should be followed when designing and developing instruction for online and blended learning. The process is built on a five stage iterative model (an adaptation of the ADDIE model) which should be followed in a continuous loop to identify further improvements. Included in this section is: • A breakdown of the five stage process which identifies the type of activities you will undertake • A set of questions that will help to you effectively apply the ADDIE model • An example Learning Object
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4. Error Frequency and Severity – How often are errors created, recorded and responded to? Who will support this in an online environment? This needs to be addressed right from the start, and support must be made to stand out in the design and development of the online material. Easy, quick, and effective support mechanisms must be in place for the student, as it’s important to remember that they are learning on their own.
- http://theelearningcoach.com/elearning_design/chunking-information/ - Guidance on Chunking
Analyse content and resources available. Consider whether similar material exists in other modules or elsewhere. But always remember to be mindful of Copyright! (see document Copyright - A Lecturerâ€™s View (pg 20) for more info)
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Outputs Learner Profile
Responsibility SME, ID
List of measurable Learning SME, ID Outcomes Methods of assessment (including any technical demands that will need to be met such as the capacity required to handle submission of coursework). List of existing strategies used Teaching/Learning materials (this MUST NOT just include the slides and teaching notes, but also the interactions from f2f activities)
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Activity 1. Analyse Analyse learner needs, existing skills, knowledge, learning style, access to technology etc. Conduct analysis of learner needs and Learning Styles questionnaire Assess whether or not the existing Learning Outcomes and methods of assessment can be supported through online learning. Adaptation of existing Learning Outcomes and methods of assessment may be necessary but will be subject to Module Review and/or Validations & Approvals Committee.
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List of Learning Objects and SME, ID mapping of associated assets that will form the overall module. List of new materials/media to be produced, including new or adapted content
Phase 1 Storyboards (see ID Appendix E). Structure and components to be illustrated and relationship between Learning Objects and individual sections to be created.
Phase 2 storyboards (See SME, ID Appendix F). This should represent the finished version of all Learning Objects and how they will be sequenced into the appropriate sections. The course flow, instructional strategies, additional media or materials to be developed should be clearly described to illustrate how each of the Learning Outcomes will be met. Seek approval of phase 2 Prototype Sign-off (See SME, ID storyboards from SME Appendix G) Identify requirements for Communication policy. This SME, ID the necessary support struc- must make reference to the ture support mechanisms that will be put into place to respond to requests for help with the curriculum and the technology. Meet with SME to confirm linkage of Learning Objects to the relevant Learning Outcomes and update storyboards accordingly. Each Learning Object must be identifiable against a learning outcome, which in turn should be linked with an assessment.
3. Develop (testing & revision of materials should be ongoing) Use data from Design phase Functional prototype of first ID and assemble materials Learning Object. See examto produce first Learning ple below (Learning Object Object (must follow Qual- 6.1 for module: Underity and Instructional Design standing Finance and IT) checklist) Test functional prototype on required specification and observe performance. Ensure testing is carried out for each type of interaction and with different users. Revise Learning Object based on Test Report Demonstrate and test again revised version with SME Use data from Design phase and assemble materials to produce remaining Learning Objects Test functional prototype on required specification and observe performance. Ensure testing is carried out for each type of interaction and with different users. Revise all Learning Objects based on Test Report Set up the necessary support structure based on the requirements identified during Design phase Identify the necessary guidance materials to be available and finalise the structure and flow of the online module site
Test report. (Completed SME, ID test plan which will include usability testing, log of activities/interactions). Revised Learning Object
Sign-off of first Learning Ob- SME, ID ject Functional prototype of all ID Learning Objects Test report. (Completed SME, ID test plan which will include usability testing, log of activities/interactions) Revised Learning Objects Support place
ID in ID
Guidance materials (includ- SME, ID ing video tutorial of how to navigate the module site) Online module site (complete with all components)
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2. Design Meet with SME to: (a) break down module into small topical chunks (learning objects), (b) identify new materials/media to be developed (c) determine appropriate methods of assessment (d) demonstrate examples of good practice and refer SME to guidelines on re-writing content for online delivery Use findings from Analysis to storyboard each Learning Object in accordance with the Checklist for Instructional Design
4. Implement Deliver online module
• How does the technology add value to this process? Log of activities/interactions SME
• Does this technology support the most suitable learning design for this content?
• What kinds of interaction are possible with this technology?
4. Evaluate Conduct end user survey to establish whether or not the online module satisfied its objectives Run focus group meeting to evaluate effectiveness and quality of learning objects and the overall module
Recommendations for fur- SME, ID ther improvements Revision of online module through repetition of the ADDIE process.
Below are just some of questions that you should consider together with the SME when applying each stage of the ADDIE model. Analysis phase • Who are the learners? (their age, characteristics, prior knowledge, how they can be motivated, constraints etc) • What is the most appropriate learning location for these learners? (home, work, other) • What kinds of technologies are available in those locations? • What level of technological expertise do the learners have? • What level of learner support is available in their location of learning and from the institution?
• Is this technology a viable option in this context, and does it enable the most appropriate learning strategies to be used for this particular content, and for this group of learners? • Should the module be structured to follow a linear or non-linear format? Learners new to online learning may take a linear approach. However, the potential for a non-linear approach in an online learning environment is greater. • Are introductions and summaries provided for each Learning Object? • Are all materials free from copyright? Development phase • Does the design cater for various learning styles and particularly those identified in the Analysis phase? • Does the design encourage interaction between the learner group, not just with the lecturer/facilitator? • Does the online module satisfy the Instructional Design and Quality checklist? • Has the module been tested from different perspectives e.g the learner, the SME, Instructional Designer? • Are the necessary support and instructional materials available for independent learning? • Does the online module provide a logical flow? • Does each Learning Object clearly link to a Learning Outcome?
• What strategies can be used to develop the intended skills, knowledge, concepts?
• What contingency plans are in place? This is important because technology cannot be 100% reliable
• Are activities available to help learners to learn those skills, knowledge, concepts? • Does the design stimulate a response from the learner so that it is possible to check that the concepts are being learnt? • When is it appropriate to find out if learners have understood the concept (by assessment)? • What feedback will the learners get and from whom/what? • What kinds of e-assessment methods are appropriate? For example e-debates/discussions, quiz/test, e-portfolio, blog, wiki, online submission of electronic file etc. • Where e-methods of assessment are not appropriate, how will the assessment be supported? For instance, can it be supported by means of work-based practice?
• Are learners made aware of the contingency plan? • Does the online module provide sufficient capacity in order to able to handle the anticipated load placed by online submission of coursework, interactivity through discussion boards, blog and wiki posts etc? • Who will learners contact for technical support and how and when can technical support be contacted? • Who will learners contact with queries relating to the curriculum and how and when can the lecturer(s)/facilitator(s) be contacted?
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• What level of support does this technology require?
• Are the necessary support and guidance materials available for independent learners?
A sample of this is illustrated below:
• Have learners been made aware of what will be expected of them? These expectations will range from technical competence to the level of autonomy that will be required.
Section 6.1 The Concept of Break-Even
• What measures will be used to monitor learner activity? Consider item tracking, use of Performance Dashboard and Adaptive Release.
This is called the BREAKEVEN POINT
In order to be successful and make a profit, businesses must ensure that they can cover all of their costs. It is useful to know how much they need to sell in order to do this. Definition of break-even:
• What are the implications that these recommendations pose? Learning Object example: Understanding Finance and IT (Section 6.1 – The Concept of Breakeven) The example Learning Object below forms part of the Understanding Finance and IT module. The original course materials for this module were contained within PowerPoint and Word documents with little or no interactivity included. A breakdown of the module into smaller chunks of learning resulted in the formation of many Learning Objects and an analysis of the structure of the learning material meant it was decided to remove the term ‘week’ and replace this with ‘Section’. This removes any ambiguity and helps the learner to better relate to and pursue the online learning module, in a way that does not enforce the traditional week by week arrangement in classroom-based teaching. The module was divided into topical Sections and a further breakdown enabled smaller sub-sections to be identified which in turn resulted into a Learning Object. The sub-section in this example focuses on ‘Section 6.1 the Concept of Breakeven’, and forms part of ‘Section 6.0 Breakeven Analysis’. Section 6.1 contributes to part of assessment 3 of the module delivery scheme (Costing and breakeven analysis) which is worth 25% of the total mark, and also to Learning Outcome 2 and 3. It is always important when developing any Learning Object that you always refer back to the learning outcomes and assessment. Each Learning Object that is created, must allow the learner to achieve the learning outcomes stated within the MDS, and must contribute to the assessment. This is done during the Analysis and Design stages of the ADDIE model, and MUST be considered during meetings with your SME. The original material used to develop the Learning Object for sub-section 6.1 were in the format of a word document.
If a business has information about fixed and variable costs and knows what price it is going to charge, it can calculate exactly how many products or services it needs to sell to cover all of its costs. After further analysis of the original material with the SME, and some storyboarded ideas that were designed, it was agreed to develop this section of the learning material within Articulate Engage. The Circle interaction was chosen as it allowed an easy breakdown of the information to be displayed, and the tool allowed for a greater degree of user input and interactivity to be experienced rather than just reading from a Word document. Below is the completed Learning Object for sub-section ‘6.1 The Concept of Break-even’.
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• What recommendations can be drawn from the overall feedback to improve the module, based on both the level of student achievement and the design of the online instruction?
Online Development Quality Checklist for Instructional Designers Part A: Set up policies for creating Learning Material 1. Any type of media should be embedded within the Learning Material, and also created as a thumbnail on each of the pages. 2. Before any development is to take place, plan and storyboard any ideas with the academic and e-learning team to get a feel for how the online/blended module will appear and operate (see Appendix E and F) 3. Use the ADDIE methodology for development, looking at Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation. (see document ‘Blended and Online Learning Development Process’ for more information) Material for ID - Page 33
5. Communication is vital at the start of each online weekly material regarding the use of the interactive content. Induction sessions and user information should be made available to the students allowing them to understand how to use the interactive content.
The written information can be accessed in the interactive window, and any images that were used in the original Word document are now available for view by clicking the thumbnail image to zoom. As you can see, this adds a greater level of flexibility to the information and includes a level of interactivity to engage the learner. Each of the circle sections are interactive and can be clicked on to access a particular area within the sub-section material. It is important to reiterate that this learning object was developed as part of section 6.0 of the learning material and, although it appears different, it includes the original information that relates to Learning Outcomes 2 and 3 and part 3 of the assessment from the MDS. Conclusion This section has highlighted the processes involved in developing online material and how using the ADDIE methodology effectively will help guide you through the stages involved in creating Learning Objects specific for an online or blended learning module. This section includes a detailed breakdown of the points to include in each of the stages of the methodology, and has also given reference to an example Learning Object created using these processes. Follow the stages carefully and always remember to consult the SME on any decisions regarding design and development. Always remember to develop any Learning Object in conjunction with the module outcomes and assessments highlighted in the MDS, and always remember to test and gather feedback on all designs that are made.
6. Short snappy bulleted instructions should be made available, allowing students to gain the knowledge of what is required without having to read vast amounts of text. This must be agreed with the academic prior to development. 7. When interactive material is developed (using Articulate or HTML) the designer must allow the user to stop, pause and control the speed at which the material is displayed. Articulate Presenter allows you to control these aspects via the ‘Slide Properties’ menu. 8. If an Articulate Engage item is used, then the students must have the option not to click on all the interactive sections in order to move them through the material, once is enough, not all the time! This can be organised via the ‘Interaction Properties’ tool in Articulate Engage. 9. Clearly labelled and obvious navigation needs to be available, to allow the student to progress back and forth through the learning material. This can be in the form of buttons or labelled hyperlinks. Articulate produces its own navigation which can be controlled. This is also the case for the Learning Units item within UCB Online. 10. Content must be available to be downloaded to standard Microsoft Office 2007 and 2003 format or must be readable using Adobe Reader/Acrobat. Learners need to know that access to Microsoft 2007 is essential. Documents must be available in print format, allowing the students to print a copy as well as read on-screen. If Adobe PDF documents are produced, then provide a link to the Adobe Reader Software via UCB Online site. 11. Accessibility is a key aspect of the learning template. Articulate Engage software allows you to publish directly to Word as well as a portable software medium such as CD, allowing usability and accessibility to be enhanced and not limited by the use of a PC and Flash. Screen readers must work for website and on-screen Ms Office documentation.
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4. Learning Materials for each Section should not include significant amounts of continuous word-processed text, but include interactive elements to engage the learner. This must be agreed with the academic prior to development.
12. Using the Re-usable Learning Object functionality in the content system can allow storage of the Learning objects that are created and make them available for re-use by other academic staff who wish to use them in their own teaching. Follow the procedures for upload to the content system. 13. Include a Glossary for technical terms used. Use the UCB Online Glossary tool for this or the use of the Articulate Glossary function in Articulate Engage.
15. If online discussion boards or collaborative tools such as a wiki have been requested by the academic, then remember to give guidelines on etiquette and acceptable use prior to commencement by the students.
In order to gain an insight into how learning objects will facilitate learning and development of students, it is important to focus on the key components and overall layout of each learning object developed, and how it will interact and ‘sit’ within our framework in UCB Online. A Learning Object can be defined as a small chunk of learning content that focuses on a specific learning objective. The Learning Objects can contain one or many components, including text, video, images etc. Learning Objects can form the basis for a whole or part of a module, and can provide opportunities for students to engage with learning material in an online environment. Learning Object Core Components
16. Support and guidance must be made explicit to the students. Work out the best way for the students to contact their lecturers, via Staff Profile information e.g. email, phone call, online forum etc. This must be agreed with the Academic prior to development.
Before any development can take place planning and preparation of the Learning Objects must take place, and with this in mind you need to consider the core components that make up the Learning Object. Core components of a Learning Object are as follows:
17. Agree the size/quota of the course site in UCB Online prior to development. The size should be no larger than 100mb and upload of a single item no larger than 10mb. REMEMBER THE MORE COMPLEX AND INTERACTIVE THE LEARNING MATERIAL, THE LARGER THE SIZE IT ENTAILS!
1. Clear and well defined Title (The Title should reflect the point of the learning material for the user. Try and avoid ambiguous and long title names)
Part B: Assessment 1. Articulate Quizmaker could be utilised to create summative assessments, which the learners are required to do at the end of the modules. They can be embedded within Blackboard or created as stand-alone tests. 2. Regular self assessment tasks are imperative throughout the learning process, so short question and answer options should be available throughout each of the sections. Ask the academic to create these and use either the UCB Online assessment tools or create them using Articulate Quizmaker. 3. The use of web 2.0 tools can be used for feedback and idea collaboration from the learners. This needs to be specified by the academic prior to the use of any of the tools. However the Blackboard tools can be used in this situation within UCB Online. 4. If word documents require an interactive addition by the academic, the use of Wimba Create can be employed to create html files that can be made accessible via UCB Online. Agree the use of this tool prior to development, and follow the instructions in UCB Online Help to produce Wimba create files. 5. Any drag and drop assessment activities should be usable by mouse or keyboard. When using multiple choice questions, avoid scrolling – display one question per page (this can be managed within UCB Online).
2. A short Introduction to the Learning Object (This gives a short overview of what the Learning Object will be about) 3. The Learning Objectives/Outcomes should be clearly defined (They should be added to give a clear indication to the student about the learning activities they will be undertaking) 4. Learning Activities/Sections/Contents should form the basis of the Learning Object (The raw material for the Learning Activities or sections of the Learning Object may come from a variety of electronic sources and may be formed from or link to a variety of Assets. It is important to always link the Learning Activities the students will be undertaking back to the learning objectives stated at the start of the Learning Object) 5. Extra Help maybe required by the student on the activities (Although an option in the design, extra Help being provided in the learning object by either a link to website, extra Assets etc. could be made available) 6. Assessment components form final parts of the learning objects (These are included in the form of formative assessments created in Articulate or UCB Online using a range of question types i.e. multiple choice, text entry etc.) 7. Review or Summary (Main learning points reviewed for final clarification of the information contained in the learning object, additional web links, Assets or media could be added here for further practice) 8. Insert References (References should be included if they have been cited in the main learning material)
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14. Keep instructions short but repeat them. Learners will not read extensive materials given to them.
Re-Usable Learning Objects
Learning Object Design Structure (UCB Online Delivery Tool)
Blackboard Design Specification All online course and module sites should have the following menu structure displayed in an identical order. Home Page
VLE (Blackboard) Menu Structure
Module Introduction Staff Information Required Reading Course Documents Assessment Discussion Board Useful Links Help and Support My Grades Tools Calendar Learning Objects must be designed in such a way as to allow the students to take full control of their own learning, and not too rely solely on the lecturer for input. Following the design guidelines and core component will aid you in developing learning objects that are consistent, concise and can easily be distributed between different course discipline areas. A range of learning objects that are created can be grouped to form whole courses or lectures, or can be used as singular entities on their own to engage learners with a particular topic or area within a module. Use this as a basis for conversation with the Subject Matter Experts, and suggest how the Learning Objects can bring benefit and understanding to their students.
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Introductory page which will show annoucements, due dates and other important information for students A brief introduction to the module as well as presenting any information students will require. Information relevant to module content and assessment strategies Staff details, pictures of staff and contact details Course Reading List Content area for all learning objects and materials Assessments and Submission Tools Central discussion board for all Figure 1 Required Menu students Layout Relevant links to other university support sites Links to appropriate help guides and support sites Studentâ€™s Grades Access to UCB Online tools A study Calendar should be provided to students highlighting key dates.
Standard/Important Text size and Format
The following files are available from the Bbshare Folder ‘Instructional Design Files’
Standard text size and format: - This should be Arial Size 14 for all standard written material such as content and titles, announcements and any other interface text on UCB Online or articulate Important text: - Should be Arial Size 14, Bold and Indented Logos and Branding
Figure 2 - Example Banner Course Banners should be created using the relevant school “banner” Photoshop file from the UCB online CMS folder.
When applying the University College brand to any learning object use the UCB logo provided.
1. Choose the “Banner.psd” file relevant to the school you’re working with 2. Add The Course or Module name to the template in: Text size = 48 Text Format = Perpetua Titling MT 3. Export image settings Image resolution = 800x135 pixels Format = JPEG or GIF 4. The UCB logo image should not be altered Colour Schemes PLEASE REMEMBER THAT THE COLOUR SCHEME IS ONLY APPLIED TO THE COURSE LEVEL SITE AND NOT THE INDIVIDUAL LEARNING OBJECT. For UCB ONLINE colours please choose the most appropriate with reference to colours shown below.
Figure 3 Brand Logo Instructions • Alter the resolution/size of image to suit the needs of the application • Do not alter the image colour or shape Organising and Naming Content For individual items Content labelling should be as follows in all content areas of UCB online/course and module sites For learning objects Name = Section/week reference, Name of Section/object, study hours required to complete
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The following files are available from the Bbshare Folder ‘Instructional Design Files’
Item Content Names Item type names should follow the table below Media/Content Type Microsoft Office Documents Video Content Audio Content Graphic Content URL Links/Web Addresses
Type Name PowerPoint, Spreadsheet Video Audio Graphic Website
Learning Content Items such as PowerPoint, PDF, Word etc. should be made accessible by means of a hyperlink. Any media embedded must have a corresponding transcript for accessibility purposes. W3C and JISC TechDis Accessibility Resources There is a range of useful articles and information sources surrounding creating Accessible content and these are highlighted by The JISC TechDis service http://www.techdis. ac.uk/index.php?p=20 . The resources contained within this website correspond to a variety of different learning, physical and emotional difficulties which users can experience, and explain the procedures and policies surrounding making your e-learning content suitable for these learners to use and understand. The JISC TechDis group have categorised their resources into a number of specific groups, which give guidance on how to create material that is compliant for all types of learner: 1. Users with visual impairments – These cover a multitude of different conditions, and JISC TechDis gives you detailed information on how to create content that complies with learners with impaired vision: http://www.techdis.ac.uk/index.php?p=1_38_1_2 2. Users with hearing impairments – JISC TechDis have provided a range of technological resources specific in creating content for learners with hearing conditions. Often online content will include video with audio and music and it’s important to provide extra resources for learners who cannot fully benefit from this. Follow this link to find out more: http://www.techdis.ac.uk/index.php?p=1_38_2_3 3. Users with Learning Difficulties – This area includes a variety of specific learning needs, from learners with dyslexia and concentration problems, right through to learners who have difficulty in communicating with peers and academics. The following resources will be a useful guide to developing online content to cater for these specific needs: http://www.techdis.ac.uk/index.php?p=20_2 4. Users who have difficulty handling and manipulating things – This area refers to a variety of physical-based disabilities and can prove to be a problem when developing online based material that requires the use of a mouse and keyboard. To learn more about the resources available covering this area of accessibility access here: http://www. techdis.ac.uk/index.php?p=20_4
Articulate Software Accessibility (508 Compliance) When designing learning objects using the Articulate tool the following accessibility options must be discussed (508 Compliance is an American Standard and must be considered alongside the British standard W3C when developing new online material within Articulate): 1) Ensure that keyboard shortcuts are activated: http://www.articulate.com/support/presenter09/?p=31 2) Use presenter notes or a script to launch in a new window. http://www.articulate.com/blog/script-as-html/ http://www.articulate.com/blog/escriptionistcom/ 3) Ensure our software meets certain parts of Section 508 compliance: Presenter ‘09: http://www.articulate.com/support/presenter09/kb/?p=162 Quizmaker ‘09: http://www.articulate.com/support/quizmaker09/kb/?p=57 Engage ‘09: http://www.articulate.com/support/engage09/kb/?p=59 ...but are not JAWS reader compatible. You can also create alternate versions of your content that are accessible by following the methods described in this blog article: http://www.articulate.com/blog/heres-how-to-achieve-rapid-section-508-compliance/ Note: This article provides guidance on how to create a Section 508 compliant course. However, full compliance of Section 508 will vary by organization. Thus, additional steps beyond what this article provides may be necessary (e.g., accounting for video captioning, interactive scenarios, etc.).
Material for ID - Page 42
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For further reference, JISC TechDis have produced a web-based toolbar which is an addon for Internet Explorer and Mozilla Firefox, which includes a variety of accessibility tools and aids to help users customise the way they interact and view online web resources. Access and download the tool from the following: http://www.techdis.ac.uk/index. php?p=1_29
Appendix A - E-Learning Tools in UCB Online Tool
Blackboard Home Page
Description An important page allowing your student informed and up-to-date with course information, due dates and other vital
Tool to allow students to communicate in real-time with peers and academic staff through the use of onBlackboard Discussion Board line posts (threads) and replies.
Appendix A - E-Learning Tools in UCB Online Appendix B - Expectations of an Online Learner Appendix C - Data Flow diagram of online/blended design process Appendix D - Glossary of Terms
Appendix F - Storyboard Template 2 and Example Final Learning Object Design Appendix G - Learning Object Repository Information Appendix H - Flow Diagram of Recording Lectures Appendix I - Copyright Model Consent Form
Blackboard Glossary Tool
This is a reference list of terms, created and managed by the instructors of modules or courses.
Appendix E - Storyboard Template
This is a group space, which combines a range of different tools including discussion board, email, and file exchange to allow group members to communicate and share resources.
Example of Use If a room has changed for a tutorial or a guest speaker is arriving at a certain time and date, then this can be announced on a course or module site using this tool There are a variety of useful examples for both informal and formal use of discussion boards. These are available via the online communication site in UCB Online, looking at areas such as peer review, practising team work etc. For group work, split a class into individual assigned groups and use the group pages tool to allow students to share resources and communicate with each other rather than using conventional email or F2F conversations. Language students may require a list of key words that they use for research and reference. An instructor can set this up specifically for the students to access. This tool can prove useful for any module that requires the use of technical terms.
You could use this tool to create a revision package for your students to access, breaking down each section in the learning unit into relevant material for the students to work their way through.
Summative assessment in the form of electronic files, allowing students to complete the assignment in an Microsoft Office package, and then submit their work via UCB Online via a given set of criteria. The assignment tool allows the upload of a variety of file formats including all Microsoft Office and pdf files.
Formative and Summative assessments can be given sets of rules, e.g. password protection, start and end dates, time limits etc. This is a rule-based tool in UCB Online that allows the management of content and resources. Access to content Blackboard Adaptive Release may be determined by four areas: Date, membership Tool of a group, individual grade or review status, whereby a student must have viewed an item before the rule based item is displayed. This is an area for release of individual marks for assignment submissions and tests undertaken by each individual student. Blackboard My Grades
Use in both Formative and Summative assessment, created and undertaken on UCB Online and marked using the Blackboard Grade Centre. The grades are calculated and the students receive these through the My Grades area in UCB Online.
This tool could be used if you have created a formative assessment piece and the students must attain a certain grade before the next weekâ€™s learning material is made available to them. It may also be useful to enforce completion of one activity before allowing the students to progress to the next. Student has completed an online assessment using UCB Online e.g. an online test that was created via the assessment manager or an electronic file submitted using the assignment tool and he/ she wants to see their final result. They click this item to find out the feedback given.
A tool that enables you to package several items or materials based on a parLearning ticular theme/topic or activity. A learning unit can be made up of a variety of tools, so not just limited to contextual work. You can add discussion boards, web 2.0 tools, and a variety of different media to the learning package for the student to access. Tool to allow students to upload files for an assessment to a module or programme site for marking Assignment by the tutor.
A tool that allows you to create assessments in the form of a test/quiz or survey. It supports a variety of question Blackboard Assessment Tool formats including MCQâ€™s, file submissions, short answer questions etc. There is the option to include multimedia and provide feedback to students for each question or bank of questions answered.
A tool in UCB Online that provides tracking of individual student performance. It also provides Blackboard Performance summaries of individual student activity within Dashboard UCB Online, and can help staff to flag up students with little or no activity within the VLE. A blog is an online journal or web log, where entries are made and the most recent post is displayed Learning Objects Journal first. They are often used for critical or reflective LX (Blog Tool) writing on a particular topic or can be used as a personal space to jot down thoughts and ideas on each day of the week. You can upload a range of file types in a blog posting, including web links, images and other media types. The blog can be set up, so it can be peer reviewed and assessed by the tutor using the Blackboard Grade Centre.
Once a test has been completed and submitted by a student, access the Grade Centre to mark the assessment and give feedback to the student. The mark will then be displayed to the student via My Grades. Tracking of a studentâ€™s activity in UCB Online, checking when they last accessed the module, if they have attempted a given assessment in UCB Online and if they have contributed to a discussion board. Used as part of critical reflection, e.g. Sports Therapy Final Year students use the tool to reflect on clinical sessions with patients and use this as part of their own development and learning. Acts as a substitute for pen and paper during the sessions, where students and staff can review work via UCB Online.
The wiki tool is a series of web pages which can be set up for both public and private commentary and allow Learning Objects Teams LX multiple editing of content. It is a communication tool that (Wiki Tool) allows one central area for collaboration. Similar to the blog tool, it too allows a wide range of media to be attached and is ideal for group work, combining file upload and commenting functions. Allows the dissemination of audio files via UCB Online, which can be streamed or downloaded onto an MP3 Learning Objects Podcast LX player for listening at a later period. (Podcast Tool) Uses the wiki tool to provide templates for creation of personal development plans or portfolios. Can be Learning Objects Expo LX used to showcase a variety of achievements or info. (Portfolio Tool)
Wimba Pronto Tool
This is an instant messaging tool providing communication and collaboration for lecturers and students. Operated from UCB Online, Pronto includes a variety of useful tools e.g. allows video and audio communication, instant messaging, application sharing, whiteboard, queued chat facility etc. Downloadable from Module and Programme sites. It can also be operated outside of UCB Online.
Group collaborative work is set, students are able to use a wiki (set up specifically for each group) and use this as a central area for collaboration and communication on the topic set. This eliminates the problems with email and the use of paper documents being lost. It can also be monitored, reviewed and commented on by staff.
Lecture or tutorial is recorded and split into several short audio clips that can be downloaded from UCB Online by the students for review. Can be used as online portfolio option, e.g. Sports Therapy final year students use Expo as their e-portfolio where they gather evidence on their personal development. Communication between students and staff regarding an assignment. Use the Pronto tool for informal chat regarding any aspect of an assignment. You could also use this facility between dissertation student and tutor, to share ideas, ask questions and comment on any aspect of the studentâ€™s final year project.
A tool to monitor all student grades and assessment scores for all assessments, assignments Blackboard Grade Centre and graded functions in a module or programme site in UCB Online.
Wimba Classroom Tool
An audio tool in UCB Online providing the opportunity to post and listen to voice messages within a discussion board screen.
An audio tool in UCB Online that allows the creation of short (up to 20mins) podcasts that can be downloaded by Wimba Voice Podcaster the student onto an MP3 Player. Tool An audio tool in UCB Online that allows the option for student’s and staff to send and listen to audio Wimba Voice Email Tool through email.
Can be used to replace on-site in-class teaching, where you can arrange a classroom session and student’s login and access the session. They are then able to communicate and see a live classroom session without physically being in college. Useful for block teaching programme, whereby a lecture could be taking place from the UK, but have a variety of international students viewing from overseas. This tool can be used in place of the standard discussion board option in UCB Online, providing a new means of communication using audio and text to discuss a particular topic of interest. Recording a lecture or tutorial and making it available for download onto a student’s MP3 player for them to review at a later stage. This tool could be used to give voice feedback on assessment to a student, instead of through conventional email, allowing for more personal and detailed feedback for the student.
This is a presentation tool including the option for audio, which will allow the upload of web or PowerPoint conWimba Voice Presentation tent. Tool
An audio tool that can be used by staff to record voice messages on a web page or within a module/programme Wimba Voice Authoring Tool site in UCB Online.
This tool could be used by a student after completion of a presentation for an assignment, where they can create the file online and present their work with the addition of voice commentary allowing for greater understanding from the lecturer/tutor. This tool could be used as a replacement for course announcements, whereby a tutor creates an audio recording of an important announcement regarding an assignment.
Wimba Voice Board Tool
This is a virtual classroom tool, which allows both synchronous and asynchronous communication. It includes a variety of interactive tools to facilitate video conferencing, e.g. audio, video, whiteboard, application sharing, breakout rooms for group collaboration, analytical tools etc.
Appendix B - Expectations of an online learner • Have access to an internet enabled computer, preferably with a broadband connection • Good IT skills. Learners should know how to operate a computer. For example, how to use a keyboard, mouse, word processing, email, saving, printing, moving, backing-up files. Internet skills are also important and learners should know how to use a web browser to access information, perform searches and download files. • Good written communication skills. Almost all communication for a fully online course/ module will be in writing. Therefore learners must be comfortable with communicating through writing in order to express themselves clearly. • Self-disciplined and independent. Both attributes are important as the responsibility of learning in an online course/module is primarily with the learner, and therefore ensuring that you are able to meet deadlines and keeping up with the momentum and course flow is essential to be successful.
• Good time management skills. The number of hours of learning and requirements for participation indicated in the course/module outline should not be ignored or underestimated. Whilst online learning provides greater freedom by the flexibility it offers, it should be noted that most online courses/modules will require regular active communication and participation. Therefore you are advised to balance other commitments with study and plan your time accordingly. Logging in frequently to check announcements and updates is also highly advised. • Always keep a back-up copy of your work including online postings and assignments. System failure may occur at any time, so to avoid disappointment you should save your work to your hard-drive before you submit it online. Saving your work to a USB flash drive will provide a back-up copy as well as making your work portable.
• Online learners should take an active role in their learning. Active participation in learning activities as well as the ‘voicing’ of concerns, difficulty, confusion etc. is important as active and pro-active participation will only help the learning process. When problems or difficulties are encountered, take control and tell the lecturer straight away, otherwise how are they to know if something is wrong?
Appendix D - Glossary of Terms a) Navigate – The way in which the learner will move through the sections of the Learning Material b) Media – Any type of interactive file whether it be a video, image, audio or static file can be embedded into the learning objects c) Learning Material – This refers to the actual content of the learning object used by the student to build up knowledge and understanding. d) Section – This refers to the way the Learning Material for the learning object is broken down. The learner/student works through the individual sections of the learning object in order to gain knowledge of the subject e) Assets – Assets refer to any type of Word, PDF document, PowerPoint presentation or Excel spreadsheet that is attached to a section of the learning object and is required to be downloaded by the learner f) Triangle and Circle Interactions – these are two types of flash based objects created using software Articulate Engage, to show a hierarchy of information and material. It can be used to develop definitions, construct a range of questions/discussion points
h) Adaptive Release – This is a tool in Blackboard, that allows course instructors to release course content based on a set of ‘rules’ that they specify, for example assessment scores, date, time restrictions etc. i) Contextualise – Creating and adapting written module content and material for the learning object that is specific for a student learning online rather than learning face-toface. A feature of contextualised material is that it uses examples from the discipline being studied, for example, students studying ‘tourism’ must have tourism related examples and not generic examples. You will need to address the language used and the level at which the learning is pitched before contextualising any material for delivery. j) Personalised style of text – This refers to the way the text content of the learning material is written by the tutor. Tutors will have their own style of portraying material but at the same time need to adopt agreed good practice. When writing for online learning, a more personalised writing style should be adopted. k) Learning Module – This is a tool available in UCB Online to organise each of the sections within the learning material. It includes its own navigation functionality and supports a linear format of learning.
m) Chunking - Chunking is used to describe the process of breaking down learning material into smaller more manageable-sized pieces of learning. Chunking is a common term in Instructional Design. Generally, the concept behind chunking is that, to learn efficiently, people must be presented with the right amount of content, followed by opportunities to drill and practise until that content is mastered. n) Subject Matter Expert (SME) – This is the name given to a person or persons who are specialists in their chosen field/area of academic study o) Instructional Designer (ID) – This is the term referred to for the developer of the online/blended learning content. p) Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) – The online environment whereby all online and blended modules are developed and stored for academic staff and students to access. This is in the form of UCB Online. q) Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) – Acronym given to the term used in assessments where Multiple Choice Questions are utilised. r) Wimba Collaboration Suite – A set of interactive and highly engaging communication tools located within UCB Online, which can be utilised for a variety of online applications.
g) Blogs and Wikis – These are new tools that are available within Blackboard, that allow personal and collaborative work. Blogs and Wikis form a sort of social suite of tools in Blackboard that can be used for student reflection (e.g. e-portfolio) or group collaborative exercises. They can also be used as a form of feedback for assessments.
l) Learning Object – There are numerous definitions of a learning object, but it is basically a small “chunk” of learning content that focuses on a specific learning objective. The learning objects can contain one or many components, including text, video, images or the like. Learning Objects may be seen as building blocks that can be combined in nearly infinite ways to construct collections that might be called lessons, modules or courses.
Appendix F -Storyboard Template 2 and Example Final Learning Object Design
Appendix E -Storyboard Template
Appendix H- Flow Diagram of Recording Lectures
Appendix G -Learning Object Repository Information
Appendix I - Copyright Model Consent Form
Appendix I - Copyright Model Consent Form
E-Learning team University College Birmingham 7th Floor, Summer Row Birmingham B3 1JB
UCB Online Development Pack