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THE PATH TO THE ENLIGHTENMENT 1700-1750 FREEDOM, EQUALITY, BROTHERHOOD? 1750-1870 AN AGE OF CONFLICT 1870-1945 THE STORY GOES ON 1945+

ISBN-978-84-7703-810-8

,!7I 4H7-adibai!

IKASTOLEN ELKARTEA

HISTORY 4

1 2 3 4

15/4/10

COMPULSORY SECONDARY EDUCATION SECOND CYCLE 4ยบESO

History4azala:OSTeGIZ2/1/000

COMPULSORY SECONDARY EDUCATION SECOND CYCLE 4ยบESO


INTRODUCTION These materials are a culmination of the prize-winning multilingual project which has been r unning in the Basque schools since 1991. This project cater s for the age range 4-16. For the cour se 2001/2002 we decided to offer the schools on the project the possibility of the social science programme (Histor y and Geography) in English in ESO 3 & 4, with materials taken from the official programme . Due to the CLIL focus of these materials, that we our selves wrote and developed, we called this par ticular phase of the project ‘SSLIC’ (Social Science & Language Integrated Curriculum). These mater ials are now used by 3,000 pupils in 44 schools, in any given academic year. The results have been extremely positive from the per spectives of both teacher s and students. The ESO 4 material which has been fur ther developed since 2001 (due par tly to programme changes but mainly due to teacher feedback) has resulted in a dedicated CLIL textbook for the ESO 4 Spanish Histor y syllabus. The book has been specifically adapted to cater exclusively for the Spanish mar ket. The policy of the project here is mixed-ability, reflected in the approach of the textbook. The book represents a genuine attempt to demonstrate the pr inciples of CLIL through a variety of communicative and cognitively challenging activities that cater for all levels – whilst respecting the conceptual and procedur al demands of the ESO 4 programme . The book is accompanied by a comprehensive teacher’s guide, assessment tools and extra/optional materials. If you are interested, please view the following pages which contain samples of a sequence of the textbook’s activities and the accompanying sections of the teacher’s guide . There is a an order form on the final page , should you be interested in purchasing a copy. The SSLIC team


TEXTBOOK CONTENTS

UNITS

MAIN CONCEPTUAL CONTENT

MAIN PROCEDURAL CONTENT

• Main events & politics • Society • Economy • Arts and culture

• Analyse and write a biography • Critical analysis of art • Carry out research • Describe maps & graphs

1- THE PATH TO THE

page 5

2- FREEDOM, EQUALITY,

BROTHERHOOD? (1750-1870)

A

R Y

E

R A

ENLIGHTENMENT(1700-1750)

A time of revolutions: • Historical text commentary • The Industrial Revolution • Select information from primary • Social revolution written sources • Political revolution • Compare maps • Synthesise information Art movements

3- AN AGE OF CONFLICT (1870-1945)

E

M

P

O

R

page 41

• Towards 1st World War • First World War • Inter-war period • Second World War

N

T

Art movements

• Analyse propagandistic posters • Create a time-line

C

O

page 121

4- THE STORY GOES ON (1945+)

Post-Cold War: • Cold War • Two worlds • Nowadays

• Take notes from a speech • Carry out a webquest

page 175


The textbook has four units. Each one consists of the following:

A LEARNING PATH

This shows you the different sections and the objectives of the unit.

AN INTRODUCTION

This consists of a short text and some activities designed to find out what you might already know about the unit.

INFORMATION AND ACTIVITIES

Organised in the sections mentioned in the learning path, you can distinguish between them by reading the different titles at the top of each page.

In each section, the information is presented in a variety of ways: through texts, diagrams, maps and charts.

There are also different types of activities based on a variety of objectives and historical skills. Each type is indicated by a different icon, as below: These are activities to help you learn new contents, starting from what you already know. These are activities to apply what you have already read or completed. These are guided research activities, often internet-based

These are activities to recap what you have learnt in the section

USING WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNT

This last section consists of activities designed to help you to synthesise, and to use, what you have learnt in the whole unit.


AN AGE OF CONFLICT

T

he period of revolutions that you have just studied was characterised by many profound political and social changes. Some of them were sudden, some of them were more gradual. But people’s lives were changed for ever, and society began to look very different from the one that had predominated during the Ancien Régime. During the final decades of 19th century, the basis of a new society was in place.The problem was that it failed to end the period of conflicts. By 1870 several new powers had emerged that wanted more control and influence, either economic or political. The effects of these subsequent changes to Europe culminated in a period of ‘macro-conflict’ (World Wars), that was to bring losses of life on a scale that could not have been previously imagined. They also changed the world just as radically as the previous revolutions had, but in ways that no-one had foreseen.At the end of the 1st World War the problems didn’t disappear – on the contrary the 2nd World War was a direct consequence of the problems the 1st World War created: hatred between countries, economic crisis, fascist and communist ideologies, etc… For good or for bad, these conflicts have shaped the world that we live in today.

74

In this case, you can create the time-lime of the period we are going to study in this section. In order to do this, match each event to its appropriate date on the time-line.Two events may have happened on the same date. The Congress of Berlin; 1st World War; Russian Revolution; Spanish Civil War; Financial crisis in the USA; 2nd World War; 2nd Spanish Republic; Hitler becomes German Chancellor; Mussolini becomes Italian Prime Minister; First nuclear bomb used on civilians.

FROM GERMAN UNIFICATION TO THE END OF THE 2nd WORLD WAR (1870-1945) 1914

1876

84

1885

1931

1917

1922

1929

1933

1936

1945

1939


AN AGE OF CONFLICT

75

Here are some facts and details about the events above. See how many you know or can guess correctly. 1. In 1877, Queen Victoria of England proclaimed herself the Empress of which country? a1 India b1 China c1 Brazil 2. The Suez Canal, linking Europe with India and the Western Pacific countries, was opened in: a1 1789 b1 1940 c1 1869 3. In 1898 Spain lost its final colonies.These were: a1 Portugal, Cuba, Australia b1 Cuba, Puerto Rico,The Philippines c1 Hong Kong, Peru, Angola 4. The First World War took place between: a1 1913-1920 b1 1920-1925 c1 1914-1918 5. Fascism first began as a political movement in: a1 Italy b1 Russia c1 England

Queen Victoria of England

6. The total amount of casualties (military and civilian) in the First World War is estimated at: a1 5 million b1 15 million c1 40 million 7. The main Nazi ally during the Second World War was: a1 Belgium b1 Japan c1 Poland

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IMPERIALISM AND THE 1ST WORLD WAR (1870-1914) During this period many events contributed to the outbreak of the First World War. From the 1870-71 war between Prussia and France, from the creation of the German Empire and the disappearance of the French Empire, Europe moved into another period. At the same time, some other non-European countries appeared on the scene, most of which were involved in economic and political competition. • Economic rivalry: colonialism • Political rivalry: – Alliances – New powers: the USA & Japan – The Balkans conflict Economic rivalry: Colonial losses and gains By the second half of the 19th century, there were few surviving colonies from the early modern age. The Portuguese still had some possessions in Africa

and Asia, the Dutch had landed in South America and Indonesia, and Great Britain had some territories, among others Canada and Australia. Spain still possessed some territories in the Caribbean, and the Philippines in the Pacific. But it seemed that the great age of colonial expansion was over. Losses • Between 1811 and 1825 Spain lost all its South American colonies, due to the independence movements. • In 1898, after a short war with the United States (The SpanishUnited States War) Spain lost its final colonies in Cuba, Puerto Rico and The Philippines.

Useful Facts 1898 in Spain became known as the ‘Year of disaster’. It produced an important group of writers, the ‘Generation of 98’ (Unamuno, Pío Baroja, the brothers Machado, Ortega y Gasset).

76

Why was it a problem to lose colonies? Looking at Spain as an example, we can see various consequences. With regard to this idea, try to do the quick ‘Analysis’ exercise below. Arrange the ‘problem consequences’ below into a hierarchy, from 1 to 6, according to your opinion. Number 1 is the most significant (problematic) and number 6 the least. a1 Loss of national self-esteem and confidence. b1 Loss of international markets for trade. c1 Loss of sources of raw materials and exclusive products. d1 Loss of confidence in politicians. e1 Loss of international military prestige. f1 Loss of investment in national industry. 1

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2

3

4

5

6


AN AGE OF CONFLICT THE PATH TO THE 1st WORLD WAR

COLONIAL GAINS While Spain suffered the consequences of colonial losses, other countries were immersed in a new period of colonial expansion. Why?

Search for new markets, to sell products and invest capital

Search for cheap raw materials

As the 19th century progressed, three powers emerged because of the benefits of the Industrial Revolution: Europe, the United States and Japan. In Europe, the main players were Great Britain, Germany, France, and then Belgium and Holland. The Scramble for Africa Portugal

Development of new and more sophisticated weapons, arsenals and navies.

Developed countries compete for dominance

New colonial (imperial) expansionist policies

lon

Emigration to the USA, South America, Australia

Industrial development

l ia

Em

pire s

Co

Revolution in maritime transport (Steam Ships)

Further demographic growth

The elements of colonialism

Britain was in a privileged position in the second half of the 19th century. Despite losing the American colonies in the 18th century, its empire stretched from west to east, and in 1877 the official annexation of India made Britain the most powerful nation in the world. It possessed colonies who agreed on an economic relationship - stretching from Canada in the west to Australia and New Zealand in the east. Britain had tried to secure two things: economic and strategic power. A map of the world shows how they achieved these two goals in the 19th century.

Spain

• Britain controlled the Suez Canal (by occupying Egypt in 1882). Italy

• Britain controlled the Cape Colony (now South Africa).

France

• Britain controlled Cyprus – to minimise Russian influence in the area. Belgium

Germany

• Britain controlled the entrance to the Mediterranean by possessing Gibraltar. ... / ...

The Netherlands

Great Britain

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AN AGE OF CONFLICT THE PATH TO THE 1st WORLD WAR

... / ...

• Britain controlled the Falkland Islands (Las Malvinas) in the South Atlantic, and maintained a close economic relationship with Argentina.

Useful Facts By 1900, Germany was producing higher quality textiles and metals than Britain, and its chemical industry was the most advanced in the world.

But after 1870, Germany, the United States, and also Japan were beginning to compete industrially with Britain. France wanted to regain lost power, and Portugal, Belgium and Italy were all becoming interested in the colonial possibilities of Africa.

• After 1884, countries had to agree to the principle of ‘effective occupation’. This meant that they had to administer the country, not just possess it.

Diamonds

Rubber

Copper

Slave labour

Cloves and spices

• Africa was divided up mainly between Great Britain and France. • This was supposed to reduce the possibilities of conflict over colonial territories.

AFRICA COULD PROVIDE

Gold Ivory

• Holding the conference in Germany gave extra status to Bismarck. It gave him (and Germany) a very high profile – which is what he wanted.

THE DISTRIBUTION OF AFRICA (Berlin 1885)

Some African countries had these things mentioned in the diagram, but in others the strategic argument was more important. Strategically, the British had shown that by occupying Egypt, they could link the west with the east by using the Suez Canal. Africa was important! This need for colonies was creating tensions between countries. For this reason, the German Chancellor Otto Von Bismarck arranged a conference in Berlin in 1885 to discuss the African problem. Fourteen countries attended (only one African country attended – Zanzibar).

TUNISIA MOROCCO ALGERIA

LIBYA

EGYPT

SAHARA

ANGLO-EGYPTIAN SUDAN

MALI

FRENCH WEST AFRICA NIGER NIGERIA THE GOLD COAST

ERITREA SOMALIA (France) SOMALIA (England) ABYSSINIA

FRENCH CONGO

CAMEROON

SOMALIA (Italy) KENYA

BELGIAN CONGO

GERMAN EAST AFRICA

The conference was important because:

Belgium

ANGOLA

MOZAMBIQUE RHODESIA

Great Britain Spain France

EST TH-W SOU FRICA A

• Before 1885, one powerful country could occupy new territory (for example in Africa) and simply say “This belongs to us now!”

COLONIAL POSSESSIONS

MADAGASCAR THE BECHUANALAND PROTECTORATE

Portugal Germany Italy

88

UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA


AN AGE OF CONFLICT THE PATH TO THE 1st WORLD WAR

77

Discuss these questions in pairs and write your answers down in notes 1. The partition of Africa has been called by historians ‘The Scramble for Africa’. What does ‘scramble’ mean and why is it a good word to describe what happened? 2. Some countries said at the Berlin Conference that they wanted to ‘civilise’ parts of Africa. What do you think they meant? 3. Many African frontiers were re-drawn (moved) for the convenience of the divisions, and many countries were given new names. What problems do you think these changes caused for future generations and for the people who lived in these areas? 4. Looking at the map, which countries do you think benefited the most, from a strategic perspective? 5. Which, in your opinion, were the real reasons for the scramble for Africa? Put these reasons in order of importance: Military (Strategy), Economic, National Prestige, Spreading Christianity IMPERIAL COLONIES (1914)

ATLANTIC PACIFIC

OCEAN FRENCH WEST AFRICA

FRENCH INDOCHINA

PACIFIC BRITISH GUYANA

OCEAN

FRENCH DUTCH GUYANA GUYANA

ANGLO-EGYPTIAN SUDAN

THE GOLD COAST FRENCH EQUATORIAL AFRICA

RHODESIA

BELGIAN CONGO

OCEAN

THE DUTCH INDIES

GERMAN EAST AFRICA

INDIAN OCEAN

SOUTH-WEST AFRICA UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA

British Empire Spanish Empire

Belgian Empire Dutch Empire

Italian Empire French Empire

German Empire Portuguese Empire

6. Using the map above, classify the imperial powers in order of importance. 7. With the same map, complete a table showing the colonies of each empire, but using the contemporary names of the countries. You’ll probably need an atlas!

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AN AGE OF CONFLICT THE PATH TO THE 1st WORLD WAR

CONSEQUENCES OF COLONIALISM These consequences were significant, but different for the colonies or empires and their international policies.

Consequences of colonialism for the colonies

Demographic consequences

Except for Australia, New Zealand and Canada (colonies which were used to reduce the demographic pressure on Britain)

Cultural consequences

Economic consequences

Growth due to medical advances

Imposition of European languages, religion and customs

Social consequences Single-crop agricultures serving the colonial power’s domestic needs

Mining No industrialisation: the colonies merely provided markets

Political consequences Artificial borders

Destruction of ethnic structures

International political consequences Colonialism increased the competition between countries, and often resulted in a series of alliances and pacts. This competition developed into an arms

race, with a resulting increase in military expenditure. Main powers saw colonies as symbols of status and prestige.

78

Draw a diagram about the consequences of colonialism. Notice that the text doesn’t really detail the consequences for the colonial empires (as regards economy, politics, society...), but you should be able to work these out on your own.

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AN AGE OF CONFLICT THE PATH TO THE 1st WORLD WAR

POLITICAL RIVALRY. ALLIANCES IN EUROPE The desire for territory was of course the desire for power. Africa was divided up after 1885, but as a general principle for future peace, it probably wasn’t

a very good idea. Too many countries were getting nervous about each other. Why? Here are six reasons which we could call ‘Tension Factors’:

Patriotism: People were deeply patriotic. They wanted their own country to be the best and the most successful.

Rival empires: Each European power had an overseas empire. Britain had the biggest. Germany wanted more.

The Arms Race: Germany and Russia were building up massive armies. Germany and Britain were building up lots of new warships.

Alliances: Countries made alliances with each other. They promised to protect each other in the event of an attack by an aggressor.

War Plans: War was accepted as a way for countries to get what they wanted. Some wanted a war. Others said it was inevitable. This caused a dangerous ‘climate of war’.

The Kaiser: From 1870, Germany had been growing stronger. Germany’s rivals were suspicious of their ruler, the ‘Kaiser’ (Wilhelm II). They thought he wanted to make Germany even stronger, but at any cost.

Of course, all of the six reasons above are linked. But the most significant of these ‘tension factors’ was the creation of a series of alliances. What were these alliances? • In 1882, the political tensions between France and Germany resulted in Chancellor Bismarck signing the Triple Alliance between Germany, AustriaHungary and Italy, with the intention of isolating France. • After the failure of 1870 the French empire was dissolved and the 3rd Republic was created. France was very weak and its main objective was to

break out from the isolation imposed by Germany. In 1904 France managed to sign the Triple Entente between Russia, Britain and France. Remember, these alliances were trying to preserve the peace, not go to war. Britain and France were traditional enemies, and Russian and France had fought against each other in the Napoleonic Wars – but the Entente was formed to basically combat the growing power of Germany – to warn it to be careful. Apart from the five or six main players in the two alliances, other small agreements (pacts) were made between individual countries. For example: • Britain had signed an agreement with Belgium back in 1839 to protect them if they were ever attacked.

Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898)

• Russia had signed an agreement with Serbia in 1908, to protect Serbia if it was attacked (especially by Austria-Hungary). ... / ...

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AN AGE OF CONFLICT THE PATH TO THE 1st WORLD WAR

... / ...

• Britain had signed an agreement with Japan in 1902 to help each other if one of the others was attacked.

Useful Facts In 1900

• Italy signed a secret treaty with France, even though Italy was part of the Triple Alliance.

BRITAIN:

200 Warships 700,000 Troops

• Germany signed an agreement with the Ottoman Empire in August 1914.

FRANCE:

62 Warships 1,000,000 Troops

RUSSIA:

30 Warships 1,200,000 Troops

GERMANY: 100 Warships 2,000,000 Troops AUSTRIA 28 Warships HUNGARY: 800,000 Troops 79

Based on the information above, do these exercises. 1. Read the short paragraphs below and match each to one of the countries you see profiled in the ‘Useful Facts’ box. a1 It was a poor country, but the biggest in Europe, ruled by Tsar Nicholas II. It had no lands overseas, but it wanted more land in Europe and Asia, with access to the sea. b1 It ruled an empire with over one-quarter of the world’s people and was strong industrially. It was an island, so it needed a strong navy to protect itself (and its colonies) from invasion. c1 A central European empire, composed of ten different nationalities. Many of these nationalities wanted independence. It was ruled by the emperor Franz Joseph II. d1 It also had an overseas empire. It was angry because it had lost the Alsace region in a war in 1871, and was hostile and suspicious towards its neighbours to the east. e1 It had a small Empire, but was jealous of the fact that Britain’s was bigger. Its industrial development was strong, but it needed more markets abroad. 2. Referring to the ‘extra’ agreements between countries, these agreements were done for strategic reasons. Again, match the strategic reasons below with the agreements. a1 This agreement was signed because it created a maritime axis from west to east. b1 Even though they were in the Triple Alliance, they did this because they were in truth a rival of Austria-Hungary, competing with them for control of the Adriatic Sea. c1 They did this because they didn’t want this weak but geographically strategic country (ex-Empire) to join with the Triple Entente powers. d1 This country did this because they had cultural connections with them, and because they were suspicious of Austria-Hungary ambitions to annex this smaller country. e1 They did this to protect their own eastern coastline – just in case.

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AN AGE OF CONFLICT THE PATH TO THE 1st WORLD WAR

SPANISH INTERNATIONAL DECLINE.THE RESTORATION OF THE MONARCHY During the last third of the 19th century, after the loss of the American colonies, Spain’s international power continued to decline, difficulties which combined with the country’s many internal problems. After the revolutionary and republican attempts of 1868-73 failed, there was a coup d’état of the moderate liberals and monarchists which put Alfonso, the son of Isabella II, onto the throne. So in 1874, Alfonso XII became the new monarch of Spain. His Prime Minister was Cánovas del Castillo, who Antonio Cánovas del Castillo wrote a new moderate Con(1828-1897) stitution and created a political model in which two liberal parties ‘rotated’ in government, although this obliged them to falsify election results. Apart from these factors he had to face up to several different uprisings. After 1885 Alfonso XIII, the newborn child, become the king and the situation became slowly more difficult. • The workers’ movement became more powerful with the industrialisation of Catalonia, Biscay and Asturias. • Nationalism also appeared in Spain, first in Catalonia, and then in the Basque Country. • In The Philippines and Cuba the independence movements became more prominent and military conflicts were frequent. • There were also some problems in Morocco. • The workers movement became more radical and aggressive, particularly the anarchist movement, using strikes, bombs and assassinations (Cánovas del Castillo was murdered in 1897). Everything worsened in 1898, when the independence movements of Cuba and The Philippines were supported by the United States of America, and Spain lost its last colonies. It was the beginning of the end, because these colonies were very impor-

tant for the Spanish economy but also for its prestige. These were the last colonies left after the previous American losses. In the beginning of the 20th century Spain tried to recover some military prestige in Africa, causing various problems with other countries established there. The second decade was the most problematic. During the 1st World War Spain was neutral, which had been an imAlfonso XIII and his mother portant boost for the economy beMaría Cristina cause they sold goods to both sides. This was fine while the war lasted but in 1917 things changed. • Prices were high and the workers’ living conditions worsened, leading to a call for a general strike. • Some politicians, especially Catalan, didn’t agree with Cánovas’ system and wanted it changed. They organised a parliamentary convention to change the situation. • Certain members of the military wanted to change things. The bourgeoisie started to be afraid of the workers, and with the help of the army the uprisings were suppressed. The political system was certainly in danger. Between 1917-23 thirteen different governments tried to improve the situation.

Nobody In Spain could ignore the importance of maintaining the Antilles: they are the last Jewel in the Crown of Castile; they are the Merchant of our grains, of our flour, of our wines; they are the main foodstuffs for our soldiers; it is the main emigration point of the Spaniards who can make both themselves and Spain rich; they are the main link between the European Spanish race and the American Spanish race. NAVARRO Y RODRIGO, Carlos, Las Antillas, 1872

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AN AGE OF CONFLICT THE PATH TO THE 1st WORLD WAR

80

The text about Spanish international decline mentions five main problems for Spain over this period: • Nationalist movements • Colonial independence movements • Workers’ movements • Economic problems • Constitutional problems Take each problem, and attach some basic concrete facts to it. For example: 1. Nationalist movements: Catalonia...

81

We have already studied the causes of the 1st World War. Now put them onto a concept map like this one. You can copy this one and continue yourself. Remember which states signed each agreement because these became the different sides during the war.To understand the policy of the USA in this period we need to know something of the

CAUSES OF THE 1st WORLD WAR

POLITICAL RIVALRY

Alliances

94

ECONOMIC RIVALRY

Balkans

Colonialism


SELLO EUROPEO

1998 Eleanitz English Project

EUROPEAN LABEL For innovative projects in language teaching and learning



DUKE OF EDINBURGH PRIZE

2006

ENGLISH-SPEAKING UNION PRESIDENT'S AWARD For innovation in the use of new technologies



ELT INNOVATION AWARDS

2008 BRITISH COUNCIL



INNOVATION AWARD International nominated: ‘The Explorers 1’ language teaching materials for 10 to 11 year-olds


10:20

Pรกgina 1

THE PATH TO THE ENLIGHTENMENT 1700-1750 FREEDOM, EQUALITY, BROTHERHOOD? 1750-1870 AN AGE OF CONFLICT 1870-1945 THE STORY GOES ON 1945+

ISBN-978-84-7703-810-8

,!7I 4H7-adibai!

IKASTOLEN ELKARTEA

HISTORY 4

1 2 3 4

15/4/10

COMPULSORY SECONDARY EDUCATION SECOND CYCLE 4ยบESO

History4azala:OSTeGIZ2/1/000

COMPULSORY SECONDARY EDUCATION SECOND CYCLE 4ยบESO

An Age of Conflict: Student's textbook  

Eleanitz-English Project, Secondary 2nd cycle-History: SSLIC (Social Sciences and Language Integrated Curriculum)

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