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Cuprins Abrevieri ............................................................................................. XIII Cuvânt-ĂŽnainte ..................................................................................... XV &DSLWROXO,&RQVLGHUDÄ LLJHQHUDOHSULYLQGQRÄ LXQLOHGHHJDOLWDWH ĂşLQHGLVFULPLQDUH ...................................................................................... 1 6HFÄ LXQHD,VWRULFXOQRÄ LXQLORU GHHJDOLWDWHĂşLQHGLVFULPLQDUH ............ 1 †(JDOLWDWHDPRUDOăGHODQDWXUă ................................................... 1 §2. Egalitatea Âą drept natural inalienabil .......................................... 5 §3. Inegalitatea Âą parte a contractului social .................................... 7 §4. Discriminarea Âą IRUPăGHQHJDUHDHJDOLWăĠLL .............................. 8 6HFÄ LXQHDD-D3ULQFLSLXOHJDOLWăĠLLĂşLGUHSWXOODQHGLVFULPLQDUH ĂŽn dreptul comparat ............................................................................. 10 †3ULQFLSLXOHJDOLWăĠLLvQVLVWHPXORQXVLDQGHSURWHFÄ LH a drepturilor omului ........................................................................ 10 †3ULQFLSLXOHJDOLWăĠLLvQVLVWHPHOHUHJLRQDOHGHGUHSW SULYLWRDUHODSURWHFÄ LDGUHSWXULORURPXOXL ....................................... 14 2.1. Sistemul african de proteFÄ LHDGUHSWXULORURPXOXL .............. 14 2.2. Sistemul inter-DPHULFDQGHSURWHFÄ LHDGUHSWXULORU omului ........................................................................................ 14 6LVWHPXOHXURSHDQGHSURWHFÄ LHDGUHSWXULORURPXOXL .......... 15 Ă„6LVWHPXODVLDWLF´GHSURWHFÄ LHDGUHSWXULORURPXOXL ........... 17 6HFÄ LXQHDD-D3ULQFLSLXOHJDOLWăĠLLĂşLGUHSWXOODQHGLVFULPLQDUH ĂŽn dreptul român .................................................................................. 18 †3ULQFLSLLDSOLFDELOHGUHSWXOXLQDÄ LRQDO....................................... 18 †1DWXUDMXULGLFăĂşLFRQÄ LQXWXOSULQFLSLXOXLHJDOLWăĠLL ................... 21 (JDOLWDWHDPRUDOă ................................................................ 21 (JDOLWDWHDIRUPDOă ............................................................... 22 (JDOLWDWHDVXEVWDQÄ LDOă ......................................................... 23 †&RQÄ LQXWXOGUHSWXOXLODQHGLVFULPLQDUHĂşLGRPHQLXO de aplicare al acestuia ..................................................................... 24 'LVFULPLQDUHDGLUHFWă .......................................................... 24 'LVFULPLQDUHDLQGLUHFWă ....................................................... 25


VIII

(IHFWHOHKRWăUkULORU&('2úL&-8(vQGUHSWXOLQWHUQ

&DSLWROXO,,3ULQFLSLXOHJDOLWăĠLLvQFDGUXOVLVWHPXOXLGHGUHSW HXURSHDQDO&RQYHQĠLHL .......................................................................... 26 6HFĠLXQHD&RQVLGHUDĠLLSUHOLPLQDUH ................................................. 26 6HFĠLXQHDD-a. Aspecte generale privind respectarea dreptului la nediscriminare ................................................................................. 28 †6HPQLILFDĠLDLQWHUGLFĠLHLGLVFULPLQăULLvQVFULVHvQDUW al &RQYHQĠLHL ...................................................................................... 28 †1DWXUDMXULGLFăDGUHSWXOXLODQHGLVFULPLQDUHvQFDGUXO sistemului de drept eXURSHDQDO&RQYHQĠLHL .................................... 31 'HSHQGHQĠDGUHSWXOXLODQHGLVFULPLQDUHGHFODX]HOH QRUPDWLYHDOH&RQYHQĠLHLúLSURWRFRDOHORUDGLĠLRQDOH................. 32 $XWRQRPLDFODX]HLGHQHGLVFULPLQDUHUHJOHPHQWDWă de art. 14 .................................................................................... 33 &DUDFWHUXOVXEVLGLDUDOSURWHFĠLHLvPSRWULYD GLVFULPLQăULL ............................................................................... 36 †3URWHFĠLDGUHSWXOXLODQHGLVFULPLQDUHvQOHJăWXUăFXH[HUFLWDUHD XQRUGUHSWXULLQGLYLGXDOHHFRQRPLFHúLVRFLDOH .............................. 38 †,QWHU]LFHUHDJHQHUDOăDGLVFULPLQăULLvQFRQIRUPLWDWHFX prevederile art. 1 al Protocolului nr. 12 .......................................... 43 6HFĠLXQHDD-a. Standarde minime privind respectarea dreptului la nediscriminare în cadrul sistemului european de drept DO&RQYHQĠLHL ....................................................................................... 47 †*DUDQWDUHDGUHSWXOXLODQHGLVFULPLQDUHvQOHJăWXUăFX ÄH[HUFLĠLXOGUHSWXULORUúLOLEHUWăĠLORUUHFXQRVFXWHGH&RQYHQĠLH´ VDXGHÄOHJH´................................................................................... 49 §2. ([LVWHQĠDGLIHUHQĠHLGHWUDWDPHQWvQED]DDFHOSXĠLQXQXLD dintre motivele de discriminare interzise de art. 14 ........................ 53 ([LVWHQĠDXQHLGLIHUHQĠHGHWUDWDPHQW .................................. 53 2.2. Motive de discriminare interzise de textul art. 14 ............... 53 †'LVWLQFĠLDYL]HD]ăVLWXDĠLLDQDORDJHúLFRPSDUDELOH .................. 58 6LWXDĠLLDQDORDJHúLFRPSDUDELOH ......................................... 58 2EOLJDĠLDVWDWHORUSăUĠLGHDWUDWa diferit persoane aflate vQVLWXDĠLLGLIHULWH ........................................................................ 62 †'LIHUHQĠDGHWUDWDPHQWDUHODED]ăRMXVWLILFDUHRELHFWLYăúL UH]RQDELOă ....................................................................................... 63 'LIHUHQĠDGHWUDWDPHQWXUPăUHúWHXQVFRSOHJLWLP .............. 64 ([LVWHQĠDXQXLUDSRUWUH]RQDELOGHSURSRUĠLRQDOLWDWHvQWUH VFRSXOXUPăULWúLPLMORDFHOHIRORVLWHSHQWUXDWLQJHUHD acestuia ...................................................................................... 66


Cuprins

IX

6HFÄ LXQHDD-a. Aspecte particulare privitoare la garantarea HJDOLWăĠLLĂşLDGUHSWXOXLODQHGLVFULPLQDUH ............................................ 70 †'LVFULPLQDUHDPRWLYDWăUDVLDO ................................................... 70 'LPHQVLXQHDVXELHFWLYăÂą responsabilitatea statului SHQWUXYLROHQÄ DUDVLDOăFRPLVăGHFăWUHUHSUH]HQWDQÄ L ai autorLWăĠLORUSXEOLFH ................................................................ 72 'LPHQVLXQHDSURFHGXUDOăÂą REOLJDÄ LDVXSOLPHQWDUă a statului de a investiga posibilele motive rasiste ...................... 73 †'LVFULPLQDUHDLQGLUHFWă ............................................................ 76 §3. OEOLJDÄ LDSR]LWLYăDVWDWHORUGHDSURWHMDvPSRWULYD GLVFULPLQăULLvQVHFWRUXOSULYDW........................................................ 77 Capitolul III. 3ULQFLSLXOHJDOLWăĠLLvQFDGUXOVLVWHPXOXLGHGUHSW al Uniunii Europene............................................................................... 80 6HFÄ LXQHD(YROXÄ LDSURWHFÄ LHLGUHSWXULORUĂşLDOLEHUWăĠLORU IXQGDPHQWDOHvQFDGUXOVLVWHPXOXL8QLXQLL(XURSHQHGHSURWHFÄ LH a drepturilor omului ............................................................................ 81 †(YROXÄ LDSURWHFÄ LHLGUHSWXULORUĂşLDOLEHUWăĠLORU fundamentale .................................................................................. 82 5HVSLQJHUHDSULQFLSLXOXLUHVSHFWăULLGUHSWXULORURPXOXL GHFăWUH&XUWHDGH-XVWLÄ LHD&RPXQLWăĠLORU(XURSHQH ................ 82 ,QWHUSUHWDUHDOHJLVODÄ LHLSULPDUHvQVFRSXOFUHăULL de drepturi individuale, acceptarea recXQRDĂşWHULLGUHSWXULORU fundamentale ca fiind respectate ĂŽn cadrul ordinii juridice FRPXQLWDUHĂşLSURWHMDUHDDFHVWRUGUHSWXUL ................................... 84 /HJLIHUDUHDĂşLPRQLWRUL]DUHDUHVSHFWăULLGUHSWXULORU fundamentale ĂŽn cadrul Uniunii Europene ................................. 88 6HFÄ LXQHDD-D&RQVLGHUDÄ LLSUHOLPLQDUHSULYLWRDUHODJDUDQWDUHD dreptului la nediscriminare ................................................................. 94 †/HJLVODÄ LDSULPDUăUHIHULWRDUHODJDUDQWDUHDSULQFLSLXOXL HJDOLWăĠLL .......................................................................................... 96 §2. Carta Drepturilor Fundamentale a Uniunii Europene ............... 98 †/HJLVODÄ LDVHFXQGDUăUHIHULWRDUHODJDUDQWDUHDSULQFLSLXOXL HJDOLWăĠLL ........................................................................................ 101 6HFÄ LXQHDD-D,QWHUSUHWDUHDĂşLDSOLFDUHDGUHStului la nediscriminare GHFăWUH&XUWHDGH-XVWLÄ LHD8QLXQLL(XURSHQH ................................ 106 †3ULQFLSLXOJHQHUDODOHJDOLWăĠLLvQWUHHXURSHQLSHPRWLYGH QDÄ LRQDOLWDWHVDXFHWăĠHQLH ............................................................. 108


X

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†(JDOLWDWHDGHULYDWă GLQWUDGLÄ LLOHFRQVWLWXÄ LRQDOHFRPXQH VWDWHORUPHPEUHĂşLDFRUGXULOHLQWHUQDÄ LRQDOHSULYLQG drepturile omului .......................................................................... 111 †,QWHU]LFHUHDGLVFULPLQăULLODORFXOGHPXQFăSHPRWLYGHJHQ FRQIRUPDUW7)8(ĂşLGLUHFWLYHORUFDUH-l LPSOHPHQWHD]ă ...... 113 †1RXDDULHGHQHGLVFULPLQDUHUHJOHPHQWDWăGHDUW7)8( ĂşLOHJLVODÄ LDGHLPSOHPHQWDUHDDFHVWXLDSUHYHGHULOH&DUWHL Drepturilor Fundamentale ............................................................ 116 6HFÄ LXQHDD-a. Standarde minime privind respectarea dreptului ODQHGLVFULPLQDUHvQFDGUXOVLVWHPXOXL8QLXQLLGHSURWHFÄ LHD drepturilor omului ............................................................................. 118 §1. Respectarea standardelor minime stabilite de CEDO, IăUăDDIHFWDvQPRGQHJDWLYDXWRQRPLD8QLXQLLĂşLSHFHD D&XUÄ LLGH-XVWLÄ LH ......................................................................... 119 1.1. Standardul minim aplicabil ĂŽn prezent .............................. 119 6WDQGDUGXOPLQLPDSOLFDELOGXSăDGHUDUHD8QLXQLL OD&RQYHQÄ LDHXURSHDQăDGUHSWXULORURPXOXL ........................... 124 †6WDQGDUGXOLQYHUVăULLVDUFLQLLSUREHLUHJOHPHQWDW de dreptul Uniunii Europene ........................................................ 128 Capitolul IV. ,QWHUSUHWDUHDĂşLDSOLFDUHDVWDQGDUGHORUHXURSHQH PLQLPHGHJDUDQWDUHDSULQFLSLXOXLHJDOLWăĠLLvQVLVWemului QDÄ LRQDOGHGUHSW .................................................................................. 133 6HFÄ LXQHD&RQVLGHUDÄ LLSUHOLPLQDUHDVXSUDFDGUXOXLOHJDO QDÄ LRQDODOSULQFLSLXOXLHJDOLWăĠLL ....................................................... 133 †$VSHFWHJHQHUDOHSULYLWRDUHODUHJOHPHQWăULOHFRQVWLWXÄ LRQDOH vQPDWHULDJDUDQWăULLSULQFLSLXOXLHJDOLWăĠLL ................................... 133 §2. Dreptul la nediscriminare garantat de alte prevederi legale QDÄ LRQDOH ....................................................................................... 135 2UGRQDQÄ DSULYLQGSUHYHQLUHDĂşLVDQFÄ LRQDUHDWXWXURU formelor de discriminare .......................................................... 135 2UGRQDQÄ DGHXUJHQĠăSULYLQGLQWHU]LFHUHDRUJDQL]DÄ LLORU ĂşLVLPEROXULORUFXFDUDFWHUIDVFLVWUDVLVWVDX[HQRIRE .............. 140 †/HJHDSULYLQGHJDOLWDWHDGHĂşDQVHĂşLGHWUDWDPHQt ĂŽntre IHPHLĂşLEăUEDÄ L ............................................................................. 141 §43UREHOHĂşLSDUWDMDUHDVDUFLQLLSUREHLvQPDWHULD QHGLVFULPLQăULL .............................................................................. 142 6HFÄ LXQHDD-D3UDFWLFDMXGLFLDUăQDÄ LRQDOăUHOHYDQWăSHQWUX garantarea dreptului la nediscriminare ĂŽn raport cu respectarea unor drepturi patrimoniale sau personal-nepatrimoniale ................. 143


Cuprins

XI

†3UDFWLFDMXGLFLDUăQDĠLRQDOăUHOHYDQWăSHQWUXJDUDQWDUHD SULQFLSLXOXLHJDOLWăĠLLvQUDSRUWFXXQHOHGUHSWXULIXQGDPHQWDOH patrimoniale .................................................................................. 144 †3UDFWLFDMXGLFLDUăQDĠLRQDOăUHOHYDQWăSHQWUXJDUDQWDUHD SULQFLSLXOXLHJDOLWăĠLLvQUDSRUWFXXQHOHGUHSWXULIXQGDPHQWDOH personal-nepatrimoniale ............................................................... 147 -XULVSUXGHQĠD&XUĠLL&RQVWLWXĠLRQDOHD5RPkQLHL .............. 147 $VSHFWHGLQSUDFWLFDUHOHYDQWăD&RQVLOLXOXL1DĠLRQDO SHQWUX&RPEDWHUHD'LVFULPLQăULL ............................................. 150 2EOLJDWLYLWDWHDLQVWDQĠHORUQDĠLRQDOHGHDUHVSHFWDGHFL]LLOH &XUĠLL&RQVWLWXĠLRQDOH ............................................................... 151 $QDOL]DFDQWLWDWLYăDFDX]HORUUHIHULWRDUHODDSOLFDUHD VWDQGDUGHORUPLQLPHGHJDUDQWDUHDSULQFLSLXOXLHJDOLWăĠLL vQUDSRUWFXXQHOHGUHSWXULSDWULPRQLDOHúL personal-nepatrimoniale ........................................................... 153 Capitolul V. 5DSRUWXOGLQWUHRUGLQHDMXULGLFăQDĠLRQDOă úLVLVWHPHOHHXURSHQHGHGUHSW ............................................................ 165 6HFĠLXQHD2EOLJDWLYLWDWHDUHVSHFWăULLGUHSWXOXL8QLXQLL(XURSHQH GHFăWUHLQVWDQĠHOHQDĠLRQDOH .............................................................. 167 †3ULQFLSLXOVXSUHPDĠLHLGUHSWXOXL8QLXQLL(XURSHQH ................ 167 †$SOLFDUHDLPHGLDWăúLGLUHFWăDGUHSWXOXL8QLXQLL(XURSHQH .. 168 †&DUDFWHUXOXQLWDUúLDSOLFDUHDXQLIRUPăDGUHSWului Uniunii ... 171 6HFĠLXQHDD-D2EOLJDWLYLWDWHDUHVSHFWăULLDXWRULWăĠLLGHOXFUX LQWHUSUHWDWDKRWăUkULORU&XUĠLORUHXURSHQH ........................................ 174 †$XWRULWDWHDGHOXFUXLQWHUSUHWDWDKRWăUkULORULQVWDQĠHORU Uniunii Europene ......................................................................... 174 †$XWRULWDWHDGHOXFUXLQWHUSUHWDWDKRWăUkULORU&XUĠLL(XURSHQH a Drepturilor Omului .................................................................... 177 Capitolul VI. Propuneri de lege ferenda úLFRQFOX]LLJHQHUDOH ......... 181 6HFĠLXQHD3URSXQHULde lege ferenda ............................................. 181 †3URSXQHULGHPRGLILFDUHD&RQVWLWXĠLHL5RPkQLHL .................. 181 †3URSXQHULGHPRGLILFDUHDOHJLVODĠLHLRUJDQLFHúLRUGLQDUH în materia nediscriPLQăULL ............................................................. 183 6HFĠLXQHDD-a. Concluzii generale .................................................. 185 Bibliografie ........................................................................................... 195

Efectele hotararilor CEDO si CJUE in dreptul intern. Analiza asupra dreptului la nediscriminare  

Efectele hotararilor CEDO si CJUE in dreptul intern. Analiza asupra dreptului la nediscriminare

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