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#endslavery #architecture







#rapid growth #business




#INDIA #shooting

#identity #democracy

















#knowledge #gender

#overwhelmin #media





Emily McVey Fall 2013 Senior Seminar: Thesis Paper Hammons School of Architecture Drury University, Springfield MO


introduction background research case studies



A look at how colonization effected developing countries.

14 GLOBALIZATION & MODERNIZATION How globalization causes for immediate change in positive and negative ways.

26 26 INDIAN INSTITUE OF MANAGEMENT Analysis of Louis Kahns education facility as a nonIndian architect.


An education complex by BV Doshi, an Indian architect


A recent project by Rahul Mehrotra, an Indian architect.


Multi-level housing in an urban setting by Charles Correa, an Indian architect.

research summary

project framework




A summation of the themes and argument developed and critqued within the research and case study analysis’.


52 52 NOTES

Digvijay Mill, Kalachowkie; an undeveloped exisiting textile


mill structure



The context surrounding the mill and the existing buildings and use.


Media Cache Image. Mumbai, India


INTRODUCTION The thesis examines how and why the positive influence of global integration negatively affects identity. To understand how and why globalization and modernization have effectively uprooted preexisting lifestyles and cultural identity, the aspects of local identity must be considered. The project proposes a strategy for how new influential western models, which seem to ignore cultural preservation and disregard the social impact of development, can acknowledge and embrace both modernization and retain a cultural identity. Modern technology has forever changed the ways people communicate, shattering the boundaries once hindering communication between peoples, nations, and businesses. With social networks, email, and online search engines, it is now impossible to be connected to what is happening in different parts of the world. Countries that are now exposed to the vast amount of information; the connection to the global community unleashed an unstoppable movement of change that challenges existing culture and cultural identity. For instance, the social network Twitter developed the hashtag (#) that, when attached go a word or phrase, allows it to be searched and found by others interested. The focus is on giving attention to the trending topics of the moment. The hashtag is a clear example of how societies all over the world have given more attention to present and ever-changing trends. With

greater attention being paid to trending topics across the globe, it will undoubtedly change the processes of society. Nations such as India, China, and the United Arab Emirates are experiencing changes on many levels, one being globalization. Globalization affects these nations by bringing them up to the international stage of communication, technology, business, industry, and lifestyles. Globalization rapidly and dramatically is altering the cultural identity and built environment of these countries with no signs of slowing. The current trends of building quickly and building for profit leave vernacular architectural traditions and social norms overlooked and vulnerable to destructive practices. Globalization is aiding in a new cultural movement as it is a trend with lasting effects for a nation.



Colonialism a Predecessor to Globalization Colonialism was a predecessor of globalization as an instance when a nation underwent cultural changes. While globalization is the current movement of change, colonialism played a critical role in exposing how a nation approached cultural change in the past. Globalization is relevant to the growth and spread of the global corporate economy that had not existed before, but there have always existed corporations that stretched across many nations.1 There were only a few select countries running these corporations; the United States, Germany, France, and the United Kingdom led and owned virtually all multinational corporations. Nonetheless this time period was not defined by a few countries’ multinational corporations.2 Though few multinational corporations exist during times of colonialism, these powerful entities expanded their influence in foreign port cities and acquired control over agriculturally rich land, and other resources. The global economy, 8

during the time, could not have been established by developed countries without colonization thus revealing how colonized countries were an important factor for modernity.3 The resulting changes imposed through colonialism are a form of imprinting new lifestyles on effected cultures. These changes are unique to each culture because the structure is unique to each country and city. India’s, colonial history will be investigated further to demonstrate the effects of accepting and rejecting integration. The 1750’s marked the beginning of British force used to gain complete control of India’s city’s which fed the East India Company.4 Peter Marshall states, “The end of the 17th century India became the focal point of the Company’s trade.” The textile industries in Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta were prime locations as port cities, to export large qu antities around the world.5 The British influence could be seen all over Indian cities as clothes, food, and architecture became a customary part of life in cities.

“The end of the 17th century India became the focal point of the Company’s trade.” -Marshall Bombay During Colonial Phase.

9 Ancestry. Bombay 1893


Correa describes, “The British, by the esplanade kept the private through their massive intervention spaces of the Europeans and Indians in the fields of law, administration, apart and unchanged. transport, and communication, initiated a great many changes in the Liberation in 1947 meant big changes public realm.” Yet the rapid integration for Mumbai. The Indian government of western influence into Indian nationalized the European District society saw an immediate backlash in beginning its march towards deThe clear private spaces. European architecture Europeanization.7 styles, for example, were transferred delineations of districts were blurred to India despite the drastically because zoning laws changed to allow different climate and preference of businesses and people to relocate. local materials. The locals did not Natives took back the land and accept the new architecture because reinstalled traditional architecture. it lacked many qualities that Indian While Indians were moving into land architecture successfully solved such once unavailable, the foreign presence as passive cooling and protection in the economy was still evident.8 during the monsoon seasons. “The There was no longer a district specific other two realms [private and sacred] to types of businesses as previous stayed untouched,” stated by Correa, boundaries were dissembled and “so the essential values of Indian unrecognizable as the spatial patterns society remained stable.” diffused.9 The overlap of boundaries, India’s action to reject foreign nationalism of the European District, influences within the private spaces and developed Business Districts set up a unique instance in Mumbai. “The other two realms [private and Mumbai’s unique reaction to change sacred] stayed untouched.” -Correa during colonization presents an are important to understand before interesting study. Before liberation looking at present day Mumbai and in 1947, Mumbai maintained a its evolution with globalization. The relationship with the British. The two dispersion of boundaries and invasion cultures coexisted with the use of into the esplanade is a unique physical boundaries: the European circumstance. This system (or lack of District and a Native Town consisting a system) precedes the integration of of commercial, retail, and traditional globalization and modernization into markets called Bazaars.6 The city the country. remained physically separated by an esplanade, a green space regulated Charles Correa attributes Britain’s through the zoning regulations until inability to restructure India to the end of colonialism. Mumbai India’s complexity and/or chaos. remains an example of how the British Though a cursory glance may reveal carved out an area to call their own, an unorganized system with no which eventually became districts distinctions or suggestions of how defined by a natural barrier, the things could be changed, closer esplanade. The separation created


observation reveals many layers of order within India’s culture.10 India’s complexity arises from many aspects of society, consisting of, but not limited to, a strict family structure influenced by a complex array of religious affiliations that directly influence the lifestyle within the home as well as public interaction. Charles Correa describes Hinduism as, “always having an astonishing ability to absorb diverse myths -- to reinvent them, so to speak, so that they gain new currency.” Correa’s analysis sheds light on the complexity and depth of India’s cultural history. The reinterpreting of ideas and myths, Correa states, has deep roots existing before colonialism and globalization. Reinvention remains crucial in understanding India’s complex identity, as it is a clear foundation for core values in all parts of life.


India’s complex cultural foundation is built on is likely the reason Britain developed strict districts, to keep the chaos out and keep their idea of structure thriving. The indication of complexity can mean different things to other countries, Japan for example. Japan is described as having an order, a clear system, of culture and values; this ability to easily understand the method behind the complexity allowed foreigners such as General Douglas MacArthur to quickly decipher how the society functioned in order to make changes within in a few years.11 India, on the other hand, still maintains a level of complexity difficult to decipher to this day.


apparent chaos and disorder here, on close observation, actually

consists of several layers of order, all superimposed. this



the centuries,

has functioned as a self-defense system, protecting society

against agents of change”

-Charles Correa

13 Fatehpur sikri india

Globalization’s Place in the Modernization of Cities Modernization is inevitable. Technology has broken down barriers, allowing connections to be made in new locations as well as influencing foreign countries while being influenced in return. Globalization is a product of modernization; it advances be means of new connections and new communications integrating individuals and countries. The integration of technology and education is unique to each city because a country’s history and culture has a distinctive way of dealing with new ideas and opportunities. The new opportunities seldom fit seamlessly in the existing context. The process of combining an existing culture with new ideas, cultures, and lifestyles has many layers or scales, beginning with the connection to the global stage. The global stage involves the intermixing of cultures and ideas and the reflection back into foreign places. Global integration not only affects the global community as a while but also local places. The local scale, a nation or city, has to make room 14

for foreign influences accumulated on the global stage, unavoidably affecting local traditions and culture, sometimes to their detriment. Traditions, cultures an more are diluted; the result is a new, unclear, hybridized identity. Globalization has a unique effect on individual places, and this is a positive attribute. The thesis examines how and why the positive influence of global integration negatively affects identity. To understand how and why globalization and modernization have effectively uprooted preexisting lifestyles and cultural identity, the aspects of local identity must be considered. Globalization takes a country from the local stage to the world stage in means of technology, information, education, and business. Technology is a prime component; the medium brings about immediate and irreversible changes and connections to current trends. The jump to the world stage transforms cities into hubs for technology and

15 ABHIJIT KALAN. Crowkaka blogspot


Staticflickr. Mumbai

information centers. The transformation is a virtual integration and influence. The culture supports the virtual influence before it is developed architecturally.


Cities become powerful due to globalization; on a personal scale, a city’s role in the global economy is motivation for individuals to move there. The city becomes a hope filled place with the plethora of jobs and other contributing opportunities.12 Job opportunities contribute to furthering knowledge which causes individuals to travel to these knowledge centers. Glaeser states, “Knowledge moves more quickly at close quarters, and as a result, cities

are often the gateways between continents and civilizations,� the spread of information is an appealing opportunity.13 The newness this proximity offers, in a once mediocre work environment, is greeted with only positive feelings, even though there are negative effects. Living in the city has many benefits, such as close proximity to jobs and public centers, but the positive reaction leads to negative effects. The population of these cities exposes the weaknesses of their infrastructure; public services, such as sewage and clean water treatment systems, cannot keep up with the rapid growth. The problem

requires economic readjustment of priorities on the local and national scales. The governments can solve the problems but don’t, even though the issues expose its weaknesses. The government is focused on progress through building, not maintaining the city infrastructure causing the problem of inequality among classes, employment, housing, and social services.14 They lack the foresight to approach sewage problems, trash overflow, water contamination, and electricity issues early on, leaving the larger scale problems later down the road.

technology and business industries reflects its economic success, but the housing and basic service areas experience a negative response, one of exclusion, because they are not profitable. Globalization is a catalyst for change and happens regardless of whether a nation is prepared or not. More importantly, the modern society is practically equated with western society and western life styles. Cultures find themselves changing rapidly, rarely consciously evolving from their previous cultural identity; instead, this occurs

“they [Indians]

lose their autonomy and sovereignty and become interwoven as elements within the systems of global complexity.” -Urry

The city’s undergoing global integration must do so in a unique way that directly answers to the economic and cultural structure. Gottdiener explains, “Each city [each nation] must react differently to these problems because if a city is analyzed through the socio spatial perspective it must be realized that each city has its own existing economic structure.”15 The social structure is immediately affected by the global economy. The structure and global economy thrive on the existing economic structure, class structure, politics, and delineation of private and public spaces. The consequence of integration is the exclusion of certain areas within the city. The rapid growth of the

through a process of elimination and exclusion. Modernism can be persuasive, easy to gain and easier to dispose of, encouraging a country to leave behind its past traditions and assimilate to western ways of life. The problem with this method of unquestioned transition is the disregard for tradition, family structure, and culture. Ultimately tradition struggles to find a position within the new city structure. The struggle for cultural identity and tradition to find a place in the new and evolving global landscape comes from this new connection with the rest of the world. Globalization has changed how nations interact, which in turn transforms the way


society’s function.16 India’s traditionally intricate cultural identity has encountered rapid growth and unbalanced change that can be best described by Urry. He states, “they [Indians] lose their autonomy and sovereignty and become interwoven as elements within the systems of global complexity.”17 He sees people becoming mediocre, simply existing or living with an undefined idea of who they are. These individuals are unable to determine how to balance the new and old with many adopting the new way of life altogether which distances them from their cultural identity rooted in tradition. The characteristics of globalization are different than colonization’s form of interjection into a society because globalization can breach boundaries colonialism was unable to breach. The boundaries defining public and private spaces are de-saturated along with the identity associated with these culturally specific spaces.

18 Staticflickr. Mumbai

Presently, Mumbai is undergoing rapid change due to globalization and modernization. The city before modernization had little to no zoning differentiation, no delineation of districts as boundaries overlapped, and a strong desire to nationalize non-Indian areas.18 The fast paced introduction of technology encroached on the chaotic city. The response, embracing the growth, encourages the construction of business complexes and service centers. These accommodate foreign companies entering the city, employing an outstanding number of citizens. As Mumbai embraced the change, the excitement and a new outlook on life resulted in young people flocking to the city. The appealing jobs and desirable salaries become enough of an incentive for young people to move because they could have never

attained such a status in a rural setting. The western life rapidly transformed Mumbai, gaining momentum from the technology industry and changing the younger generation’s perspective. Young people now have the opportunity to reinvent themselves because the city offers many more amenities such as schools, shopping, entertainment, restaurants, and night life. Individuals are reinventing themselves as they try new food, watch American movies, and venture to learn more by attaining a higher education. Traditionally in India, the caste system and location determined where and what an individual ended

Staticflickr. Mumbai


the rise of modern society has been associated with the redefinitions of private and public spheres, the articulation of new gender

relationships in domestic settings, the development of new urban dwelling types...”

-Duanfang Lu

up doing in life; the little contact with in domestic settings, and the the outside world limited what people development of new urban were exposed to, lack of alternative dwelling types in response to perspectives. The shift from few the experiences of uprooting…” opportunities to endless opportunities materialized within years and shows The developments Lu discusses are sign of stopping. the same elements being influenced in India. This development, in an India is currently undergoing an already complex Indian culture, has unbalanced transition from local to added another level of complexity. global collaboration. The uneven Saskia Sassen describes global introduction of global lifestyles makes integration as overpowering the redefining what is strictly global or national framework, the existing local difficult for India. Duanfang Lu economy and political structure, yet states, it is inevitably a part of the national “…the rise of modern society framework and functions on a has been associated with the personal scale.19 The global structure redefinitions of private and appears to hover above the national public spheres, the articulation structure, yet it is more than a power of new gender relationships


to organize the national structure. The global structure trickles down to the most intimate layers within a society and imposes changes. The result is the influence of global integration at the public and private layers of society, contributing to the complexity and overwhelming nature that is globalization’s role in modernity.


Indian philosopher R.K. Narayan describes an important aspect of Indian philosophy; he states, “Indian philosophy stresses austerity and unencumbered, uncomplicated, day to day living.”20 The opposite approach is found in western society. When illustrating western ideals. Narayan states that “America’s emphasis, on the other hand, is on material acquisition and the limitless pursuit of prosperity.”21 This contradictory philosophy has integrated into Indian society and has possibly overtaken as the dominant lifestyle. The plethora of jobs lends itself to the western perspective because with jobs comes money which relates directly to status and power. The western lifestyle is not available to everyone even if it is chased by most. The city provides opportunities unattainable by people who chase the idea while living in areas without power and in unsafe structures. The idea of the possibilities the city offers is strong enough to keep people working in the cities, and the hope for something better remains in reach even under the most difficult of living circumstances. Among the differences of living situations around the city there is also concern for traditional systems of class distinction. The caste system had long organized society before the arrival

21 Staticflickr. Busy Street

of globalization; the new opportunities changed how lives were determined. The immobility once imposed by the caste system no longer had the power it once held. Even though the system is said to no longer exist, it is difficult to omit a traditional societal trait quickly. The traditional norms of society will remain ingrained in society but will not hold the substance it once held for every Indian individual. Modernization is a clear determinant of how status and power in India have evolved; power and status are no longer determined by the caste system or a family’s history. Materialism contradicts another focus of Indian philosophy. While Indians are just as materialistic

“America’s other








pursuit of prosperity.”




as other cultures its meaning has changed with modernity.22 For centuries, “the model hero in India has never been he who wins but he who renounces all.”23 Even as wealth and new opportunities take precedent, the notion to be un materialistic still exists and exposes a tension. Correa describes an image of Mahatma Gandhi’s last possessions that bring to light the true and limited necessities needed to live. The possessions were a pair of spectacles, a bowl, sandals, and the trio of monkeys.24 To renounce

22 Outdoor Prayer, Rajanish Kakade



Mumbai Police, Public Radio

Scott D. Coons. Mumbai, India

materialism and the illusion it manifests are to be on the right path to true understanding. The drive behind Indian philosophy is to “reach attainment of ultimate reality beyond dualities and oppositions.”25 A traditional approach to understanding comes about through meditation. Meditation allows for the separation of pure consciousness (transcendent self) and reasoning (psychological “I”).26 The ability to set aside thoughts of daily activities and disruptions allows for clarity and direction. The separation generated by meditation encourages connections to be made to solve problems, to make connections, and to reinvent processes without letting reasoning bog thinking down.

Searching for answers with the pure consciousness accommodates India’s historical fascination with non-manifest reality. Non-manifest truth, in India’s traditional context, is an understanding of a presence of a more profound truth, making for a richer and more curious place to live in.27

23 Bilde.

Baan Ganga, Londoncam99


The immaterial realm is a phenomenon; it is the substance behind Indian art, religion, and philosophy because it looks past the obvious and tries to reveal and comprehend the unknown.28 Comprehending small sacred gestures is time consuming, and in a society expecting instant satisfaction it becomes secondary but still exists in Indian culture. Pluralism has always been a part of India’s cultural foundation but the principles driving society are changing, which is the problem. Pluralism is complex and ambiguous in Indian culture and retains complexity from deep respect of “otherworldliness”. The situation facing Mumbai is complexity in modernism competing with complexity of Indian tradition. Lu states, “Global modernity has been variously conceptualized as an evolving, plural modernity already everywhere and ‘at large’…”29 The respect of traditions and complexity behind India’s culture is as dominant in the society because India is moving in a different direction with little admiration for eternity. The new direction shifts to materialism and lazy design intentions compared to the relationship between man and nature and the sacred realm in art, philosophy, and religion.30 The influence of global structure on complex layers is what Therborn refers to as inter-relationships or “Entangled Modernities”. Entangled Modernities has three levels. The first level refers to the intertwined relationship of 24

people and institutions, the second level asks why these groups are forced to intertwine and become more complex, and the third level examines how this affects the ways of life and individual identity.31 The process brings to the forefront layers of structure within an existing society that are most valuable as well as vulnerable to change. The layers are composed of the private and public spaces. The private spaces are not as readily vulnerable to change but, when intertwined in global integration, has the greatest effect on cultural identity.


modernity has been

variously conceptualized as an evolving, plural modernity already everywhere and ‘at large’…”


The dissipating values and transparent identity for India comes from the inability to keep global influences out of the private realm. India was able to protect against change during colonialism but the aspects of globalization have infiltrated the private space. India’s cities reflect the unbalanced integration of modern society by the rapid growth, built expansion,

rising violence, and lifestyle. The built up environment in Mumbai is a visual example of rejecting the tradition and heritage tied to private spaces. The built environment becomes a manipulative medium as it works for and against cultural ideas thus architecture becomes an influential medium to try and reinvent and reconnect the private and public spaces so identity can be reestablished.

25 NewYorker. Bombay Train Station


Indian Institute of Management, 1962-1974 Ahmedabad, India Architect: Louis Kahn The 1960’s began with promise but what arose were years of trouble and anxiety as the country could not attain a hold in the global economy and found itself under much turmoil. Mihir Bose describes India, “In India it was a decade when you were constantly told what you could not do…” The Indian identity was difficult as life changed and different political parties took power, making changes like numerous prohibitions. India was cut off, and restricted, from foreign influence when Louis Kahn was commissioned to design the new Indian Institute of Management in Ahmedabad, India. Kahn came at a time when Indians, especially young people, needed to be reminded of the richness their culture and Kahn did this by implementing the traditions of ritual and vernacular architecture into the design.32 The young generation, the students, felt a desire to find a way to bring their beloved country up from a bleak life in India even during times of oppression.33 Kahn’s project principles focused on the 26

GreatBuildings. Plan

Dave Morris.


young generation, the students, felt a desire

to find a way to bring their beloved country up from a bleak life in India.�

-Bose 27


the traditional approach to

education in India by emulating a western technique�



Naquib Kossain


educational infrastructure and a “culture enamored in tradition.” Kahn wanted to evolve the traditional approach to education in India by emulating a western technique. The technique of less lecture based learning towards student and professor discussion and debates ultimately to encourage students to become thinkers.34 The architectural plans focus on the student discussion and interaction based education with the identifiable hallways and courtyards. The hallways and courtyards are wider and enhance the hierarchy within the complex circulation. These spaces become an extension of the classroom as they facilitate discussion among students and professors as well as cross disciplinary collaboration.35 The plans, sections, and elevations represent the traditional typology

30 Wikimedia Commons.

of Indian education. The layout is then abstracted, altering the hierarchy of the spaces to accept Kahn’s implementation of western education. The hierarchy of spaces from the classrooms to external rooms and interstitial spaces are an example of a variety of spaces among a diverse setting working towards a common goal. The meeting places created helped students develop an identity, a since of belonging; the paths were an experience that contributed to this identity as pathways became elevated, moved under archways, through portals, and allowing one to find spacious outdoor areas.36 The spaces were clearly defined yet rethought how the hallways (public space) interacted with the classrooms (private space). The clean delineation kept identity in order yet allowed for different influences to take part in the education process.

Kahn used local materials for the entire complex, brick and concrete. The climate in this part of India is arid, a desert. The brick masses have large cut outs strategically placed for light and passive cooling. The openings also contribute to the flow of learning from the classroom to the hallways and courtyards because sound isn’t restrained; it is a direct abstraction and reinterpretation of traditional Indian architecture. Kahn worked on this design in a time India was struggling. India needed a reminder of the importance of its history and how the history and traditions do not have to disappear or become irrelevant in the changing times. Kahn, as an outsider, found a way to design architecture in a forward thinking way while respecting and implementing the traditions of the countries culture and more importantly identity.

Dave Morris.


openings reflect on India’s

traditional architecture as circles and round arches are prominent”


31 Wikimedia Commons.

IIMB, Indian Institute of Management Bangalore 1983 Bangalore, India Architect: BV Doshi, Vastu Shilpa Consultants

Doshi’s direction for the IIMB building was about intermediate spaces. The hallways of a school are not seen as a serious design location compared to classrooms and lecture halls. The hallway typology for an education setting is strictly about getting people from one place to another. Doshi designed the hallways as the primary space in the hierarchy of the school. All spaces are attached to the halls yet don’t overpower the halls. The buildings material, scale, and rhythm are the principles behind the design. The material is traditional stone; it implements an idea of longevity. The stone holds a history with it and when used with modern technology the result is a new and playful for the educational environment.37 The material holds a traditional value related to heavy and solid ideas but the use of stone at the school develops a different effect.


IIM Bangalore 05


All Images: IIM Bangalore, Addison Godel


to varying rhythm of

solids and voids, that is, the wall and opening, coupled

with direct or indirect natural light, these links change in character during different times of the day…”



The walls scale is thick and up to three stories tall but spaced out and have many cut outs.38 Doshi states, “one is separate, and yet connected, even though tenuously.”39 This objective is supported by the intentional spacing and voids, allows for light and air to filter into the spaces. The environment becomes a playful one as individuals move from open areas to enclose yet always remain connected to the exterior and interior spaces if not directly by sight with other sense. The rhythm is the ordering system behind Doshi’s placement of cutouts and openings in the stone walls. The variety of spaces: completely open, partial openings, enclosed are not random but strategic and done in a way to enlist curiosity moving

individuals from one point to the next. Doshi states, “owing to varying rhythm of solids and voids, that is, the wall and opening, coupled with direct or indirect natural light, these links change in character during different times of the day…” is insightful of the intentional placement of openings and scale of spaces. The use of scale and rhythm are strong principles in the project. The focus on material and how to work with it in a specific atmosphere supports Doshi’s principles. The approach relates to working in public spaces because he achieves the balance of designing links to private spaces while maintain a connection to the larger picture, the exterior.


KMC Corporate Office, 2012 Hyderabad, India Architect: RMA Architects The KMC office takes on three goals that respond directly to the surroundings: the climate, people, and visual stimulation. The exterior skin responds to all the goals. The design concept is described as, “The idea of a double skin as a visually dynamic façade, as well as a screen that humidifies the air entering the building – to create evaporative cooling for interiors”.40 The trellis connects the interior and exterior by softening the barrier as a permeable wall. The trellis begins at the ground and rises up to the top of the building façade. The visual experience happens within, close by, or far away. The dynamic façade is susceptible for growing a variety of plants on the aluminum trellis with the assistance of custom made hydroponic trays that collect water.41 The flexibility of the façade is ever changing as plants are articulately placed in response to when they will bloom. The flexible growth and changing colors highlight different areas of the building allowing it to always look different, a visually 36


flexible growth and changing

colors highlight different areas of the building allowing it to always look different”


stimulating work environment. The permeable façade is separate, from the building, allowing people to walk in between the building and the trellis. The separation of space and use of different materials is a gesture to lighten the change from public to private. The business place plays host to people from many different social and economic groups each day, the tension among social groups is inevitable which is why the façade and use of materials in the threshold work to soften the environment and the atmosphere of the workplace.42 Three spaces are clearly defined but not in a harsh way as each stands on its own yet communicate with the others. The space outside the living skin allows visitors and employees to be greeted with a soft material, the plants which are playful in color and texture and are constantly changing.

RMA Architects.


RMA Architects.


living skin represents a different type of technology with multiple purposes.�



Fatehpur Sikri, Natasha Sahgal

After being greeted by the living skin a person walks into the intermediate space that is a significant transition space. The transition space is significant because the two materials standing parallel to each other are opposites, glass and vegetation. The contrast in material allow for a comfortable environment within a narrow space because light and transparency come from both sides. Light is reflected by the glass and the transparency allows people to see what is happening inside the building. Light also shines through the trellis and the transparency allows seeing back out. The interiors use of concrete and stone, contrasting the glass and trellis, offer the concept of a solid foundation acting as an anchor.

The screens interpretation can be related to traditional screens such as those at Fatehpur Sikri. New materials allow for the scale and structure to change but the intentions remain the same.

The KMC Office building is making a statement among the landscape that is the Cyber City in Hyderabad, India. The trellis represents a different type of technology that has multiple purposes. The gesture to traditional methods, passive cooling, is accomplished with modern technology. Technology allowed for a thin system at a larger scale compare to traditional methods, thick and smaller in scale. The dual use of design elements speaks to tradition of living simply and not over complicating things. Instead of having a single design element for each problem RMA as consolidated to a simple design element that solves many problems. The design is a statement about redefining how a technology focused area can look and function by incorporating traditional designs of passive cooling to solve everyday problems and develop visual stimulation.


Kunchanjunga Apartments, 1970-1983 Mumbai, India Architect: Charles Correa Associates Charles Correa’s architecture develops from strict site analysis and the climate and natural wind directions. The apartment complex is located in between the Arabian Sea to the west, the Harbor to the east; this determined the buildings orientation to maximize the use of the sea breezes.43 The location provides the opportunity to utilize passive cooling but leaves the problem of the sun and monsoon rains. Utilizing challenging passive systems but also protecting the living spaces is something Correa looks to solve. His work focuses on quality of living as each space is an opportunity to provide identity through individuality. The solution to handle the harsh sun and rain during the monsoon seasons is a two story terrace, one for each apartment. The two story, outdoor, terrace opens up the “The

reinterpretation of the

traditional bungalow begins with the transition of a rural form

into an urban setting�



interior living spaces by allowing for transparency and views through the apartment.44 The terraces are a modern interpretation of the Indian Bungalow; the traditional verandah in a Bungalow wraps the living area providing passive cooling and protection from harsh weather.45 The reinterpretation of the traditional bungalow begins with the transition of a rural form to an urban setting, because the structure is traditionally one level. The traditional bungalow is intentionally outward facing, providing views through the structure as well as verandas for passive cooling.46 The verandas are also an intermediate space because they are located between the interior spaces and the outside. The verandahs location and purpose in the bungalow design is what Correa reinterprets into an urban setting. The veranda does not wrap the entire interior space of the apartment but is located on the end and remains an intermediate space between the elements and the interior.

Charles Correa Associates.


42 All Images: Charles Correa Associates.

On an even more personal level, the verandas of a traditional bungalow were used as places to sit in the evenings and as small informal gathering spaces.47 Correa accomplishes this personality within the urban setting by designing the terraces to hold earth for growing plants and trees. The terraces work as an informal yet private space as well as providing a double layer of protection for the interior living space.48


double height opens up the interior

volumes and lends to level changes that are not obvious from the exterior of the building.

The terraces once posed as a single solution, necessity for protection, solved more than one problem. The double height opens up the interior volumes and lends to level changes that are not obvious from the exterior of the building. Each apartment variation has been carefully considered with the level changes and how it connects to the apartment above or below. The occupants thoughtfully designed apartments are considerate and flexible, susceptible to identity through individuality.



RESEARCH SUMMARY The private spaces have been integrated into modernization. The disruption is part of why Mumbai lacks identity and connections on a human scale. Colonialism was unable to breach the private sector of society but globalization has. The foreign influences cut out Indian’s roots to their culture and heritage as seen in the ease to demolish homes in order to build corporations. The architectural landscape reflects the ideals of globalization. The aim of my studio project is to reconnect to tradition as well as accepting the modern but also it is about demonstrating a balance of the new and old even in an urban environment.

- The positive influence of global integration negatively affects identity. - Technology is adopted culturally before it is manifested in architecture. - Understanding colonialism as a precedent for globalization in India. - The design variables lacking in an urban setting is open space which is vital to interaction for personal, cultural, and religious practices.

- Looking at reinvention instead of simply taking ideas because everything is specific to context and purpose. - The disconnected cultural identity as result of fast pace change and neglect to preserve tradition. - Reconciling traditional architecture with new development patterns in India’s rapidly evolving cities to bring about a cultural identity.




Project Title: “Through the Mill” The design project is a multipurpose space consisting of offices, recreational activities, public spaces, and housing. This project aims to find a balance of the new and the old or as Correa states, “Architects must transform, reinvent, the old images in terms of the new technologies.” The focus will be on designing with intent of using tradition and new technologies to ultimately develop an identity relatable to the people occupying the space. My approach will involve tradition to help develop a foundation in which to reinvent a new space for working, living, and interacting that connects to the people occupying the space. Presently, designs start with a clean slate void of tradition, this becomes meaningless because there is no background to support it, no connection of a deeper meaning.


Textile mills

58 mills sites in Girangaon, Mumbai, India. 48

Project Site: Digvijay MIll, Mumbai, India The site is one of the 58 mills in Mumbai. It is one of the few yet to be developed on because of stipulations developers must abid by. The important aspect the site are the existing mill buildings. As a textile factory, the original program remained simple, open floor plans for machinery. The two main buildings on site are a long brick and stone building about three to four stories tall. The second is a one story building, covered in metal with a steel structure. The other buildings currently house about 400+ people. The buildlings are called Chawls. The housing buildlings are three to four stories tall and consist only of living spaces.

Digvijay meaning, “who is victorious over everyone.� Also refering to an Indian Cricket player.49 49

The DCR 58 was changed in 2001, favoring developers, not mill workers. For this project I will use the original Project Program DCR 58 program as a guidline for the The program begins with the site. Maharashtra Town and Planning Act of 1966, DCR 58. This implemented a 1/3 formula for development on Site = 250,000 sqft (62 acres) Mill land.50 75,000 sqft - Affordable housing, for 400-450 people 1/3 - Affordable housing for mill (currently living on site) workers 1/3 - Public use 75,000 sqft - Public use 1/3 - Commercial use 75,000 sqft - Commercial use

Google Earth

Google Earth Pukar. Mumbai


Pukar. Mumbai

Madhusudan mills


NOTES Anna Kern and Gabriella Smith, “Interview with Saskia Sassen,” Social Thought & Research. 2 Ibid. 3 Duanfang Lu, “Architecture, Modernity, and Knowledge,” Fabrications: The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historian, Australia and New Zealand (April 2010), 149. 4 Peter Marshall, “The British Presence in India in the 18th Century,” BBC History, February 17, 2011. shtml 5 Ibid. 6 Richard Grant and Jan Nijman, “Globalization and the Corporate Geography of Cities in the Less-Developed World,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 92, No. 2 (June, 2002), 326. 7 Ibid. 8 Ibid. 9 Ibid. 10 Charles Correa, “The Public, the Private, and the Sacred,” Daedalus 118 (1989), 110. 11 Ibid. 12 Edward L. Glaeser, Why Has Globalization Led to Bigger Cities, New York Times, September 8, 2013. 13 Ibid. 14 Mark Gottdiener and Ray Hutchison, The New Urban Sociology, (Westview Press, 2011) 284. 15 Ibid. 16 Ien Ang, “Navigating Complexity” Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies (2011), 782. 17 Urry, Complexity a guided tour, quoted in Ang, “Navigating Complexity”, 782. 18 Richard Grant and Jan Nijman, “Globalization and the Corporate Geography of Cities in the Less-Developed World,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 92, No. 2 (June, 2002), 326. 19 Saskia Sassen, Deciphering the global, quoted in Ang, “Navigating Complexity”, 783. 20 Akash Kapur, “India Becoming: A Portrait of Life in Modern India,” (New York: Penguin, 2012), 6. 21 Ibid. 22 Charles Correa, 112. 23 Ibid. 24 Ibid. 25 Victoria Lysenko, “What is Philosophy in India: Overcoming the Eurocentric Stereotypes,” Mykolas Romeris University (Socialiniu Moklu Studijos, 2012), 805. 26 Victoria Lysenko, 807. 27 Charles Correa, 94. 28 Charles Correa, 93. 29 Duanfang Lu, 150. 30 Charles Correa, 111. 1


Duanfang Lu, 153. Andrew Kroll, “AD Classics: Indian Institute of Management/Louis Kahn,” ArchDaily: October 25, 2010. 33 Mihir Bose, “Sixties: An area of Darkness,” India Today, July 2, 2007. 34 Andrew Kroll, “AD Classics: Indian Institute of Management/Louis Kahn” 35 Ibid. 36 Rob Gregory, “Indian Institute of Management by HCP Design, Ahmedabad, India,” The Architectural Review, August 23, 2010. 27 “RMA Architects. KMC Corporate Office.” RMA Architects. architecture/kmc-corporate-office/ 28 Ibid. 39 “RMA Architects. KMC Corporate Office.” RMA Architects. architecture/kmc-corporate-office/. 40 “Charles Correa Associates. Kanchanjunga, Bombay 1970-83.” 41 Ibid. 42 Hakki C. Ozkan. “Charles Correa- Kanchanjunga Apartments, Cumballa Hill, Mumbai, 1970-1983.” Identity Housing, December 3, 2009. http:// 2009/12/03/ charles-correa-kanchanjunga-apartmentscumballa-hill-mumbai-1970-1983/ 43 Anthony King, “The Bungalow, An Indian Contribution to the West.” History Today (November 1982), 39-40. 44 “Charles Correa Associates. Kanchanjunga, Bombay 1970-83.” 45 Ibid. 46 Mahadev Ittina, Indian Institute of Management Bangalore (IIMB) Campus Architecture. Arch Zine. October 25, 2011. 47 Indian Institute of Management Bangalore. IIMB Architecture. aboutinstitute/iimb-architecture 48 Ibid. 49 Wikipedia. “Digvijay (Kerala cricketer).” Digvijay_%28Kerala_cricketer%29 50 Parwini Zora and Daniel Woreck. Indian Supreme Court gives green light to sell of Mumbai mill lands. World Socialist Web Site. April 17, 2006. 31 32


BIBLIOGRAPHY AD Editorial Team. “AD Interviews: Saskia Sassen.” ArchDaily Video. August 22, 2013. http://www. Ang, Ien. “Navigating complexity: From cultural critique to cultural intelligence.” Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies. (December 2011): 779-794. Annez, Patricia and Bertaud, Alain and Patel, Bimal and Phatak, V.K, “Working with the Market: a New Approach to Reducing Urban Slums in India.” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper Series, (2010) pp. 1-58. Bose, Mihir, “Sixties: An Area of Darkness,” India Today, July 2, 2007, accessed October 2, 2013, Charles Correa Associates. “Kanchanjunga, Bombay 1970-83.” Correa, Charles. “The Public, the Private, and the Sacred.” Daedalus (1989). Eldemery, Ibrahim Mostafa. “Globalization Challenges in Architecture”. Journal Of Architectural & Planning Research 26, no. 4: 343-354. Art Full Text (H.W. Wilson), 2009. Glaeser, Edward L. “Why Has Globalization Led to Bigger Cities?” New York Times, September 8, 2013. Accessed September 10, 2013. why-has-globalization-led-led-to-bigger-cities/? Gottdiener, Mark., and Ray Hutchison. The New Urban Sociology. Westview Press, 2011. Grant, Richard., and Jan Nijman. “Globalization and the Corporate Geography of Cities in the Less-Developed World”. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 92, No. 2 (Jun., 2002) pp. 320-340. Gregory, Rob. “Indian Institute of Management by HCP Design, Ahmedabad, India.” The Architectural Review, (August 23, 2010). Accessed October 2, 2013, http://www. india/8604844.article Harris, Gardiner. “India’s Plague, Trash, Drowns Its Garden City During Strike.” New York Times, October 26, 2012. Accessed September 10, 2013, asia/indias-plague-trash-drowns-bangalore-its-garden-city.html Indian Institute of Management Bangalore. “IIMB Architecture.” institute/iimb-architecture Ittina, Mahadev. “Indian Institute of Management Bangalore (IIMB) Campus Architecture.” Arch Zine. October 25, 2011. Kapur, Akash. India Becoming: A Portrait of Life in Modern India. New York: Penguin, 2012. Kern, Anna., and Gabriella Smith. “Interview with Saskia Sassen.” Social Thought & Research. Khanchandani, Priya. “Building in the Vernacular: Charles Correa and the idea of India.” The Sunday Guardian, July 20, 2013. vernacular-charles-correa-and-the-idea-of-india


King, Anthony. “The Bungalow, An Indian Contribution to the West.” History Today: November 1982, no. 11: 38.38-44. Kroll, Andrew. “AD Classics: Indian Insititute of Management/Louis Kahn,” ArchDaily, October 25, 2010. http:// Kroll, Andrew. “AD Classics: National Assembly Building of Bangladesh/Louis Kahn,” ArchDaily, October 20, 2010. Lu, Duanfang. “Architecture, Modernity, and Knowledge”. Fabrications: The Journal Of The Society Of Architectural Historians Australia & New Zealand 19, no. 2: 144-161. Art Full Text (H.W. Wilson), 2010. Lysenko, Victoria, “What is the Philosophy in India: Over Coming the Eurocentric Stereotypes,” Mykolas Romeris University, 2012. Magliozzi, Zaira. “Indian Architecture. According to Rahul Mehrotra.” Artribune. (February 5, 2013). slate?hl=en&sl=auto&tl=en& secondo-rahul-mehrotra%2F&sandbox=1 Marshall, Peter. “The British Presence in India in the 18th Century,” BBC History, February 17, 2011. http:// Mehrotra, Rahul. Architecture in India: Since 1990. Global Practice: , 2011. Mehrotra, Rahul. “Constructing Cultural Significance: Looking at Bombay’s Historic Fort Area.” Paper presented at World Monuments Fund Conference on Heritage Conservation in South and Southeast Asia, Colombo, Sri Lanka, July 28 30, 2004. Mehrotra, Rahul., Prakash, Sanjay. & Revi, Aromar. “India-GOA 2100.” Proposal for Sustainable Cities International Urban Design Competition presented at 22nd World Gas Conference, Tokyo, Japan, June, 2003. Ozkan, Hakki C. “Charles Correa- Kanchanjunga Apartments, Cumballa Hill, Mumbai, 1970-1983.” Identity Housing, December 3, 2009. 2009/12/03/charles-correa-kanchanjunga-apartments-cumballa-hill-mumbai-1970-1983/ Rai, Saritha. “At Bangalore’s Gated Enclaves, the Chaos Outside Comes Knocking at the Door.” New York Times, September 8, 2013, accessed September 10, 2013. RMA Architects. “KMC Corporate Office.” RMA Architects. Rosenfield, Karissa. “Charles Correa: India’s Greatest Architect.” ArchDaily, May 15, 2013. Accessed November 2, 2013. Rudner, David West. “Caste and Capitalism in Colonial India: The Nattukottai Chettiars.” University of California: California Press, (1994). Shah, Maulik Jasubhai. “Practices of Consequence” Indian Architect and Builder, (October 2012). Accessed October 2, 2013, Wikipedia. “Digvijay (Kerala cricketer)”. en. Zora, Parwini, and Daniel Woreck. “Indian Supreme Court gives green light to sell off Mumbai mill lands.” World Socialist Web site, (April 17, 2006).


IMAGES Table of Contents Image Citations: India at Night. Traffic. RMA Architects. IIM. Wikimedia Commons. Digvijay Mill chinchpokali lalbaug Mumbai. Mayur Salunke. September 8, 2012. ource=wapi& Mumbai India 18868. Text Image Citations Media Cache Image. Mumbai, India. ae059541.jpg Ancestry. Bombay 1893. Bombay During Colonial Phase. Grant, Richard., and Jan Nijman. “Globalization and the Corporate Geography of Cities in the Less-Developed World”. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 92, No. 2 (Jun., 2002) pp. 320-340. Figure 7: The geographic distribution of domestic and foreign companies. Mumbai 1999. Grant, Richard., and Jan Nijman. “Globalization and the Corporate Geography of Cities in the Less-Developed World”. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 92, No. 2 (Jun., 2002) pp. 320-340. Figure 4: the geographic distribution of corporate activity in Mumbai. Grant, Richard., and Jan Nijman. “Globalization and the Corporate Geography of Cities in the Less-Developed World”. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 92, No. 2 (Jun., 2002) pp. 320-340. ABHIJIT KALAN. Crowkaka.blogspot. s1600/mumbai-city2.jpg Staticflickr. Mumbai. Tumblr_500. March 19th, 2013. Staticflickr. Busy Street. Public Radio. Mumbai Police. Bilde. 6&NewTbl=1&MaxH=1600 Rajanish Kakade. Outdoor Prayer. November 7, 2011. Indian-Muslims-attend-outdoor-prayers-to-mark-the-festival-of-Eid-al-Adha-in-Mumbai-India-on-November-72011.-AP-PhotoRajanish-Kakade-960x592.jpg India1911. Londoncam99. Baan Ganga. NewYorker. Bombay Train Station. jpg


GreatBuildings. Plan. plan-greatbuildings/ Dave Morris. daveybot/ Naquib Kossain. Wikimedia Commons. the_old_campus-wikicommons/ Wikimedia Commons. Dave Morris. daveybot3/ IIM Bangalore 05. IIM Bangalore. Addison Godel. RMA Architects. Fatehpur Sikri. Natasha Sahgal. Charles Correa Associates. Textile mills. Google earth. Madhusudan mills. Pukar. Mumbai. Fatehpur Sikri India.‑



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Thesis: Globalization and its connection to cultural identity in Mumbai, India. An investigation of an evolving urban fabric at a large city...