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COMPONENTS OF A CITY what does it take to make a good city?

Barcelona, Spain

INDEX Defining City Related Words A short history of the city The Roman city the grid city The Modernist city The Postmodern city The Contemporary city The Future city - achallanged city? Components of Sandnes Out door recreation The Fjord Industry Farming Food The Grid Scale Suburbia Office park Cars Shopping

Athens, Greece

DEFINING CITY CITY n. pl. cit•ies* 1. A center of population, commerce, and culture; a town of significant size and importance. 2. a. An incorporated municipality in the United States with definite boundaries and legal powers set forth in a charter granted by the state. b. A Canadian municipality of high rank, usually determined by population but varying by province. c. A large incorporated town in Great Britain, usually the seat of a bishop, with its title conferred by the Crown. 3. The inhabitants of a city considered as a group. 4. An ancient Greek city-state. 5. Slang Used in combination as an intensive: The playing field was mud city after the big rain. 6. City The financial and commercial center of London. Used with the. [Middle English cite, from Old French, from Latin c vit s, from c vis, citizen; see kei-1 in IndoEuropean roots.] *The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright ©2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2009. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

CITY n pl cities* 1. (Government, Politics & Diplomacy) any large town or populous place 2. (Government, Politics & Diplomacy) (in Britain) a large town that has received this title from the Crown: usually the seat of a bishop 3. (Government, Politics & Diplomacy) (in the US) an incorporated urban centre with its own government and administration established by state charter 4. (in Canada) a similar urban municipality incorporated by the provincial government 5. (Government, Politics & Diplomacy) an ancient Greek city-state; polis 6. the people of a city collectively 7. (modifier) in or characteristic of a city a city girl city habits Related adjectives civic, urban, municipal [from Old French cité, from Latin cīvitās citizenship, state, from cīvis citizen]

Paris, France

CITY noun - a large and densely populated urban area; may include several independent administrative districts; "Ancient Troy was a great city"

Synonyms: metropolis, urban center

Related words:

concrete jungle - an area in a city with large modern buildings that is perceived as dangerous and unpleasant central city, city center, city centre - the central part of a city financial center - the part of a city where financial institutions are centered down town, municipal center, civic center - the center of a city inner city - the older and more populated and (usually) poorer central section of a city medical center - the part of a city where medical facilities are centered municipality - an urban district having corporate status and powers of self-government national capital - the capital city of a nation provincial capital - the capital city of a province state capital - the capital city of a political subdivision of a country - an incorporated administrative district established by state charter; "the city raised the tax rate", administrative district, administrative division, territorial division - a district defined for administrative purposes

Related words:

city district - a district of a town or city city limit, city limits - the limits of the area occupied by a city or town uptown - a residential part of town away from the central commercial district public square, square - an open area at the meeting of two or more streets

3. city - people living in a large densely populated municipality; "the city voted for Republicans in 1994"

Related words:

metropolis municipality - people living in a town or city having local self-government

*Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. Š 2003-2011 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.

London, England

RELATED WORDS City/Streetscapes Alleys open and fall around me like footsteps of a newly shod horse —Frank O’Hara The ancient oaks … arched over the avenue like a canopy —John Kennedy Toole The asphalt shines like a silk hat —Derek Walcott Bars were strung along the street like bright beads —Margaret Millar In her novel, Experiment in Springtime, Millar strings the actual names of the bars to this simile. A big limestone church hangs like a gray curtain under the street lamp —John Updike The black night falls like a shroud over the whole town —Lu Hsñn A brutally ugly, utilitarian place, like a mill town without the mill —Jonathan Valin The city seems to uncurl like some hibernating animal dug out of its winter earth —Lawrence Durrell The city unwrinkles like an old tortoise —Lawrence Durrell Far below and around lay the city like a ragged purple dream —O. Henry In the distance, the city rose like a cluster of warts on the side of the mountain —Flannery O’Connor The noon sun put a glaze on them [the sidewalks], so that the cement burned and glittered like glass —Carson McCullers The passing scene spread outside the windows like a plentiful, prim English tea —Dorothea Straus People [on crowded sidewalk] … jostling along like sheep in a pen that has no end —Maeve Brennan The public streets, like built canals of air —David Denby Raw grass sprouted from the cobbles like hair from a deafened ear —Philip Levine The shadows of the palms lay like splash marks of dark liquid on the pavement —Ross Macdonald The shop fronts stood along that thoroughfare with an air of invitation, like rows of smiling saleswomen —Robert Louis Stevenson A steep lane, like a staircase —Émile Zola The street as gray as newspapers —Marge Piercy The street lay still as a photograph —Jack Finney The street shone … like a fire in a forest —Robert Louis Stevenson The streets looked as if they were made of silver, they were so bright and glistening —Oscar Wilde, The streets (of Bethany, Massachusetts), sparkled like high-gloss picture postcards sold in drugstores of small New England villages —Susan Richards Shreve Streets tangled like old string —W. H. Auden Street … that neither stank or sparkled but merely had a look of having been turned, like the collar on an old shirt —Hortense Calisher The town, like an upturned sky, swollen with human lights —Albert Camus The town [seen from a distance] looked small and clean and perfect, as if it were one of those miniature plastic towns sitting beside a child’s electric railroad —Ann Tyler A view (of Brewer) spread out below like a carpet —John Updike Village … jumbled and colorful like a postcard —George Garrett Wide, smooth, empty sidewalks looked like long canals of grey eyes —Ayn Rand

Similes Dictionary, 1st Edition. © 1988 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


Pompeii, Italy

THE ROMAN CITY *Components of the ancient roman city: The Procurators Palace – Home for the city’s highest ranking Roman officer responsible for the finances of an imperial province, including tax collection and the payment of troops Town Hall – Often a basilica; was the place for the government offices and courtrooms. Market Place - In roman time called forum; and was ideally situated next to the basilica. Trading an Import - A port for trading and import of goods from all over the roman world. Amphitheatre – To entertain the free roman citizens. Baths – For citizens to clean themselves and to relax. Water Fountains – To clean dirty clothes, and some to drink from. Aquaeduct - Supplied water to public baths and for drinking water, in large cities across the empire, and set a standard of engineering that was not surpassed for more than a thousand years. Town houses – Single family houses for the rich Romans. Insulae – A roman apartment block, a building where several families could live at once. Citywall - To protect the people and buildings against attack from others. Protection - Roman cities had fire brigades stationed around the walls and the gates of the city. *Based on the description of the City of Londinium, the roman city of London.

*“The ancient Romans used a consolidated scheme for city planning, developed for military defense and civil convenience. The basic plan consisted of a central forum with city services, surrounded by a compact, rectilinear grid of streets, and wrapped in a wall for defense. To reduce travel times, two diagonal streets crossed the square grid, passing through the central square. A river usually flowed through the city, providing water, transport, and sewage disposal […] All roads were equal in width and length, except for two, which were slightly wider than the others. One of these ran east–west, the other, north–south, and intersected in the middle to form the center of the grid. All roads were made of carefully fitted flag stones and filled in with smaller, hard-packed rocks and pebbles. Bridges were constructed where needed. Each square marked by four roads was called an insulae, the Roman equivalent of a modern city block. Each insula was 80 yards (73 m) square, with the land within it divided. As the city developed, each insula would eventually be filled with buildings of various shapes and sizes and crisscrossed with back roads and alleys. Most insulae were given to the first settlers of a Roman city, but each person had to pay to construct his own house. The city was surrounded by a wall to protect it from invaders and to mark the city limits. Areas outside city limits were left open as farmland. At the end of each main road was a large gateway with watchtowers. A portcullis covered the opening when the city was under siege, and additional watchtowers were constructed along the city walls. An aqueduct was built outside the city walls.” *From Wikipedia on urban planning

Manhattan in New York, USA

THE GRID CITY *Components of the Manhattan grid from 1811: twelve numbered avenues - running north and south roughly parallel to the shore of the Hudson River, each 100 feet (30 m) wide, with First Avenue on the east side and Twelfth Avenue in the west. several intermittent avenues - east of First Avenue, including four additional lettered avenues running from Avenue A eastward to Avenue D in an area now known as Alphabet City in Manhattan’s East Village. The numbered streets - in Manhattan run east-west, and are 60 feet (18 m) wide, with about 200 feet (61 m) between each pair of streets. With each combined street and block adding up to about 260 feet (79 m), there are almost exactly 20 blocks per mile. The typical block in Manhattan is 250 by 600 feet (180 m). 155 numbered crosstown streets - later the grid has been extended up to the northernmost corner of Manhattan, where the last numbered street is 220th Street (Manhattan). Moreover, the numbering system continues even in The Bronx, north of Manhattan, despite the fact that there the grid plan is not so regular; there the last numbered street is 263rd Street. Fifteen crosstown streets - were designated as 100 feet (30 m) wide, including 34th, 42nd, 57th and 125th Streets, some of the borough’s most significant transportation and shopping venues. Broadway - is the most notable of many exceptions to the grid, starting at Bowling Green in Lower Manhattan and continuing north into the Bronx at Manhattan’s northern tip. In much of Midtown Manhattan, Broadway runs at a diagonal to the grid, creating: major named intersections at Union Square (Park Avenue South/ Fourth Avenue and 14th Street), Madison Square (Fifth Avenue and 23rd Street), Herald Square (Sixth Avenue and 34th Street), Times Square (Seventh Avenue and 42nd Street), and Columbus Circle (Eighth Avenue/ Central Park West and 59th Street).

*Based on The Commissioners’ Plan of Manhattan from 1811.

*“[…]In 1852, Baron Georges-Eugène Haussmannwas commissioned to remodel the Medieval street plan of Paris by demolishing swathes of the old city and laying out wide boulevards, extending outwards beyond the old city limits. Haussmann’s project encompassed all aspects of urban planning, both in the centre of Paris and in the surrounding districts, with regulations imposed on building facades, public parks, sewers and water works, city facilities, and public monuments. Beyond aesthetic and sanitary considerations, the wide thoroughfares facilitated troop movement and policing. The plan chosen to extend Barcelona was a rigorous project based on a scientific analysis of the city and its modern requirements. It was drawn up by the Catalan engineer Ildefons Cerdà to fill the space beyond the city walls after they were demolished from 1854. He is credited with inventing the term ‘urbanization’ and his approach was codified in his General Theory of Urbanization (1867). Cerdà’s Eixample (Catalan for ‘extension’) consisted of 550 regular blocks with chamfered corners to facilitate the movement of trams, crossed by three wider avenues. His objectives were to improve the health of the inhabitants, towards which the blocks were built around central gardens and orientated NW-SE to maximize the sunlight they received, and assist social integration.”

*From Wikipedia on urban planning

The Radiant city, Le Courbusier

THE MODERNIST CITY *Components of the modernist city: Separated programming - of the different activities in a city like housing, offices, factories, leisure, culture, government, commerce and transportation. Skyscrapers - made by concrete and steel, was an efficiant use of land leaving more floor area for leisure, to preserve fresh air, and prevent fires and deceases to spread. Housing blocks - efficiant use of land, to provide everyone with a home in the city. Large urban green areas - for leisure, which was a new concept. To prevent deceases and ensure good health for all the citizens. rooftop terraces - giving everyone a view and a more private sphered park. Public Transportation - In forms of bus, train, trams or subway, to ensure an efficient traffic flow. It also gave people with lower income an efficient mean of transportation. *Based on Le Corbusiers Ville Radieuse

*In the developed countries of Western Europe, North America, Japan, and Australasia, planning and architecture can be said to have gone through various paradigms or stages of consensus in the last 200 years. Firstly, there was the industrialised city of the 19th century, where building was largely controlled by businesses and wealthy elites. Around 1900, a movement began for providing citizens, especially factory workers, with healthier environments. The concept of the garden city arose and several model towns were built, such as Letchworth and Welwyn Garden City in Hertfordshire, UK, the world’s first garden cities. These were small in size, typically providing for a few thousand residents. In the 1920s, the ideas of modernism began to surface in urban planning. Based on the ideas of Le Corbusier and using new skyscraper-building techniques, the modernist city stood for the elimination of disorder, congestion, and the small scale, replacing them with preplanned and widely spaced freeways and tower blocks set within gardens. There were plans for large-scale rebuilding of cities in this era, such as the Plan Voisin (based on Le Corbusier’s Ville Contemporaine), which proposed clearing and rebuilding most of central Paris. No large-scale plans were implemented until after World War II, however. Throughout the late 1940s and 1950s, housing shortages caused by wartime destruction led many cities to subsidize housing blocks. Planners used the opportunity to implement the modernist ideal of towers surrounded by gardens. The most prominent example of an entire modernist city is Brasilia in Brazil, constructed between 1956 and 1960.

*Wikipedia on Urban planning

*“Ville Radieuse or the radiant city, was an unrealised project designed by the French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier in 1924. [...]Influenced by the linear city ideas of Milyutin and the theories of the syndicalist movement (that he had recently joined) he formulated a new vision of the ideal city, the Ville Radieuse. It represented an utopian dream to reunite man within a well-ordered environment. [...]the Ville Radieuse was a linear city based upon the abstract shape of the human body with head, spine, arms and legs. The design maintained the idea of high-rise housing blocks, free circulation and abundant green spaces proposed in his earlier work.The blocks of housing were laid out in long lines stepping in and out. Like the Swiss Pavilion they were glazed on their south side and were raised up on pilotis. They had roof terraces and running tracks on their roofs.”

*Wikipedia on Ville Radieuse

Instant city, Archigram

THE POSTMODERN CITY *Components of the post modernistic city: cultural appropriation - meaning the ability to appropriate/add cultural value or collective history, such as the re-development of old factory buildings in Soho, Manhattan, as an example given in the text. Gentrification - or the re-development (gentrification). As in the example of Soho, the area is removed from its former industrial context and appears as a consumer’s arena. Visually the historical Soho lives on, but culturally the area now belongs to the world of commerce. power and culture - Is on one side power can be spatially read as a centralized phenomenon, like in old modern cities like London, Paris and New York. Resulting in the skyline as the image of a city. The skyline is the most obvious consumer product of the city. Vernacular Features - phenomenons of identity in cities without a clear image. Cities like LA, Orlando and Miami are decentralized in nature, therefore they have no clear image or consumer product like the obvious centralized cities. These cities are more about the vernacular features, the more obvious phenomenon’s, like single family housings, motorways etc. These phenomenons’s becomes the “image” of these types of cities, and these cities are often thought of as more post modernistic urban landscapes. Disneyfication - is a very successful creation of a dream vision or a fantasy of a city. In the same tradition as the world expos, Disney projects a way of living for the future (like the Epcot Center). The city is not built on history, but on a dream, a fantasy, or a phenomenon. It’s not set to a time, it is timeless. Disney has the ability to create products that again creates a feeling of a place and belonging. The social spatial identity is entirely created of what we consume. Choises - Of identities from mass communication and consumers appropriated image. In these images we consume what we imagine, and we imagine what we consume. Individualism - buildings where buildt after spesifics instead of generics, resulting in more mixed programmed buildings and, ideally, cities. * Based on Sharon Zukins article “Post modernistic urban landscape: to map culture and power “

*”By the late 1960s and early 1970s, many planners felt that modernism’s clean lines and lack of human scale sapped vitality from the community, blaming them for high crime rates and social problems. Modernist planning fell into decline in the 1970s when the construction of cheap, uniform tower blocks ended in most countries, such as Britain and France. Since then many have been demolished and replaced by other housing types. Rather than attempting to eliminate all disorder, planning now concentrates on individualism and diversity in society and the economy; this is the post-modernist era.”

*Wikipedia on urban planning

Masdar, Norman Foster

THE CONTEMPORARY CITY *The components of the contemporary city: Solar plant - To provide the city with electricity. Wind farms - Together with the solar plant, will make the city autonomous. Water management - To reuse grey water and to clean dirty water. Sustainable material use - To give the city a zero emission energy budget. Recycling of all waste - To avoid energy waste. *based on Norman Forster’s masterplan for Masdar city.

*Masdar city is a project in Abu Dhabi, in the United Arab Emirates. Its core is a planned city, which is being built by the Abu Dhabi Future Energy Company, a subsidiary of Mubadala Development Company, with the majority of seed capital provided by the government of Abu Dhabi.Designed by the British architectural firm Foster and Partners, the city will rely entirely on solar energyand other renewable energy sources, with a sustainable, zero-carbon, zero-waste ecology. The city is being constructed 17 kilometres (11 mi) east-south-east of the city of Abu Dhabi, beside Abu Dhabi International Airport. Masdar City will host the headquarters of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). The city is designed to be a hub for cleantech companies. Its first tenant is the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, which has been operating in the city since it moved into its campus in September 2010. [...] The city is planned to cover 6 square kilometres (2.3 sq mi) and will be home to 45,000 to 50,000 people and 1,500 businesses, primarily commercial and manufacturing facilities specialising in environmentally friendly products, and more than 60,000 workers are expected to commute to the city daily. Automobiles will be banned within the city; travel will be accomplished via public mass transit and personal rapid transit systems, with existing road and railways connecting to other locations outside the city. The absence of motor vehicles coupled with Masdar’s perimeter wall, designed to keep out the hot desert winds, allows for narrow and shaded streets that help funnel cooler breezes across the city. […] Masdar will employ a variety of renewable power resources. Among the first construction projects will be a 40 to 60 megawatt solar power plant, built by the German firm Conergy, which will supply power for all other construction activity. This will later be followed by a larger facility, and additionalsolar panels will be placed on rooftops to provide supplemental solar energy totalling 130 megawatts. Wind farms will be established outside the city’s perimeter capable of producing up to 20 megawatts, and the city intends to utilise geothermal energy as well. In addition, Masdar plans to host the world’s largest hydrogen power plant.Water management has been planned in an environmentally sound manner as well. A solar-powered desalination plant will be used to provide the city’s water needs, which is stated to be 60 percent lower than similarly sized communities. Approximately 80 percent of the water used will be recycled and waste water will be reused “as many times as possible,” with this greywater being used for crop irrigation and other purposes. The city will also attempt to reduce waste to zero. Biological waste will be used to create nutrient-rich soil and fertiliser, and some may also be utilised through waste incineration as an additional power source. Industrial waste, such as plastics and metals, will be recycled or re-purposed for other uses. The exterior wood used throughout the city is Palmwood, a sustainable hardwood-substitute developed by Pacific Green using plantation coconut palms that no longer bear fruit. Palmwood features include the entrance gates, screens and doors. *Wikipedia on Masdar city

Loop city in the Ă˜resund region, Bjarke Ingels Group


*the components of the Future Challanged City: Mobility - Global oil production will fade out, and can not keep up with the demand from exploding numbers of vehicles. Cars need to go electric. Energy - the change from non renewable to renewable energy sources has created the need to explore new forms of storage and exchange of energy. Waste - The amount of waste per capita is exploding, and there is a need to turn waste into resources. Water - We need to generate and preserve clean water. Only 3 % of the earth’s 70 % of water is fit for human consuption. Global warming - Selfinflicted or not; the earth is getting warmer, and the sealevel is rising. This creates a need for “waterproof” cities. Biodiversity - Biodiversity is in a serious decline and the need to reestablish the conditions of “real” nature within our cities is important. Industrialisation - After 50 years of decline in industrial output, the automated fabrication and design technologies is creating a new sector of microfactories allowing a new form of industrialization to mix with our cities. Health - Obesity and lifestyle deceases in the new “plague”. Urban planning need to encourage human movement and physical activity. Food - The world is running out of food. And the last 5 years the world has been depleting the food reserves. We need a second green revelution. Migration - The age bomb is near. In 2050 there will be 200 % the amount of people over 65 years. We need a new wave of immigration to keep our current level of welfare. *Based on Bjarke Ingels Group’s project : Loop city .



COMPONENTS OF SANDNES Outdoor recreation - The largest area of the municipality of Sandnes is large sites of nature. The forest, the mountain and the fjord is the large framework of the city. The municipality serves as a recreational area for the region at large, with the possibilities for hiking, hunting and fishing within the municipal borders. The Fjord - Sandnes is situated at the head of the Gandsfjord. Historycally the fjord has been the core of the trading, commerce and industry in the city. It is also the strongest component in “the image” of the city. Both in a positive and negative way. The fjord symbolises the industry and the recreational aspect of the city, at the same time it is view as an obstacle for the daily commute traffic. Industry - Sandnes is a city built on industry. Historically the industry was situated by the water, resulting in the then knowned skyline of the factory pipes around the fjord. Today there are still some industry by the fjord, but most of the industry has moved out of the city. With the oil findings in the late 1960’s the industry changed. It became more specialized, and mainly serving the oil industry. Since the city is growing fast, the building industry is very visible in the city, building housing projects, infrastructure, and more.

Farming - Sandnes is situated in Jæren, an ancient agricultural region with traces of settlement going back 8000 years. Today Jæren is the largest and most modernized farming region in Norway. Even though Sandnes is not directly built upon farming, the farm plays a vital part of the city’s identity. There has always been farms in Sandnes, in close range to the city center, giving them a central role of the city’s image. In addition the city was the trading center for the agricultural region. There are still some farms left within the central areas of the municipality. This farmland is now planned to be used for housing, due to the increasing population. Food - Sandnes is a central point in the largest agricultural region in the country. This makes food and the food industry a vital part of the regions, as well as Sandnes, image. In the same way as the industry of Sandnes had to specialize to survive, so did the food industry, resulting in a focus on high-end products and local food. This new focus is fronted by local chefs, amongst others, Charles Tjessem, who want the Bocouse d’or in 2003. After his win he started his own resturant in the heart of Sandnes, where the present Norwegian and Scandinavian chef-champions are at work. The Grid - Sandnes was originally a crossroad on the west site of the fjord, in the middle of the farmland and the city of Stavanger. In 1861 the municipality layed out a grid map of that would become the city centre of Sandnes. Today the crossroad and the central grid is still visible, but has not continued its development along with the city. Scale - The urban landscape of Sandnes is characterized of three different scales. The grid, with the townhouses and shops is the original settlements representing a pedestrian scale. The urban sprawl and suburb is dominated by single family houses with gardens, and represent the automobile scale. The waterfront and the landfill and the decentralized industry & office parks is developed by large volumes, and building complexes and shows the regional and global scale. Suburbia - The dominant typologi of Sandnes is the suburban housing areas that encircles the city center. The typical plot is built as a single family house, with a garden, a garage and 2 cars. Due to the rapid growth of inhabitants, this development dominates the agenda of the municipality at the expense of the cultivated landscape, the farming and the transportation system. Cars - Sandnes is a city where the car is a very dominant feature of the city. 78 % of the households in Sandnes is automobile, and half of them has 2 cars or more. Since the private car is prioritized before the public transportation, the city experiences daily traffic jams and car queues for several hours, with people driving to and from their work that is mainly in the outskirts of the city. The Office park - Sandnes is today the home for many of the large national and global companies within the oil industry. These companies are all gathered in the outskirt of the city. Forus is an area at the border between Sandnes and Stavanger, where these large corporate headquarters are situated. The area accounts for 60 % of the workplaces in Sandnes, and is the major contributor to the citizents income, but also to the city’s traffic situation. Shopping - Sandnes is a city of trade and commerce. Originally the city was the regional tradingplace, and has since then built the city on this identity. The original parts of Sandnes is today the longest, pedestrian shoppingstreet in Norway. In the 1980’s, when most of the industry was decentralized, the shopping mall was introduced in the old factory buildings. Sandnes houses several shoppingmalls, amongst them “Kvadrat” which for many years ruled as the largest shopping mall in Norway.

Outdoor recreation *

* A view from the Fjogstad peak towards the City peak. The City peak (Bynuten) is the highest point in the municipality of Sandnes with its 671 meters above the sealevel.

The Fjord

* Gandsfjorden is a fjord within Boknafjorden. Stavanger is at the mouth of the fjord, while Sandnes is located at the head of the fjord.


* Sveisehuset Vest AS is one of the spesialized industries in Sandnes. At the factory they specialize in the production of gaskets for the offshore operations.


*There are still farms in the more central areas of the city. The farm on this photo is a farm at Vatne, a 8 minute drive


*This photo is taken at the reception at the resturant Charles & De in the mainstreet in Sandnes. Charles & de is the restaurant of the former Bocouse D’or winner Charles Tjessem. The resturant is one of the few places in Sandnes that attracts visitor from outside of the city, and the region.

The Grid

*The origin of Sandnes was a crossroad on the west side of the fjord, and this crossroad was about the same place as this cross is today. This cross is from the 1861 municipalityplan of Sandnes, and the origins of the grid.


*In the city center of Sandnes the three scales are well represented. The large scale factories, the humanscale houses, and something inbetween with the housing blocks.


*A photography of “Sørbø geilen”, a suburban area 3-5 km from the city centre of Sandnes. The “typical neighbourhood” in Sandnes.

The Office park*

*This photo shows the headquarters of Statoil with the parkinglot in front. The office is in both Sandnes and Stavanger municipality, as it is situated at Forus.


*A photography of “ruten� a originally public plaza turned into a parkinglot, in the middle of the city center, with the shopping mall on the one side and the shopping street on the other.


*Vågen 33 is one of Sandnes shopping malls, located within old factory buildings. The shopping mall used to be textile factory in the city. This photo is from one of the “streets” within the mall.

Printed in Bergen the 10th of april 2012.

Components of a city  

What does it take to make a good city?

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