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Scrapping aerosol cans in Canada Technology The wide world of (shear) balers Recovered paper Emerging economies see biggest demand Sunny prospects for solar panel recyclers? Evaporation of plastics scrap flows to China David Dodds: ‘I paid Euro 65 000 for absolute garbage’

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EDITORIAL

Powerpoint fatigue The editorial team at Recycling International has the privilege to attend many conferences covering this dynamic industry. It’s on these occasions that we meet our readers and business relations, be it recyclers, traders, technology suppliers or scientists, you name it. But apart from the networking opportunity for the magazine, congresses form a major source of information. It’s here that we learn about the latest developments affecting your day-to-day business, whether these relate to economical, environmental or political issues. Clearly, the success of a conference depends heavily on the quality of the speakers. It would be true to say that not all speakers are born speakers. The content of a presentation may be extremely interesting and informative, but sometimes the audience can get distracted or, worse still, fall asleep. I well remember a paper recycling congress where a presentation was disturbed by the loud snoring of one of the delegates. It could have been jet-lag but I’m more inclined to believe this was the result of a boring speaker. Trust me, two days with 20-plus speakers and dozens (or more probably hundreds) of power point stats, graphs

Recycling International Informaticaweg 3 7007 CP Doetinchem The Netherlands

and diagrams can be a little too much. My worst experience was two years ago during a two-day ship recycling conference. The speaker, who had probably been given 20 minutes to make his point, climbed on to the stage and started reading from a report - literally word for word - while the pages were projected on to the screen. The presentation took close to one and a half hours. Fortunately, there are talented speakers too - and sometimes, pure entertainers and performers who know exactly how to please an audience. They really make a show out of a presentation, without detracting from the message and content. In mid-January, I attended the International Electronics Recycling Conference in Salzburg. The event was opened by David McWilliams, an Irish economist and author. He did not talk about recycling. His presentation was about trends in the global economy and how these affect us all. It was informative, shocking and very funny at the same time. And he did not use power point. Martijn Reintjes Chief Editor, Recycling International

Editorial  +31 (0) 88 29 44 800  martijn@recyclinginternational.com  kirstin@recyclinginternational.com

Advertisements  +31 (0) 88 29 44 739 +31 (0) 6 556 899 47  judith@recyclinginternational.com

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IN THIS ISSUE COVER STORY Around 60 million aerosol cans are consumed in Ontario every year, but only 10% of this waste stream is properly recycled. An innovative made-in-Canada technology called HazPak may change all this by processing more than 9000 cans per hour. Read about this and more in our latest country report focusing on Canada.

12 SOLAR PANELS By 2050, there will be as much as 78 million tons of photovoltaic panel waste globally. This would provide enough raw materials to produce 2 billion new solar panels.

26 30 PLASTICS HIGHLIGHTS FROM WARSAW China’s ‘crusade’ against plastics scrap imports is based on ‘orders coming right from the top’. Also, a recent UK survey reveals that the public believes almost 50% of the world’s plastic waste comes from Europe.

Market Analysis Ferrous Nickel & Stainless Non-Ferrous Plastics Paper & Textiles

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Cover photo: Martijn Reintjes

Events Next issue

The go-to source of global

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SECTIONS Editorial Interview Trends & Updates Cover story: focus on Canada Paper Conference Warsaw Solar panel recycling outlook Plastics Conference Warsaw Baler special In the Lab Beck’s Buyers’ Guide

Recycling

recycling information

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According to leading manufacturers, baler production and sales were significantly higher again last year - for some, by as much as 65%. Recycling International summarises the latest trends and investments for you.

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BALER SPECIAL

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a u t h o r Martijn Reintjes

‘There are many recyclers who have had a similar experience and lost a lot of money.’

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BUSINESS David Dodds:

‘Be vigilant with any trading opportunities’ Highly-experienced scrap metal recycler David Dodds recently bought 100 tonnes of aluminium scrap which turned out to be ‘absolute garbage’. Now he is on a mission to get his money back from the Chinese trader who ‘cheated me so badly’. Moreover, he wants to warn fellow recyclers about practices that are poisoning the industry. Being deceived is not something an experienced scrap metal recycler like David Dodds is happy to share with the outside world. However, he feels it is important to shed more light on what he believes has become common practice in the global recycling industry. ‘This is not an isolated incident,’ says Dodds, who is managing director of UK-based scrap business Sackers Recycling. ‘It was the first time this had happened to me, but there are many recyclers out there who have had a similar experience and lost a lot of money.’ It is the middle of January when Dodds tells his story on the phone from Mumbai where he has had a meeting with the customer to whom he had recently sold a load of low-quality aluminium scrap he had bought as ‘goodquality’ material. What was the background to this? Dodds: ‘What has happened is that I have been badly cheated by a Chinese company. I bought from them 100 tonnes of Zorba they had got from their supplier in Brazil and which I delivered to my customer in India. But when the containers arrived at the customer’s factory, the material was absolute garbage

and didn’t reach anywhere close to the analysis the Chinese trader had said it was.’ So what did you do? ‘I tried to start a dialogue with them. But they refuse to accept my calls. I have lodged a US$ 35 000 claim on them. They are simply refusing to accept any responsibility.’ What is the current state of affairs? ‘I have now settled with the customer in India. But there is no winner. And I still lose a lot of money, some US$ 35 000.’ Do you think this type of practice is taking place on a large scale? ‘Regretfully, yes, I do think this is common practice in our industry and business. As mentioned, it was the first time it had happened to me, but it is happening everywhere.’ Have your heard of fellow recyclers who have fallen victim to this same company? ‘No, not yet. But I will now be starting a full investigation into their trading prac-

tices with some of my scrap peers around the world. I want to warn fellow recyclers about this company and to try and “flush them out” as they are still trading with many people. And of course, I want to get them to come to the negotiating table to settle the claim.’ What have you learned from this experience? ‘Make sure of being more vigilant with any trading opportunities. I believe you can avoid becoming a victim of these kinds of practice. How? Due diligence must be done. Most importantly, always visit the yard or factory before doing any business. You have to know who you are doing business with.’

A broad-based recycling expert Headquartered at Great Blakenham in the east of England, family-run Sackers Recycling has developed from being purely a metal scrap recycler and trader into a total waste management specialist. Based at a 28 000 foot yard, Sackers collects, recycles and trades scrap metals, as well as handling commercial and industrial waste. Recently, the company has invested in a new waste management plant focusing on commercially-derived waste-containing materials. ‘This is pretty similar to scrap processing except that we are extracting commodities such as paper, plastics and metal,’ explains Sackers’ managing director David Dodds. ‘Since landfill prices have been on the rise, we have seen a great opportunity in offering all our current factory-based customers this service alongside the scrap metal service we already offered.’

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Anniversary alert: Recycling International turns 20! 2018 marks an important milestone for Recycling International as we celebrate our 20th year in the global recycling business. Since the first edition of the magazine rolled off the presses in May 1998, a lot has changed… We have seen scrap prices jump up and down, many business mergers and start-ups, and profound growth in support for sustainable targets - all while recycling solutions have become smarter and more powerful. Not least, we’re pleased to have expanded our community to include readers in more than 100 countries around the globe. ‘Times are changing fast. And yet, whatever happens, time and again, we

have seen proof of the resilience of those people driving the recycling industry,’ comments associate editor Kirstin Linnenkoper. Coming soon: jubilee edition ‘Of course, Recycling International will be publishing an extra-special issue this May,’ comments the magazine’s editor in chief Martijn Reintjes. ‘Basically, Recycling International is having a party, and you are the guest of honour. So tell us what you are celebrating this year. What are the achievements you are proud of? We are not going to claim the spotlight; we want to let the recyclers shine.’ Let’s crack open the champagne! ‘Come celebrate this milestone with us at the upcoming BIR World Recycling Convention in Barcelona this May, or come and find us at the IFAT trade show in Munich that month,’ says sales manager Judith Wanjala. ‘We can raise a glass of vino together to mark this special occasion.’ A booming recycling market As far as we are concerned, the future for recycling holds a lot of promise. We are proud to be a part of all this progress - either by reporting on innovative technology, shining a light on important issues or meeting up with recycling leaders at trade shows and conferences worldwide. For the next 20 years and beyond, everyone at Recycling International will remain dedicated to bringing you must-read recycling stories and essential market updates. Thank you for your support. We look forward to the next chapter!  martijn@recyclinginternational.com  judith@recyclinginternational.com

BUSINESS NEWS EuRIC The European Recycling Industries’ Confederation (EuRIC) is counting down to its annual conference focusing on ‘Closing Loops - Recipe for a truly circular economy’. Taking place at the Bluepoint Brussels business & conference centre on 6 March, the event will feature high-level policy-makers and influential recycling industry executives. The emphasis will be on policy developments covering the entire value chain from product design, to the use phase and up to end-of-life recycling, alongside the most important European regulatory issues for recyclers. www.euric-aisbl.eu

ALBA Group Recycling major ALBA Group has continued to expand its activities in Asia by becoming 51% majority owner of Shanghai Baosteel Auto Recycling Co. Ltd, a subsidiary of the country’s biggest steel producer Baosteel. ‘We are very pleased to be able to further deploy our knowhow in automotive recycling in Asia,’ comments ALBA Group’s ceo Axel Schweitzer. www.alba.info

Commercial Metals Co. Commercial Metals Co. (CMC) has signed an agreement to acquire several US rebar steel mill and fabrication assets from Brazil-based Gerdau S.A. for US$ 600 million (Euro 500 million). The acquisition includes 33 rebar fabrication facilities in the USA as well as electric arc furnace steel mills in Knoxville (Tennessee), Jacksonville (Florida), Sayreville (New Jersey) and Rancho Cucamonga (California). The mills have a combined annual rolling capacity of 2.5 million tonnes. After adding in the new facilities, CMC will have some 7.2 million tonnes of global melt capacity. www.cmc.com

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TRENDS & UPDATES Rare earths to remain ‘crucial’ for developing cutting-edge technology The global market for rare earth metals will be worth an estimated US$ 7362.8 million by 2026, according to Future Market Insights. This represents a compound annual growth rate of 8.5%. The increasing application of rare earth metals in several key end-use industries is expected to fuel their demand over the next few years. Major sectors such as energy and automotive are exhibiting a ‘tremendous’ amount of rare earth use while the growing popularity of electronic devices such as smartphones is also helping to propel demand for these metals. Further takeaways from the report are that, by metal type, demand for neodymium will continue to grow at an ‘impressive’ rate in the coming years. In 2016, neodymium accounted for some 38.4% value share of the market and is expected to record similar figures over the next couple of years. Rare earth alloys such as Ni-MH batteries used in hybrid electric vehicles and other appliances are also expected to register ‘steady growth’ during the forecast period. The report’s authors point out that rare earths play a ‘crucial’ role in the development of cutting-edge technology for next-generation vehicles.

The ‘most sustainable’ sports team shines a light on carbon fibre recycling ELG Carbon Fibre has joined forces with Land Rover BAR to recycle and reuse as much carbon fibre from the America’s Cup sailboat racing competition. ELG has been named technical supplier to the America’s cup racing team and will process all carbon fibre manufacturing waste and end-of use parts – such as boat hulls and foils – to recover the high performance carbon fibres they contain. The material will be processed into ELG’s milled and chopped fibres to yield thermoset and thermoplastic compounds and nonwoven mats. ELG’s product engineers will work closely with Land Rover BAR’s own engineering team to develop applications for the recycled carbon fibre for Great Britain’s entry in the 36th America’s Cup. The partners point out that their collaboration is based on successful feasibility studies that prove high quality carbon fibres can be recovered from the process waste and end-of-use parts and converted into products that are usable in the marine sector.

BIR calls on world leaders to support Global Recycling Day When it comes to innovative ideas, it helps if they enjoy wide backing to increase their potential impact. On that note, world leaders are being asked to put recycling commitments on their New Year’s resolution list and by doing so support the first-ever Global Recycling Day. To be held on March 18 this year, this initiative has been undertaken by the BIR world recycling organisation to raise awareness of the need to shift global perceptions of what is often considered as waste, seeing it rather as one of the Earth’s most valuable resources. The Earth has six primary natural resources - water, air, oil, natural gas, coal and minerals - but they are rapidly running out, BIR laments. ‘The Seventh Resource’ is the phrase coined by BIR’s president Ranjit Baxi to cover the goods and materials around us which we have a duty to use and reuse. These can be used time and time again - and, in some cases, indefinitely, it is stressed. BIR, through the Global Recycling Day, is asking the world to collectively think ‘Seventh Resource’ and to prioritise its use across the planet. Now the question is; who will be the first world leader to voice support for Global Recycling Day? www.globalrecyclingday.com

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January sees 99% reduction in plastic scrap imported to China ‘Only a fraction’ of government-approved plastic scrap was shipped to China from abroad during the first weeks of January when compared to corresponding batches in the preceding year, reveals Dr Steve Wong, executive president of the China Scrap Plastic Association (CSPA) and chairman of Hong Kong-based Fukutomi Corp. So far, ‘only 9.3 tonnes’ of plastic scrap have been approved to enter China this month, states Dr Wong in an email to CSPA members. That is more than a 99% reduction compared with the 3.8+ million tonnes approved to be imported at the start of 2017. The drastic change has caused the market with a supply gap of around 5 million tonnes of plastic scrap for which the recycled plastic pellets from South-east Asian countries is ‘far from enough to fill’. Read more on page 30 www.scrapchina.com

Urban Mine Platform maps multi-billion recyclables potential in Europe Around 18 million tonnes of valuable resources are thrown away in the EU each year - stored in endof-life consumer products such as vehicles, batteries and electronics. This tonnage equates to the weight of 3 million African elephants, so the Urban Mine Platform reports. The Urban Mine Platform has built an extensive database detailing the number and types of products placed on the market, stocks, compositions of key components, and statistics relating to the volumes of waste generated in previous years, allowing it to present the flows of precious and base metals as well as critical raw materials in products in use and throughout their journey to end-oflife in the EU. The EU, Norway and Switzerland generated around 10.5 million tonnes of electronics scrap in 2016 - approximately 23% of the world total. Each year, some 2 million tonnes of batteries and around 8 million tonnes of vehicles reach their end-of-life phase, the platform adds. ‘All represent a rich source of secondary critical raw materials,’ it is noted. The recently-published Global e-Waste Monitor reported that the 44.7 million tonnes of e-scrap (not including vehicles) generated in 2016 contained Euro 55 billion worth of precious metals and other high-value materials. Jaco Huisman of the United Nations University adds: ‘Until now, data on such critical raw materials have been produced by a variety of institutions, including government agencies, universities, NGOs, and industry, with the information scattered across various databases in different formats and difficult to compare or aggregate and often representing an outdated snapshot for a certain year only. This effort helps remedy that problem, and enables the identification of so-called “hotspots” - the largest stocks of specific materials.’ www.urbanmineplatform.eu

India on the verge of embracing modern-day shipbreaking practices India has drafted legislation to implement the 2009 Hong Kong Convention for proper recycling of ships, it was announced at the International Maritime Organisation’s 30th Assembly Session in London. India’s Shipping Minister Nitin Gadkari declared that plans are underway to implement sustainable shipbreaking practices in the country. India has introduced Shipbreaking Code 2013, he pointed out. Gadkari observed that the Hong Kong Convention will enter into force when ratified by 15 states, representing 40% of the world merchant shipping. Thus far, the legislation has only been ratified by Norway, Congo, France, Belgium, Panama and Denmark. www.imo.org

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TRENDS & UPDATES

Big step forward in Big Apple’s e-cycling More than 260 000 tons of discarded electronics has been collected for recycling thanks to the New York State Electronic Equipment Recycling and Reuse Act since 2011. This achievement was revealed in a new report published by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. ‘Over the first six years of the programme, New York state has successfully diverted hundreds of millions of pounds of e-waste destined for landfills and combustion facilities to e-waste recyclers for reuse and recycling, helping conserve valuable natural resources,’ says the department’s commissioner Basil Seggos. In the 2013-15 period, electronics manufacturers, consumers and the state’s recycling operators assisted in the recovery of approximately 300 million pounds of e-scrap - equivalent to a statewide collection rate of more than 5 pounds per capita, the report points out. New York’s legislators have made available US$ 3 million in grant funding from the state’s Environmental Protection Fund to boost e-cycling among its municipalities. Improvement of manufacturers’ e-waste acceptance schemes is hailed as an important mission for the department going forward. Additionally, legislators will focus on product compliance, public awareness and the influx of cathode ray tube monitors. www.dec.ny.gov

Demand for recycled paper to exceed pulp supply by 1.5 million tonnes The market for recycled paper packaging will witness growth of 5%, reaching US$ 139 billion this year, according to a new report published by Smithers Pira. Paper packaging is the largest sector, accounting for some 65% of all recycled packaging, it points out. Demand for paper packaging will continue to grow in large part thanks to the manufacturing economies of China and of other emerging countries. Smithers Pira analysts estimate that annual demand for recycled paper will exceed supply by 1.5 million tonnes of recycled pulp by 2018. Recovered paper accounts for 37% of US pulp supply, the report reveals. Paper and paperboard recovery in the USA and Canada has increased by 81% since 1990, leading to recycling rates of, respectively, 70% and 80% in these two countries. At the same time, Europe has recorded an average recycling rate of 75% for paper, with countries such as Belgium and Austria achieving up to 90% while many other countries in Western Europe, including the UK, are at around 80%. On the other hand, Eastern Europe and the rest of the world are still lagging some way behind in terms of paper recovery owing to an inadequate recycling infrastructure. The surge in packaging used for shipping products, combined with growing consumerism in China, is leading to a rapid increase in paper packaging demand. This has been growing at 6.5% per annum in China since 2008, meaning that the country’s growth rate is far higher than anywhere else in the world. Containerboard packaging represents the largest market for recycled paper packaging. Around 30% of the paper and paperboard recovered in the USA is used to produce containerboard. www.smitherspira.com

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a u t h or Martijn Reintjes

Canada Fibers

Pushing the frontiers of recovery and recycling ‘The local circular economy is absolute Nirvana,’ declares Mark Badger, executive vice president of Canada Fibers. Boosted by ever-stricter regulation designed to limit landfilling and support recycling, this major paper and plastics recycler is busy expanding its capacity, mainly in Ontario but also in other Canadian provinces, as Recycling International learned during a visit to the company’s mega material recovery facility in Toronto. If it wasn’t for the red and yellow leaves on the trees, you would believe it was midsummer in Toronto. But we are in the final quarter of the year and Canada’s largest city and its millions of residents are suffering with the heat and humidity, with temperatures climbing to almost 37 degC.

At Canada Fibers’ material recovery facility (MRF) on Arrow Road, north of Toronto Pearson International Airport, employees are taking a break outside in the shade and eating ice cream to cool down. ‘You can imagine, on hot days like these, handling waste can be a pretty tough job,’ says the compa-

ny’s communications manager Eadaoin Quinn, who guides me around the facility. The Arrow Road plant is claimed to be the largest and one of most advanced material recovery facilities in North America. On an average day, some 40 to 50 trailer trucks bring in a total of 800 tonnes of materials - equivalent to almost 300 000 tonnes per year. The single-stream facility can process up to 60 tonnes per hour of commercial and household waste with ‘a 97% recovery rate target for all commodities’. The huge and impressive facility houses the latest technology supplied by big names such as Van Dyke, Bollegraaf, Lubo and TiTech. The array of equipment includes 10 optical sorters, 20 vacuum hoods to

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Eadaoin Quinn: ‘We feel a strong resposibility to give communities tools to help get them familiar with the Blue Box.’

E T s F 1 A T l m O g b A a h

Employees taking an ice cream break.

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COUNTRY REPORT

Mark Badger: ‘There are lots of people and Blue Box materials between here and the west coast.

recover plastic film from the stream, bag breakers and disk screen technology. Evolving operations The Arrow Road facility is one of seven MRFs operated by Canada Fibers, together processing a total of 1 million tonnes of materials per year. All plants are located in or around Toronto, an area that is home to 6 million people. The company processes more than 60% of the materials from Ontario’s Blue Box collection programme, including paper and cardboard, plastics, metals and glass. Although Canada Fibers started out as a paper recycler, its operations have evolved to incorporate recovery

and supply of a wide variety of recycled materials. In 2015, Canada Fibers launched the Urban Resource Group, further expanding its activities to include the production of sustainable products, including highly-formulated plastic materials for applications such as packaging, as well as architectural garden mulch and high-energy wooden fuel pellets. It operates three material recycling companies under this Urban Resource Group banner. Hungry for more Canada Fibers has seen rapid growth over the past decade by taking over capacity from other firms. Most recently, it acquired HGC

Management Inc., an Ontario-based company specialising in municipal and commercial waste management. HGC operates seven MRFs in Ontario and sends out 75 trucks for the kerbside pick-up of recyclable materials and mixed waste from home-owners. According to Mark Badger, executive vice president of Canada Fibers and president of Urban Resource Group, the acquisition will increase the company’s MRF footprint within Ontario, adding coverage in the eastern and western parts of the province. Also, the kerbside pick-up capabilities of HGC will serve to increase the company’s understanding of recycling opportunities at source. ‘The take-over will provide us with more recovered mate-

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Canada Fibers’ Arrow Road facility houses the latest technology supplied by big names such as Van Dyke, Bollegraaf, Lubo and TiTech.

rial for our downstream operations, which recycle recovered materials into consumer and industrial products,’ he explains. Boosted by ever-stricter regulations to limit landfilling and support recycling, Canada Fibers will continue to expand its recovery and recycling capacity mainly in Ontario but also in other

Tackling the new immigrants challenge The fast-growing metropolis of Toronto - with a population already exceeding six million in the greater Toronto area - is acting as a magnet for new immigrants from all over the world. For these people, and for many others besides, ‘it is not always clear what belongs in the Blue Box and what shouldn’t be there’, says Canada Fibers’ executive vice president Mark Badger. Especially in neighbourhoods with high-rise buildings and a large multi-language population, the Blue Box collection scheme is less successful compared to other areas, according to Badger. In order to make a change and achieve better separation of materials, Canada Fibers has launched a Blue Box education programme. The company’s communications manager Eadaoin Quinn, who previously worked for Sims’ Material Recovery Facility in Brooklyn, New York, where a similar challenge was encountered, comments: ‘As a major materials collector and processor, we feel a strong resposibility to give these communities tools to help get them familiar with the Blue Box.’

Big bags filled with plastic flakes and pellets waiting to be shipped.

Canadian provinces, Badger believes. ‘There are lots of people and Blue Box materials between here and the west coast, so I can imagine our MRF operations could well be copied and placed in other geographies outside Ontario,’ he says. A whole new game Canada Fibers’ executive vice president believes that, instead of shipping bales of plastic and paper across the oceans, increasingly materials will have to be recycled and reused closer to home, a development that has become very topical since China’s recent intensification of its scrap import restrictions.

But there are more factors at play here, according to Badger. ‘We see a whole new game in North America, where the younger generation is putting more and more pressure on brand owners and manufacturers to use recycled plastics in their products,’ he relates. In turn, companies and industries producing plastic products are increasingly looking for ways to make their processes more sustainable. ‘The local circular economy for economic and environmental reasons is absolute Nirvana for Canada Fibers as well as for me personally,’ says Badger. ‘Before the Lord takes me either up or down, I want to give my contribution to a more sustainable world.’

An ambitious and versatile recycler Canada Fibers was established in the early 1990s as a Toronto-based paper recovery and marketing operation. Since then, its operational scope has been broadened to include recovery, separation and marketing of a wide variety of recovered materials, including paper, plastics, metals and glass. Today, Canada Fibers’ supply-side customers include municipalities in the province of Ontario, as well as institutional, commercial and industrial organisations. The company is now engaged in the production of consumer and industrial products from the waste it recovers through its affiliate, Urban Resource Group. Established in 2015, Urban Resource Group closes the loop for recovered materials through manufacturing of both industrial and consumer products. These products include pure, high-quality plastic materials, architecturally appealing garden mulch and sustainable wood fuel pellets. www.canadafibersltd.com

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COUNTRY REPORT

d aerosols In the Canadian province of Ontario, some 60 million aerosol cans are consumed annually - of which, it is estimated, only 5-10% are properly recycled. The rest is landfilled. But change is coming in the form of stricter environmental regulation, smart technology, and entrepreneurs like Jason Hedges. Bailieboro, nestling in the sloping farmlands north of Lake Ontario, may seem like just another small, sleepy Canadian town: a few houses, a grocery store, a coffee shop, a bakery and a gas station. But heading north towards Peterborough, at the Buckham Transport Ltd sign, you will find what is claimed to be one the world’s most technologically advanced recycling lines for aerosol cans. Hidden behind dozens of trailer trucks, and alongside corn and bean fields, is a metal warehouse, inside which engineers are busy completing assembly and electrical work on a state-of-the-art HazPak recycling facility. ‘This plant will not only give a major capacity boost, it will also provide best practice in aerosol can recycling expertise,’ enthuses Jason Hedges, vice president of Buckham Transport. ‘I can’t wait to see the first loads being processed.’

From left to right: MacLean Engineering’s Casey Verwoerd (cfo); Don MacLean (founder and chairman); Levi Delahaye (product support technician); Bob Wraight (vice president); and Peter McLean (product engineering manager). In the truck’s driving seat is Jason Hedges, vice president of Buckham Transport.

From paint to explosives Hedges is the third generation to be involved in running the family business. What started out 80 years ago as a supplier of soda ice blocks has grown into a transport and waste management company specialising in collecting and handling hazardous waste. An 18 000-square-foot hazardous waste transfer station enables Buckham to consolidate dangerous goods and recyclable materials such

as batteries, paint, cosmetics, oil filters, compressed gases and aerosols, as well as hand grenades, shotgun shells and radioactive materials sent to recycling facilities throughout Canada. And now the company is taking the next major step by investing ‘heavily’ in the facility where it uses HazPak (short for ‘hazardous packaging’) - a technology supplied by Canadian manufacturer Eko Environmental. Removing gases and fluids Old aerosol cans can be dangerous as they contain traces of propellant gases such as propane, butane and dimethyl ether. These are highly inflammable and can cause an explosion if they come into contact with oxygen. ‘The HazPak system binds liquids and then captures and removes any gases that may be released,’ explains Bob Wraight, vice president of Eko Environmental’s parent company MacLean Engineering. Via the HazPak line, Buckham will be able to process larger quantities of aerosols and recover far more materials for recycling, according to Wraight. Liquid residue in the cans is extracted and thermally treated. Moreover, all metals are automatically washed and compacted into briquettes. Tinplate and aluminium can be recovered and returned to the production cycle.

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Jason Hedges: ‘We have 25 trucks on the road to collect.’

A look inside Buckham’s brand new aerosol can recycling facility.

Targeting global footprint The facility at Buckham Transport accommodates the latest of the socalled ‘next generation’ HazPak recycling lines. In the past couple of years, similar plants have been opened in

Montreal (Canada) and in Tennessee (USA), as well as in the UK. Also, in 2016, Germany’s largest aerosol can recycler Respray, a division of Remondis, modernised and expanded its facility incorporating HazPak technology, boosting its capacity to 6500 tonnes of aerosol cans every year. Looking to the future, a HazPak line will be installed at a recycler in California ‘within the next two years’. Eko Environmental aims to plant its flag at many more recycling locations worldwide. But that is easier said than done, admits Wraight. ‘Unfortunately, what you see is that, in a lot of places and in emerging economies, regulation is lagging behind technology,’ he argues. ‘Look at the US or the United Arab Emirates - we would definitely like see governments giving more attention to this.’

Recycling up to 9000 aerosol cans per hour HazPak (short for hazardous packaging) is designed and owned by Eko Environmental, a division of MacLean Engineering. This Canadian company specialises in the design and manufacture of underground mining equipment and municipal vehicles. The HazPak aerosol can recycling line is a complete, turnkey system for the safe and proper disposal of aerosol cans and hazardous waste. The HazPak process uses inert nitrogen technology and captures gases ‘in their entirety’, preparing them for waste-to-energy applications in a nearzero emissions environment. The HazPak process is claimed to provide ‘an industry-leading 100% solution’ for the recovery and recycling of cans and their fluid and gas content while also ‘raising the bar’ in terms of aerosol recycling safety, efficiency and throughput. At its standard capacity, a HazPak system recycles up to 9000 aerosol cans per hour. It can also process paints, handheld propane cylinders, shellacs and solvents.

Chile’s aerosol stockpiles At the same time, there are signs of hope, Wraight believes. ‘In Chile, for example, the environmental laws have recently changed and the waste streams are coming in,’ he points out. ‘That is a start and now, of course, the challenge lies in building a proper collection and recycling infrastructure, because you can’t stockpile forever.’

MacLean Engineering would be happy to lend a helping hand and introduce the HazPak solution to Chile, according to Wraight. ‘Since our service teams are already there supporting MacLean’s mining technology, I foresee a lot of synergy,’ he states. Sourcing from Canada’s parks Back home in Canada, Ontario’s government is close adopt legislation to completely ban aerosol cans from landfill. Currently, only 5-10% of the 60 million aerosol cans consumed annually in Ontario, are properly recycled. There is no lack of material supply - at least, that is, not for the Buckham facility in Bailieboro, says Jason Hedges. ‘We have 25 trucks on the road to collect and we have got contracts with big companies and organisations,’ he stresses. Among their suppliers is Ontario Parks, the umbrella organisation which, as its name suggests, looks after the province’s parks. ‘On a yearly basis, thousands and thousands of barbeque gas tanks - mostly Coleman - left by locals and tourists are collected, picked up by our trucks and brought to Bailieboro to be processed,’ Hedges reports.

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COUNTRY REPORT

a u t h o r MARTIJN REINTJES

Chasing down cartridges, computers and motel TV sets Greentec is claimed to be among Canada’s leading electronics recycling and refurbishment companies, founded and run by Tony Perrotta and his wife Betty Pereira. What started in the mid 1990s with the buying and selling of used ink cartridges out of their garage at home has grown into a broad-based e-scrap processing business. At Greentec’s 50 000-square-foot facility and headquarters in Cambridge, Ontario, some 7500 tonnes of electronics are either scrapped or refurbished per year. The operation is equipped with an array of modern technology including optical sorting lines and shredders, the latter supplied by neighbouring company Shred-Tech. With increasing volumes of laptops and smart phones, e-scrap has become ever more important over the past

decade, according to the company’s chief operating office Betty Pereira. ‘Greentec has strongly diversified its business model,’ she explains. ‘The volume of cartridges has reduced to 2.5 million pieces per year whereas we used to do over 6 million.’ Although future growth lies in refurbishment and data destruction, there

will still be scrapping and recycling, according to Pereira. ‘For example, we still do a lot of CRTs,’ she points out. ‘Ten years ago, everyone predicted this would be declining rapidly. But the truth is, these tubes continue to come in big volumes. There are still a lot of motels in Canada and the US that have them.’

Greentec’s chief operating officer Betty Pereira and Mohamed Sadak, team leader of the company’s refurbishment department.

Made in Canada: shredding trucks Canada-based shredding technology supplier Shred-Tech has been on the market for 35 years. The company has enjoyed great success with its mobile shredding trucks, of which some 250 units roll off the production line each year at its main factory and headquarters in Cambridge, Ontario. Some 4000-plus of these trucks are out on the roads not only of Canada but also of the USA, the UK, Australia and Japan. In addition, more than 5000 shredding and recycling systems have been delivered worldwide, including a broad range of mobile and stationary shredders. Customers include major paper, plastics and e-scrap recyclers. In 2017, Shred-Tech opened a new factory at Raleigh in the US state of North Carolina so as to meet ‘increasing customer demands’. The 20 000-square-foot facility is the central pillar of a strategic plan to centralise

the company’s used truck and truck refurbishment business in Raleigh while consolidating the existing parts and service business currently based at Apex, also in North Carolina. This expansion will give Shred-Tech ‘the capacity and resources needed to

achieve its growth objectives while improving customer service in the region’, it states. Since 2016, Shred-Tech has represented German shredder producer Haas in the North American market. www.shred-tech.com

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COUNTRY REPORT

Moving towards a waste-free future With close to 16 million people, Ontario is Canada’s most densely populated province. It also produces nearly 1000 kg of waste per person per year, three-quarters of which ends up in landfills. However, the new Waste-Free Ontario Act sets the ambitious goal of a circular economy that sends zero waste to landfill. A special report by Ontario’s environmental commissioner examines this

new law and strategy - and suggests what needs to be done next. ‘Beyond the Blue Box: Ontario’s Fresh Start on Waste Diversion and the Circular Economy’ acknowledges that Ontario’s new law is a significant achievement, but calls on government to get serious about making it work. The first steps: get food waste out of landfills and get businesses to pull their weight. Ontario is proud of the Blue Box for recycling paper and packaging from homes. But the Blue Box diverts less than 8% of Ontario’s total waste, according to the commissioner. For real impact, the province needs action on two significant waste streams that have been ignored for far too long, it is stressed. So what needs to be done? In addition to calling for a ban on landfilling food waste, it is also suggested that there should be measures to prevent factories, malls, restaurants, hospitals, universities and schools from landfilling so much waste. Businesses and institutions currently recycle ‘only’ 15% of their waste, sending 2.2 million tonnes more of it to landfill each year than the province’s residents.

Austrian technology boost for Canadian PET bottle recycler Innovative recycling technology does make a difference, says Canadian water bottler Ice River Springs. The company has installed Austria-based Starlinger’s recoSTAR PET bottle-to-bottle recycling line and has thereby significantly improved its recycling performance. ‘Our Starlinger system with Flex Disc filters was a positive investment for Ice River Springs,’ says a spokesperson for the company. ‘The new filtration system has improved our purification process, reduced waste and improved performance to a level at, or beyond, the commitment made by Starlinger.’ As recycling streams evolve and become more challenging, this system is expected to continue to provide the quality resin required by Ice River Springs over the coming years. With Nordson’s BKG Flex Disc filter cartridge included for melt filtration, output is even higher than the values guaranteed in the acceptance protocol. Also, the purge rate has been reduced by 40%, according to the company, ‘and the melt loss due to backflushing is below the minimum values’. Based at Feversham in Ontario, Ice River Springs runs plants in Canada and the USA. The company operates its own PET bottle-to-bottle recycling operation - Blue Mountain Plastics of Shelburne - which is equipped with washing and recycling lines, and produces bottles with up to 100% recycled PET. The company runs a vertically-integrated operation that also includes preform production and bottle filling plants, which complete the system for closed-loop PET bottle recycling.

No more spills thanks to depollution system With the introduction of new environmental regulations, SEDA depollution technology has assisted Ontariobased metals recycler Moffatt Scrap Iron & Metal in its handling of end-oflife vehicles (ELVs). The SEDA JumboLine and Truck Station, in combination with the Mobile Drainage Station, is claimed to remove 98% of all fluids within eight

minutes. Fluids are pumped directly from an ELV into storage tanks ‘without being handled or spilling a drop’. All the work is carried out under cover on an impermeable surface. Moffatt Scrap Iron & Metal is located along the highway 401 corridor, south west of Toronto. The company prides itself on ‘contributing in a big way’ to a cleaner environment.

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a u t h o r Kirstin Linnenkoper

Paper recyclers have some m ‘Worldwide demand for recovered paper and board was around 250 million tonnes in 2017,’ reported Bill Moore to the recent Paper & Plastics Recycling Conference in Warsaw. All in all, global interest will continue to increase in the coming two years but room for growth will be ‘tighter’. As Moore put it: ‘The sector is not fat and happy.’ Total demand for recovered paper and board will exceed 275 million tonnes by 2021, according to new RISI market data. ‘The biggest demand is in developing countries, of course,’ industry analyst Bill Moore of US-based Moore & Associates told delegates who had gathered at Recycling Today’s annual Paper & Plastics Recycling Conference, staged in the Polish capital Warsaw. ‘Easily’ 55% of the world’s paper and board production was based on recycled fibre, he asserted. North America is maintaining a 65% recovery rate for paper and board as compared to around 50% for China, 80% for Japan and 78% throughout Western Europe. These figures indicate that the global average is hovering around 50%. Poland was currently recording a paper and board recycling rate of some 30%, announced Szymon DziakCzekan, president of the Polish Recycling Association. Despite ‘big

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l m f f

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e more dragons left to slay

Worldwide trade in recovered paper totalled 57 million tons in 2016, reported David Powlson.

leaps forward’ in recent years, the mandatory 50% target set by the EU for 2020 was proving ‘really ambitious’ for Poland’s recyclers, he conceded. Growth in a largely ‘flat’ market ‘OCC demand - that’s where the action is,’ Moore continued in his market analysis. ‘The rest is basically flat; they’re hardly in the race. This includes high grades.’ In America, OCC now represents 67% of the market. Generally speaking, printing and writing grades were ‘dropping like a stone’, he said, although tissue remained a decent market with steady demand. Only 72 million tons of paper and board was produced in the USA in 2016. ‘This is a 30% drop from America’s peak of 105 million tons back in 1990,’ Moore underlined. ‘Over the last decade, we have seen barely 200 new paper recycling mills constructed globally,’ observed David Powlson of research firm Pöyry. More than three quarters of the new capacity has been located in China. Reviewing latest data, he remarked that worldwide trade in recovered paper totalled 57 million tons in 2016, some 78% of which entailed shipments to China originating

mostly in America (around 18 million tons) and Europe (nearer 10 million tons). Recovered paper demand in Europe is expected to grow at around 0.8% per annum in the years to 2030. ‘Growth is strongest in Eastern Europe, where it amounts to almost 4% per year,’ Powlson elaborated. ‘This is high compared to the 0.2% growth witnessed annually in Western Europe.’ No more sleepless nights? ‘We have become incredibly riskaverse in terms of fibre quality,’ declared Craig Robinson of Hong Kong-based recovered paper buyer Cycle Link International. When it came to China, he suggested, the country was all about clean growth - this being one of the motives behind its tightened import restrictions. ‘At the same time, the nation is facing a significant paper manufacturing overcapacity,’ he stated. Despite indications that China might even impose a 0.3% contamination limit on imports of recovered paper, Beijing has ultimately settled on a threshold of 0.5%. Industry representatives around the world tried ‘frantically’ to persuade the Chinese government that this figure was too strict,

hoping there would be some sort of ‘honeymoon period’. Ultimately, all pleas and discussions were without success; the government has declined suspending the measure for, as some industry players suggested, six months to two years but. ‘So are the sleepless nights over now?’ Robinson remarked. In his view, China’s legislators are ‘adamant’ in their pursuit of ‘immediate change’. This is further illustrated by the fact that many mills in China only had 2 hours notice before an inspection crew came to visit their site. China can’t close its doors Having been present during several recycling plant inspections in China over recent months, Thijs Cox of Dutch company Ciparo reported that the atmosphere had become noticeably more tense. ‘Inspectors are no longer as relaxed as they used to be,’ he said. ‘They’re wearing face masks and treating the sites like they are toxic plants.’ Large mills are upgrading their systems in order to secure new licences while smaller mills are at a huge disadvantage and seem likely to disappear. ‘It’s already happening,’ the Ciparo representative told delegates in

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Warsaw. ‘The small mill owners are being compensated. You can basically hear them thinking “Why would I go on in the industry? It is always a struggle. Just accept the money.”’ The decision to severely restrict imports of recyclables does not surprise Cox in the least. For years, China’s big rival Japan has been setting high standards in terms of recycling. ‘President Xi Jinping obviously wants to be a strong leader,’ Cox suggested. ‘He wants the same high-level recycling performance as the country’s neighbour.’ This leaves the question; how deep will the sword cut? Speakers generally agreed; ‘Nobody knows quite yet.’ E-commerce boom ‘At the end of the day, China has a paper deficit of some 28 million tonnes per year,’ Cox underlined.

And this shortfall simply could not be covered by the country’s own recycling sector, it was made clear to delegates. ‘However you look at it, China needs scrap paper, so China needs us,’ the speaker argued. ‘They seem to think that closing the

domestic toll roads that made it ‘very expensive’ to transport recyclables by land. Most of the country’s large paper mills are conveniently located near waterways and so international trade is considerably more attractive.

‘ C h i n a n e e d s s c r a p p a p e r, so China needs us!’ door will automatically increase domestic recovery rates. What they choose to ignore is the fact that closing the door does nothing to decrease demand for materials.’ And with internet sales rising all across China, ‘they need a lot of packaging’, he asserted. Another factor in the China equation, said Cox, was the large number of

Offering some advice for global recycling players, Cox concluded: ‘It is high time for the USA and Europe to get in the end-of-waste game. Or else, they will be out of the game completely.’ India wary of low grades ‘Protectionism is the topic of the hour,’ declared Hrishikesh Vora of

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P b T m r p ‘ F a t 2 t m a d w p I f H m c s t


p a p er

PaperWorks Trading, a company based in the Indian city of Mumbai. The best approach in such a volatile market ‘is to buy conservatively but regularly to get the best average price’, the audience was told. ‘Business cannot and must not stop.’ From 15 million tonnes in 2017, India’s annual paper production is expected to hit 20 million tonnes by 2020 and 27 million tonnes by 2030. The country’s economy is experiencing approximately 7% growth per year while the average income in India is forecast to double in the next 10 years. ‘And where there are people, there is paper,’ Vora added. ‘For recyclers, India is definitely the market of the future.’ He warned that any ‘just dump it’ mentality should be avoided at all costs. ‘Right now, US firms are eagerly shipping low-grade, comingled paper to India just to get rid of it,’ he said.

‘Down the line, India’s government will wake up and say “No, that is not acceptable”. No country wants to be a dumping ground. So if recyclers aren’t careful, the same thing happening in China may repeat itself in India.’

answer didn’t cost a minimum of US$ 150 000.’

The mother of invention The emergence of quality measurement solutions provides plenty of reasons to be hopeful, according to Bill Moore. ‘Europe is clearly leading the way,’ he said in Warsaw. More than 25 systems had already been developed and many more would be coming on to the market ‘fairly shortly’ to help push quality standards to the next level. ‘Let’s not forget that necessity is the mother of invention,’ the analyst told delegates. ‘New technology is on the horizon, so be patient and stay tuned - though it would be great if the

IERC ICBR IARC 2019 2018 2018

Upcoming ICM Events

A marathon, not a sprint Running a profitable recycling business can be likened to running a marathon instead of a 100 metres sprint, commented Jochen Behr of UK-based packaging solutions provider DS Smith Recycling. ‘We tend to keep on doing what we’re doing to reach our goals,’ he stated. ‘It is no secret that true success hinges on positioning ourselves differently from time to time.’ Behr reminded delegates that factors such as price of material and shipping rates were temporary. ‘Yes, the market is fickle - and let’s face it, fickle is the new normal,’ he said. ‘So let’s pool our expertise and focus on what we can control. What we can control is dedication to quality and service excellence. These factors are permanent.’

www.icm.ch 18 th International Automobile Recycling Congress IARC 2018 March 14 – 16, 2018 Vienna, Austria

23 rd International Congress for Battery Recycling ICBR 2018 September 26 – 28, 2018 Berlin, Germany

18 th International Electronics Recycling Congress IERC 2019 January 15 – 18, 2019 Salzburg, Austria

ICM AG, Switzerland, www.icm.ch, info@icm.ch, +41 62 785 10 00

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NICHE MARKET

a u t h o r Kirstin Linnenkoper

Sunny prospects for solar panel recyclers? In a world that is embracing progressively clean legislation, investments in solar parks are rapidly increasing. Even so, researchers working on the pan-European ReSolar project say it is ‘highly uncertain’ when this modern waste stream will start to grow exponentially and how the composition of materials will evolve. The International Renewable Energy Agency is predicting a surge in the use of solar panels over the next 10 to 15 years. And by 2050, it estimates, there will be as much as 78 million tons of photovoltaic (PV) panel waste globally. If so, enough raw materials would be available for recovery to produce 2 billion new solar panels. On the plus side, Belgium-based PV Cycle - the world’s first waste management programme for all types of PV technologies - posted a new record in silicon-based PV module recycling last year, achieving no less than a 96% recycling rate. Mapping the waste stream In a bid to maximise the potential of solar panel recycling, PV Cycle has partnered with Leuven University in Belgium, as well as with leading industry players such as Galloo Group, NovoPolymers, Ducatt, Umicore and Soltech, for the ReSolar research project. This two-year initiative with a budget of some Euro 700 000 was concluded in 2016, and was followed last year by an in-depth project review by researchers at Leuven University. One of the researchers working on the project was Dr Jef Peeters, who estimates that, in Flanders alone, up to 22 000 tons of silicon-based PV panels will have to be recycled every year ‘in the near future’ - equivalent to approximately 3.5 kg per capita.

According to ReSolar’s calculations, 0.2% of the annual environmental impact of Flanders could be mitigated by targeting all materials present in end-of-life PV panels for closed-loop recycling. Around 70% of European PV manufacturers are a member of PV Cycle, which provided recycling partners with sample panels collected in Belgium, France, Germany and Italy during the period from 2011 and 2015. The units had been serving both residential and industrial installations, thus giving the opportunity to map ‘the average waste stream’ in developed European countries, explains Dr Peeters. While installation of PV units worldwide soared to a record 21 106 MW in 2011, the number of solar panels collected for recycling across Europe each year is described as ‘rather low’. Separation efficiency above 90% In most cases, end-of-life siliconbased PV panels are subjected to a size-reduction process to break up the ‘sandwich’ of valuable materials, comments Luc Waignein, chief research & development officer at Galloo. A combination of sieving, density separation and optical sorting allows metals such as aluminium and steel, as well as glass and polymers, to be separated with a mass-based efficiency of over 90%. For the project, precious metals

were successfully recycled by Umicore. Typically, the glass is sorted into 0-5 mm cullet for the production of glass foam and glass insulation material, Dr Peeters points out. Also, 5-12 mm cullet is mixed with other glass cullet for use as a primary material in the production of packaging glass. However, the separated glass cannot be recycled in a closed loop for re-application in PV panels because impurities in the glass fractions reduce the transparency of the glass in sunlight. The research team says silicon from the cells in the PV modules is ‘mostly lost’ in the process. This is because the silicon cannot be separated in a cost-efficient manner with sufficient purity to be used as a feedstock for cell production. Capturing the silver Metals, especially precious metals, are an integral ingredient of solar panels. ‘At the moment, as much as 90% of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells are thought to contain silver,’ Dr Peeters observes. According to the researchers, neither the decomposition of the PV module nor the de-etching of silver ‘is expected to be cost-efficient’; this is due to the relatively large amounts of acids required in these processes and the relatively large waste volumes generated during the etching processes as a consequence of the inefficient removal of the plastic encapsulant from the cells in a shredder-based recycling process. Alternatively, the post-shredder silvercontaining fraction can be treated in an integrated smelter-refinery. In this case, silver and copper are recycled with an efficiency of more than 95%;

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Growth around the world The global solar panel recycling market will be worth more than US$ 384 million by 2025, suggests a new study conducted by Grand View Research. The solar panel recycling market is expected to record a compound annual growth rate of 22.1% between 2017 and 2025 - mostly thanks to government regulations backing the increasing adoption of solar module recycling. At present, Europe is the ‘leading market’ for solar panel recycling, with its sector valued at US$ 28.3 million in 2016, of which Germany accounted for by far the largest share (63%). Meanwhile, the North American solar panel recycling market was worth US$ 11 million in 2016. Mono-crystalline solar panels represented some 51% of the global solar panel recycling market in 2016. In terms of revenue, the thin-film panel segment is expected to achieve a compound annual growth rate of 25.9% between 2017 and 2025. Driving factors are high flexibility and low-cost advantages offered by the panels relative to other segments.

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the encapsulants are used as an energy source and the other elements, such as silicon and aluminium, are transferred to the slag to be sold as a building product. Experiments performed by the research team at Leuven University indicate that treating the wafer-containing fraction in an integrated smelter-refinery ‘can be economically viable’. However, economic viability depends heavily on the adopted postshredder separation processes and the silver concentration of the treated PV panels, Dr Peeters remarks. Changing concentrations Silver concentrations are expected to decline from 0.14-0.2% in 2003 to 0.07-0.16% in 2023. Bearing in mind the extent to which metal prices have fluctuated since the year 2000, the economic material value of what could be recovered from future PV panel waste is even more uncertain, Leuven University researchers underline. When looking at the forecasts from a mass-based, economic and environmental perspective, it becomes apparent that end-of-life silicon-based PV panels will consist mainly of glass and aluminium whereas, considering today’s metals prices, most economic value enters the waste stream in the form of silver and secondly aluminium. The silver content of the electric connectors was calculated by researchers to be 0.0113 grams per cell, using the assumption that every cell has three strips on each side measuring 150 mm in length and 1.5 mm in width, and that those strips are plated on both sides with a 0.02 mm coating containing 2% silver. As a consequence of recent technological innovations, the group of manufacturers consulted for the ReSolar project estimates that the silver concentration will be further reduced from 0.04 wt% in 2016 to 0.009 wt% by 2026. The next ‘evolution’ Citing figures from the International Technology Roadmap for

‘As cheap as coal’ Longyangxia Dam Solar Park in China is the biggest solar power plant in the world, with a capacity of 850 MW. The country ploughed US$ 86.5 billion into PV systems in 2017 alone, thus accounting for almost half of all investments last year. China has even constructed the world’s very first ‘solar road’ in Jinan, the capital of Shandong province south of Beijing. This 1-km-long, two-lane road can generate up to 1 million kilowatt hours of power per annum, enough to power 800 Chinese homes. Investments in solar energy jumped 18% worldwide in 2017 to hit a total of US$ 160.8 billion, according to Jon Moore, chief executive of research firm Bloomberg New Energy Finance. In his view, renewable energy sources are set to represent more than 70% of the US$ 10.2 trillion the world will invest in new power generating technologies between now and the year 2040. ‘Rapidly falling costs’ for solar power is said to be one of the factors. Solar energy is already at least as cheap as coal in Germany, Australia, the USA, Spain and Italy. It is believed that, in just three years from now, this form of energy will also be cheaper than coal in China, India, Mexico, the UK and Brazil.

Photovoltaic, the ReSolar consortium members noted a medium value of 95 mg of silver per cell for 2016. A nearly linear reduction of silver per cell of 40 mg is predicted for around 2026. At the same time, it is anticipated that 25% of the market in that year will consist of PV panels in which copper has been applied using plating technologies that will completely substitute the use of silver. It is vital that this ‘evolution’ of decreasing silver concentrations in PV

panels is taken into account when assessing the economic and technological feasibility of recovering this precious metal from end-of-life solar panels, Dr Peeters insists. Ultimately, pushing the boundaries of PV fraction purity will depend on the further development, fine-tuning and integration of both new and existing recycling processes so as to separate all PV panel materials in a more profitable way, the specialists at Leuven University conclude.

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a u t h o r Kirstin Linnenkoper

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How will the plastics industry reshape itself? ‘Last summer was about more than words on paper - traumatic measures are being taken with regards to “dirty scrap” being shipped to China,’ Dr Steve Wong warned delegates who had gathered in Poland’s capital Warsaw for the latest Paper & Plastics Recycling Conference. Last July alone, Chinese officials inspected 1792 recycling facilities, around 60% of which were penalised for not being up to standard. Inspectors working for China’s Environmental Protection Department have had a busy few months, to put it mildly, since President Xi Jinping ordered a ‘progressive stop’ of imports of solid wastes which the government believes can be replaced by domestic supplies by next year. ‘The order is coming from the top - the ban is not a whim, as some people may think,’ observed Dr Wong, chairman of Fukutomi Company Limited and executive president of the China Scrap Plastics Association. Addressing the Paper & Plastics Recycling Conference in Warsaw, Dr Wong said that the ‘crusade’ against foreign plastics was ‘pretty high on the agenda’ of the Chinese president himself. National pride was certainly another factor, he added, as was the desire to crack down on smuggling and tax evasion in China. In a country where fish is a favourite food for many households, growing awareness of the mounting tide of ocean waste is hailed as another source of the negative sentiment surrounding end-of-life plastics. China’s fish consumption was 35 kg per capita in 2017 as compared to 23 kg in 1998 indicating a consistent rise in consumption which has gone hand in hand with

the ‘damaged’ perception of the global waste management industry. PoWerful syMbolIsM ‘We all know that scrap materials are not garbage,’ Dr Wong insisted. ‘If this ban proves anything, it is that symbolism is sometimes more powerful than substance.’ At the same time,

he added, there was still considerable demand for secondary resins in China. Ultimately, the motivations for recycling are still in place ‘even if the world’s biggest market is having second thoughts’, Dr Wong reminded delegates in the Polish capital. In his view, the global market would move more towards recycling at source. ‘The market will adjust and reshape itself in the next two years,’ he predicted. ‘let the nuMbers do the talKIng’ The market would be able to recover from the ban-induced chaos, affirmed Mike Baxter of polyethene film producer and recycler RPC bpi Group. The right leadership at top government level was seen as key but ‘sorry to say, that’s not always the case’, he remarked. With regard to the plastics that would normally have been destined for China, the UK’s environment

‘enorMous Interest’ In PlaXX facIlItIes Plaxx is the name given to the first-ever hydrocarbon feedstock derived from residual waste plastic in a continous chemical process. Developed by UK firm Recycling Technologies, this innovation is a ‘game-changer’ that will help propel the mixed plastics recycling rate from 30% all the way up to 90%, the company’s marketing director Adrian Haworth declared at the Paper & Plastics Recycling Conference in Warsaw. The RT7000 unit, which runs the chemical recycling process, has an annual capacity of 7000 tonnes of dry mixed household, commercial and industrial plastic waste. ‘The output is 5200 tonnes of valuable product per year,’ Haworth stated. ‘We are the first commercial party offering this, from our plant in Swindon. The next step is to build our first commercial operation in Scotland, partly funded by Zero Waste Scotland.’ This latter facility is expected to be operational by the end of this year and is envisioned as the world’s most advanced plastics recycling facility, maintaining an overall 90% recycling rate. ‘There is enormous interest is such facilities, notably in India,’ Haworth reported. ‘We have our blueprints ready to go and plan to roll them out as quickly as possible.’ If virgin oil prices are at around US$ 50 per barrel, Plaxx works out to be a ‘serious money maker’, according to Haworth, and the maths would ‘still be fine’ even if oil prices dropped to US$ 20 per barrel. ‘Our activities will be supported,’ he noted, ‘by increasing gate fees and higher landfill taxes.’

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a u t h o r Kirstin Linnenkoper

minister has stated in an interview that there is plenty of capacity to process the material domestically. ‘That is the level of incompetence we are dealing with,’ Baxter lamented. Fellow Warsaw panellist Adrian Haworth of Recycling Technologies interjected: ‘The UK’s annual demand for plastics exceeds 3.5 million tonnes. About 1.1 million tonnes worth of plastic scrap are collected for recycling. So we heavily rely on exports to Asia.’ His company has developed an innovative chemical process that recycles residual plastics into hydrocarbon feedstock (see box accompanying this feature). Politicians are eager to jump on the anti-plastics bandwagon, Baxter believes. ‘Want to get some extra votes?’ he asked. ‘Just shout “plastics are bad” and people will go “hurrah!”. After all, you must never let the facts get in the way of a good story…’ That’s why regular visits to the European Parliament and to local authorities are

so important, he contended. ‘We have to set them right,’ Baxter emphasised. ‘Let the numbers do the talking.’ ‘In the line of fire’ Plastics recyclers will have an especially hard time surviving if the Ellen MacArthur Foundation gets its way, delegates were also warned. ‘The group’s latest publication called for a reduction of 50% of plastics produced by 2030. Fifty per cent!’ Baxter exclaimed. ‘That means there will be half the volume available for recycling. And, as you and I well know, it’s not like plastics recyclers are the bad guys.’ ‘Our industry has been a target for green NGOs for decades,’ he complained. ‘Today, ladies and gentlemen, we are right in the line of fire.’ And he went on to state: ‘Increasingly aggressive anti-plastics targets tell us one thing - that we have to get involved, it isn’t optional anymore. If we don’t counter this nonsense, then in 10

years’ time our industry will have shrunk severely.’ Worth all the trouble? Baxter also cited a recent UK survey revealing that the public believes approximately 50% of the world’s plastic waste comes from Europe. ‘Let’s face it, the problem for which we all get blamed has its roots in Asia and Africa,’ he ventured. ‘Actually, almost 85% of the plastic waste originates from 11 countries - and none of them is in Europe.’ The list features China, India, Vietnam, Indonesia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Egypt, Malaysia, Nigeria and Bangladesh. The most common microplastics are the rubber particles coming off car tyres as a result of motoring wear and tear, remarked Edward Kosior of Nextek. He also observed that transformation of ocean plastics into useful products is gaining traction: for example, sportswear manufacturer Adidas has created eco-

INVITATION TO INFORMATION MEETING TENDER COMPETITION – THE NORWEGIAN ELV COLLECTION AND RECYCLING SCHEME Through a tender process in 2018, Autoretur aims to enter into new agreements on ELV collection and recycling services within 1.1.2019, and with startup 1.1.2020. Autoretur invites Recycling actors to participate in a meeting where Autoretur will inform about the ELV scheme and the tender competition. Participants will have the opportunity to ask questions and communicate ideas as an input for the further development before Autoretur complete the tender conditions and sends the request to the bidders. Interested actors who wish to participate must send information about the company, short description of competence and experience, and references for the period 2015-2017 to Autoretur by the CEO Erik Andresen, erik.andresen@autoretur.no with deadline Thursday 1.3.2018. Interested actors must also provide contact information (name, e-mail address and telephone number) to the person authorized to represent the company. The registration must also contain the number of participants. Information meeting will be held on Thursday 15.3.2018 at. 10.00 - 12.00 at Quality Hotel 33, Østre Aker vei 33 in Oslo. Any questions can be addressed to Autoretur’s contact person: Harald A. Damhaug, telephone no. +47 906 45 248.

www.autoretur.no

Autoretur AS is a “non-profit” company that will ensure that commercial and financial interests do not prevent proper handling of ELVs for mutual benefit to the recycling industry and the environment. Autoretur is owned by The Norwegian Automobile Importers Association and in 2016 Autoretur handled in total a number of 142 280 ELVs. – Norwegian automotive industrys recycling company

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plastics inspired shoes from this source material while Procter & Gamble has used plastics from the world’s seas to produce a new line of 100% recycled content bottles. ‘Of course, leading brands are happy to say how responsible they are being; they can write about it in their corporate sustainability reports and pat themselves on the back, but what about the quality of products made from ocean plastics?’ he asked the audience. ‘I know where marine litter has been, and what it has been exposed to for months if not years on end. So I can’t help but wonder if the material is suitable to be made into new products, say packaging. I mean, is it worth all the trouble if these award-winning eco-products cannot be recycled down the line?’ On a more positive note, he mused: ‘It only took nine years from Kennedy’s statement about going to the Moon before the first man landed there. Can we conjure up the same ambition to solve the plastics problem?’

‘Bad habits’ On many levels, it has become clear that something must change, agreed Brian Taylor, editor of US magazine Recycling Today which organised the conference. ‘We talk about recycling facilities, trade and proper use of materials,’ he said. ‘At the end of the day, sustainable practices are not just a business challenge anymore; it’s a behavioural challenge.’

Taylor then told delegates about his sampling the previous night of some local Warsaw cuisine. ‘The meal was great but way too much to finish, so I got a doggy bag,’ he said. ‘Immediately it struck me that, whether you are in New York or Warsaw, you get your leftovers in a Styrofoam box, inside a single-use plastic bag. Why? Because people have bad habits. And bad habits don’t die too quickly. Let’s hope this one will.’

Recycling in Poland Poland has a population of more than 38.5 million and the country generates 286 million tonnes of post-consumer material on an annual basis, according to 2015 Eurostat figures. Poland’s municipal waste recycling rate was 42.5% in that same year. The country’s GDP growth is thought to have reached 4% in 2017, similar to the previous year. Poland has not been as significantly impacted by China’s import restrictions as some other countries given that its top 15 export partners are other EU nations, led by, in order, Germany, the UK and the Czech Republic.

Your consumer & industrial batteries, non-ferrous metals and other residues in safe hands.

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Van Peperzeel is market leader in the field of collecting, sorting, valuation and transportation of consumer and industrial batteries in the Netherlands. With years of experience and expertise in controlling and processing these difficult but valuable materials, Van Peperzeel is the expert and your reliable partner. We ensure a safe transport, storage and an environmentally friendly recycling throughout Europe. Not only for batteries, but also for non-ferrous metals and residues.

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Balers from all arou n But which one is right for you?

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u nd the world… Where there is scrap metal, there are usually balers. In fact, there is such a wide selection of balers to choose from nowadays that picking one can be a hard task. So let’s narrow it down a little…

Shear balers and gravity-feed shears are the two main types of processing systems for cutting scrap metal. The shear baler can make low-density bales and is ‘very useful’ for those who need to shear medium heavy scrap, observes Pierluigi Sambolino of G.P.S. Processing Solutions, based in Ferrara, Italy. Such a machine produces low-density bales ready for dispatch to a shredder or for achieving a full container payload. The gravity-feed shear, which only presses and cuts, is cheaper to run if you don’t need to make any bales because it has fewer moving parts and so reduced wear issues. This makes good business sense when processing medium- to high-density scrap. Mobile, maybe A wide variety of stationary, mobile and semi-mobile shear balers can be found on the market. Static models have virtually no weight limit, are built to be very robust and generally have the longest lifespan. ‘This shear normally needs a permanent foundation and maybe permission from your local authority to be installed, and this can be expensive,’ Sambolino points out. As for semi-mobile and mobile units, a stable and flat base from which to work is sufficient. This saves on permits and the machinery can be removed or relocated at any time. ‘It is possible to find mobile equipment that is as productive as its static counterparts, but unfortunately many mobile machines have very slow cycles and do not perform as one might hope,’ says Sambolino. This is most likely due to the shear baler’s undersized power unit, small hydraulic tank and small pipework and cylinders that are ‘stretched to the limit’. Buyers tend to focus on technical specifications stated in product brochures but these are often not a reliable route to gauging real-life results, Sambolino cau-

tions. For example, extra weight makes a machine look good on paper when actually fabrication work costs much less per kg (or ton) than hydraulics work. ‘Also, stated cycle time and cutting capacity need to be witnessed in case the stated figures refer to theoretical working conditions,’ Sambolino remarks. ‘All in all, it’s best to go and see static and mobile machinery running onsite so you can make a fair comparison.’ Power: pros and cons When it comes to the power source, electric and diesel solutions have their relative advantages and disadvantages. A fully electric machine requires less maintenance and generates no exhaust fumes and much less noise. However, electricity costs and dependency on the local power grid can make this ‘a very unattractive option’, Sambolino argues. ‘Diesel motors may be preferred over electric motors due to their simplicity,’ he adds. ‘The machine arrives, you fill it with oil, grease and diesel and you’re ready to get to work.’ In cases where the machine is relocated at some point in the future, there is no investment in electrical works or any foundations going to waste. Trust your own eyes ‘By far the most popular and useful guillotine size is 700-900 tons,’ reckons Sambolino. With this size of shear and a good operator, most forms of scrap can be processed. This shear size is also sought-after because the initial investment is ‘very reasonable’ and perhaps only 800-1500 tons needs to be processed per month for it to pay for itself comfortably. ‘Ultimately, when buying machinery, buy with your eyes,’ Sambolino concludes. ‘Trust what you have seen for yourself.’

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Moros’ big deal in the USA Baler production at Moros Industrias Hidráulicas S.A. was 65% higher last year when compared to 2016, reports commercial director Julio González. As for new machinery, he points out that the company has just developed a special baler - designated the Moros GC-W-160 - to process tyre wire, turnings and other difficult materials. This

exerts a very high specific force on material with its 165 tons of final compression cylinder pressure in a 200x200 mm bale section. This unit can therefore process the aforementioned materials but without the disadvantages of briquetting machines in terms of, for example, production, reliability and operating costs, it is claimed.

In the case of turnings, the baler is said to bring about substantial logistics savings. It can recover 80% of fluid present in material (equating potentially to 20-30% of the material’s weight), achieving a final humidity of 5-6%. The most recent baler delivery concerned the Moros GC-V-210-S with a 300 mm by 300 mm by variable bale size, installed at a US customer’s facility in January and forming part of the Moros range of high-density and highproduction balers. ‘The main technical advantage of these machines is that they cut the excess of material from the loading box with the second vertical compression instead of using the first compression ram,’ González explains. This design eliminates the fixed bridge of blades and avoids any possibility of jamming. ‘Our customer is very happy with the Moros GC-V system and, in fact, it is the second machine of this type he has installed in two years,’ González notes.

Presona: bigger clients, bigger demands ‘Presona balers feature a pre-press which means that there is no need for a shear,’ says Jesper Hultqvist, marketing manager at Presona. When compared to a shear baler, a pre-press baler delivers ‘a significant reduction’ in energy costs because all of the power goes into the compaction process. A pre-press baler also offers lower operational costs because it has no knives requiring sharpening or replacement. ‘The pre-press technology gives us an edge over shear balers when it comes to compressing plastics,’ Hultqvist contends. ‘We are also proud of the fact that our tying system leaves shorter ”pig tails” than other systems, which saves on operational costs,’ he goes on to state, adding that Presona has

installed balers in 65 countries to date. Presona has experienced growing demand for the largest balers in its portfolio, a state of affairs which the marketing manager deems very

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encouraging. ‘In light of increased industrialisation and mergers, I see that our customers are growing bigger and are demanding more from us as suppliers,’ Hultqvist comments.

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Copex lends hand in dismantling French nuclear plants For French baler producer Copex, 2018 promises to be an excellent year, not least because the company is celebrating its 70th anniversary. But there is still work to be done, insists ceo Frédéric Malin. ‘We have got a great order book, including special presses for the dismantling of nuclear installations, alongside our classic orders from French and foreign recycling companies.’ 2017 was a good year for Copex - as it must have been for other manufacturers, says Malin. ‘The domestic market has boosted demand due to delays and postponements in projects over the past few years,’ he explains. ‘Some tax incentives from the French government to reboost investment could also be part of the explanation.’ At the same time, Copex has maintained strong exports to far more distant destinations such as the USA and Australia.

Malin points to a ‘back-to-basics’ trend: ‘The quality of the equipment implying a perfect mastery of the whole process from design to commissioning - is back to being the norm.’ The price of raw materials and China’s stand on imports are ‘strong’ factors influencing the market, with the closure of the country’s borders to certain recyclables likely to have ‘dramatic consequences’ for traditional baler manufacturers. And Malin adds: ‘Efforts made by countries to reduce the truck traffic nuisance across borders has forced a reduction in transported volumes, thus opening up new opportunities for baler manufacturers.’ Copex invests 2-3% of its earnings in research and development; this policy was adopted initially as a defensive measure to protect domestic production facilities (Copex is France’s last remaining manufacturer of balers and

scrap shears), but it has now become a substantial boon for the company, enabling it to become ‘a major actor on every issue related to compacting techniques in the environment industry’.

Copex’s latest delivery was of a PMM 800 multi-material baler to a French agricultural group, to be used in converting organic fibres into high-density bales ready for export.

JMC baler goes on a cruise ‘Baler sales picked up a lot last year we sold over 100 machines worldwide,’ reports Phillip Pownall, managing director of UK-based JMC Recycling Systems. ‘Our machines aren’t the cheapest, so customers are buying based on quality and longevity.’ JMC’s current range consists of manual, semi-automatic and fully-automatic balers with production capacities of 3 to 5 tonnes per day of non-ferrous. Overall, the McIntyre 5025 remains the supplier’s biggest-selling model. ‘There are 195 countries in the world and we estimate that there is at least one McIntyre baler in half of them,’ Pownall reflects. Considering JMC also had a unit (an Alpack M10 can baler) which toured the world on the cruise ship SS Canberra, it is safe to

say that its brand has travelled far and wide. Discussing recent orders, Pownall notes that the most recent balers to have been dispatched were a small 2035 non-ferrous machine to the Netherlands and a fully-automatic M40 metal baler to a South African customer. ‘The latter is part of an order for four such machines,’ explains Pownall. ‘We believe that this repeat order is an indication that the customer really likes them.’ Keeping up with the times is important, he acknowledges. ‘The M80 has just been launched and is the latest of our fully-automatic machines capable of processing both ferrous and nonferrous materials in an automated production facility, significantly reducing the amount of waste material needing

to be stored on site, releasing production space for other processes, and saving money on material transport.’ JMC is currently exploring the handling of different types of material such as automotive components and special alloys.

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HSM’s ‘satisfying’ increase in orders Paper and plastics baler producer HSM of Germany recently delivered a 90-ton, fully-automatic channel baler to a large waste disposal company in Italy for processing PET bottles. ‘This customer is highly satisfied, as the machine in practical use is surpassing the bale weights which we had indicated,’ comments HSM’s global sales & marketing director for environ-

mental technology Jan-Peter Krupczynski. ‘Our customer is achieving truck loads which have never been achieved by any other channel baler.’ 2017 was a year of growth for HSM, according to Krupczynski. ‘We saw a significant increase in inquiries on the one hand, but also an increase in orders,’ he explains. ‘We are happy

with the results of the past year; in particular, the number of machines sold in the heavy-duty channel baler segment to domestic and international customers was very satisfying.’ HSM invests several million Euros every year in the modernisation and automation of its production processes.

Metso: priority on smarter balers Metso balers can process any kind of thin metal scrap from recycling yards to the production facilities of, for example, automotive companies.

‘Anything from small chips and bars to profiles and plates of stainless steel are processed with our equipment every day,’ says product manager Dr

Metso put its first scrap metal baler on the market back in 1923. The manufacturer is commited to R&D, although it believes the ‘physical basics’ of baling will remain essentially the same in the years ahead.

Krishan Wolters. Given that recyclers are processing ever more diverse forms of scrap, Metso is adopting special measures to ensure its balers resist increased stress while reducing liner plate wear. Dr Wolters can look back on a successful 2017 - a year, he says, in which Metso was able to convince people all around the world of the benefits of its N-Series balers, including the NIS Inclined gravity-style shear which can accept long material and large bulky scrap. The model is available in the range from 700 to 1375 tons. Metso units have found homes in countries as far flung as Brazil, China, Spain, Thailand and Estonia. Indeed, an Estonian client recently completed the purchase of an NLB 44 - 1000 lid baler for aluminium scrap. Metso put its first scrap metal baler on the market back in 1923. Speaking about the company’s commitment to R&D, Dr Wolters observes: ‘I believe the physical basics of baling will remain essentially the same, even in 20 years’ time.’ However, further progress is anticipated in terms of energy efficiency and the links between machines and the world of IT. Better connectivity to enable monitoring in real-time is seen as especially important for scrap companies operating at different locations. It is a ‘high priority’ to make balers ‘a lot smarter’, Dr Wolters remarks.

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TECHNOLOGY

.LEFORT Trax©*

CEG’s logistics challenge: shipping a shear baler to Damascus In the first quarter of 2017, CEG of Italy delivered an AGS148 shear baler to a customer in Syria. The machine, which packs 1400 tons of shear force, is 21 metres long, weighs in at 220 tons and is powered by four 110 kW engines. Features include an 8.3metre compression box. ‘As this was a particularly large shipment, and as Syria is in the midst of a civil war, you can imagine the logistics involved in transporting the shear were quite complicated,’ says CEG’s sales manager Edgar Root. ‘The shear’s main blocks were set in custom-made wooden boxes, and then transported in four trucks as a special transport to Venice Marghera port where they were loaded on to a ship bound for Tartus, Syria’s second-largest port. The cargo was offloaded there and a similar truck convoy hit the road to the final destination, a large steel mill west of Damascus.’ Shipping the shear into a war zone was quite a challenge, as was installation and training of staff in how to use it, according to Root. ‘A general lack of infrastructure and communication problems meant that our technician had to spend a month on site installing the shear and ensuring that the shear operators were properly schooled on how to use and maintain it.’ The shear is now operational and the customer is very happy, Root adds. ‘The AGS148 is the third machine that they have bought from us: together with the two Taurus Biblo BB44 balers, they have managed to optimise their foundry’s steel production by increasing the density of their feedstock and thereby reducing the number of buckets required to charge the furnace.’ Besides Syria, markets in general have made a solid comeback and business levels have increased, certainly in the domestic market, confirms CEG’s sales manager. ‘Italy enjoyed the positive effects of the government’s “Industry

4.0 related” fiscal incentives. Also, we have seen positives in the Far East and in Central/Northern Europe.’ Also in 2017, CEG took the first steps in its new approach to the US market. ‘We believe that 2018 will be a year in which we’ll consolidate the work initiated in 2017 and establish a strong presence in the North American market,’ Root declares. CEG sees process information and performance data availability, combined with more flexible and powerfully-integrated factory management systems, as being a major new trend. According to Root, this has been boosted by ‘a more reliable, safe, programmable, verifiable’ working environment becoming more and more of a requirement not only for scrap management areas at large steel mills but also for smaller yards. Therefore, CEG is aiming to provide an increasing number of machines that maintain the company’s mechanical and hydraulic performance excellence while also offering ‘higher integration, better control and data processing’. To enable all of its customers to take advantage of this new approach to machine performance control and monitoring, a dedicated app will be presented at the IFAT trade show being staged in the German city of Munich this May.

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Welding robot boosts Birim Makina’s production ‘2017 was one our top years for baler production,’ reveals Aykut Karahan, ceo of recycling equipment manufacturer Birim Makina of Turkey. Among the major orders was one from a

One of Birim Makina’s latest pieces of baler technology.

Turkish steel mill for a high-capacity steel baler with a box measuring 2.5 metres in width and 3.5 metres in length. ‘This customer is now enjoying the efficiency that they are getting through the new high-density 60 by 60 cm bales in their induction furnace,’ he says. Birim Makina recently designed two new baler models: one for the automotive industry, and the other for steel mills that are increasingly demanding high-capacity bale production. ‘Our new designs are basically working to fit these requirements,’ Karahan explains. In addition, Birim Makina has invested in modern technology. ‘For example, our new welding robot has boosted production capacity by 10%.’ Focusing on innovation, Birim Makina’s ceo sees a growing role

for remote access systems and machine-to-machine communication solutions. ‘I believe that more and more money and knowledge is being invested in this,’ says Karahan. ‘We will soon see our customers checking their baler’s production and maintenance conditions from their cell phones.’ Each year, 4% of Birim Makina’s profits are invested in research and development for new baler projects. Birim Makina is particularly well placed to serve not only its domestic Turkish market but also neighbouring territories, including the Gulf region. For more distant parts of the world such as the Americas and deeper into Asia, Birim Makina works with partner companies. In total, the company serves customers in 50 countries worldwide.

Watch out for new Harris baler in 2018 ‘The Centurion two-ram baler is our bestseller,’ states Forrest Wildes, director of strategic accounts at Harris Waste Management. A 200 HP Centurion unit and an HRB-1545 tworam baler with direct wrap are the latest models to have been sold to clients in the north east of America. Wildes describes 2017 as a ‘mixed year’, though one not without its innovations. Harris increased the variety of sizes enabled by its machinery last year, while also enhancing the operating pressure from 3500 to 5000 PSI (240 to 345 bar). The supplier also made ‘large investments’ in its own plant to improve manufacturing. A brand new baler is scheduled for release in 2018 - ‘so stay tuned’, Wildes advises. For balers, it is the electronics that have changed the most. ‘Now balers can operate with lasers instead of limit switches,’ Wildes points out, adding that Harris has fitted all of its balers with wireless ethernet so as to mini-

mise customers’ downtime. Also, Harris balers are now capable of baling RDF, while a wrapping machine can be integrated to wrap the material for storage. According to Wildes, the company has the only no shear two-ram baler with patented lid; a patented smart knife

that can be adjusted without entering the machine; and also a teflon piston. Commenting on the future, he says: ‘I think packaging will change significantly over the next 20 years, so balers will need to handle new and different materials.’

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Vezzani aims to ‘keep ahead of the market’ ‘Due to the very low processing costs, baling presses have recently become quite popular again, amid the strong reduction in scrap prices and margins over the last few years that forced many companies to organise their operations in a more efficient way.’ So says Gabriele Merlo, board director at recycling machinery manufacturer Vezzani of Italy. Covering almost 60 countries worldwide, Vezzani’s most lively areas of activity include Africa, South East Asia and Central America. Its most recent deliveries include a few 40x40 threecompression baling presses to Australia and South East Asia, and a larger 50x50 baling press capable of producing 70 tonnes per hour for its Italian steel mill customer. Scrap prices are certainly driving the demand for this equipment, as is what steel mills and foundries are requesting in terms of furnace input, according to Merlo. Vezzani’s main focus is on achieving the highest productivity, the highest density of output material and the highest reliability, all at the lowest running cost. ‘All the machines are therefore developed for an industrial use, allowing our customers to always get more output for less,’ he says. ‘The efficiency of our equipment is certainly one of their strongest features.’ Technology plays a major role in equipment efficiency and perfor-

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mance, Merlo believes. ‘We have always kept ahead of the market, introducing the most advanced technologies to make the baling presses more productive,’ he says. ‘Today, one of the most important activities we are focusing on is allowing our customers

to monitor the equipment in a very detailed way, collecting all the data available from the PLC and making them available to them in order to anticipate issues and problems as well as checking the performance of the machine.’

??

??

A P5050T being assembled at Vezzani’s factory.

03.11.17 09:44

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Scrap prices remain a The final weeks of 2017 brought a strong upward progression in ferrous scrap prices, driven in part by weather- and holiday-related supply issues. Although some of the momentum was lost in January, prices remain at high levels at the time of writing. Latest cfr price indications for shipments from Europe to Turkey are US$ 350-355 per tonne for standard quality HMS I/II 80/20 scrap and US$ 355-360 for shredded. auth o r Ian Martin

As last year drew to a close, ferrous scrap prices clambered above their previous peak for 2017, which had been established in late August. Turkish mills were continuing to offer a healthy demand for scrap in the final weeks of the year, just as more difficult weather-related conditions were putting the pinch on supply. Long holiday breaks in key exporting regions of the world also impacted availability. As a result, HMS I/II 80/20 scrap from the USA and Baltic Sea was commanding

as much as US$ 370 per tonne on a cfr basis, thus overtaking the US$ 360-plus of four months earlier. As recently as early November, prices had barely scraped above US$ 300 per tonne. Although international trading activity was limited in the early weeks of 2018, ferrous scrap prices continued to inch higher, reaching US$ 376 per tonne for the HMS I/II 80/20 mix by mid-January. Towards the end of the month, however, there were the first signs of a backward step. Turkish steel producers began to struggle with falling rebar prices and weaker demand from its leading export markets. Even though order books were thought likely to improve and mills were expected to book more cargoes for February, the few deals closed just after January’s midpoint were down nearer US$ 360 per tonne on a cfr basis for Baltic Sea and US-origin 80/20 scrap. Short-sea scrap import prices paid by Spain have also fallen on reduced mill interest. In the steel markets, meanwhile, billet prices have headed lower in recent weeks on the back of softer demand. ADVERSE WEATHER CONDITIONS Baltic Sea suppliers have been booking most of the business with Turkish mills over recent weeks, not least because snow storms and extremely low temperatures have impacted scrap processing operations and flows from ports on the US east coast. The adverse weather conditions have also

helped to boost ferrous scrap prices in the USA itself; having risen US$ 20-30 per ton for December, similar gains were achieved early in the new year. However, many sources are reporting that sweetened inducements have failed to tease significantly more material from collectors both on the coasts and further inland. Another factor to affect ferrous scrap flows to Turkey include implementation of a new VAT system by Gulf Co-operation Council countries. Applied from January 1 this year, the 5% rate of tax has been affecting procurement and sales, requiring a period of assimilation for many businesses and creating a degree of hesitation around exports and wider trading activity. EYE-CATCHING INCREASES Latest figures published by the US Census Bureau reveal that 13.2% growth in ferrous scrap exports to Turkey helped the USA to increase its overseas shipments to all destinations by more than 2.2 million tonnes in the first 11 months of last year. Total exports from America surged almost 20% from a little over 11.5 million tonnes in January-November 2016 to approaching 13.78 million tonnes in the corresponding months of 2017. Deliveries to leading buyer Turkey climbed from 2.88 million tonnes to 3.26 million tonnes when comparing the two 11-month periods, with Mexico (+10.5% to 1.61 million tonnes) and Taiwan (+5.5% to 1.29 million tonnes) the other two countries to receive more than a million tonnes of ferrous scrap from the USA. Next came China on 957 787 tonnes (+28% year on year) and Canada on 833 449 tonnes (+23%). Eye-catching increases in US purchases were recorded by Pakistan and Bangladesh: the former upped its order by around 59% in JanuaryNovember 2017 to 641 491 tonnes while the latter all but doubled its total to 584 205 tonnes. In contrast, US

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s 3

F M I w 3 l p t D p J U a H s t i H p N I a c s a t r

C H t i i t f 6 a d e n w m a a e T t t


ferrous

n at elevated levels shipments to India tumbled more than 37% year on year to 665 737 tonnes.

Crude steel production by region (million tonnes)

FOLLOWING INTERNATIONAL MARKET In early November, shredded scrap was selling into India at around US$ 310 per tonne cfr Nhava Sheva. But in line with the international market, prices climbed to US$ 350-360 per tonne in the run-up to the lateDecember holiday period in many parts of the world. By the middle of January, the talk was of prices nearer US$ 380 per tonne for shredded and approaching US$ 350 for imported HMS I/II 80/20. However, values slipped approaching US$ 10 per tonne around the middle of January, in line with developments elsewhere. Having commanded around US$ 300 per tonne on a cfr basis in early November, Taiwanese imports of HMS I/II 80/20 scrap were being negotiated around the US$ 340 mark as 2017 came to an end. By mid-January, consignments were changing hands for around US$ 350 per tonne and, at the time of writing, appear to have held relatively well at this level. COMPETING COMMODITIES Having remained below US$ 65 per tonne in the first half of November, iron ore prices made gentle progress in the latter stages of the month on the back of strength in the steel and futures markets. The Metal Bulletin 62% Fe iron ore index duly edged above US$ 70 per tonne on the first day of December and quickly exceeded US$ 72 before plunging again to nearer US$ 65 by the end of the first working week of the month. However, most of December was then spent above US$ 70 per tonne as the steel and futures markets offered more encouraging signals. The index began 2018 on a more positive note, rising beyond US$ 79 per tonne in early-year trading before

2016 2017 % change

Europe 301.8 313.2 +3.8 North America 110.6 116 +4.8 South America 40.2 43.7 +8.7 Africa 13.1 15 +14.4 Middle East 31.5 34.9 +10.9 Asia 1103.2 1162.5 +5.4 Australia/New Zealand 5.8 6 +2.5 Total 1606.3 1691.2 +5.3

retreating to around US$ 74 in response to a dearth of trading activity. China’s iron ore imports dropped to a 20-month low of 79.49 million tonnes in October last year after registering a record high of 102.83 million tonnes in September. Adding in November and December totals of, respectively, 94.54 million tonnes and 84.14 million tonnes, this means China imported 1.075 billion tonnes of iron ore last year for an increase of around 5% over 2016. Meanwhile, the country’s domestic iron ore output jumped more than 7% last year to 1.23 billion tonnes, according to the National Bureau of Statistics. STEEL Global crude steel production jumped 5.3% from 1606.3 million tonnes in 2016 to 1691.2 million tonnes last year, with China producing a recordbreaking 831.73 million tonnes to easily outstrip its previous high of almost 823 million tonnes set three years earlier. India (+6.2% to 101.371 million tonnes) almost pipped Japan (-0.1% to 104.661 million tonnes) to second place in the 2017 producer league table, according to figures released by the World Steel Association (WSA). Next on the list comes the USA with an increase of 4% in its crude steel production last year to 81.64 million tonnes, followed by Russia (+1.3% to

an estimated 71.34 million tonnes) and South Korea (+3.6% to 71.081 million tonnes). The EU-28, meanwhile, upped its output by 4.1% last year to 168.682 million tonnes. The world’s leading scrap importer Turkey was the only country among the top 10 producers globally to achieve double-digit percentage growth in its crude steel output during 2017; the production figure of 37.524 million tonnes exceeded the 2016 total of 33.163 million tonnes by 13.1%. Turkey increased its scrapintensive electric arc furnace (EAF) output by approaching 19% to 25.96 million tonnes in 2017 from 21.85 million tonnes in the previous year, the Turkish Steel Producers’ Association has reported. A regional analysis of crude steel production in 2017 is encapsulated in the table accompanying this market report. In December last year, crude steel capacity utilisation among the 66 countries reporting their statistics to the WSA was 69.5% - the only month throughout 2017 in which the figure dropped below 70%; however, this was still 1.8 percentage points higher than the utilisation number for December 2016. The 66 countries’ combined crude steel output was 3.9% higher in the final month of 2017 than in December 2016 at just over 138 million tonnes; among the major

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䄀搀瘀愀渀挀攀洀攀渀琀猀 漀昀 猀攀渀猀漀爀ⴀ戀愀猀攀搀 琀攀挀栀渀漀氀漀最椀攀猀 椀渀 洀椀渀椀渀最 愀渀搀 爀攀挀礀挀氀椀渀最㨀 ∠ 䤀洀瀀爀漀瘀攀洀攀渀琀 漀昀 猀漀爀琀椀渀最 ∠ 倀爀漀挀攀猀猀 挀漀渀琀爀漀氀 ∠ 匀攀渀猀漀爀 搀攀瘀攀氀漀瀀洀攀渀琀 ∠ 䴀甀氀琀椀ⴀ猀攀渀猀漀爀猀 ∠ 䐀愀琀愀 愀渀愀氀礀猀椀猀 ∠ 倀攀爀椀瀀栀攀爀愀氀 瀀爀漀挀攀猀猀攀猀 昀漀爀 匀䈀匀

RECYCLING INTERNATIONAL TURNS 20! 2018 marks our 20th year in the global recycling business. Since the first edition of Recycling International rolled off the presses in May 1998, we have seen recycling solutions become smarter and more powerful.

Let’s celebrate together. Share your milestones and best practices. For further details about advertising in our jubilee issue and other Recycling International productions, please contact: Judith Wanjala + 31 882 944 739 judith@recyclinginternational.com

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The go-to source of global

The especially entertaining anniversary edition is the perfect opportunity for you to reach the core of the worldwide recycling industry!

YEARS

Recycling

No. 1 2018

l Internationa

Scrapping aerosol cans in Canada Technology balers

The wide world of (shear)

Recovered paper see biggest demand Emerging economies Sunny prospects for

? solar panel recyclers

Evaporation of plastics

scrap flows to China David Dodds:

‘I paid Euro 65 000 for

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com | January/ February

absolute garbage’

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No. 1 1998


ferrous In its January analysis, Irepas also points to a 15% increase in graphite electrode prices over the course of less than 30 days owing to their more limited availability which, the association believes, ‘will surely put a cap’ on EAF production. Tightness in the electrode market has been driven by Chinese production cuts and increased electric vehicle sector demand for needle coke, the material used to make graphite electrodes. In September last year, European steel association Eurofer warned that the graphite electrode issue was ‘threatening to stall EU steel production’.

year and a record-breaking 112.4 million tonnes in 2015. In December last year, Chinese exports were limited to less than 5.7 million tonnes. Looking ahead, a short-term outlook published by the International Rebar Exporters & Producers Association (Irepas) suggests production curtailments in China are likely to ‘continue to bring up finished steel pricing, thereby reducing steel volumes for exports’. During the first quarter, it adds, Chinese steel exports could ‘dry up completely’ and therefore drive the demands placed on steel mills elsewhere.

producers, the biggest year-on-year increases in production were reported by Brazil (+19.2%), Turkey (+15.1%) and India (+4.9%). LOWER CHINESE EXPORTS Chinese exports of finished steel plummeted more than 30% last year owing to a combination of higher price tags and trade barriers erected in some key markets, including Europe and North America. Chinese customs data reveal that a total of 75.43 million tonnes of steel products left Chinese shores in 2017 as against 108.43 million tonnes in the previous

Ferrous Scrap Prices USA Domestic Scrap Prices*

Reference date: January 25, 2018

CFR Prices for shipments from EU to Turkey (US$/t)

(US$/GRT)

HMS 1 heavy steel scrap (1/4 Inch) composite price delivered at mills

HMS 80/20 heavy steel scrap

350

400

– Highest price – Lowest price

320 295

300

300

285

280

285

325

265

275

355 350

345

350

340 305

320

250

295

300

300 290

265

200

250 260

265 270 265

260

240 235

150

j

f

m

a

m

USA Export Prices*

j

j

a

s

(US$/GRT)

o

n

d

200

j

– Fob East Coast price – Fob West Coast price

HMS 1, heavy steel scrap (1/4 Inch)

400

f

m

a

m

j

j

a

s

o

n

d

j

Composite Sales Price ex Yard in Germany** (€/t) E3/European Standard Quality No. 3, heavy old steel scrap (>6mm)

350

355

350

335

340

330

313

299

300

283

266,3 253,8

250

j

f

m

a

m

j

j

200

a

237,8

225,5

250

s

o

n

d

j

150

211

219

198

193

j

261,5

245,5

232

227

282

256 250 255

262

250

300

302

305 262

200

j

f

m

a

m

j

j

a

s

o

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d

j

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Heat maintained in nickel m Early-year trading has placed V2A scrap in the range of Euro 1100-1130 per tonne in Europe while V4A scrap has been fetching Euro 1480-1530; these ranges compare, respectively, to Euro 1060-1090 and Euro 1370-1420 at the time of our previous report in early November last year. Analysts are generally agreed on an upbeat outlook for nickel this year, partly because of an anticipated improvement in demand from the fast-developing electric vehicle sector worldwide. In its market overview published in December, Oryx Stainless says ‘the stimulus of electro-mobility is still very much far in the future’ but believes the market prognosis for 2018 to be ‘positive’ as ‘world trade is growing again’ and ‘final demand for stainless steel is good’. Oryx points to a survey conducted by news agency Reuters towards the end

of last year in which experts were asked about nickel market prospects for 2018. Their combined projections pointed to an LME cash price average of just over US$ 10 900 per tonne for this year and to a global nickel supply deficit of around 43 000 tons. The new year began with close-of-day LME nickel prices of approaching US$ 12 700 per tonne, rising to some US$

12 900 by mid-month and thereby just exceeding the 2017 peak recorded in early November; these numbers compare to the mid-year period in 2017 when nickel prices spent time below US$ 9000 per tonne. At the time of writing, LME nickel is valued at around US$ 12 700 per tonne. EUROPE In Europe, early-year trading has placed V2A scrap in the range of Euro 1100-1130 per tonne while V4A scrap has been fetching Euro 1480-1530; these ranges compare, respectively, to Euro 1060-1090 and Euro 1370-1420 at the time of our previous report in early November last year. While projections for 2018 are difficult

ISSF: stainless steel melt shop production surges more than 7% Some 2.5 million tonnes was added to global stainless steel melt shop production in the first nine months of last year, according to figures issued by the International Stainless Steel Forum (ISSF) in late December. The total for January-September 2017 was 36.084 million tonnes as against the 33.585 million tonnes produced in the opening three quarters of 2016 equivalent to an increase of 7.4%. China accounted for well over half of the global total in upping its production by 8.8% from 18.086 million tonnes in the first nine months of 2016 to 19.669 million tonnes in last year’s corresponding period; the country’s 300 series output bettered this overall increase in surging 16% year on year to a shade under 10.8 million tonnes. Stainless steel melt shop production growth was also pronounced in the USA with a leap of 14.8% year on year to 2.1 million tonnes. The upturn in Europe was limited to 1.7% in last year’s January-September period in reaching 5.544 million tonnes while Asia (excluding China and South Korea) mustered a year-on-year increase of 4.2% to 5.928 million tonnes, according to the ISSF statistics. Global stainless steel melt shop production was much higher in the JulySeptember period than in the previous two quarters of last year, jumping to 12.717 million tonnes from 11.825 million tonnes in January-March and 11.542 million tonnes in April-June. At 7.256 million tonnes, Chinese output in the third quarter dwarfed its production 6.286 million tonnes and 6.127 million tonnes of quarters one and two, respectively. In contrast, European production was significantly lower in the third quarter at 1.662 million tonnes versus the 1.98 million tonnes of January-March and the 1.902 million tonnes of April-June.

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C T t y C


N ickel & S tainless

el market to make at this early stage, the European stainless steel industry appears set to remain under pressure from producers elsewhere in the world, notably Asia. Base prices in Europe remained on an even keel in early January amid limited demand as a result of the extended holiday period in many countries. Although it has been suggested that lengthening lead times for long products could push up base price rises, experts are warning that any significant increase in the near term would potentially open the door to import competition. CHINA AND ELSEWHERE IN ASIA Thin trading activity and inventory trimming by stockists ahead of the year-end combined to push down China’s domestic stainless steel prices

in the latter days of 2017. With mills continuing to produce at a decent rate, their own stocks began to build. In early January, prices in China and elsewhere in eastern Asia began to improve, not least because of higher nickel values. However, this upward momentum was quickly cut short as demand failed to provide any further encouragement. As early as the first half of January, there were reports that some leading end users of stainless steel were taking production breaks in preparation for the Chinese New Year, which is not taking place until February 16. Despite tepid demand, there are reports of Chinese stainless steel producers raising their offers on the back of higher nickel values. According to feedback from South

Strong short-term fundamentals: The momentum in the stainless steel markets around the globe is building up. The demand for Ni is strengthening and the expected demand from car batteries stimulates speculative demand. When will the price peak in the current ‘rally’ be reached? The price will go into reverse when the elevated prices stimulate substantial new supply of NPI by accelerating the ramp-up of all NPI projects in Indonesia as well as re-activate idled capacities in China. Reference date: January 23, 2018

Nickel /3-mts Nickel Price (in U.S. dollars /t)

LME Stocks (x 1000 metric tonnes)/ 480 460 440 420 400 380 360 340 320 300 280 260 240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 -

33,000 29,000 25,000 21,000 17,000 13,000 9,000 5,000

-2011-

-2012-

-2013-

-2014-

-2015-

-2016-

-2017

Korea, the domestic stainless steel market is ‘dull’ and prices are ‘not competitive’. Operating to capacity utilisation rates of typically 70-80%, the average scrap ratio for the country’s mills is around 55% while stocks are high owing to increased purchases towards the end of 2017. In Taiwan, meanwhile, demand for finished products is not strong and so mills are declining to buy large volumes of scrap. ‘People think demand might be better if nickel can go above the level of US$ 13 000 per tonne,’ a leading industry figure tells Recycling International. Almost all US stainless steel prices began 2018 by effectively heading a little way south as lower surcharges more than compensated for the base price hikes attempted by leading mills. NORTH AMERICA The stainless steel scrap market in the USA has been largely weak over recent months and barely responsive at times to nickel price increases, ending 2017 with a widespread decline. With nickel continuing to make gains, however, higher stainless steel scrap values were reported early in the new year. Comparing the first 10 months of 2016 with the same period in 2017, US nickel scrap exports edged up from 24 220 tonnes to 24 970 tonnes, calculates the Census Bureau and International Trade Commission.

Editor’s note After being the main writer of Recycling International’s nickel/stainless report for many years, Gerhard Teborg has decided to step down. Everyone at the magazine would like to thank him for his outstanding contribution and insights during that time. Most importantly, we would like to send him our warmest good wishes for the future.

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Positive prospects for copper a After a number of difficult years for the non-ferrous sector, the majority of market players can look back on 2017 with a greater degree of satisfaction. However, the year was not without its challenges - including creeping oversupply in some markets and the emergence of harsh import restrictions in China. LME cash prices are at the following per-tonne levels (the corresponding figures from our non-ferrous metals report of early November are given in brackets): aluminium US$ 2234 (US$ 2187); copper US$ 7048.50 (US$ 6917); lead US$ 2605 (US$ 2451); zinc US$ 3440.50 (US$ 3330); and tin US$ 20 765 (US$ 19 695).

Aluminium One of the market winners of recent months has been aluminium: prices have risen significantly both for primary metal and scrap; demand remains generally high; and aluminium producers are busy around the world, with extended lead times for certain qualities. According to the World Bureau of Metal Statistics, the global primary aluminium market recorded a shortfall of 1.57 million tonnes for the opening 11 months of 2017 - more than double the deficit for the whole of the previous year. Production climbed 1% whereas demand advanced by 2.6% to almost 55 million tonnes during last year’s January-November period. In Europe, and more specifically Germany, aluminium wire scrap (Achse) has traded of late in the range Euro 1730-1820 per tonne while aluminium profile scrap (Alter) has fetched Euro 1760-1830 and aluminium turnings (Autor) Euro 1070-1160. According to data from the US Commerce Department, America’s exports of aluminium scrap surged almost 16% in the first 11 months of last year to approaching 1.5 million short tons; this compares to less than 1.3 million short tons in the corresponding period of the previous year. When compared to JanuaryNovember 2016, Chinese imports of US aluminium scrap jumped 17% in the first 11 months of last year to 744 798 tonnes, latest Census Bureau data reveal. However, US shipments to some of China’s fellow Asian countries climbed even more steeply, including to South Korea (+21% to 160 252 tonnes), India (+28% to 71 387 tonnes) and Indonesia (+45% to 31 410 tonnes). Copper Conversations within the recycling community have been dominated by the news that, in the first two rounds of 2018 import licence alloca-

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t n b c C r w t a B


non-ferrous

er and aluminium in 2018 Canadian demand climbed 28% to 88 809 tonnes. In Germany of late, bright wire scrap (Kabul) has been trading at Euro 57005790 per tonne and copper granules 1a (Kasus) at Euro 5750-6030. Developments within the copper market surprised many participants last year as LME values jumped from approaching US$ 5600 per tonne at

Census Bureau data show substantial growth in US copper scrap exports to a number of markets in the first 11 months of last year. Whereas shipments to China climbed just 6% on a year-on-year basis to 633 991 tonnes, deliveries to Hong Kong surged 65% to 36 151 tonnes. Japan upped its order for US copper scrap by 42% to 19 274 tonnes while

tions by the Chinese government, the numbers issued for copper scrap have been slashed by well over 90% when compared to last year. Jiangxi Copper’s brokerage arm Jinrui Future reckons that 45% less copper scrap will enter China this year as a result of the government’s latest moves, according to a report in Metal Bulletin.

LME Non-Ferrous Prices & Stocks / Aluminium

– LME prices (in U.S. dollars/MT) – LME stocks (x 1000 metric tonnes)

Reference date: January 25, 2018

/ Copper

– LME prices (in U.S. dollars/MT) – LME stocks (x 1000 metric tonnes)

6000

3500

500

9000

5000

3000

400

8000

2500

300

7000

2000

200

6000

1500

100

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

j

f

m

a

m

j

/ Lead

j

a

s

o

n

d

0

j

– LME prices (in U.S. dollars/MT) – LME stocks (x 1000 metric tonnes)

350

3000

280

2500

210

2000

140

1500

70

1000

0

j

f

m

a

m

j

/ Zinc

j

a

s

o

n

d

j

– LME prices (in U.S. dollars/MT) – LME stocks (x 1000 metric tonnes)

800

4000

660

3000

520

2500

380

2000

240

1500

100

j

f

m

a

m

j

j

a

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o

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j

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marke t analysis

the beginning of 2017 to around US$ 7160 in recent trading, heading as high as US$ 7300 at one stage. Amid such elevated prices, some dealers have found difficulty in selling their material. Major copper traders are of the opinion that, despite now-familiar price variations along the way, the red metal is likely to consolidate around US$ 7000 per tonne over the course of the year. As part of its December results announcement, leading recycler Aurubis predicted stable to good demand for copper products in the coming fiscal year, not least because use of the red metal is ‘essential’ to a host of latest technologies, including digitalisation and renewable energies. ‘The markets for copper scrap and sulfuric acid are difficult to forecast because they are dependent on many short-term and regional factors,’ the Germany-based group also observes. The International Copper Study Group (ICSG) is anticipating a 2.3% upturn in global refined copper demand in 2018, also quoting technological advances as a major spur. Projected demand growth in China (3%) is expected to outstrip that for the rest of the world (1.5%). The study group expects refined copper production to climb 2.5% to 24.2 million tonnes this year, with the secondary production component seen as likely to increase by around 1%. In 2017, meanwhile, the global refined copper market extended its deficit from 143 000 tonnes in JanuaryOctober 2016 to 175 000 tonnes in last year’s corresponding period. At the same time, there was a surge of 9% - or 300 000 tonnes - in secondary production from scrap, according to the ICSG. With primary refined production dropping 2% year on year to 15.915 million tonnes, the increase in scrap-based production from 3.181 million tonnes to 3.481 million tonnes brought about a small increase in overall refined output - from 19.382 million tonnes in the opening 10 months of 2016 to 19.396 million tonnes in the same period last year. ‘Increased availability of scrap allowed world secondary refined pro-

non-ferrous

duction to increase, notably in China,’ the ICSG points out. On a regional basis, overall refined copper output is estimated to have increased by 3% in Asia and 3.5% in Europe while declining by 2% in Africa, 8% in the Americas and 10% in Oceania. World apparent refined copper usage is thought to have edged 0.2% higher during the first 10 months of 2017 to 19.571 million tonnes. The world’s leading consumer China saw its apparent usage remain essentially unchanged whereas the rest of the world posted an increase of 0.4%, with gains in India and Japan largely offset by declines in the USA, Germany and South Korea. Lead The lead market has set a firmer pace than in previous months, despite the European Commission tightening limits on the use of the metal. Its main application is currently in the production of lead-acid batteries, leading some analysts to suggest that the strong emergence of electromobility is sounding the death knell for lead. Nevertheless, demand for the metal remains high and prices are solid. In Germany, recent prices for soft lead scrap have ranged between Euro 1970 and Euro 2090 per tonne. Lead-acid battery prices in the USA, meanwhile, have maintained their elevated levels in recent trading. In the JanuaryNovember 2017 period, US overseas shipments of these batteries jumped by more than a third on a year-on-year basis to just short of 23 000 short tons, according to figures from the nation’s Commerce Department. According to preliminary data from the International Lead & Zinc Study Group, the world refined lead market swapped a surplus of 17 000 tonnes in the opening 11 months of 2016 for a shortfall of 169 000 tonnes in the corresponding period of last year. Output climbed 3.1% year on year to 10.58 million tonnes whereas usage jumped 4.9% - or 500 000 tonnes - to 10.749 million tonnes thanks principally to improved demand in China, South

Korea and the USA. Apparent demand increased by 3.5% in Europe. Zinc Zinc has become much more expensive in recent months, with European prices spiralling to around US$ 3400 per tonne at the beginning of the year - their highest level in more than a decade. LME zinc stocks are on the decline and, at the time of writing, stand at some 180 000 tonnes; furthermore, analysts believe these stocks are not fully available to the market and so expect shortages in the coming months. The high price of zinc has convinced processors to order only enough material to satisfy their immediate needs; longer-term contracts have become an exception rather than the rule. On the German market, old zinc scrap (Zebra) has recently been attracting Euro 2110-2160 per tonne. Compared to the same period in 2016, American zinc scrap exports climbed almost 10% in the opening 11 months of last year to approaching 33 000 short tons, the US Commerce Department has indicated. The deficit in the global zinc market was extended to 485 000 tonnes in the opening 11 months of last year, having amounted to 206 000 tonnes in January-November 2016. World output actually fell 0.3% overall to 12.509 million tonnes ‘despite a sharp rise in India’, notes the International Lead & Zinc Study Group (ILZSG) in its latest statistical analysis. In contrast, global usage of refined zinc advanced 1.9% to 12.994 million tonnes, mainly driven by the 2.1% increase in apparent demand in China. In both Europe and the USA, usage across January-November 2017 was similar to that in the same period of the previous year, the ILZSG points out.

Contributing to the non-ferrous metals market analysis: * Ralf Schmitz, German non-ferrous trade association VDM (Europe)

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ANALYSIS ?MARKET ?

PLASTICS

New page turned for plastics scrap market Rarely can a new year have dawned with the global plastics scrap market in such a state of transition. The clampdown on imports into China has resulted in some volumes being redirected to other Asian countries - but not in sufficient quantities to prevent a build-up of stocks among exporting nations. For the plastics recycling industry, 2017 proved to be extremely challenging. In the first half of the year, collectors and exporters were confronted by China’s National Sword 2017; this campaign entailed very strict inspections of every container arriving at ports, with many exporters having material rejected by customs officials and environmental authorities. This resulted in fewer plastics scrap shipments to China. In the second half of 2017, China proposed and introduced a ban on imports of plastics scrap, creating chaos within recycling industries in other parts of the world. In Europe, for example, there was a fall of more than 50% in plastics scrap prices given huge availability and low demand in the absence of shipments to China. HOLDING HUGE STOCKS In December last year, most deliveries from Europe were to South East Asian countries; in the first three quarters of 2017, the quantities bought from Europe by both Vietnam and Malaysia were equal to their imports for the whole of 2016. Despite increasing their orders, these two countries were not in a position to absorb the huge availability arising from China’s absence from the market, and so prices kept on falling. Many collectors and exporters were holding huge stocks of plastics scrap at the end of 2017. At the beginning of December, the Vietnamese government announced a change to the country’s import policy from January 2018 after discovering

many enterprises were discharging untreated wastewater, garbage and raw materials with no care for the environment. The country’s environmental protection ministry conducted a comprehensive inspection aimed at controlling imports that were not environmentally friendly. This heaped further pressure on the European market as many of its exporters reduced shipments to Vietnam while some customers asked for shipments to be put on hold. LISTS OF APPROVED RECYCLERS China’s announcement that it would issue some plastics scrap import licences at the end of 2017 created eager anticipation; in the event, the environmental authorities decided instead on a fourth round of inspections for those units expecting to receive licences. In late December, China revealed its first list of 30 approved recyclers who would be allowed to import waste into China, including 15 waste plastics companies dealing mostly in PET. Through this list, import quotas amounted to less than 10 000 tonnes; for some recyclers, this year’s quota is only 2-3% of that for the previous year. Furthermore, the letter of approval seems to permit the import of ??just PET flakes whereas PET bottles in bales were previously allowed. More ?? clarity is awaited from the authorities. Looking at the volumes on China’s second list of recyclers approved to receive imports, it seems the large build-up of material is likely

to persist in Europe. China has issued new GB 16487 Environmental Protection Control Standards to be followed when inspecting and certifying scrap materials for importation into China. A maximum impurity level of 0.5% has been set for plastics. FREIGHT RATE INCREASE TO VIETNAM With almost no exports of plastics scrap to China, shipping freight rates remained unchanged in December. Following the aforementioned move by the Vietnamese government, many shipping lines decided to halt bookings to the country. Many shipping lines have containers still awaiting clearance at Vietnamese ports. Those lines prepared to accept containers for Vietnam have been checking each booking with the consignee/recycler in advance to make sure the shipment will not sit uncleared once it reaches port. Against this uncertain backdrop, freight rates to Vietnam increased in January from US$ 800-850 to US$ 900-950. Shippers are being asked to sign a Letter of Indemnity in relation to each booking. Given the current scenario, the plastics scrap market appears likely to remain under pressure over coming months pending growth in recycling capacity within Europe or in South East Asia.

CONTRIBUTED BY Surendra Borad Patawari, ceo of Gemini Corporation.

recyclinginternational.com sign magazine | nr. 7 oktober | January/February 2017 | 2018 51 51_maplastics.indd 51

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marke t analysis

paper

B A

Uncertain start to 2018 Confirmation by the Chinese government of a 0.5% contamination ceiling on imports of recovered fibre effectively rules out most mixed papers and makes OCC deliveries ‘extremely vulnerable’ too, it is claimed. There is already evidence of a two-tier market, some experts say. EUROPE ‘ALLOCATIONS NOT ENOUGH’

Volumes of the lower grades entering merchant processors’ facilities have returned to normal after the holiday period. Despite reasonable-to-good demand, most European mills have kept their prices the same or reduced them by anything up to Euro 20 per tonne as they look to take advantage of the sharp reduction in export flows to China. Mixed paper prices are also under pressure. For shipments to the Far East, OCC prices have fallen rapidly - basically because of the lack of import licences into China. Talking about the current fibre needs of Chinese mills, a leading European buyer for the market tells Recycling International: ‘The allocations into China aren’t enough at the moment for OCC.’ Other countries are offering very low prices and not much demand, although some volumes have been

shipped into Vietnam, Turkey and India. Even though the situation has improved when compared to late last year, there are not many trucks available for supply into Europe. Meanwhile, shipping freight rates have edged lower owing to a drop-off in cargoes; vessel space is easy to obtain at present. The rate of exchange to the US dollar is not helping exporters. Demand is good within Europe for the deinking grades, while some volumes have been snapped up at lower prices by buyers in Asia. As for the middle grades, demand is healthy across the board in Europe - notably for printers grades - and prices have stabilised at good levels. Given healthy demand for the high grades, a lack of availability has helped push up prices. NORTH AMERICA INCREASING PRICE SPREAD

A robust manufacturing economy continues to benefit the US containerboard business, and American containerboard exports have helped to boost demand too. Through November last year, US containerboard production was reportedly 3% higher than in the same period of 2016 while exports grew 5%. This strong production performance required the industry to consume almost 4% more OCC than in JanuaryNovember 2016, sources reported.

According to the Institute for Supply Management, general manufacturing activity in the USA expanded robustly in December, with new orders increasing at their fastest pace since January 2004. As a result, domestic paperboard mills continued to run strongly after the Christmas holiday season. While China’s strict new recovered paper import standards have dominated market conversations, the OCC market in America remained in balance during the first half of January. North American mills, suppliers say, were generally not desperate for tonnage but were not turning it away either. US mills have also been exporting increased volumes of containerboard to China, sources indicate. They speculate that with the significant reduction in imported OCC and the huge reduction in imported mixed paper in 2017, Chinese box plants have brought in more US containerboard owing to a lack of domestic production. According to recovered paper exporters, Chinese demand for OCC has been strong in early 2018. However, they also express anxiety over the possibility of having loads rejected because of small amounts of outthrows and prohibited materials. The Chinese government confirmed on January 11 that it would not accept imported scrap paper that contains more than 0.5% contamination; that effectively excludes virtually all mixed paper imports from the USA and makes OCC deliveries extremely vulnerable too, it is argued. ‘So many people cannot meet that specification, especially for the OCC generated in municipal kerbside collections, which make up the majority of all the corrugated being collected in the US,’ says one broker. As a result, exporters report, an increasing price spread is developing between primarily commercially-generated ‘China quality’ OCC and lower-

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q A T p U b c A C p a l N p l o m T d e r a t I m i


By Alan Wheeler, director of the UK’s Textile Recycling Association and general delegate of BIR’s textiles division

T extiles

Help needed from law enforcement agencies It is generally believed that when the market value of used clothing is high, this tends to attract criminals to the sector. If this is the case, then UK market prices must have picked up sufficiently. Just recently, police carried out raids on several addresses in and around Newcastle upon Tyne in north-east England; six Lithuanians operating a door-to-door clothing collection business were arrested and charged with slavery offences against 12 other people. In addition, the UK’s Textile Recycling Association is aware of several gangs that are stealing used clothing from hundreds of collection banks. Most of the sites targeted are raising money for charities or local authorities. It is estimated that one of these gangs is stealing around £500 000

quality kerbside material sold to other Asian markets. Traders insist that virtually no mixed paper is now being shipped from the USA to China - although it is hard to believe US trade data will support that claim when they become available. According to the most recent US Commerce Department figures, mixed paper exports to China dropped from around 230 000 short tons in January last year to nearer 86 000 short tons in November. Meanwhile, mixed paper is piling up owing to limited domestic outlets other than Pratt Industries which operates four recycled containerboard mills, with a fifth recently announced. The ‘silver lining’ with China’s crackdown on recovered paper quality, one exporter opines, is that material recovery facilities are paying more attention than ever to the feedstock they are generating. ‘It’s as clean as I’ve ever seen,’ he says. ‘It might not meet the impossible 0.5% spec, but it is really clean.’

(US$ 700 000) worth of used clothing each year. The police have been informed of these gangs’ activities and, in one instance, two Lithuanians have been arrested. But it’s not just the UK that is suffering. Reports from Germany suggest that there may be a huge problem with clothing bank operators dumping substandard banks at sites without the landowner’s permission. When the landowner then starts procedures to remove a bank, only then does the business try to offer a contract. If that fails, banks are simply removed and the process is repeated elsewhere. The response from some law enforcement agencies is very frustrating. If a shoplifter steals a US$ 10 bottle of wine from a supermarket, they can expect to be prosecuted relatively quickly. However, if they steal

ASIA BUMPY START TO 2018

This year could prove to be as bumpy as 2017. Whereas most exporters believed prices would climb, this happened for only a very short time: the brown grades jumped around US$ 20 per tonne but then tumbled US$ 30 not even 10 days later. Uncertainty in the market, caused mostly by what Chinese customs will accept as outthrows, is making packers and exporters nervous. Many packers are choosing to sell into other markets such as India and Indonesia, obtaining much lower prices as a result but at least having greater confidence that the consignment will be accepted. The market for news & pams remains difficult: Indonesia is buying hardly anything, South Korea is at low price levels and demand from India is weak. The specialty grades appear more stable.

Contributing to the recovered paper market analysis: * Melvin de Groot (Van Gelder Recycling, the Netherlands) * Mariëlle Gommans (Bel Fibres, Belgium) * Ken McEntee (Publisher of The Paper Stock Report, USA)

thousands of dollars’ worth of clothing from collection banks outside that same supermarket, they will probably get away with it. The police may not have adequate resources, but in most cases the investigative work has been done and the evidence that would guarantee a successful prosecution has already been gathered. All that is required is for the police to arrest and charge. The used clothing market underwent a very fragile recovery in 2017 and hopes are pinned on a further strengthening in 2018. But any further recovery in values is likely to attract more criminals. Perhaps the recent incident in Newcastle upon Tyne might prove a watershed moment. We need help from the police and from other law enforcers. It is not just the industry that is suffering but individuals too.

Ocean freight rates are expected to maintain their same levels for February.

Experienced specialists in Collecting and recycling of • Paper • Board • Plastics • Archives destruction Bel Fibres SA Bel SA 2D RueFibres des Roseaux

Rue Monte en Peine 2 7331deSaint-Ghislain 7022 HYON Belgium Belgium

Phone (+32) 65.760.960

Phone (+32)65.760.965 65.760.960 Fax (+32) Fax (+32) 65.760.965 E-mail info@belfibres.be E-mail info@belfibres.be www.belfibres.be www.belfibres.be

recyclinginternational.com | January/February | 2018

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In the Laboratory

a u t h o r Kirstin Linnenkoper

The end of fast fashion? Textiles recycling has caused a bottleneck that calls for large-scale recycling plants worldwide, according to a consortium of Swedish researchers. They point to virtually non-existent separation of fibre blends containing nylon and elastane as the root of the problem - but hopefully not for too long.

RCH RESEAre cycling Textiles

_ M_IS_T_R_A_____ PIONEER io_n Future Fash

T FROM SUPPORla Motte

More than 120 000 tons of new clothes and household textiles are manufactured in Sweden on an annual basis, according to researchers collaborating on the MISTRA Future Fashion programme. Meanwhile, an international survey indicates that the average consumer in both Sweden and the USA typically purchases five or six items of clothing - costing upwards of Euro 150 - every three months. So what happens to clothes when they are removed from the wardrobe? Some 30 000 tons were collected for reuse in 2013, the researcher group points out. Annually, roughly 50% is incinerated and only around 5% of textiles are recycled, it is alleged. This is a far cry from Sweden’s 2020 objective of making sure that 25% of textiles are made into new textile products. Encouragingly, however, MISTRA researchers have concluded that as much as 40% of the country’s textile waste is ‘suitable for recycling’. Complex blends A thorny problem for recyclers is that contemporary textiles consist of complex blends of fibres incorporating a significant amount of elastane and nylon to enhance the consumer’s

comfort, explains Hanna de la Motte, who is supporting the recycling scheme on behalf of Chalmers University in Sweden. As a side note, replacing elastane with polyester would require at least four times the material. De la Motte proudly confirms that the MISTRA initiative has discovered a new chemical recycling process which yields new viscose filaments of polyester and cotton fibre blends. The innovative process, which has been named Blend Rewind, generates three circular outgoing product streams: cotton is turned into new high-quality viscose filaments and polyester is transformed into two ‘pure’ monomers. Quality breakthrough Test results have proved that pellets can be produced from all recycled textiles. All extrudates were found to be relatively even with a diameter of between 1 and 2 mm. Injection

For more information, contact: hanna.delamotte@chalmers.se

Hanna de moulding was observed to be successful with most materials whereas meltspinning achieved success only with certain materials. The recycled filaments have the same quality as filaments made from commercial dissolving pulp used in existing viscose production, insists De la Motte. She describes the ‘breakthrough’ as the result of six years of research and an investment of Euro 600 000 (equivalent to just over US$ 700 000). The next phase of the project was launched at the end of last year and concerns the enzymatic separation technique; this will also include biocatalysis and thermomechanical separation to optimise recycling yields. It is now deemed particularly important to search the market for other coupling agents that could help make elastane more compatible with polyamide in recycling processes.

If you know of an innovative recycling-related project, contact: kirstin@recyclinginternational.com

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beck’s

Parenthood: it’s not child’s play

Some of my friends have such hyperactive children that they won’t use baby-sitters unless they have their own crash helmets. For most parents, kids are a joy - but they can also be extremely hard work….

Some weeks ago, I was sitting home alone and I was bored. My wife Helga was out giving moral support to a friend whose husband had recently left her for another woman. I was reading a book that I wasn’t enjoying at all: ‘Self Help: Your Complete Book of Bad Advice for Every Situation to Completely Ruin Your Life’. As if I am not capable of doing that on my own! There was also nothing interesting on television, except for a 1950s Doris Day film which I had probably seen a dozen times and instantly forgotten. So rather than dissolve into complete inertia, I decided to go for a couple of drinks at my favourite hangout The Paranoid Parrot. I got on my e-bike and five minutes later was walking

‘They have not

Matteo is four. I love them to pieces, but there are times when they really wear me out. Especially Matteo. He’s a lot of fun, but that also means lots of chaos and problems.’ ‘Last year,’ Murat recalled, ‘the European Recycling Industries’ Confederation organised its first big convention in Milan and invited me to make the main speech about the recycling markets. Now the night before, guess who traded the USB stick with my presentation for a toy police car. Yes, Matteo, that’s who. So I almost missed my flight thanks to that little rascal.’ ‘And recently when we went to a big new furniture mall, guess who decided to wander off without his parents among hundreds of people. Yes, Matteo. And yesterday, we went to Amsterdam airport to pick up my partner who had been abroad for a couple of days with her work. Now guess who pressed an emergency button so that 10 armed policemen came running in our direction. Yes, Matteo once again.’ So I have just dropped off my partner and the kids at her parents for a couple of days and am enjoying some Matteo-free time.’ After Murat had ordered some more drinks, I confided to him: ‘Well, you know, Helga and I never had kids, and you know why? Because they have not invented kids with an on/off button yet. But if your kids are giving you a headache, you should follow the instructions on an aspirin bottle, especially the part that says “Keep away from children”.’ Murat laughed, and we toasted those precious moments in life both with and without - children.

invented kids with an on/off button yet.’ through the drinking house’s door where, to my surprise, I saw Murat sitting at the bar, sipping a whisky. Murat is a friend who I got to know through the recycling industry. I had not seen much of him since he got married, had children and took on a job which requires a huge amount of travel. But whenever we see each other, we always have a fun time. We gave each other a friendly hug before I took the stool next to him and ordered more drinks. ‘It’s strange to see you here on a Friday evening all by yourself,’ I ventured. ‘How come?’ Murat looked at me in a tired way and said: ‘Well, you know that we now have two boys: Marlon is two and

Manfred Beck

recyclinginternational.com | January/February | 2018

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BUYERS’ GUIDE ANALYZERS, HANDHELD

Hitachi High-Tech Analytical Science

Tubney Woods Abingdon Oxfordshire OX1 5QX United Kingdom  +44 1865 393 200  +44 1865 393 333  contact@hitachi-hightech-as.com www.hitachi-hightech.com/hha

Rigaku Analytical Devices 30 Upton Drive, Suite 2 Wilmington, MA 01887 USA  +1 781 328 1024  +1 781 328 0119  handhelds@rigaku.com www.rigaku.com/handhelds

Thermo Scientific Portable Analytical Instruments

2 Radcliff Road Tewksbury, MA 01876 USA  +1 978 670 7460  +1 978 670 7430  pai.inside.sales@thermofisher.com www.thermoscientific.com/niton

AUTOFLATTENERS / CRUSHERS

Granutech-Saturn Systems 201 East Shady Grove Road Grand Prairie, TX 75050 USA  +1 972 790 7800  +1 972 790 8733  sales@granutech.com www.granutech.com

BALER, FERROUS

Harris/IPS Balers

315 W 12th Avenue Cordele, GA 31015 USA  +1 229 273 2500  info@harrisequip.com www.harrisequip.com

Jiangsu Huahong Technology Stock Co., Ltd

Huahong Industrial Park, Zhouzhuang town, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China  +86 510 80 62 96 80  +86 510 80 62 96 81  info@asiabaler.com www.asiabaler.com

Sierra Intl. Machinery PO Box 1340 Bakersfield, CA 93302 USA  +1 800 343 8503  +1 661 327 7073  info@sierraintl.com www.sierraintl.com

BRIQUETTERS

RUF GmbH & Co. KG Hausener Str. 101 86874 Zaisertshofen Germany  +49 8268 9090 20  +49 8268 9090 90  info@brikettieren.de www.brikettieren.de

CABLE STRIPPERS

F 5 G

Alleestrasse 8 50354 Hürth Germany  +49 22 33/80 80 10  +49 22 33/80 80 199  info@katrecycling.de www.katrecycling.de

Bronneberg recycling machines & services Branchweg 3 NL-5705 DR Helmond The Netherlands  +31 492 591 900  +31 492 543 045  info@bronneberg.nl www.bronneberg.nl

I

Zimmer Katalysatoren Recycling GmbH

MTB

GRANULATING EQUIPMENT

E

Quartier de la Gare 38460 Trept France  +33 474 928 768  +33 474 929 346  info@mtb.fr www.mtb.fr

V 5 D

 

MOBILE, SHEARS Vezzani

Piazza Nevi 1 15076 Ovada (AL) Italy  +39 0143823069  info@vezzani.biz www.vezzani.biz

BALER, FERROUS

ZDAS, a.s.

Strojirenska 6 PO Box 145 59171 Zdar nad Sazavou Czech Republic  +420 566 643 212  +420 566 642 850  stanislav.pelikan@zdas.cz www.zdas.cz

Wrights Recycling

Machinery Ltd Nethermoor Works Otley Road, Guiseley Leeds LS20 8BT United Kingdom  +44 1943 875 104  +44 1943 870 961  sales@wrightsltd.co.uk www.wrightsltd.co.uk

Danieli Centro Recycling

Henschelplatz, 1 34127 Kassel Germany  +49 561 801 5816  germany@danieli-henschel.com www.danieli-centro-recycling.com

E

V 3 I

CATALYTIC CONVERTERRECYCLERS

BASF Metals Recycling Limited

Forest Vale Road Cinderford Gloucestershire GL14 2PH United Kingdom  +44 1594 821 314  +44 1594 826 013  louisa.reynolds@basf.com www.converter-recycling.basf.com

BALING PRESSES

H R

Lefort SA

Rue Tahon, 1A 6041 Gosselies Belgium  +32 7135 1609  info@lefort.com www.lefort.com

S s HSM GmbH + Co. KG Austrasse 1-9 88699 Frickingen Germany  +49 7554 2100 0  +49 7554 2100 160  info@hsm.eu www.hsm.eu

ZDAS, a.s. Hensel Recycling GmbH

Mühlweg 10 63743 Aschaffenburg Germany  +49 6028 12 09 0  +49 6028 12 09 20  info@hensel-recycling.com www.hensel-recycling.com

C G n

Strojirenska 6 PO Box 145 59171 Zdar nad Sazavou Czech Republic  +420 566 643 212  +420 566 642 850  stanislav.pelikan@zdas.cz www.zdas.cz

O i w

T i

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BUYERS’ GUIDE NOISE PROTECTION

ILGmbH

Forstweg 7 52382 Niederzier Germany  +49 24 28 94 33 0  +49 24 28 94 33 33  info@ilgmbh.de www.ilgmbh.de

RECYCLING EQUIPMENT

ELDAN RECYCLING A/S Værkmestervej 4 5600 Faaborg Denmark  +45 6361 2545  info@eldan-recycling.com www.eldan-recycling.com

SCREENS

ECOSTAR srl

Via L. da Vinci, 3 36066 Sandrigo (VI) Italy  +39 0444 750 942  +39 0444 659 951  info@ecostarsrl.it www.eco-star.it We produce and sell disc screens patented since 1997 for waste and recyclable materials From 10 to 200 t/h. 350 references worldwide.

SHEARS, GUILLOTINE

SHREDDERS

SOFTWARE SERVICES

Recy Systems AG

Weihenstephaner Strasse 1 85716 Unterschleissheim Germany  +49 (0) 89 327 15 40  +49 (0) 89 327 15 44 4  info@recy-systems.com www.recy-systems.com

Pantone 301 C CMYK 100/45/0/18 #005B99

ZB Group C. E G. SRL

Via Cesare Battisti, 77 21020 Daverio (VA) Italy  +39 0332 947242  +39 0332 948245  info@ceg-group.it www.ceg-group.it

Zamabilde s/n - APDO, 40 20100 Errenteria - Gipuzkoa Basque Country (Spain)  +34 943 515 500  +34 943 515 562  info@zbgroup.es www.zbgroup.es

TIRE RECYCLING EQUIPMENT

SHREDDERS (SLOW-SPEED, HIGH-TORQUE)

Eco Green Equipment

425 North 400 West Building 4 A North Salt Lake, UT 84054 USA  +1 801 505 6841  +1 801 438 6340  sales@ecogreenequipment.com www.ecogreenequipment.com

G.P.S. Processing Solutions Via Bologna 133 44122 Ferrara Italy  +39 0532 1820511  info@gps-recycling.com www.gps-recycling.com

Komptech GmbH

Kühau 37 8130 Frohnleiten Austria  +43 3126 505 0  +43 3126 505 505  info@komptech.com www.komptech.com

WEEE RECYCLING EQUIPMENT

ANDRITZ MeWa GmbH Herdweg 4 75391 Gechingen Germany  +49 7056 9250  +49 7056 925 119  info.mewa@andritz.com www.andritz.com/mewa

Highlight your info here! Reach out to your clients today!

BUYE RS’ GUID E ANALYZERS, HANDHE LD

Hitachi High-Tech Analytical Science

To include your company in the Buyers’ Guide (print & online) or for more information, please contact Judith Wanjala at  judith@recyclinginternational.com

 +86 510 80 62 96 80  +86 510 80 62 96 81  info@asiabaler.com www.asiabaler.com

Sierra Intl. Machinery

PO Box 1340 Bakersfield, CA 93302 USA  +1 800 343 8503  +1 661 327 7073  info@sierraintl.com www.sierraintl.com

Rigaku Analytical Devices

30 Upton Drive, Suite 2 Wilmington, MA 01887 USA  +1 781 328 1024  +1 781 328 0119  handhelds@rigaku.com www.rigaku.com/handh elds

Combine the power of print with the reach of the internet. The Buyers’ Guide (print & online) is a cost-effective and efficient way for your company to make connections with the global recycling community. Order now and submit your entry, which will be printed in every issue of the Recycling International magazine and posted online at www.recyclinginternational.com

Huahong Industrial Park, Zhouzhuang town, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China

Tubney Woods Abingdon Oxfordshire OX1 5QX United Kingdom  +44 1865 393 200  +44 1865 393 333  contact@hitachi-hightec www.hitachi-hightech.c h-as.com om/hha

Sign up to the Recycling International Buyers’ Guide (print & online) and showcase your company’s details under the heading of your choice.

Piazza Nevi 1 15076 Ovada (AL) Italy  +39 0143823069  info@vezzani.biz www.vezzani.biz

+1 978 670 7430

 pai.inside.sales@thermo

www.thermoscientific.c fisher.com om/niton

BALER, FERROUS

AUTOFLATTENERS / CRUSHERS

Granutech-Saturn Systems

201 East Shady Grove Road Grand Prairie, TX 75050 USA  +1 972 790 7800  +1 972 790 8733  sales@granutech.com www.granutech.com

BALER, FERROUS

Harris/IPS Balers

315 W 12th Avenue Cordele, GA 31015 USA  +1 229 273 2500 info@harrisequip.com

BRIQUETTERS

RUF GmbH & Co. KG

Hausener Str. 101 86874 Zaisertshofen Germany

 +49 8268 9090 20

+49 8268 9090 90 info@brikettieren.de

www.brikettieren.de

CABLE STRIPPERS

 +31 492 591 900

+31 492 543 045

 info@bronneberg.nl

www.bronneberg.nl

ZDAS, a.s.

Strojirenska 6 PO Box 145 59171 Zdar nad Sazavou Czech Republic

 +420 566 643 212

+420 566 642 850  stanislav.pelikan@zdas.c z www.zdas.cz 

BALING PRESSES

HSM GmbH + Co. KG

Austrasse 1-9 88699 Frickingen Germany

 +49 7554 2100 0

 +49 7554 2100 160  info@hsm.eu www.hsm.eu

MTB

RECYCLING EQUIPME NT

Quartier de la Gare 38460 Trept France  +33 474 928 768  +33 474 929 346  info@mtb.fr www.mtb.fr

ELDAN RECYCLING A/S

Værkmestervej 4 5600 Faaborg

Denmark  +45 6361 2545  info@eldan-recycling.co www.eldan-recycling.c m om

MOBILE, SHEARS

CREENS

Wrights Recycling

Machinery Ltd Nethermoor Works Otley Road, Guiseley Leeds LS20 8BT United Kingdom  +44 1943 875 104  +44 1943 870 961  sales@wrightsltd.co.uk www.wrightsltd.co.uk

Danieli Centro Recycling

ECOSTAR srl

Henschelplatz, 1 34127 Kassel Germany  +49 561 801 5816  germany@danieli-hensc hel.com www.danieli-centro-rec ycling.com

Via L. da Vinci, 3 36066 Sandrigo (VI) Italy  +39 0444 750 942  +39 0444 659 951  info@ecostarsrl.it www.eco-star.it We produce and sell disc screens patented since 1997 for waste and recyclable materials From 10 to 200 t/h. 350 references worldwide.

CATALYTIC CONVERTERRECY CLERS

BASF Metals Recycling Limited

Forest Vale Road Cinderford Gloucestershire GL14 2PH United Kingdom  +44 1594 821 314  +44 1594 826 013  louisa.reynolds@basf.co www.converter-recyclin m g.basf.com

Highlight your info her Reach out to your clie nt

Lefort SA

Rue Tahon, 1A 6041 Gosselies Belgium  +32 7135 1609  info@lefort.com www.lefort.com

Hensel Recycling GmbH

Mühlweg 10 63743 Aschaffenburg Germany  +49 6028 12 09 0  +49 6028 12 09 20  info@hensel-recycling.co www.hensel-recycling.c m om

Sign up to the Recycling showcase your company International Buyers’ Guide (print & o ’s details under the heading of your cho Combine the power of Guide (print & online) print with the reach of the internet. T is ny to make connections a cost-effective and efficient way for yo with the global recycling community. Order now and submit your entry, which will be printed issue of the Recycling International magazine www.recyclinginternation and posted al.com

ZDAS, a.s.

Strojirenska 6 PO Box 145 59171 Zdar nad Sazavou Czech Republic  +420 566 643 212  +420 566 642 850  stanislav.pelikan@zdas.c z www.zdas.cz

To include your company in the Buyers’ Guide information, please (print & online) or onal.com

contact Judith Wanjala at  judith@recycling internati

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+49 24 28 94 33 33 info@ilgmbh.de

www.ilgmbh.de

GRANULATING EQUIPMENT

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ILGmbH

Forstweg 7 52382 Niederzier Germany

 +49 24 28 94 33 0

 +49 22 33/80 80 199  info@katrecycling.de www.katrecycling.de

www.harrisequip.com

NOISE PROTECTION

Zimmer Katalysatoren Recycling GmbH

Alleestrasse 8 50354 Hürth Germany

 +49 22 33/80 80 10

Bronneberg recycling machines & services

Branchweg 3 NL-5705 DR Helmond The Netherlands

Vezzani

Thermo Scientific Portable Analytical Instrumen ts

2 Radcliff Road Tewksbury, MA 01876 USA

 +1 978 670 7460

Jiangsu Huahong Technolog y Stock Co., Ltd

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events 6 MarchBrussels (Belgium) EuRIC Annual Conference European Recycling Industries’ Confederation  +32 2 706 8720  euric@euric-aisbl.eu www.euric-aisbl.eu 6-7 March Aachen (Germany) 8 th International Conference on Sensor-Based Sorting & Control AMR and IAR, RWTH Aachen University  +49 241 80-99338  info@sbs.rwth-aachen.de www.sbs.rwth-aachen.de 7-8 March Gothenburg (Sweden) Circular Materials Conference Industrial and Scientific Progress in Circular Use of Materials CCR - Chalmers University of Technology and Nordic Publishing  +46 738 516 126  info@nordicpublishing.se www.circularmaterialsconference.se

11 MarchDubai (UAE) 7 th BMR International Conference Bureau of Middle East Recycling  +971 4 437 5744  info@bmr.ae www.bmr.ae 14-16 March  Vienna (Austria) IARC 2018 18th international automobile recycling congress ICM  +41 62 785 1000  +41 62 785 1005  info@icm.ch www.icm.ch 27-29 MarchSofia (Bulgaria) Save the Planet Exhibition and conference for southeast Europe on waste management and recycling Via Expo  +359 32 512 900  office@viaexpo.com www.viaexpo.com

14-16 March Vienna (Austria) International Automobile Recycling Congress IARC 2018 will provide an international platform for discussion of the latest developments and challenges facing end-of-life vehicle (ELV) recycling, bringing together decision-makers in the ELV recycling chain such as car manufacturers, metals and plastics scrap traders, recyclers, shredder operators and policy-makers. Among the topics to be addressed at the event will be: the circular economy and resource efficiency; innovation in the recycling sector; closing the loop for car manufacturers and the dismantling industry; recycling electronics and data destruction in the automotive sector; new materials in cars such as carbon fibre and rare earths, and how to recycle them; nextgeneration recycling processes and equipment; country-specific ELV recycling reports; recycling at the vehicle design stage; and updates on new laws and regulations affecting vehicle recycling. An exhibition hall will offer delegates the chance to network and forge business relationships. Company spotlight and technology talks will also take place in a designated area of the exhibition, providing speakers with an opportunity to promote their company, technology or services. www.icm.ch

12 April Düsseldorf (Germany) 21st International Recovered Paper Conference BVSE  +49 228 98849-0  info@bvse.de www.bvse.de 14-19 AprilLas Vegas (USA) ISRI Convention & Expo Annual convention and scrap recycling industry exposition ISRI  +1 202 662 8500 www.isri2018.org 24-25 April Amsterdam  (the Netherlands) Plastics Recycling Show Europe Crain Communications  +44 1622 370570  mabarber@crain.com www.prseventeurope.com 14-18 May Munich (Germany) IFAT Trade fair for water, sewage, waste and raw materials management Messe München  +49 89 949 11358  info@ifat.de www.ifat.de 28-30 MayBarcelona (Spain) BIR World Recycling Convention & Exhibition Bureau of International Recycling  +32 2 627 5770  bir@bir.org www.bir.org 21-22 JuneShanghai (China) China International Ship Recycling 2018 GDMMC  +86 21 5182 7931 Ext. 802  alleny@gdmmc.org www.shiprecyclingchina.com www.gdmmc.org 11-12 JulyDerby (UK) Metals Recycling Event & CARS Environment Media Group  + 44 20 7633 4500  info@metalsrecyclingevent.com www.metalsrecyclingevent.com

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In 2017 / Issue no. 6

Closing dates Editorial closing date: Friday September 8 Contact Martijn Reintjes +31 26 3120 994 martijn@recyclinginternational.com

NEXT ISSUE

Advertisement closing date: Friday September 1 Contact Jürgen Pfister CLOSING DATES Mobile: +49 151 24084025 Office: +49 89 9739 9743 Editorial closing date: Fridayadvertising@recyclinginternational.com March 9 Contact Martijn Reintjes  +31 882 944 800  martijn@recyclinginternational.com

Extra circulation!

• Follow-up: the impact of China’s scrap import restrictions • Scrap on fire: lithium batteries causing recyclers a major headache IN 2018 / ISSUE NO. 2 • Is advanced container seal technology deterring thieves? • A remote recycling outpost • • • • • •

Advertisement closing date: Monday 5 the No. 6 / 2017 issue AdditionalMarch copies of Contact Judith Wanjala willMobile: be on display at: 689 947  +31 655  Office: +31 882 944 739 BIRjudith@recyclinginternational.com World Recycling Convention 

14-16 October, New Delhi (India) www.bir.org

Recycling 2017 EXTRA CIRCULATION! 24-26 October, Gorinchem (Netherlands)

Additional copies of 2018 / Issue No. 2 www.evenementenhal.nl/recycling will be on display at:

Paper & Plastics Recycling Conference Europe

21st International Recovered Paper 7-8 November, Warsaw (Poland) Conference Düsseldorf (Germany) http://paperplasticseurope. 12 April recyclingtodayevents.com

A far from sleepy business: Scrapping mattresses ISRI expo preview Technology: Mobile recycling solutions Country spotlight: the United Kingdom Update on platinum group metals (PGMs) Report on the International Electronics Recycling Congress (IERC)

ISRI & Expo CMRAConvention Annual Convention Las Vegas (USA) 7-9 November, Ningbo (China) 14-19 April

www.cmra.cn/en

Plastics Recycling Show Europe Ecomondo (the Netherlands) Amsterdam 24-25 April Rimini (Italy) 7-10 November,

www.ecomondo.com 25th Recycled Aluminium Conference 13-15 November, Warsaw (Poland) www.metalbulletin.com/events/recal

And, of course, our regulars: Viewpoint • Updates • Products • In the laboratory • In-depth Market Analyses covering And, of course, our regulars: ferrous and non-ferrous metals, nickel & stainless, paper & textiles, plastics • Beck’s

Weekly

Newsletter

Electronics & Cars Recycling 14-17 November, Macao (China) www.icm.ch Delivered directly to your

Viewpoint • News • Products • In the laboratory • In-depth market analyses covering ferrous and nonferrous metals, nickel & stainless, paper & textiles, plastics • Beck’s

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Advertiser Index Ad-Rem 52 Allied Magnesium 41 ADVERTISER INDEX Andritz MeWa 45 Autoretur Bel Fibres 43 Bel Fibres BIR 51 BMR Bühler Danieli Centro Recycling 8 C. e G. 29 Exodus Machines Copex 35-37 ICM Moros (Industrias Hidráulicas) Danieli Centro Recycling 16 Ecomondo John R. Adam 18

Forrec Recycling Systems 46 Hitachi 22 ILG 25 Lefort 39 32 John R. Adam 11 RUF Maschinenbau 11 53 Jöst Sensor - Based Sorting & Control 7 44 20 Komptech 27 24 Scrap Magazine 4 Liebherr 2 15 Shred-Tech 2 Metso Metal Recycling 19 41 Steinert 25 Van Peperzeel 10 Moros (Industrias Hidráulicas) 12 33 Vezzani 9 Oxford 23 60

Publisher HUSS-VERLAG GmbH Rens Sturrus Joseph-Dollinger-Bogen 5 r.sturrus@eisma.nl 80807 München ∙ Germany Chief Editor Christoph Huss

Address Recycling International BVPublisher

RECYCLING P.O. Box 2098 INTERNATIONAL 6802 CB Arnhem

The of global Netherlands is a business mag azinego-to for source The recycling information the international recycling Delivery Address Address industry and is pub lished BV 34 Vlamoven 8 times a year. Recycling International Informaticaweg 3 6826 TN Arnhem 7007 CP Doetinchem The Netherlands The Netherlands

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RUF Briquetting Systems Scrap Magazine Shearcore SSI Shredding Steinert Tanaka Precious Metals Umicore Vezzani

39 44 4 13 28 10 9 30

For advertisements please contact: Jürgen Pfister P.O. Box 2098 6802 CB Arnhem For advertisements please contact: The Netherlands Judith Wanjala (Sales Manager)

Mobile: +49 151 24084025 Informaticaweg 3 7007 CPOffice: Doetinchem +49 89 9739 9743  + 31 882 944 739 advertising@  + 31 655 689 947 recyclinginternational.com  judith@recyclinginternational.com

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Sabine Barck, Karl Bartl Printing Company Veldhuis Media HUSS-VERLAG, Munich Martijn Reintjes Kanaaldijk OZ 3 8102 HL Raalte Associate Editor martijn@recyclinginternational.com Printing Company The Netherlands Kirstin Linnenkoper Bavaria-Druck GmbH Associate Editor kirstin@recyclinginternational.com Subscriptions Joseph-Dollinger-Bogen 5 Kirstin Linnenkoper  088-2266649 Editorial consultant 80807 Munich, Germany kirstin@recyclinginternational.com  subscription@eisma.nl Ian Martin € 149 a year (excl. V.A.T.) Magazine Administrator Martijn Reintjes Chief Editor martijn@recyclinginternational.com

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€ 149 a yearSales (excl. V.A.T.) Advertising Judith Wanjala  Sales + 31 Manager 882 944 739  + 31 655 689 947 Jürgen Pfister  judith@recyclinginternational. Mobile: +49 151 24084025 com Office: +49 89 9739 9743

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