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Kildeskovhallen , 1966-76 Karen & Ebbe Clemmensen

Roof of festival Plaza , 1970 Kenzo Tange

Yasmine, Maria Francisca, Eirin, Marius, and Ayaka



Kildeskovshallen // The history

From the sixties of the 21st century, a post-modernistic view towards architecture began to grow. This was the start of the end of modernism. The growth of reactions against modernistic architecture is the main explanation as a reason for change. The projects of inter alia Le Corbusier and Mies van der Rohe, exist on their selves and don’t interact with the environment. They are not adapted to the urban context. The whole idea of social integration has been forgotten. According to the post-modernists, modernistic architecture is universal, impersonal and lacking of identity. From now on architecture has to have a personality, an identity and a referral to human kind, its abilities and its characteristics. Kildeskovshallen is an example of the High Tech current that arose in these days. Protagonists of the High Tech period are Cedric Price, Richard Roger, Norman Foster and Renzo Piano. High Tech is in fact a continuation of constructivist principles of the 1920s that found their origin in the Soviet Union with the October revolution of 1917. Constructivism is using the technical aspects of an architectural structure to give vent to aestheticism. The structure is the building and the actual piece of art. The building works as a machine, where every part can be distinguished and is not hidden underneath a thick layer of white plaster, as it was in the modernistic times. The usage of steel and glass allows the building to be open and interactive with its environment. The sixties was a time of sexual liberation, women’s rights, mind ­expansion and new collective communities, also known as hippies. In a way this is also giving expression to architecture. Although the Kildeskovshallen is an indoor swimming pool, where people almost walk around naked, somehow the free spirit of the sixties is giving expression to ­architecture with the open steel frames and high glass windows. The inside becomes the outside and vicet versa, as if man becomes one with nature.

Kildeskovshallen,, by “drz image” [1]


Roof of festival Plaza // The history



Since 1851, with the World Fair in London, World Expositions are trying to gather economical, social, cultural and technical development from all over the world. In 1970 The World Exposition was held in Osaka from 15th of March to 13th of September. The result was a wide range of pneumatics, geodesics, suspension ­ ­structures, and prefabrication that will have an important influence on architecture to come (Tange, 1970). Kenzo Tange and 12 other architects designed a master plan to build the Expo. In the centre they provided an area, they called the Symbol Zone, where people could meet and exchange ideas and emotions (Tange, 1970). An immense space frame roof made out of steel beams covered the area. Because the exposition only lasted for five months, they had to find a way to build these temporary structures. The usage of steel was perfect for this. Steel is easily to assemble and light in comparison with its strength. “(…) Although the EXPO is called an exposition, we thought of it in terms of a ­festival that would provide the place and opportunity for this kind of human exchange. Though somewhat different from the approaches of all other World Expositions, the festival idea is the basic posture of EXPO ’70, and it is also one of the basic meanings of the theme. (…)” [2]

Editorial Committee of the Second Architectural Convention of Japan (1970) Structure, [1] space, mankind; Expo ʹ70. Osaka: Second Architectural Convention of Japan [Photography] TANGE, Kenzo (1970) Structure, space, mankind; Expo ’70. Osaka: Second Architectural [2] Convention of Japan, pp. 13-14

Kildeskovshallen // The structure and material

“The roof structure consists of tubular steel trusses, composed of pyramids with globular assembly joints. The mulions are of brown anodised aluminum.” [1] The structural space frame doesn’t work as a two-way system, as we thought in the beginning. It actually works as a one-way system, because the tension cable is only present in one direction. This is different from the Space Frame roof above the Festival Plaza in Osaka. The steel bars are connected to a joint ball, and the bars are welded to the joint.

The top of four pyramids, built out of smaller and less thick bars, is connected to a ­bigger pyramid. The steel bars of this pyramid are thicker and longer. The small ­pyramids serve as a support to carry the cladding and transfer the loads to the big ­pyramids. In a way they are part of the structure, but they also contribute to the ­aesthetics of the Kildeskovshallen.

This model is made from sewing metal tubes together. When processing the model the structure became more and more rigid, because we were adding more and more joints. Another structural aspect we discovered, was the importance of the heavy roof cladding. By adding a roof, surface - here we used a book, the structure totally set in its supposed form and could now transfer the loads.

“The halls are erected of steel-columns painted dark-mauve. The roof truss, likewise of steel, is painted bright blue-green.” The roof trusses are made of steel because of the materials strength and because it is the most versatile material for building custom frames.




The space frame is built up horizontally. This is the reason why we both have ­compression and tension forces. If the frame were a shell, it would only work with compression forces and didn’t need any cables to transfer the tension forces.

This model shows one module of the whole modular structure. When adding a ­cable, connecting the bigger pyramids, the tension forces in the bottom, are a­ bsorbed.

“Kildeskovshallen”, in: Arkitektur. 4 - 1970, p.175 [1] “Kildeskovshallen”, in: Arkitektur. 4 - 1970, p.170 [2]


Roof of festival Plaza // The structure and material

“(…) A double grid system, the framework, employs a 10.8-meter module (common to the entire Symbol Zone) in the upper and lower chord elements and connects the two layers by means of diagonal steel pipes also 10.8 metres long. Six columns, connected to the space frame by means of angle braces and supported on pinjoint bases, hold the Frame aloft. (…)”

With q-tips we tried to simulate joint connections, similar to the Osaka Roof.

The construction is made of two grids of squares, connected together with diagonal beams.

As a third experiment we wanted to create a more curved form. Using the same way of building the structure, we now changed some of the lengths. The grid is formed out of rectangles. The lower grid is the same as the upper, but rotated with 90°.

“(…) The cast-iron ball joints used at all juncture points are outfitted with special devices permitting minute adjustments of pipe angles and lengths. (…)” This makes it possible to make the structure, break it down, adjust it, built it again and allows the structure to be temporary. “(…) Large high-tension steel bolts effect the screw-system junction between frame elements and ball joints. (…)”

“(…) Upper and lower chord members are steel pipe 50 centimetres in diameter; the diagonal connecting pipes are 35 centimetres in diameter. (…)




This space frame is also built up horizontally. The forces is working the same way as the main construction in kildeskovshallen.

First we made an exact copy of the structure.

The second step was to experiment with subtracting structural lines. We deleted one ­direction of the lower grid. Now it became possible to bend the outer pyramids towards the middle. The structure became less strong.

In these models the upper and lower grid are constructed out of squares. The curvature is formed because now the lengths of the diagonals differ.


Kildeskovshallen // relations body/covering/environment

The glass facade, prominently visual, creates a feeling of close contact with the ­surroundings. The park joins the building through these glass facades. It visually ­expands the interior space. It is as if the building is blending into the landscape.

The structure is the only visual limit. This is what defines the inside and the outside. The curtain wall easily lets the daylight enter the inner space. This creates a special atmosphere. The heavy cladding on the upper part of the structure is the only covering of the Kildeskovshallen, if sfpeaking of a visual seperation.


DAMGÅRD SØRENSEN, Henning (2002), “A magnificent blossom” [1] In: Arkitektur DK, Vol. 46, Iss. 8, Arkitektens forlag. [Photography]


Roof of Festival Plaza // relations body/covering/environment

The building is located in a much more structured and dense environment than Kildeskovshallen. Throughout its big scale it is responding to a need to create a space where people could gather, communicate and exchange ideas.

The structure covers an huge open space, allowing direct relationship between exterior and interior. The only purpose of the structure, in relation to the climate zone, is to ­cover from rain. Rain cannot enter, because the grid is filled with cussions. This ­offers the possibility to let the light enter throughout the translucent s­ tructures.

“(...) We hope that the feelings, emotions and exitement experienced there will remail with the people all of their lives. Instead of providing a physical monument, like the Eiffel Tower of the Crystal Palace, we intended to create a sensually perceptible environment with which the visitors to the fair cloud mutually act to develop a consciousness of emotional involvment that they will never forget.(...)” [1] TANGE, Kenzo (1970) Structure, space, mankind; Expo ‘70. Osaka: Second Architectura Convention of [1] Japan, p. 13-14 [2]

Kildeskovshallen // Main Structure

This structure works with compression and tension, distributing the load along the pyramids to the structural columns. In our structure we focus on the joints by making it as flexible as possible. In this way we are testing if the truss structure can be self-bearing without fixed joints. The load, i.e. cladding, on top is straightening the upper grid and stabilizing the pyramids underneath.

Roof of festival Plaza // Main Construction

By using the same space frame technique in a double arch construction, the structure is able to stand without any columns. A second 足structural benefit is that we avoid bending moments by making the structure like a dome. The space frame in the Osaka Expo structure is affected both by tension and compression forces. Our arch structure is only affected by compression forces and therefore realized without any bending moments. We also believe the arch construction can carry more loads than the expo structure.

[p2] book Constructions