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Guide to the Internet and World Wide Web For Archivists and Records Managers


Guide to the Internet and World Wide Web For Archivists and Records Managers

Published by: Association of Commonwealth Archivists and Records Managers c/o IRMT Haines House, 6th Floor 21 John Street London WC1N 2BP www.acarm.org Š ACARM 2005


Preface As archivists and records managers we are all finding the need to use the Internet. It may be to find up-to-date information on a particular aspect of our profession – disposal periods for particular records, new appraisal methodologies, latest electronic records management standards – or it may be to communicate with fellow professionals, share information, learn from others’ experiences. Almost every day we use the Internet but for many the technology moves so quickly that it is difficult to keep up and, as a consequence, we may not be able to make best use of its facilities. This Guide provides insights into the facilities available on the Internet and gives pointers to the seemingly endless supply of tools and information resources that help archivists and records managers to do their jobs. It is almost wholly the work of Louisa Venter of the National Archives of South Africa, and the Association is extremely grateful for the undertaking.

Kelvin Smith Hon Secretary ACARM June 2005

The Association of Commonwealth Archivists and Records Managers was founded in 1984 to promote professional development in the field of records and archives management throughout the Commonwealth. It provides a link for Commonwealth archivists, archival institutions and records managers which is especially important because of the common heritage of legal and administrative systems, and hence of record keeping practices, which the countries of the Commonwealth share.

Production of this Guide has been made possible by financial assistance from the Commonwealth Foundation.


TABLE OF CONTENT

1.

Introduction....................................................................................1 1.1

Purpose.......................................................................................3

1.2

Acknowledgements .......................................................................3

2.

What is the Internet? .......................................................................5 2.1

Introduction.................................................................................5

2.2

History ........................................................................................5

2.3

Internet Services ..........................................................................6

2.3.1

World Wide Web .....................................................................6

2.3.1.1

The public web .................................................................7

2.3.1.2

The deep web/invisible web................................................7

2.3.1.2.1

Why does the invisible web exist? ..................................8

2.3.1.3

How does the World Wide Web work? ..................................8

2.3.1.4

Web browsers ..................................................................9

2.3.1.4.1 2.3.2

Plug-ins .................................................................... 19

E-mail ................................................................................. 20

2.3.2.1

How does e-mail work?.................................................... 21

2.3.2.2

What does an e-mail message look like? ............................ 22

2.3.2.3

Reading e-mails.............................................................. 22

2.3.2.4

Sending e-mails ............................................................. 24

2.3.2.4.1

Address Books........................................................... 28

2.3.2.4.2

E-mail writing style .................................................... 29

2.3.2.4.2.1 Subject lines ......................................................... 30 2.3.2.4.2.2 Attachments.......................................................... 31 2.3.2.4.2.3 Auto signatures ..................................................... 32 2.3.3

Listservs/mailing lists ............................................................ 33

2.3.3.1

Subscribe to mailing lists/listservs..................................... 35

2.3.3.2

Unsubscribe from mailing list/listservs ............................... 39

2.3.4

Usenet Newsgroups and discussion groups ............................... 39

2.3.4.1

Subscribe to a newsgroup ................................................ 41

2.3.4.2

Setting up a group .......................................................... 42

2.3.5

Internet Relay Chat and web chatting ...................................... 42


2.3.5.1

Instant Messaging........................................................... 43

2.3.6

Channels ............................................................................. 44

2.3.7

FTP and downloading ............................................................ 44

2.3.7.1

Anonymous FTP.............................................................. 45

2.3.8

Telnet ................................................................................. 45

2.3.9

Intranet .............................................................................. 45

2.3.9.1

Intranet training ............................................................. 46

2.3.10

Internet phone ................................................................. 46

2.3.11

Video conferencing............................................................ 47

2.3.12

Blogs and Wikis ................................................................. 48

2.4

Protocols ................................................................................... 48

2.4.1

TCP/IP ................................................................................ 49

2.4.2

File retrieval protocols ........................................................... 49

2.4.2.1

FTP............................................................................... 49

2.4.2.2

Telnet ........................................................................... 49

2.4.3

Multimedia Information Protocols ............................................ 50

2.4.3.1

HTTP............................................................................. 50

2.4.3.2

UUCP ............................................................................ 50

2.4.3.3

PPP............................................................................... 50

2.4.3.4

SLIP ............................................................................. 50

2.4.4

E-mail protocols ................................................................... 51

2.4.4.1

IMAP............................................................................. 51

2.4.4.2

POP .............................................................................. 51

2.4.4.3

SMTP ............................................................................ 51

2.4.5

Address Protocols ................................................................. 51

2.4.5.1 2.4.6

Security and Privacy Protocols ................................................ 51

2.4.6.1

PCT .............................................................................. 51

2.4.6.2

S/MIME ......................................................................... 52

2.4.6.3

SSL .............................................................................. 52

2.4.7

Usenet Protocols................................................................... 52

2.4.7.1 2.5

LDAP ............................................................................ 51

NNTP ............................................................................ 52

Domain Name Service, E-mail addresses and Uniform Resource Locators

(URL’s) .............................................................................................. 52


2.5.1

IP Addresses and Domain Names ............................................ 52

2.5.1.1

Were does one obtain an IP address and Domain Name? ...... 55

2.5.2

E-mail addresses .................................................................. 56

2.5.3

URL’s .................................................................................. 56

2.6

Search Engines .......................................................................... 59

2.6.1

Types of search engines ........................................................ 60

2.6.1.1

Directories ..................................................................... 60

2.6.1.1.1

Subject directories ..................................................... 60

2.6.1.1.2

People directories ...................................................... 62

2.6.1.2

Robot Engines ................................................................ 63

2.6.1.3

Meta search engines ....................................................... 63

2.6.2

How do search engines work?................................................. 64

2.6.2.1

Web crawling ................................................................. 64

2.6.2.2

Accessing information ..................................................... 64

2.6.2.3

Relevancy ranking .......................................................... 64

2.6.3

Searching ............................................................................ 65

2.6.3.1

Keyword search.............................................................. 65

2.6.3.2

Advanced Searching........................................................ 65

2.6.3.3

Finding the invisible web.................................................. 68

2.6.4. 2.6.5

Evaluating the information found on the Internet ................... 68 Planning a search ................................................................. 71

3.

Netiquette .................................................................................... 73

4.

What do you need to connect to the Internet? ................................... 75 4.1

Computer .................................................................................. 75

4.2

Software ................................................................................... 75

4.3

Internet account......................................................................... 76

4.3.1

4.3.1.1

How would you go about connecting to the service provider? 77

4.3.1.2

Evaluating the services of Internet Service Providers ........... 77

4.3.2 5.

Internet Service Providers...................................................... 76

Internet connection............................................................... 79

Advantages and Disadvantages of using the Internet .......................... 81 5.1

Security .................................................................................... 82

5.1.1

Viruses, Worms and Trojans................................................... 83

5.1.2

Hacking............................................................................... 83


5.1.3

Phishing .............................................................................. 84

5.1.4

Spam.................................................................................. 84

6.

What would you use the Internet for? ............................................... 85 6.1

Introduction............................................................................... 85

6.2

Communication .......................................................................... 86

6.3

Marketing/Outreach .................................................................... 87

6.4

Research ................................................................................... 89

6.5

Training .................................................................................... 91

6.6

Preserving what we, our client offices and stakeholders produce for the

Internet and World Wide Web................................................................ 91 7.

8

Designing a website/Intranet site..................................................... 93 7.1

Introduction............................................................................... 93

7.2

Planning your website ................................................................. 94

7.3

Developing website content.......................................................... 95

7.4

Graphic Design........................................................................... 96

7.5

Programming your website........................................................... 97

7.6

Hosting your website................................................................... 98

7.7

Marketing/Promoting your website ................................................ 99

7.8

Maintaining your website ............................................................. 99

Understanding HTML ....................................................................... 101 8.1

HTML Documents...................................................................... 101

8.2

HTML Tags............................................................................... 102

8.3

The Basic HTML Document tags .................................................. 103

8.3.1

Starting an HTML document ................................................. 103

8.3.2

Head and title tags ............................................................. 103

8.3.3

Body tags .......................................................................... 104

8.3.3.1

Heading tags................................................................ 106

8.3.3.2

Paragraph tags ............................................................. 107

8.3.3.3

Centre paragraphs ........................................................ 108

8.3.3.4

Lists ........................................................................... 109

8.3.3.5

Preformatted text ......................................................... 111

8.3.3.6

Extended Quotations ..................................................... 111

8.3.3.7

Forced Line Breaks........................................................ 112

8.3.3.8

Horizontal line .............................................................. 112


8.3.3.9

Other commonly used tags ............................................ 112

8.3.3.10

Special characters........................................................ 113

8.3.3.11

Document Links ........................................................... 113

8.3.3.12

Images....................................................................... 115

8.3.3.13

Sounds and Animations ................................................ 117

8.3.3.14

Tables ........................................................................ 118

8.3.3.15

Forms ........................................................................ 120

8.3.3.16

Frames....................................................................... 120

Annexure A: Glossary of Terms .............................................................. 123 Annexure B: Condensed list of listservs ................................................... 131 Annexure C: List of ISO 3166 Country Codes............................................ 135 Annexure D: Internet Service Providers in some Commonwealth Countries ... 139 Annexure E: Useful Websites.................................................................. 149 Annexure F: Bibliography....................................................................... 157


Table of Figures Figure 1: Microsoft Internet Explorer .................................................................... 10 Figure 2: Firefox ................................................................................................ 10 Figure 3: Microsoft Internet Explorer home page .................................................... 11 Figure 4: Type the URL in the location (address) bar and......................................... 11 Figure 5: Type the search term in the location (Address) bar ................................... 12 Figure 6: Browser showing favorite sites ............................................................... 12 Figure 7: History of sites visited........................................................................... 13 Figure 8: Find text on a page with the find function ................................................ 13 Figure 9: Indication of how found text is displayed on the page ................................ 14 Figure 10: Type the URL of the search engine in the ............................................... 14 Figure 11: Select the text to copy and .................................................................. 15 Figure 12: Paste the text into a word document ..................................................... 15 Figure 13: Select source from the view menu ........................................................ 16 Figure 14: HTML source code of the...................................................................... 16 Figure 15: Use the internet options command from the Tools Menu........................... 17 Figure 16: Accessing the online help functionality ................................................... 17 Figure 17: Browser home button.......................................................................... 18 Figure 18: Browser stop button............................................................................ 18 Figure 19: Browser back button ........................................................................... 19 Figure 20: Browser forward button ....................................................................... 19 Figure 21: The URL on the task bar at the bottom indicates ..................................... 20 Figure 22 Selecting an e-mail to read ................................................................... 23 Figure 23: Read an e-mail................................................................................... 23 Figure 24: To reply to an e-mail, click on the Reply button....................................... 24 Figure 25: To forward an e-mail, click on the Forward button ................................... 24 Figure 26: Launch a new e-mail message .............................................................. 25 Figure 27: New Message dialogue box .................................................................. 25 Figure 28: Type the e-mail address in the To box ................................................... 26 Figure 29: To Cc the e-mail to another user,.......................................................... 26 Figure 30: Add a subject in the subject box ........................................................... 27 Figure 31: E-mail message with subject field and ................................................... 27 Figure 32: Click on the send button to send the e-mail............................................ 28 Figure 33: Accessing the address book ................................................................. 29 Figure 34: New message dialogue box with Address Book open ................................ 29


Figure 35: Inserting an attachment ...................................................................... 31 Figure 36: Choosing a document to insert in the e-mail ........................................... 31 Figure 37: E-mail with document attached............................................................. 32 Figure 38: Example of an auto signature ............................................................... 33 Figure 39: Listserv website ................................................................................. 36 Figure 40: Joining the listserv from the website...................................................... 36 Figure 41: Instructions on how to complete the subscription .................................... 37 Figure 42: Subscription completed ....................................................................... 37 Figure 43: A listserv welcome message ................................................................. 38 Figure 44: Directory structure using the document type .......................................... 57 Figure 45: Directory structure with the subject ...................................................... 58 Figure 46: Accessing Yahoo's directory search ....................................................... 61 Figure 47: Doing a search for information ............................................................. 61 Figure 48: Finding directory information about Records Management. ....................... 62 Figure 49: Doing a web search for Records Management. ........................................ 63 Figure 50: HTML version of the ACARM Guide to the Internet ................................. 101 Figure 51: The HTML source Code of the ACARM Guide to the ................................ 102 Figure 52: Example of a document heading in HTML format ................................... 103 Figure 53: Source code of the example in figure 52 .............................................. 104 Figure 54: Example of body text in an HTML document ......................................... 105 Figure 55: HTML source code of example in figure 54........................................... 105 Figure 56: HTML source code of document in figure 54.......................................... 106 Figure 57: HTML source code of document in figure 54.......................................... 108


1

1.

Introduction

The face of archives and records management is changing. For many, the perception of archivists is one of working in dark basements and sifting through old documents. But, in reality, they are just as likely to be involved in putting a website on-line, organising an exhibition or dealing with the public. For a long time records have been unique and stored in a single place and control was possible on site. But with the Internet these same records can now be made available all over the world and information has to be secured against loss for technical reasons. Whole files on magnetic tape can be lost if the tape is damaged and adequate recovery disciplines are not in place. Electronic records are different from traditional records. It is a known fact that information stored on erasable media (for example, floppy disks, tapes etc.,) can be easily modified and changes may go undetected. about the issue of electronic records.

This leads to a host of legal concerns

As Elliot1 says, solutions depend on adopting

standards and developing “migration” methods to keep electronic information compatible with the current technology storage and retrieval methodologies. World-wide many studies and attempts are currently underway to ensure the longevity and legal admissibility of electronic records. The use of the Internet and World Wide Web however, poses a number of new challenges to archivists and records managers. It is becoming the communication medium of choice of many government institutions, public entities and private companies without proper records management controls being put in place. A number of Internet and World Wide Web preservation issues were discussed during an International Conference on Archiving Web Resources hosted by the National Library of Australia in November 2003. From the papers delivered at the conference it is clear that the challenge to manage web resources includes all the traditional issues surrounding “normal” electronic records compacted into an even more pressing problem, since the life-span of information posted to the Internet and World Wide Web is even more fleeting than that of other electronic records. Information about the conference proceedings is available on http://www.pandora.nl.gov.au. Archivists and Records

1

Elliot, E.D.I., E-mail and the Internet, Proceedings ARMA 41 Annual Conference, p.217


2

Managers are forced to build strategic alliances with libraries, museums and client offices to manage the challenge. Preservation issues are however not the main topic of discussion in this guide. The Internet is of considerable value to records managers and archivists. An increasing number of records managers are discovering the Internet and are forming an on-line community for information-sharing and communication. Records managers may use the Internet

to

participate

in

sharing

experiences

and

insight

with

other

records

management professionals; they can conduct research using online libraries and/or search programmes, announce job openings, download records management software for testing and review, create a home page devoted to records management and search sites for current information impacting records management. As Steemson clearly defines: The Internet is a vast source of information for records and information managers as well as industry generally. The many listserves, electronic discussion and debating groups set up by professional and skill communities to share knowledge, air grievances and seek guidance, fill the ‘Net with more expertise than anyone could assimilate in a lifetime’s study.2 Information on professional issues is available through e-mail subscription, or “Listservs” for example the records management listserv. Listservs are simply electronic mail “reflectors” on computers that broadcast text messages across networks to the individual computer mailboxes of persons who have subscribed for announcements, user postings, group discussions or other bulletins. Such listservs are presently being used by records managers and archivists to conduct extensive discussions by electronic mail about professional issues. Information on professional issues is also available on websites accessible through the Internet like those operated by ARMA International3, AIIM4, PRISM5 etc. as well as by ARARM6 Information on technology developments and vendor products are among the most advantageous features of using the Internet because almost all computing technology vendors have well developed and informative websites that can be browsed.

2 3 4 5

6

Steemson M, The record keeping future, Records Management Bulletin, Issue No. 83, 1997 p.21. http://www.arma.org http://www.aiim.org http://www.prismintl.org http://www.acarm.org


3

1.1

Purpose

It is worthwhile discussing the resources available to the records manger and archivist who wish to utilise the Internet for communication and information gathering (these are treated at greater length later in this document). This document is written with the archivist and records manager in mind. It provides insights into the facilities available on the Internet and pointers to a wealth of tools and relevant information repositories on the Internet. It assumes little or no familiarisation with computers but may also be a useful source of ready reference information for the computer-literate user. It is meant to provide guidance on the use of the Internet in general and to provide listings of good websites related to specific records and information management issues. A glossary of terms is contained in Annexure A. Normally terms are explained in the text. If not, please read up on them in the glossary. Persons with access to the Internet will find this document - and its future adaptations retrievable from the Internet websites for the Association of Commonwealth Archivists and Records Managers (ACARM) and the International Records Management Trust (IRMT). Any comments the reader might have as to the document’s suitability and possible improvements are more than welcome. An appropriate form is attached to the appendices and this may be mailed or faxed as indicated.

1.2

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge that the publication of this guide would not have been possible without the useful information posted on the World Wide Web. Acknowledgement to all the websites where information was found is given in the text and/or in the Bibliography in Annexure F.


5

2.

What is the Internet?

2.1

Introduction

The Internet is a worldwide network of computer networks, each with a unique address, that uses phone system technology and satellite links to communicate information to each other 24 hours a day using a common software standard. Standalone computers and private local area networks in universities, businesses and other organisations communicate with each other over high-speed transmission backbones owned and operated by Internet Service Providers. Communication takes place via a dial-up modem or a permanent network connection. The Internet basically consists of a network of smaller networks and standalone computers. Most of the service providers connect to one or more other service providers, thereby extending the reach of their networks. With government organisations, commercial organisations and individuals around the globe connecting to the Internet, and service providers continually increasing the number of networks to which they have direct connections, the Internet is growing exponentially. There is no central authority that controls the Internet. There are however organizations like the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF7) which develop and set standards for creating and using web applications and organisations like the International Internet Preservation Consortium (IIPC8) that set standards for the preservation of web resources. The Internet backbone is owned by private companies working together.

2.2

History

In 1960 the US Department of Defence funded the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) to connect a number of computer facilities around the country. ARPA sponsored research on how to link geographically remote computers to share data and resources. Because the US Department of Defence was very concerned about a nuclear attack, the ARPA Network was designed to keep working even if part of the network was bombed. It was designed so that as soon as one part of the network stops functioning, the network

7 8

http://www.ietf.org http://www.netpreserve.org


6

automatically reroutes the functionality and flow of information of that part to the rest of the network. The early 1970’s were spent developing standards for data transfer. These standards are known as protocols. Their purpose was to support the sharing of data between computers running on the same network to ensure the interconnection of different computers on the networks. TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol) which has been the core protocol of the Internet since 1983 was developed between 1973 and 1978. This computer network expanded during the 1970’s and 1980’s. At first only military institutions, government bodies and universities were connected to communicate and share information and resources. During the late 1980’s and early 1990’s more companies and individuals joined the network to communicate with each other when the US government began pulling out of network management. This allowed commercial entities to sell Internet access to the general public. Since then the Internet has grown into a communication backbone that provides different services to its users like the World Wide Web, E-mail, Newsgroups, Chat rooms, Listservs, Video conferencing, Discussion groups and Intranets.

2.3

Internet Services

The Internet consists of a variety of services namely:

2.3.1 World Wide Web

The World Wide Web (WWW) is a branch of the Internet that provides access to hyperlinked information. Hyperlinked information constitutes information resources that are linked to other information resources. Hyperlinks allow one to jump to the other information resources from the current one and back. This way of exploring information creates a world wide web of information. This document for example is a Hypertext document. It contains links to allow you to jump from one place in the document to another. It also contains links to other documents and websites on the Internet.


7

The World Wide Web consists of the public web i.e. the part that is available for search engines to crawl and index, and the invisible web or deep web, in other words that part of the web that is password protected or is protected against web crawlers and that are not indexed by search engines.

2.3.1.1

The public web

The public web consists of electronic pages containing documents, art, music, graphics, videos, etc. These can be political, cultural, educational, informational, religious, governmental, etc. in nature. These pages normally have a graphical interface and are viewed with a web browser. Each page is linked to other pages. A collection of related pages is called a website. The first page of a website is called a home page. This page serves as the index or content page for the rest of the website. The home page normally consists of links to the other pages on the website.

2.3.1.2

The deep web/invisible web

Most of the invisible web is made up of searchable databases that can be searched via the web. Results are delivered in web pages generated in response to the queries that are launched. These pages are not stored anywhere - they are dynamically generated because it is cheaper to store information in databases than in pre-defined pages with all possible answers to all possible queries. Many search engines offer separate options for locating these databases. The Invisible-web.net9 is a website that specializes in collecting information about such databases. By doing a search on web databases you may be able to find other websites with links to databases. More information about the invisible web can be found in the publication: The Invisible Web: Finding Hidden Internet Resources Search Engines Can’t See.10

9

http://www.invisible-web.net Sherman C and Price G: The Invisible Web: Finding Hidden Internet Resources Search Engines Can’t See, Cyberage books, ISBN: 091096551X. 10


8

2.3.1.2.1

Why does the invisible web exist?

Computer programmes called spiders are used to crawl websites to index them so that search engines can find them when you do a search. Searches are normally done from static pages with URL’s. Spiders can find them and crawl their links to index them. Website owners can choose to prevent spiders from crawling their sites by placing a programme on the site that prevents spiders from crawling them. Spiders cannot think - they can only follow links. If a website that is crawled does not have a link to a database, the spider cannot follow it to index the database. Spiders cannot do searches or queries to create dynamically generated pages to index. Since dynamically generated pages are only generated when a query is launched they are not kept anywhere and the spiders cannot index them. Sites that are protected by passwords can also not be crawled because the spiders cannot think and type passwords. The deep web or invisible web can also consist of multimedia and image files that cannot be crawled. Search engines normally offer separate means of searching for these types of files.

2.3.1.3

How does the World Wide Web work?

All the computers on the Internet fall into two categories. They are either clients or servers. Clients are computers that make requests. They are loaded with the correct software to talk to the correct servers. In other words the e-mail software would talk to the e-mail server; the news software would talk to the news server, etc. The e-mail software on the client server is called an e-mail client, the news software a news client etc. Servers are computers that store information for use by clients. In other words they are computers that service the requests from clients. A server may provide various Internet services. It can be a web server, e-mail server and a news server etc. depending on the software that is loaded on the computer. What happens in practice is that the web browser on the client machine is programmed to talk to the web software for web requests, the news software for news requests etc.


9

2.3.1.4

Web browsers

A browser is a programme used to locate, display, browse and view information on a website. When you request a web page by entering the URL in the location field of the browser, the browser contacts the web server and asks for a copy of the page. The browser displays the page when it arrives. A browser can be text based in which case you would only be able to view web pages in text mode or could have a graphical user interface in which case you would be able to view the web page in graphical mode. In general browsers allow customisation of the display by changing fonts, appearance of hyperlinks, colour of texts and background colours, and in graphical view, allow you to see graphics, pictures and animation. Dozens of browsers exist and a lot of them were developed in the early days of the web. The following are amongst those that were developed early on: Samba (1992), Mosaic (1992-1997), Arena (1993), Cello (1993), Mozilla (1994) renamed to Firefox in 2004, Internet Explorer (1995) and Netscape Navigator. Evaluation copies of browsers can be downloaded from the web for a trial period after which the user is obliged to pay a licence fee for further use. To date Microsoft Internet Explorer11 has been offered for free of charge. It is usually distributed with the Microsoft Windows Operating System. Firefox is an open source browser that can be downloaded for free from http://www.mozilla.org. Figure 1 below is a screen captured from the Microsoft Internet Explorer Browser. The top row is a drop-down menu intended for file handling, finding and copying text from the page displayed, customising the display using the View command as well as Help Topics regarding use of the browser. The second row of buttons is meant for navigating backwards and forwards, refreshing the page, stopping a search, e-mailing pages, accessing web-mail and storing favourite site addresses to save searching time, etc. The third row is meant for navigating the Internet by typing the URL in the location or address field and using the Go button.

11

http://ww.internetexplorer.com


10

Figure 1: Microsoft Internet Explorer

Figure 2 below is a screen captured from the Firefox Browser, to enable you to compare the look and feel of two different browsers. The top row is a drop-down menu intended for file handling, finding and copying text from the page displayed and customising of display using the View command and storing/bookmarking favourite site addresses to save searching time. The second row of buttons is meant for navigating backwards and forwards, refreshing the page, navigating the Internet by typing the URL in the location or address field and using the Go button, and stopping a search. The third row is meant for Help Topics and support regarding use of the browser.

Figure 2: Firefox


11

Browsers are set up to open on a particular web page as soon as you click on them to connect to the web. The page that is displayed is the browser’s home page.

Figure 3: Microsoft Internet Explorer home page

The browser’s home page is normally also the home page that the service provider set up for you. If you are part of a company or government department, your IT section will set your browser up to open on your company or department’s home page. You don’t have to do anything on the home page. If you want to go directly to another website you can do so by typing the URL in the location bar (Figure 4) or by doing a search directly from the browser if it is powered by a search engine (Figure 5). However, sometimes the browser’s home page does contain useful links so do not ignore them totally.

Figure 4: Type the URL in the location (address) bar and click the Go button


12

Figure 5: Type the search term in the location (Address) bar and click the Go button

Browsers have additional functions which make the use of the World Wide Web easier. Frequently-visited sites can have their addresses saved in a list to provide for quick access to a page by opening the list and selecting the relevant URL (Figure 6 below). Adding and deleting URL’s can be done at users will. A history of visited sites is also maintained by the browser (Figure 7 below).

Figure 6: Browser showing favourite sites


13

Figure 7: History of sites visited

Searching for text on the current page is normally available as a “find” facility under the “Edit” command on the browser (Figure 8 & 9 below).

Figure 8: Find text on a page with the Find function


14

Figure 9: Indication of how found text is displayed on the page

Another searching facility is used to access search engines on the web by typing the URL of the search engine into the location (Address) bar and clicking on the Go button.

Figure 10: Type the URL of the search engine in the location (address) bar and click the Go button

Current pages may be printed or saved as text files by highlighting text and copying it by using the copy command in the Edit menu.


15

Figure 11: Select the text to copy and select Copy from the Edit menu

The copied text can be pasted into a Word document. The text can then be edited. Remember that text on websites is copyright protected. Remember to acknowledge your sources when copying text.

Figure 12: Paste the text into a Word document


16

The source code of the current file displayed can be viewed on screen or downloaded. Figure 14 below contains the HTML source code of the ACARM website’s home page.

Figure 13: Select source from the view menu to view the source code

Figure 14: HTML source code of the ACARM website home page

Browsers also have a facility to allow the user to modify the general properties, security, communications and type of connection.


17

Figure 15: Use the internet options command from the Tools Menu to change the browser settings

Specific browser facilities are usually explained in detail in the online help facility included in the browser.

Figure 16: Accessing the online help functionality

Browsers allow you to follow links on websites and in documents, by simply pointing to them and clicking the mouse button. Most browsers also have navigation buttons. These are the home, stop, back and forward buttons (Figures 17, 18, 19 & 20 below). They help you to move easily from page to page and from website to website.


18

Figure 17: Browser home button

Figure 18: Browser stop button


19

Figure 19: Browser back button

Figure 20: Browser forward button

2.3.1.4.1

Plug-ins

The functionality of browsers can be extended by adding software known as plug-ins for handling special types of data like videos and sound files. File formats requiring plug-ins are known as MIME (Multi Media Internet Mail Extension) files. A common plug-in used by web browsers is Adobe Acrobat Reader that allows you to read portable document format (PDF or .pdf) files.


20

) Figure 21: The URL on the task bar at the bottom indicates that the report is a .pdf document

Web browsers normally contain a standard set of plug-ins especially for playing music files. Additional plug-ins can also be down-loaded from the browser’s website. The browser would normally alert you if you need to download additional plug-ins.

2.3.2 E-mail

E-mail is the most popular communication method on the Internet. E-mail is an electronic message containing information sent from one computer to another over networks. E-mails can contain attachments such as pictures, sound files, documents, etc. E-mail is a cheaper and faster method of communication than normal post, fax or telephone calls. E-mail functions independently of location and time zones. It allows you to send messages to and receive messages from anyone who is connected to the Internet. According to Jeff Tyson12 using e-mail is most effective when:

12

you don’t need an immediate answer;

you are communicating with a specific group of people or a single person;

you know with whom you wish to communicate;

you need to attach a file or provide extensive information.

How Newsgroups Work. http://www.howstuffworks.com/newsgroups.html


21

2.3.2.1

How does e-mail work?

E-mail passes from one computer to another via a mail server. The mail server stores the messages in an inbox (almost like the in-tray in the paper-based environment) until the user retrieves them. If you have a dedicated open network line that is never disconnected, you will see incoming messages in your inbox in the e-mail software application and you would be able to read them immediately. If you use a dial-up connection, you will be required to download the e-mail to your computer’s hard drive. To send and receive e-mail you must have a user account on an e-mail server. To have an e-mail account you need an Internet connection and access to a mail server. An email server contains a database of e-mail accounts for people who can receive e-mail on the server. When someone sends a message to a recipient on the server database the email client of that person would contact the e-mail server and pass the name of the recipient and the message on to the server. If the recipient wants to look at his e-mail, his e-mail client would contact the server and list the e-mails for him to read. The server actually contains two pieces of software (also known as protocols) that act as two different servers on one server machine. The SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) server handles outgoing mail. The other one is either a POP (Post Office Protocol) server or an IMAP (Internet Mail Access Protocol) server. The SMTP and POP servers allows you to access and read your e-mail. The POP server acts like a post office for e-mail clients who use dial-up connections to the Internet. They would normally download the e-mail to their computer’s hard drives. The IMAP server is used by e-mail clients with an open Internet connection that stores and accesses their e-mail on the server without downloading the messages to their computer’s hard drives. To read e-mail you need have e-mail client software to translate the digital signals to human readable text. Your e-mail client software is normally part of your computer’s operating system like Microsoft Outlook and Outlook Express or they can be stand-alone e-mail clients like Eudora13, Lycos Mail14 or Pegasus15. You could also subscribe to free e-mail services like Hotmail or Yahoo. These types of services are known as web mail. Web mail is a facility to send e-mail from a web page. 13 14 15

http://www.eudora.com http://mail.lycos.com http://www.pmail.com


22

Web mail is free of charge. However, web mail does not offer all the functionality that email clients have. Web mail programmes for example do not handle attachments well. They are convenient to use when you travel. For proper e-mail usage you need an e-mail client to •

display message headers of all the e-mails in your inbox. The header contains the following information -

the sender

-

the subject

-

time and date of the message

-

size of the message

select and read e-mails

send messages

reply to messages or forward them to other people

add attachments to messages.

2.3.2.2

What does an e-mail message look like?

E-mail messages consist of two main parts namely •

the header which contains the address information of the recipient and anyone the message is copied to and the subject of the message. Similar to normal paper-based mail the e-mail message should contain the correct address to be delivered to a recipient. If the address is wrong, the e-mail is returned to the sender. When you receive an e-mail the header tells you where it came from and when it was sent.

the body which contains the message of the e-mail as well as any attachments.

Figure 23 below contains an e-mail message that was opened to be read. Can you see the header information and the body of the message?

2.3.2.3

Reading e-mails

Reading e-mails is simple. Open your e-mail client and select the Inbox. In the Inbox select the e-mail that you want to read and double click on the e-mail header (Figure 22). The e-mail will open and you would be able to read it (Figure 23).


23

Figure 22 Selecting an e-mail to read

Figure 23: Read an e-mail

You could reply to the e-mail that you have been reading, by clicking on the Reply button. This will open a new e-mail message dialogue box. Then follow the steps in paragraph 2.3.2.4 below.


24

Figure 24: To reply to an e-mail, click on the Reply button

You could also forward the e-mail to other people. This will open a new e-mail message dialogue box. Then follow the steps in par 2.3.2.4 below.

Figure 25: To forward an e-mail, click on the Forward button

2.3.2.4

Sending e-mails

Sending e-mails is a bit more complicated. Follow the steps below:


25

Open the e-mail client. Launch a new message window by clicking on the “new� icon.

Figure 26: Launch a new e-mail message

A new message dialog box will appear.

Figure 27: New Message dialogue box

In the To box type the address of the recipient or recipients.


26

Figure 28: Type the e-mail address in the To box

If you want to copy the message to anybody else for information, type their addresses in the Carbon copy (Cc) box. Addresses should be separated by semicolons.

Figure 29: To Cc the e-mail to another user, type the e-mail address in the Cc box

Add the subject to the subject box.


27

Figure 30: Add a subject in the subject box

Write your message in the message box.

Figure 31: E-mail message with subject field and message box completed

Click on the send icon or select send from the file menu. The e-mail will be sent to the recipient.


28

Figure 32: Click on the send button to send the e-mail

If you choose too, you can set your e-mail client up to do a spell-check before you send a message.

2.3.2.4.1

Address Books

An Address Book provides an easy way to store e-mail addresses and other contact information for easy retrieval by programs such as Microsoft Internet Mail and News. Typical features of an address book may include contact information: e-mail, phone, home, business, and home page addresses. Other facilities include: •

Search, print, view, add, edit, or delete address book entries;

Sorting messages by sender, date, or subject;

Contacts can belong to more than one group;

Sending a copy of the posted message by e-mail;

Displaying the properties for the sender or other recipients;

Deleting a member from the group;

Deleting a member from the address book;

Delete a group from the address book;

Create more than one group;

Forwarding messages;

Sending and saving file attachments.


29

Figure 33: Accessing the address book

Figure 34: New message dialogue box with Address Book open

2.3.2.4.2 Electronic

E-mail writing style communication,

because

of

its

speed

and

fundamentally different from paper-based communication.

broadcasting

ability,

is

Because exchange of

messages can be so fast, email is more conversational than traditional paper


30

communications. E-mail thus tends, like conversational speech, to be informal and more ambiguous. This saves a lot of time and energy when writing casual messages to familiar recipients, where spelling, classical words and grammar are not issues. However, because of the lack of vocal inflection, gestures, and shared environment, e-mail is not as rich a communication method as a face-to-face or a telephone conversation. Recipients may have difficulty understanding whether the senders are serious, joking, frustrated or euphoric. Sarcasm, when used in e-mail can produce undesirable outcomes. Thus email compositions should be carefully considered. When writing an e-mail message, the following is important to remember: 2.3.2.4.2.1

Subject lines

Subject lines are very important. Subject lines should be brief, but clearly indicate what the message is all about. If subject lines are useless the recipients may not realize the importance of the message and choose to read it later or not at all. E.g. which of the following would draw your attention? FOR YOUR INFORMATION or URGENT- IMMEDIATE COMPUTER DOWNTIME If you reply to an e-mail or forward an e-mail message, the e-mail software keeps the subject line of the original message and adds either a RE: or a FW: to the subject line. E.g. if you reply to or forward the messages with the subject lines used above, the lines will read: RE: FOR YOUR INFORMATION

FW: FOR YOUR INFORMATION or

RE:

URGENT

-

COMPUTER DOWN TIME

IMMEDIATE

FW: URGENT - IMMEDIATE COMPUTER DOWN TIME

If you received an e-mail message with a senseless subject line and you need to reply to or forward it you can change the subject line to something more sensible before sending it off.


31

2.3.2.4.2.2

Attachments

The body of an e-mail message normally consists of brief textual messages while very long textual documents, multimedia files, graphic files, spreadsheets, etc are normally attached to the e-mails as attachments (Figure 35, 36 & 37). However, attachments have some drawbacks, namely: •

if the recipients do not have the necessary software on their machines, they would not be able to read the e-mails

if the recipients do not have a lot of space on their servers, they will not appreciate receiving large attachments. Some e-mail servers will automatically remove large attachments to prevent their e-mail servers from being overloaded

viruses can hide in attachments and infect other people’s computers when they open the messages.

Figure 35: Inserting an attachment

Figure 36: Choosing a document to insert in the e-mail


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Figure 37: E-mail with document attached

2.3.2.4.2.3

Auto signatures

Sometimes you receive e-mails from people that you don’t know and that do not identify them or their place of business properly, because the e-mail addresses are too general e.g. Peter.Baker@hotmail.com versus Peter.Baker@communication.gov.ky. At least for the latter you would be able to deduce from the domain name that Peter Baker is at the Department of Communications of the Cayman Islands. For the former you would not know where he is from, except if there is some other identifying information in the email message. Auto signatures (Figure 38) are a way to provide recipients with alternative ways to contact you. An auto signature could contain your: •

Name

Postal address

Street address (optional)

Telephone number

Fax number

Mobile phone number

Website address.


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Figure 38: Example of an auto signature

You may wonder why all this information is necessary – Sometimes other people’s e-mail is off-line and you need to contact them urgently. A telephone number is handy in such a case, but what if you compiled a lengthy e-mail message in reply to an e-mail received and it is returned to you undelivered for some reason? If you cannot contact the person telephonically because of different time zones, it could be handy to make a printout of the e-mail and fax it to the recipient. For more information about e-mail you could consult A Beginner’s Guide to Effective Email16

2.3.3 Listservs/mailing lists

Listservs are as old as the Internet. Many lists exist. Some are open for everyone to access and others are closed to specific interested parties like the records management archives and electronic records listservs. A listserv is a facility that allows participation in ongoing discussions via e-mail. Listservs provide a discussion forum to share information on specific topics. Joining listservs are free. Listservs link people with common interests. Subscribers to a listserv receive email from people who have an interest in a particular subject field. With a Listserv, one message is sent to a single address and then the message is resent to subscribers

16

http://www.webfoot.com


34

around the world. Listservs may be open to anyone who wants to subscribe or they may be monitored by an administrator. In that case, members and/or the messages may be monitored. There are other systems that perform the same function, but with slightly difference command structures like the Majordomo and Almanac Servers.

The person

monitoring, or moderating, can for example stop a message from appearing on the list if it goes against the interest of the group or send messages to the list to guide in the development of the subjects being discussed. Mailing lists are maintained by software (eg LISTSERV(R), LISTPROC, Majordomo, etc.). The software automatically distributes an e-mail message from one member of a list to all other members on that list. Listservs are controlled by a list owner. The owner is usually the person who created the list or who inherited the management of the list. The work of the list owner is minimal, because most of the work is done by an automated programme running on the listserve server. The owner has to monitor the messages and sort out any problems that may arise. The owner is also responsible to create the WELCOME messages that new subscribers receives. WELCOME messages contain general information about the list like: -

purpose

-

rules

-

special features

-

instructions to unsubscribe.

Most listservs are moderated. The moderator is the person who decides which messages are sent out. This ensures that the discussions stays focused. The moderator and the owner can be the same person. Depending on the volume of traffic on a listserv, the moderator can be very busy. According to Jeff Tyson17 listservs are most effective when: •

you don’t need an immediate answer;

you want or need regularly updated information about a particular topic;

you want to receive information from a group of people interested in the same topic.

The following websites contains links to listservs: Tilenet18

17

How Newsgroups Work. http://www.howstuffworks.com/newsgroups.html


35

The HelpWeb19 Unesco Archives Portal20 PADI – Preserving Access to Digital Information21 List of Mailing Lists on Archives, Records management, Museums and Related Subjects22 The Archive Skills Consultancy23 Lsoft – Catalist, the official catalogue of listservs lists24 Greater Cincinatti Library Consortium25 Government Information Systems Manager’s Forum26 For your convenience a condensed list of listservs is attached as Annexure B. 2.3.3.1

Subscribe to mailing lists/listservs

Each time you send a message, or reply to a message it is send to all subscribers on the list. To participate in discussions about a specific topic join a list devoted to that specific topic (e.g. the ACARM listserv on acarm-l@mjordomo.srv.ualberta.co or the Electronic Records listserv on Listserv@listserv.albany.edu). You can join a listserv directly from the listserv website. The website normally contains all the instructions necessary to joint the listserv.

18

http://tile.net/lists http://www.imagescape.com/helpweb/mail/lists.html 20 http://www.unesco.org 21 http://www.nla.gov.au/padi/format/list.html 22 http://www.archimac.org/Profession/Lists/index.spml 23 http://www.archive-skills.com/links/listservs.php 24 http://www.lsoft.com/catalist.html 25 http://www.gclc-lib.org/lists/index.html 26 http://www.govis.org.nz/forums-membership 19


36

Figure 39: Listserv website

Figure 40: Joining the listserv from the website

You would receive an e-mail from the listserv server on how to complete the subscription (Figure 41). This is used by the listserv server to verify your e-mail address.


37

Figure 41: Instructions on how to complete the subscription

Upon confirmation that you do want to subscribe, you would be notified on the website that your subscription is complete.

Figure 42: Subscription completed

You would then receive a welcome message via e-mail.

If you know the listserv subscription address you could also subscribe by mailing the word SUBSCRIBE to the list owner. You would then receive an e-mail with the subscription confirmation instructions and upon confirmation you would receive a welcome message.


38

The subscriber automatically receives a standard letter of welcome (Figure 43) with information about the list. When you receive a welcome e-mail, keep it for future reference. It contains information about how to unsubscribe from the list as well as other useful information. If you accidentally did not keep the information, send an e-mail to the listname-request@site.domain e.g. listserv-request@jiscmail.ac.uk.

Figure 43: A listserv welcome message

It is normal practice that the listserve address (if the list runs on a listserver), the request address and the address of the list manager are usually included in the welcome message received by a new subscriber to a list. Every list has two addresses. The first is the “list manager” address.

This is the address to which commands are sent to

subscribe or unsubscribe. These messages are processed automatically by the software. The other address is the “list” address. This is a single address to which the messages are sent to be received by all subscribers to the list. On subscribing to a list, the name and e-mail address of the new subscriber are automatically added to the list. From that time on, the subscriber will receive all mail (postings) sent to the list by its members. A response can be made either to the list (in which case, all members of the list will receive it), or to an individual on the list. Some listservs have very low traffic. They receive only a few messages per week. Other listservs, like the records management listserv, receive a lot of messages per day. It can become very cumbersome to receive a lot of e-mail messages to read. It is advisable


39

that, if you do want to belong to a listserv, but you do not want very high e-mail traffic, you choose either the digest option or the index option. The digest option will send you one e-mail containing all the messages of that day. The index option will send you one e-mail containing an index of all the messages posted that day. You then have a choice to view only the ones you want to see. This is usually done by deleting the index inscriptions of the ones you don’t want to read and by replying to the e-mail by sending the index inscriptions of the messages you want to see back to the list server. You will then receive an e-mail containing only the messages that you requested. 2.3.3.2

Unsubscribe from mailing list/listservs

A subscriber may sign-off (unsubscribe) from a list at any time. To unsubscribe, you could either access the listserv website to unsubscribe (Figure 40 above) or you could mail the word unsubscribe to the list owner. When unsubscribing, mail should not be sent to the posting address, otherwise the message will go to all members of the mailing list.

Mailing lists as a rule have an

administrative address that is different from the posting address. Nearly all mailing lists have a request address.

2.3.4 Usenet Newsgroups and discussion groups

Usenet is a world-wide distributed system of online discussion groups in which people continuously participate. Newsgroups allow people with a common interest to subscribe to one or more groups for posting, reading and replying to electronic mail. They are common areas where users can post messages for many users to view/reply to: -

leave messages;

-

ask questions;

-

share ideas; and

-

respond to messages, questions and ideas.

According to Jeff Tyson27 they are most effective when •

you don’t need an immediate answer;

you want to communicate with more than one person;

you want to communicate with a group of people interested in the same topic;

27

How Newsgroups Work. http://www.howstuffworks.com/newsgroups.html


40

you need or want to provide extensive information about that topic.

To use this service you do not need access to an e-mail address, only to the web. To use the Newsgroup facility one needs a news client and a news server. Most browsers have a built in news client called newsreader software. The software is normally included in the browser software that is part of the computer’s operating system. Newsgroups are publicly accessible and cover an enormous range of subjects, but each individual newsgroup is dedicated to a specific topic. It is a good way of accessing expert knowledge about a variety of areas. The content reflects a diversity of opinions. Some newsgroups are moderated, which means that the messages must be approved before they are posted. Most newsgroups however remain unmoderated. Some newsgroups are very popular and have a daily readership. However, messages are retained on the serving computer for a limited amount of time and are then automatically deleted. Newsgroups are normally categorized according to the topic they cover. The name of the newsgroup

contains

an

indication

what

the

area

of

interest

is.

E.g.

comp.lang.java.programmer is a newsgroup for Java programmers. The name is read from the general to the specific, with the topic on the right hand side. The general part of the address indicates the broader category in which this newsgroup is located e.g. the language section in the computer category. Usenet sites on the Internet divide information into newsgroups or subject categories. The following are a few examples:

sci: Topics relating to anything in the sciences.

rec: Recreation such as games, sports, hobbies, the arts and anything that’s fun.

soc: Covering social interests and socializing about countries, cultures, history, religion, the single scene and so on.

news: Talk about net news itself (great for new users).

talk: Long-winded arguments about anything.

comp: Discussions about computers.

misc: Miscellaneous topics that don’t relate to any of the above (you can post resumes here).


41

There are more non-standard hierarchies available such as:

alt: (Alternative) anyone can create a group under alt.

clari: (ClariNet news) groups of newspaper-type news offering news about events as fast as they happen.

highwayl: Information about Highwayl.

bit: Bitnet mailing lists passed around as Usenet news.

biz: Business groups (more commercial than traffic in mainstream groups).

gnu: Develops freely available software.

k12: A specialist group for primary and high school students and teachers.

The infrastructure behind newsgroups is called news servers. News servers have software that maintains a folder for each newsgroup serviced by that server. When you access a news server with your newsreader software, the newsreader downloads the information posted to the newsgroup. You would then read the messages and reply if you want to. Alternatively you could start your own tread with news of your own. A tread is an original posting with all the messages relating to it. Your newsreader sends your message to the news server. The server saves your message in the dedicated newsgroup folder. The news server connects to other news servers on the network to send them the updated news. Other subscribers then read your messages and all the others posted since they last accessed the newsgroup and reply to them. You are then able to read the replies and other messages. You can log into a newsgroup as a guest to find out if you are interested in participating in a discussion. If you are, you can register to join the discussion. You have to supply a username and password, and would be requested to complete a form with personal details that would be available to other users when you post messages. Once you are registered, you would be able to read and post messages to participate in discussions. 2.3.4.1

Subscribe to a newsgroup

To subscribe you need to connect to a news server. Your Internet Service Provider normally has access to one or more news servers. The newsreader client software that is part of your web browser will allow you to configure or set up the news server. The software will tell you exactly what to do. When


42

the connection to the news server is set up for the first time, the news reader will show you a list of all the news groups carried by that news server. You can then select the news group that you are interested in and click on the subscribe button. If it takes too long to scroll through the entire list you can use the newsreader search functionality to search for topics that you are interested in. After subscribing to those you are interested in, the newsreader will display them to you in a list. If you click on the name of the newsgroup the messages will be displayed. If you have a dial-up connection, you would have to download them to your hard drive when you want to read them. 2.3.4.2

Setting up a group

Groups covering other areas of interest can be created.

This can be a slow process

requiring a formal charter and an on-line vote by both its prospective readers and nonreaders. To set up a newsgroup you could either set up a group in one of the existing categories or set up a group in the alternative category. You need to know beforehand what the topic of the group is, what its name would be and what the purpose of the group and topic is. You should also know beforehand to which category or categories the group should belong. With this information at hand, you would then post a Request for Discussion to news.announce.newgroup. Other subscribers would then read your request. They have approximately one month to discuss the viability of the new group. After a month you can request a Call for Votes by posting a message to news.announce.newgroup. Subscribers then have another month to vote. When the vote closes, the moderator of the newsgroup(s) the request was posted in counts the votes and posts the result to news.announce.newgroup. To start the group a majority of subscribers should be in favour by 100 votes or more and there should be no serious objections to the new group. If the vote is positive, the existence of the new group is announced in news.announce.newgroup. At this stage you could start a discussion by posting a statement, asking a question, etc.

2.3.5 Internet Relay Chat and web chatting

Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is one of the most popular activities on the Internet. It is a means of having a conversation with many people on a variety of topics in real time; in other words, all the parties to the conversation are participating simultaneously regardless of the time zone they are in. IRC is normally a typed conversation that uses


43

streaming technology which implies that the speed with which you type is the speed at which the message appears on the other participant’s screens. People talk in groups. There are no restrictions to the number of people that can join a conversation. Likewise there is no restriction on the number of conversations that you can participate in. Conversations take place in channels. To participate in a conversation, you need to join a channel or, if no channel exists for the topic you want to address, you can start your own channel. To enable you to make use of this Internet service, you need IRC client software which would facilitate a connection to an IRC server. The IRC Server that is connected to the Internet provides instant access to anyone who is connected to the same network. IRC should not be confused with Web chatting. IRC is directly connected to the Internet servers, while web chatting uses a browser as a client to enable participation in conversations conducted in web chat rooms. A web chat room is part of a website or a website by itself that provides an online venue where users with a common interest can communicate sometimes in real time. Web chatting is not necessary real time in nature. You need to use the browser’s refresh button to load the new messages to enable you to view them. According to Jeff Tyson28 IRC is more effective when: •

you need an immediate answer;

you want to communicate with more than one person;

you can communicate in brief messages;

you want to meet new people.

2.3.5.1

Instant Messaging

This is very similar to chatting. The difference is that you maintain a list of people you want to interact with. If that person is online, you can send a message to him/her. It opens up a small window on the desktop where he can type in. Each of you can see the desktop dialogue window and can have an interactive chat session. According to Jeff Tyson29 it is most effective when: 28 29

How Newsgroups Work. http://www.howstuffworks.com/newsgroups.html How Newsgroups Work. http://www.howstuffworks.com/newsgroups.html


44

you need an immediate answer;

you only need to communicate with a single person or a small group;

you know with whom you wish to communicate;

you need to communicate in real time.

2.3.6 Channels

Channels on the web are a pre-selected information source that can send information to your computer automatically according to a predetermined schedule. Channels can be programmed to send a whole lot of information to your computer to be stored on the hard drive so that you can look at them at leisure. Channels have the same type of information that you would normally see when accessing the web with a browser. Channels are normally free.

2.3.7 FTP and downloading

FTP (File Transfer Protocol) allows you to copy files from one computer connected to the Internet to another computer connected to the Internet. It allows you to download information, upload web pages and transfer information between computers. A lot of free software and information are available on the Internet on FTP servers. FTP servers have special areas with programmes and data that were set aside for any user on the Internet to download information from. This allows the free distribution of data and software. FTP needs a client programme to function. Most browsers act as the FTP client also. Users are often using FTP to download information from the Internet without knowing it. When downloading, the browser automatically takes care of all the detail. The user only needs to tell the browser where on the hard drive to save the information. However, should you need an FTP programme to help you move files around between computers outside of the functionality that the browser is providing, you could download Filezilla30 from the internet. It is free of charge.

30

http://www.computeractive.co.za/downloads4


45

2.3.7.1

Anonymous FTP

This is a facility that allows you to download information from computers where you do not have a user account. To copy a file (i.e. a collection of data stored under a particular name) from another computer you need permission to connect to the other computer. If the browser did not automatically take care of this, you would be prompted to enter a username and password to connect to the other computer. You can use the username “anonymous� with any password of your choosing to download files from the public area. Downloading refers to the actual transferring of a document or file from one computer to the other. Before you start a download you should ensure that your own computer has adequate virus protection. Viruses are deadly for the programmes and the data on your computer.

2.3.8 Telnet

The Telnet protocol is an application that allows a remote connection to another computer. It gives the facility to work on a remote computer while FTP protocol allows transfer of files from one computer to another. Both computers must be connected in a network, either a local area network or the Internet. Also both computers must support the Telnet protocol. Access is normally allowed only to account holders. The accounts are set up by the network administrator prior to login.

2.3.9 Intranet

There is a growing reliance on communicating information internally to the staff by using intranets. Intranets are private networks that help an organization to share information between departments, units and regions across a network. Publishing information to an intranet to which all staff members have access is a quick cost-saving mechanism, since the information is available immediately and you do not have to produce multiple copies of the same document. There are a number of advantages to using an intranet namely:


46

it does not allow outsiders to view the information, because it is a private network;

it can allow employees to interact via e-mail and discussion groups;

if properly maintained, the employees always have access to up-to-date information;

it is a cheap communication medium.

Intranets can, however, become a liability if not managed properly. The following are possible problems: •

Outdated information;

Irrelevant information;

Poorly organized information that is not easily accessible;

No search facility;

Purpose is unknown to employees;

No interaction with employees regarding the content;

Employees do not have access to computers or are not computer literate.

2.3.9.1

Intranet training

Intranets are not only useful to communicate information to all staff members in the briefest possible time. They can also be used to provide web-based training to employees. This is especially useful if you have employees in remote areas that need training. Web-based intranet training allows course presenters to interact with trainees in real time by using video conferencing facilities. One could even allow trainees to complete tasks and submit them online or to write exams online. You would need the following equipment to do intranet training: •

All the hardware and software to connect to the Internet;

Firewall – to provide security;

Database – to store information;

Content development software;

Video conferencing equipment;

Electronic white board.

2.3.10

Internet phone

Another service connected to IRC is the Internet phone. An Internet phone allows one to put a number of calls on the same line without sacrificing sound quality. The rates are much lower than normal telephone lines. It allows quick real time communication that


47

allows one to speak with other users on the network. To use this facility one needs a computer with a sound card, phone software, speakers, microphone and an Internet connection. A video capture device is optional. The phone software digitizes your speech as you talk and sends the digital data over the Internet. If you have a good Internet connection you will have good quality sound. However it is also dependent on the quality of the networks on both ends. The Internet phone can work in full duplex mode or in half duplex mode. Full duplex mode allows you to either speak or hear at the same time, while half duplex mode allows you to either speak or hear. You cannot talk while another user is talking, then you won’t hear him/her. The capacity of the sound card installed in the computer would dictate what mode you would use. Some service providers allow one to dial over the Internet directly to another person’s normal phone. According to Jeff Tyson31 this is most effective when: •

you need an immediate answer;

you have the appropriate equipment;

the information you want to convey or are requesting is easier to convey through talking than through text messaging.

2.3.11

Video conferencing

Video conferencing is another service connected to IRC. It allows you to chat with one or more people in real time and/or to see live images as you speak or type. You can use it with or without the Internet phone. Besides the normal equipment appropriate equipment to use this service would be a microphone, speakers and a video camera. It also allows you to share an electronic white board. You could also use a document camera with this facility. A video conference can therefore be a true video conference or only audio and text based. Remember that •

time zones are a problem when you want to chat with people world-wide in real time.

31

How Newsgroups Work. http://www.howstuffworks.com/newsgroups.html


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video conferencing with all the bells and whistles attached needs a fast Internet connection.

According to Jeff Tyson32 video conferencing most effective when •

you need an immediate answer;

you want to communicate with more than one person;

you can communicate the information you need to know or wish to provide in brief messages;

you want to attach a file or use the whiteboard or document camera to explain something;

you want to visually demonstrate or display information.

2.3.12

Blogs and Wikis

Blogs or web logs are personal web pages that contain personal thoughts and links to other sites that are of particular interest to a blog owner. Blogs are used as a publishing mechanism and sometimes contain personal opinions and commentaries on the events of the day. For more information on blogs, to search the web log directory to find out which blogs exist and to register your own blog, you could access Blogigo33. Wikis are collaborative websites where the community participate in writing a publication, like an encyclopaedia or a general purpose website. Wiki publications are normally of high quality because the participants edit the errors out. An example of an encyclopaedia written in this fashion is the Wikipedia34.

2.4

Protocols

The Internet works by connecting various computers, software and files together. To enable this to work the Internet needs standardised rules. Those rules are called protocols. Developed in the 1970’s protocols are a standard set of specifications or parameters that allows computers to send and receive data. The Internet is a packet switched network. This means that the computers and servers on the Internet do not need a dedicated 32 33 34

How Newsgroups Work. http://www.howstuffworks.com/newsgroups.html http://www.blogigo.co.uk http://www.wikipedia.org


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unbroken connection to send or receive data. It breaks the data down into small packets and then transfers the packets over any phone or network line that is available. It can travel over various phone and data lines at once. Each packet of data is labelled with the addresses for the sending and receiving computer. It also carries instructions on how the computer should put the packets together so that the data does not contain errors. The protocols each have their own purpose for different types of Internet connections. Web browsers use most of these protocols without the users being aware of the fact. Protocols are highly technical in nature and you don’t need to know precisely how they work. It is however handy to know a little about those that are most commonly used and referred to in literature.

2.4.1 TCP/IP The main protocol used by the Internet is TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol Internet Protocol that manages the flow of information on the Internet and that ensures that data arrives without errors. This protocol keeps the millions of computers on the Internet that are passing information back and forth running smoothly. Other important protocols in the Internet suite of protocols are:

2.4.2 File retrieval protocols

2.4.2.1

FTP

File Transfer Protocol was one of the first protocols developed. It allows users to move files from one computer to another, to browse, upload and download files.

2.4.2.2

Telnet

Telnet allows users to connect to remote computers and to use the applications on that computer as if it is on their own. Telnet was once the only means to connect to remote sites. However, the development of other protocols made it nearly obsolete. Telnet is still used to access some library


50

catalogues and mainframe systems. It is supported by web browsers, but requires Telnet client software to operate.

2.4.3 Multimedia Information Protocols

2.4.3.1

HTTP

Hypertext Transfer Protocol is used to define the appearance of websites and web pages. The Hypertext Transfer Protocol is used to transfer data between web servers and web clients or web browsers. It also allows jumping between hypertext documents. 2.4.3.2

UUCP

Unix to Unix Copy Programme allows computers using versions of the UNIX operating system to communicate with each other and with remote computers. It allows the copying of files between computers. It also allows the distribution of e-mail and net news amongst UNIX computers. 2.4.3.3

PPP

Point to Point Protocol is the protocol that dial-up Internet connections use to transmit information. 2.4.3.4

SLIP

Serial Line Internet Protocol was the first protocol designed for transmission of information over dial-up connections. It has largely been supplanted by PPP.


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2.4.4 E-mail protocols

2.4.4.1

IMAP

Internet Message Access Protocol that allows the mail client to access messages residing on a mail server from any computer. It allows the mail client to manipulate the messages on the server without having to download them.

2.4.4.2

POP

Post Office Protocol that allows a mail client to download e-mail messages to the computer’s hard drive from the mail server.

2.4.4.3

SMTP

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol that allows an e-mail client to send messages to a mail server. The messages are then stored on the mail server until they are picked up.

2.4.5 Address Protocols

2.4.5.1

LDAP

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol that is used by e-mail clients to query the address directories on the Internet to find and display e-mail addresses.

2.4.6 Security and Privacy Protocols

2.4.6.1

PCT

Private Communications Technology is used to provide secure communications over the Internet.


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2.4.6.2

S/MIME

Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail is a protocol that is used to encrypt data for transmission over the Internet and allows for the decryption of the information by the intended recipient. 2.4.6.3

SSL

Secure Socket Layer provides a secure facility for programmes to pass data back and forth between computers. When data is communicated via the web in secure mode, the URL will start with https.

2.4.7 Usenet Protocols

2.4.7.1

NNTP

Network News Transfer Protocol is used to distribute news articles between news servers. The servers are sometimes called NNTP servers. There are two variations of this protocol namely one that allows communication between adjacent computers and one for communication between clients and servers.

2.5

Domain Name Service, E-mail addresses and Uniform Resource Locators

(URL’s)

Every computer, person and resource on the Internet has their own unique address. The computers have IP (Internet Protocol) addresses, the people have e-mail addresses and the resources have URL’s (Universal Resource Locators).

2.5.1 IP Addresses and Domain Names

IP addresses are number strings separated by full stops e.g. 491.572.72.196. Humans don’t understand IP addresses; therefore it is necessary to give each computer a name that is understandable to humans. These names are called domain names. For example www.nationalarchives.gov.uk is the domain name of the National Archives of the UK.


53

In this example -

www is the host name (in other words the unique name given to an Internet computer in this case a computer on the World Wide Web);

-

nationalarchives is the domain name of the organization the computer belongs to;

-

gov indicates the organizational domain of the computer; and

-

UK indicates the geographical region of the computer.

In short this is a computer in the UK on the government network belonging to the National Archives that is connected to the World Wide Web. Because computers on the other hand do not understand the human readable form of the address but only the IP addresses each network on the World Wide Web has a number of Domain Name Servers whose job it is to translate domain names into IP addresses. Domain Name Servers are connected to a world wide distributed database that keeps track of which domain name belongs with which corresponding IP address. All domain names must include a top level domain. The top level domain is the last string of letters at the extreme right of the name following the point or dot. It is helpful to know that the most commonly used top level domains or the last two components of a domain name indicates the type of organization and the geographic origin of the computer. The most common organizational domains are: .com - Commercial .edu - Educational .gov - Government .org - Non-profit organization .mil - Military .info - Information services .web - Entities related to the web .net - All sites that do not fit under one of the others. The geographical origins are indicated by a two letter code derived from an International Standard ISO 3166 Country Codes. A few examples are:


54

.au - Australia .in - India .br - Brazil .it- - Italy .ca - Canada .mx - Mexico .fr - France .tw - Taiwan .il - Israel .uk - United Kingdom A full list of country codes is available on the ISO 3166 Country Codes website. For your convenience a list is also attached as Annexure D. The space to the immediate left of the top level domain is called the second level domain. This is the space that the owner of the domain name uses to identify itself (e.g. nationalarchives in the case of the UK, naa in the case of the National Archives of Australia, etc.) It is important to maintain a central list of domain names and IP addresses. The Domain Name Service (DNS) is distributed throughout the Internet. Domain names are maintained on a distributed database connected to Domain Name Servers (DNS) that are distributed across the Internet. Your Internet service provider has access to the geographically closest domain name server. DNS servers exist on their own network. If one server does not know how to translate a domain name into an IP address it automatically connects to other servers to do the translation. Most companies, Internet service providers, universities and government departments have their own domain name servers to map domain names to IP addresses.


55

2.5.1.1

Were does one obtain an IP address and Domain Name?

The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)35 is a non-profit private sector body responsible for managing and coordinating the Domain Name System. Domain Name Registrars are licensed by ICANN to sell domain names. They oversee the distribution of unique IP addresses and corresponding domain names. ICANN also maintain the system and processes that ensure that each domain name is linked to the correct IP address. The allocation of domain names and corresponding IP addresses is managed by accredited domain name registers. You can buy a domain name from one of these registrars. Domain names ending with .aero, .biz, .com, .coop, .info, .museum, .name, .net, .org or .pro can be registered by any domain name registrar. The registrar will ask you to provide contact and technical information that becomes part of the registration. The registrar keeps the contact information on record and submits the technical information to a central directory known as a domain registry. The purpose of this registry is to allow computers to translate the domain names into IP addresses. A registration contract will be concluded between you and the registrar. For more information about accredited registrars for the above mentioned domains, see the accredited registrar directory on InterNIC36 or the ICANN List of Accredited Registrars37. Should you wish to use the country domain as part of your domain name you need to contact a country domain name registrar. To register a country code Top Level Domain (ccTLD) you should contact an ICANN accredited ccTLD registrar. There are normally restrictions on the use of ccTLD’s that should be clarified before registration, for e.g. that they are reserved for use by the citizens of a specific country, etc. More information regarding ccTLD registrars can be obtained from the database of ccTLD registrars on the website of the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA38).

35 36 37 38

www.icann.org http://www.internic.com http://www.icann.org/registrars/accredited-list.html http://www.iana.org/cctld/cctld.htm


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They will host your domain name on their networks and give you space to accommodate a few web pages until you can find a web hosting service. A web hosting service is an organization with a web server that is connected to the Internet and the technical know how to manage the equipment and software. They rent out space on their servers to enable website owners to make websites available on the Internet. Internet Service Providers normally also provide web hosting services and would be able to assist you in registering a domain name.

2.5.2 E-mail addresses

E-mail addresses are needed to enable users to send e-mails to each other. In most cases the e-mail addresses are assigned by Internet Service Providers. All e-mail addresses are unique and consist of a username, the at sign @ and the domain name of the server where the user has an e-mail address. E.g. in the example kelvin.smith@nationalarchives.gov.uk -

Kelvin Smith is the username

-

@ indicates it is a user at a specific host computer

-

nationalarchives.gov.uk indicates the server of the domain where the user has his e-mail address.

2.5.3 URL’s

Uniform Resource Locators or URL’s are addresses that point to specific resources or files on the World Wide Web. Like domain names and e-mail addresses URL’s are unique for each resource. URL’s are necessary to enable web browsers to know where to find a website, web page and/or specific file. A URL contains the protocol of the resource, a domain name for the resource, and if pointing to a specific file the hierarchical name of the file. E.g. the website address of the UK National Archives is http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk. An URL that points to a specific file or document published on this website would look like this: http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/recordsmanagement/pdf/news_oct03.pdf.


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The first part remains as explained above. The last part after the forward slash (/recordsmanagement/pdf) points to the specific directory where the file is located on the specific computer and the last part (/news_oct03.pdf ) is the file name and extension of the file. The extension indicates the format of the file. A file is a collection of data stored under a specific name. A file on a computer is what we would normally call a document. Files on a computer are normally stored in directories and sub-directories. Because of the amount of files on a computer you need a way to organize them to enable you to find them again. Almost like a classification system for paper-based records, you classify information, programmes and data on a computer into a hierarchical structure known as a root directory. Every individual directory folder in the root directory (i.e. the top directory assigned by the operating system) can hold files as well as sub-directories, creating a hierarchical system of organizing files on the computer. E.g. in the root directory on the computer you may create a folder called my documents. You can file individual documents each with a unique file name into that directory. When the number of documents in that directory grows, it becomes more difficult to retrieve specific documents. To make retrieval easier you can create sub-directories to group documents by subject or by type. There are different ways of doing this: You can for example design a directory structure with the document type as the point of departure which is then broken down into specific cases:

Figure 44: Directory structure using the document type as the point of departure


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or with a subject as the point of departure which is then broken down into types and or specific cases:

Figure 45: Directory structure with the subject as the point of departure

The URL could then be explained as follows: http://

indicates

to

the

browser

that

the

resource

contains

hypertext and that it would be found on the World Wide Web www

points to a specific computer on the World Wide Web

.nationalarchives

is the domain name

.gov

is the top level organizational domain

.uk

is the top level geographical domain

/records management

indicates the directory in which the files resides

/pdf

indicates a subdirectory – most probably one in which all .pdf documents are kept

/news_oct03.pdf

is the file name and file extension

The most common file extensions that you would encounter are the following: Extension

Definition

.html

Web page written in hypertext mark-up language


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.htm

Web page written in hypertext mark-up language. The computer does not allow more than three letters in the file name extension.

.asp

Web page generated by a system called active server pages. Active server pages are used to create interactive websites.

.gif

Picture stored in the .gif format. The GIF format is widely used on the World Wide Web for still images and animation.

.jpg

Picture stored in the JPEG format. JPEG can compress images to very small sizes. It transfers faster because of the small size.

.wav

A sound or music file

.txt

Plain text file

.rtf

Rich text file

.zip

Compressed collection of files

.exe

An executable programme file

.doc

A MS Word document

.pdf

A portable document format file

If you want to read more about URL’s you could access A Beginners Guide to URL’s39.

2.6

Search Engines

There is such a lot of information on the Internet that it is difficult to find the specific information you need because there is no central authority to organize the information into a useful directory structure or a classification system like we know it. It is easy to find information using a web browser if you already have the URL available, but what if you don’t? Search engines are programmes that can search the Internet for specific information. A number of search engines are available on the Internet that you could use for free. The websites in which search engines reside are called search sites. To name a few search sites: AltaVista40 39 40

http://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/demoweb/url-primer.html http://www.altavista.com


60

Ask Jeeves41 Hotbot42 Inktomi43 Dogpile44 Google45 Yahoo46 Excite47 Lycos48 Every search engine works in a different way. It is advisable that you access all these sites to find out what these search engines can do and how they work.

2.6.1 Types of search engines

2.6.1.1

Directories

Directories are websites that contain a large number of links. The links are classified into subject categories or types. Directories are set up by people who view the different websites to decide if they would be included in the directories. Website owners submit the URL and a short description of their websites to the search engine owners. The owner then assigns the website to a specific category within the search website. Directories often produce focused search results. They look for matches only in the descriptions of sites that were presented. There are different types of directories namely:

2.6.1.1.1

Subject directories

Directories in the print environment are alphabetical or subject classified lists of resources containing names, locations and other identifying information. Directories in

41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

http://www.askjeeves.com http://www.hotbot.com http://www.inktomi.com http://www.dogpile.com http://www.google.com http://www.yahoo.com http://www.excite.com http://www.lycos.com


61

the electronic environment are similar to the print environment, but they also go a step further. Directories can also be web pages that are hand selected, annotated and classified by subject. The selection and classification are done by human editors. Subject directories are a good place to start when you want to do a general search and you would like to get a general overview of what is available regarding your subject. Examples of search engines that cater for directory searchers are: Yahoo49, Altavista50 and AOL51

Figure 46: Accessing Yahoo's directory search

Figure 47: Doing a search for information about Records Management

http://www.yahoo.com http://www.altavista.com 51 http://www.aol.com 49 50


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Figure 48: Finding directory information about Records Management. Note the amount of hits in the directory search

2.6.1.1.2

People directories

Yohoo People Search52 Finds people by first name, last name, address, phone number and e-mail address Peoplefind53 Will assist in finding people, check criminal records and do background checks amongst others. WHOIS54 Lookup Whois finds peoples according to their e-mail addresses. Queries are in the form first name last name @ organisation (e.g. dean john @ ACARM). PH servers55 PH servers is a common directory service system that is in use world-wide. This server lets you select a site and search for people listed at that location.

52 53 54 55

http://people.yahoo.com/ http://www.peoplefind.com/ http://whois.com http://www.emailman.com/ph/


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411 Directory Services56 The Four 11 White Page Directory is an online service where Internet users can register their Internet addresses (e-mail and web) and look for other Internet users. 2.6.1.2

Robot Engines

Robot engines are search engines that use spiders to crawl websites and to index them. They use hidden Meta tags and text in the web page to index actual pages for their listings. Meta tags are built-in descriptors that allow a website owner to have more influence regarding the keywords that are used to index web pages and documents. Several major search engines index the title and description Meta tags. So it is important to use relevant keywords in titles and descriptors when a website is built.

Figure 49: Doing a web search for Records Management. Note difference in the number of hits.

2.6.1.3

Meta search engines

They are not really search engines in the true sense of the word. They pull together information that is listed by other search engines. They merge the results into one list of results.

56

http://www.411locate.com/


64

2.6.2 How do search engines work?

2.6.2.1

Web crawling

Search engines use automated software programmes to go to a web page, index the content and store the information in huge databases. They also follow all the hyperlinks on all the web pages, look at those pages, index them and store them in the database. This is called web crawling. This they do twenty-four hours a day seven days a week. The search crawler is called a spider. Spiders crawl websites regularly to ensure that they index all the updates as well as follow new links that were added to web pages. 2.6.2.2

Accessing information

The search engines allow you to access the information in their databases by using either keyword searches or by doing advanced searching. The results of a search are displayed in a results list. Normally the results are ranked according to relevancy. You can select a document in the results list. When you click on it, the document is opened and you can browse through it. Should you wish to access and study the results at a later stage, you could save the search results list in the list of your favourite’s sites. A results list can also be printed for later use.

2.6.2.3

Relevancy ranking

Most search engines have a relevancy ranking facility. This is a facility that the search engine uses to indicate the document or resource in which your search term or phrase appears most frequently. Another method that is sometimes used is if the document or resource is frequently linked too. The reasoning being that if so many other people consider it relevant, it may just be! Some other search engines would use both the frequency of the search term or phrase as well as the position of the term or phrase in the document or resource to determine relevancy. The reasoning being that if the term or phrase appears in the header, title and/or first few paragraphs of the document/resource and then frequently in the rest of the text it would be more relevant than an appearance once at the bottom of the text.


65

The document or resource in which the search term or phrase appears most frequently is considered to be the most relevant to your search. However, you need to keep in mind that the technology is not the human brain with its intricate thought processes. What the search engine may consider relevant may not be what you want at all!

2.6.3 Searching

2.6.3.1

Keyword search

When you type a search word into the search box of one of the search engines the search engine software would scan the database and make a list of all the instances of the pages with those particular keywords in them. This way of searching could result in the retrieval of millions of web pages to be accessed and read. You would not necessarily be able to find the information that you want. Keywords can be any words on a website. Hence, you would not use common words as keywords for a search. Useful keywords and key phrases are normally unique words in a piece of text. E.g. in the sentence “I could not find the green angora sweater” you would not use the words “could not find” as a search term. That would result in a millions of pages being returned in the results list. You would rather use “green angora sweater” as a search phrase. This would limit the results considerably. This is because some search engines index only parts of the web pages that are considered important, like the title, words that are mentioned in the beginning paragraphs of a document and/or unique words, while others index each word in the page. One needs to learn how to use a search engine properly to limit the search results to find only the information which is really relevant. If you are doing serious research on a specific topic, advanced searching is a better option.

2.6.3.2

Advanced Searching

Most search engines offer advanced search options besides the normal keyword searches. Advanced search options differ from search engine to search engine. They allow you to find exact matches for certain phrases and to exclude words or phrases that would muddy the results.


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They also allow the use of Boolean operators to refine searches. Boolean searches allow one to search for keywords that best describes the topic that you are searching for. Boolean operators are the terms “AND”, “OR”, NOT, NEAR and FOLLOWED BY. AND means that all the specified terms must appear in the document e.g. records AND management (or in some search engines records + management) would only find those documents in which both words appears, while electronic AND records AND management (or electronic + records + management) would only bring back documents or pages in which all three words appear. OR means that at least one of the terms must appear in the document. OR broadens or widens a search to include documents or pages that contain all the words, but not necessarily in the same page or document. For example digital OR electronic would return documents or pages where either the word digital or electronic appears. You could also do a combination of AND with OR. For example digital OR electronic AND preservation would return documents or pages in which the words digital preservation and electronic preservation appear. The OR operator is also useful in cases where a word has several synonyms or spellings. For example preservation or conservation or retention which are sometimes used as synonyms would return documents or pages in which all three words appear together or alone. The same applies to document OR record which would return pages or documents in which the one or the other appears. NOT means that the specified term must not appear in the document. NOT narrows a search so that certain words don’t appear. For example electronic NOT paper AND records would return documents and information about electronic records but not about paper records. Most search engines allow for very complex searches. Normally when a search is very complex it is a good idea to nest your search terms between brackets so that the terms between brackets are searched for first e.g. (paper OR electronic NOT audio-visual) AND records management would return pages or documents in which both the words paper and electronic appear and then narrow the search to only those documents about paper


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records management or electronic records management, not audio-visual records management. Most search engines also allow the use of proximity operators like ADJACENT, WITH, FOLLOWED BY and NEAR. NEAR means that the terms should be in close proximity to each other – you could specify the maximum number of words between each term. FOLLOWED BY means that the term should follow directly after the other term. ADJACENT and WITH mean that the words should appear next to each other, while AND and OR do not require that the words follow each other. They can be in any place in a document or page. The Boolean search terms may differ from search engine to search engine. It would be helpful if you access the search engine’s help file before attempting a search. Alta-Vista and Lycos for example use + and – to include or exclude words. For tips about the most popular search engines see the information on the website: http://www.hamline.edu/administration/libraries/ bush/handouts/slahandout.html. Search engines also allow you to use phrases to search by. If you want to search for a specific phrase you need to tell the search engine so, otherwise you will retrieve irrelevant documents which contain all the keywords in any sequence. Normally a phrase should be enclosed in quotation marks i.e. “records management” as two separate words. The reason behind this is that some search engines automatically default separate words in a search string either to AND or to OR. If it defaults to AND your search results would return pages in which the words records and management appears. These returned pages may have nothing to do with records management per se but with records and all sorts of other management! Should the search engine default to OR you would have more or less the same problem in the sense that it would return pages in which the word records appear as well as pages in which the word management appear, without it necessarily being pages about records management. Search engines also allow you to use truncation to search. Usually a * is used to indicate truncation e.g. record* would also return records, recorded, recording and recordkeeping (but not record keeping). Every search engine has a different way of refining queries. Some even allow you to refine a query on an existing result list if too many hits are returned. The best way to


68

learn is to practice with the different search engines until you find one that suits you best. It may also be extremely helpful to access the search engine’s online help facility to find out how you can optimize the search experience. 2.6.3.3

Finding the invisible web

Most directories contain links to databases e.g. the Libraries Index, Academic Info, Infomine, About.com, Direct Search, The Invisible Web Directory, and Profusion57 are examples of directories that link to databases on the web. You can also search in normal search engines by using the subject term or keyword with the word “database” or the phrases “invisible web”, “deep web”, and “hidden web”. If the word database or any of the phrases are used in the description of the topic you would find it. A search for “archives and database” for example has very interesting results. For other interesting results also visit the websites of the US Government Printing Office58 and Search Systems59. You could also try Those Dark Hiding Places: The Invisible Web Revealed60 for more information about the invisible web as well as links to invisible databases.

2.6.4. Evaluating the information found on the Internet

Now that you know how to find information on the Internet and World Wide Web, it is important that you should also know that everything published on the Internet is not necessarily an authoritative source. In the past, before the Internet phenomena, authoritative sources of information were usually published by well known publishers and/or in professional journals and magazines. To have one’s writings published required careful peer review to validate the information as authoritative. With the advent of the Internet and the World Wide Web and the ease of publishing to the Internet, the careful peer review before publication 57

http://lii.org, http://academicinfo.net, http://infomine.ucr.edu, http://www.about.com, http://www.freeprint.com/gary/direct.htm, http://www.invisible-web.net, http://www.profusion.com, http://wwwcompleteplanet.com 58 http://www.gpoaccess.gov/multidp.html 59 http://www.searchsystems.net 60 http://library.rider.edu/scholarly/rlackie/Invisible/Inv_Web_Main.html.


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slipped through the cracks. It is therefore very possible that some of the information so published is dubious. You also need to remember that some of the information on personal websites – so called “blogs” – contains personal opinions and not necessarily facts. A big part of doing research is to evaluate the validity of resources. You would use the same evaluation criteria as for any other resource. The following may be helpful: What is the source/origin of this information? Remember domain names? Domain names have a domain suffix that gives some sort of indication what the purpose and intended audience of a website is. You could use this as an indication of the trustworthiness of the information contained in those sites. .com

Commercial sites. Information is usually promotional in nature and tends to be on the positive aspects of products and services advertised.

.edu

Educational institution. This includes schools and tertiary education institutions. Information published under this domain can range from scholars’ and students’ personal websites to peer reviewed authoritative resources. You would not normally consider the information on a personal website authoritative, but published research papers on the other hand would be more trustworthy.

.gov

Government.

Government

Agencies

can

be

held

legally

accountable/liable for the information published on their websites. There are normally documents websites.

and Formal

very strict

other

rules about the content of

information

approval

for

published publication

on

government

is

normally

a

prerequisite. Information found on these websites have high credibility. .org

Non-profit organizations. Care must be exercised especifically if these organizations publish information that is biased and not totally objective to promote a specific point of view.


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.mil

Military. As part of government, the information is also highly credible.

.net

All sites that do not fit under any other domain. Careful evaluation is necessary because the information could be biased and subjective.

How old is the information? Also be careful of outdated information that is still available on the Internet. Normally websites have an indication of when they were last updated. The more frequently the site is updated, the less the chance that you may find outdated information on those sites. Who is the author of the information? Resources published under the names of well-known authors and experts in their profession would also normally be more credible than other information. If in doubt, see if you could find something about the author and his/her credentials on the web. If you cannot find anything about the author or any other publications by that author, you could always check with other experts in the field. They normally know each other or at least know about each other. Why is this material on the Internet? Is it advertising, lobbying, and/or networking? Is it biased or subjective? Is it historical fact? Who benefits from publishing the information to the Internet? The answers to these questions may very well give you some indication about the trustworthiness of the information.


71

The Berkeley Library61, the

Widener University62, the USC Beaufort Library63 and the

University of Albany64 have very good information about the evaluation of web resources.

2.6.5 Planning a search

If you are searching the Internet just for fun, it is not necessary to plan a search. However, if you are doing it for serious research a planned approach can save you a lot of time. The UK Berkeley Library on their web page Recommended Search Strategy: Analyze your topic and search with peripheral vision65 recommends the following: a.

b.

Analyze your topic and decide where to begin •

Do you have distinctive words or phrases to search for?

Do you know the synonyms of all the words?

Do you know all variant spellings?

Pick the right starting place. •

Are you going to use a search engine? – Remember the Boolean logic to refine your searches?

Are you planning to use a subject directory? – What is the broader term or subject of the word or phrase you are searching for?

c.

Learn from your search experience and vary your approach. Look at the search results. Maybe you have found something that you haven’t thought of.

d.

Don’t be bogged down by your strategy. If the one doesn’t work, try another one.

e.

Return to previous strategies better informed. If you switched between strategies, go back to the original strategy with what you learned and try again! Remember there are normal search engines, meta search engines and subject directories to use. Furthermore, you could search

http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/Teaching46/Guides/Internet/Evaluate.html http://wwwz.widener.edu/Wolfgram-Memorial-Library/Webevaluation/Webeval.htm 63 http://www.sc.edu/beaufort/library/pages/bones/lesson5.shtml 64 http://library.albany.edu/Internet/evaluate.htm 65 http://www.lib.berkely.edu/TeachingLib/Guides/Internet/Strategies.htm 61 62


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locally or globally on the World Wide Web or wider than that. Some pages on the Internet are not visible as web pages. They exist as part of the deep web or invisible web. You have to search specifically for them. If the search engine you are using does not give you an option to search wider than the web, try using your keyword or phrase with the word “database� as search terms or try the invisible web directory.66 The USC Beaufort Library67 and the University of Albany68 have more information about search strategies that could be very helpful if you plan a search.

http://www.invisible-web.net http://www.sc.edu/beaufort/library/pages/bones/lesson6.shtml 68 http://library.albany.edu/Internet/checklist.html 66 67


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3.

Netiquette

When you use any of the services on the Internet, you are becoming part of a new culture with a basic set of “rules of engagement” called netiquette or net etiquette. Netiquette is a basic set of guidelines for acceptable use of the Internet. The basic rules are: •

Mind the people. You are not just talking to computer but with people. Remember that the other people don’t see you and cannot read your body language, or see gestures and expressions. They cannot see if you are funny, serious, etc. You need to be very careful how you express yourself so that you are not misinterpreted.

Mind your manners. What is unacceptable behaviour in real life is also unacceptable on the net. Don’t launch personal attacks on other people.

Mind your environment. When you participate in discussion groups and listservs, try to follow the tone of the group. If it is formal, don’t be chatty and social. You will be shut out or even flamed (i.e. told off). Remember; don’t wander away from the topic! If you are interested in discussing something else – take it off-line.

Mind the bandwidth. It is totally unacceptable to bombard people with huge e-mail attachments, especially if they are not official in nature. Users with dial-up connections would spend hours downloading these huge files and end up paying for the Internet connection time.

Mind your language. The basic spelling and grammar rules still apply. Even if the people on the other side don’t know you, you should still protect your image as well as that of your institution.

Mind the accuracy of the information you pass on to others. The use of the Internet is a way of sharing knowledge. Make sure of your facts before you answer somebody’s question. You would not like to be fed bogus information, so don’t do it to others. And remember there may be somebody else who does have the correct facts and who would point out your incorrect facts in a very open forum!

And don’t be lazy. Don’t ask questions that could have been answered by doing a simple research on the public web.

For more information on netiquette, read The Net: User Guidelines and Netiquette69

69

http://www.fau.edu/netiquette/net


75

4.

What do you need to connect to the Internet?

4.1

Computer

To make use of the wide variety of services the Internet provides the following is recommended: A computer with •

An up-to-date operating system

A minimum of 64 Megabytes RAM. RAM is a microchip that stores data for brief periods of time to enable the computer to run programmes and access data.

A minimum of 10 Megabytes free disk space. A disk is the magnetic hard drive that stores data long term. Free disk space is unused space on the hard disk that is available for downloading information from the Internet.

As a minimum a 486 or Pentium processor. The faster the processor speed, the faster information can be downloaded.

An Ethernet port if available.

A sound card and speakers or headphone to enable you to access sound and multimedia files.

To find out more about computers, you can download the IRMT’s publication Understanding Computer Systems: An overview for Records and Archives Staff.70

4.2

Software

Besides the need to have an up-to-date operating system you also need the following software: •

Connection software to allow the computer to dial into the computers of the Internet Service Provider. The Internet Service Provider normally supplies this software as part of the subscription fee. Connection software must be compatible with the computer.

A browser to access the information on the World Wide Web. If the computer’s operating system does not have a built-in browser your Internet Service Provider

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http://www.irmt.org/downloadlist/education.htm


76

would give you a choice of browser software to use. The two most known browsers are Microsoft Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator. •

Plug-ins are added software that extend a browser’s capabilities. Plug-ins allow you to access multi-media files (e.g. audio or video files) without having to exit the browser to access another application to open the files.

4.3

Internet account

When you sign up for Internet service with an Internet Service Provider you would have an Internet account that gives you the right to use the services offered by that Service Provider.

But

how

do

you

go

about

opening

an

account

with

a

Service

Provider? And what type of account should you choose?

4.3.1 Internet Service Providers

Internet Service Providers can be found by visiting your local library or contacting your telephone company for recommendations. You could also consider contacting a local computer store or perusing local computer publications to find out which Service Providers are operational in your area. Service Providers normally also advertise in local news papers or in the Yellow Pages. Should your local library have an Internet connection available, try the following websites that contain links to Service Providers: Tag Online WebHosting Internet Resources71 The List of ISPs72 CNet Reviews73 These sites enable you to search for Internet service providers by name or geographical area. A brief list of Service Providers is attached as Annexure D.

http://www.tagsys.com/Provider/provider_search.html http://www.tagsys.com/Provider/provider_search.html 73 http://webservices.cnet.com/html/aisles/Internet_Access.asp 71 72


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4.3.1.1

How would you go about connecting to the service provider?

The Internet Service Provider will supply you with the software that you need to connect to the Internet, if you do not have it pre-installed as part of your operating system. They will supply you with a brochure that contains step-by-step instructions, and/or with a help line number where they will talk you through the process, and/or supply you with an electronic step-by-step process. You will need a local access number if you have a dial-up connection, or an IP address in the case of a dedicated network line, a username and a password. The latter two would prevent other people from using your account. Your username and password are unique. If you choose a username that already exists on the Service Provider’s database, you would be instructed to choose another username. 4.3.1.2

Evaluating the services of Internet Service Providers

Depending on the type of Internet connection that you want, your expectations of an Internet Service Provider may differ. Should you only want an Internet connection for your own personal use at home, you may expect your Service Provider to allow multiple e-mail addresses for each family member to have his own. You would also expect not to have periods of inaccessibility even though it might be tolerable if the line is busy and you have to try again later. Should you however need the Internet service for business reasons, a fast, reliable, 100% uptime Service Provider is ideal. In both cases cost and technical support are important factors. You need to determine beforehand precisely what type of service you want from your Service Provider. The following are options to consider: •

Start up fees and fee structure ¾

How much would it cost to set up your Internet account?

¾

What else would you be paying for?

¾

How much will it cost to be on-line?


78

-

Remember to find out what your local telephone rates are if you would be using a dial-up connection

¾

Would you be paying long distance rates if you connect to remote computers outside your local area?

Do they provide access to all services on their Internet? It is best if the Service Provider supports all of them.

Reliability ¾

How long has the service provider been around?

¾

Are there any complaints about its services?

¾

What type of contract is it offering? Short term or long term? Does it expect payment up front or is it a monthly subscription fee?

Reliable access ¾

Does it have the ability to establish connections 24 hours a day 7 days a week especially in peak hours?

Customer support ¾

Does it have 24 hour customer support?

¾

Do they charge for customer support?

What additional services do they provide? ¾

Will they assist in registering a domain name?

¾

Will they host your e-mail on their servers?

¾

Would they be able to host your website? To choose a Web Hosting Service that would suit your needs is also very important. For a quick search to find a Web Hosting Service access the website of Hostcart.com74 if the service of your Internet Service Provider does not suit your needs. A good Web Hosting Service

74

is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

is quick to respond to questions.

has been around for a while and have a good customer base.

offers tutorials and other help facilities for beginners.

http://www.hostchart.com/hostcowizard.asp


79

has 100% uptime so that the website is always accessible.

does not have limitations on the amount of space you may use.

The University of Albany in their Internet Tutorial75 has a comprehensive list of questions to ask a prospective Service Provider. You could also consult The Easy Guide to Selecting an Internet Service Provider76 for more information. Even though the latter is a commercial site, the information regarding the selection of Service Providers is well worth reading.

4.3.2 Internet connection

An Internet connection should be as fast as possible to enable one to download information as quickly as possible. The following types of connections are available. You should speak to the Internet Service Provider about finding the best connection option for you specific circumstances.

¾

Dial-up connection

A dial-up connection is an Internet connection over a standard telephone line using a modem. A modem is a device that translates the computer’s digital signals into analogue signals. This enables the signals to travel over a standard telephone line. A modem connected to a computer on the other end of the line translates the analogue signals back to digital signals so that the computer can understand them. A modem capable of downloading information at a speed of 56 Kilobytes or more per second would work best. The faster the modem speed the better the performance level when accessing and downloading graphical and multimedia files. Some digital files can be extremely large. Modems can be externally connected to the computer’s serial port or internally installed in the computer.

¾

Broadband

Broadband is a dedicated network connection through a local area network that has an Internet gateway to connect to other systems on a network. This connection can remain connected to the Internet so that you don’t need to dial up when you want to access the Internet.

75 76

http://library.albany.edu/Internet/connect.html. http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/cc/so/cuso/cso/cm/ezgd_pl.htm


80

However in some countries other connection options are available, namely: •

Cable Internet where the computer uses the same network cable as the television to access Internet. To access cable Internet one needs a cable modem as well as an Ethernet card for the computer. An Ethernet card is a special circuit board that enables the computer to connect to networks. A cable modem is much faster than a normal telephone line modem with a dial-up connection. A cable modem is a modem that operates over an ordinary TV cable. For more information you could access the Cable Modem Reference Guide.77

Satellite connections allow you to download Internet files via satellite connection, but you would still need a modem to use the other features of the Internet.

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a type of digital phone line that transmits data many times faster than a modem on a normal telephone line. ISDN allows voice and data to be transmitted simultaneously using end-to-end digital connectivity. An ISDN connection requires an ISDN adapter and a telephone line that can send and receive digital signals. Your local phone company should have this equipment installed. More information is available from the ISDN tutorial78.

Wireless connections like cell phones, personal digital assistants (PDA’s), etc. that are able to connect to the Internet.

Web TV provides Web and E-mail access through ordinary television sets through a custom high-speed modem.

DSL is technology that transfers high bandwidth information over ordinary telephone lines at a speed of ±6.1 megabits per second. It can carry data and voice signals. The data line is continuously connected. DSL does not change into analogue signals and back. Digital is transferred directly to the computer as digital data. A DSL or Digital Subscriber Line requires a special modem and a network card in your computer. Your Internet Service Provider, or local telephone company, would be able to advise you regarding the installation price and monthly service fee. For more information you can read The Fast Guide to DSL.79

¾

E-mail only account

With this type of account you will have access to e-mail and mailing lists but to none of the other Internet services.

77 78 79

http://cable-modem.org/tutorial http://www.ralphb.net/ISDN/ http://www.searchnetworking.techtarget.com/sDefinition/O,,sid7_gci213915,00.html


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5.

Advantages and Disadvantages of using the Internet

There are a number of advantages and disadvantages of using the Internet. The following list is not exhaustive.

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

Rich source of information

All information not necessarily credible

Anybody can publish online

No quality control and validity check

Fast and powerful search engines

Information overload

Immediate communication

Speed takes precedence over credibility

Global communication of information

Emphasizes the digital divide

Ease of use

Viruses, hackers, logic bombs, etc.

Cost effective

Doesn’t reach people not connected Not free

Information

available

on

any

You have to have a computer with an

computer connected

Internet connection

Information can be found quickly

Information can also disappear quickly so that you cannot find it again

What are the specific advantages and disadvantages for the archives and records management profession? ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

Effective form of outreach

But only if your client base is connected

No publication cost

But take into account that you pay for the

services

of

the Internet Service

Provider, the web host, the website developer etc. No residual inventory No arrangements for exhibitions, speak-

But very labour intensive if you want to

ers, catering, invitations, etc

build interactive exhibitions

No physical security problems

But

remember

that

hackers

and

spammers and hoaxers can reach you via the website


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Available 24/7 Immediately updateable and changeable

Even if there are a number of disadvantages it is better to have a web presence than to have none at all. And remember, you don’t need to go for the big bang approach and wait until everything is perfect before you publish a website. Even a small start is better than no start at all. A website is a living record that is expandable, changeable and updateable. A small beginning doesn’t have to stay small for ever.

5.1

Security

The moment you connect your computer to a network you are vulnerable to attacks by viruses, hackers, spammers, phishers, worms and Trojans to name but a few of the hazards that are facing an interconnected world. It is always a good idea to install virus protection programmes and firewalls before you connect to a network, whether it is a dial-up connection or a permanent open network connection. A firewall is a programme that prevents unauthorised access to a computer over a network. Anti-virus software is a programme that scans the computer for viruses, detects them and removes them. However it only does that effectively if you are keeping the anti-virus software up-to-date. Normally a new computer comes with a lot of programmes pre-installed, amongst which are the firewall software and a trial version of an anti-virus software programme. You should enquire about the existence of this software on the computer when you buy it. Should your computer vendor indicate that the software is not pre-installed, you should request them to so install it. If they cannot do it as part of the cost of the computer, you would be wise to buy this additional software to protect the data on your computer. You can keep the anti-virus software up-to-date once you are online, by downloading updates from the internet. You can also set the software up so that it automatically updates itself when you connect to the internet. Anti-virus software and firewalls are not the only things that can protect your computer. You should be careful what you download from the internet and also about what e-mails you open. If you receive a virus alert when downloading a document or when trying to


83

open an e-mail, you should allow your virus protection software to clean the file first. If the virus cannot be cleaned, do not continue the download or open the e-mail. You need to protect yourself against the following:

5.1.1 Viruses, Worms and Trojans

Computer viruses, worms and Trojans are a threat to anyone who spends time online or who sends and receives e-mail. The can at best slow your computer down and at worst damage and delete system files and data files from your computer and any other computer on the network that is infected. They can also cause a lot of embarrassment by for example causing your browser to default to porn sites on the web. Viruses are malicious programmes that can damage the data on your computer. They are usually hidden away in another file or programme. They usually go no further than your own computer. A worm is much more malignant. It e-mails itself to other computers and damages the data on both your computer as well as the other computer that it e-mailed itself to. A Trojan is a programme that purports to be useful, but that contains hidden viruses and worms and is therefore the nastiest of them all. Viruses, worms and Trojans can be hidden in files that are downloaded from the internet, but there is an easier way to distribute them. E-mails with attachments are the biggest scapegoat.

5.1.2 Hacking

Hackers are people with an active interest in breaking through computer security. They are normally not malicious and are only of intention to let you know that you have gaps in your security. However, some hackers do have malicious intent. If they do manage to get through your firewall, they can leave a Trojan on your computer that logs all the key strokes when you enter passwords on secure sites like internet banking sites. They also record personal information like credit card particulars and then manage to scam internet banking users out of their money.


84

5.1.3 Phishing

Phishing is another method of obtaining personal information from unsuspecting users. For example – You receive an e-mail from your “bank” asking you to verify or update your personal detail on-line. When you click on the link provided, it takes you to a website that looks a lot like the website of your bank, but which is actually a dummy site set up to enable the phishers to capture your personal details. The best way to protect yourself is never to enter personal particulars in an e-mailed eform, or to open the bank website from a link in an e-mail message. It is best to open the browser and type the bank’s URL into the location bar. If the bank really wants you to update your personal particulars, there would be a notification to that effect on the bank’s website.

5.1.4 Spam

Unsolicited bulk e-mail is another disadvantage of having a web presence. As soon as you have a website with an advertised e-mail address you are open to spamming. Spam is basically junk e-mail that advertises products and services. Spam is not malicious in intent, but bombarding an e-mail address with unsolicited e-mails can cause the e-mail server to become overloaded and to crash. To prevent spam is difficult. You can set up a filter on your server to recognize spam messages and delete them, or you can complain to your Internet Service Provider. They will then try to block the e-mails.


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6.

What would you use the Internet for?

6.1

Introduction

How do people use the Internet? Why would you want to use the Internet? When you are connected to the Internet and use the wide range of Internet services available, you are able to communicate and share information easily. Using the Internet to share and communicate information is relatively inexpensive. Sending one e-mail to multiple recipients at the cost of one telephone call is a lot cheaper than making individual calls. Using the Internet will enable you to: •

keep in touch with colleagues via e-mail, video conferencing and online chatting;

find information from all over the world on all kinds of topics;

have instant access to up to date world wide news;

have access to downloadable software;

do online transactions like banking and shopping;

publish information about your organization and its functions;

keep up to date with world wide developments in your profession; etc

request and provide assistance on professional issues via listservs and online chat.

But how can archivists and records managers use the Internet and World Wide Web? The uses of the Internet and World Wide Web can be divided into the following types namely: a)

Communicating what you do and what you have;

b)

Marketing to draw a new audience to want what you do or what you have;

c)

Research to better your skills and knowledge; and

d)

Training.

Archivists and records managers could also use the Internet and World Wide Web for these activities. We could however, add another type of activity namely: e)

Managing and preserving what we, our client offices and stakeholders produce


86

6.2

Communication

Having a presence on the World Wide Web could convey information about: -

Archives repositories ¾

where they are

¾

how to contact them

¾

how to reach them

¾

map of location

bus routes

parking

what they look like •

¾

¾ -

-

-

photographs

how they operate •

official opening hours

reading room rules

ordering procedure

brief history about repositories themselves

the holdings of the repositories ¾

description of the holdings, manuscript and special collections

¾

exhibition catalogues

¾

finding aids with keyword searching

¾

oral history transcripts

¾

newsletters

¾

news about new acquisitions

¾

online exhibits

¾

workshop announcements

other institutions with similar holdings ¾

links to other archives repositories

¾

information about genealogical research

¾

contact details of researchers

the services and products of the records management sections and could contain ¾

statutory and regulatory framework

¾

who the client offices are

¾

records management principles and standards

¾

specific records management procedures that should be followed by client offices

¾

policies, guidelines, advice, publications

¾

records retention schedules of a general nature


87

ž

circulars

There is a lot of information that one could publish to a website to develop a web presence. However, the above suggestions are very static in nature and would most probably only draw attention from the academics, historians, genealogists, researchers and records management clients that already know about and use the services of the Archives Service. You need to ask yourself if that is what you really want.

6.3

Marketing/Outreach

The purpose of a marketing/outreach campaign is to draw the attention of those people that would not normally entertain the idea to visit an archives repository, those that do not know the value of an Archives Service, and those that really don’t know that such a thing even exists. Traditional methods of outreach, namely open days, exhibitions (static and travelling), guest lecturers, workshops, etc still have their place in society and especially in developing countries that are not so digitally advantaged as the rest of the world. However, this does not mean that Archives Services should not make use of opportunities that may exist to build a presence on the web. The traditional public perception of archives repositories is that they are dark and dusty buildings that house old dusty documents for which the broader public has little use. Archivists are old grey men and women that hide away in these buildings behind these dusty documents because they are not good enough for anything else. The perception that archives are only of value to academics and historians and that they have little value for the public at large should be changed. As long as this perception exists the public would feel no need to support archival and preservation actions and records management clients would continue ignoring the value of good records management practices. Archives Services need to use all opportunities possible to market their services and holdings. Marketing on the World Wide Web may have surprising results. It could lead to drawing people to the repositories out of curiosity because they accidentally stumbled across something interesting while they were searching for something totally different. Broadening the audience of the Archival and Records Management profession could lead


88

to broader public support for the services they deliver. So, if you do have an opportunity to develop an archival presence on the World Wide Web, what can you do to draw the attention of the broader public? Due to the interactive nature of the medium it is possible to a)

have online exhibitions: These do not need to be only static photographs which the users need to view by clicking through them. Consider building a more active exhibit by -

picking a specific theme

-

finding out what documents, photographs, moving images and sound recordings you have about the theme

-

combining these in a online exhibit. - e.g. do you have the President’s state of the nation address? Why not publish that with an option to listen to the radio broadcast or view the video. An example of this type of exhibit is the Digital Scriptorium of the University of Berkeley80.

You could also consider taking users through a virtual walk of an exhibition that is running in the archives repository. Technology exists whereby one could make a three-dimensional video of an existing exhibition. It allows an on-line user to “walk” through an exhibition by pointing the cursor. It even allows one to zoom in and out to specific parts of the exhibition. This type of exhibition is usually combined with a sound overlay to explain the purpose of the exhibition and to explain the exhibits themselves. Normally you would also be able to view a textual description of the content of the exhibit. One could even take this one level further by making a hyperlinked virtual exhibition. One could build hyperlinks into specific parts of virtual exhibitions that could allow one to jump to an exhibition on a totally different topic. For example: You are doing an exhibition on the history of a specific town and you have photographs in the exhibition of a specific building that is of architectural value. The user zooms in on that part of the exhibition and finds the photograph of the building. He then has a choice to continue browsing the current exhibition or to jump to another exhibition depicting the history of that building. When viewing the history of the building and he views the photograph of the architect, he could have a further choice to stay with the current exhibition or to jump to an exhibition about the architect.

80

http://sunsite.berkeley..edu/scriptorium


89

These types of on-line exhibitions are normally used by museums. An example of these types of exhibitions is the Egyptian Tomb of Menna.81 The Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery82 and the Malta National Museum of Archaeology83 have similar type of exhibits. These are only some examples of what can be done with the technology. You should however keep in mind that building such exhibitions would be resource and labour intensive. b)

have searchable catalogues of the holdings on the website that allows user to do keyword searchers. You may consider publishing the images of the records that draw the most hits on the website too. Examples of searchable catalogues can be found on the websites of all the Archives Services that have a web presence.

c)

publish videos of bad record-keeping practices and backlog clearing actions for the records management clients to get a feel for good recordkeeping practices. Seeing the shocking condition in which some public service departments keep their records, to which the public has a right to access, may cause public debate and interest in recordkeeping practices and may even make the public aware of their rights in this regard.

6.4

Research

The global nature of the World Wide Web brought a lot of valuable information on archival and recordkeeping practices together in “one� place. Archivists and Records Managers can, with a touch of a button, have access to the latest information regarding their profession. They can search the web to find out what their colleagues in other countries are doing, they can ask questions about professional issues and offer advice to others. There is no archival or records management problem or issue

81 82 83

http://www.doc.nmu.ac.uk/Research/virtual-museum/Menna/index.html http://www.bmag.org.uk/museum_and_art_gallery http://www.maltavoyager.com/moa/walkthroughs/vw_intro.html


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that has not received attention yet. All of us are battling with the same problems and some of us have solutions or possible solutions for those problems and issues. The best thing that could have happened to the archival and records management profession is the knowledge base that exists on the World Wide Web, and the opportunities for networking with experienced people that did not exist in the past. Distance and different time zones became irrelevant in the quest for archival and records management knowledge. One does however, need to be careful and evaluate the relevance and authenticity of the information that is gathered via this resource. There are a number of pages on the web that contain links to archival and records management resources. Examples of such pages are the following: Records Management and Archival Web Resources Links84 RIM Resources85 Archives on the Internet: Valuable Resources for Reference and Professional Inquiries86 Preservation Resources87 Useful Websites for Archivists and Records Managers88 Bibliography of Glossaries89 E-government Resources90 Electronic Records Resources and Reference Links91 Archival resources92 Selected archival and records management resources93 Records and Information Management Resource List94 Unesco Archives Portal95 Annexure E also contains links to useful websites.

http://www-library.lbl.gov/teid/tmAro/hotlinks/Arohotlinks.htm http://www.archives.nysed.gov/ 86 http://we.library.uiuc.edu/ahx/rao/swain.htm 87 http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/Preservation 88 http://www.nagara.org/clearinghouse/summer_97/slavin.html 89 http://www.archives.gov/research_room/alic/reference_desk/glossaries_for_archivists.html 90 http://www.egov.vic.gov.au/Research/WebSiteIssues/InformationManagement/infolink1.htm 91 http://useastpra.optiview.com/HTTP:/enterprise.state.wi.us/home/e-records/resource_ref_links.htm 92 http://www.cslib.org/twnclrkes.htm 93 http://www.gclc-lib.org/resources/haig-archival.html 94 http://infomgmt.homestead.com/files/site_toc.html 95 http://www.unesco.org 84 85


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6.5

Training

Web-based training is an excellent idea to share information with other professionals and to train students if training resources are limited. Examples of web-based training are the NARA Digital Classroom96 and Records Management Training for Oregon County Government97. A free manual98 on delivering education via the web can be found on the Macromedia website. You could also access the guide Web-based Training for Archivists and Other Historical Record Keepers99 for more information about web-based training.

6.6

Preserving what we, our client offices and stakeholders produce for the

Internet and World Wide Web

Archivists and records managers are battling with a new challenge. What are websites? Are they records or are they publications? And does it matter what they are? How should we preserve them as evidence of what was communicated to the world? Websites, like other electronic records, are hardware and software dependent. Furthermore the information published to websites tends to be very short-lived. While web development is still in its infancy in some countries, it gives them a real opportunity to build preservation mechanisms into the websites at an early stage. Information regarding the debate about the preservation of websites can be found on most of the listservs. You could learn more about archiving web resources by accessing the archived version of the National Library of Australia’s information on the International Archiving Web Resources Conference100 held in November 2004. You could also do a search for information on the preservation of web resources by using the following keywords/phrases: archiving and (web resources), preservation and (web resources.

http://www.archives.gov/education/digital_classroom.html http://arcweb.sos.state.or.us/banners/recmgmt.htm 98 http://www.macromedia.com/resources/learning/elearning_guide.pdf 99 http://www.coshrc.org/arc/webeducation/index.htm 100 http://www.pandora.nla.gov.au 96

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7.

Designing a website/Intranet site

7.1

Introduction

The design of a website requires:

Thorough planning;

An understanding of how websites are built;

An understanding of what you want to achieve with the website.

Designing a website normally has stages, namely: •

Planning;

Content development;

Graphic design;

Programming;

Hosting;

Marketing and promotion; and

Maintenance.

If you are not an expert on website design and you plan to have a very elaborate website, it may be best if you employ a professional website developer to develop the site for you. You could, as a start, design a very simple website to enable you to develop a web presence, and as the site develops over time and it becomes more complicated, employ the necessary professional skills to maintain and update the site. For more information about the development of a website, you could access the Web Developer’s Virtual Library101and the Web Developers Journal102. A basic knowledge of HTML can be very helpful when creating your own website.

101 102

http://www.wdvl.com http://webdevelopersjournal.com


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7.2

Planning your website

To plan a website thoroughly you need to determine the following: ¾

How would it benefit you to have a website? Building and maintaining a website is a costly exercise. If you cannot prove a return on investment and/or that the website would benefit your institution in one way or the other, it does not make sense to spend the money to design the website. Remember that benefits are not only financial in nature. If the purpose of the website is to attract more people to the archives repository and/or to convey the message about good recordkeeping, it can be a very successful marketing/outreach tool.

¾

What should be communicated on the website? Remember that you could start small and gradually build up the website. You do however need to know what the long term aim of the website is so that you could plan the sequence of the site development properly. You also need to know what information you want publish to start the website with;

¾

Who is the intended audience? What would be of interest to your intended audience? How could you add value to their experience of you and your services? Would what you plan to do with the website be very different from your normal publications? Remember that you are not creating the website only for yourself. You want other people to use it. You need to know who those other people are. You also need to know beforehand if you only want to draw one type of audience to your site or if you want to attract all types of audiences. You would for instance plan differently for serious academic researchers, school children and casual browsers. The bigger your intended audience is, the more creative you need to be. The intended audience determines what would be published on the website and what the look and feel of the site should be. For example, if your intended audience is academics, you would not entice them to your site with animated cartoons and daily jokes. For a good example of how professionals, academics, students and school children were accommodated on the same site you could visit the website of the UK National Archives;103

¾

How will the site be organised? Normally a site should be easy to maintain and it should be very easy to find information. At this stage you should consider drawing a schematic design of the website to enable you to “visualise” the site

¾

How sophisticated should the website be? You may need to do a bit of research on the internet to look at different websites and how user friendly they are. If you

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http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk


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see a website that you like, you could contact the webmaster (the contact particulars are normally published on the website) to find out who the website developer was, and how they went about drafting a terms of reference for obtaining the services of the website developer. It would also be beneficial if you could obtain information about the cost of the development and the maintenance of the particular website so that you could form an idea of how much you should budget for the development of a website. With this information at hand you could now obtain management approval for the design of the website and the content to be published. Websites are a very public form of communication

and

should

be

managed

as

part

of

your

institution’s

broader

communication policy. Remember that your institution can be held legally accountable for what is published on the website. Management’s buy-in is however needed for a much more practical reason…. To build the website and to keep it up-to-date requires a continued financial commitment. If management does not buy into the website and the benefits of having a website are not clear to them, you would not receive the necessary financial support to maintain the website. There is however, more to it than just that. Depending on the level of sophistication of the website you may need to employ the services of a professional website developer. You would need to convince your management that it is necessary to outsource the development of the website and that you would need to budget for that. You should also remember that a website is a work in progress. It is not a once off development. It should continue to grow with your institution and should be kept up-todate. Planning it properly from the start and having a financial commitment from the start would definitely be beneficial for all concerned.

7.3

Developing website content

To determine what content the website should carry, you need a very clear idea what you want to achieve with the site. Normally the idea behind a website is to let the world know that you exist and to let them know what services you offer. You do however also want to attract more people to use your services and to understand the value that you add to society. You need to keep all this in mind when you plan the content of your site. To start off with, you could develop a very simple site that fulfils the same function as a pamphlet, display ad or newsletter. Such a site would only include contact information


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and a very brief description of the service you offer, and would most probably not attract additional people to use your services. It would however, serve as a convenient mechanism to contact you if you include an e-mail address on the site. If you want to use the site to increase awareness of the value that you add to society, the site can become more complex in nature and would then not only include pamphlet style listing of your address and services. It could include on-line exhibitions, interactive catalogue searching, etc. The content of your website would then most probably be a combination of information that you already have available and information that you need to develop specifically for the website. It is possible that the information that you have available already needs to be repackaged for web publishing. You need to consider how many resources you have available in-house to assist with content development and maintenance. The amount of resources available in-house as well as the amount of money available to hire skilled writers should be investigated. If you have the money available, it may be a good idea to hire the services of a skilled writer to assist with the repackaging of the information and to write additional information for the website. Limited resources may be one of the reasons why you would have to start small and build the site up gradually. It is always a good idea to workshop the content of the site with your staff. For example, if the staff could indicate what users normally ask them most and the answers could be posted to a frequently asked questions (FAQ) page on the website, staff would not have to spend time on answering those frequently asked questions, but could spend time on doing other work. At this stage it is also necessary to give consideration to keeping the content of the website updated. Who would be responsible for that task? Would you allocate the task to one of your existing staff members, or would you need to hire the services of a content manager?

7.4

Graphic Design

To make the website more attractive, it is a good idea to create a sense of continuity by repeating a specific background and/or logo on every page of the website. You could try to do this yourself, but because websites do have technical limitations, e.g. file sizes, colour, screen resolutions and access speeds, it is a good idea to employ a good graphic designer to work with the person who is developing the website.


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It is a good idea to also workshop this aspect with the staff. They will feel more involved and would be keener to use the site and to refer other people to the site to use it.

7.5

Programming your website

When the website is planned, the content created and the look and feel of the site decided on, it is necessary to convert all this to a web readable form. Normally the text files are converted to HTML format and the graphics are converted to GIF or JPEG formats. More complicated sites however, also contain e-forms, image maps, etc. The more complicated the planned site is, the better it is to have an expert available to write the content to a website readable form. However, if you plan to start with an uncomplicated text-based site, you could do some of the work yourself. You could either write some of the text yourself using the HTML guidelines above or you could write the text in your normal word processor and save the text as HTML104 files. You could then use the basic HTML guidelines to test the text to make sure that the text would display correctly in a website. You should remember that, when you have a large piece of text to convert to HTML format, like a book for instance, it is good HTML practice to break the text up in smaller parts that would be faster to download – almost like the chapters of the book. It is also good practice to allow users to choose between a HTML document to download in parts or an open source document format like PDF or to download it in its entirety.

In this regard you could look at the National Archives of Australia’s DIRKS

Manual. Also remember that long scrolling pages of text are not very user-friendly. Users will lose interest very easily if they have to scroll to a large piece of text to find out what you are all about. It is always a good idea to design a home page for your website. The home page is the very first page of your website and should draw the attention of the users. This does not mean that it should be very “busy”. A home page with a simple layout that immediately tells the user what the site is all about is best. The home page serves as a table of contents for the rest of the site. It is not necessary to convert all the information that you have available to HTML format. You may want textual pages of limited length that allow you to download more substantial information or publications. Should you wish to go this route, remember not 104

http://www.naa.gov.au/recordkeeping/dirks/summary.html


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to publish your publications in proprietary formats (like MS Word, WordPerfect, etc) because all computers do not have the software available to read them. It is better to convert the documents to a non-proprietary format like PDF that can be read with a reader that is freely available on the Internet. The more complicated your site is, the more critical it is that you have a search function on the site to enable users to search the site for information without having to drill down into all the pages of your site to find the information that they want. Your search function should have an easy keyword searching functionality as well as a more advanced Boolean searching functionality. It is very nice to include graphics in the site. You should, however, keep in mind that graphics take longer to download and that it can be very frustrating for users with a dialup connection. If you want to include graphics, keep the file sizes small. It is also a good idea to give users an option to view the site with or without graphics. Multi-media files also take longer to download. If you want to include these types of files on your site, you should also give the users the option to view them or not. It is a good idea to add links to related sites to add value to your user’s experience. However, you may need the permission of the owners of the other sites to include the links on your site. Before you add a link to another site, you should contact the webmaster of that site to obtain permission to do so. When developing your site you should also keep copyright restrictions in mind. If you want to re-use information or graphics that are published on other sites, you should obtain written permission to do so from the owners of the other site. For more information about copyright you could study the Copyright Website105

7.6

Hosting your website

Now that you have the website developed, you need to find a host for the website. You could consider buying a web server to host your website in-house, or you could host your site with your Internet Service Provider or with a Web Hosting Service.

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http://www.benedict.com


99

Should you decide to host the website in-house, your system administrator should be skilled in all aspects about web hosting. It is a good idea to do a proper risk and costing analysis before you make a decision. You should remember that a website is the public face of your institution and that it is meant to be available 24 hours 7 days a week.

7.7

Marketing/Promoting your website

A website is no use if nobody knows that it exists. There are various ways of marketing a website. It can be as easy as including your website address on your business cards, in your hardcopy publications, in your e-mail auto signature when you send out e-mail, etc. If you have a huge marketing budget, you could even consider printing pamphlets and leaving them with your local library to distribute or advertising in newspapers and computer magazines. However, there are also other ways of publicizing your website. The first one is to allow your website to be crawled by search engines so that your site could be retrieved when searches are done. This is a hit or miss method, that may not have the desired results. It is better to actually register your website’s URL and a description of your site to several search engine sites to ensure that it does show up in search results when searches are done. A good place to start is with SubmitIT106. This site contains a form that you can complete on-line and submit to dozens of search engines at once. You could also submit the particulars of your site to website directories to be included in their listings. You could also send information about the existence of your site to the various professional listservs. Another method would be to ask the owners of other websites with similar interests to add a link to your website on their sites. It is also a good idea to ask the owners of the Records and Information related portal sites to include a link to your site on their portals.

7.8

Maintaining your website

A website needs regular upkeep; otherwise it becomes outdated very easily. If you have a relatively uncomplicated website, it is easy to check regularly for outdated information, if all the links are still working properly and if all the documents on the site are 106

http://www.submit_it.com


100

accessible and readable. However, when the site grows maintenance can become a full time job. At this stage it may be a good idea to appoint a person to maintain the website. You should remember to budget for the cost of full time maintenance of the site, especially if you have a very sophisticated website. To enable you to do this, it is necessary that you design a proper maintenance strategy for your site. You need to decide how often to update the site and how extensive the updates should be. You also need to know how many users visit the site and what pages they are viewing. Your Web Hosting Service should be able to provide you with the user statistics. You could use this information to find out why you are not drawing many visitors to your site and which pages are not accessed. You should also remember to keep proper records of all maintenance actions on the website, because a website is an official record and its authenticity should be able to be proven beyond any doubt. It is a good idea to include the e-mail address and other contact particulars of the webmaster on the website. This would allow users that experience problems accessing information on your site to contact you and to alert you to possible problems.


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8

Understanding HTML

8.1

HTML Documents

HTML documents are plain text documents. They are created by using either a text editor (WYSIWYG107 editors are available) or by creating a document in a normal wordprocessing software package and saving it as text only. HTML is the authoring language of the web. It is used to embed instructions into documents so that web browsers know how to display them.

Figure 50 contains an HTML version of the ACARM Guide to the Internet and World Wide Web for Archivists and Records Managers and Figure 51 contains the HTML source code of the document.

Figure 50: HTML version of the ACARM Guide to the Internet and World Wide Web for Archivists and Records Managers

107

WYSIWYG acronym for “What you see is what you get�


102

Figure 51: The HTML Source Code of the ACARM Guide to the Internet and World Wide Web for Archivists and Records Managers

8.2

HTML Tags

A text document consists of various elements, for example headings, paragraphs tables, lists, etc. These and other components of the structure of a text document are distinguished for browser interpretation by using HTML tags. HTML tags consist of a left angle bracket (<), a tag name, and a right angle bracket (>). Tags are usually paired (e.g. <HI> and </HI>) to start and end the tag instruction. A slash (/) distinguishes between the start and end tags. In general pairs of tags can be used within other pairs provided that the end tags are in reverse order of the opening tags. HTML is not case sensitive.

In HTML the tag <title> is equivalent to <TITLE> or

<TiTlE>. Not all tags are supported by all World Wide Web browsers. If a browser does not support a tag, it normally ignores it.


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8.3

The Basic HTML Document tags

8.3.1 Starting an HTML document <html> and </html> is placed at the start and end of a document to define the document type.

8.3.2 Head and title tags

Each document consists of head and body text.

The head contains the title, and the

body contains the actual text or images to be displayed on screen by the browser. The tags <head> and </head> define the header information including the title, while the title tags <title> and </title> contain the title of the document which is displayed somewhere on the browser window. The title tags are normally contained in the head tags, e.g. <head> <title> type the title here </title></head>. In this example

Figure 52: Example of a document heading in HTML format

the HTML tagging of the document will look like this: <html> <head> <title> type the title here </title></head>.


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</html> Look at the HTML source code below. Can you see the <html> <head> <title> and the </title></head> </html> tags?

Figure 53: Source code of the example in figure 52

8.3.3 Body tags

The body of the document contains the content of the document. The body is tagged with<body> and </body> that marks the main body of the page. The </body> or “end body” tag is normally placed before the </html> or “end html” tag at the end of the page. In this example


105

Figure 54: Example of body text in an HTML document

the HTML tagging of the document will look like this: <html> <head> <title> type the title here </title></head>. <body> type the content of the document here </body> </html> Look at the HTML source code below. Can you see the <body> and </body> tags?

Figure 55: HTML source code of example in figure 54 indicating body tags


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The content of a document also contains a number of other tags, namely 8.3.3.1

Heading tags

HTML has six levels of headings, displayed in larger and/or bolder fonts than normal body text. The syntax of the heading element is: <hx> type the text of the heading here </hx> x is a number between 1 and 6. This indicates the size of the heading. 1 is the largest heading and 6 the smallest. The HTML tagging of the document will now look like this: <html> <head> <title> type the title here </title></head> <body> <h1> type the text of the heading here </h1> type the content of the document here </body> </html> Look at the HTML source code below. Can you see the <body> and </body> tags?

Figure 56: HTML source code of document in figure 54 indicating heading tags


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8.3.3.2

Paragraph tags

In an HTML document paragraphs are delineated by paragraph tags. Unlike normal text documents, HTML does not recognise carriage returns as paragraph breaks. Normally multiple spaces are collapsed into a single space by your browser. All other formatting by word processors is also ignored. <p> and </p> defines paragraphs in a document. They mark the beginning and end of a paragraph and automatically insert a line break. The </p> closing tag can be omitted since the browser opens a new paragraph as soon as another <p> tag is encountered. The HTML tagging of the document will now look like this: <html> <head> <title> type the title here </title></head> <body> <h1> type the text of the heading here </h1> <p> type the content of the paragraph here <p> type the content of the 2nd paragraph here </p> </body> </html> Look at the HTML source code below. Can you see the <p> and </p> tags?


108

Figure 57: HTML source code of document in figure 54 indicating the paragraph tags

With these tags you could create a very simple HTML document. To make your HTML document more attractive, there are a number of other formatting tags that you can use in the content of your document. You search on the internet to find web pages that fulfil the criteria below. View the source code and see if you can identify the tags. 8.3.3.3

Centre paragraphs

Paragraphs can be centred using the ALIGN= alignment attribute as follows: <p align=centre> this is a centred paragraph </p> It will look like this: <html> <head> <title> type the title here </title></head> <body> <h1> type the text of the heading here </h1> <p align=centre> <p> type the content of the 2nd paragraph here this is a centred paragraph </p>


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</body> </html>

8.3.3.4

Lists

HTML supports unnumbered, numbered, definition and nested lists as shown below: a)

Unnumbered bulleted list:

<ul> and </ul> defines a bulleted list. <li> and </li> defines list items and should be placed in front of each list item between the <ul> and </ul> tags Example: <ul> <li> oranges <li> lemons <li>grapefruit </ul> When viewed from a browser-

b)

â&#x20AC;˘

oranges

â&#x20AC;˘

lemons

â&#x20AC;˘

grapefruit

Numbered Lists/ordered lists

<ol> and </ol> defines numbered lists/ordered lists and are used in combination with the list tags <li> and </li> Example: <ol> <li> oranges <li> lemons <li> grapefruit </ol> When viewed from a browser-


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c)

1

oranges

2

lemons

3

grapefruit

Definition List

The <dl> and </dl> defines definition lists. They are used in conjunction with the definition term <dt> and </dt> tags and the define definition <dd> and </dd> tags Example <dl> <dt> IRMT <dd> International Records Management Trust <dt> ACARM <dd> Association of Commonwealth Archivists and Records Managers </dl> When viewed from a browserIRMT International Records Management Trust ACARM Association of Commonwealth Archivists and Records Managers d)

Nested Lists

The nested list can be described as a list within another list. Both lists can be of the same type or a combination of unnumbered, numbered or definition lists. A nested list is created by using the list definition tags and would look like this: Example: <ul> <li> Citrus fruits: <ul> <li> Oranges <li> Lemons <li> Grapefruit


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<ul> <li> Other types of fruits: <ul> <li> Apples <li> Apricots <li> Peaches <ul> </ul> When viewed from a browser Citrus fruits: •

Oranges

Lemons

Grapefruit

Other types of fruits:

8.3.3.5

Apples

Apricots

Peaches

Preformatted text

The text between the <pre> and </pre>tag is displayed in fixed-width font. This tag also makes spaces, new lines, and tabs significant. The <pre> tag can be used with an optional WIDTH attribute that specifies the maximum number of characters for a line. Hyperlinks can be used within <pre> sections. Other HTML tags within <pre> sections may not function properly hence usage should be avoided. 8.3.3.6

Extended Quotations

The <blockquote> tag is used to include lengthy quotations in a separate block on the screen. Most browsers generally change the margins for the quotation to separate it from surrounding text.


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8.3.3.7

Forced Line Breaks

The <br> tag forces a line break. The difference between the <p> and the <br> tags is the space between lines. After a <br> the space is narrower than the space between two paragraphs separated by a <p> tag. This is especially useful in postal addresses for example. 8.3.3.8

Horizontal line

The <hr> tag inserts a horizontal line the width of the browser window. A horizontal rule is normally used to separate sections of documents. The thickness and width of the rule can be varied using the size and width tags followed by a number or percentage respectively. Example <hr size=3 width= “75%”> 8.3.3.9

Other commonly used tags

<dfn> for a word being defined. Typically displayed in italics.

<em> for emphasis. Typically displayed in italics.

<cite> for titles of books, films, etc. Typically displayed in italics.

<code> for computer code. Displayed in a fixed-width font.

<kbd> for user keyboard entry. Typically displayed in plain fixed-width font.

<samp> for a sequence of literal characters. Displayed in a fixed-width font.

<strong> for strong emphasis. Typically displayed in bold.

<var> for a variable, where you will replace the variable with specific information. Typically displayed in italics.

<b>text in between is shown as bold</b>

<i>text in between is shown as italics</i>

<b><i>text in between is shown as bold and in italics</i></b>

<tt> typewriter text, e.g. fixed-width font.


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8.3.3.10

Special characters

HTML does not recognize certain special characters in text. A special case sensitive escape sequence tag covers the following characters: < - &lt > - &gt & - &~ ö - &ouml

8.3.3.11

Document Links

A special feature of HTML is that it allows linking between documents or between texts in documents. Links or hyperlinks are instructions to the browser on how to navigate to other places in the document, other documents or other web pages. Hyperlinks are used to connect documents, images, sound clips or video clips.

These

links can be used to connect between different parts inside the same document or to different documents which may reside on any server on the World Wide Web. The browser highlights the identified text or image embedded in the hyperlink which when selected will display on screen another document or a different section of the same document. Hyperlinks are created by using the tag <a>, which stands for anchor. The destination anchor is also known as a bookmark. a)

Linking between documents in the same directory

The format for the HTML tag linking to documents in the same directory as the root document is: <a href= “address.html”>Addresses</a> Here the hyperlink “Addresses” links to the document address.html, which is in the same directory as the document containing the hyperlink.


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b)

Links to documents in other directories

Links to documents in other directories can be made by specifying the relative path from the

current

document

to

the

linked

document.

For

example,

<a

href=“country/address.html”>London</a> links to a file address.html located in the subdirectory country. This is a relative link since the path to the linked file is specified relative to the location of the current file. c)

Links to URL’s

The World Wide Web uses URL’s to specify the location of files on other servers. The absolute path name is the complete URL of the file. Relative links are more efficient in accessing a server.

The advantage of using relative links is that path names remain

valid when a group of documents is moved to another location. Absolute names must be used when linking to documents that are on other websites. d)

Links to text in other documents

Links between sections of different documents can be done by inserting a name tag anchor in the target file and embedding the name tag after the hash (#) mark in the hyperlink on the source file, e.g. to link document A (docA.html) to a specific section in another document (DocB.html): The HTML coding for a link to a named anchor in document A. is: <a href=“docb. html#crv”>current events </a>. The named anchor in document B is: <a name=“crv”>current events</a> When a reader selects current events on document A, the browser will open document B scrolled down such that current events on document B will appear at the top of the browser.


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e)

Links to text in the same document

The technique to link to specific sections within the current document is the same except that the filename is omitted. f)

Mailto

If “mailto:” followed by a specific e-mail address is embedded in a hyperlink a reader will be able to send electronic mail straight from his browser. The format is: <a href= “mailto:emailadd@hostname”>name</a> 8.3.3.12

Images

Most web browsers can display images of various formats such as GIF, or JPEG format with text next to them. Images take time to process and slow down the initial display of a document according to their size and number. To include an inline image, the html code is: <img src=imagename> where imagename is the URL or relative address of the image file. Note that the syntax for <img src> URLs are similar to those used in an anchor href. a)

Image sizes

The HEIGHT and WIDTH attributes can be used to let the browser set aside the appropriate space (in pixels) for the images as it downloads the rest of the file. Example: <img src=Photo.gif height=1 00 width=65>


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b)

Aligning images

Images can be displayed separated from text and aligned to the left or right or centered. Or an image can be aligned with text. By default text is aligned to the bottom of an image. The ALIGN= attributes TOP and CENTER align a line of text to the top or centre of an image. An image can be displayed without any associated text as a separate paragraph using the paragraph ALIGN= attribute to centre the image or adjust it to the right side of the window thus: <p align=centre> <1mg src = “Portrait.gif”> </p> c)

Alternate text for images

Some World Wide Web browsers cannot display images. loading even if their software can display images.

Some users turn off image

By including the ALT attribute

specified text can be displayed instead of an image. For example: <img src=“UpArrow.gif”alt= “up”> where UpArrow.gif is the picture of an upward pointing arrow displayed by graphics enabled browsers otherwise the word Up is displayed on screen. d)

Background images

Many web browsers can load an image and use it as a background when displaying a page. It is important that text remains easily readable when background images are used. The tag to include a background image is included in the <body> statement as an attribute: <body background=“filename.gif”> e)

Background Colour


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Browsers, by default, display text in black on a grey background.

The colour of text,

background, links, visited links, and active links can be changed by using attributes within the <body> tag. For example: <body bgcolor=“#000000” text=“#ffffff” link=“#9690CC”> This creates a window with a black background (bicolour), white text (text), and silvery hyperlinks (link). The six-digit number and letter combinations represent colours by giving their RGB (red, green, blue) value.

The six digits are an encryption of three two-digit numbers in

sequence, representing the amount of red, green, or blue as a hexadecimal value in the range 00-FF. For example, 000000 is black or no colour at all, FF0000 is bright red, and FFFFFF is white or full of all three colours. 8.3.3.13

Sounds and Animations

An image opens as a separate document when a reader activates a link on either a word or a smaller inline version of the image included in a document. This is useful to prevent slowing down the loading of the main document with large inline images. To include a reference to an image opened as a separate document: <a href=“Sepimage.gif”>text link anchor</a> To use a smaller image as a link to a larger image: <a href=“bigimage.gif”><img src=“Tinylmage.gif”5<ia> The same syntax is used for links to animations and sounds. For example, <a href= disney.mov”>link anchor</a> specifies a link to a movie.


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8.3.3.14

Tables

Text and images can be embedded in tables which use HTML tags. A table has headers to describe what the columns/rows include, rows for information, and cells for each item. In a table, the first column contains the header information, each row explains an HTML table tag, and each cell contains a paired tag or an explanation of the tag’s function. The <table> and </table> tags embeds the entire table definition. The first item inside the table is the caption, which is optional. Then, the number of rows is defined by the <tr> and </tr> tags.

Within a row you can have any number of cells defined by the

<td>……...</td> or <th>…..</th> tags.

Each row of a table can be formatted

independently of any row above and below it hence single cell tables can be displayed.

<table> ... </table>defines a table in HTML.

border = n displays the table with a border the width of the border depends on the value of integer n. If n is set to zero the border will not be displayed.

<caption> ... </caption>defines the caption for the title of the table. The default position of the title is cantered at the top of the table. The attribute align=bottom can be used to position the caption below the table.

Any kind of markup tag can be used in the caption.

<tr> ... </tr>specifies a table row within a table. Default attributes may be defined for the entire row.

Align (left, centre, right) and/or valign (top, middle, bottom).

<th> ... </th>defines a table header cell. By default the text in this cell is bold and centred.

Table header cells may contain other attributes to determine the

characteristics of the cell and/or its contents. •

<td> ... </td>defines a table data cell. By default the text in this cell is aligned left and centred vertically. Table data cells may contain other attributes to determine the characteristics of the cell and/or its contents.

The following table attributes defined within <th> ... </th> or <td> ... </td> cells override the default alignment set in a <tr> ... </tr> tags: •

align (left, centre, right) for horizontal alignment of cell contents

valign (top, middle, bottom) for vertical alignment of cell contents

colspan = n to specify ‘number of columns

rowspan = n to specify number of rows

nowrap = to turn off word wrapping within a cell.


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The general format of a table includes the following tags: <table> the start of table definition. All other table tags are embedded between the <table> </table> tags. <caption> caption contents </caption> <tr> start of first row definition <th> cell contents </th> first cell in row 1 (a head) <th> cell contents </th> last cell in row 1 (a head) </tr> end of first row definition <tr> start of second row definition <td> cell contents </td> first cell in row 2 <td> cell contents </td> last cell in row 2 </tr> end of second row definition <tr> start of last row definition <td> cell contents </td> first cell in last row â&#x20AC;Ś <td> cell contents </td> last cell in last row </r> end of last row definition </table> end of table definition.


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8.3.3.15

Forms

Web forms let a reader enter information, in specific fields, for posting to a web server for some process. The forms themselves follow the same constructs as other HTML tags. The processing of the incoming data is usually used as input to a programme written in a language that manipulates text, files, and information.

The language may be Java,

C++, or other requiring a skilled programmer. 8.3.3.16

Frames

Frames allow multiple HTML documents to function at the same time in one browser window. The documents in two separate frames can operate either independently, or by interaction between the contents of another frame. Frames are defined by the number required, size, name, and initial HTML contents. Frame areas are defined by their row size if the requirement is to span the window horizontally or by the column size to expand upward and downward. Frame areas are defined by the HTML tag <frameset>. In each frameset the sizes of the frame areas can be specified as a percentage, number of pixels, or auto-scaling. The order in which the frames are defined determines the order in which they appear in the browser window, and the ones defined by column width are displayed side by side. A frame content definition is required for each frame defined. The HTML tag <frame> is used for defining the contents of the frame. By embedding the tag src=“file.html” in the <frame> tag the contents of the html file specified by the src tag will appear inside the corresponding frame. The name tag in the frame tag is used to specify the frame to interact with. Scrolling inside the frame can be controlled by using the scrolling tag inside the frame tag. Scrolling can have three values. Scrolling=“auto” is interpreted by the browser to use a scroll bar if the contents do not fit in one screen. By substituting auto with yes or no the programmer determines whether scrolling should be used. Some browsers do not understand frame tags.

To prevent such browsers from

interpreting such tags as ordinary text, frame tags can be embedded between <noframes> </noframes> tags.


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If you want to practice html you can download HTML editors and file conversions programmes from Download.com108 For more information on HTML see HTML Primer109 and A Beginner’s Guide to HTML110. You would also find Writing Web Pages – Guidelines for Archivists111 very useful.

108 109 110 111

http://www.download.com http://www.htmlprimer.com http://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/General/Internet/WWW/HTMLPrimerPrintable.html http://www.archivesinfo.net/forum/webguide.html


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Annexure A: Glossary of Terms

Anchor

The highlighted text or graphic in a file which is the source or destination of a link. Clicking a mouse on an anchor area causes the link to be followed, leaving the anchor at the opposite end of the link displayed. Anchors tend to be highlighted in a special way. The destination anchor is also known as a bookmark.

Anonymous FTP

This is a facility that allows you to download information from computers where you do not have a user account. The user logs on as “anonymous” but does not need a password to access documents on the server.

Anti-virus

Anti-virus software is programmes that scan the computer for

software

viruses, detects them and removes them.

Authoring

A term for the process of writing a document (referring to web documents).

Auto signatures

Auto signatures are a little bit of text containing contact particulars that appear at the end of e-mail messages.

Bookmark

A bookmark identifies a location or selection of text that you name and identify for future reference, normally to add a hyperlink to.

Blogs

Blogs or web logs are personal web pages that contain personal thoughts and links to other sites that are of particular interest to a blog owner.

Boolean

Boolean operators are the terms “AND”, “OR”, NOT, NEAR and

operators

FOLLOWED BY. See also proximity operators.

Boolean searches

Boolean searches allow one to search for keywords that best describe the topic that you are searching for.

Broadband

Broadband is a dedicated network connection through a local area network that has an Internet gateway to connect to other systems on a network.

Browser

A browser is a programme used to locate, display, browse and view information on a website.

Cable Internet

Cable Internet is a system where the computer uses the same network cable as the television to access the Internet.

Channels

Channels on the web are a pre-selected information source that can send information to your computer automatically according to


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a predetermined schedule. Client

A computer running client software that connects to server machines holding information; the client makes requests to a server for documents and is responsible for displaying the information. Normally, the browser is a client of a data server.

Client

Clients are computers that make requests. They are loaded with the correct software to talk to the correct servers.

Country code Top

A two letter code derived from an International Standard ISO 3166

Level Domain

Country Codes that indicates geographical origins.

Database

A collection of information stored electronically.

Deep web

See invisible web.

Dial-up

A dial-up connection is an Internet connection over a standard

connection

telephone line using a modem.

Directories

Directories are websites that contain a large number of links. The links are classified into subject categories or types.

DNS

A central list of domain names and IP addresses. The principal use is the lookup of host IP addresses based on host names.

Document

Unit of information sent from servers to clients; a document may contain plain or formatted text, in lined graphics, sound, other multimedia data, or hyperlinks to other documents; often also referred to as a file.

Domain Name

A computer name/address that is understandable to humans.

Domain

Domain Name Registrars are companies that are licensed by ICANN

Name

Registrars

to sell domain names.

Download

Retrieving files from the web by using the FTP protocol or according to the instructions prompted by the browser in use.

DSL

Digital Subscriber Line is technology that transfers high bandwidth information over ordinary telephone lines at a speed of Âą6.1 megabits per second.

E-mail

E-mail is an electronic message containing information sent from one computer to another over a network.

E-mail address

A unique address for each user on a network that allows the user to send and receive e-mail.

Ethernet

The most common cabling and data delivery technology used in Local Area Networks (LAN).

Favourites

A list of interesting websites which users save to easily re-visit them at a later stage. Some browsers use the term bookmark to


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name the action of listing the favourite sites. Firewall

A firewall is a programme that prevents unauthorised access to a computer over a network.

Forms

HTML specification of tools, which includes text fields, password fields, multi-line text entry, checkboxes, toggles, option menus, multiple selection lists, images, hidden fields, and submit buttons.

FTP

FTP (File Transfer Protocol) allows you to copy files from one computer

connected

to

the

Internet

to

another

computer

connected to the Internet. It allows you to download information, upload web pages and transfer information between computers. Hackers

Hackers are people with an active interest in breaking through computer security.

Hacking

Breaking into a computer over a network to test the security of the computer and the network.

Hard disk/drive

A hard disk is the magnetic hard drive that stores data long term.

Hidden web

See invisible web.

Host

A computer on a network.

Home page

The first page of a website is called a home page. This page serves as the index or content page for the rest of the website. The home page normally consists of links to the other pages on the website.

HTML

An acronym for HyperText Mark-up Language which is used to format information so that it can be structured and made accessible to the WWW; The authoring language used by web browsers to define the appearance of websites and web pages.

HTTP

The acronym for Hypertext Transfer Protocol. This protocol is used to transfer data between web servers and web clients or web browsers. It also allows jumping between hypertext documents.

Hyperlinked

Hyperlinked information is information resources that are linked to other information resources.

Hyperlinks

Hyperlinks are links inside a document or on a website that allow one to jump to the other information resources from the current one and back.

Hypertext

Hypertext is piece of text that contains links to other pieces of text or to websites.

ICANN

Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers.

IMAP

Internet Message Access Protocol allows the mail client to access messages residing on a mail server from any computer.


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Index

A pointer to other data; a server facility which provides pointers to particular data as a function of a query; a table of contents of a book in hypertext form; the action of describing electronic data to make them accessible on the WWW.

Internet

The Internet is a worldwide network of computer networks, each with a unique address, that uses phone system technology and satellite links to communicate information to each other 24 hours a day using a common software standard.

Internet account

When you sign up for Internet service with an Internet Service Provider you would have an Internet account that gives you the right to use the services offered by that service provider.

Internet

Service

Provider

A company that provides customer access to the internet. They provide the users with software, a username and password and allow users to access services like e-mail, internet access, Usenet news, Internet Relay Chat, etc.

Internet phone

Software that allows you to use your computer to dial a normal phone number and that converts your voice signals to digital packets to sent over the Internet.

Intranet

Intranets are private networks that help an organization to share information between departments, units and regions across a network.

Invisible web

The invisible web or deep web is a part of the Internet that is password protected or is protected against web crawlers and that is not indexed by search engines. The invisible web cannot be retrieved with key word or advanced searches.

IP addresses

IP addresses are computer names/addresses. They consist of number strings separated by full stops e.g. 491.572.72.196. See also domain names.

IRC

Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a means of having a conversation with many people on a variety of topics in real time; in other words all the parties to the conversation are participating simultaneously regardless of the time zone they are in.

ISDN

Integrated Services Digital Network is a type of digital phone line that transmits data many times faster than a modem on a normal telephone line.

ISO

An acronym for International Standards Organisation.

LDAP

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol is used by e-mail clients to


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query the address directories on the Internet to find and display email addresses. Link

A relationship between two anchors, stored in the same or different database. A link can be “Internal”, in other words it points to the same document or “External”, in other words it points to a different document, or to a website.

Listserv

A listserv is a facility that allows participation in

ongoing

discussions via e-mail. Listservs provide a discussion forum to share information on specific topics. See mailing lists. Mailing List

Mailing lists (also called listservs, List processors, distribution lists, mail hosts, etc.) are discussion groups formed around a specific area of interest, which correspond via e-mail.

Meta search

Search engines that pull together information that is listed by other

engines

search engines and that merges the results into one list of results.

MIME

An acronym for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (multimedia mail standard); the proposed standard for multimedia mail formats on the Internet.

Modem

A modem is a device that translates the computer’s digital signals into analogue signals. This enables the signals to travel over a standard telephone line.

Navigation

The process of moving from one information source to another through the hypertext web.

This is normally done by following

links. Netiquette

Netiquette is a basic set of guidelines for acceptable use of the Internet.

Newsgroups

Newsgroups are common areas where users can post messages for many users to view/reply to.

NNTP

Network News Transfer Protocol is used to distribute news articles between news servers.

Operating system

A programme that runs on a computer that allows the computer to run other programmes. The operating system performs basic tasks like recognising the input from the keyboard, sending output to the monitor, keeping track of files and directories on the disk, controlling the peripheral devices like the printer, the mouse, the scanners, etc.

Path

A hierarchical set of directories which the computer’s operating system uses to store and find system files and data.


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PCT

Private Communications Technology is used to provide secure communications over the Internet.

Phishing

Phishing is a method of obtaining personal information from the computers of unsuspecting users.

Plug-in

Plug-ins are software programs that allow you to access multimedia files (e.g. audio or video files) without having to exit the browser to access another application to open the files.

PPP

Point to Point Protocol is the protocol that dial-up Internet connections use to transmit information.

POP

Post Office Protocol allows a mail client to download e-mail messages to the computerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s hard drive from the mail server.

Protocols

Protocols are a standard set of specifications or parameters that allows computers to send and receive data.

Proximity

Proximity operators like ADJACENT, WITH, FOLLOWED BY and

operators

NEAR are also Boolean operators that allow you to refine searches.

Public web

The public web is the part of the Internet that is available for search engines to crawl and index and that can be retrieved by doing keyword or advanced searches.

RAM

Random Access Memory is a microchip that stores data for brief periods of time to enable the computer to run programmes and access data.

Relevancy ranking

This is a facility that the search engine uses to indicate the document or resource in which your search term or phrase appears most frequently and which it assumes are most relevant to the search terms(s) that you entered.

Robot engines

A search engine that uses spiders to visit your website to index the content of your website.

Satellite

Satellite connections that allow you to download files from the

connection

Internet via a satellite connection.

Search Engines

Search engines are programmes that can search the Internet for specific information.

Server

Servers are computers that store information for use by clients. In other words they are computers that service the requests from clients.

SLIP

Serial Line Internet Protocol was the first protocol designed for transmission of information over dial-up connections.

S/MIME

Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail is a protocol that is used to


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encrypt data for transmission over the Internet and allows for the decryption of the information by the intended recipient. SMTP

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol allows an e-mail client to send messages to a mail server.

SSL

Secure Socket Layer provides a secure facility for programmes to pass data back and forth between computers.

Surfing the Net

A method of web exploration that begins at any page of interest and then follows that pageâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s links to other sites.

Source file

The file on the computer where the html code and scripts of a specific document or web page can be found. To view the source code of a document or web page, right click on the mouse and select view source.

Spam

Spam is junk e-mail that advertises products and services.

Spiders

Spiders are computer programmes that are used to crawl websites to index them so that search engines can find them when you do a search.

Tags

Tags are computer codes used in HTML (e.g., <h1>, </h1>, <p>)

TCP/IP

Transmission Control Protocol Internet Protocol manages the flow of information on the Internet and ensures that data arrives without errors.

Telnet

The Internet protocol that allows a user to log into a remote computer and use its services.

Trojan

A Trojan is a programme that purports to be useful, but that contains hidden viruses and worms.

URL

Uniform Resource Locators or URLâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s are addresses that point to specific resources or files on the World Wide Web.

USENET

Usenet is a world wide distributed system of online discussion groups in which people continuously participate.

UUCP

Unix to Unix Copy Programme allows computers using versions of the UNIX operating system to communicate with each other and with remote computers.

Video

Video conferencing allows you to chat with one or more people in

conferencing

real time and/or to see live images as you speak or type.

Viruses

Viruses are malicious programmes that can damage the data on your computer. They are usually hidden away in another file or programme

WWW

An acronym for the World Wide Web. The World Wide Web (WWW)


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is a branch of the Internet that provides access to hyperlinked information. Web

A set of information resources interconnected by links.

Another

name for the World Wide Web. Web chatting

Web chatting uses a browser as a client to enable participation in conversations conducted in web chat rooms.

Web chat room

A web chat room is part of a website or a website by itself that provides an online venue where users with common interests can communicate sometimes in real time.

Web hosting

A web hosting service is an organization with a web server that is

service

connected to the Internet and has the technical know how to manage the equipment and software. They rent out space on their servers to enable website owners to make websites available on the Internet.

Web mail

Web mail is a facility to send e-mail from a web page

Website

A collection of related web pages, normally belonging to the same institution and covering related information is called a website.

Web TV

Web TV provides Web and e-mail access through ordinary television sets through a custom high-speed modem.

Wikis

Wikis are collaborative websites where the community participate in writing a publication, like an encyclopaedia or a general purpose website.

Worm

A worm is a malignant programme that e-mails itself to other computers and damages the data on all computers that it infects.

WYSIWYG

An acronym for What You See is What You Get.


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Annexure B: Condensed list of listservs AMIA-L: An Online Forum for Moving Image Archivists - http://www.amianet.org Annotated list of mailing lists on archives, records management and museums http://www.archimac.org/Profession/Lists/index.spml Archives forum for journalists and historical research - http://hennekam.opweb.nl/phpbb Archives Listserv - http://listserv@listserv.muohio.edu Archives-Wales - http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/archives-wales.html Archivi 23 - http://www.unipd.it/ammi/archivio/lista.htm Association of Commonwealth Archivists and Records Managers â&#x20AC;&#x201C; http://www.acarml@majordomo.srv.ualberta.ca AUS-ARCHIVISTS - http://www.asap.unimelb.edu.au/asa/aus-archivists/aus-archivists.htm Australian Archives - http://lists.archivists.org.au/pipermail/archivists.org.au/aus-archivists/ AV Media Matters - http://palimpsest.stanford.edu/byform/mailing-lists/av/ BBS on archives and records management profession http://www.archimac.org/ArchiMac/index.spml Business Archive Discussion List http://www.gla.ac.uk/External/BusArch/ CANMUS-L - http://www.yorku.ca/caml/canmus.htm Conservation - http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/conservation-nccr.html Diffuse Project - http://www.diffuse.org/index.html Digital-preservation e-mail list - http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/digital-preservation.html Discussielijsten/Mailing lists - http://www.archiefschool.nl/links.htm#disc Discussion Lists - http://www.archivesinfo.net/proassn.html#lists


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Electronic Media Group - http://aic.stanford.edu/sg/emg/resources.html E-Mail Lists of the Society of American Archivists http://www.archivists.org/listservs/arch_listserv_terms.asp Encoded Archival Description (EAD) Electronic List http://lcweb.loc.gov/ead/eadlist.html ERECS-L - http://www.nla.gov.au/padi/topics/70.html#list FIAF Forum - http://www.fiafnet.org/forum/forum.cfm?lg=uk FIAF Round Table – http://www.cinema.ucla.edu/fiaf/english/rnd.html History-digitisation - http://www.mailbase.ac.uk/lists/history-digitisation/ IMAP Listserv - info@imappreserve.org Infosfera - http://es.egroups.com/group/infosfera List of Archives-Related Listservs - http://www2.ncsu.edu/ncsu/chass/history/archlist.html List of e-mail lists - http://www.albany.edu/sisp/people/students/saa/links.html#E-mail Listes de discussion et forums – http://www.culture.gouv.fr/culture/autserv/archives.htm#Listes Listserv of ICA/SAE - http://www.ica-sae.org/listserv.html Lost Art Internet Database - http://www.lostart.de/ Mailing lists - http://www.uni-marburg.de/archivschule/mailinglisten.html Netbib - http://www.netbib.de/ Padiforum-l - http://www.nla.gov.au/padi/forum/ Progressive Archivsts (ProgArchs) - http://www.topica.com/lists/Progarchs Rlg-primary-sources - http://lists2.rlg.org/cgi-bin/lyris.pl?enter=rlg-primary-sources Scottish Archivists List Archive – http://www.archives.gla.ac.uk/arcbrc/contact/enquiry.html#scotarchlist


133

Scottish Archivists Discussion List - http://www.gla.ac.uk/External/scotarch South-East Asia Pacific Audio Visual Archive Association (SEAPAVAA) List Service http://www.screensound.gov.au/MailList.nsf/frmLogin?OpenForm UK Archives - http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/archives-nra.html UK Records Management - http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/records-management-uk.html US Electronic Archives - http://listserv.albany.edu:8080/archives/erecs-l.html US Records Management - http://lists.ufl.edu/archives/recmgmt-l.html Video Art/e-monitor - www.videoart.suite.dk/e-monitor VIDEOLIB - http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/VideoLib/


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Annexure C: List of ISO 3166 Country Codes

.af Afghanistan

.io British Indian Ocean

.dk Denmark

.al Albania

Territory

.dj Djibouti

.dz Algeria

.bn Brunei Darussalam

.dm Dominica

.as American Samoa

.bg Bulgaria

.do Dominican Republic

.ad Andorra

.bf Burkina Faso

.tp East Timor

.ao Angola

.bi Burundi

.ec Ecuador

.ai Anguilla

.kh Cambodia

.eg Egypt

.aq Antarctica

.cm Cameroon

.sv El Salvador

.ag Antigua and

.ca Canada

.gq Equatorial Guinea

Barbuda

.cv Cape Verde

.er Eritrea

.ar Argentina

.ky Cayman Islands

.ee Estonia

.am Armenia

.cf Central

.et Ethiopia

.aw Aruba

Republic

.eu European Union

.ac Ascension Island

.td Chad

.fk Falkland Islands

.au Australia

.cs Czechoslovakia

.fo Faroe Islands

.at Austria

(former - non-existing)

.fj Fiji

.az Azerbaijan

.cl Chile

.fi Finland

.bs Bahamas

.cn China

.fr France

.bh Bahrain

.cx Christmas Island

.gf French Guiana

.bd Bangladesh

.cc Cocos (Keeling)

.pf French Polynesia

.bb Barbados

Islands

.tf French Southern

.by Belarus

.co Colombia

Territories

.be Belgium

.km Comoros

.ga Gabon

.bz Belize

.cg Congo, Republic of

.gm Gambia

.bj Benin

.cd Congo,

.ge Georgia

.bm Bermuda

republic of the (former

.de Germany

.bt Bhutan

Zaire)

.gh Ghana

.bo Bolivia

.ck Cook Islands

.gi Gibraltar

.ba Bosnia and

.cr Costa Rica

.gr Greece

Herzegovina

.ci C么te d'Ivoire

.gl Greenland

.bw Botswana

.hr Croatia

.gd Grenada

.bv Bouvet Island

.cu Cuba

.gp Guadeloupe

.br Brazil

.cy Cyprus

.gu Guam

.cz Czech Republic

.gt Guatemala

African

Democratic


136

.gg Guernsey

.ls Lesotho

.ne Niger

.gn Guinea

.lr Liberia

.ng Nigeria

.gw Guinea-Bissau

.ly Libyan Arab

.nu Niue

.gy Guyana

Jamahiriya

.nf Norfolk Island

.ht Haiti

.li Liechtenstein

.mp Northern Mariana

.hm Heard and

.lt Lithuania

Islands

McDonald Islands

.lu Luxembourg

.no Norway

.va Holy See (Vatican

.mo Macau

.om Oman

City State)

.mk Macedonia

.pk Pakistan

.hn Honduras

.mg Madagascar

.pw Palau

.hk Hong Kong

.mw Malawi

.ps Palestine

.hu Hungary

.my Malaysia

.pa Panama

.is Iceland

.mv Maldives

.pg Papua New Guinea

.in India

.ml Mali

.py Paraguay

.id Indonesia

.mt Malta

.pe Peru

.ir Iran

.mh Marshall Islands

.ph Philippines

.iq Iraq

.mq Martinique

.pn Pitcairn

.ie Ireland

.mr Mauritania

.pl Poland

.im Isle of Man

.mu Mauritius

.pt Portugal

.il Israel

.yt

.pr Puerto Rico

.it Italy

.mx Mexico

.qa Qatar

.jm Jamaica

.fm Micronesia

.re Reunion

.jp Japan

.md Moldova

.ro Romania

.je Jersey

.mc Monaco

.ru Russia

.jo Jordan

.mn Mongolia

.rw Rwanda

.kz Kazakhstan

.ms Montserrat

.kn Saint Kitts and

.ke Kenya

.ma Morocco

Nevis

.ki Kiribati

.mz Mozambique

.lc Saint Lucia

.kp Korea, Democratic

.mm Myanmar

.vc Saint

People's Republic of

.na Namibia

the Grenadines

.kr Korea, Republic of

.nr Nauru

.ws Samoa

.kw Kuwait

.np Nepal

.sm San Marino

.kg Kyrgyzstan

.nl The Netherlands

.st Sao Tome and

.la Lao People's

.an Netherlands Antilles

Principe

Democratic Republic

.nc New Caledonia

.sa Saudi Arabia

.lv Latvia

.nz New Zealand

.sn Senegal

.lb Lebanon

.ni Nicaragua

.sc Seychelles

Mayotte

Vincent

and


137

.sl Sierra Leone

.ch Switzerland

.sg Singapore

.sy Syrian

.sk Slovakia

Republic

.us United States

.si Slovenia

.tw Taiwan

.um United States Minor

.sb Solomon Islands

.tj Tajikistan

Outlying Islands

.so Somalia

.tz Tanzania

.uy Uruguay

.za South Africa

.th Thailand

.su USSR (former)

.gs South Georgia and

.tg Togo

.uz Uzbekistan

the South Sandwich

.tk Tokelau

.vu Vanuatu

Islands

.to Tonga

.ve Venezuela

.es Spain

.tt Trinidad and Tobago

.vn Vietnam

.lk Sri Lanka

.tn Tunisia

.vg Virgin Islands British

.sh St. Helena

.tr Turkey

.vi Virgin Islands U.S

.pm St. Pierre and

.tm Turkmenistan

.wf Wallis and Futuna

Miquelon

.tc The Turks & Caicos

Islands

.sd Sudan

Islands

.eh Western Sahara

.sr Surinam

.tv Tuvalu

.ye Yemen

.sj Svalbard and Jan

.ug Uganda

.yu Yugoslavia

Mayen Islands

.ua Ukraine

.cd Zaire

.sz Swaziland

.ae United Arab

.zm Zambia

.se Sweden

Emirates

.zw Zimbabwe

.gb United Kingdom Arab

.uk United Kingdom


139

Annexure D: Internet Service Providers in some Commonwealth Countries

This is not an exhaustive list. Bahamas

Fax: 88-02-863357 E-mail info@bdmail.net, sales@bdmail.net

IBM Bahamas Ltd. P.M.B. SS-6400

Zakaria Swapan

Nassau, Bahamas

Proshika Computer Systems

Contact: Kenneth Bethel

Proshika Bhaban

Phone: (809)322-2145

i/I-Ga, Sec-2. Mirpur

Fax: (809)322-4649

Dhaka 1216, Bangladesh

E-Mail:

Phone: +880-2-809003

kbethel@ubahamas.org.bs

Fax: +880-2-805811 E-mail: zswapan@bdonline.com

Barbados Drik Picture Library Ltd CaribSurf Internet Services

House 58, Road 15A (New)

Barbados External

Dhanmondi RA, Dhaka

Telecommunications Ltd.

Bangladesh

Tel :(809) 427-5200

Phone: 812954, 328332 (24 hrs) Fax: 880 2 863470, 867647

Sunbeach Internet Service

Shahidul Alam (Director)

Barbados / BIOS, Inc.

shahidul@driktap.tool.nl

Tel: (246) 426-4638 Bermuda Bangladesh Internet Bermuda Ltd AGNI BBS Nawab Kabir

Tel (441) 296 1800

2nd Floor, Faridpur Mansion, 75-76 Kakrail Road, Dhaka 1000.

Botswana

Phone: 880-2-833984 BBS: 880-2-887346, 880-2-882379, 880-2-

URLICC Independent Computer

885984, 880-2-871088

Consultancy

E-Mail: kabir@agni.com

Telephone 030-7796 Fax 030-7796

BRAC-BDMaiI Network

Email bburns@cis.co.za

G. P. 0. Box: 2142, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh.

HealthNet

Tel : 838674

Tel 226 306655


140

Fax 226 310477 E-mail sysop@bur.healthnet.org

Grenada

http://healthnet.org/bots.Html Grenada National College Tanteen InfoBW

St. George’s Grenada

Tel 267 318444

Tel (809) 440-2652

Fax 267 318555

E-mail: lindy@gnc.edu.gd

E-mail: ibis@info.bw http://www.info.bw

Grenada Telecommunications Ltd. (GRENTEL)

SADC

St. George’s Grenada

Tel 267 318444

Tel: 809-440-1000

Fax 267 372848

Fax: 809-444-4843

E-mail: bessie@sadc.wn.apc.org

E-mail: gndinfo@caribsurf.com

Fiji

Guyana

Datec Pty Ltd.

Sustainable Development Networking

Tel: +679 314411

Programme (Guyana)

http://www.datec.com.au

Tel + (592-2) 75723 E-mail: manager@sdnp.org.gy

Telecom Fiji Ltd. Tel: +679 210351

University of Guyana,

http://www.is.com.fi

Computer Studies Tel: +(592) 2-63691

Cameroon

Fax: +(592) 2-54885 E-mail: system@uog.edu.gy

ORSTOM Tel 23720 1508

CompuWorks MultiMedia Ltd.

Fax 237201854

CARLTON

E-mail bonvallo@yaounde.orstrom.cm

TEL: (876) 929-1048

Centre for Health Tech(CHT)

InfoChannel Ltd.

Tel 2372301 13

Tel: (876) 978-2960

Fax 237 230103 E-mail ada@camfido.gn.apc.org

Jamaica

Ghana

Jamaica Online Information Services Ltd.

Network Computer Systems

CARLTON, MONTROSE

TEL 021 220622021 772279

TEL: (876) 960-8209 978-2490

E-mail : tevie@ncs.com.gh


141

Kenya

Jaring Tel: +60 3-2549601

NairobiNet

http://www.jaring.My

TEL: +254 2-217406 http://www.nbnet.co.ke

Asia Connect Sdn Bhd TEL: +60 3-2308818

Cyprus

http://www.asiaconnect.com.my

Cylink Information Services Ltd. TEL: +357 2-317617 9-663844

Malta

http://www.cylink.com.cy keyWORLD Internet Access Harrisonburg.Comrk Nicosia

Service (ESI, Ltd.)

TEL:+ 1 540-8286696

TeL: +356 486199

http://www.harison.com

http://www.keyworld.net

Malaysia

Kemmunet Ltd. TEL: +356 489002

Nasionet / Swiftcom Sdn. Bhd.

http://kemmunet.net.mt

Tel: +60 3-5821008 http://www.nasionet.net

Mauritius

Rakyat Jaya Sdn Bhd

Telecom Plus

Tel: +60 5-5458831

TEL:+230 2037272

http://www.rakyati.com

http://www.intnet.mu

Infonet Services Corp. (D)

Mozambique

TEL: +60 3-4416268 http://www.infonet.net

CIUEM Tel 258 1 491 557

Malaysia Online

e-mail

Tel: +60 3-2014988

postmaster@nambu.uem.mz

http://www.mol.net.my

http://www.uem.mz

Harrisonburg.Comrk

HealthNet

Kuala Lumpur

E-mail: sysop@moz.healthnet.org

Tel: + 1 540-8286696

http://www.healthnet.org/

http://www.harrisonburg.com Namibia GlobalOne Communications Tel: +60 3-2626111

Internet World Wide Namibia

http://www.global-one.Net

Tel: +26461-250477 http://www.iwwn.com.na


142

NAMIDEF

GlobalOne Communications

Tel 264 641 610005

Tel: +64 9-3573700

Fax 264 644461004

http://www.global-one.net

E-mail el@lisse.na http://www.net.na/

Deep South Networks, Ltd. TEL: +64 3-4792078

New Zealand

http://www.deepsouth.co.nz

Cave Rock Software Ltd.

PowerLink Internet Services Ltd.

TEL: +64 3-3664242

TEL: +64 9-5255924

http://caverock.co.nz

http://www.powerlink.co.nz

Global NZ Ltd.

Net Ltd, The

TEL: +64 9-3660818

TEL: +64 647-8380066

http://www.global.co.nz

http://www.thenet.co.nz

NetLink

Manawatu Internet Services

TEL: +64 4-4955031 800-655465

TEL: +64 6-3562814

http://www.netlink.co.nz

http://www.manawatu.gen.zn

Internet Hawkes Bay TEL: +64 6-8441488 http://www.inhb.co.nz Web World Ltd. TEL: +64 9-2782966 http://www.ww.co.nz WINZ TEL: +64 6-3709469 http://www.wiriz.co.nz Internet Group Northland, Ltd. TEL: +644-4381516 http://www.igrin.co.nz Plain Communications, Ltd. TEL: +64 3-3645888 http://www.plain.co.zn

Internet Company of New Zealand Ltd., The TEL: +64 800-843638 http://www.iconz.co.zn Taranaki NetSource TEL: +64 6-7594638 http://www.netsource.co.nz

Southern Internet Christchurch TEL: +64 3-3657059 http://www.southern.co.nz Internet Group, Ltd. TEL: +64 800-222225 http://www.ihug.co.nz SineSuri Internet, Ltd. TEL: +64 3764461 http://www.sinesurf.co.nz Binary Brothers Ltd. TEL: +64 9-3762202 http://www.bitz.co.nz


143

Wizkid Internet Ltd.

NetGate Communications Ltd.

Christchurch

TEL: +64 9-3023001

TEL: +64 3-373808

http://www.netgate.co.nz

http://www.wizkid.co.nz South Net Ltd. Voyager

VC: +64 3-2156163

TEL: +64 9-4439447

http://www.southnet.co.nz

http://www.voyager.co.nz Pakistan Wave Internet Services TEL: +64 800-809283

Brain Computer Services

http://www.wave.co.nz

TEL: +92 42-7581126 http://www.brain.net.pk

Sky Surf Ltd. TEL: +44 9-5206544

Singapore

http://www.skysurf.co.nz Infonet Services Corp. (D) Netbyte Internet Ltd.

VC: +65 7373889

TEL: +64 9-3094638

http://www.infonet.net

http://www.netbyte.co.nz CyberWay Pte. Ltd. NetAccess Internet Services, Ltd.

TEL: +65 8434833

TEL: +64 3-3488747

http://www.cyberway.com.sg

http://www.netaccess.co.nz

99com Pte. Ltd. Interactive Internet

TEL: +65 2998055

TEL: +64 800-846327

http://www.99com.com.sg

http://www.ii.co.nz

GlobalOne Communications TEL: +65 7374788

Earthlight Communications

http://www.global-one.net

TEL: +64 3-4790303 http://www.earthlight.co.nz

UUNet Technologies, Inc. /AlterDial TEL: +1 703-206-5600 800-488-6383

Clear Communications, Ltd.

http://www.uu.net

TEL: +64 800-888800 http://www.clear.co.nz

Swiftech Automation Pte. Ltd. TEL: +65 2744722

Globe.Net Communications Ltd.

http://www.swiftech.net.sg

VC: +64 800-401000 http://www.globe.co.nz

Affordable Access TEL: +1 413-5870522 http://www.autonet.net


144

St Kitts and the Nevis

XPoint Internet Services TEL: +27 231 -73777

CaribSurf Internet Services

http://www.xpoint.co.za

TEL: (809) 457-1901 http://www.caribsurf.com

Internet Solution, The TEL: +27 11-4475566

St Vincent and the Grenadines

http://www.is.co.za

CaribSurl Internet Services

Smartnet

TEL: (869) 465-1000

TEL: +27 12-9985291

http://www.caribsurf.com

http://www.smartnet.co.za

Sri Lanka

CEWNet Internet Service Provider TEL: +27 9491095 832-706838

Lanka Communications Services

http://www.cewnet.co.za

(Pvt) Ltd. TEL: +94 1-437545 http://www.lankacom.net

SANGONet / South African NGO Network TEL: +27 11-8386943

Infonet Services Corp. (D)

http://www.wn.apc.org

TEL: +94 1-437545 http://www.infonet.net

South Africa Online TEL: +27 31-3320640

South Africa

http://www.saol.com

Lanka Internet Services, Ltd. TEL: รท94 1-3430505

FutureNet

http://www.lanka.net

TEL: +27 331-428870 http://www.future.co.za

InfoDOOR TEL: +27 11-4769424

South net

http://www.infodoor.co.za

TEL: +27 12-3424423 http://www.south.co.za

E.P. Web TEL: +27 41-571702

lneterneXt Kimberley

http://www.epweb.co.za

TEL: +27 531-81 5570

Atlantic Internet Services (Pty) Ltd.

http://www.kimberly.co.za

TEL: +27 12-3420622 http://www.lantic.co.za

FastLight Data Distributor CC TEL: +27 11-7060212 135-926102 12-

CyberServ CC

3772264

TEL: +27 16-9814525

http://www.fdd.net

http://www.cyberserve.co.za


145

Zanet Internet Services (Pty) Ltd.

Zomerlust Systems Design

TEL:+27 4650700

TEL: +27 21-641106

http://www.zanet.co.za

http://www.zsd.co.za

Internet Intertech (Pty) Ltd.

Gem Internet Co. Pty. Ltd. Cape Town

TEL: +27 11-3131215

TEL: +27 21-237023 11-7926083

http://www.ibi.co.za

http://www.gem.co.z

Dockside Internet

Infonet Services Corp. (D)

TEL: +27 21-41 86767

TEL: +27 11-2390000

http://www.dockside.net

http://www.infonet.net

Kingsley Technologies

M-Web Connect Pty. Ltd.

TEL: +27 21-262725

TEL: +27 12-4837100 800-032000

http://www.kingsley.co.za

http://www.mweb.co.za

Q Data Internet Ltd. (D)

Electronic Laboratory Services, CC

TEL: +27 11-2665111

TEL: +27 11-3580893

http://www.qdata.net

http://www.elab.co.za

Flashnet Internet Services

AlterNet

TEL: +27 82-9602012

TEL: +27 21-5105006

http://www.flashnet.co.za

http://www.alternet.co.za

Interweb Alley

Compuflex Networking CC

TEL: +27 11-4539914

TEL: +27 16-45531 03

http://www.interweb.co.za

http://www.compuflex.co.za

Planet Pinnacle

MD Systems (D)

TEL: +27 11-8026400

TEL: +27 11-4543760

http://www.pinnacle.co.za

http://www.mds.co.za

East Coast Access

Global Internet Access

TEL: +27 82-8881193

TEL: +27 11-8034024

http://www.eastcoast.co.za

http://www.global.co.za

GlobalOne Communications TEL: +27 11-32255600

MegaWeb Internet Services cc

http://www.global.co.za

TEL: +27 11-4851984 http://www.megaweb.co.za

Acenet / Acetron (Pty) Ltd. TEL: +27 11-4443311 http://www.acenet.co.za


146

Netline (Pty) Ltd.

CyberTwiga

TEL: +27 4774118

Tel 255-51-327-662

http://www.netline.co.za

Fax 255-51-865-799 E-mail: support@twiga.com

InterneXt

www.twiga.com

TEL: +27 57-3571184 4480362 51447371082-

ZACCOSERV

http://www.marques.co.za

Tel 255-54-32291 postmaster~znz.glcom.com

Online Welcome TEL: +27 11-7912490

Trinidad and Tobago

http://www.onwe.co.za Opus Network NetActive Pty. Ltd.

PORT OF SPAIN

TEL: +27 11-4448999

TEL: (868) 625-5949

http://www.netactive.co.za

http://www.opus.co.tt

Networld

WOW. Net Ltd.

TEL: +27 21-4194430

Tel (868) 622-8865

http://www.new.co.za

http://www.wow.net

Club Internet (Pty) Ltd.

Carob-Link Ltd.

TEL: +27 11-3153476 12-47407513-

Tel (868) 628-9075

7501234

http://www.carib-link.net

http://www.lia.net Uganda Harrisonburg.Comrk Cape Town, Durban,

COSTECH

Johannesburg

255-51-26211

TEL: +1 540-8286696

postmaster@costech.gn.apc.org

http://www.harrisonburg.com

HealthNet Internet Connection

Tel 255-51-27081

TEL: +27 11-4476866 80-2121521

Fax 255-51-46163

http://www.icon.co.za

E-mail support@tan.healthnet.org www.healthnet.org/

Tanzania ZACCOSERV Africa Online, Inc.

Tel 255-54-32291

Tel +255 51 -666983

postmaster@znz.glcom.com

http://www.africaonline.co.tz


147

Telecommunications Services of

HealthNet

Trinidad & Tobago, Ltd.

263-4-303211

TEL (868) 623-7840

borland@healthnet.zw

http://www.tstt.net.tt

www.healthnet.org/zimbabwe.html

Interdev Ltd.

MANGO

TEL (868) 637-6862

Tel 263-4-737-301

http://www.trinidad.net

sysop@mango.zw

Uganda

Samara-Zim Tel 263-4-708-05/9

Stardom Communications (U) Ltd.

Fax 263-4-708055

TEL +25641-343166

www.samara.co.zw

http://www.starcomm.co.ug

ZWZI MBIX Vanuatu

Tel 263-4-303-211 Fax 263-4-732828

Datec Pty Ltd.

postmaster@zimbix.uz.zw

Tel +678 26933 http://www.datac.com.au

ESANET Tel 2364 303 211

Telecom Vanuatu Ltd. (D)

E-mail sysop@esanet.zw

Tel +678 22015 http://www.tvl.net.vu

IAFRICA Zim Tel. 263-4-758-194

Zambia

Fax 263-4-758-197 E-mail postmaster@harare.iafrica.com

Stardom Communications (U) Ltd. Tel +25641-343166

PTC Zimbabwe

http://www.starcomm.co.ug

263-4-732-406 263-4-735-892

Zane Communication Systems, Ltd. TEL: +260 1-290358

Stellar Systems

http://www.zamnet.zm

Tel 263-4-730-506 Fax 263-4-730-506

Zimbabwe

postmaster@stellar.zw

Internet Africa

Zl MTAP

TEL 04 75819404 758197

Tel 263-4-702-009

E-mail ops@harare.iafrica.com

Fax 263-4-703-416

http://harare.iafrica.com/

postmaster@zimtap.toolnet.nl


148


149

Annexure E: Useful Websites

Universities and colleges Colorado College Archives and Records Survey Project Manual http://www.cc.colarado.edu/Library/SpecialCollections/ArchiveProject/TOC.html Edith Cowan University Archives and Records Management http://Liswww.fste.ac.cowan.edu.au/archives/ Glasgow University Archives and Business Records Centre http://www.arts.gla.ac.uk/Archives/arcbrc.htm Heriot Watt University Archive, Records Centre and Historical Artefacts http://www.hw.ac.uk/archive/ Indiana University Electronic Records Project - http://www.indiana.edu/~libarche/ Monash University Department of Librarianship, Archives and Records http://dlar.fcit.monash.edu.au/ Oregon State University Archives http://www.orst.edu/dept/archives/ARMH/index.html Syracuse University Archives and Records Management http://sumweb.syr.edu/archives/ University of Dundee Department of Archives and Manuscripts http://www.dundee.ac.uk/archives/ University of Illinois Archive Gopher Server gopher://musicbox.msc.jhu.edu:70/11/others/archives University of Liverpool Archives - http://www.liv.ac.uk/~archives.home.htm University of Warwick Library, Modern Records Centre http://www.warwick.ac.uk/services/Library/mrc/mrc.html


150

Standards organisations American National Standards Institute (ANSI) - http://www.ansi.org/ Canadian Standards Association - http://www.csa.ca/ Digital Signature Standard - http://www.nist.gov/itl/csl/fips/fips/186.txt International Standards Organisation (ISO) - http://www.iso.ch/welcome.html National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) - http://llwww.nfpa.org/ Standards Australia - http://www.standards.com.au/

Professional organisations ARMA International Home Page - http://www.arma.org/hq/ American Bar Association - http://207.49.1.6/home.html Archives Association of British Columbia - http://www.harbour.com/AABC/ ASLI B - http://www.aslib.co.uk/aslib/ Association

for

Information

and

Image

Management

International

(AIIM)

-

(ACARM)

â&#x20AC;&#x201C;

http://www.aiim.org Association of Canadian Archivists - http://www.archives.ca/aca/index.html Association

of

Commonwealth

Archivists

and

Records

Managers

http://www.acarm.org Association of Records Managers and Administrators (ARMA) - http://www.arma.org


151

Australian Society of Archivists http://www.aa.gov.au/AA_WWW/ProAssn/ASA/ASA.html Canadian Council of Archives - http://www.CdnCouncilArchives.ca/intro_e.html#top Canadian Information and Image Management Society - http://www.ciims.ca/FID Florida Records Management Association - http://www.frma.org/ International Council on Archives (ICA) – http://www.ica.org International Records Management Trust – http://www.irmt.org National

Association

of

Government

Archivists

and

Records

Administrators

-

http://www.nagara.org/ Northwest Archivists lnc. - http://www.orst.edu/Dept/archives/misc/nwa.html PRISM: Professional Records Information Services Management http://www.prismintl.org/

Records Management Association of Australia (RMAA) - http://www.taunet.net.au/rmaa Records Management lnstitute - http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/rmi-igd.menu.htm Records Management Society of Great Britain – http://www.rms-gb.org.uk Scottish

University

Special

Collections

and

Archives

Group

(SUSCAG)

http://www.arts.gla.ac.uk/Archives/suscag.htm# Society of American Archivists - http://www.archivists.org/ Society of Southwest Archivists - http://lib-04.lib.uh.edu/ssa/ssa.htm The Academy of Certified Archivists - http://www.uwm.edu/Library/arch/aca/aca.htm

-


152

Government departments and organizations Archives Authority of New South Wales - http://www.records.nsw.gov.au/ Arizona Department of Library, Archives and Public Records http://www.dlapr.lib.az.us/ Australian Archives - http://w.aa.gov.au/AA_WWW/AA_Home_Page.html Australian Office of Government Information Technology - http://www.ogit.gov.au/ British Columbia Archives and Records Service http://www.bcars.gs.gov.bc.ca/bcars.html California State Archives - http://www.ss.Ca.gov/archives/archives_home.htm Delaware Public Archives - http://del-aware.lib.de.us/archives/ Department

of

Defence

(US)

Records

Management

Task

Force

-

Program

-

http://www.dtic.dla.mil/c3i/recmgmt.html Department of Energy Records Management - http://www.metc.doe.gov/rm/ Environmental

Protection

Agency

-

National

Records

Management

http://www.epa.gov/nrmp/ Indiana State Archives - http://ai.org/icpr/index.html Maryland State Archives - http://www.mdarchives.state.md.us National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) - http://www.archives.gov National Archives of Canada - http://www.archives.ca/ National Archives of Ireland - http://www.kst.dit.ie/nat-arch/ National Archives of Malaysia - http://arkib.gov.my/


153

National Archives of Singapore - http://www.museum.org.sg/nas/ Nevada State - Local Government Records Manual http://www.clan.lib.nv.us/docs/NSLA!RECORDS/recman.htm Nevada State Library and Archives - http://www.clan.lib.nv.us/docs/NSLA/nsla.htm New Hampshire Division of Records Management and Archives http://www.state.nh.us/state/archives.html New York State Archives and Records Administration - http://unix6.nysed.gov/ Oak Ridge National Laboratory Records Management http://www.ornl.gov/records/home.html Oregon State Archives - http://159.121.28.251/default.html UK National Archives - http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk Public Record Office of Northern Ireland - http://proni.nics.gov.uk/index.htm The Archives Authority of New South Wales http://www.records.nsw.gov.au/index.html Utah State Archives - http://utstdpwww.state.Ut.us/~archives/

Information and Records Management (Generally) Information management or records management?

A glossary of info-babble!

cares? - http://www.mlrsi.com/rickbarry/lMT-ARM1/IMT-ARM1.html Records and Information Management - http://webcrafters.com/cgiwin/rmcnt.exe Preservation Resources http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/Preservation/

Who


154

Electronic Records Management Bibliography on Electronic Records - http://www.iis.pitt.edui@~nhprc/bibtc.html Electronic Records Bibliography: Tom Ruller/Nancy McGovern http://http2.sils.umich.edu/HCHS/ERECS-Bib/bib.html Resource References & Links: Administrative rule on Electronic Records â&#x20AC;&#x201C; http://useastpra.optiview.com/HTTP:/enterprise.state.wi.us/home/erecords/resource_ref_links.htm

Search Tools Alta Vista - http://www.altavista.digital.com/ HotBot - http://www.hotbot.com/ Net Search - http://home.netscape.corn/home/Internet-search.html Yahoo! - http://www.yahoo.com/ InterNIC - http://rs.internic.net/rs-internic.html TIG Internet Domain-Name Database - http://horne.tig.com/cgi-bin/genobject/domaindb

Web Stuff Farallon Home Page - http://www.farallon.corn/ Tribal Voice - http://www.tribai.com/ Welcome to Netscape - http://home.netscape.corn/ Web-Counter Home Page - http://www.digits.com/ Web-Counter Creation Page - http://www.digits.com/create.html


155

Windows95.corn Web Authoring Tools - http://www.windows95.com/apps/html.html The Webmaster’s Guild http://www.thedaily.washington.edu/staff/martin/webrnasters.guild/ Webmaster’s Resource Center - http://www.cio.com/webmaster/wm_notes.html Webreference.com[TM] - http://webreference.com/ The Web Masters’ Page - http://gagme.wwa.com/~boba/masters1.html !Register-It! - Promote your Web Site! - http://www.register-it.com/ WebMaster Magazine - http://www.cio.com/WebMaster/ Welcome to Web Week Magazine – Online - http://www.webweek.com/ Home page of the IRC Chat client mlRC – lndex - http://www.mirc.co.uk/ Servers and IRC Networks you can use with mlRC - http://www.mirc.co.uk/servers.html The mlRC pages - What is IRC - http://www.mirc.co.uk/irc.html Search Worldwide White Pages - http://www.wyp.net/info/search/NA.html Xenon Labs: The Universal Currency Converter - http://www.xe.net/currency/ USPS ZlP+4 Code Lookup - http://www.usps.gov!ncsc/lookups/lookup_zip+4.html

E-mail E-mail Etiquette Guide - http://www.uwinnipeg.ca/~tss/tss/policy/etiquette.html The Campaign to Stop Junk Email - http://www.mcs.com/~jcr/junkemail.htm


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Annexure F: Bibliography

General Grimes, G: 10 Minute Guide to the Internet and the World Wide Web, 2nd Edition, 1996. HAHN, Harley: Teaches the Internet, 1999. MacRae, K: Best Defence, Computer Active, Issue 3, March 2005. Steemson M, The record keeping future, Records Management Bulletin, Issue No. 83, 1997 p.21. Protocols Internet

Technology

Overview,

June

1999

Chapter

30:

Internet

Protocols

http://www.cisco.com/univercd How the UseNet News Protocols Works http://www.dsv.su.se Definition and Types of Protocols http://gc.maricopa.edu Types of Internet Protocols http://www.usg.edu Internet History and Protocols http://webfccj.org E-mail How Does E-mail Work? http://www.library.yale.edu Harness E-mail: How it Works http://www.learnthenet.com Harness E-mail: Anatomy of an E-mail Message http://www.learnthenet.com Harness E-mail: Step-by-step: Sending an E-mail Message http://www.learnthenet.com Harness E-mail: Understanding E-mail Addresses http://www.learnthenet.com


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A Beginnerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Guide to Effective E-mail http://www.webfoot.com How E-mail Works http://www.howstuffworks.com Everything E-mail http://everythingemail.net Internet Using the Internet http://www.sofweb.vic.edu.au Enhancing Subject Area Expertise via the Internet http://oregonstate.edu Advantages and Disadvantages of the Internet http://www.mc.edu Advantages

and

Disadvantages

of

Using

the

Internet

for

Information

http://www.curriculumsupport.nsw.edu.au How Does the Internet Work? http://www.fuzzylu.com/does/po2.htm How Does the Internet Work? http://www.theshulers.com/whitepapers/Internet_whitepaper.html The History of the Internet http://www.daresite.com/webstation/net-history5/shtml Internet Tutorials http://library.albany.edu/Internet/ World Wide Web What is a Website? http://www.uic.edu/classes/cie/cie480/assign/website.htm What is a Home Page? http://www.wou.edu What is a Home Page? http://english.ttu.edu/karos/2.2/features/refletions/help/pop7-54.htm World Wide Web Definition http://www.mariosalexandrou.com/glossary.www.asp


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World Wide Web (WWW) http://tekmom.com/buzzwords/zd.www.html A Little History of the World Wide Web http://www.w3.org/History.html How Web Servers Work http://computer.howstuffworks.com/webserver.htm Build a Website http://www.learnthenet.com What is an Active Server Page? http://www.takempis.com/asp1.asp Those Dark Hiding Places: The Invisible Web Revealed http://library.rider.edu/scholarly/rlackie/Invisible/Inv_Web_Main.html The Deep Web: Surfacing Hidden Value http://brightplanet.com/technologu/deepweb.asp Search Engines Search Engines http://ascsitedesign.com/promotionpopup.htm Search Engines http://sweb.uky.edu/~wivang00/sayre/games.htm How Does a Search Engine Work? http://hhd.csun:edu/shelia/searchpolsummer/mollyr/tsbl004.htm The Spiderâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Apprentice http://www.monash.com/spidap4.html Search Engines: What They Are, How They Work and Practical Suggestions for Getting The Most Out of Them http://www.webreference.com/content/search Definition of a Search Engine http://academics.smcvt.edu/sburks/Definition_search_engine.htm How Search Engines Work http://searchenginewatch.com/webmasters/article.php/2168031


160

Tips on Popular Search Engines http://www.hamline.edu/administration/libraries/bush/handouts/slahandout.html Multi-subject Guides to Specialised Search Engines http://www.searchability.com A Grab Bag of (Mainly) Free Bibliographies and Bibliographic Databases on the Web http://www.leidenuniv.nl/ub/biv/freebase.htm Search Engine Robots That Visit Your Website http://www.javasoft.com/searchengines/webots.html URLs URL Definition http://www.edragste.com/help/urldefinition.htm Recommended Uniform Resource Locator (URL) Reading http://www.learnthat.com/define/u/url.shtml Browsers Web Browser Definition http://www.marketingterms.com/dictionary/webbrowser Web Browser http://www.atis.org/tgzk/_web_browser.html Web Browser http://www.sucessfulonline.com/soe2002/attendee/glossare/web_browser.htm Web-History Browsers http://livingInternet.com/w/w1_browser.htm Intranet Intranet vs Extranet http://pigseye.kennesav.edu/~adp2681/advantage.html Disadvantages of Intranets http://filebox.vt.edu/users/cyhiggin/Debate1/disadvantages.htm Art, Geeks and Power Plays: How to Build Your Intranet


161

http://www.strom.com/pubwork/forbes896.html Intranet http://www.higherweb.com/497/html/intranet.html Equipment Master the Basics: Making Connections http://www.learnthenet.com How to Connect to the Internet and World Wide Web http://www.centerspan.org.tutorial/www.htm Basic Equipment Used in the Structure of the Internet http://cs4.uhh.hawaii.edu.acs/recommended_equipment_required_to_connect Master the Basics: About Modems http://www.learntheweb.com Searching Research Guides: Boolean Search Tips http://www.iscc.flu.us/library/guides/boolsea.htm Boolean Searching on the Internet http://library.albany.edu/Internet/boolean.html Finding Information on the Internet: A Tutorial http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/teachinglib/guides/Internet Evaluating Web Resources http://wwwz.widener.edu/Wolfgram-Memorial-Library/webevaluation/ Bare Bones 101: A Basic Tutorial on Searching the Web http://www.sc.edu/beaufort/library/pages/bones.shtml Domain Names Domain Name System â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Domain Names http://www.livinginternet.com Where is all the Internet Domain Names Registered and Maintained?


162

http://www.howstufworks.com/question422.htm Invisible Web Noodle Tools: Choosing Invisible Web Databases http://www.noodletools.com/debbie/literacies/information/5locate/advicedepth.html The Invisible Web http://www.weblens.org/invisible.html Internet Service Providers What to expect from your ISP http://www.computer-telecommunications.com/isps.htm HTML A Beginners Guide to HTML

http://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/General/Internet/WWW/HTMLPrimer.html

Instant Messaging How Instant Messaging Works http://www.howstuffworks.com/instant-messaging.htm Instant Messaging http://webopedia.internet.com/TERM/:/intstant-messaging.html Blogs and Wikis WHG Web hosting Glossary: Blog http://www.marketingterms.com/dictionary/blog What is Wiki? http://wiki.org/wiki.cgi?WhatIsWiki Wiki History http://c2.com/cgi/wiki?WikiHistory Our Favourite Technology Blogs http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition0,,sid9_gci884512.0.html Operation of a Large Scale: General Purpose Wiki Website


163

http://aronsson.se/wikipaper.html Why Wikis Works http://C2.com/cgi/wiki?WhyWikiWorks Hacking What is a Hacker? http://www.interhack.net/hacker.html Definition of a Hacker http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~pmaydell/hacker.html


Teste Agenda