WE DON’T BUY IT!
Nippon Suisan, Maruha and Kyokuyo’s continuing support for Japan’s whaling exclusion zone, white area to be kept clear DO NOT PRINT BOX
exclusion zone, white area to be kept clear DO NOT PRINT BOX
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report was written and researched by Clare Perry. Additional research by Allan Thornton, Danielle Grabiel, Dai Tsubokawa, Caroline Pott and Fionnuala Walravens.
EIA wishes to thank the International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW www.ifaw.org) for its support in the research and production of this report. The contents of this report are the sole reponsibility of EIA.
MARCH, 2008 Environmental Investigation Agency 62-63 Upper Street, London N1 ONY, UK Tel: +44(0)20 7354 7960 Fax: +44(0)20 7354 7961 email: email@example.com PO Box 53343, Washington DC 20009, USA Tel: +1 202 483 6621 Fax: +1 202 986 8626 email: firstname.lastname@example.org exclusion zone, white area to be kept clear DO NOT PRINT BOX
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For its entire history, Japan’s commercial whaling industry has been dominated by three companies—Maruha, Nippon Suisan and Kyokuyo. These three companies are now powerful multinational seafood enterprises with extensive commercial seafood distribution interests in the European Union, the U.S., Canada, Australia and New Zealand. With business ventures and offices that span the globe and dwindling domestic markets, Nippon Suisan, Kyokuyo and Maruha are increasingly dependent on foreign markets and resources, in particular those of the U.S. and Europe. The companies therefore carry a responsibility to their expanding international constituency, which is overwhelmingly supportive of the protection of whales from commercial hunting. From the outset of their large-scale commercial hunting operations in the late 1920s until the international ban on commercial whaling in 1986, Nippon Suisan, Kyokuyo and Maruha profited from the death of nearly half a million great whales. But their culpability does not rest there. In the late seventies, declining whale populations had already forced the whaling departments of Kyokuyo, Maruha and Nippon Suisan to downsize and merge to form Nippon Kyodo Hogei Co., Ltd. In 1987, one year after the commercial whaling ban took effect, Nippon Kyodo Hogei was dissolved and most of its assets were transferred to a newly established company named Kyodo Senpaku Kaisha Ltd. with the three companies owning approximately a third share each. Using special permits issued by the Government of Japan to kill whales under the guise of ‘scientific research’, Kyodo Senpaku continued to hunt whales and commercially distribute the whale meat across Japan. In this way, Maruha, Nippon Suisan and Kyokuyo, together with the Government of Japan, have perpetuated Japan’s commercial whaling industry for more than two decades beyond the ban. Since 1994, the numbers and species of whales killed have continually expanded. In 2005, Nippon Suisan, Maruha and Kyokuyo as shareholders of Kyodo Senpaku agreed a further massive expansion of the Southern Ocean whale hunt to start in 2007/08; to more than double the number of whales to be killed and to include endangered fin and humpback whales. The three companies also continued to sell tens of millions of cans of whale meat annually across Japan.
In late 2005, the Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA) launched a series of campaigns to persuade the powerful whaling triumvirate to shut down the whaling fleet and to cease selling whale products by targeting their lucrative foreign subsidiaries in the U.S., Europe, New Zealand and Australia. As the companies came under increasing pressure from their international customers and subsidiary companies, EIA demanded their assurance that they would not just divest their shares in the whaling fleet company, but would permanently shut down the whaling operation to comply with international laws that protect great whales from such hunting. Instead, Kyokuyo, Maruha and Nippon Suisan enabled the continuation of the whale hunt by donating their shares in Kyodo Senpaku to prowhaling ‘public interest corporations’, including the government-controlled Institute of Cetacean Research (ICR) which conducts Japan’s whaling. The three companies thereby provided a massive donation to ensure the continuation of Japan’s large-scale whaling while trying to reduce the risk of international consumer boycotts of their seafood products in the lucrative and growing markets of Europe and the U.S. However, divesting the shares did not remove their responsibility for Japan’s current whaling, which was conceived and agreed while they owned the whaling fleet, nor for their dominant roles in the destructive history of commercial whaling. Kyokuyo, Maruha and Nippon Suisan hold positions of enormous influence over the Government of Japan. These companies can, and must, use their influence to persuade the Government of Japan to immediately cease Kyodo Senpaku’s killing of whales in the Southern Ocean whale sanctuary and the North Pacific ocean. EIA is calling on Maruha, Nippon Suisan and Kyokuyo and their foreign subsidiary companies to use their substantial influence to permanently end all whaling activities of the Kyodo Senpaku whaling fleet and to decommission the vessels and equipment used to hunt, kill and process whales.
© Clare Perry / EIA / WSPA
Japan’s escalating commercial whaling no end in sight
With the implementation of the ban on commercial whaling in 1986, the strategy of the Government of Japan, Nippon Suisan, Maruha, and Kyokuyo was to continue commercial whaling at reduced levels, claiming it was for ‘scientific research’, but continuing to commercially trade the products. Although the number of whales killed was initially reduced, the hunt has steadily expanded since 1994. In 1987, 273 Antarctic minke whales were harpooned.1 Twenty years later, the Kyodo Senpaku whaling fleet plans to kill nearly 1,300, nearly five times as many.2 In 1994, the International Whaling Commission (IWC) agreed a further layer of international protection for whales in the area of the Southern Ocean, through the adoption of an IWC whale sanctuary which prohibited all whale hunting. The Southern Ocean whale sanctuary was adopted by 23 votes to one: Japan was alone in its opposition.3 Rather than respect the legality of the Southern Ocean whale sanctuary, Kyodo Senpaku continued to kill up to 440 minke whales there each year.4 © iStock
In 2005, when Maruha, Kyokuyo and Nippon Suisan jointly owned the Kyodo Senpaku whaling fleet, a major expansion of the hunt was planned, with a proposal to kill up to 935 minke whales, 50 fin whales and 50 humpback whales each year.5 Humpback and fin whale populations were severely depleted by commercial whaling during the first half of the 20th century, particularly in the Southern Ocean, and were designated as vulnerable and endangered by the World Conservation Union (IUCN) in 1996.6 Historic records show that Nippon Suisan, Kyokuyo and Maruha hunted more than 4,200 humpback whales and more than 115,000 fin whales in the Southern Ocean before their protection in 1963 and 1976 respectively.7
In 2005/06, the whalers killed 853 minke whales and ten fin whales. Due to a fire on the Nisshin Maru factory ship which cut the season short, the following Antarctic season ended in a smaller hunt of 505 minke whales and three fin whales.8
While the number of whales killed each year has doubled, the tonnage of whale meat produced will triple; fin whales yield an estimated 26 tonnes of whale meat, compared to just 4 tonnes from Antarctic minke whales.12 Clearly, the aim of the expanded hunt is to increase production and consumption of whale meat in Japan. With rumours of a new factory ship to be built at an estimated cost of up to $188 million,13 there is no end in sight to Kyodo Senpaku’s commercial whaling, unless international pressure is brought to bear on Japan’s three influential seafood giants.
2007/08 data is based on actual North Pacific catch and quota for Southern Ocean (not reported as we go to print)
The expanded Southern Ocean whale kill is intended to be carried out indefinitely, with reviews every six years.10 If the full hunt is carried out from 2008 onwards, it will result in the death of over 5,000 Antarctic minkes, 213 fin whales and 150 humpback whales during its first six years.11
800 Number Of Whales
The 2007/08 season was destined to be the first humpback whale hunt for more than four decades, resulting in unprecedented international attention to the plight of Antarctic whales and an intense outcry at the Kyodo Senpaku plan. In December 2007, the Government of Japan agreed to ‘delay’ the humpback hunt until after the June 2008 Annual Meeting of the IWC. According to Japan’s Foreign Minister Komura, the humpback hunt will only be postponed as long as “…the IWC is judged to move towards a normalization of its activities”, by which he means lifting the ban on commercial whaling.9
SO Minke NP Minke Bryde’s Whales Sperm Whales Sei Whales Fin Whales
Year donates catches that year including the Antarctic season, e.g. 1987 includes 1987/88 Antarctic season
Figure 1 Whaling since the ban
Decades of destruction Japan’s whaling companies Maruha, Nippon Suisan and Kyokuyo have been the major players throughout Japan’s commercial whaling history. At the height of the Japanese whaling industry in the 1960s, the three companies operated a combined fleet of more than 140 vessels, including nearly 90 whaling ships.14
company was renamed Nippon Hogei in 1934 and embarked on its first whaling expedition to the Antarctic Ocean. In 1937 it became the whaling department within Nippon Suisan (meaning ‘Japan Fishing’), which had been founded in 1911.20
In 1976, due to declining whale populations and the prospect of a world-wide ban on whaling, the whaling departments of Kyokuyo, Maruha and Nippon Suisan down-sized and merged to form Nippon Kyodo Hogei Co. Ltd. The new company started operations with a much reduced fleet of just 20 whaling vessels and three factory processing ships, and by 1977 only four ships were regularly whaling.15 Despite this, Nippon Kyodo Hogei killed nearly 38,000 whales before the moratorium on commercial whaling in 1986.16
Historic whaling records implicate Nippon Suisan in the death of more than 165,000 whales in the North Pacific and Antarctic before the 1986 moratorium on commercial whaling.21
Kyokuyo was established in 1937 as Kyokuyo Hogei K.K. (Polar Seas Whaling Ltd), which had expanded from a smaller coastal whaling company called Ayukawa Hogei.22 IWC whaling records report Kyokuyo’s first whale catches in Conservative estimates show that between them the Antarctic in 1938.23 In the 1950s, Kyokuyo Maruha, Kyokuyo and Nippon Suisan killed began transforming into a food processing nearly half a million whales in the Antarctic and company but remained significant in the whaling North Pacific before the global ban on commercial trade. Kyokuyo Hogei changed its name to whaling.17 With the backing of Maruha, Nippon Kyokuyo Co Ltd. in 1971.24 Suisan and Kyokuyo as shareholders and Catch statistics indicate the direct involvement financiers, more than 10,000 whales have been of Kyokuyo in the killing of more than 141,000 killed by the Kyodo Senpaku fleet since the whales during its 70 years of commercial whaling 18 moratorium. activities in both the Antarctic and North Pacific.25
The history of Nippon Suisan’s commercial whaling can be traced back to 1899, when the father of modern Japanese whaling established Nihon Enyo Gyogyo K.K (Japan Far Sea Fishery).19 In 1905, the company was reorganised into a larger concern, named Toyo Gyogyo K.K., which later merged with other companies to form Toyo Hogei in 1909. After further mergers the
Maruha’s large-scale whaling can be traced back to 13th November 1936, when Taiyõ Gyogyõ’s ship the Nisshin Maru carried out a four month whaling expedition in the Antarctic, killing more than 1,000 whales, including 807 blue whales. This was the start of a whaling campaign that would claim the lives of almost a quarter of a million great whales, including 8,000 blue whales and 60,000 fin whales.28
90,000 80,000 70,000
Number Of Whales
Maruha Nippon Suisan Kyokuyo Nippon Kyodo Hogei
In 1955 Taiyõ Gyogyõ acquired Nippon Kinkai Hogei (latterly known as Taiyo A&F), which contributed to the whaling fleet operating in the North Pacific.29
40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 1929-1936
Figure 2 Whales killed by the three companies before the ban on commercial whaling
Maruha was started in 1880 as a fish wholesaling company by founder Ikujiro Nakabe.26 The company, originally known as Tosa Hogei, moved to Shimonoseki in 1904 and was rapidly established among the pioneers of modern whaling. In the 1930s, Taiyõ Gyogyõ K.K. (Ocean Fishery Ltd.) emerged from the amalgamation of several whaling companies including Tosa Hogei.27
Taiyõ Gyogyõ changed its name to Maruha Corporation in 1993 and in 2004, Maruha Group Inc. was established as a holding company with Maruha Corporation a fully owned subsidiary.30 Nippon Kinkai Hogei underwent several mergers and name changes before being established as Taiyo A&F Co Ltd. (TAFCO) in 1996. TAFCO became a wholly owned subsidiary of Maruha Corporation in 2003.31
© Claire Bass / EIA
© Clare Perry / EIA / WSPA
© Claire Bass / EIA
© Claire Bass / EIA
How Japan continued its whale hunt Japan initially registered an official objection to the moratorium allowing Nippon Kyodo Hogei (the company formed by the merger of Kyokuyo, Maruha and Nippon Suisan’s whaling departments) to continue commercial whaling. In the year after the ban came into effect, Nippon Kyodo Hogei and other Maruha-associated whaling companies hunted 1,941 minke whales in the Southern Ocean and hundreds of sperm and Bryde’s whales in the North Pacific.33 When the objection was withdrawn under U.S. diplomatic pressure, Japan was forced to abide by the moratorium: from May 1987 with respect to pelagic whaling; from October 1987 with respect to coastal whaling for minke and Bryde’s whales; and from 1 April 1988 with respect to commercial coastal sperm whaling.34 In 1987, Nippon Kyodo Hogei was dissolved and its assets — and many of its employees — were subsequently transferred to a newly established vessel and crew charter company named Kyodo Senpaku Kaisha Ltd., with the three companies as primary shareholders owning a one-third share each.35 The rest of the employees merged with an existing institute, the Whales Research Institute, to form the Institute of Cetacean Research (ICR), which was then issued with special permits by the Government of Japan to kill whales for ‘scientific research’ in the Antarctic.36
The ICR then contracted Kyodo Senpaku to continue whaling, initially in the Southern Ocean and from 1994 in the North Pacific. Upon completion of the hunts, the ICR consigns Kyodo Senpaku to sell the whale meat commercially at set prices.37 In this way, Maruha, Nippon Suisan and Kyokuyo together with the Government of Japan have perpetuated Japan’s commercial whaling industry for two decades beyond the ban, killing more than 10,000 whales.
Selling whale meat across Japan In addition to their role as owners of the whaling fleet and wholesalers of whale meat to companies across Japan, Maruha, Nippon Suisan and Kyokuyo continued to process and sell their own branded whale meat products after the ban on commercial whaling. EIA investigations from 2003 to 2006 revealed that Nippon Suisan and Kyokuyo branded cans of whale meat were the most widely sold in leading Japanese supermarkets and convenience stores across the country.38
© Ezra Clark / EIA
In 1982, the International Whaling Commission (IWC) agreed to a moratorium on all commercial whaling, setting zero catch quotas for all the great whales listed under the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW). The ban came into effect from 1985/86 for pelagic whaling and 1986 for coastal whaling.32
ABOVE: Nippon Suisan, TAFCO (Maruha), Kyokuyo canned whale products and TAFCO whale sales brochure.
Maruha subsidiary TAFCO (Taiyo A&F) also produced canned whale meat and a range of other whale products, including whale meat for sashimi and whale heart and tongue.39 In February 2006, EIA investigators visited TAFCO’s Miyagi based office. TAFCO declined a formal interview but explained that their salted whale products were distributed mostly in northern Japan - in Aomori, Akita, Yamagata, Niigata and Fukushima - while canning of whale meat took place in their Tohoku and Tokyo area factories.
Deals and As the international community has become increasingly appalled at Japan’s continued and expanding commercial hunting of whales, Nippon Suisan, Maruha and Kyokuyo recently attempted to disassociate their company names from whaling after international campaigns targeted their lucrative foreign subsidiaries in the U.S., Europe and New Zealand. EIA investigations show, however, that they are still very much involved in, and central to, the whaling business. In particular Maruha and Nippon Suisan-related companies play a major role in the whale meat wholesale market, overseeing the distribution of whale meat to smaller whale trading companies.
In April 2006, the CEO of Gorton’s told EIA that Nippon Suisan would divest its shares in Kyodo Senpaku and would not buy, sell, process or trade any more whale meat after the current stocks ran out, which they estimated would be around July 2006.43 Nippon Suisan made no formal or public response to EIA and its campaign partners, although an article in the London Independent reported that Nippon Suisan had denied it had succumbed to pressure. According to the Independent, a notice on Nippon Suisan’s Japanese website at the time read: “We are committed to redouble our efforts to promoting sustainable utilisation of whale resources.”44
In April 2006, EIA exposed TAFCO’s continued sale of whale meat and Maruha’s continuing responsibility for Japan’s whaling. Maruha had previously attempted to distance itself from the whaling business in 1999 by selling its Starting in late 2005, EIA and other non31% share in Kyodo Senpaku and ceasing the governmental organisations (NGOs) launched a sale of Maruha labelled canned whale meat. series of campaigns focused on Nippon Suisan, The sale of shares had proved to be merely a Maruha and Kyokuyo and their international smokescreen, as the shares were sold to TAFCO, subsidiary companies such as U.S. seafood giant, a Maruha subsidiary company, which continued Gorton’s of Gloucester, a wholly owned subsidiary to process and sell whale meat.45 At the same of Nippon Suisan. The companies were urged to time, EIA continued to put pressure on Nippon end the Kyodo Senpaku whale hunts for good by Suisan requesting its assurance that it would disassembling the whaling fleet and stopping the permanently shut down the whaling fleet and sale, processing and distribution of whale meat.40 cease to conduct any whale product distribution.46 As the companies came under increasing The share transaction took place in June 2006. pressure from their international customers According to corporate reports, the companies and subsidiary companies, EIA demanded their gave their shares in Kyodo Senpaku to five proassurance that they would not just divest their whaling ‘public interest corporations’ including shares in the whaling fleet company, but ensure the government controlled ICR, without receiving the permanent shutting down of the whaling payment, thereby subsidising Japan’s commercial operation. Yet again, Kyokuyo, Maruha and whaling to the tune of tens of millions of dollars.47 Nippon Suisan acted to ensure the continuation The companies sought to distance themselves from of the whale hunt. In March 2006, in an apparent whaling, but refused to stop the hunt carried out by effort to distance themselves from whaling, all the whaling fleet they had set up 20 years earlier. three companies announced their intention to divest their shares in the Kyodo Senpaku whaling Although Nippon Suisan had announced it would fleet.41 Nippon Suisan further stated that it would end sales of canned whale meat, no such pledge was initially made by Kyokuyo or by Maruha’s stop selling whale meat.42
© Tom Brakefield
deception subsidiary, TAFCO. On 10th April 2007, EIA together with the Humane Society International (HSI) and the International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW) launched a campaign to persuade Kyokuyo to stop its large scale sales of whale meat, estimated at tens of millions of cans each year. EIA urged True World Foods, a large U.S. sushi supplier that had recently teamed up with Kyokuyo, to convince its business partner to get out of the whaling business.48
On 30th May 2007, the Tokyo based Bloomberg TV reporter Stuart Biggs wrote that Maruha had joined Kyokuyo and Nippon Suisan in ending sales of whale meat. Biggs had interviewed a manager in Maruha’s public relations department who had stated that the Maruha decision was “partly in response to complaints” from environmental groups.52
© Mia Strickland / EIA
Kyokuyo responded six days after the launch of the campaign, issuing a public statement to the effect that Kyokuyo was no longer involved with Kyodo Senpaku, and would cease the sale of whale products once current stockpiles were sold.50 In a letter to EIA dated 4th June 2007 Kyokuyo America, on behalf of Kyokuyo Co Ltd., also stated that they expected the sale of whale products to be completed around the end of September 2007, ABOVE: and that they did not plan to hand over their whale Top: Whale meat sold by Kyokuyo on display at related business to another company.51
© Claire Bass / EIA
True World Foods released a statement on their website just one day after the campaign launch: “We deeply respect the right of animal rights organizations to express their views and to take constructive action in support of their beliefs,” said True World Foods CEO Takeshi Yashiro. “At the same time, the public should know that True World Foods has never, does not and never will sell, deal in or purchase whale meat. We are in the process of reminding all of our suppliers that we advocate humane fishing practices and we urge them all to support such practices worldwide.” 49
seafood exhibition. Bottom: True World Foods – Kyokuyo’s US sushi business partner, and Gorton’s of Gloucester – wholly owned subsidiary of Nippon Suisan
BELOW: Top: Taiyo Gyogyo (now Maruha) sign advertising the sale of whale meat, frozen fish and salted fish, photographed in Fukuoka fish market November 2007. LH side: Nippon Suisan sign outside whale trade company, advertising the sale of whale meat, frozen fish and salted fish. Bottom: Frozen Antarctic whale meat in Kyodo Senpaku labelled boxes, on sale in Fukuoka fish market November 2007. The trader said they were supplied by Maruha.
Continued involvement in the whale trade In late 2007, EIA and coalition partners IFAW and HSI wrote to Nippon Suisan, Kyokuyo, Maruha and their subsidiaries, urging them to use their influence to bring about a permanent end to all whaling by Kyodo Senpaku. While no direct response was forthcoming from the three Japanese fisheries companies, Gorton’s of Gloucester replied on behalf of Nippon Suisan. According to Gorton’s response, dated November 27th 2007: “In response to your letter, our parent company, Nippon Suisan, no longer has any links, direct or indirect, to the Japanese government’s whaling program, having severed all remaining operations in 2006. Our parent divested its shareholder interests in Kyodo Senpaku over a year ago and has no influence on that company’s direction. Nippon Suisan no longer sells whale meat and has rejected the government’s request to sell whale meat”.53
interviews with whale traders in Shimonoseki, home port to the Kyodo Senpaku whaling fleet, revealed one other company that was buying whale meat from Nippon Suisan, while some purchased whale meat directly from Kyodo Senpaku. When EIA’s Japanese researcher telephoned Maruha, TAFCO and Nippon Suisan headquarters in November 2007, all three companies denied trading in whale meat. In February 2008, EIA investigators spoke with a representative of Maruha’s leading wholesale subsidiary company, Daito Gyorui Co. Though reluctant to talk about the whale issue, which it said was ‘delicate’, Daito Gyorui admitted that they distributed whale meat.54
In the 1950s and 60s, Maruha (then Taiyõ Gyogyõ) became a major player in the distribution of whale meat through its ownership of wholesalers such as Daito Gyorui However in November 2007, an undercover in major markets throughout Japan.55 Daito EIA investigative team in Japan was told a different story. EIA interviewed two whale trade Gyorui is the largest wholesaler in Tokyo’s Metropolitan Central Wholesale Market, the companies based in Fukuoka. EIA was told by one company that their whale meat was supplied largest seafood market in the world. It 56is also a leading company of the Maruha Group. by Nippon Suisan, while the second company In 2006, Daito representative Yoshiaki Kochi stated it was supplied with whale meat by Maruha. EIA covertly filmed a second interview was quoted as saying ‘’The fall in prices [of at the premises of the first whale meat company whalemeat] is a good thing because it will make whale meat more accessible”.57 later that day. The company spokesperson reiterated that their whale meat was supplied by EIA also contacted Chuo Gyorui Co., another Nippon Suisan, and stated that all of the smaller leading wholesale company in the Tokyo Central whale trade companies in Japan were supplied Wholesale market which is partly owned by, by either Maruha or Nippon Suisan. He further and has close business ties with, Nippon Suisan. stated that Nippon Suisan and Maruha were the Chuo Gyorui also alluded to the ‘difficult’ nature largest suppliers of whale meat. Subsequent of the whale trade, but admitted to selling whale
© Greenpeace / Jiri Rezac
meat.58 The Japanese website of Chuo Gyorui also lists whale as a product under its frozen seafood department.59 Nippon Suisan is a significant shareholder of Chuo Gyorui and Chuo Gyorui also owns a small stake in Nippon Suisan. The two companies have close business ties, with the executive director of Nippon Suisan serving as non-executive director of Chuo Gyorui. Nippon Suisan and Chuo Gyorui recently concluded a deal to combine their wholesale and distribution businesses. The merged company, Hohsui, which expects to more than double its sales by 2011, will be a consolidated subsidiary of Chuo Gyorui and a Nippon Suisan-affiliated company.60 According to a Japanese seafood trade newspaper, Nippon Suisan aims to build its supply chain with Chuo Gyorui and scale up its distribution system.61 Shipping documents have also recently revealed that Maruha continues to play a central role in Japan’s whale hunt. Maruha is the group owner of the Oriental Bluebird tanker, which is used by the Kyodo Senpaku fleet to transport whale meat from the Southern Ocean back to Japan. The Oriental Bluebird also refuels and resupplies the Kyodo Senpaku fleet. Without the Maruha-owned vessel, the Nisshin Maru factory ship would be unable to store the thousands of tonnes of whale meat being produced from the recently expanded hunt.62
Canned sales continue
ABOVE: (Top to bottom) Maruha-owned Oriental Bluebird offloading whale meat from the Nisshin Maru factory ship. Kyokuyo cans on sale in Familymart store. The receipt shows the date of purchase, 10th November 2007. Bottom: Nichiro canned whale meat All Photography unless otherwise credited on p.7-8 © Clare Perry / EIA/ WSPA
In addition to its continued role as a whale meat seller, Maruha has direct ties to the distribution of whale products through Nichiro Corporation, with which it has recently merged to form Maruha Nichiro Holdings Inc.63 Nichiro produces canned whale meat products, under their hallmark Akebono brand. According to EIA’s extensive retail surveys over the last six years, Nichiro canned whale meat sells in major retail outlets across Japan, including Kasumi, Posful, Daiei, Seibu and Sogo stores in at least 13 prefectures of Japan.64 Nichiro canned whale meat is also available online.65 In November 2007, Kyokuyo whale meat cans were documented in five out of 12 Familymart stores visited in the Kyushu area. As of
February 2008, Kyokuyo canned whale meat is also still available for purchase online at numerous sites, including Rakuten, one of Japan’s largest internet retailers.66
A family business Nippon Suisan, Maruha and Kyokuyo have continued their prominent role in pro-whaling industry groups, including the Japan Fisheries Association (JFA), an umbrella organisation for Japan’s fishing industry which is openly and actively pro-whaling.67 Naoya Kakizoe, CEO of Nippon Suisan, and Yuji Igarashi, CEO of Maruha, serve as vice-chairmen of the JFA. JFA members include a large number of whaling related personnel, including: Minoru Morimoto (Director, ICR); Tajiro Tsurumoto, Kazuo Yamamura and Hirofumi Nakayama from Kyodo Senpaku; and Keiichi Nakajima, Chairman of Japan Whaling Association. The Senior Executive Managing Director of JFA, Eiji Ishihara, is also a Director of the ICR and of Kyodo Senpaku. The ICR and Japan Whaling Association are also listed under ‘related organisations’ on JFA’s website.68 The three companies are also corporate members of the Global Guardian Trust, a pro-whaling non-governmental organisation that regularly attends the IWC to lobby in favour of commercial whaling. Chairman of the Board, Kunio Yonezawa, is a former Deputy Director General of the Fisheries Agency, an ex vice-president of Nippon Suisan and a former IWC Commissioner for Japan. Yonezawa is a prominent pro-whaling advocate, holding a handful of director positions in whaling related organizations and serving as official media spokesperson for the Japanese delegation at IWC meetings. In 2006, the Global Guardian Trust membership included Maruha, Nippon Suisan, Kyokuyo, Nichiro as corporate members, along with a long list of whaling companies and Japan’s Whaling Association.69
Multinational companies international accountability
ABOVE: Sealord products on sale in the U.K. and U.S.
© Fionnuala Walravens / EIA
© Caroline Pott / EIA
© Fionnuala Walravens / EIA
Gorton’s Inc. is the top manufacturer of frozen marine foods for household use in North America. Gorton’s frozen battered shrimp, fish sticks and other ready-to-eat foods are sold in grocery stores across the U.S. and Canada. In 2007, Nippon Suisan USA reported revenues of $151 million.74
As multinational companies with growing dependence on access to foreign markets, Nippon Suisan, Kyokuyo and Maruha increasingly answer to their international consumers and have a responsibility to uphold international environmental laws. In the very profitable high end markets of the U.S. and Europe, where they are experiencing some of their most rapid expansion, their customers are likely to have strong feelings about the three companies’ continued support of commercial whaling.
Nippon Suisan The Nippon Suisan Kaisha, Ltd. corporate group includes 70 subsidiaries and 27 affiliate companies engaged in marine products, foods, general distribution and the fine chemicals business.70 In 2007, overseas sales amounted to over ¥190 billion (approximately $1.8 billion), almost 30% of total sales.71 In 2001 Nippon Suisan established a ‘Toward Global Links’ plan to increase its market share and access to fishing rights through the acquisition and establishment of subsidiaries in foreign countries.72 Nippon Suisan recently established a global marketing office and aims to become a “true global leader in the fields creating customer-oriented value from marine resources.”73 Through its U.S. subsidiary, Nippon Suisan (USA) Inc., Nippon Suisan wholly owns F.W. Bryce, UniSea, King & Prince Seafood Corporation and Gorton’s of Gloucester. Nippon Suisan also owns Bluewater Seafoods, one of the largest fish retailers in Canada, through its U.S. subsidiary.
Sealord Group Ltd. is one of Nippon Suisan’s most important business partners, with Nippon Suisan holding a 50% share in the New Zealand based group. Sealord is the largest fishery company in New Zealand with processing bases in multiple countries and a global marketing network.75 In June 2007, then Chief Executive Doug McKay reported that Sealord was on track to making $1 billion in revenue, attributing this success to overseas growth and joint ventures.76 In Europe, Nippon Suisan operates through a holding company, Nippon Suisan Europe B.V., based in The Netherlands. In partnership with Sealord, Nippon Suisan is developing sales of Nippon Suisan Europe through J.P. Klausen & Co. A/S in Denmark and through Europacifico Alimentos Del Mar SL in Spain and Portugal.77 Founded in New Zealand in 1990, J.P. Klausen is a major seafood importer and supplier in Denmark and the European Union, recording over 56 million ($70 million) in sales as of 2004. J.P. Klausen supplies some of Europe’s leading seafood buyers, including Nestlé, Unilever, Heinz and Espersen (which supplies all McDonald’s restaurants in Europe 78), Deutsche See, Pickenpack Hussmann & Hahn and Frosta.79 Nippon Suisan also extended its reach into Great Britain in 1996 through Sealord Caistor Ltd, the U.K. arm of Sealord which has its manufacturing base in Caistor, Lincolnshire. Sealord Caistor supplies all of Waitrose’s white fish, helping the supermarket to win the 2007 Seafood Retailer of the Year Award. Sealord Caistor began processing at a new £3.2 million ($6.4 million) plant in January 2007, and will supply a new line of breaded fish fillets to Waitrose.80 Caistor’s sales have increased from £9 million ($12.6 million) in the 2000 to 2001 financial year to a projected £35 million ($70 million) in 2006–2007. Caistor plans to further expand its range to include new chilled coated lines and frozen meals.81 In 2006, Nippon Suisan and Sealord acquired 35% each of Nordic Seafood A/S (Denmark) to boost sales in the food service and supermarket retail sectors, providing access to operations in 15 European countries including Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Portugal, Spain, Russia and Poland. The addition of Nordic Seafood, which has offices in the U.K., France, Germany and many other European countries, makes Nippon Suisan a major player in the European food service market.82 In October 2007, Nippon Suisan acquired 59% of the shares of Cité Marine SAS for an estimated €
16.8 million ($24.9 million). Cité Marine is a French company engaged in the production and sale of frozen and chilled seafood and other foods for the domestic market and has been a business partner of the Nippon Suisan Group for many years. With the addition of Cité Marine, Nippon Suisan expects Group sales in Europe to reach 312 million ($463 million), including the combined sales of seafood distributors Nordic Seafood A/S and Europacifico Alimentos del Mar, S.L.83
© Clare Perry / EIA
Nippon Suisan also controls businesses in South America (Salmones Antarctic S.A., Nippon Suisan America Latina S.A., Friosur, EMDEPES, Nordsee, PESPASA and PESANTAR); China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam and Singapore.84
group companies, 94 of them overseas, and is aiming to acquire two to three additional overseas acquisitions in Europe or the U.S. by 2011.86
© Mia Strickland / EIA
© Allan Thornton / EIA
The new company is headed up by Yuji Igarashi, former CEO of Maruha Group Inc., with former Nichiro CEO Tatsuhiko Tanaka as chairman. According to Igarashi, “increasing overseas sales is something we really have to count on.” The company will continue to market products under the Maruha and Akebono (Nichiro) brands.87
Nippon Suisan’s Environmental Policy states: “We will … strictly enforce compliance with environmentrelated laws, regulations, etc.” 85
Maruha – Nichiro Holdings In October 2007, Maruha Group Inc. merged with smaller rival Nichiro Corp. to form the world’s largest seafood company, Maruha Nichiro Holdings. The $8 billion seafood giant has 204
ABOVE: Nippon Suisan companies JP Klausen and Europacific display at the Brussels Seafood Symposium, 2006.
The merger brings together some of North America’s largest seafood suppliers, including Westward Seafoods, Supreme Alaska Seafoods, Alyeska Seafoods, Prime Pacific Seafoods, Peter Pan Seafoods, Golden Alaska Seafoods, Orca Bay Seafoods and Trans-Ocean Products.88 Trans-Ocean Products, Inc. is located in Washington State in the U.S. and produces America’s number one brand of surimi (processed fish paste). Trans-Ocean’s products including Crab Classic and Lobster Classic are found in many supermarkets and other retailers in the U.S., such as Wal-Mart, Costco, Aldi, Safeway and Giant.89 Trans-Ocean reports that its Crab Classic brand of surimi products holds a 33% market share of the U.S. retail market in this seafood category.90 Peter Pan Seafoods sells canned, frozen and fresh salmon, crab, halibut, cod and Pollock under a variety of brand names including ‘Demings’, ‘Double Q’, ‘Gill-netter’s Best’, ‘Humpty Dumpty’, ‘Peter Pan’, ‘SeaBlends’, ‘SeaKist’ and ‘Unica’. With sales in the region of $225 million annually, the company recently started to produce and sell sockeye salmon roe for sushi and has plans to increase its U.S. and European market share.91 Kingfisher Holdings Ltd. is one of Maruha’s most important overseas production sites. With sales of nearly ¥18.9 billion ($162.5 million), Kingfisher Holdings supplies frozen and canned seafood products to the world.92 Its New Zealand based subsidiary, Kingfisher Products Ltd exports New Zealand seafood around the world and imports
© Clare Perry / EIA / WSPA
ABOVE: Kyodo Senpaku whaling fleet set sail to hunt endangered fin whales in the Southern Ocean Sanctuary, November 2007.
products from its parent company into New Zealand. In 2006, Kyokuyo teamed up with True World Kingfisher products are found in local PakNSave Foods, Inc., the self-described ‘premier’ seafood and New World supermarkets in New Zealand.93 and sushi distributor in the U.S., to market ‘Polar Seas Frozen Sushi’ across the U.S.100 True World Food representatives told EIA that the product Kyokuyo has already been placed in around 300 Food Kyokuyo Co Ltd. is Japan’s third largest seafood Lion stores and that they were in discussion company with net sales in the region of ¥157 with retailers such as Costco and Sam’s Club. billion ($1.5 billion). It has evolved from a frozen sushi to company based on whaling and fishing to a global Kyokuyo (through K&U) also sells Canadian supermarket Loblaws.101 food company dealing in marine products and food processing.94
Strengthening overseas operations is Kyokuyo’s number one priority. Celebrating its 70th anniversary in September 2007, Kiyokazu Fukui, CEO of Kyokuyo stated “We will enforce more businesses globally, along with strong stress on ingenuity, such as the development of promotions of higher values. And that’s our future”.95
Kyokuyo’s Environmental Policy states: “Kyokuyo will strictly observe the laws and regulations applied to business activities, such as the food sanitation law and any other regulations for conservation of the environment.”102
According to K&U President Tetsuo Matsumoto, interviewed in December 2007 by the Suisan Times: “Our main target is Germany, where demand is constantly increasing. If business there becomes active, we can automatically explore neighboring countries, such as Austria, Belgium and Switzerland. Kyokuyo’s newly opened office in Amsterdam will enable us to open up new business opportunities. We are working on developing new sushi items using tomato and cheese to draw new customers.”97 Kyokuyo has six international representative offices, including Kyokuyo America Corporation based in Seattle.98 In 2006, a Kyokuyo Europe representative office was established in The Netherlands with the intent to develop sales in Europe and Russia. Kyokuyo Europe B.V. is a sales and marketing company, which aims to sell Kyokuyo’s products, including K&U’s processed frozen sushi products, to retailers across Europe. Major sales are planned for 2008 onwards.99
© Danielle Grabiel / EIA
In May 2005, Kyokuyo established a joint venture, K&U Enterprise, with Thai fishing company “The Union Frozen Products”. The plant produces frozen sushi and sushi topping materials for the European and North American markets, as well as Japan. By 2010, Kyokuyo expects an output of 4,000 tonnes of products, worth 5 billion yen ($47 million).96
Japan’s whaling is a deliberate circumvention of the moratorium on commercial whaling and the original intent of Article VIII of the ICRW, which was to allow the killing of just a few whales for natural history studies.103 IWC Resolutions have repeatedly stated that Article VIII catches are not intended to sustain commercial trade in whale products.104 Japan and the Kyodo Senpaku whaling fleet also ignore the legal provisions created by the Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), as well as the repeated recommendations of the IWC.
The Global Ban on Commercial Whaling
© Claire Bass
International Legal Protection for Whales registered a reservation to the Appendix I listings of several whale species, it has not listed such a reservation for North Pacific sei or humpback whales. Japan’s annual North Pacific hunt of up to 100 sei whales is therefore an open and recurring breach of CITES regulations and should be challenged by the Parties to CITES. Any future catches of humpback whales would also be an infraction under CITES, and open to trade sanctions from CITES Parties.108
Australian Court Orders Immediate Halt to Japanese Whaling
In January 2008, the Federal Court of Australia issued a landmark ruling that Kyodo Senpaku’s During the 20th century, the commercial whaling whaling in the Antarctic is illegal, in response to a industry decimated whale populations around the Federal Court Action brought by Humane Society globe. In an attempt to control and manage the International (HSI). In a judgment handed down whaling industry, the ICRW was agreed in 1946 and on 15th January 2008, His Honour Justice Allsop the IWC was established. The Convention was signed declared that Kyodo Senpaku was in breach of and ratified by all the major whaling nations. 105 Australian law by whaling in the Australian Whale Sanctuary and granted HSI an injunction to However, repeated attempts by the IWC to control restrain Kyodo Senpaku from further whaling in commercial hunting through quota and size Australian waters.109 restrictions failed, and by the 1970s most species of great whale had been catastrophically depleted. The court ruling orders Kyodo Senpaku to be In 1982, the IWC agreed to a moratorium on all restrained from killing, injuring, taking or interfering commercial whaling to take effect in 1986, setting with any Antarctic minke, fin whale or humpback zero catch quotas for all the great whales listed whales in the Australian Whale Sanctuary. under the ICRW. Since then, the member nations of Kyodo Senpaku refused to accept delivery of the IWC have passed at least 20 resolutions directly the injunction. According to HSI, officials at the calling on Japan to reconsider its Antarctic and Tokyo headquarters of Kyodo Senpaku told their North Pacific whale hunts.106 interpreter that the court documents would be “thrown away immediately”.110
The Endangered Species Convention
All the great whale species are listed on Appendix I of CITES with the effect that international commercial trade is banned for those species. Under CITES regulations, Japan’s Southern Ocean and offshore North Pacific hunts are defined as international trade, since the whale products do not primarily originate from Japan’s Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), but from high seas outside national sovereignty.107 Although Japan has
© Clare Perry / EIA / WSPA
Three companies have the influence and the responsibility to end Japan’s large scale commercial whaling in the Antarctic and North Pacific - Nippon Suisan, Maruha and Kyokuyo. These companies have large global constituencies that are overwhelmingly in favour of protecting whales and against killing whales. Their profits and future growth are increasingly dependent on European and North American markets. Nippon Suisan, Maruha and Kyokuyo have already proved to be susceptible to international consumer pressure, when they divested their shares in the Kyodo Senpaku whaling fleet and undertook to stop the production of canned whale products. International consumer pressure can prevail where international diplomacy has failed. EIA is appealing to everyone who wishes to stop Japan’s whale hunting to contact the foreign subsidiaries or Tokyo headquarters of Nippon Suisan, Maruha and Kyokuyo to demand they take all measures to ensure the permanent closure of the Kyodo Senpaku whaling fleet and an end to Japan’s whale hunting.
If you want to stop Japan’s whaling, ask the companies that can make a difference: Nippon Suisan Japan Headquarters Naoya Kakizoe President & CEO, Nippon Suisan Kaisha Ltd Nippon Bldg. 2-6-2 Otemachi Chiyoda-Ku Tokyo 100-8686 Japan Tel: +81 (0)3 3244 4357 Email: ir@Nippon Suisan.co.jp Web: www.Nippon Suisan.co.jp/english/ top.html
Germany Franz Johann König and Kurt Unger Managing Directors Nordic Meeresfrüchte Gmbh Deininger Weg 94 D-92318 Neumarkt Phone: +49 9181 905081 Fax: +49 9181 20325 Email: email@example.com
The Netherlands B.V. Yasu Ishikawa Managing Director Nippon Suisan (Europe) Van Der Hooplaan 241 1185LN, Amstelveen, The Netherlands Tel: +31 20 426 3800
Spain David Ellis, General Manager Europacifico Alimentos Del Mar S.L. Pol. Ind. Ugaldeguren-I Pabellon P-6-Ii 48160 Derio-Bizkaia Spain Tel: +34 944 544680 Fax: +34 944 544721 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.europacifico.net
Denmark Alex Lynnerup Jensen, Managing Director Nordic Seafood A/S Søren Nordbysvej 15 DK-9850 Hirtshals, Denmark Tel: +45 9894 1533 Fax: +45 9894 5233 Email: email@example.com Web: www.nordicseafood.com Jens Peter Klausen, Managing Director Jp Klausen & Co A/S Ostre Havnevej 16 5700 Svendborg Denmark Tel: +45 6222 2843 Fax: +45 6222 8632 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.jpklausen.com
U.K. Tommy Schneider General Manager Nordic Seafood Uk Ltd. 4a Thames Street Louth, Lincolnshire LN11 7AD, U.K. Tel: +44 (0)1507 600 757 Fax: +44 (0)1507 600 737 Email: email@example.com Web: www.nordicseafood.com
Sealord (Caistor) Ltd Unit 6, North Kelsey Road Industrial Estate Market Rasen, Lincolnshire LN7 6PX, U.K. Tel: +44 (0)1472 852782 Fax: +44 (0)1472 852783 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.sealord.co.nz
France Sealord (Nordic Seafood France S.A.S.) Residence La Mer 2 Rue St Louis 62520 Le Touquet Paris-Plage France Tel: +33 (0) 32105 0391 Fax: +33 (0) 32105 8538 Email: email@example.com Web: www.nordicseafood.com Daniel Gallou, President Cité Marine Carrefour Industriel Du Porzo 56700 Kervignac France Tel: +33 029 785 1919 Fax: + 33 029 785 1920
New Zealand Graham Stuart, Chief Executive Officer Sealord Group Ltd Po Box 11, Nelson New Zealand Tel: +64 3 548 3069 Email: Info@Sealord.Co.Nz Web: Www.Sealord.Co.Nz
Australia Sealord Australia Pty Ltd Level 3, 170 Pacific Highway St. Leonards 2065 NSW New South Wales Australia Tel: +61 2 9437 4443 Fax: +61 2 9437 4733 Web: www.sealord.co.nz
Russell S. Mentzer, CEO King & Prince Seafood Corp. 1 King & Prince Blvd Brunswick, GA 31520-8603, U.S.A Tel: +1 912 265 5155 Fax: +1 912 264 4812 Web: www.kpseafood.com Jeff Hendricks, General Manager Alaska Ocean Seafood LP 2415 T Avenue Anacortes WA. 98221 U.S.A. Tel: +1 360 293 4677 Fax: +1 360 293 6759 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.alaskaoceanseafood.com Keith Moores, President F.W. Bryce, Inc. 8 Pond Road Gloucester Ma. 01930-1833 U.S.A. Tel: +1 978 283 7080 Fax: +1 978 283 7647 Email: email@example.com Web: www.fwbryce.com
South America Nippon Suisan America Latina, S.A. Avenida Providencia 2633 Piso 15 No. 1502 Edificio Forum Santiago, Chile Tel: +56 2 353 0100 Explotacion Pesquera De La Patagonia, S.A. (Pespasa) / Empresa Pesquera De La Patagonia Y Antartida S.A. (Pesantar) Carlos Pellegrini 1363, Piso-7(1011), Buenos Aires, Argentina Tel: +54-11-4325-9553 Friosur S.A José María Caro 300 Puerto Chacabuco Chile Tel: +56 67 351500 Fax: +56 67 351184 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.friosur.cl
Steve Warhover, CEO Gorton’s Inc. 128 Rogers Street Gloucester, M.A. 01930-5097, U.S.A. Tel: +1 978 283 3000 Fax: +1 987 281 8295 Email: email@example.com Web: www.gortons.com Terry Shaff, President And CEO Unisea, Inc. 15400 N.E. 90th Street, P.O. Box 97019 Redmond, Wa. 98073-9719 U.S.A. Tel: +1 425 881-8181 Fax: +1 425 861-5249 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.unisea.com Joe Giannetti, President Bluewater Seafoods Inc. 1640 Brandon Crescent Lachine Quebec H8T 2N1 Canada Tel. +1 514 637 1171 Fax: +1 514 637 9250 Email: email@example.com Web: www.bluewaterfish.com
Sociedad Pesquera Taiyo Chile Ltda. Estado 337, Oficina 620 Santiago, Chile Tel: +56 2 6335308 Fax: +56 2 639 8565
Kingfisher Holdings 1261 Vicheanchodoc Road Tambol Mahachai Amphur Muang Samutsakorn 74000 Thailand Tel: +66 3482 0642 Fax: +66 3442 5172 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.kingfisher.co.th
New Zealand Maruha (N.Z.) Corporation Ltd P.O. Box 2227 Level 13 Affco House 12-26 Swanson Street Auckland, New Zealand Tel: +64 9 985 4646 Fax: +64 9 985 4649 Kingfisher Products Ltd Po Box 105 150, Auckland Central Level 13, Affco House 12-26 Swanson St. Auckland, New Zealand Tel: +64 9 486 0582 Fax: +64 9 489 9671 Email: email@example.com Web: www.kingfisher.co.nz
U.S. Rick Dutton Trans Ocean Products Inc. 350 West Orchard Dr. Bellingham, Washington 98225 U.S.A. Tel: +1 360-671-6886 Tel: +1 360-671-0354 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.trans-ocean.com Greg Baker Westward Seafoods Inc. 2101 4th Ave., Ste. 1700 Seattle, Wa 98121 U.S.A. Tel: +1 206 682 5949 Fax: +1 206 682 1825 Web: www.westwardseafoods.com
Barry D. Collier, President And CEO Peter Pan Seafoods 2200 6th Ave. Seattle, WA 98121-1820 U.S.A. Tel: +1 206 728 6000 Fax: +1 206 441 9090 Email: email@example.com Web: www.ppsf.com
Yuji Igarashi, President Maruha Nichiro Holdings, Inc. 1-2, 1-Chome Otemachi, Chiyoda-Ku Tokyo 100-0004 Japan Tel: +81 03 3216 0821 Fax: +81 03 3261 0342 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.maruha-nichiro.co.jp/english
Joseph Fleming Golden Alaska Seafoods, Llc. 2200 Sixth Avenue Suite 707 Seattle, WA 98121 U.S.A. Tel: +1 206 441 1990 Fax: +1 206 441 8112 Email: email@example.com Web: www.goldenalaska.com
North America Nippon Suisan (U.S.A.) Inc. 15400 N.E. 90th Street P.O. Box 97019 Redmond, W.A. 98073-9719 U.S.A. Tel: +1 425 869 1703
Netherlands Erica Pool, Marketing & Sales Coordinator Trans-Europe Seafood Sales B.V. Strawinskylaan 441 1077xx Amsterdam Tel: +31 (0)20 575 2230 Fax: +31 (0)20 575 2233 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.tess.bv.com
U.K. Hiroyuki Sato Nichiro UK 9 Cambridge Court, 210 Shepherd’s Bush Rd. London W6 7NJ U.K. Tel: +44 (0)20 7603 3398 Fax: +44 (0)20 7603 3397
Kyokuyo Japan Headquarters KiyokaZu Fukui, President Kyokuyo Co. Ltd. Kokusai Sanno Bldg. 3-5 3-Chome Akasaka, Minato-Ku Tokyo 107-0052 Tel: +81 (3)5545-0701 Fax: +81 (3)5545-0751
Netherlands Mr. Taguchi Toshihiko Kyokuyo Amsterdam Office Tower-F,4th Floor Wtc Schiphol Airport Schiphol Boulevard 193 1118bg Luchthaven Schiphol The Netherlands Tel: +31 20 405 9060 Fax: +31 20 653 3499 Email: email@example.com Web: www.kyokuyo-eu.com
U.S. Kyokuyo AmerIca Corporation 1200 Fifth Avenue, Suite 1301 Seattle, Wa 98101-3148, U.S.A. Tel: +1 206 405 2670 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.kyokuyoamerica.com Takeshi Yashiro, CEO True World Foods 32-34 Papetti Plaza, Elizabeth, New Jersey 07207, U.S.A. Tel: +1 908 351 1400 Fax: +1 908 351 8465 Email: email@example.com Web: www.trueworldfoods.com
Ryan Mackey President And CEO Orca Bay Seafoods Po Box 9010 Renton, Wa 98057-9010 U.S.A. Tel: +1 425 204 9100 Fax: +1 425 204 9200 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.orcabayfoods.com William M. Weisfield Alyeska Seafoods Inc. 303 N.E. Northlake Way, Seattle, Washington 98105 U.S.A. Tel: +1 206 547 2100 Fax: +1 206 547 1808 Joe Bersch Supreme Alaska Seafoods Inc. 4225 23rd Ave., W. # 104 Seattle, Washington 98199 U.S.A. Tel: +1 206 281 8311 Fax: +1 206 281 8481
REFERENCES 1. Catch statistics reported by the International Whaling Commission
accessed 25 Feb 2008 JARPAII and JARPNII catch quotas, reported in Government of Japan SC/57/O1 and SC/56/O2 papers presented to the IWC Scientific Committee, except for coastal JARPNII component of 120 minke whales which is not carried out by Kyodo Senpaku. P21-24 of Chairman’s report of the 46th annual meeting of the IWC Ibid., Ref 1. Document SC/57/O1 (Government of Japan) presented to the IWC Scientific Committee.
23. Ibid, Ref 7. 24. Ibid., Ref 22. 25. Ibid., Ref 7. 26. Maruha Group website company history. www.maruha.co.jp/english/history/index.html
accessed 25 Feb 2008. 27. Company history, Maruha Group.
11th April 07, accessed 14th April 2007.
50. Kyokuyo statement on website April 16, 2007, www.kyokuyoamerica.com,
accessed 24 Feb 2008. 69. GGT Board of Directors
accessed 18 Feb 07 GGT Corporate Members List 51. Letter from Kyokuyo America Corp. to www006.upp.so-net.ne.jp/GGT/GGT-japanese. EIA, June 4, 2007. files/18_meibo.pdf accessed 24 Feb 2008 52. Kyokuyo Joins Maruha to End Whale Meat Sales in Japan (Update1) By Stuart Biggs, 70. www.Nippon Suisan.co.jp/english/news/ May 30th 2007. 071219_Nippon Suisan-TSE.pdf www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601101& accessed 20 Feb 2008 sid=aPhG1CfyPue0&refer=japan 71. Nippon Suisan 2007 annual report, p.9 accessed 19 Feb 08.
28. Ibid., Ref 7. 29. Confidential corporate report on Taiyo A&F. www.Nippon Suisan.co.jp/ir/download/ 30. Ibid., Ref 26. 4. 53. Letter to EIA from David Weber, Vice annual/2007_en/annual_report_2007.pdf 31. Ibid., Ref 29. President, Gorton,s, 27 Nov 2007. 5. 72. Summary of Financial Statements for the 32. Schedule to the International Convention 54. Pers. Comm. with Daito Gyorui, Year end March 31, 2006. for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW), www.Nippon Suisan.co.jp/ir/eng/060519_Nippon 18 Feb 2008. www.iwcoffice.org/commission/ Suisan-FY2005.pdf schedule.htm 6. www.iucnredlist.org/search/details.php/13006/all 55. Bestor, T.C. 2004. Tsukiji: The Fish Market accessed 15 Feb 2008. and at the Center of the World. University of 73. Ibid., Ref 71 and www.suisantimes.co.jp www.iucnredlist.org/search/details.php/2478/all 33. Ibid., Ref 7. California Press. P347 article dated 22 Jan 2008, Nippon Suisan accessed 25 Feb 2008. 56. Ibid., Ref 55. Maruha website, 34. Ibid., Ref 32. establishes Global Marketing Office. www.maruha.co.jp/english/profile/index.html 7. IWC whaling records IWC individual catch 35. Kasuya, T. 2006. Japanese Whaling and 74. Hoover’s Online. Company Fact Sheet for accessed 20 Feb 2008. database version 2, October 2005, Other Cetacean Fisheries. Conservation Nippon Suisan Kaisha, Ltd. Internet. courtesy of C. Allison. 57. Daito Gyorui Co., quoted in Associated www.hoovers.com/nippon-suisan/-Biology.Environ Sci Pollut Res 2006 Press article by Hiroko Tabuchi, ID__124582--/free-co-factsheet.xhtml 8. Japan progress reports on Cetacean (Online First): 10. 9 Feb 2006, Whale meat glut a problem 75. Sealord website Research to the IWC Scientific 36. Ibid., Ref 35. for Japan. Committee, SC/58/ProgRep Japan and www.sealord.co.nz/xml/default. 37. Ibid., Ref 35. asp?globalPage=C_ourProducts SC/59/ProgRep Japan 58. Pers. Comm. with Chuo Gyorui, accessed 20 Feb 2008 18 Feb 2008. 38. Nippon Suisan and Kyokuyo branded cans 9. Article www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/press/kaiken/ of whale meat have been documented 76. FIS COMPANY OF THE WEEK: Sealord Will 59. Chuo Gyorui website gaisho/g_0712.html#14 in hundreds of supermarkets and Become The First New Zealand Fishing www.marunaka-net.co.jp/business/reitou.html accessed 24th February 2008. accessed 24 February 2008. = whale convenience stores including Ito-Yokado, Company To Crack $1 Billion In Revenue. AEON, Seiyu, Daiei, Hotspar, Familymart, 60. Jan 10, 2008. Concerning the Measures 30 June 2006. 10. www.icrwhale.org/FAQ.htm#18 fis.com/fis/techno/newtechno 7-Eleven stores across Japan. accessed 18 Feb 08 for Strenghtening Distribution asp?id=20566&l=e&ndb=1 Capabilities of Marine Products. 11. Based on reported catch data Ibid. Ref 8. 39. TAFCO sales brochure, accessed 20 Feb 2008 www.Nippon Suisan.co.jp/english/ obtained February 2006 and catch quota Ibid. Ref 2. news/20080110_01_Nippon Suisan-TSE.pdf 77. Nippon Suisan Kaisha Acquires Shares in 40. See for example EIA Press release 30 12. Whale meat yield average of 2002-2005 accessed 19 Feb 2008. French Processed Seafood Company Cite November 2005, Investigative report data reported by ICR. Humpback tonnage Marine. 1 October 2007, Source Nippon 61. Nippon Suisan to rebuild distribution links US Seafood Giant Gorton’s of based on conservative estimate of Suisan Kaisha Ltd. function. Jan 10, The Suisan Times. Gloucester to Japan’s Whale Hunt. 12 tonnes (approx half bodyweight). www.flex-news-food.com www.suisantimes.co.jp/english/log/ www.eia-international.org/cgi/news/news. Fin whale tonnage based on 2005/06 s_080110.shtml 78. USDA GAIN Report Number DA6011. cgi?t=template&a=282&source reported data 10/10/2006. Denmark Fishery Products 62. Confidential pers. comm. to Allan 41. Press release, Kyodo Senpaku Kaisha. www.icrwhale.org (in Japanese) Annual 2006 Thornton, 29 Feb 2008. 24 March 2006. 13. Greenpeace press release, 22 Dec 07, www.icrwhale.org/eng/060324news.pdf 79. Danish importer keeping up with EU 63. Maruha Nichiro Newsletter. 1 October Humpbacks to be spared the harpoon – accessed 25 Feb 2008. whitefish demand. Drew Cherry, February 2007. Maruha Nichiro Group is launched. for now www.maruha-nichiro.co.jp/english/ 2004 – Intrafish. 42. Article by David McNeill & Michael www.scoop.co.nz/stories/WO0712/S01138.htm www.Intrafish.no/multimedia/archive/00004/ McCarthy, The Independent (London), 64. Nichiro cans documented in Ibaraki, accessed 27 Feb 2008 pdf200402-4924a.pdf April 5, 2006. Canned! Food firms Chiba, Saitama, Tochigi, Hokkaido, Hyogo, 14. Maruha Group Inc. International Directory 80. Profile on Sealord Fish Processing, bail out of whaling in face of global Kyoto, Osaka, Miyagi of Company Histories, Volume 75 (2004) Caistor, United Kingdom. consumer protest. 65. Nichiro canned whale meat is by M. Cohen. www.foodprocessing-technology.com/projects/ www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/ www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_gx5202/ available online at sealord-fish/ is_20060405/ai_n16197947 is_2004/ai_n19123413/pg_2 www.mognavi.jp/food/87979 and accessed 20 Feb 2008 accessed 19 Feb 2008. accessed 22 Feb 2008 www.n-iifood.jp as of Feb 2008 81. Ibid., Ref 80. 43. Telephone conversation 19 April 2006 15. Ibid., Ref 14. 66. For example, as of February 19th, 2008, between EIA President Allan Thornton 82. Ibid., Ref 76. major online shopping site Rakuten 16. Ibid., Ref 7. and CEO Gorton’s, Steve Warhover. 83. Ibid., Ref 77. was selling a range of Kyokuyo whale 17. Ibid., Ref 7. 44. Ibid., Ref 42. products, 84. Nippon Suisan website: 18. Ibid., Ref 1, Ref 8. www.rakuten.co.jp/ko-yo-/612884/678521/ www.Nippon Suisan.co.jp/corporate/network/ 45. EIA Expose, April 2006. How the World’s world.html while ‘Nijibbekkai’ Largest Seafood Company can End 19. J.N. Tonnessen, Arne Odd Johnsen, 1982. www.tokubaiya.com/can/index.html Japan’s Whaling. The History of Modern Whaling. Published 85. www.Nippon Suisan.co.jp/english/ was selling 160g and 270g cans of www.eia-international.org/cgi/news/news. ethics/ethics4.html by C. Hurst & Co. Kyokuyo canned whale stew. cgi?t=template&a=303&source accessed 25th February, 2008 20. Kumi Kato, 2007. Prayers for the Whales: 46. Letters from EIA & Greenpeace to Nippon 67. See for example JFA publication ISARIBI 86. www.maruha-nichiro.co.jp/english/ Spirituality and Ethics of a Former No 56, November 2007 Suisan and Gorton’s, 3rd and 5th April corporate/cop02000.html and UPDATE Whaling Community. International Journal www.suisankai.or.jp/topics_e/isaribi/ 2006. 1-Maruha Nichiro aims for 1-2 overseas of Cultural Property (2007) 14:283-313. isaribi_56.pdf or ISARIBI No 48 acquisitions, Nov 28, 2007 Elaine 47. Confidential corporate report on www.suisankai.or.jp/topics_e/ 21. Ibid, Ref 7. Lies www.reuters.com/article/sphereNews/ Kyodo Senpaku. isaribi/isaribi_48.pdf 22. Kyokuyo Group Inc. International idUST33266520071128?sp=true 68. Suisankai (JFA) Board of Directors Directory of Company Histories, Volume 48. EIA Report, April 2007. Raw Deal – 87. Maruha Nichiro executives see future Kyokuyo, True World Foods and Japan’s Members List 75 (2004 by M. Cohen. global markets. December 18, 2007. Whale Hunts. www.suisankai.or.jp/daisui/zaimu/new_pdf/ www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_gx5202/ www.suisantimes.co.jp/english/log/s_071220. yakuin.pdf is_2004/ai_n19123407 49. True World Foods statement on website, shtml#03 Suisankai Corporate Members List 3.
88. Maruha Nichiro website
accessed 25th Feb, 2008 89. TransOcean website
accessed 25th Feb, 2008 90. www.seafoodsource.com/NST-1-10120/TransOcean-to-close-Oregon-surimi-plant.aspx
91. Peter Pan Seafoods website
accessed 21 Feb 08 92. Maruha Group Mid-Term Management Plan
accessed 25th Feb 2008 93. Kingfisher Products website www.kingfisher.co.nz
94. Kyokuyo website
accessed 25th Feb, 2008 95. Kyokuyo celebrates 70th anniversary, Sept 10, 2007 www.suisantimes.co.jp/english/log/ s_070910.shtml
96. Kyokuyo 84th business report
97. K&U interview with Suisan Times, 17 Dec 2007, www.suisantimes.co.jp/english/log/ s_071217.shtml
98. List of Kyokuyo offices
99. Kyokuyo European office www.kyokuyo-eu.com
100. True World Foods website www.trueworldfoods.com
101. Ibid., Ref 97. 102. Kyokuyo Commitment to Conservation of the Environment, 2004. www.kyokuyo.co.jp/english/environment.html
accessed 25th Feb 2008. 103. Morrell, V. 2007. Killing whales for Science. Science Vol 316 p533 quoting current head of Norway’s IWC Scientific Committee delegation, Professor Lars Walløe 104. E.g. IWC Resolution 2003-2 confirmed that “Article VIII of the Convention is not intended to be exploited in order to provide whale meat for commercial purposes and shall not be so used” 105. Convention text available from
106. IWC Resolutions available through IWC annual reports www.iwcoffice.org
107. www.cites.org NB except the west Greenland stock of minke whales which is listed on Appendix II 108. Sand, P.H. 2007. Japan’s ‘Research Whaling’ in the Face of the Endangered Species Convention (CITES). From: Review of European Community and International Environment Law (RECIEL) Vol 16:3, Dec 07. 109. Court documents and news release available at www.hsi.org.au
110. Ibid., Ref 109.
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