Issue # 1 â€“ April 2011
s t i l l
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IS STILL NOT KNOWN General manager Osama Moharem email@example.com
Editor in chief Islam Saleh
Marketing manager Mostafa Khalil
Egypt is still unknown, I believe that the world still do not know Egypt well, also the Egyptians did not know Egypt well Egypt still so far provide the latest in the world, I took in the first issue to speak about the revolution only, although the newspapers in the world spoke about it, but I took different views in order to speak about, and I hope to show in the next issues what people should know about Egypt, and I thank the team who succeeded to rise the first issue. Osama Moharem
In Arabic بالعربى
Historical background Dr. Mohamed Moharem Mr. Zaki Mohamed
25 Jan revolution is
Translation Dina Mohamed Nada Zaki Editorial staff Rehab Kanner Sami Mohamed Art designer Osama Moharem
Civilians The choir project Chahine got it
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Tahrir square The Egyptian army
We Never Forget Them SALLY MAGDY ZAHRAN YOUSSEF ANWAR ELMEKKAWY ATTIA AHMED AL SAKKA MOHAMED HELMY MAHMOUD RADWAN AHMED ABDEL LATIF AHMED HUSSIEN TAHA AHMED BASSIONY MOHAMED ABDEK MONE HUSSIEN ESLAM BAKIR MOHAMED ALI EID ABDEL MAGEED MOHAMED MAGDY MOHAMED EMAM MOHAMED MAHMOD ELMENSHAWY ESLAM RA'FAT HOSSAM AHMED EL GENDY CHRISTINE SEELA SEIF-ALLAH MOSTAFA MOUSA MOSTAFA FAHMY ZAYED HAITHAM HEMEDA AHMED SHEHAB HASSAN SHEHAB MOHAMED ABDEL FATTAH SAMEH ABDEL FATTAH MOHAMED MOAZ EL SAYED MOHAMED KAMAL MOHAMED HOSSAM ELDEN MOHAMED MABROUK MOHAMED METWALLY AWAD NOUR MOHAMED NOUR MOHAMED MAHMOD SAID MANSOUR MOHAMED IBRAHIM DAROFEEQ MOHAMED SAYED ABDEL LATEF MOHAMED TAMIMI MOHAMED SHERIF MOHAMED SAID HEDYA NASR MAHROOS MOHAMED KAMAL MOHAMED YOUSSEF MOHAMED ABDEL LATEF MOHAMED KHAFAGY AMR GHARIB MOHAMED MAHROUS AHMED EL FAKAHANY RAHMA MOHSEN AHMED KHODIER AHMED KHALIFA IBRAHIM ABDEL SATAR MOHAMED YASSIN MANSOUR ABDEL LATIF MOHAMED AHMED AHAB MOHAMED FOUAD ABBAS MUSTAFA ABU ZIED MOHAMED RASHAD MOSTAFA ELSAWI GERGES LAMEY MOUSA MOHAED ABDEL ELA'AL AHMED BAHAA EL GARWANY
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MOHAMED SAIID RABIE TARIK MOHAMED GABR AHMED AMMER MAHMOUD MOHAMED MOHAMED ABDEL KHALED MOHAMED ABDEL ADER AHMED KAMAL MEDHAT TAHAR GHARIB ABDUL AAL AHMED ABDEL-REHIM NASSER AHMED AWAD AL-SAYED MUSTAFA MAHMOUD MUHAMED SHAABAN? AHMED MOSTAFA THABET ANMR HAMED MOHAMED METWALY IBRAHIM SOBHY ABDEL-SAMAD MOSTAFA MAHMOUD ISMAIL SAMEH ABDEL FATTAH MOHAMED AHMED FAWZY ALI ABDO SALEH YEHIA AL-GAZAR ESLAM RASHAD MOHAMED SALAH MOHAMED SAYED MOHAMED EL SAKKA NASR-EL DIN EL-SAYED ABDUL-KARIM RAMADAN MOHAMMED HASSAN BELAL SHAIMAA AL BASHA ESSAM MOHAMED MAHMOUD MOHAMED SAMIR MOHAMED MAHMOUD ALI HASSAN ALI MAHRAN MAHMOUD MAHER MOSTAFA IBRAHIM MOSTAFA MOHAMED ZAKY AHMED MOHAMED HASHEM ALI HASSANEIN IBRAHIM HASSANEIN MUHAMED FARAG NASR MAHROOS HASSANEIN KHALLAF ALLAH GHARIB ABDUL-AZIZ ABDUL-LATEEF TAWFIQ MOHAMED TAWFIQ HAMDY ADEL ATY ABDEL MAGID KASSEM ISMAIL MOHAMED ABOU EL DAHAB MOHAMED ABD EL TAWAB SALEH AHMED MAGDY HASSANEIN MUHAMED SHERIF AHMED MOHAMAD MAHMOUD AHMED SAMIR IBRAHIM HAMAD MOHAMED ABDEL FATTAH ISLAM MOHAMED EL SAID ABDEL SALLAM
FOUAD SULEIMAN AS'AD ABDELMALAK SULAIMAN SABER ALI MUHAMMADEIN ALI HASSAN SHAHAB HASSAN SHEHAB AL SAYED MOHAMED RAID ABDEL HAKIM KARIM AHMED RAGAB NOUR ALI NOUR EL DIN MOHAMED EBRAHIM SABER FAHMY ABOL MA‟ATY MOHAMED ABO BAKR HAMADA LABIB MUHAMED KAMEL ABDEL-SATAR NASSAR ABANOUB AWAD-ALLAH NAEEM RAMY GAMAL SHAFEEQ AMIRA SAMIR SHEHATA MOSTAFA OMAR MOHAMED KARIM MOHAMED ALI AL BANNA AHMED ABDEL LATIF AHMED AHMED SALEM MAHMOUD ABDEL MAYSSAR ABDOU ABDEL-MONEIM JAAFAR ISLAM REFAAT MAHMOUD SHERIF HAMMAD MOHAMED MAHMOUD ADEL YOUSSEF HUSSEIN MOHAMED IBRAHIM DAROFEEQ MUHAMED METWALLY AWAD MOHAMMED HOSSAM EL DIN MUHAMED IBRAHIM AL-DOSOKY MUSTAFA AHMED ZAIN AL ABEDIEN MOHAMMED TAMIMI RAMI GAMAL ABOZEED MINA NAGGY MOSTAFA AL-WERDANI SAIID ABD EL ALL OMAR SAYID ALI MOHAMED MOHAMED SABER EL SAYED HAMADA MOHAMED OTHMAN ABD RABOH MOAZ AL-SAYED MUHAMED KAMAL LIZA MOHAMED HASAN MOHAMMED FAROUK HASSAN MOSTAFA RAGAB ABDEL FATTAH AYMAN ADEL HASSANIN IHAB MUHAMMADY MAHMOUD NASR MOHAMED AHMED MOHAMED ABBAS HAMZA AL BATRAN AHMED MOSTAFA MOHAMED ATEF MOHAMED HUSSEIN RIHAN ALI GAWDAT HASAN AYMAN ALI
حجرة صغرية كتلك ادلعتادة لشاب ىف العشرينيات من شباب الطبقة ادلتوسطة من طبقات الشعب ادلصرى...فراش صغري يتوسط أحد جدراهنا البيضاء...جياوره على مسافة صغرية مكتب بسيط حامل لتالل من الكتب واألوراق ىف عشوائية معتادة ال يفصلها عن التنظيم اال بعض حلظات من شروع ىف الرتتيب لصاحبها...تعلوىا على نفس اجلدار ساعة بنية احتمى عقرباىا ىف ذلك االطار اخلشىب الذى بات جزءا من ذلك اجلدار...فوق يسار ادلكتب استقر ذلك ادلصباح الصغري الكاىف بالكاد الضاءة مساحة صغرية لذلك اجلالس على كرسى خشىب أمام ادلكتب...ذلك اجلالس الذى اهنمك ىف ابداع ما اعتادت عليو منو أوراقو البيضاء وأقالمو ادللونة من رسومات باتت كل ما ميلك من الثروات...شاب بني اخلامسة والعشرين والسادسة والعشرين...وجو أمسر حنيف يتوجو شعر أسود المع تشابكت خصالتو ىف انتظام دال على اناقة صاحبو...عينان المعتان أرىقهما تركيزه فيما يرسم...حلية خفيفة ارتسمت على فكيو...اىل جانب ذلك الشارب اخلفيف الذى يظل فمو الدقيق...اكتملت اذن تلك الصورة لوجو يعشق صاحبو ما يبدعو...لعل أبرز ما مييزه ذلك االسم ادلطابق جلنسيتو...امسو (مصرى)...انتشرت لوحاتو على جدران حجرتو..تتوجها ىاتان اللوحتان لشخصني جلية مشاعر الوطنية ىف مالحمهما العربية وأيدى رامسهما الفنانة...ال تضمان من األلوان سوى االبيض واألسود...احداىا لشخص دتيزه تلك ادلالمح اجلادة اضافة اىل حلية كبرية سوداء... واالخرى لشخص بنفس ادلالمح تقريبا اال من اختالف طفيف...األوىل جلده الشهيد ىف نكبة فلسطني عام ...48واالخرى لعمو الالحق جبده ىف اكتوبر ...73ىى عائلة الشهداء اذن...تلك العائلة الىت ضمت عرب عمرىا الطويل الكثري من اجملاىدين والعديد من ادلضحني...ىا قد انتهى لتوه من لوحتو...لوحة جلندى ال تنم مالحمو عن شخص يعرفو...امنا ىو فقط رمز خلري أجناد األرض ىف حلظة من حلظات البطولة ادلعتادة الفراد جيش مصر...قام من مقعده مرتجال بعض خطوات اىل فراشو البسيط...حلظات فقط كانت كافية الفرتاشو عليو كرمسة من رسوماتو...وضع كفيو حتت رأسو وقد تعلق نظره بال شئ ىف سقف غرفتو ىف تلك اذليئة الروتينية دلفكر ىف شئ ما...سبح خلده بني تلك العبارات الىت مسعها كثريا عن تلك البلد...ان لكل أمة تاجها...وتاج األمم رجاالهتا...ولكل تاج جواىره...وجواىر الرجال كفاحهم...كن اذن خري تاج ميلك خري جواىر يضعها ىف خدمة خري أمة...كلمات طادلا قاذلل لو أبوه الراحل ىف طفولتو...كن فردا ىف خري أمة أخرجت للناس ال فردا ىف أمة ضحكت من جهلها األمم...عبارة طادلا أسقطها لسان أمو على مسامعو...بالد العرب أوطاىن من الشام لبغداد...أشعار طادلا عشقتها عيناه ىف كتب دراستو...تلك الدراسة الىت ظل ىف أمواجها ساحبا حىت ألقتو اىل شاطئ البطالة عدمي الظل فاقد الثمار...كثريا ما مسع أن مصر تضم السرور ىف قلوب أبنائها...ذلك السرور الذى مل جيده اال ىف قوانني ال تسر اال مسئولني بعينهم...كثريا ما مسع أن مصر حتتضن العز ىف جنباهتا...ذلك العز الذى مل جيده اال ىف احتكار سافر للسلع...كثريا ما مسع عن العدل يسري ىف طرقاهتا...ذلك العدل الذى مل يعهده بتاتا وقد ضمت السجون اقرانو من غري مرتكىب الذنوب...كثريا ما مسع عن اجلمال يزين السرور والعز والعدل...ذلك اجلمال الذى مل يظهر اال ىف مظاىر الكبار...ىى اذن تلك البلد الىت مسع عنها ومل يرىا...تلك األرض الىت قرأ عنها ومل يشهدىا...كان على يقني ان وقت التغيري آت...على ثقة ان حني االصالح قادم...وما بني اليقني ىف التغيري والثقة ىف االصالح قد عكف على تنمية تلك ادلوىبة الىت مل يعد ميلك من حطام الدنيا غريىا... انتبو من تأمالتو أخريا على ذلك الصوت ادلألوف ذلاتفو النقال...دتعن ىف االسم قليال مث كان رده بالقاء السالم...جاءه الرد من اجلهة األخرى رادا لذلك السالم متبوعا باقرتاح جاء معربا بصدق عما كان يفكر فيو (مصرى)... مصرى كيف حالك؟...سننزل ىف الغد مبشيئة اهلل اىل ميدان التحرير لالعتصام...فغدا ىوالثامن والعشرين من يناير...مجعة الغضب كما نسميها...وددت لو صاحبتنا يا صديقى بالطبع...بالطبع يا عزيزى...لقد نويت النزول بالفعل...القاك ىناك غدا ان شاء اهللان شاء اهلل يا صديقى...سالمسالمانتهت ادلكادلة وانتهى معها اليوم ليخلد (مصرى) لنوم افاق بعدىا على نسائم وطنية داعبت جفنيو النائمني...ساعة أو بعض ساعة كانت كافية ليجهز نفسو قبل النزول اىل ادليدان...مل يكن يظن أنو ذاىب اىل ساحة معركة...قنابل مسيلة للدموع ترافقها رصاصات مطاطية اخرتقت مجوع ادلتظاىرين...ىؤالء ادلدافعني عن مطالب يراىا العاقل حقوقا واجب التكفل هبا...ورأهتا حكومتهم امتيازات ال حاجة ذلا...مل يتصور ىو ومل يتصور أحد من تلك ادلاليني ان يُقتل مواطن على يد شرطتو...لكنو اخليال الذى أنزلو حبيب العادىل اىل أرض الواقع ىف عصر مبارك...استمرت عمليات الكر والفر بني الطرفني ساعات سقط خالذلا عشرات الشهداء ومئات اجلرحى...حىت تلك اللحظة الىت ُكتب ل(مصرى) فيها اخللود...أصابتو رصاصة غادرة من ضابط آمث أودت بو ىف احلال...اختلطت دمائو بعرقو وكالمها طاىر...اغمضت عيناه اىل االبد على أمل بفتحهما ىف جنات النعيم...ارختت يداه اىل االبد على أمل حبياة ىف فردوس الشهداء...سكن اجلسد كلو أخريا على أمل حبركة مربوكة ىف آخرة اجملاىدين...رحل (مصرى) الحقا بالشهداء من أمثالو وادلقاتلني من أسالفو...حياة بذذلا وبذذلا شهداء يوم الغضب لريى من خيلفهم مامل تسعفهم أقدارىم برؤيتو من تغيري كفيل بعودة مصر اىل صدارة األمم بسواعد ابنائها...ولعلو ىف قادم األيام أو حىت السنوات جتد ذكراه من خيلدىا بلوحة تتوسط لوحة جده وعمو!
Definitely for you the great merit in taking our rights after all the ways to express their freedom that narrowed us, through a simple idea unknown to some older people who disparaged and considered it as a virtual world only to play and chat, but did not believe that this site, which is similar to a group of scrap papers combine together forming a large block that overthrew an 30 years of oppressive ruling no one could have done that, now Facebook has become another life line after the whole world became more interested in Facebook than before because it became like a bomb that could explode at any time, as happened before, Mr. Zuckerberg 25 Jan revolution's youth took their hats off to you to salute you .
Oh, my god its happening again, the spirit of the French revolution has appeared , but is it possible that such a thing happens and we are in the second millennium ? but strange in that this revolution occurred because the return of the idea of governor's boss, who lost consciousness towards its own people, and the return of nobles who rule the land and own whatâ€&#x;s on it, the return of starvation , injustice and oppression, the return of taxes and unemployment scenarios, the return of opulence, the return of the division of land as if it was a piece of candy is distributed to individuals. But as history has always supported this spirit that arrived to Egypt and it was better than the French revolution the cause of the outbreak of believers of most historical models that identify many of the same features of the Ancien rĂŠgime as being among the causes of the revolution. Economic factors included hunger and malnutrition in the most destitute segments of the population, due to rising of bread prices (from normal eight sous for a four-pound loaf to 12 sous by the end of 1789), after several years of poor grain harvests. The combination of bad harvests (due to abnormal/severe weather fluctuations) and rising of food prices was further aggravated by an inadequate transportation system which hindered the shipment of bulk foods from rural areas to large population centers, contributing greatly to the destabilization of French society in the years leading up to the revolution. Another cause may have been France's near bankruptcy as a result of the many wars fought by previous rulers, as well as the financial strain caused by French participation in the American revolutionary war. The national debt amounted to almost 2 billion livres. The social burdens caused by war included the huge war debt, made worse by the loss of France's colonial possessions in north America and the growing commercial dominance of great Britain. France's inefficient and antiquated financial system was unable to manage the national debt, something which was both partially caused and exacerbated by the burden of an inadequate system of taxation. To obtain new money to head off default on the government's loans, the king called an assembly of notables in 1787.
Meanwhile the royal court at Versailles was perceived by many as being isolated , and indifferent to the hardships of the lower classes. While in theory king Louis XVI was an absolute monarch, in practice he was often indecisive and known to back down when faced with strong opposition. While he did reduce government expenditures, opponents in the parlements successfully thwarted his attempts at enacting much needed reforms. Those who were opposed to Louis' policies further undermined royal authority by distributing pamphlets (often reporting false or exaggerated information) that criticized the government and its officials, stirring up public opinion against the monarchy. Many other factors involved resentments and aspirations given focus by the rise of enlightenment ideals. These included resentment of royal absolutism; resentment by peasants, laborers and the bourgeoisie toward the traditional seigniorial privileges possessed by the nobility; resentment of the church's influence over public policy and institutions; aspirations for freedom of religion; resentment of aristocratic bishops by the poorer rural clergy; aspirations for social, political and economic equality, and (especially as the revolution progressed) republicanism; hatred of queen Marie -Antoinette, who was (falsely) accused of being a spendthrift and an Austrian spy; and anger toward the king for firing Jacques Necker, among others, who were popularly seen as representatives of the people. Thus the story, which returned the same in Egypt, but without any slaughtering or killing , but the killings were by the police which is supposed to protect but they killed us instead with the corrupted regime , they even got to scare us by the releasing of a group of thugs that was a dirty plan to terrorize citizens, which proved the opposite, and was finally topple the regime without access to the presidential headquarters and waste a drop of blood from the ruling class. All the businessmen and ministers in Egypt were arrested and in waiting for their trials. French revolution â€“ Wikipedia
25 Jan revolution not
After many incidents, which were ignored by the ruling class in Egypt, can you imagine that it came out that people in Egypt are burning themselves in front of parliament, or do you imagine one day you have to pay tax on your accommodation, or the number cars in one country are larger than the number of cars in the countries that manufacture them, and no one rides them, or all of the presenters are fired and the cancellation of their programs as soon as they express their opinions about the government, there were demonstrations every day before 25 January, but all ignored because there was an iron curtain between us and the ruling class in Egypt. No one expected the overthrow of the regime. Can you imagine that Hosni Mubarak did not know the invention called " Facebook" and he considered that this virtual world just a group of young people playing and having fun and adults who are accustomed to daily demonstrations, which ended after hours and did not respond to their requests. But we Egyptian youth, say to those who will move to the government, we do so for Egypt and Egypt will remain above our heads and who do not respect the people of Egypt or Egypt, would see Egypt which always makes history.
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Cairo has been at the epicentre of much of the crisis. The largest protests were held in downtown tahrir square, which was considered the "protest movement‟s beating heart and most effective symbol.“On the first three days of the protests, there were clashes between the central security police and protesters and as of 28 january, police forces withdrew from most of cairo. Citizens then formed neighbourhood watch groups to keep the order as widespread looting was reported. Traffic police were re-introduced to cairo on the morning of 31 january. An estimated 2 million people protested at tahrir square.
In the northern city of mansoura there were protests against the mubarak regime every day from 25 january onwards. One protest on 1 february was estimated at one million people, while on 3 february, 70,000 people were reported on the streets[.
The city of suez has seen the most violence of the protests thus far. Eyewitness reports have suggested that the death toll there may be higher, although confirmation has been difficult due to a ban on media coverage in the area. Some online activists have referred to suez as egypt's sidi bouzid, the tunisian city where protests started..A labour strike was held on 8 february large protests took place on 11 february
Beni suef City of beni suef have seen repeated protests in front of the city hall on el Cornice ,in front of omar abd el aziz mosque, and in el zerayeen square, on most days of the protests and demonstrations 12 protesters have been killed when police opened fire at mass groups protesting in front of the police station in beba, south beni suef. Many others got injured. Thugs and outlaws have robbed many governmental garages and burned down several governmental buildings.
The national assembly to change demonstration in perpetuating Asyut district neonatal “Elwaledya”, but the security forces detained 18 of the participants and confiscated banners and flags in their possession before you release them after about an hour, and the city has witnessed the march of youth members of the national party to pay tribute to the achievements of the party.
Alexandria, the home of khaled saeed, had major protests and clashes against the police. Demonstrations continued and one on 3 february was reported to include 750,000 people.There were few confrontations as not many mubarak supporters were around, except in occasional motorized convoys escorted by police. The breakdown of law and order, including the general absence of police on the streets, continued through to at least the evening of 3 february, including the looting and burning of one the country's largest shopping centres. Alexandria protests were notable for the presence of christians and muslims jointly taking part in the events following the church bombing on 1january.
The remote city of siwa has thus far been reported as relatively calm.Local sheikhs, who were reportedly in control of the community, put the community under lockdown after a nearby town was "torched“
Tens of thousands of protesters took to the streets from the first day (jan. 25th) and most of the days after until feb. 11th. It exceeded a hundred thousand many times. Some hospitals reported casualties during the clashes of friday jan. 28th.
No protests or civil unrest took place in sharm-el-sheikh on 31 january. All was still calm as hosni mubarak and his family left on 11 february.
10 Sinai peninsula
Bedouins in the sinai peninsula fought the security forces for several weeks
Ismailia Hundreds of activists of political parties paradise square amid the city of Ismailia, in response to an invitation to the "day of rage", while the massed security forces in various configurations to secure the demonstration and prevent the boat attached to the street, and the demonstration lasted about an hour without friction between security forces and demonstrators.
The revolution of anger has spread to most districts of cairo and the governorates, amid violent clashes between security forces and demonstrators in lots of cities, using tear gas and rubber bullets, and firing live bullets in the air, injuring dozens of both sides, killing a citizen. Worshipers went out in the same timing after friday prayers, in response to an invitation from the «6 april» movement to organize mass demonstrations dubbed «anger friday », the protesters flowed in the streets and squares, minutes after the demonstration started, clashes and violence between security forces and demonstrators started in most areas. Security then began retract from the angry, who had controlled the city and burned the police stations, attempts were made to loot the banks but the people fought for their protection and prevented the thugs from approaching them. The confusion in the security situation led to the escape of the prisoners from the prisons. Scene in cairo was not significantly different, with thousands chanting against the regime and clashed with security forces, witnesses reported death of a demonstrator at least, turning the major areas into something like a war of the streets, the sound of shots was controlling the city, and rising columns of smoke from the tear gas bombs was everywhere that it hit people in their homes , reportedly demonstrators burned police cars in a number of areas, including shubra, and nearly 10 thousand demonstrators marched in front of the mosque rabaah adawiya in nasr city to go to the presidential palace in heliopolis ,
But the security forces intercepted, also prevented most of the demonstrators from reaching the tahrir square. The demonstrators set fire to police stations in al saida zainab, azbakya of ramses street and al khalifa in the castle area. In giza, thousands of demonstrators have detained a unit of the central security forces of 30 military officers in a real estate adjacent to the governorate building, and smashed security central car, causing injuries to many soldiers. Alexandria also fell in the hands of demonstrators who lit fires in the governorate building and broke into the police department of montazah and smashed the horryiah police station. Demonstrators smashed a number of national party's head quarters in cairo and other governorates, and subjecting some others to frequent attempts of break into, in cairo, protesters set fire to the party's headquarters in nile cornice . in damietta, residents broke into the party headquarters and set fire to the contents. In ismailia, there were violent clashes between demonstrators and security in area around the governorate building, and in gharbyah, thousands surrounded headquarters of the national party in tanta and tore up banners placed around it, the protesters seized the headquarters of the secretariat of the national party in cairo street, kasr el aini, where they set fire to the headquarters and then put it out, fearing of transmission of fire to the gas station adjacent to the secretariat, and in beni suef, protesters managed to penetrate the security cordon, following violent clashes and arrived to the headquarters of the national party and smashed the facade, the scene was repeated in minya, where protesters pelted the party's headquarters and burned placards inside, security forces used tear gas bombs to disperse them, injuring 15. In the city of samalut also ,about 2000 citizens gathered and threw the headquarters of the national party with bricks and stones . and about 500 demonstrators threw menoufia, the governorate bureau with stones. Al-azhar street witnessed a rally marches and mass demonstrations after friday prayers, where the police used tear gas bombs and shots to scare of citizens who marched
From al-azhar mosque and the surrounding mosques. Demonstrators chanted slogans demanding «overthrow the regime», and the vengeance of those who caused the fall of the martyrs in the city of suez in the recent protests witnessed by a number of governorates of egypt..The al-azhar mosque has undergone since the early morning on friday to high-security, where central security forces camped in the street of al-azhar surrounding the mosque from all directions, and closed the gate side of the mosque, the only entry and exit is the main gate of the mosque, which opened up on the square, while large numbers of police leaders spread outside, and security forces prevented photojournalists from taking pictures, and they poured water in the street to prevent them from standing close to the mosque. Worshipers had flocked to the mosque quietly before the beginning of the sermon in which he spoke khatib about the values of interdependence and peace and patriotism, and sealed the sermon praying to god to keep egypt quiet reassuring, and read out during the prayer verse «repel evil with what's better if the enmity between you and like protector close ». immediately after the prayer, there have been shouting inside the mosque before the worshipers start to exit, worshipers of the mosques nearby joined them and walked all shouting slogans denouncing corruption and calling for the fall of the regime, the police didn't oppose their way but when they arrived at the junction with the Al-Azhar street, port said street area at the Mosky , where there are queues lined the central security to prevent them from docking other protesters came from the other side, although the demonstrators chanting the words: «peaceful .. peaceful », however, security forces did not open the way for them, and when they tried to cross by force, the central security troops assaulted them with truncheon, the other demonstrators who were standing up in Al Azhar bridge hurled with stones at security forces, it was not long until the right wing demonstration was able to penetrate the central security cordon , for port said street, where they took in chanting slogans, and before the rally once again surround the security soldiers who surrounding their colleagues, the armored car spin down the AlAzhar bridge and fired sound shots, the people thought it was real in the beginning so they start to run in all directions before they discovered that they were sound shots, and they assemble themselves again, and a number of them pelted the troops and security cars, with stones and a number of them focused on the soldier who ascend armored vehicle. However, the security forces were not patient at the demonstrators for long, they quickly launched tear gas bombs and everyone rush hiding in the side streets for nearly half hours before the regroup and they run to the area of Mosky, where he confronted a number of citizens carrying iron , wooden and plastic sticks , they beat them to get out from the region to port said street, where they continued their march without objection from the police until they arrived for the Cairo security directorate, which besieged by the central security troops to prevent the demonstrators to approach it, despite desperate attempts to cross the demonstrators chanting: «peaceful .. peaceful », in a sign that they will not resort to violence in their march. Even the appearance of newspaper for printing the police armored cars were still taking place in the square, poised to launch tear gas bombs and sound bullets.
The security services since Thursday night co-exist extensively in the area of Al-Azhar and Al-Husain and prevented the worshipers who flocked to the entry the of mosque and asked them to be present in mosques other than al-Azhar and al-Husain, security forces used tear gas bombs in the regions of el-Atabaa and Ghoryah to disperse the demonstrators, who were joined by citizens from the street, chanting slogans: «people want to overthrow the regime» and «change .. freedom .. social justice », security forces prevented the passage of cars in Azhar street, and set up roadblocks and security checkpoints and prevented bystanders from crossing the street, and closed the doors of the subway stations at the same square. Internet services have been suspended almost entirely in Egypt, from midnight , and communication service stopped via mobile phone for the three networks, in cairo and several governorates. Security sources said that cutting off communications in the three networks, and stopping the internet, will not last long, and that the decision was not easy, which led to the sovereign intervention a to cut the service, in coordination with the ministries of communications, interior, and the media. The company has decided to run the Egyptian underground, to prevent parking in the train stations of Anwar El-Sadat «al Tahrir», and Gamal Abdel Nasser «ambulance» on the first line of Helwan - El Marg, al Sadat station on the second line Munib - Shubra Al-Khaima. The company «LINK.NET» the second provider of internet services in Egypt denied its responsibility for the interruption of the service, confirming that it is linked to the security situation, which was witnessed by Egypt. A source in the Egyptian company for communications that the contracts that run companies that provide internet services it requires in some cases, responding to the instructions of security services. In the same context, the communication services stopped via mobile phones, text messaging almost entirely in Egypt morning the day before, and experts said that the service was cut off from the authorities in an attempt to disrupt the demonstrations all over Egypt. The sources said in both companies «Mobinil», and «Vodafone» that the two companies are responsible for this damage, and interruption of the service due to the action by the government.
And journalists and correspondents were forced in the governorates to communicate with the newspapers via telephones under the difficulty of reporting online whether it was written, photographed or recorded .Clashes between security forces and demonstrators renewed in Tahrir square, near the houses and the 6th October bridge, where there was a demonstration that came at 2 pm , however, security forces succeeded in coping with it and changing its course. After they hit the demonstrators to disperse them and then pursued by the security forces, the security forces surrounded the bridge to prevent the presence or arrival of any demonstrator. At 2 pm, there was a strange incident, a civilian car «ford» rushed. It was coming from the 6thoctober bridge in the direction coming from al dokki, despite the closing of the Tahrir square by barriers, the car penetrated , which was driven by a young man, heading to al-Tahrir, dropping the barriers. The vehicles that were parking in front of the Egyptian museum started to fire toward it as it stopped in front of the gate of the museum, when the young driver got out of the car, he showed his identity quickly, it seems that he was a son of someone important, where he was being guarded by some of the forces, special teams, but those who stop the car from the security forces told them to stay away saying «stop...Stop ». there were successive mass arrests , and there was a woman screaming from the arrest of her husband and her father. The demonstrators remained in al Tahrir street which was closed just in front of the cars, and the security centered on the top of el-galaa bridge to prevent them from reaching the Tahrir square, and thrown tear gas bombs continuously, and caught one of the central security cars, and the protesters denied that they ignited it, but through security to distort image of the demonstration that it is not peaceful ». demonstrators also tried to persuade the central security soldiers through slogans. The protesters brought means to face the tear gas bombs, such as onions , bottles of soda and vinegar and masks.
Rehab Yousry Kanner
If you are not a resident in Egypt and want to know why the Egyptians their country " the blessed" or 'â€žal Mahrousah" so you just have to look through the window of your home and you would see young, women, including doctors, engineers, students, businessmen and professionals, and simple people, rebelled but not the way the supporters and the opponents of the Egyptian regime do, but reporters who gathered in front of their homes spontaneously to protect their country from the thugs, abusers and thieves. While a few millions were touring in the streets between a supporter and a opponent, the remaining of 80 million Egyptians spread in every street and corner, and did not leave a gap that a stranger can pass through, although they were working silently and quietly, but you have to feel their gathering with each sunset when the curfew began, even after sunrise hours., "Said Samir, a dentist in the third decade of his life:" we exchange shifts and take each share of sleep each day, we coordinate our times in a manner satisfying to all, and if anything happened was a serious emergency-up call to gather again, our weapon was our multitude and unity". Careful not to disturb the peaceful sleepers, they are the security now since the state police positions left suddenly after "25 January" with the start of the uprising of youth, which demand the departure of the ruling regime in Egypt, and followed by some of the looting that has terrorized the population. To roam in the streets of Cairo after midnight, carrying a camera and a press card, you would find all the welcome from these committees and assistance, and sometimes you may be invited to a tea break and sweets or even dinner. These committees set up ambushes on the major roads, checking all those who wish to pass through these roads, also checking cars and vehicles no matter how described, and who wish to enter any of the branched streets after confirmation that its "clean", they gave them passwords to facilitate their passage through ambushes in subcommittee. Even the police patrol have just took office after the decision of the authorities to return the security men to the streets, was stopped by the popular committees and asked the patrol officers their card's, they cooperated with them and ordered his men to show their cards, and when members of the committee checked their identities, they gave them a password to facilitate their passing on the following committees. With the early morning hours there was a passer by, he was checked and was asked for his identity card and about his destination, and when the committee was assured they asked him to stay with them until the end of the curfew.
While the suspects are dealt with in a precautionary measures, they were detained and handed over to the nearest point of the egyptian army, which were spread across the country, these committees had the respect and the cooperation from the armed forces. They did not talk politics too much, their only concern was to protect their areas from any inconvenience, and hope to end the current crisis " for the very best", they did not complain or get tired, there was no negligent with any breakthrough. The unity in the streets and neighborhoods, many of them did not know each other or did not meet often. "I have never sat down with my neighbors and we always exchange greetings only, " says jihad, 45, sales manager. "But the recent events have returned the intimacy and unity to the Egyptians, despite what you see from differences between a few of us, we meet almost every day and talk and share jokes and sometimes share the concerns, too. " All the committees in the same region are linked, and communicated by watchwords or by the known means of communication , and sometimes through "Facebook" and "twitter " as well, as they spread the so-called "sniper", and those stationed on the roofs of the buildings and their mission is to warn the committees in the streets, if strangers arrived or warn their comrades of the danger is. These committees were armed with what they could from sticks, sound guns, and some hunting rifles, kitchen knives, and primitive weapons. Were some of the ambushes exposed to shootings, and attacks by "thugs", but the solidarity and strictly organized to these committees shielded from losses, and their coordination continued with the army provides them with protection from some serious accidents. I asked them: where did you this experience in protecting the security of your region? They reported me that they are learning from each other, they meet to exchange ideas, and lessons shared with other commissions so every day, and on the basis of "necessity is the mother of invention. " They are unknown soldiers and the silent majority, they are not looking for any role in the crisis raging between the parties of the conflict. People sleep with their eyes watchful to protect Egypt midst of the storm, but without them, we would have turned the country into a rough volcano. Murad, 16 years old was wondering:'' imagine Egypt without people's committees! ", And continues: "committees protected Egypt and united the Egyptians ".
THE CHOIR PROJECT The art forms that emerged from the «tahrir square»do not stop, the scene of the revolution, jan. 25 (january) the heart of the capital cairo. Of these forms choir entitled «utopia», and the title is not just a philosophical concept means an ideal place, but the term appeared in a realistic way in the ritual « resistance week» in tahrir square. Based on the status of «utopia» already achieved the field, gathering more than twenty young men and women for five days, loaded with memories of the square and slogans of the revolution, which paraded the streets of cairo and the governorates of egypt, through the «workshop» belonging to the project «choir» with the same title.About the project «choir» says youssry sallam, the founder of the project «it is an open workshop,there is different theme each time, and within a week of preparation and improvisation and group composing, shows an artistic product in the form of a number of songs, and the duration of the show between 15 to 20 minutes ».Adds sallam «project choir invite individuals in general to sharetheir dreams and their concerns and their feelings and thoughtsthrough the singing to deliver their message in an artistic wayenjoyable to them and to the public who follow».And sallam confirms that the initiative began collectively in (may 2010), a group of 25 young men and women from egypt and some arab countries participated in the workshop «choir complaints cairo», which was part of an international project, launched by two people from finland, based on a finnish saying «instead of complaining sing», and then spread the idea of singing the complaints to dozens of cities around the world. Then came the idea of «choir proverbs», which is the monitoring of popular proverbs with a simple lyric quote to the original, whether they carry political or social hints .And about the choir «utopia» says Sallam to the «middle east» the work continued for 5 days before the premiere, and the participants were of the draft «choir» in addition to new participants, because the invitation was open to all, and began to offer ideas that they want to provide, and they divided themselves into four groups: group al Tahrir , group utopia Egypt, and a utopia in general, and a final group observed phenomena that took place in Tahrir square. Ideas were collected from the four groups in the final form calling for to stick to everything that is positive and has emerged among young men and women during the revolution demonstrations Jan. 25. And turned the chanting from «the people want to overthrow the regime» to the «people want the life of the square», in defense of the positive attitude of the square that has emerged clearly during the demonstration.
Sallam mentioned that the <<the choir>> project displayed twice, within one week, in Cairo. It was first introduced in the <<links>> hall downtown, and the second time was in hanagger square at the Egyptian opera house, to be the next presentation at the BA and Suez. Sallam does not hide the mass enthusiasm , which met all the participants in the choir «the work was exhausting but fun, because everyone carries inside shots they will never forget, we, as a generation, are not aware of the meaning of the revolution before! All the words of the choir is not just written in, but its the monitoring of the situation we have witnessed over the four weeks of the revolution ». and an invitation for freedom «our doors are open, no wall or constitution .. and cane juice distributed at the traffic lights ».. «no fear .. no sergeant .. your blood clean but not light ..No queue to get a loaf of bread »! then chants range according to the days of demonstrations, for example, «kilo of meat for hundred pounds, and a meter in Egypt for half a pound», «I am a person not a chicken with feathers .. coming to slaughter me to live »,« expensive sugar. Expensive oil .. .. till we sold the house furniture ».As the Jan 25 revolution events evolve, the slogans languages turns to a first class political language for example <<say to the rulers in the palace .. ou are a gang looted Egypt>>, << we won't be afraid we won't be bow our heads.. We hated the low voice>>,« revolution revolution until victory, revolution in all the streets of Egypt »,<< our revolution is a popular revolution not brotherhood or partisan!»,<< Our revolution was a popular revolt against the traitors and thieves! ». After the fall of the martyrs slogans took another dimension, characterized by steadfastness and challenge «o martyr sleep and rest, and we complete the struggle», «hear the mother of the martyr calls .. state security killed my children ». and after step down speech, logos and slogans were different «taught us in schools Egyptian army is the guard», « they taught you in the military .. to protect people and freedom »,« tomorrow Egypt will live in safety after when we judge every coward », « raise each victory flags .. we are youth will free Egypt. And chapters of the choir ends with a public invitation of all «lift your head up you are Egyptian». The martyr Sally Zahran cited during the revolution of January 25 was one of the members of the project «choir» and participated in more than one show.
Sarah Rabea – asharq al - awsat
Chahine Got It
Those who refuse to accept the advice today for nothing , will buy it with the most expensive price tomorrow unfortunately, the wisdom spoken by a Greek philosophers, And it was embodied to us by the Egyptian director Youssef Chahine in his last film, when he gave the advice to the regime free of charge through the film “The chaos“, That the Egyptian society on the verge of explosion ,the scene where a group of people attacked police stations with stones this showed the first stage of the explosion of the Egyptian society in the face of corruption .But no one has bothered to focus on Youssef Chahine's advice claiming that "its just a movie", to come in today who buys the ruling regime and its cronies, and who were created between the walls of corruption Youssef Chahine is gone, this creative Egyptian who crowned the Egyptian cinema, with his work, which will remain timeless throughout the ages until he ended his long artistic and erotic with film " The chaos, “ through which he drew thumbnail clips of the events of the revolution, "25 January " before it occurred , most notably the scene of the oppression of the police forces, which peaked after the "emergency law , "which saturated the Egyptians unfairly And repressively, and the scene of the attack, crowds of people attacked a police station and throwing stones is the first scene describes an incident like this after that enough is enough of slavery and humiliation ,the film highlights corruption as the basic hero, in a political and moral sense, which is reflected in the direct repression, and brutal control of the Authority, and the spread of bribery, nepotism, fraud and rigging elections and the rejection of devolution of power. In the film the authority to arrest and threaten, and officials representing the authority engaged in extortion, intimidation and cover up the crimes and jumping above the law, and opponents are detained under the Emergency Law, and the complete absence of the limitation of responsibility , and torture and the violation of freedoms up to a maximum grades, and using more means of Berber in police stations But there is also a kind of resistance from those who did not give up yet, or who the film portrays as the equivalent of the dramatic forces that seek to change, to the collective expression of the Revolution in the end. I do not know what to say about Chahine or what I should describe him after this film, which has become more controversial than any earlier? did predict the revolution that he directed the movie "The chaos " to say to people but indirectly "Beware ..so would be the next few days", or he expected that the day would come for the people to be liberated of silence and fear ,,To change with their hand what's destroyed by the leaders for more than 30 years or its an inferred speculations from his readings of the Egyptian scenario at a time when the rampant injustice , corruption and the seclusion of the ruler from the people. The only link were the rosy false reports that hid the suffering of the people and their requirements. In the end , I extend an invitation to all those who honor the cinematographic works m to the film “the chaos” the right to be honored as a historic work , invite them to view it constantly on January 25 of each year, the day that Egypt inhaled the fragrance of freedom after that her lungs dried up of the contamination of corruption
Mostafa Anbar – Youm 7
Muslim prayers in Egypt or anywhere else around the world are always on Fridays, while the Christians prayers are on Sundays. its not strange that both prayers meet on the same day, but the strange is that Friday prayers include both Muslims and Christians, this event has never happened before, and the imam was a man who was banned from entering Egypt, (AL Qaradawi), his sermon was about steadfastness against the enemies of the revolution and warned from its stealing. one of the things that happened that day and affected many people and made me shudder, was the sweet voice of azan that was delivered by "Mohammed Jibril", the sound of the azan made people completely silent as if it was resurrection day. the huge crowd prayed for the martyrs of course, then they celebrated with the participation of the military music bands, a number of songs and national anthems. the celebrants raised the slogan " people want clearing the country" and demanded a civil state that achieves social justice, and they created a memorial in the square where they showed the pictures of the martyrs. in the governorates , rallies roamed the streets and the squares to celebrate the victory, and the fireworks started in Alexandria, candies were distributed in Al Monoufya. people in Ismailia demanded to honor the martyrs.
Tahrir Square is not only the hub of Cairo, it is home to some of the city's most important buildings and a constant headline-maker in the local press. Whatever happens in Tahrir immediately becomes a national concern. Take for example the recent water pipe breakdown, or, more generally, the continuous coverage of never-ending plans to 'develop' the square: putting up footbridges, re-routing traffic, and the most recently announced idea -- a labyrinth of underground garages in the first years of the new millennium.
People run back and forth in a constant stream that wends its way from the Nile Hilton and the Egyptian Museum to the American University in Cairo, the Arab League to the imposing Mugamma'. "It's the place everyone has to cross to get anywhere," said a young banker while an older woman chipped in: "It's crowded and noisy." A store owner pointed out: "It's the best place to do business," while a foreigner commented: "It's a real nightmare to cross.â€œAmidst the hustle and bustle, one tends to forget the historical significance the square has held. Expansion and modernization are mirrored in urban evolution. Cairo is a case in point, its current centre of the centre a poignant example. The Midan, or at least the site, has developed to mirror the city -- the birth and growth of Cairo as we know it today. Once, the highly developed square was a patch of silt, part of the Nile's bed. In the sixth and seventh centuries of the Islamic era (the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries AD), the Nile shrank eastwards, uncovering land which was to become the Kasr Al-Aini area, Munira, Garden City, and Tahrir Square. In those days, however, the area was known as Al-Louq. The first developments on the new land were far from glamorous. At the beginning of the last century, the Cairo tanneries were moved from Hawsh Al-Sharqawi (south of Midan Bab AlKhalq) to the Louq area because of their bad smell. It seems, however, that they were set up in the area known today as Sherif Street. In 1865, they were moved to an area near Fustat, where they have remained ever since. The grand Midan has been a focal point around which Cairo gathers and one of the platforms of the city's modern history.
And a midan it remained, until the time of Al-Nasser Mohamed Ibn Qalawun, who developed the area into a garden reputed to have included all sorts of fruits and flowers, many of which were brought in from the Levant. Meanwhile, a certain Emir Tussun became an important political figure, prompting the sultan to give him a part of this garden. Tussun established a stable there, on the banks of the Nile. The stables won the place its name: Zaribat Tussun. After thriving for a time under Al-Nasser, the area became a quagmire of swamps and lakes interspersed with gardens. The next saviour of the site was Ali Mubarak under Ismail Pasha (1863-1879). Ismail was the patron of a comprehensive project to develop the city of Cairo and Mubarak was his right-hand man in the task. The latter earmarked an area of 359 feddans for major development and rehabilitation -- an area originally known as the Ismailia quarter, today the downtown area. Again, El-Sayed Mohamed explains the process. "The swamps and lakes were filled in, such as the Azbakiya Lake and Qarmout Lake (which was on the west side of Adli Street and extended till Soliman Pasha Street), as well as Al-Fawala Lake, which covered most of the area between Adli Street and Qasr Al-Nil, Shuqaf Lake, and others. Streets were planned in straight lines at right angles in most cases and squares were made. On both sides of the streets was a walkway for pedestrians, and the middle of the street was for cars and animals. Water pipes were extended to water the new quarters' gardens and gas was brought in to light the area. So it was inhabited by princes and great people. It became -- and remains -- the navel of the city and is the site of the most important services whether they be government, companies, banks or commercial stores."
Although Ismail is always credited with the creation of Midan Al-Ismailia, Said Pasha before him oversaw developments that fed into the creation of the square. In fact, the first landmark in the history of what is known today as Tahrir began with the Kasr Al-Nil Barracks (which stood where the Nile Hilton stands today) set up in the reign of Khedive Said (1854-1863). The barracks also served as the Ministry of War and drew people's attention to the area west of Cairo, setting the pattern for developments that were introduced by Ismail Pasha later on. The British took over the barracks when they took over Egypt, and the red buildings were to become a hated symbol of occupation. Eventually Egypt was to rid itself of the British and in the place of the barracks, the Arab League and the Nile Hilton hotel were built. AndrĂŠ Raymond indicates that the railway station (Bab Al-Hadid) was built in 1856, prompting the development of buildings on either side of the tracks, also developing the general area around Tahrir. In 1946, the National Committee of Workers and Students proclaimed Thursday 21 February of that year Evacuation Day and called for a general strike. According to a leaflet issued at the time, the day was to "make it clear to British imperialism and to the world that the Egyptian people have completed their preparation for active combat until the nightmare of imperialism that has crushed our hearts for 64 years has vanished."Ahmed Abdullah recounts the sequence of events as follows. Massive demonstrations were organized, and included students marching from Giza to the centre of Cairo. However, when the demonstrators reached Ismailia Square, they were confronted by the British garrison and began to burn the barracks and fences. In response, four British army vehicles moved towards them and a barrage of machinegun fire opened up. According to the most reliable estimate, 23 demonstrators were killed and some 120 injured. The government disclaimed all responsibility and blamed students for allowing their "peaceful demonstrations" to degenerate into violence "because of infiltration by the riffraff... in which students and educated people simply disappeared from view." The day was proclaimed Students' Day in commemoration of Bloody Thursday; the barracks were removed the same year.
The reorganization of Ismailia Square under the 23 July Revolution, who turned it into Tahrir (Liberation) Square, also had obvious political connotations, not only in the new name of the square but also in many of the buildings that were to border it: the Arab League, built in 1964, the Mugamma' -- the image of an over bloated bureaucracy -and the Nile Hilton, the first international hotel to become functional in Nasser's Egypt. All were symbols of the new regime, at least until 1972, when the Midan once again became the focus of the student movement and opposition to the status quo. It was 24 January which witnessed a dramatic escalation in the confrontation between students and the government. Students discovered that the leaders of a sit-in at Cairo University had been arrested. "Some 20,000 infuriated students headed towards central Cairo, where security forces failed to disperse them. This was the first occasion on which President Sadat had to face street riots, and it set a precedent which he never forgave or forgot," recounts Abdullah. The destination was Tahrir Square, and specifically the column that stood in its centre. The choice of venue is in itself ironic. Originally set up for Ismail's statue, the granite base was left empty for years waiting for an incumbent and as one leader after another was ousted by nature or politics, it was eventually brought down altogether. For the duration of the sit-in, however, the "cake of rock", as it was dubbed, became a platform for revolutionaries. A '70s activist describes the event thus: "They started gathering around the campus, and the spontaneous cry was 'to Tahrir', this being the closest thing we have to the centre of Cairo. The pedestal was probably an obvious choice, being the closest thing to the centre of Tahrir. It was also, as I recall, surrounded by a sort of circular garden. It therefore offered an obvious focal point to gather round. It also provided a sort of platform, which was used for speeches, and for Sheikh Imam and Ahmed Fouad Negm to sing their revolutionary songs. It was right opposite Isaivic cafĂŠ, then a gathering place for leftist intellectuals of the '60s, who were ecstatic about the student uprising and met in the cafĂŠ to write up statements and deliver them from the pedestal."
The unusual scene attracted Cairo's inhabitants who, according to Abdullah, tried to help the students by providing them with food to supplying them with blankets to guard them against the cold January night. "Later that night, the chanting students were warned to disperse by the commander of the Central Security Forces. Having refused to do so, they were dispersed by force at dawn, only to reassemble in smaller groups, which toured the central shopping area in Cairo shouting, 'Cairo, arise'," concludes Abdullah. As the hub of a city growing at phenomenal rates, it seems only natural that the Midan would witness some of the most important events of the past 25 years: not only political movements, which included the 1977 bread riots, but also events such as the funeral of Umm Kulthoum, during which over two million mourners "hijacked" the late singer's coffin in Tahrir in their march towards Al-Hussein Mosque.
The midan's development also stands testimony to the continuous, and sometimes piece-meal, development of Cairo. A neo-Islamic palace is torn down so that a high rise can be built, but the latter never rises because the owners have gone bankrupt. An ugly pedestrian footbridge is installed and pulled down, traffic is re-routed endlessly because of the construction of the underground and a LE300 million project is signed that will bring underground garages to the square in the next millennium. A giant poster of Sadat in admiral whites is put up and brought down. Because there are no definitive maps of the infrastructure, major problems such as last June's water pipe explosion result in weeks of repairs, flooding of streets and major traffic problems. Astra, a run-down coffee shop where people connected to the "art" scene once hung out, is replaced by a fast food outlet. Some green space has always been left aside. Years ago, the space was wider and people came out in their pyjamas for the evening breeze. Today, youngsters in tight jeans and T-shirts find Tahrir a convenient spot to hang out with their friends. All signs of the changing times, with reminders of the past in between. "Tahrir is a problem," whispered one old timer confidentially, "But then Cairo is a big problem. Don't we love it anyway?" Cairo offers its visitors an incredible selection of attractions; it is a mix of ancient and modern as it encompasses many former cities and their monuments. In fact the site of the city can be traced back to 4225 BC. Modern Cairo covers an area of over 282 sq km though it is hard to separate the city from some of its immediate suburbs. Bordered by the desert to the east and west, and the Nile delta to the north, the city is spread on both banks and along 40km north to south of the river Nile. However, Cairo spreads farther onto the east bank of the Nile than the west, where the city centre or hub „Tahrir Square‟ is located. The city centre is filled with institutions, commercial establishments, governmental offices, universities, and countless hotels, creating a dense pattern of constant activity. The ever-busy Midan al-Tahrir is one of the main and largest public squares; the absolute centre of the city. Northeast of Tahrir and centered on Talaat Harb Street is the bustling commercial downtown district. The city's main train station at Midan Ramses marks the city center‟s northern extent. Heading east, the city centre ends at Midan Al-Ataba where medieval Islamic Cairo takes over. Opposite downtown area is the island of Gezirah linked to Tahrir Square by the famous lion guarded bridge, Kasr al-Nil, while Al-Rodah Island - home of al-Manasterly Palace - lies just further to the south.
The heart of modern Cairo, Tahrir Square, is typical of the more modern, commercial centre of Cairo; it houses numerous important old and modern structures in addition to it being a public transport hub, all of which have turned the square into one of the most important and busiest areas in the city. However, Tahrir Square witnessed a series of past events and changes of regimes throughout the history of the country. The site of Midan al-Tahrir only gained importance in the 19th century during the rule of Khedive Ismail and his obsession to create a „Paris on the Nile‟, an urban plan encompassing long broad boulevards punctuated by squares and public gardens and royal palaces. The Khedive was particularly interested in achieving this on the western bank where he started his series of palaces or „Kasr‟ such as Kasr al-Aini, Kasr al-Nil among many others. Thus, the site of Midan Tahrir became the main square of the palace districts or sometimes known as the city‟s European quarter and was at the time named, „Midan al-Ismaileyya‟, and likewise the district was called al-Kahira al-Ismaileyya after the Khedive. Views of Tahrir Square One of the first constructions on the site was Al-Nil Palace which housed the army of the khedive and was later the headquarters of the British Army of Occupation in the late 1880s.However, the structure was torn down after the British army evacuated it in 1947, making way for new developments. Ismailia Square was filled with people after the revolution in 1952 celebrating the birth of the republic. It was renamed Midan al-Tahrir or Liberation Square in 1954 in attempt to remove all traces of the old regime. A statue of the president Abd al-Nasser was to be placed in the middle of the Square, a plan which was halted due to the 1967 defeat. No statue has crowned Cairo‟s broadest traffic circle until 2003 when a statue of Sheikh Omar Makram, slightly overlooking the square, was erected. Perhaps the most prominent and old buildings of Midan Ismailia that has survived is the recently refurbished Egyptian Antiquities Museum located on the north edge of the Square. The building designed by a French architect named Marcel Dourgon was completed by an Italian firm and inaugurated in 1902 by Khedive Abbas Helmi. Today, the huge neoclassical building houses the world's premier and largest collection of Egyptian antiquities (said to be more than 130,000 exhibits) which include the famous Tutankhamen collection and the royal Mummy Room. Another surviving structure fronting the square is the palace of Khedive Abbas Helmi‟s sister..
This fine palace was recently restored and it now houses part of the ministry of foreign affair offices. The site of kasr al-nil was replaced by the first Hilton hotel in Africa in the late 1950s. Today, the Nile Hilton, one of Cairo's major hotels occupies a remarkable spot between the square and the Nile cornice. River taxis traveling to local docks are found along the riverside walks while feluccas or sail boats are available for private rent, an exceptional way to enjoy the scenery away from the busy traffic. South of the Hilton hotel stands the Arab league headquarters, a building designed by Egyptian architect Mahmud Riad.To the south of the square is yet another miserable building, mugamma Al-Tahrir, perhaps due to its brutalist architectural style. The word „mugamma‟ meaning collection refers more accurately in this case to the large complex which houses many government administrative offices and around 18,000 employees. The 55metre high edifice was designed in 1951 by an Egyptian architect named „kamal Ismail‟ who described the design as “a simplified form of the Islamic style". Next to the mugamma building is the small and attractive mosque of „Omar Makram‟ and slightly further to the south is the intercontinental hotel. The campus of the American university of Cairo lies across from the mugamma on the busy street of kasr Al-Ainy. Situated on the main campus is a converted palace originally constructed in the 1860s for the minister of education khairy pasha. It was later place of the nestorgianaclis‟ cigarette factory. The palace now houses central administrative and faculty offices, classrooms, and the ewart memorial hall, re-used as a cultural auditorium. The eastern border of Tahrir square, originally the site of large luxurious villas, was replaced over the years by large office buildings and stores, topped with neon signs and advertisements while found beneath the structures is a string of businesses, including international fast food chains in addition to the more popular local coffee shops and restaurants such as felfela. The main stations of the Cairo underground services constructed in 1908 are under Midan Tahrir while a great many buses and taxis make the square a key part of their services. One of the latest additions to the square was a much needed underground garage. Tahrir square is always busy, and crossing on foot is far from easy. It is recommended to use the inter-connecting tunnels linking the metro stations which have exits to almost all sides of the plaza. An urban feature that makes Cairo unique is that throughout history, each new ruler, rather than destroying what he had conquered, chose to build a new city upwind from the old one and even though one can follow the historic progression of the city and its continuous expansion, Midan Al-Tahrir has remained a focal point at the heart of the city for many years. While Tahrir square might be considered as the political heart of the largest Arab country, an economic core and an epicenter of modern Cairo, it is also a huge attraction or more of a magnet for tourists, a popular evening outing for youngsters or young Cairene lovers and above all, it still remains the main public space where the population express their opinions regarding political changes and where protestations or demonstrations take place
Congratulations for all the Egyptians. A deep feeling of happiness is drowning all the Egyptians who waited too long for that great day. I kept receiving infinite congratulates messages from friends who are inside and outside Egypt, and even from the foreigners who live here in Egypt. Not too many citizens had ever expected this result. At some moment I felt satisfied with what we had achieved, until the bloody Wednesday – when the protestors in Tahrir square were attacked by thugs who rode horses and camels – so I made up my mind that we could not accept such a barbaric act and the demonstrations had to go on. What was taking place from the Thursday till Friday was a huge clash between the army leaders from one hand and from other hand the officials in the presidency and the government with a huge pressure from the great capitals such as Washington and European capitals. The clash mainly was about how the president is going to leave the country. The dispute led to conflicting statements between the officials either for the divergent views or meant to feel the pulse of the current situation. The officials started to retreat when Mubarak authorized this power to his deputy. But when the protestors disagreed on this mandate resolution, Mubarak had to step down in the end . on Friday the demonstrations were indescribable, I had to leave the Tahrir square because it was so crowded, full of happy people and there were no place for a foot.
Demonstrations were spread to streets and others areas after the Tahrir square had narrowed because of the millions who were massed in it. Massive demonstrations went out in different Egyptians cities calling for the steeping down of Mubarak, especially in Alexandria, Suez and port said .This is the first time in Egypt's history the voice and the power of the people are to be recognized. The Egyptian's people voice triumphed for the first time in the country‟s history, and I'm saying to those who were afraid from demonstrations and preferred staying at home , NOW YOU HAVE TO PARTICIPATE IN MAKING A NEW BETTER FUTUR FOR EGYPT
The Egyptian armed forces enjoy a better reputation with the public than the police do, the former perceived as a professional body protecting the country, the latter accused of systemic corruption and illegitimate violence. All four Egyptian presidents since the 1950s have come from the military into power. Key Egyptian military personnel include the defense minister Mohamed Hussein Tantawi and general Sami Hafez Enan, chief of staff of the armed forces. The Egyptian military totals around 468,500 well-armed active personnel, plus a reserve of 479,000. As head of Egypt's armed forces, Tantawi has been described as "aged and change-resistant" and is attached to the old regime. He has used his position as defense minister to oppose reforms, economic and political, which he saw as weakening central government authority. Other key figures, Sami Enan chief among them, are younger and have closer connections to both the US and groups such as the Muslim brotherhood. An important aspect of the relationship between the Egyptian and American military establishments is the 1.3 billion dollars in military aid provided to Egypt annually, which in turn pays for American-made military equipment, and allows Egyptian officers to receive training in the US. Guaranteed this aid package, the governing military council is for the most reform-resistant. One analyst however, while conceding that the military is change-resistant, states it has no option but to facilitate the process of democratization. Furthermore, the military will have to keep its role in politics limited to continue good relations with the west, and must not restrict the participation of political Islam if there is to be a genuine democracy.
Without Egyptian army in these days we do not feel safe anymore, and things weren't go in the country as it was before . Thanks for the Egyptian army
"We thought they would just interrogate him or ask him
questions. But they took him as he struggled with his hands behind his back and banged his head against the marble table inside here," Mosbah said in an interview conducted by a journalist from the liberal opposition al-ghad newspaper. Mosbah said he told the police to take it outside and they hauled said into the doorway of a nearby building. He did not emerge alive, said the cafe owner.
Khaled mohamed saeed)January 27, 1982 – June 6, 2010) was a young Egyptian man who died under disputed circumstances in the Sidi gabber area of Alexandria on June 6, 2010, after being arrested by Egyptian police. Photos of his disfigured corpse spread throughout online communities and incited outrage over allegations that he was beaten to death by Egyptian security forces. A prominent Facebook group, "we are all Khaled said", brought attention to his death and contributed to growing discontent in the weeks leading up to the Egyptian revolution of 2011. •Personal life Saied was raised by his mother and the rest of his extended family after the death of his father when he was young. Showing an interest in computers, he stayed for some time and studied computer programming in the united states. He also loved music and had been composing a musical piece before his death. Death Post mortem image of Khaled Saied's corpse in the morgue on June 6, 2010, Saied had been sitting on the second floor of a cybercafé .Two detectives from the Sidi Gaber police station entered the premises and arrested him, allegedly beating him and smashing him against objects as he was led outside to their police car . Multiple witnesses have testified that Saied was beaten to death by the police ,but the police reported that Saied had suffocated in an attempt to swallow a packet of hashish ,supported by two autopsy reports of the forensic authorities .the police further stated that Saied was "wanted for theft and weapons possession and that he resisted arrest “.Two police officers were later jailed for four days pending questioning on beatings that they allegedly carried out on Saied .It was stated by family members that he was "tortured to death for possessing video material that implicates members of the police in a drug deal”.The owner of the internet cafe in which Saied was arrested stated that he was a witness to Saied being beaten to death in the doorway of the building across the way after the detectives took him out of the cafe at the owner's request:
During an interview with the opposition party ,el-ghad's, newspaper, he was reported stating, "they dragged him to the adjacent building and banged his head against an iron door, the steps of the staircase and walls of the building...Two doctors happened to be there and tried in vain to revive him but (the police) continued beating him". This description given by the owner was confirmed as valid by the Egyptian organization for human rights. Former chief medical examiner of Egypt, Ayman Fouda, was interviewed about the proper procedure that should have been followed for Saied's autopsy. He stated that the "mechanics of the injuries" that Saied had sustained should have been investigated and his brain should have also been tested to see whether he had had a concussion, as the medical examiner that had conducted the autopsy had done neither. Aftermath: The photo of Saied's corpse was released onto the internet in June of 2010, causing a large outcry and the creation of a face book memorial page for Saied that has attracted hundreds of thousands of followers, becoming Egypt's biggest dissident Facebook page .It was because of the photo and the heavy amount of international criticism that arose from the incident that the Egyptian government consented to a trial for the two detectives involved in his death .Human rights watch released a press report about the photo that stated, "photos of Saied's battered and deformed face published on the internet show a fractured skull, dislocated jaw, broken nose, and numerous other signs of trauma" and also that the image clearly showed "strong evidence that plainclothes security officers beat him in a vicious and public manner ". Protests: On 25 June, 2010 ,Mohamed ElBaradei ,former head of the international atomic energy agency ,led a rally in Alexandria against alleged abuses by the police and visited Saied's family to offer condolences.Protests over Saied's death also occurred in Cairo's Tahrir square and in front of the Egyptian embassy in London.Thirty of the protesters in Tahrir square were arrested by central security officers after the "security personnel vigorously beat back the crowds to keep them from reaching the ministry building”. Saied's death has been named one of the catalysts of the 2011 Egyptian protests , as an instance in which people formed a community around opposition to police brutality and, by extension, other government abuses .On February 11, 2011, these protests resulted in the resignation of Hosni Mubarak after 30 years in power.
While speaking at the Harvard Kennedy school of government on April 27, 2010, ElBaradei joked that he is "looking for a job" and is seeking to be an "agent of change and an advocate for democracy" within Egyptian politics. He also made clear that his wife is not very enthusiastic about any potential run. On January 27, 2011, ElBaradei returned to Egypt amid ongoing turmoil, with the largest mass protests in 30 years, which had begun two days earlier, on January 25, 2011. ElBaradei declared himself ready to lead a transitional government if that was the will of the nation, saying that, "if [people] want me to lead the transition, I will not let them down." Subsequently, "when he joined protesters Friday after noon prayers, police fired water cannons at him and his supporters. They used batons to beat some of ElBaradei's supporters, who surrounded him to protect him." On January 28, 2011, ElBaradei was reported to have been placed under house arrest in Egypt. However, the next day, when he was interviewed by al Jazeera, he said that he was unaware of any such arrest. Later on, ElBaradei arrived in Tahrir square to join thousands of other protesters against the Mubarak regime and spoke directly to the people, stating that they "have taken back [their] rights" and that they cannot go back. A number of Egyptian political movements have called on ElBaradei to form a transitional government. ElBaradei has also stated that "the people [of Egypt] want the regime to fall." In response to the appointment of Omar Suleiman as the new vice president of Egypt, ElBaradei stated that it was a "hopeless, desperate attempt by Mubarak to stay in power. I think [that] it is loud and clear...That Mubarak has to leave today." Additionally, ElBaradei restated his position that, when Egypt does become a democratic nation, "there is no reason to believe that a democracy in Egypt would not lead to a better relationship with the US based on respect and equity."
The guardian reported that ElBaradei has been mandated by the Muslim brotherhood and four other opposition groups to negotiate an interim "national salvation government." However, BBC reports that the Muslim brotherhood, the largest opposition party banned by Mubarak's regime, has not consented to the choice of ElBaradei as the representative of the opposition. "The people have not appointed Mohamed ElBaradei to become a spokesman of them. The Muslim brotherhood is much stronger than Mohamed ElBaradei as a person. And we do not agree [that he should represent] this movement. The movement is represented by itself, and it will [appoint] a committee. . .To [delegate its representatives]." His appointment is controversial largely because of the long periods that he has spent outside the country. His appointment is seen as a recognition of the importance of various western nations' support of the revolts. Possible presidential candidacy : ElBaradei's name has been circulated by opposition groups since 2009 as a possible candidate to succeed president Hosni Mubarak in Egypt's highest executive position. ElBaradei did not make any clear statements regarding his intentions to run for the office; however, he has demanded that certain conditions be met to ensure fair elections accompanied by changes to the constitution that will allow more freedom for independent candidates before he would actually consider running for the presidency. Several opposition groups have endorsed him, considering him a neutral figure who could transition the country to greater democracy. On February 24, 2010, ElBaradei met with several opposition leaders and notable intellectuals at his home in Cairo. The meeting was concluded with an announcement for the formation of a new non-party-political movement called the "national association for change." The movement aims for general reforms in the political scene and mainly article 76 of the Egyptian constitution, which places restrictions on free presidential elections, especially when it comes to independent candidates. The banned political group, the Muslim brotherhood, was represented at the meeting by one of its key figures; however, its stand in accepting a nonmember of its group as a representative is yet unclear. It is also unknown whether Amr Moussa, the head of the who met with ElBaradei a day earlier, will be part of the new movement. On march 7th 2011 it was announced that ElBaradei intended to run for the presidential elections, this intention was later clearly stated in a live interview by ElBaradei to the on tv channel march 10th, 2011.
On June 13, 2010 Moussa visited Gaza in a move to pressure Israel to lift its economic blockade over Hamas-ruled Gaza. The visit by Moussa was the first by an official of the Arab league since the election of Hamas in 2007. Immediately after the Gaza flotilla raid, Moussa said the Arab league would go To the un security council to demand the blockade be lifted.
Amr Mohammed Moussa (born 3 October 1936) is an Egyptian diplomat. Since 2001 he has been the secretarygeneral of the Arab league, a 22-member forum representing Arab nations. Diplomatic career (1958–1991) After earning a degree in law from the Cairo university in 1957, Moussa began his diplomatic career. Between 1958 and 1972 he worked in several Egyptian missions including Egypt's embassy in Switzerland and the Egyptian mission to the united nations. From 1974 to 1977 he was an advisor to the minister for foreign affairs of Egypt. From 1977 to 1981 and again from 1983 to 1990, he was the director of the department of international organizations at the ministry of foreign affairs of Egypt. From 1981 to 1983, Moussa was the deputy permanent representative to the united nations in New York, then from 1983 to 1986 ambassador to India. In 1990, he was promoted permanent representative of Egypt to the united nations. Foreign minister (1991–2001) From 1991 to 2001, Moussa held the post of minister of foreign affairs of Egypt, for the Mubarak government. Secretary-general of the Arab league (2001) In 2001, Moussa was selected as secretary general of the league of Arab states. Critics of the Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak allege that mousse's appointment to the office of secretary-general of the Arab league was motivated by Mubarak's desire to remove him from the public spotlight. In 2003, he became a member of the united nations high level panel on threats, challenges and change for international peace and security in 2009, he signed a memorandum of understanding with the holy see and met with pope Benedict xvi in order to strengthen joint projects and to promote peace and dialogue on a cultural and political level.
Possible presidential candidacies In 2004 an online community gathered tens of thousands of signatures petitioning for Moussa to run in the 2005 elections, but there was no response. In Doha debate forum televised by the BBC in 2006, Moussa was asked about his presidential hopes. Moussa merely replied that he hoped to continue the recent run of successes that have occurred under his leadership at the Arab league until the end of his term. When asked about rumors that he might run for presidency in 2011, Moussa did not deny his intention to run for office or rule it out, leaving the door open to speculations. He argued that "it's the right of every citizen that has the capacity and efficiency to aspire to any political office that would allow him to contribute to the service of his nation". He further stated to the press that the qualities required to be the president of Egypt also apply to Gamal Mubarak, son of the Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak. He also expressed appreciation "for the confidence expressed by many people when they talk about his candidacy for the presidency and that the message reached him." Moussa held talks with Mohamed ElBaradei after his return to Egypt. Many speculate that this meeting was held to discuss constitutional reforms that will allow transparency in the election process as well as lifting restrictions on independent candidates. On February 1, 2011, following the announcement by president Hosni Mubarak that he would not stand in the upcoming presidential elections, Moussa told CNN that he would seriously think about standing himself as a candidate in the next few weeks. On the February 8 broadcast of al Jazeera English's empire, well-connected American journalist Seymour harsh stated that Moussa was considered America's favored "plan B" should Mubarak resign, "whether he knows it or not." On February 11, 2011 al Jazeera English online read from a Reuters report that stated Moussa was resigning from his position with the Arab league; on the day that president Mubarak resigned from the Egyptian presidency this furthered rumors he might make a strong bid for president when elections are announced in Egypt. On February 12, 2011 the Egyptian daily newspaper AlWafd reported that a group of Egyptian youth met with Moussa to discuss a possible nomination for the Egyptian presidential election. Moussa reportedly agreed to the nomination, but stated that he would await the currently proposed constitutional reforms in Egypt. A poll conducted during the 2011 protests asking "who do you think should be the next president of Egypt?" Showed Moussa in the lead, with 26% of respondents naming him. Criticisms Although credited with shaking up the Arab league‟s bureaucracy, Moussa has been criticized by former and current staff members of the Arab league for his management of the organization. In his book, the league of the Arab states: what‟s left of it, former Arab league and Syrian diplomat Kawkab Najib El-Rayess accused Moussa of favoritism and promoting his loyalists into the high ranks of the Arab league at the expense of the more-qualified diplomats.
I couldn't imagine until this moment what happened , did you imagine that you can change your country's constitution , this vote which I gave, it may overthrow the president whenever i want , is it because we didn't go through this situation before, or the amount of people who took the streets to vote, or because of corruption and fraud which occurred in previous the referendums or elections . we've seen a lot of polls and elections ,but I did not see in my life this turnout . you can imagine that this number has reached 45 million people, stood in a queue exceeds kilometers and this line includes families of all ages, and I did not imagine that people who went to vote were not family members only, but a whole neighborhood from all cultures. There was a display of the categories from illiterate people to university professors, all categories from the poor to the rich from the general public to the ministers, and all of them in queues do not learn to distinguish between them, the passion, emotion and love are mostly between members of the Egyptian people , and any person who wanted to do anything illegal, had been subjected to expulsion from the place, also there were some things that were not expected, some people have volunteered and have converted their vehicles to provide services and assistance to the elderly and disabled, are also taxis did so without the need for money , and did not forget the mascot which was wonderful pink finger or the finger of freedom.
We must educate Our children to be Like the Egyptian youth Barack Obama
Egyptians are the best people on earth and Deserve the Nobel peace prize Heinz Fischer
Nothing new in Egypt, the Egyptians are Writing history as usual Silvio Berlusconi
Today we are all Egyptians Jens Stoltenberg
We have to think seriously about the teaching of the Egyptian revolution in Schools David Cameron
For the first time we find people of the revolution And cleans the streets after this
I am against what the world did against Iraq, Libya, Egypt, but what Egypt did is an honor for every Arab nation and Africa. And Europe did not expect that Egypt was suffering from the dictatorial rule for 30 years, and its normal that all the countries should help the Egyptian tourism after what happened. And it is normal, countries like America and NATO countries to fight Egypt for two reasons: 1. That Egypt, is the most powerful country in the region and it participates in the peacekeeping forces. 2. And because the experience of war between Egypt and Israel on 1973 makes any army to think more than once, and the emergence of the army in the Tahrir square and the cities of Egypt. And proved that the Egyptian army can protect their land regardless of the reward. .Egypt is not like Iraq, Libya or Bahrain, it has a hidden power, that America seeks to win, but the strategic location of Egypt makes it an aspiration, because the army is able to protect it, and Egypt was one of the countries that i always wanted to visit and my willingness increased after the revolution. Amela Branckovic - bosnia My view may be different from some of the views but forward, egypt must, in this transitional period have to be smarter in dealing with its internal problems, which are reflected on the problems surrounding the region and because the egyptian people are the strongest people in the region and as if it's not something new to turn the path of this history. Salma Branckovic - bosnia The people of Egypt aren't like Tunisia and they proved that they are actually the commander of the region and it will play an important role in the coming period as the role of a major liberalization in the Arab world from tyranny and dictatorship and police Moroccan community of Zaragoza, Spain Egypt is one of the countries that must learn from them that it is the smartest and most powerful people in the world and we understand what happened because the Spaniards have suffered from the same suffering of dictatorial rule, and our willingness increased to go to Egypt to see the pharaohs and their children The views of some Spanish
The day the president stepped down, "today the Egyptians born in a new era now they can rule themselves in the shadow of democracy. The Egyptian community in Spain Congratulations to the people of Egypt - and pay special tribute to the Egyptian army who dealt intelligently and because they were not against people as the countries of south and Latin America. Ramon Guietierrez Salgues - Uruguay Congratulations to the people of Egypt and we hope to visit Egypt one day. Laia Jordana – Barcelona – Spain Luisa Cordenete de las Heras - Andalusia – Spain Grace Benítez - Perú
I cannot understand the policy of coups in the Arab world and the role of the west, but greet the people of Egypt. Sarah - Madrid -Spain I did not know that countries such as Egypt and Tunisia are suffering from economic problems due to the high reputation in tourism, but after the revolution, it revealed that these countries are like small countries, for reasons too big, greeting and appreciation for both peoples. Veronica - Ecuador Compared to the fall of the Berlin wall, it's just another run of the mill coup. Let's see where your people get!~ David Addison - USA Personally, I think people have the right to protest. However, when the violence? Involved ,then I am strongly opposed. In Egypt, Mubarak has resigned and you? Clearly in the best interest of the people, but we must be wary of his successors in government. It „been a key player in peace negotiations in the middle east and now? Gone, that could harm the negotiations. We hope that his successors will continue to be leaders in those peace talks, but only time will tell? Say. Also there? The fear that the Muslim brotherhood can obtain parts for power, but I think only about this? I hope that this does not make Egypt the “antiIsrael ”,ecc come your question included, “what do you think people outside of Egypt ”… then I would stress that.. Wallacey - UK
Sami Mohamed - Spain
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