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glycogen and triglycerides play the role of long-term energy storage and are formed and stored in fat tissue. Triglycerides cannot pass through cell membranes, but can be converted at the cell wall into free fatty acids and glycerol by lipoprotein. Fatty acids can then be taken up by the cells by the fatty acid transporter. This requires multiple steps and makes it a slower process than the energy obtained from glucose, however triglycerides have a number of benefits. • They can grow very large in size and they can be packed closely together, and can increase or decrease in size according to needs. • They are more energy dense. • They are hydrophobic, so they do not include water weight when being stored.

Triglyceride carbons are all bonded to hydrogens, unlike in carbohydrates which are linked to water, so they lend themselves to long-term compact stores of energy. Unlike glycogen, they allow for complete oxidation of the fatty acid from the hormone-sensitive enzyme lipase to provide high caloric content, about 414 kJ/mol. The chemical structure and physical form of these bio-molecules play a large determining factor in their role within the dance of life. Molecules with easily accessible bonds, fewer bonds, and molecules that are more linear, lend themselves to short term energy storage, with rapid use and re-use – take ATP as example, compared to the highly branched nature of glycogen (Fig. 2). These molecules typically have

Figure 2: ATP [14] left (Short Term Use) | Glycogen [15] right (Long Term Storage)

Zygote Quarterly 28 | vol 2 | 2020 | ISSN 1927-8314 | Pg 131 of 140

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ZQ: Our mission is to establish a credible platform showcasing the nexus of science and design in the field of biologically inspired design,...

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ZQ: Our mission is to establish a credible platform showcasing the nexus of science and design in the field of biologically inspired design,...

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