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ZQ28

The Dance of Life Ryan A. Church

carbon-oxygen (C=O) double bond, which has a very high bond energy of 803 kJoules/ mol (12 grams could power a 100 watt lightbulb for an hour) Further, there are usually two or more C=O bonds in quinones, which come in four different geometries (Fig. 1), so multiple charges can be stored in a relatively compact structure, resulting in a high charge capacity. Quinones are attractive candidates for electrode materials compared with conventional electrode materials that contain heavy metal elements, though stability issues remain [11].

Chemical Origami: Energy Generation and Storage The shape and geometry of molecules determines much of their functionality. In plants, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a largely linear molecule at its activation site. Synthesized from the building blocks of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic

Figure 1: Four different geometries of Quinones [12]

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phosphate (P), they are joined to form ATP. The reverse process (hydrolysis) of ATP into ADP and inorganic phosphate releases 30.5 kJ/mol of energy by breaking the linear phosphate-oxygen bond. ATP is ubiquitous in nature, and is often referred to as the energy currency of nature [13], because it exists in both plants and animals, and its transition from ATP to ADP+P and back to ATP again is the main dynamic dance of life. In fact, people will transform their own body weight in ATP every day, just in their daily routine. ATP is used as a short-term energy storage mechanism, as thousands of molecules are transformed every second in your body. Molecules that provide longer duration forms of energy storage include carbohydrates, which are branched in geometry and more compact. In plants, starch is another carbohydrate that also has a highly branched geometry, allowing for compact long-term storage of energy. In animals,

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