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are created equal. Eukaryotic cells, those of plants, animals, fungi and unicellular organisms, have membrane enclosed organelles (including a nucleus) and perform more complicated functions than the prokaryotic cells of bacteria. Within the eukaryotic cell are the following parts: outer membrane, nucleus, and various organelles (endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, mitochondria, and secretory granules) suspended within the gel-like cytoplasm. Also, within this cytoplasm are

microfilaments and microtubules which have been less studied and understood. The prevailing paradigm for cell structure in the late 1980s and early 90s could be summarized metaphorically as a ‘tensed balloon filled with molasses or jello’ (3) The nucleus, cell membrane and organelles were where all the important activities occurred, and the cytoplasm in between was seen by many as so much homogenous liquid space. Most science and engineering researchers had posited that the dense

Monadnock Tensegrity Photo: Andrew Scott, 2017 | Flickr cc

Zygote Quarterly 25 | vol 1 | 2019 | ISSN 1927-8314 | Pg 15 of 118

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zq25 (zygote quarterly)