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“European Energy Quest”

SOLAR DISH THERMAL ANDASOL SPAIN Granada

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“European Energy Quest�

Table of Data Name Country: Location:

General Data Andasol Spain Granada Parabolic Dish Systems

*Type Year of construction Energy producction *Capacity factor *Performance

Parabolic Dish

Heat transfer fluid Engine Investment Avoided emissions

Parabolic cylinder technology 2,008 181,831,000 kWh 1,010 MWh for 7.5 hours duration 65% Level 1 Generation *Number of Parabolic Dish 205,000 Control Model(Manufacturer) Direct fluid (H2 or He) technology Indirect (Sodium) *Power/unit Type(Manufacturer) Economical aspects 900,000 million euros CO2->152,000 per year

* Data essential for the game

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49.9 MW DC engine. Moeller engines


“European Energy Quest”

General Data Location (Description of environment around of plant) Andasol is the world’s first complex thermal and thermal storage. Andasol, is located in the province of Granada, Spain. Andasol-1, 50 MW, was built in one of the highest plateaus and extensive of the Iberian Peninsula (average elevation of 1100m.) Thanks to this point it has one of the best resources from direct solar radiation in Spain. Its location near a power line of 400 kV, the availability of cooling water from the northern slope of Sierra Nevada, the proximity of road and rail infrastructure and the provision of flat land with no protection for environmental causes, makes it the perfect place to implement the project

Diagram

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“European Energy Quest�

Level 1.- Generation Parabolic dish A solar thermal collector is a solar collector designed to collect heat by absorbing sunlight. They are several adjustable mirrors, which reflect sunlight, making them converge in the boiler. Its solar concentration is of 82:1 They have a reflective surface dish. Absorber tubes. Its metal support structure (rigidity, precision) weights 14,000 tons. It has sensors and the position of the sun is titled. Also above the plates there are tubes with oil.

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“European Energy Quest�

Heat transfer fluid Is the generation, use, transformation and exchange of thermal energy and heat between physical systems. Heat transfer is classified into various mechanisms, Such as heat conduction, convection, thermal radiation, and transfer of energy by phase changes. The heat transfer is classified into various mechanisms, such as heat conduction, convection, thermal radiation and the energy transfer phase changes. Engineers also consider the mass transfer of different chemical species, either cold or hot, to achieve the transfer of heat. While they have these different characteristics, they often occur simultaneously in the same system. Although these mechanisms have different characteristics, they often occur simultaneously in the same system.

Engine Hydride heat engines use the heat from hot water to compress hydrogen. The hydrogen is then expanded through a magnetically coupled piston to produce usable work. Energy for this hydride water pump is supplied by hot water-type solar collectors. The hot water passes through a hydride heat exchanger, causing the alloy to release hydrogen at elevated pressure. The compressed hydrogen enters a vertical cylinder where it moves a piston. During the upward stroke of the piston, water is pumped up from the well and passes through the hydride heat exchanger to provide cooling before it is used. During the downward stroke, an electric generator is rotated, producing the electrical power that operates the hot water circulating pump and recharges a 12 volt battery needed for early morning start up.

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“European Energy Quest�

Alternator It is responsible for generating electric power, thanks to the rotary motion of the turbine, the generator transforms this motion into electrical energy by induction. Is a device capable of maintaining an electric potential difference between two points (called poles or terminals) to transform mechanical energy into electricity. This transformation is accomplished by the action of a magnetic field on the electrical conductors disposed on a frame (also called the stator)

Other parts BOILER: It is the central part of the converging solar rays reflected from the heliostats, reaching a high temperature. In reaching this high temperature, it heats the water passing through it and turns it into vapor. TURBINE: The steam generated in the boiler moves the turbine which is connected to the generator so that it receives its motion. ACCUMULATOR: Stores the heat energy that has not been used, an example of the classic thermos of hot water for later use in the absence of solar radiation. CONDENSER: It's where the steam is converted (from the turbine) in liquid water. This is because inside the condenser cooling circuit there is a charge of cooling the vapor into liquid water. PUMP: It is responsible for boosting the water back to the boiler.

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“European Energy Quest” CONTROL CENTER: Where it is controlled the entire process of transforming solar energy into electrical energy.

Other Questions of interest (Ecological footprint of manufacturing parts, environment impact) - What danger is there when they reach such high temperatures? - Is solar power provided to supply the most advanced areas of Spain? - What happens in the winter? How much power is reduced in this season? - Is there any kind of danger for the people who work there?

Advantage and inconvenient (Information what help us a settings the strategy game) ADVANTAGES: By using the Sun's energy, being a type of renewable energy has a low environmental impact with respect to technologies which use fossil fuels. One of the main benefits of this renewable energy is to reduce emissions associated with electricity production. These emissions include greenhouse gases and those that cause acid rain from fossil fuel plants and the radioactivity associated with the nuclear fuel cycle. Other environmental benefits of renewables are saving water, improving soil quality and water, waste treatment, reduction of pollution in transportation and other such, the security of energy supply, employment, energy market restructuring and improving the economy of less developed countries.

Renewable energy sources have also a social and economic dimension, it is a commitment to decentralized energy sources, free, generate employment to a greater extent than conventional batteries and whose enjoyment is guaranteed by using simple technologies and all easily accessible. These technologies are an important impetus for job creation.

Basically, the advantages of solar power are: ◦ After the installation and initial investment is made, no further costs arise (except maintenance), consumption of electricity is free. ◦ No fuel used, eliminating the hassle of having to supply and the risk of storage.

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“European Energy Quest” ◦ Environmental Impact null: solar energy or waste, garbage, smoke, dust, noise, odors, etc.. ◦ The solar energy is infinite, it won´t end.

DISADVANTAGES: ◦ Need to install the plant in areas where solar radiation is perceived more hours per day and more days a year. ◦ Slower performance than other systems. ◦ Increased mechanical complexity than other systems that use renewable energy. ◦ Danger by high temperatures are reached. ◦ Need for use of heat accumulators for when there is sufficient solar radiation ◦ Great environmental impact

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“European Energy Quest”

SOLAR THERMAL PLANT G R OU P Country Location

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“European Energy Quest”

Data Table Name Country: Location: Type Year of construction Energy production Capacity factor Performance

Heliostat

General Data Gemasolar Spain Fuentes de Andalucía (Seville) Thermal Solar Tower 2011 19´9 MW 27500 houses 19´9 MW Level 1 Generation Number of heliostats. 2.650 heliostats. Control It is controlled by a remote control. Model (Manufacturer) It has a surface of 115 m2

Heat transfer fluid

Technology Power Type (Manufacturer) Type

Turbine Electricity Generation Receptor Investment Payback Avoided emissions

-air, -steam water -molten sodium -molten salts. 19,9 MW of power Seam turbine. Thermal. Volumetric receivers tubes, open circular cavity

Economical aspects It will win about 420 million dollars. The payback is about 300 million dollars. To replace a typical coal power plant of 2000 MW would be needed 10 solar thermal power towers . This decrease in more than 14 million tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere.

*Data essential for the game

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*


“European Energy Quest”

General Data Location I t´s in a Spanish municipality in the province of Seville, Andalusia. In 2008 it had 7360 inhabitants. Its surface area is 150 km ² and has a density of 49.01 inhabitants / km ². It is situated at an altitude of 183 m and 61 km from the provincial capital, Seville. Located in a fertile plain between the rivers Genil and Corbones, in the valley of the Guadalquivir, in the region of the Countryside

Diagram The sun hits the heliostats, and they redirect sunlight to the tower which makes heat molten sodium or salt tanks, and these are heated to more than 450 ºC. then, they heat water tanks, which evaporate and operate a steam turbine. This transfers the rotation energy to the alternator, which makes electric energy. The electricity is delivered to a transformer to be injected into the distribution grid. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 56

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“European Energy Quest”

Level 1.- Generation (Description of mission, operation and main parts with pictures of every part)

Heliostat A heliostat is a set of mirrors that moves on two axes normally, which helps keep the reflection of solar rays impinging on it at all times at one point or small area, breaking the beam reflected in the diurnal motion of the earth.

Heat transfer fluid Fluids that get hot quickly to get the maximum utilization of the heat energy received from the sun, it is usually molten salt or sodium, which has low heat capacity. When heliostats heat it, this reaches 500 ºC.

Turbine The turbines consist of one or two paddle wheels, called rotor and stator, the first being part, driven by the fluid, drag the axis on which gives the rotation.

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“European Energy Quest”

Alternator An alternator is an electrical machine, which can transform mechanical energy into electrical energy, generating an alternating current by electromagnetic induction.

Receptor It is the point of the tower where the heliostats concentrate sunlight. It is 140 metrs tall, and it transfers heat to the salt or sodium tank.it´s usually in the middle of the electric central.

Other parts The Boiler: is where is stored the fluid to be heated.

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Storage tank : Here is kept the heated fluid.

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“European Energy Quest”

Advantage and inconvenient Advantage: It is a completely clean energy, which uses power source inexhaustible and powerful, the sun .Also isn’t dependent on fossil fuels. It can save 30000 CO2 emissions each year. It’s a new form of energy and technologically advanced, and its apacity facor is about 75%. Inconvenient: It’s much more expensive than conventional power plants, and produces onetenth power than conventional power plants. It needs too much space and alters the environment.

Other Questions of interest A solar tower in Arizona will supply energy to 150,000 houses for 80 years.Will produce about 200MW and will open in 2015, measured 800 m high, is repayable in 11 years and cost about $ 750 million.

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“European Energy Quest”

PHOTOVOLTAIC GROUP Country Location

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“European Energy Quest”

Table of Data Name Country: Location: *Type Year of construction Energy producction *Capacity factor *Performance

Solar trackers

PV modules

DC/AC Converter

*Investment *Payback Avoided emissions

General Data Central fotovoltaica de La Puebla de Montalbán Spain Toledo Photovoltaic group 1993 1150 MWh / Year 20% 16% Level 1 Generation Number of Solar trackers 7936 Control Model(Manufacturer) Nukem ,BP *Power per unit 20W Dimensions *Number of modules 3 Power 1 MW Voltage 15Kv Model(Manufacturer) Economical aspects 9.006.928 € 4.560 tons

* Data essential for the game

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“European Energy Quest”

General Data Location (Description of environment around of plant) La Puebla de Montalbán (Toledo). The ground is inclined 30 º. There aren’t any trees near there. There aren’t shadows and the sun is visible. The site of this Photovoltaic Central was chosen bearing in mind the strong sunstroke in the area, the existing electrical grid, the available land and the good infrastructure and easy access through national and regional roads.

Diagram (Description operation diagram of a typical coal-fired thermal power with legend of every part)

The basic element of a photovoltaic central is the joint of photovoltaic cells that capture the solar energy, transforming it in electric direct current through the photoelectric effect. They are incorporated into modules. The photovoltaic panels are formed by these modules. The electricity production of those cells depends on the meteorological conditions. The meteorological conditions are analyzed by a meteorological tower. The electricity energy that flow through the transmission network does it as alternating current. It’s conducted, firstly to a DC cabinet, where is converted into AC by an inverter, and finally it’s transported to an AC cabinet. The electricity energy goes through a transformation centre where is adapted to current and voltage conditions of the transport lines for the use in consumer centres.

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“European Energy Quest�

Level 1.- Generation Solar trackers They turn the modules towards the sun

DC/AC Converter They convert the DC current to AC current. The converter has to provide AC power with the same characteristics of the grid to which it is connected. Practically no changes are allowed, in order to avoid disturbances on the electrical distribution network

PV modules PV modules are formed by a set of photovoltaic cells that produce electricity from sunlight that strikes them. Their effectiveness is higher if the crystals are larger, but are also higher weight, thickness and cost.

Other parts

Transformer: It changes the voltage of the current.

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“European Energy Quest�

Other Questions of interest Photovoltaic solar energy, like other renewable energy is an inexhaustible source, contributes to the energy self-sufficiency and is less prejudicial to the environment. Electricity generation from solar radiation has zero or minimal environmental effects. It doesn't produce CO2 emissions, or the ground conditions, water or wildlife and is a completely silent system.

Advantage and inconvenient Advantage: -The energy from the sun is clean and renewable. -The materials used require little maintenance. -Photovoltaic systems have a long duration, are silent and are characterized by their simplicity. - It is the unbeatable solution in remote areas that otherwise wouldn't have access to electricity.

Inconvenient:- The visual impact of solar parks - Energy is only produced when there is light and depends on the amount of sunshine. - The cost of installations is high. - The payback period of investment is long, about 10 years. - The performance is quite low, due to low efficiency of solar cells, in many cases less than 20%.

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“European Energy Quest”

Combined Cycle Power Plant Country Location

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“European Energy Quest”

Table of data Name: Country: Location: *Type: Year of construction: * Fuel: Consumption: Energy producction: *Capacity factor: *Performance: Gas Turbine Electricity Generation Refrigeration System Steam Turbine Recovery Boiler *Investment *Payback

General Data Central Térmica Bahía de Algeciras Spain San Roque, Cádiz Combined Cycle Power Plant 2007 Natural Gas 126.567.335 t/year 820 MW 1000 MV 56% Level 1 Generation *Power/unit x number units 400 MW/2 units x 2= 800MW Type(Manufacturer) Type Technology Level 2 Cogeneration Power 270MW Type (Manufacturer) Power 0MW Type(Manufacturer) Economical aspects 400.000.000€ 800.000.000€

* Data essential for the game

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“European Energy Quest”

General Data Location The plant is located in a bay

Fuel Natural Gas

Diagram

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“European Energy Quest�

Level 1.- Generation Gas Turbine Seize the momentum of the hot gas to move the turbine

Alternator Take advantage of the rotational movement of the turbine to produce electricity

Refrigeration system Cools water to then repeating the cycle

Other parts

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“European Energy Quest�

Level 2.- Cogeneration Recovery Boiler Take advantage the heat of hot gas to heat water and produce steam to move the turbine

Steam turbine Take advantage the movement of steam to move the turbine and generate electricity

Other parts

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“European Energy Quest”

Other Questions of interest This type of plants is much less polluting than other plants. Furthermore, the performance of these may reach 60%.

Advantage and inconvenient Advantages: • It has a low level of contamination. • It has a high efficiency. • Produces a lot of electricity.

Disadvantages: • It needs a great investment. • It needs more maintenance. • It spends a lot of natural gas.

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“European Energy Quest�

Questions: What type of fuel does Combined Cycle use? Natural gas Petrol Water What kind is the turbine in Combined Cycle plant ? Tubine of gas Turbine pelton Turbine francis Over which is the performance of Combined Cycle plant? 55% 70% 65% Which liquid cools the hot gas? Oil Vinegar Water Why is named Combined Cycle plant? Because Combine two fuels Because Combine two turbines Because Combine two

What element transforms the DC to AC of the photovoltaic plant? transformer Converter Solar tracker

What is this part of the photovoltaic power plant?

PV moduleTransformerSolar tracker

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“European Energy Quest” What is the performance of the photovoltaic plant? 24%16%10%

Which of these things is indispensable to a photovoltaic plant? Metrological towerControl roomPhotovoltaic cells

What isn’t an advantage of photovoltaic plant? The energy from the sun is clean and renewable The payback period of investment is long, about 10 years The materials used require little maintenance

What is the shape of the sheets of the solar dish? Square Cylindrical Rectangular

What liquid is heated on the sheets of the solar dish? Oil Water Alcohol What is modified in the sheets throughout the day of the solar dish? The fluid The size The orientation

What kind of gas is used by the engine of the solar dish? H2 Ar N Which is the temperatures of the sheets of the solar dish? 60 ºC aprox. 150 ºC aprox. 100 ºC aprox. How is named the mirror which heats the power? Heliostat Heliomirror Solarmirror

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“European Energy Quest� Which fluid is not used in solar thermal plants of tower? Molten salt Molten sodium Molten Magnesium Where is kept the heated fluid? The bolier Under the tower Storage tank How many heliostats are there in a solar thermal plant of tower? About 30 About 3000 About 300000 How many CO2 can a tower solar thermal save? 30000 tonnes 300 0 tonnes 3 tonnes

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Geopolitics factors: • An explosion in a nuclear French reactor makes an ecological, economic and sanitary disaster all over the world. It increases the invoice of the gas and the electricity a 15%. • The water of your hydroelectric stations fall heavier than normal and it breaks your turbines. You lose one hydroelectric stations. • The normative regulations, which establish the price of the electric energy of the solar photovoltaic stations, changes and you must pay an extra of 10%. • The price of the fuel increases and the production of your stations go down a 20%. • This year it hasn’t rained and the govern forces you to close your hydroelectric stations to save water for the summer. You cannot produce enough energy to supply the consumption and your production goes down a 35%. • A European geologist has found an oil well in Spain and its price goes down a 10%. • All of your wind power stations are in the distance of the migratory birds and one of them hits against a windmill and it makes that your production goes down a 65%. • A terrorist has hit against an important oil well and it has exploded. Now the oil is a 25% higher. • This two years it hasn’t been munch sunny, so your solar photovoltaic stations hasn’t reached the minimums and the price improves a 36%. • Europe wants to reduce the CO2 emissions and it creates a law which promotes the creation of renewable power stations. Your country builds them and the price of the energy improves a 5%.

Tecnhical Reports - Questions - Geopolical Factors  

Tecnhical Reports - Questions - Geopolical Factors from Spain Comenius project Code: 2011-1-ES1-COM06-34249-1

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