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DESIGN STUDIO AIR Progress Journal Tu tor s : Ja s Jo hns t on & A l i son F arley

E d win Go h 575558


CONTENTS Week 1 EOI: Case for Innovation: Architecture as a Discourse Week 2 EOI: Case for Innovation: Computation in Architecture Week 3 EOI: Case for Innovation: Parametric Design Week 4 EOI: Cut - Develop [Matrix Exploration] Week 5 - 8

Cut - Develop [Fabrication & Reflection]

Week 9

Gate way Project: Project Proposal

Week 10

Gate way Project: Presentation and Delivery

Week 11

Post Explorations and Refinement

Week 12

Conclusion to EOI & Learning Outcomes



Expression of Interest: Case for Innovation I . 1 . 1 A r chi t e c t u re a s a di s c ou rs e




Communication is a really important part in an architectural discourse, in the sense that they are one way in which ideas about architecture might be conveyed to the public who may otherwise be ignorant of them.


- Architectural Association, London


St. Petersburg Pier Architectural Precedence


Reciprocity Bjork Ingels has created a reputation for completing buildings that are programmatically and technically innovation as they are coast and resource conscious, a motive that is worth exploring. I have had profound interest in BIG ever since starting my architectural education and I often find myself inspired by the works that they have achieved or proposed. BIG is undoubtedly one of the largest firms in Denmark and they are known to design public buildings that inspire the people around it. Bjork has once said that he wanted to design buildings that can be used by those passing by and not just the main uses, a saying which I have highly hold up to till today.

The Pier is integral to the identity of the people of Saints Petersburg - a landmark - that is a point of reference and gathering point for the people of the city. The wave pier is shaped by the life within and around it and is flexible and open to change. As for the gateway project, the Wyndham City Council wants an inspiring and enriching municipality proposal and i believe the ideas in the Pier Project would apply for the gateway proposal. Rather than producing an eye catching structure, designing an installation that would represent the identity of the community of Wyndham is more inherent because the first thing that the drivers should know before entering City is its identity.

Project Source:


Yardmasters Building Architectural Precedence


Patterns in architecture The Yardmasters Building presents itself back to the city as an exquisite, mysterious box: a jewel in the junk-heap. This building is moody. With the Melbourne weather, these moods change rapidly. What is interesting about this project is the effect on its materials in time and how it would reflect the environment it sits in. As it ages, the patina of the facade will express its environment, as if it had always been there or simply emerged from the ground. The irony is that this building is located at a highly exposed vantages but is however inaccessible to the public.

The Yardmasters project is an eye catching one at Hindsight. It was introduced during the lecture in week 9 and I was highly intrigued by the patterns produced on the facade. One of the architects behind the project mentioned that the patterns came from the all time celebrated football league “champions league� logo. The low construction cost, complexity of the patterning and materiality effects in all makes this project sublime. The 3 key characteristics of in design of this project could be used to employ into the Gateway Proposal.

Project Source:


M AT E R I A L I N A R C H I T E C T U R E “In a dramatic departure from formally and materially reductive forms for the twentieth-century architecture, it is now possible to materially realize complex geometric organizational ideas that were previously unattainable� (Kolarevic R. in Material Effects, 2008, p.6). The reading Material Effects by Kolarevic describes that in material-based design approaches, computation allows for higher integration on a multitude of levels, ranging from the composition of the material itself to the assembly of systems from multiple material elements to the behaviour of systems of manifold material constituents affecting each other and interacting within a field of various external influences. Intuitively, interrogating materiality is fundamental to new attitudes towards achieving design intent.


Responsive Surface Structure Architectural Precedence

Form Generation and Materialisation The research project by Steffen Reichert explores the possibility of utilising the dimensional changes of wood induced by changes in relative humidity in the environment. This opens up for a strikingly simple yet truly ecologically embedded architecture in constant feedback and interaction with its surrounding environment. This imparts how a material’s responsive capacity can be explored through a field of surprisingly simple components that are all at the same time embedded sensor, no-energy motor and regulating element. As an intergrationg into my EOI, I aim to employ the capacity to materially compute form as well as texture the later projects integrating a responsive-performance based on its surrounding properties like changes in climate or the motion of proximate elements and succeedingly without the need of mechanical controlled devices.

Project Source:


I.1.2 Computation in Architecture


Aortic Arc Computational technique as a discourse


Synthesizing Idiosyncrasies Why computing in architecture? “What is different and new today is the unique opportunity that the advent of digital technology presents to the architect: the ability to codify a design as an algorithmic expression of purely geometric and mathematical constructs, allowing a precision of formgeneration and a speed of its exploration that were previously unimaginable� (Architectural Design, March/April Issue vol. 216, p. 100). Aortic Arc is designed by the architecture firm VRO (Visible Research Office) which functions as a canopy for a student lounge in the California College of the Arts. The chosen project uses a panelized system which is developed using the software program Generative Components and a customized Rhino script that turned raw data into a drawing file to drive a CNC milling machine that generated all the parts, which in a sense makes fabrication much more simple. This discerns that computation allows us to algorithmically generate complex free form geometric designs and experiment with unlimited possibilities without displacing its method of construction or geometric language. The expressive power of the computer images could also precisely simulate our ideas despite the countless modifications made to the design form during our study. Without computing, the formulation, analysis or even the developement of a complex organic forms would likely be impossible. In computational architecture, we as students are slowly adopting to digital designs and laser cutting, which simplifies the fabrication processes.

Project Source:


I.1.3 Parametric Modelling: A design representation in Architecture 03/2012 “In the first sense (design as an act), parametric modelling can be used to model design criteria (at least to an approximation) into design representations, enabling exploration of wellperforming possibilities beyond that possible with conventional media� (Woodbury R. in A Process Account, p. 12). Architecture are adopting parametric as a design representation. Parametric modelling systems has allowed designers to model classes of design and parts of the editing process where as using them, designers design both their work and how it can change in its context further simplifying the process. Computer numerical control machinery enables fabrication of complex designs direct from computer representation, which informs a dramatic minimisation on the cost of fabrication thus opening new realms of practical possibility.


Surface Filters Like any design representation, parametric modelling can be used towards several ends such as form finding. “Parametric modelling appears to lower barriers to entry of form-finding strategies in architectural design” (Woodbury R, p. 4). By making it possible to model an external effect and a design’s response, parametric modelling allows access to a space of adaptive designs that would be very difficult to reach with current conventional computer-based design representations. The Madren 5340 is a temporary installation designed and fabricated by infrared in the context of the platforma 1 exhibition. The project exemplifies traits of form finding through generating surfaces through parameterization until a desired outcome is achieved. A doubly curved surface is formed by exploring the interpolation between several sine curves of different wave length and amplitude. It is also informed that environmental parameters can be implemented in the design process, leading to “optimization”.

Madren 5430 Parametric scripting to fabrication

Source: www.

“By supporting designers in explicitly stating intentions, parametric modelling systems engender exploration of new and rich formal possibilities”. -Ryan Woodbury, 2009 15


Expression of Interest: Research Project

I. 2. 1 Scop e o f p o s s ib ilities - E x pl ori n g M a t ri c e s



[ A r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t w i t h C a l v i n Yo n g a n d L e r J i - K e a t ]

Cut: Develop

This research project has been intended to encapsulate and diversify the grasshopper learning process. Research on case studies and precedence were also done to understand parametric design better. In groups of three, we were advocated to experiment with countless of matrices to stimulate the design process and later on proceed with several fabrication methods. In time, this project would have allowed further development our understanding on the software and too finding a connection between the design intention and meaning with Wyndham.




Design is a process we engage in when the current situation is different from some desired situation, and when the actions needed to transform the former into the latter are not immediately obvious. Yehuda E. Kalay, 2005



Input , As s oc i a t i o n & O u t p uts

Formation of Matrices

Surface Patterning Input: Attractor Points Association: Image Sampler Output: Rotation 1.1


Image Pattern Input: Overlapping Patterns Association: Image Sampler Output: Data Driven Rotation





Orient Curve Input: Surface Grid Association: Attractor Points Output: Orient Direction






Orient Surface Input: Surface Grid Association: Attractor Points Output: Orient Curve





Data Driven Extrusion Input: Attractor Points Association: Image Sampler Output: Rotation


Surface Patterning is initiated by using arbitary points functioning as attractors. The attractors increases the size of the arpertures as it draws closer to them. Patterns 1.2 to 2.4 were driven by overlapping patterns, where the outcome is perceived from a pattern surfacing another pattern. The orient curve technique is generated by orienting shapes onto a surface plane and using attractor points to remap the distance between each shape. The orient surface is similar to the orient curve definition, a diagrid surface is referenced onto a plane and multiple point attractors are used to determine varying outcomes.





Data driven extrusion is determined by an image sampler, where z-axis extrusion levels are determined by the darker areas of the image. Doubly curve is the created through the series of strips oriented on bezier curves. Surface diagrid is the connection of lines between the intersection of the x and y frames. Box attractors is similar to point attractors on a surface, the distance between each solid box is determined by the proximity of the arbitrary point. The parametric facade is similar to the parametric brick wall method, where a 3-dimensional geometry is created within a box morph and orientated on the face of the surface plane.

Doubly Curve





Input:Lofted Surfaces Association: Plane Components Output: Orient Object

Surface Diagrid Input:Lofted Curves Association: Series of Numbers Output: Line between 2 points




Iso Curve Patterning






Input: Surface Normals Association: Divide Curve Output: Interpolated Curve

Box_Attractir Points Input: Move Geometry Association: Attractor Points Output: Orient Gradient Shader









Parametric Facade Input: Lofted Curve Association: Input Geometry Output: Orient object

The matrices produced was done individually in an attempt to instigate pattern and form finding. I did not restrict my exploration with just a few sets of definitions, thus I took the liberty to search for several other definitions on forums, design blogs and resourceful workshops. The definitions provided on the LMS were starters but later on was driven to search for more outsourced definitions that caught my interest. Grasshopper proved to be a flexible software (allowing a generation of countless designs) and with the intergration with rhino made it very versatile, which enables the experimentation with ‘baked’ objects using the points on/off modifier.


I n p ut , Ass ociation & Outpu ts Honeycomb Morphologies & Surface Extrusion

Te s t R e n d e r Input: Divide Surface Association: VB Script Output: Loft Curves


The Grasshopper definition extracts the honeycomb structures from two surfaces

Honeycomb Morphologies have become a very popular subject in architectural design because of their structural and aesthetic properties, so I decided to join the party and play with this particular kind generative projects. This experiment develops a honeycomb system that is able to adapt to a local existing context and to different performance requirements. The experiment represents a tool to create modular structure systems that can be adaptable to different scales and context spaces. The objective of this task was to develop a generative design strategy for architectural design that could be developed under digital fabrication methods.


I was particularly interested in honeycomb structures during my early years of education but lack the capacity and knowledge to model one. Nevertheless, the honeycomb can is modelled in less than 5 minutes if one is proficient in grasshopper. this allows the system to adapt better to a pre established place (interior spaces for example)


once you have selected both surfaces they get subdivided and then a VBscript component extract the honeycomb patterns from the surface , which are then used to create lofted surfaces.


2.0 Te s t R e n d e r Input: Divide Surface Association: Image Sampler Output: Data Driven Extrusion

Surface 1 Rows - 30 Columns - 33 Scale - 0.5

This definition is similar to the Madren 5430, with varying extrusion heights on a surface plane based on an image sampler. In attempt to reverse the Madren process, I experimented with the Data driven extrusion definition. The divide surface component was used as the input, image sampler as the associative technique and extrusion to output the data. Surface 1 was just experimenting the texture generated by mapping an image onto the plane. Surface 2, experiments were made on the rows, columns and diameter of the circle to achieve a certain effect. Surface 3 and 4, accentuation was made onto the extrusion height of the geometry. The darker parts of the image highlights the extrusion. The sequence in images explores the varying patterns generated by the different scales and extrusion heights, it shows a gradual progression in form and a metamorphosis of shapes.


Surface 2 Rows - 20 Columns - 20 Scale - 3.00



Surface 4

Surface 3

Rows Columns Scale Extrusion

Rows Columns Scale Extrusion


50 40 0.30 6


40 30 3.15 2


CA S E S T U DY P R O JE C T S Every beating secon d - Aeg is Hyp o sur f ace - OMA McCo r mic k Tr ib un e Cen tr e


Eve ry Beating Second Every Beating Second, transforms the airspace of SFO’s new Terminal 2 Recomposure Zone. The sculpture installation cuts three round skylights into the ceiling, from which descend delicate layers of translucent colored netting to create three voluptuous volumetric forms. A series of shaded outlines below are embedded into the terrazzo floor, reflecting the precise shadows that would occur on the summer solstice if the sun could penetrate through the roof. This project exemplifies the unorthodox use of an orthodox material - the use of nets to create installations that inspire. It marks an innovation in materiality (engineering) which uses colored fiber to create an interesting form and is generated using computer with gravity and wind simulations. In connection to the gateway project, it creates an inspiring and enriching form at a welcome point (airport gateway) which is exciting and eye catching. It descends a multivalent meaning and could provide an entry statement for the city of Wyndham. This project emphasizes on arrival experience which in relation to the gateway creates a form of welcoming notion to the drivers.

Air an d lig h t r espo ns i v e Unorthodox use of materials


Aeg is Hy p o s ur face dEcoi Architects

“Parametr ic d es i g n call s f or re j e c t i on of f i xe d s ol u t i on s a n d fo r an ex p l o rati o n s o f i n f i n i t y va ri abl e of pos s i b i l i t i e s � -Bra n ko K ol arevi c, 2004


Aegis of the mor tal movement The Aegis Hyposurface is a project by dEcoi architects, designed principally by Mark Goulthorpe and the dECOi office with a large multidisciplinary team of architects, engineers, mathematicians and computer programmers, among others. The piece is a facetted metallic surface that has potential to deform physically in response to electronic stimuli from the environment (movement, sound, light,etc). Driven by a bed of 896 pneumatic pistons, the dynamic ‘terrains’ are generated as real-time calculations. This project again shows the unorthodox use of an orthodox architectural element. It has the idea of a wall that moves according to stimuli. The unique innovation of “autoplastic (determinate) to alloplatic (interactive, indeterminate) space marks a new species of reciprocal architecture as it allows the transformation of virtual architecture such as animation into temporal form. Aegis uses a contemporary design technique which indicates that the use of computers can help generate complex patterns. This is a similar innovative approach to the gateway project brief where by using a responsive mechanism and innovative material systems, a subtle response is generated by the movement of vehicles close by. This creates curiousity, something like how the sun always seem to be following the car window.

Kin e tic ar ch ite c tu r e

Motion with proximity


O M A - M c C o r m i c k Tr i b u n e C a m p u s C e n t e r Reversed-Engineering case study

Surf a c e Pat t e rni ng

OMA is a precedence for successful collaboration between architects and graphic designers. However the final result of this relationship is typically a building where each discipline partners to create complimentary work strictly within their specific silos of knowledge. The architect serve as the key stakeholder and design the building while the graphic designer plays a supporting role and apply the color palette, textiles and wayfinding Nevertheless the OMA McCormick Centre was chosen as the case study for the reversal engineering process. In this mini task, I’ve gained the knowledge to reproduce an image where the defining resolution is determined through orientating different types of shapes/forms in association with an image sampler. In short, 3 different types of smiley emoticons were used to generate the pattern on the surface.



Image Patterning


Input: Surface Frames + Association: Image Sampler + Output: Items (Smileys)

Portrait of Le Corbusier

Image 1.0 by 1.0


Multiplier 1.00

Multiplier 1.15

Multiplier 1.33

Multiplier 1.55

Multiplier 1.60

Multiplier 3.00

Multiplier 4.50

Multiplier 8.33

Enhancing Resolution


Input: Surface Rows/Columns + Association: Image Sampler + Output: Items (Smileys)

Portrait of Oscar Niemeyer

Rows Columns Multiplier

15 25 1.1

Rows 30 Columns 30 Multiplier 1.15

Rows 40 Columns 40 Multiplier 1.25

Rows 50 Columns 50 Multiplier 1.30

Rows 60 Columns 60 Multiplier 1.40

Rows 80 Columns 80 Multiplier 1.40

The “Orient” component was added to orientate the list of emoticons created onto the surface plane. Experiments were made with the rows and columns slider, it seems that both components acts like the pixels of an image or the defining resolution, like for say 40 rows and 50 columns equales 40 x 50 pixels. There after, the “Surface Frames” component and the “List item” is connected into the base geometry input. Right clicking the Orient component and selecting preview would then display the resulting image of the pattern. I experimented further with the sliders to achieve different outcomes. I then proceeded to bake the geometry into rhino when a satisfied pattern was achieved. Importantly, this case study would further develope the surface patterns on the base plane of our model.


Matrix Deliverables 1

Rows 50.00



Columns 60.00 + Multiplier 1.45

Matrix Deliverables 2

Rows 55.00


Columns 65.00 + Multiplier 1.15


Technique_3 Mountain Backdrop Patterning

Multiplication Subtraction Brightness index

15 10 5

Multiplication Subtraction Brightness index

12 10 5

Multiplication Subtraction Brightness index

10 10 5

Multiplication Subtraction Brightness index

10 10 4

Multiplication Subtraction Brightness index

12 10 2

Multiplication Subtraction Brightness index

20 10 1

Var yin g Br ig h tn ess This technique was carried out with a different and much more complex definition. The referenced surface is manipulated by a squaregrid component on grasshopper. The definition allowed to control the perceived brightness of the image by manipulating the sizes of the individual patterns on the surface. It is like playing a computer video game and going through the options to adjust the Graphics settings. Multiplication Subtraction Brightness index


10 10 1

Multiplication Subtraction Brightness index

10 8 1

Matrix Deliverables 3

SquareGrid Ex - 70 SquareGrid Ey - 60


Brightness Index - 3<


Multiplication - 12 Subtraction - 10


I.2 I. 2. 2 Wyn d h am C i ty Gate way


Expression of Interest: Research Project 04/2012

WESTERN GATEWAY Seeds of Change Installation

“Art ha s beco m e w o ve n int o t he f ab r ic o f everyd a y l i fe a n d a c e nt ra l t hr e a d c o nn ect i n g p eop le a nd p la c e.” - Wy n d h a m Pr o j e c t B r i e f, 2 0 1 1

Wy n d ha m C i t y The proposed site for the Western Gateway offers a high exposure location to those entering the urban precinct of the municipality, as well as to those travelling along the freeway. Wyndham City is seeking responses from design professionals for the design and documentation of an exciting, eye catching installation at Wyndham’s Western Gateway. Parametric design is specifically most suitable for this project as it marks a new era of architectural discourse. But what are the drivers for the design of the gateway? Demographic ? Logo ? Driver’s experience? We proceed to broadened our design explorations further in this mid semester project.

Designing a gateway is a huge challenge as there are many considerations to be taken. The design should reflect the cultural background of Wyndham and not to omit the city’s support of public art and sculpture by way of a number of initiatives, including the Helen Lempriere National Sculpture Award (2000-2008). That said, the installation should enhance the physical environment through the introduction of a visual arts component. This studio suggests that we explore this by designing with motion/change in mind. Specifically, we can explore how air in its various characteristics, can sustain formal results that are never the same.


Ma t r ix C o m b i na t i ons

Relating Identities with the Wyndham Project Wyndham Logo

City Skyline

Generative Patterns


Base Pattern [Image Sampler]

















Inversion [Inversing Objects]

Accentuation [Data Multiplication]

Resolution Enhancement [Surface Frames]

City Skyline

Base Pattern [Lofting Surfaces]

Water Waves

Cloud Patterns

Honk Frequency

















Height Differentiation [Scale Axis]

Surface Variation [Edit Points]

Geometry Clarity [Extrusion]












Generative Outcome

With techniques gained from the reverse engineering tasks, I am able to model out different forms using grasshopper but what drives the design of the form? Looking at the sets of matrices produced, we had a few ideas that could relate back to Wyndham such as the wyndham logo, Melbourneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s city skyline, patterning culture and an image of clouds and air to portray the weather forecast of Wyndham. The matrices explored were in terms of breadth and depth, and numerous experiments and parameters tweaking were made. We had idea of integrating two sets of definitions to form a single outcome, in other words we fabricated two different sets of definitions and integrated them together.


Seq uen c e o f f o r m fin d in g

The city skyline, suburbs and coast


E x pe r i m e nt M o d el_1 Play of materials

Mo ck-Up In our first model, we had devised to use wooden stick material. The outcome was below expectations but had the potential to go further, the material was too not as aesthetic as it seems. During the trial and error period, we managed to figure out other fabrication methods to simplify the whole process as well as lessen the cost needed for the project. The subsequent material that we thought of was polypropene, mainly due to itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s transperancy which would allow the entry of light and is an orthodox material (tying back to the intent). In addition, we looked into several other aspects to improve the design further such as laying out different geometrical forms for the base plane and taking into account the height of the modular sticks. Overall, the design concept remains and we proceeded on with the use of the perspex material.


Expe r ime n t m o d e l _ 2 Pe rspectives The LED effect in the night

Experimenting with light and material effects of the model. The perspex sticks reflects the light showing an iluminating feature at the tip.

Wh y t r an s pare nt m ate ri al ? Tr a n s p ar e n c y as a ne w way of looking a t t he int ens ive rela ti on s h i p b e twe e n n a t u r al e n v i ronm e nts and huma n s et t lement


T h e timelap se p h o to g r ap hy

An alteration of form in response to motion


E OI Co mp e titive Ad van tag e

Objectives for refinement and further development

Parametric design brings to us new and diverse avenues to explore our design ideas. Through the search process in Matrix combinations, we see the potential of these tools that would help stimuate our ideas further. Experimenting with the input + association + output technique allows countless outcomes, manipulating a single parameter would recreate a new design. Parametric modelling also allows us to develop relationships between a whole range of factors, making the design itself more relevant and site specific. It gives us the possibilities to explore multiple parameters of data efficiently and link its performative features effectively to the design process. Using these technologies we can establish stronger relations between the design itself and the context of Wyndham City. The reverse engineering process enabled the exploration of patterns through image samplers and manipulating the scale data gives an impression of a reduced/increased in brightness and resolution of the image pattern. The CUT project has definitely highlighted my knowledge in grasshopper which was at the rudimentary level during the start of the semester. The process of experimenting with digital tools themselves, rather than fabricating any specific outcome, has personally been of the most value as they rely on the student to consider why they are using definitions a certain way. The knowledge, principles and ideas will be brought forward and further refined in the GATEWAY project.


Mid Sem e ster Reflectio n The expression of interest overall has led to a greater understanding of parametric architecture and the use of grasshopper has proven to minimize the complexities faced during the fabrication process. As for the design however, the intent and purpose does not tie back to the Wyndham brief or the site. The use of the city skyline was ineffective in representing the culture of Wyndham and our model were more into kinetic rather than materiality which contradicts our case studies. We were also constraint to a few set of design ideas, partly was because of the lack of knowledge and inconsistent flow of ideas when utilizing grasshopper. Instead of focusing on the challenges faced, each member were just emphasizing on what they are capable of which proved inefficient when it came to finalising and relating the design to Wyndham. It was more of an individual rather than a group project. However the EOI proved to be the fundamental learning stage of grasshopper and my level of knowledge on the software visibly improved from undertaking the multiple tasks and weekly exercises. The next phase would mean refinement of the design concept and to refer to relatable case studies for further development, in other words, pushing further the potential of Grasshopper. During the course of the next few weeks would account for more challenging tasks as we draw closer to the final presentation. One factor worth exploring would be the demographics of Werrible City, it would be interesting to see how we start from here.


Expression of Interest: Gateway Project I. 3 .1 Wyn d h am Gate way Pr o j ect


05/201 2


GATEWAY: REINFORCING CONNECTIONS Un o r t h o d o x T h r o u g h O r t h o d o x We want to create a new, exciting and welcoming representation of the City of Wyndham and Melbourne through unorthodox use of orthodox elements. We believe this design concept is relevant in providing identification to the City of Wyndham as being something more than just another suburb filled with houses. We explored the idea of representation through a digital parametric design tool called Grasshopper. Grasshopper enables us to generate many different forms and patterns that are unorthodox and exciting using certain design drivers. However, what sort of common material could we use that could use to portray something uncommon?


Rebar as Or th o d o x Mate r ial Rebars are common materials but what is unusual about them is that we use them all the time but we hardly see them, because they are concealed in structural slabs and columns; the bars normally used to reinforce concrete in foundations and freeways. Rebars are known to be flexible materials, they can be bent (and allowed to rust) and woven together like a basket weave. If woven together, rebars are able to form a sculptural structure and the reddish rusting effects portrays a certain aesthetic feel, it somehow complements the design. Surprisingly, designers have been adopting the use of rebar to design pavilions and organic sculptures and my personal favourite rebar project is the Ford Calumet Environmental Center by Studio Gang Architects. The project expressed a very good attempt of using basket-like mesh of woven recycled and re-used rebar and steel to enclose the south-facing porch that creating passive solar shading and protection against bird strikes, while allowing unobstructed natural ventilation and views to the surrounding landscape. Looking from afar, rebars gives the impression of many strings entangled to one another which in turn also make it look like a lightweight material. Rebars are definitely a common material worth exploring and we wish to try and push its potential capabilities using Grasshopper and further experimenting with the material as it changes in time.


Uno r t hodox u s e of steel rebars



Micro map showing the highway c o n n e c t i n g G e e l o n g t o M e l b o u r n e. O n a l a r g e r s c a l e, Pr i n c e s Highway extends from Syndney to Port Augusta.


Werribee South AD






O u r p r o p o s e d S i t e C, w h e r e traffic is directed towards the city of Melbourne from city of W e r r i b l e. U n l i k e t h e F r e e w a y t h i s r o a d i s t w o - l a n e.





RO 14













ES 14

A mild slope is bound in b e t w e e n S i t e A a n d S i t e C.WAY E T h e s l o p e c o u l d p e r h Fa Rp Es complement the gateway s t r u c t u r e.





Adjacent Gas station, could be a potential obstruction of view t o w a r d s t h e E a s t f o r S i t e C.


Road travelling through Site A, P r i n c e s F r e e w a y, 1 9 4 1 k m l o n g highway connecting Geelong t o M e l b o u r n e. 14 14

Wyndham is located in between the connection of Geelong and Melbourne. Princes Highway serves as the main freeway connecting all three cities. The brief allows the installation to be at Site A, B and C. We have devised to use the West Road at Site C because the cars travelling would be much slower than on Site A and B, we want to give a welcoming feel to the drivers and allow them to experience and appreciate the structure better. There is also a need to acknowledge the design as something that will not be accessed or experienced directly by its audience, given its position between two major roads. The structure will have to be somewhat monumental in order to make an impression over 30-40 seconds. Overall the installation should appear to hover over the road on site C in order to emphasize the experience we want to achieve, we would design a tunnel rather than a sculpture.


Design Phase & Process

Grasshopper Script

1. Create a standard rebar mesh (2x6) 2. Reference the mesh and set a point of rotation 3. Rotation angle defined as radians 4. Rotate at Unit - Z axis 5. Alternating height adjusted using the panel components 6. Pipe the mesh at 40mm thick (rebar cross section diameter)

Scripting with Grasshopper The design process was a speedy one, achieving the outcome i just a matter of hours. Considering the amount of time we had - 1 week time was our enemy. Grasshopper has again proved its capabilities of being an super efficient software, simplifying and easing the modelling method.

D e ve lo p e m e nt of F o r m




The design of the gateway is particularly driven by the changing population growth of Wyndham. The standard rebar mesh is chosen as the orthodox modular unit and the horizontal area was extended nominally in proportion to one fourth of the area of the City of Wyndham (542km 2 to 130km2). One fourth because it is the current build up area proportion in Wyndhham and represents the effective area that the community resides in the region.

Grass h o p p er d efi n i t io n u s e d t o ge ne r a t e t he fo rm





The stacking of 25 standard rebar meshes represents the 25 years of population size projections and each mesh were rotated in accordance to the forecast population growth data, a smooth sine curve which is visible through the elevation of the structure. This represents a dynamic change in population.

Ve r t i c a l a nd H o r i zontal Connection Methods



â&#x20AC;&#x153;Viewed at a certain angle, the installation appears to be floating on air... causing an illusionâ&#x20AC;?.


T he Pur p o s e Our purpose is to present the City of Wyndham as a vibrant, dynamic and creative community. We want to use the Gateway project to make a statement about the community in Wyndham, particularly the significant population growth.

Additionally, rebar in its raw form has not been explored much in architecture and this project would be a good opportunity to further advance the discourse of employing the use of orthodox materials to create unorthodox designs.

The use of common materials to create an uncommon feature gives an identity to the community of Wyndham, not just being a typical suburb with the common sprawling of housing schemes and Mc Mansions and to provide reason for its municipal as the fastest growing in Melbourne. Thus, new houses are being built everyday where the most common element used is rebars.

The tunnel loft where drivers drive through is driven by the current change in estimated resident population. Thus there is a contrast of the common road with current data and the uncommon gateway with future data, suggesting a potential inspiring paradigm shift from a static heritage in the past towards a dynamic future as drivers pass through it.

Orthodoxly, rebar is an interesting element to be explored in the Gateway design project. It displays a sense of lightness through its thin structure and the seemingly interesting rusting effects as it gets exposed to the atmosphere.


A short animation of the site and driversâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; experience:

Physical Models Play with Materiality

Fabricating the physical model was undoubtedly the hardest part in this project. My group had aimed to represent the rebar structure in terms of the materials and we had a few options to choose from. We wanted to explore the model further in terms of the materials. The first method was by using chicken wire which we thought was the most suitable representation as it already comes in mesh form and is made of steel. However, chicken wire had several draw backs and one of it was the unusual bending of the material which made the placing of the horizontal mesh difficult. The second method was using dark plastic mesh but the visibility of the shadow and lighting effect was close to none (which contradicts one of our concepts). The third method was by printing the mesh drawing on individual PVC sheets to create a sort of a floating tunnel. The methods carried out was not up to standards and time was not on our side thus the outcome. However, if given the opportunity and ample time, I would aim to try out different materials and methods for fabrication.



The unusual visual effect is generated by the stacking of mesh planes and if viewed in a certain angle would create an illusion of a floating tunnel. This evokes a sense of curiousness thus drawing attention of the drivers to the gateway. As drivers pass through the structure, it creates a dynamic feel of a turning gateway with its complex shadows. The sense of dynamic change as one drives through the changing patterns and hues provokes wonder in drivers as what the meaning is behind the gateway. Through the experience, we want to allow the people to understand the gateway better, and through time it becomes a thought provoking discourse of the effects of population growth, or be inspired.


G at e way Proje c t: M e thod of Cons t ruct ion O n site instal la t ion



Structure casted into edge beams An alternative option specified for the on site installation. Structure will sit on site C

Considering the budget of approximately $280,000 has been allocated for the installation, including design, engineering, structural certification, construction and installation of sculptural elements. We should allocate for a cheap installation method which includes the use of low cost materials. Fortunately, rebars are efficiently cheap and is easily transported (modular units). However they can be very heavy weighing approx. 2 ton at 2m x 6m. Consideration should be given to minimise maintenance work and as far as possible discouraging graffiti through the selection of appropriate materials and surface treatments. For long-term maintenance, we intent to allow the rebars to corrode in time to create a rusty feel and change of color.


Exploded diagram Horizontal Meshes Vertical Reinforcement Edge Beams

Lap Splicing System


Connection Method A splice joint is a method of joining two members end to end using C A B R C o u p l e r f o r s t e e l r e b a r s. W i t h 1 0 0 % B a r B r e a k P e r f o r m a n c e CABR Bar Splice is a parallel thread mechanical splicing system designed for the connection of concrete reinforcing bars from 12 - 50


2m vertical rebar will be casted in place and method of join with the horizontal meshes would be tying with loopan wires

Intersection connect



Construction commences by excavating the soil and casting cement to f o r m t h e e d g e b e a m s. Edge beams measure 5m d e e p a n d 1 2 m w i d e.


Joining method I n t e r s e c t i o n s a r e j o i n t u s i n g l o o p a n w i r e s. E x c e l l e n t q u a l i t y can be achieved through using quality wire materials such as c h o i c e b l a c k a n n e a l e d w i r e, g a l v a n i z e d w i r e a n d p l a s t i c c o a t e d .

Foundation support


Method of Support 5000mm x 12000mm edge beam into ground and rebar connected c o n v e n t i o n a l l y t o b e a m s. R e i n f o r c e m e n t p l a c e d 5 0 m m o f f s e t f r o m bottom of beam to provide compressive strength




Feed b ac k f rom Tu t ors The drivers for the design was unnecessary but the analysis on the City of Wyndham was good. However, the final model did not provide justice to the potential of the project. The construction method was not clearly outlined during the presentation and the physical model clearly did not justify any of it. The rendering was good but the model in the renders appears to be out of scale. Our group have the potential to develop further and it would be interesting to see more post explorations rather than just focusing on how the design of the structure could be related to Wyndham. Although all three physical models hasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t been the best but we were told not to put too much emphasis on improving it but instead explore the potential of the project. Overall, our knowledge on grasshopper has visibly improved ever since undertaking this subject and tutors would like to see how far can we go by using the software, what can we do to try and push the capabilities of the it. And for my own personal reflection, being able to come up with something in a week is indeed a havoc but a one hell of a adrenalin rush. I personally want to thank my group members for being able to perform.



Research: Post Explorations & Refinement

I.3.2 Respo n d i n g to feed b ack a n d R e f i n i n g i de a s

05/20 12


E x p l o r i n g f u t u re pos s i b i l i t i e s In week 13, we were driven to further explore other possibilities in response to the feedback given by the tutors. My group started off by experimenting with the patterns generated by the overlapping meshes when the distance between the rebars are manipulated. Attractor points were used to determine the defining distance but to be realistic, the maximum distance is no more than 400mm. The overlapping meshes are than rotated to a degree until a desired effect is achieved. I then proceed to configure the shadow effects casted by the structure by altering the center of rotation and axis of rotation. Further in the development and exploring process, I took this project into a more personal level. I decided to work on a couple of possible designs individually with no limitation nor site constraints. I wanted to see how far I could go with my grasshopper knowledge. Needless to say, the outcomes of the exploration is far more satisfying and interesting than the work that my group had produced.


Form & Pattern finding Att r a c tor Poi nt s



H - 200 V - 200

H - 200 V - 400





A1.0 Horizontal Mesh

H - 200 V - 200 x 400

H - 400 V - 200

H - 88, 176 , 266 V - 200

H - 200, 400, 200 V - 400, 200, 400

A1.1 Mesh Patterning







A1.2 Point Rotation

Rotation - 176

Rotation - 180

Rotation - 184

Rotation - 184

Rotation - 186

Rotation - 186

A1.3 Form Experimentation A1.31







Shadowing Effects Tw ist and t urn


Art & Sculpture

Matrix 1.2

â&#x20AC;&#x153;... and Architecture is inhabited sculptureâ&#x20AC;?. -Co n stan tin Bran c usi, 1958

Tw ist of Fa t e Is an unpredicted or random occurrence with farreaching consequences. Twist of fate is a sculptural project which I derived from matrix 1.2. It is to be a installed at Site C beside West Road. This is a play of shadow effects and in noon the shadows casted would be across the road. The overall structure is rotated at a severe angle and is appeared to be twisted in rhythm. The anme is derived by the unexpected and different shadow effects that would be casted across the season. As drivers drive by this monumental structure, it would appear to be falling and out of balance. The method of construction has not been considered but this is one of the exploration that could potentially be addressed in the Gateway design proposal.


Fur ther Exploration 1 Developing from Matrix 1.3


Forming a spiraling circle around horizontal core, the installation acts a continous helix as though drivers are driving through a por tal.


Gate w a y Pr o j e c t: Sp ir al

Spiral is the second refinement developed from matrix 1.3 in the shadow effects exploration. The structure appears to be emanating from a central point - like a never ending vortex into Werribee - hence the name. A series of rebar meshes are rotated across the X-axis in order to achieve the spiraling effect. This design is created to explore the meeting point between place and form and the design will enrich the surrounding landscape through its stylish response to the brief as a sculptural gateway. The spiraling structure aims to create a unique arrival experience for motorists travelling at high speed.









East Elevation

To p V i e w



The installation would be on Site A - hovering over the Princes Highway. It is highly appropriate that the Princes Freeway, acting as the major traffic connection from Geelong and the south west coast to the CBD, should feature a prominent entry statement at the major interchange into Werribee. The installation will enhance the physical environment through the introduction of a visual arts component. It will have longevity in its appeal, encouraging ongoing interest in the Western Interchange by encourage further reflection about the installation beyond a first glance. -Gateway Project, 2012


Fur ther Ex ploration 2 Developing from Matrix 1.4



Gate w a y Pr o j e ct: City L o o p Wyndham is the fastest growing municipality in Victoria. City Loop is used to represent the quick growing community and municipality of the city. Mobility is expressed constantly in the Princes Highway and the Loop marks a transformation of mobility to vibrant - suburb to highway to city. Drivers passing through would feel as if they are travelling through a portal towards and from Werribee. The gateway consist of 8 loops and each structure is rotated at a different angle, each rotation is driven by the current and future population of Wyndham - 148,000 growing at a rate of 10,000 residents each year. The loop aims to establish an innovative and prominent indicator to provide a focus to the Western Interchange entry to the City.



â&#x20AC;&#x153; And h e r e I a m , propos i ng new, inspiring and brave idea s f or Wy n d h a m , t o ge ne ra t e a new discourse.â&#x20AC;?



I .4 Re f l e c t i on: L e arni ng Outcomes




A DS A I R ... is by far the most thought provoking studio in the course of my architectural education. I have never stimulate my design process to an extent until Grasshopper was introduced in this subject. Although Parametric design is relatively new to me, it has been prevailing in developed countries in all across Europe and Asian Countries like Japan. The readings and precedence studies expressed in the EOI has definitely broadened my knowledge about data driven designs. I believe parametric architecture is the way of the future and in time would be a global discourse between architects and designers. Ultimately, I have a greater understanding behind the potential and significance behind this architectural movement. This has added much to my inspiration and passion for architecture. Although I must say this subject has been a very daunting and tough one but I enjoyed it alot and I have to admit that the knowledge and skills learnt is more than any other student in a different studio other than AIR, in addition picking up numerous software knowledge - Indesign, illustrator, Rhino and Grasshopper - which would be highly beneficial for my career. And grasshopper has proved to be a very powerful design tool which presents me with the opportunity to explore future designs further. Moreover, I am able to fabricate models through the use of laser cutting which I have not encountered one before during my earlier education in Malaysia. And as for the challenges faced during the course of the semester, being able to cope with them has definitely boosted my determination and preparation for the upcoming studio subject. Overall, the EOI has been a new process for me which has been essential in forming the skills in making arguments in architecture and too exposing me to the current movements of contemporary architecture. Finally, I would like to thank my groupmates and tutors who have contributed much to the learning process which would otherwise be difficult to handle individually.


I . 5 R e f e r enc e s A r chi te c tural D esi gn: M aterial Computat ion , March/A pril 2012, 216.

Bu r r y, Ma r k ( 2011) . Sc ri pti ng Cult ures: A rchitect ural Design and Progr amm i ng ( AD : Pr i m er )

Ko l a rov i c , B ra nko ( 2003) . Architect ure in t he Digital A ge: Design and Manufa c turi ng ( L ondon: Spon Press).

Ro d r igo, M edi na ( 2012) . D es ign Playgrounds: Interact ive and Generat ive D e s ig n < htt p : //desi g npl ayg s/honeycomb-morphologies-rhin o - g rasshopper /> [ a c c essed 29t h May 2012]

Mo u s s avi , Fa rshi d ( 2006) . T h e funct ion of ornament (Barcelona: A ctar), p . 5 - 14

Wo o d b ur y, Rober t & Wi l l i a mson, S hane (2006). Paramet ric Modelling as a D e si gn Repre sentati on i n Architect ure: A Process A ccount (Toronto: S F U ) p. 1 - 8 Ya h u d a , E . Ka l ay ( 2004) . Arc hitect ureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s New Media: Principles, t heor ies and m ethods of com puta t ional aided design (Cambridge, Mass: MIT P re s s , 2 004) p. 5 - 25


E DW I N G OH H UA H ONG U NI V E RSI T Y OF M EL BOURNE B a c h el o r o f E nv i ronm ent s ( Archi tect ure) E m a i l : e d wi ngoh1 8 @ g m a i l . com / eh go h @ st u dent . uni m el b. edu. a u Vi m eo : https :/ / v i m eo. com / use r1 1 2 1 8 3 1 4 Fa c eb o o k:

https:/ / w w w.fa ce book. com /edwi nn. goh

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