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How do digitally designed work rather than hand made images change how the audience views them? In the recent past more and more people have started to create images digitally through Photoshop and other software, this has made it more accessible for people to create their own pictures and post them on the internet. The fact that work can be easily made digitally can take away from the fact that people can spend hours, even days in creating a painting or piece of art by hand. To complete my essay I am going to look at different artists and graphic designers then compare their work to see what they have tried to achieve and what emotions they were trying to put across in their work. With the arrival of the Internet and new websites to post your work on like Tumblr and Behance can a wider audience access digitally designed work rather than handcrafted work? And what effect has this had on people’s view towards creating art? Digitally designed work can be reproduced and sold in mass production from posters to adverts on billboards. On the other hand, hand made work such as sculptures and paintings often have to be viewed in some sort of gallery, because of this, does something produced using a digital process have the same aesthetic qualities as an illustration that uses paint and pencil and can only be done once? As digitally designed work can usually be found in advertisements does this change how the viewer perceives the piece? Does the purpose of the artwork have an influence on success in the audiences mind? Do digital images evoke less emotion in the viewer, as they know it is not a one of and can be reproduced? When comparing hand made work to digitally designed work a question that you should ask is, who is the audience the work is trying to appeal to? This is so you can find out the artist intentions behind the piece and what they were aiming to put across in the finished artwork. To complete my essay I will research different artists for example Jack Vettriano and graphic designers such as Koran Shadimi. By doing this I will get a wide range of research so that I can see what people are working with to create their images and how they are doing it.


Example of Jack Vettriano

Example of Koran Shadimi

Through my own searching on the internet I would say that graphically designed work is easy to view, I have come to this conclusion as websites such as tumblr and behance make it very easy to view large amounts of graphically designed work in a very short time. To view hand crafted items such as paintings or sculptures, you usually have to go to a gallery or event where they show off the work of one particular artist. As of this I would say that more people could view digitally designed work rather than traditionally crafted items because a lot more people go on the Internet rather than art galleries. Advertisements are everywhere and are usually designed on the computer, this makes it possible for a lot of people to view something as the soul purpose of that image it to sell something meaning it has to be viewed by a large audience to be affective. You can see this by looking at movie posters and event posters. Contrasting to this would be paintings as they are predominantly created as ‘one offs’ or part of a collection; they aren’t really used to sell something or for advertisements. The artist Jack Vettriano is very good at conveying a warm and emotional feel in his paintings, this makes it so the audience can connect with the painting as it feels as though they are part of the peoples lives in the painting. A piece that Vettriano has painted that illustrates this point would be ‘the singing butler’, the way that it is painted allows the audience to see the fluid movement of the two people dancing together and it makes the viewer feel that the two people are a couple. The Birmingham Royal Ballet would be a good contrast to ‘the singing butler’, this is because they had a graphically designed poster to advertise a ballet event. In my opinion the poster conveys the same fluid movement feel as Vettriano’s work, however if the ballet dancer was in the poster by her self I don’t think it would work, but the graphic designer has included gears around her. This makes the audience get a sense of the movement as gears typically move. Another way in which they have made it look like there is movement is by making the background busy, this make the viewers eye wander around the page more as there is more to look at. Contrasted to this is the background of ‘the singing butler’ as the background on that painting is almost all sky.


Jack Vettriano – ‘The singing butler’

Birmingham Royal Ballet poster

In my own opinion I think that the Birmingham Royal Ballet poster works quite well, as the designer has included the cogs and shapes to the background that make the poster give the effect of movement. If they had not put that detail in I don’t think that it would have worked as well as it currently does. When comparing the two images I would say that they both work in their own right, the Vettriano piece works well as a piece of artwork, and the ballet poster works well as it advertises the show effectively which was its main purpose. Cubism is a very famous style of painting; it was one of the most influential visual art styles of the early twentieth century. It was pioneered by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque. The Cubist painters rejected the inherited concept that art should copy nature, or that they should adopt the traditional techniques of perspective, modelling, and foreshortening. They wanted instead to emphasize the twodimensionality of the canvas. So they reduced and fractured objects into geometric forms, and then realigned these within a shallow, relief-like space.

The Weeping Woman – Pablo Picasso The picture above is called “The Weeping Woman”; it is a cubist paint by Pablo Picasso. In the painting it shows a women crying, it was painted to show suffering at the end of the Spanish civil war. In my opinion I think that this picture represents suffering very well, as you are drawn into the sad eyes when you first look at it, from there you can see the tears coming from her eyes. The use of colour in this piece is also very strong as the majority of the tears are in the grey section in the middle of the painting, the juxtaposition between the bright colours and the grey really make the tears of the woman stand out and grab your attention.


Cubism has also been used in graphic design/ illustration; you can see this in the work of Pablo Lobato.

Monterey Jazz Festival – poster

Bob

Above you can see two examples of Pablo Lobato’s cubism work, straight away you can tell that the shapes are much more defined compared to Picasso’s work. I think that as Lobato has made the shapes more clean cut and separate from each other, it makes it easier to work out the image. The fact that all the colours are solid also makes the images clearer to see, for example if you just saw the picture of Bob Marley with out anyone telling you it was Bob Marley you could easily tell that it was him, however with Picasso’s picture it is quite hard to tell that it is a crying woman. I think that in this case you could say that Labato’s work could affect a larger audience as the images are clearer and easier to make out compared to Picasso’s work. Having said this picasso’s work, I believe, has more meaning behind it, as it was painted to show suffering after the Spanish civil war, where as Lobato has just created a picture of Bob Marley. Even though there isn’t any meaning behind Lobato’s work I still think that it can appeal to a larger audience as it is simple and doesn’t take much working out to see what the picture is. In my opinion I prefer Pablo Lobato’s work as you can make out every shape and tell what the image is putting across straight away, for example on the poster you can tell from first glance that it is a person playing the trumpet. The lines then lead you down to the title where you are able to find the name of the festival. This cubist style of work gave me inspiration during my editorials as I experimented with shapes, below you can see the use of the shapes I created. I think


this has worked well as the shapes make the page flow nicely.

“The iPad is a very serious medium. It’s just a newer one and it affects the way you do things.” David Hockney. David Hockney is a very good example of a famous painter who has delved into the realms of digital design. He recently held an exhibition at the Royal Academy of art called ‘A bigger picture’ as well as paintings Hockney showed off some of his iPad work in ‘The Arrival of Spring in Woldgate’ series. In an interview with channel 4, Hockney exclaimed that "It's all in one thing, meaning you can speedily establish colour palettes." The fact that a well-established painter like David Hockney has taken to creating some of his work digitally shows that creating art digitally can be taken seriously as a piece of art, not just a thing that is used in advertising or something that a teenager has knocked up in their bedroom. However even at first David Hockney was a bit skeptical of this new way of doing things, in the same interview with channel 4 he added, "At first you think it's a bit of a novelty, it took me a while to realise it's quite a serious tool you can use. And it took me a while to get skillful on it. Skill is practise. It's not just a novelty. I realised this is a clever tool you can use.” After this he went onto say "The iPad is very very direct. I would point out [that] Turner used watercolour because it was a quicker medium than oil-painting so you could quickly get down more fleeting effects. If you find a medium that's even faster than that any artist is going to be interested in it.” The fact that such a well renowned painter such as David Hockney said this, shows that digital ways of creating art can be accepted by painters and the audience as if it helps the artist to create artwork quicker it will be picked up and used.


David Hockney – iPad drawing As David Hockney has underwent a change in his courier, there is going to be people that don’t like the new style he has adopted. Alastair Sooke, an art critic for The Daily Telegraph visited David Hockney’s new exhibition at the Royal Academy of Arts and commented “Whatever game David Hockney is playing in his hotly anticipated Royal Academy show eludes me” he then went onto criticize Hockney’s iPad paintings by saying “They would look wonderful on the walls of a hospital” Alastair furthered his point by stating “They appear to ignore an entire century of modern art — a narrative, incidentally, with which Hockney is fully up to speed. Why would someone so clued up willfully paint as though surrealism, colour-field abstraction, minimalism and all the rest hadn’t happened? These images are so passé they feel like a provocation. I don’t get it.” In another review by Sam Parker from the Huffingtonpost, Hockney’s work was said to have an “unwelcome digital quality”. As you can see by this review, using technology to create digital pictures rather than hand painting them can change people’s opinion and determine the success of a piece. I think that the iPad drawings that David Hockney has done are good as they show that even a world famous painter can create a good piece of art on a touch screen device. However I don’t think that they should have been put into the exhibition, as they are more of just a quick drawing of a place that he thought looked good. Another thing is that as the colours were digitally produced they look quite flat, and don’t stand out as much as they would if they were painted with real paints, because of this I don’t really think they should have been put into the exhibition but kept for Hockney’s own collection and use. The colours of David Hockney’s iPad drawings can be compared to those of German expressionist Wassily Kandinsky. I would say this because Kandinksy uses quite bold colours in his work such as bright pinks and yellows; Hockney has also adopted this into his digital iPad work.


David Hockney

Wassily Kandinsky

In a hand painted image it is easy to see all the brush strokes and textures the artist has made, this gives the audience a sense of aesthetic and gives them a connection to the painting because they can see exactly what strokes the artist has made. However as you can’t see any of these features in a digital image does it still have the same aesthetic value as its hand-crafted cousin? In my opinion I think that a digital image can have the same aesthetic qualities as a hand made image. A good example of this would be from the visual development artist ‘Mustafa Gündem’, he has created a digital illustration that plays with light in a vast, bleak looking environment.

Mustafa Gündem light experiment This image that Mustafa has created gives a sense of depth to the audience as it has used some very dull colours such as dark blues and greens, which fade into black. The one big rock with the single seagull on top in the sea also extenuates the fact that this is a dull place to be. An artist called Toni Grote, has created an oil painting called ‘Uncharted Destiny’ the painting follows the same look as Gündem’s image as it uses both dark blues and greens, that fade into a black sky, to give a sense of vast landscape and loneliness.


Toni Grote – ‘Uncharted Destiny’ Both of these pictures both share the same bronze colour lighting, which makes it seem that there is a distant light source, it also shows a little bit of warmth in the pictures as it is the only bright colour. Emilia Dziubak has also created some illustrations that look like period still life digital paintings.

Emilia Dziubak illustration

Raphaelle Peale

The digitally designed illustrations have been given some realistic qualities to them to further the effect of realism, for example the shadows on the fruit and the texture of them all make it seem that this could have been painted by hand. However the colours on Emilia’s illustration do seem a bit flat in comparison to Raphaelle Peale’s work which has been painted by hand. Even though the colours can seem a little flat the fact that she can do this type of art style without it looking obvious that it has been created digitally really shows that digital work can have the same aesthetic qualities as hand painted pictures. In some cases the graphic artist has made it look as though the work has been done by hand, by doing this it makes the picture have a cartoon feel and brings more depth to the image as the texture that the artist has given the subject makes it look a bit more realistic as apposed to a block colour. One example of this would be from the illustrations of Emilia Dziubak.


In these illustrations from Emilia, she has given the bears a texture so that it looks like they have fur. By doing this it has also made the bears stand out more as it looks as it has made their fur more realistic. This also links back to what David Hockney said about quick processes as creating this work digitally rather than by hand saves a lot of time; the use of the textures also makes it quicker as you don’t have to draw in every individual line. In relation to my own work I feel that digitally designed work can be viewed in the same light as handcrafted pieces, I think this as I mainly work on the computer and through digital processes. However I took inspiration from non digital artists to give my work better compositions, during my narrative project I worked with ink to create splashes, I don’t think I could have created these through a digital process, so even though I mainly work through digital means, I still think it is important to work with more hands on processes.

Example of me using ink in my work.


In conclusion I feel that digitally designed work can be viewed in the same light as handcrafted paintings. I feel this because from the research that I have done I can see that digital images posses the same aesthetic qualities and the same classical elements as hand painted images however it is just a quicker way of creating them. While doing research for this essay I came to the conclusion that digital art can be more easily viewed than paintings, I came to this as I could find graphic designers very easily as I just had to go on Behance and look around until I saw a piece of art that I could use in the essay. However when I was trying to find artist I found it harder as you had to look through different gallery websites to find painters. As a lot of digital work is usually made for advertising it could be said hat it doesn’t produce the same amount of emotion in the viewer than a handcrafted item does, but I feel that it can. I feel this way because if you want to create a successful piece of advertising you have to evoke emotions in the audience, and if it doesn’t do that then it hasn’t worked as an advert.

Bibliography – http://www.hockneypictures.com/current.php# David Hockney: A Bigger Picture- Review | Cult Hub | Page 4127 David Hockney: ‘the hand, the eye and the heart’ – Channel 4 news http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/art/art-reviews/9018212/David-Hockney-ABigger-Picture-Royal-Academy-of-Arts-review.html http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/2012/01/17/david-hockney-a-bigger-picturereview_n_1210403.html http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/cube/hd_cube.htm http://www.pablopicasso.org/the-weeping-woman.jsp


Graphics Essay