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A time to remember The past tense (abbreviated PST) is a grammatical tense that places an action or situation in the past of the current moment (in an absolute tense system), or prior to some specified time that may be in the speaker's past, present, or future (in a relative tense system). Not all languages mark verbs for the past tense (Mandarin Chinese, for example, does not); in some languages, the grammatical expression of past tense is combined with the expression of mood and/or aspect (see tense–aspect–mood). Some languages that mark for past tense do so by inflecting the verb, while others do so by using auxiliary verbs (and some do both). The past tense is a verb tense expressing activity, action state or being in the past. In English, there are two types of past tense: 1. simple past 2. present tense 1. Simple past include: Past Progressive Past Simple Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous 2. The present tenses: Present Perfect Continuous Present Perfect Present Perfect and Present Perfect Continuous (Progressive) both refer to the present and to the past. I have just eaten my chocolate bar. Mike has never seen a car like this before.

Caugth in the rush Match the words in A with words in B. 1. Taxi a. lane 2. Bicycle b. jam 3. Bus c. station 4. Traffic d. stop 5. Train e. stand(2) 6. News f. lights 7. Parking(2) g. garage 8. Street h. space 9. Subway i. system Grammar section Look at the following solutions and write sentences explaining the problems (the answers depend on you). Please, use too much, too many, or not enough. Possible answers

Problem: There are not enough places for children to play. Solution: The city should build more parks. 8. Problem: There are too many thieves in the streets. Solution: The city should hire more police officers. 9. Problem: Public lighting is too much deteriorated. Solution: The city should install modern street lights. 10. Problem: Daily, there are too many people in the bus and the traffic jam is terrible. Solution: The city should build a subway system. 11. Problem: At night the street is too much dark. Solution: The city should install more traffic lights. 12. Problem: There are not enough places in the city where I can park my car. Solution: The city should build a public parking garage.

Writing section Do you know your city? It’s time to show what kind of services there are in your city. Please, write a letter to somebody by describing your city. Don’t forget to include adverbs of quantity and vocabulary related. When you finish send me you letter online. Example of how to write your letter: Dear Katy, I’m writing to tell you some news about Xalapa, you will not believe how much it has changed. First, let me tell you that very close to my house the government built a big mall where you can find too many things; but the most incredible thing is that outside of the mall there is a bus stop and you can wait there the bus which can take you to your house for free. Also, the parking space is enormous and if you take your bike with you don’t worry because there are a bicycle line for it…

Unit time for a change djectives for houses and apartments







=/= dangerous


brand new















cramped More adjectives

EVALUATIONS WITH ADJECTIVES The kitchen isn't big enough. The living room is too small.

EVALUATIONS WITH NOUNS There aren't enough bedrooms. There isn't enough closet space.

COMPARISONS WITH ADJECTIVES It's not as cheap as the last apartment. It's almost as cheap (as the last apartment).

COMPARISONS WITH NOUNS It doesn't have as many bedrooms as the last apartment. It has just as many bedrooms (as the last apartment).


I’ve never heard of that

Form Simple Past irregular verbs: see 2nd column of irregular verbs Example: I spoke regular verbs: infinitive + ed Example: I worked

Present Perfect Simple irregular verbs: form of 'have' + 3rd column of irregular verbs Example: I / you / we / they have spoken he / she / it has spoken regular verbs: form of 'have' + infinitive + ed Example: I / you / we / they have worked he / she / it has worked

Exceptions Exceptions when adding 'ed': when the final letter is e, only add d Example: love - loved after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled Example: admit - admitted final l is always doubled in British English (not in American English) Example: travel - travelled after a consonant, final y becomes i (but: not after a vowel) Example: worry - worried but: play - played See also explanations on Simple Past and Present Perfect Simple Use In British English, the use of Simple Past and Present Perfect is quite strict. As soon as a time expression in the past is given, you have to use Simple Past. If there are no signal

words, you must decide if we just talk about an action in the past or if its consequence in the present is important. Note that the following explanations and exercises refer to British English only. In American English, you can normally use Simple Past instead of Present Perfect. We cannot accept this in our exercises, however, as this would lead to confusions amongst those who have to learn the differences. Certain time in the past or just / already / yet? Do you want to express that an action happened at a certain time in the past (even if it was just a few seconds ago) or that an action has just / already / not yet happened? Simple Past certain time in the past

Present Perfect Simple just / already / not yet

Example: I phoned Mary 2 minutes ago.

Example: I have just phoned Mary.

Certain event in the past or how often so far? Do you want to express when a certain action took place or whether / how often an action has happened till now? Simple Past certain event in the past Example: He went to Canada last summer.

Present Perfect Simple whether / how often till now Example: Have you ever been to Canada? / I have been to Canada twice.

Emphasis on action or result? Do you just want to express what happened in the past? Or do you want to emphasise the result (a past action's consequence in the present)? Simple Past Emphasis on action

Emphasis on result

Present Perfect Simple

Example: I bought a new bike. (just telling what I did in the past.)

Example: I have bought a new bike. (With this sentence I actually want to express that I have a new bike now.)

Signal Words Simple Past yesterday ... ago in 1990

Present Perfect Simple just already up to now

the other day last ...

until now / till now ever (not) yet so far lately / recently

Going places


Use BE GOING TO + VERB to talk about plans you've decided on. Use WILL + VERB with maybe, probably, I guess, or I think, to talk about possible plans before you've made a decision. . WHERE ARE YOU GOING TO GO? I'm going to go to the beach. I'm not sure. Maybe I'll catch up with my reading.

I'm not going to take a vacation. I probably won't take a vacation this year.

WHAT ARE YOU GOING TO DO? I'm going to do lots of swimming. I guess I'll just stay home. I don't know. I think I'll go camping.


Have you made any vacation plans, David? Well, I've decided on one thing - I 'M GOING TO go camping. That's great!! For how long? I 'M GOING TO be away for a week. I only have five days of vacation. So, when are you leaving? I'm not sure. I WILL probably leave around the end of May. And where ARE you GOING TO go? I haven't thought about that yet. I guess I WILL go to one of the national parks. That sounds like fun. Yeah. Maybe I WILL go hiking and do some fishing. ARE you GOING TO rent a camper? I'm not sure. Actually, I probably WILL rent a camper, but it's too expensive!! ARE you GOING TO go with anyone? No. I need some time alone. I 'M GOING TO travel by myself.


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