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1. Sri.M.G Somshekhar Asst. Teacher Sri Adichunchanagiri English high school , Arsikere 2. Sri.K. N Chidanand Asst. Teacher. Govt high school Obalapura.Channarayapatna tq. 3. Imtiyaz Ahmed and Abdul Qadir Mansoora English medium High school Arabic college campus Alur 4. Smt. Suma Keshav & J. Ravi Keerthi United High school Hassan 5. Smt.S. Rekha Nair C.K.S Girls’ High School K.R.Puram Hassan 6. Sri.G.K. Vishvanatha, Navodaya P U College, Channarayapatna 7. Sri. Narsim murthy. P & Latha G Malavika Vidya Samsthe Hemavathi Nagar Hassan 8. Sri. Annappa Shetty G.H.S. Santhepete, Hassan 9. Smt.Flevy St Phelomena’s High school Hassan 10. Sri.Prakash Naik G.PU College Bailur Karkala Tq. Udupi Dist. Assistance in the book preparation 1. Sri.Biju P.J, C.K.S Girls’ High School K.R.Puram Hassan 2. Sri.Syed Mahamood Sha khadri .,C.K.S Girls’ High School K.R.Puram Hassan.        


INDEX GRAMMAR 1. PARTS OF SPEECH a. Noun b. Pronoun c. Adjective d. Verb e. Auxiliaries f. Adverb g. Preposition h. Conjuction i. Interjection 2. Articles 3. Combine Sentences 4. Transformation of sentences 5. Degrees of Comparison 6. Direct and Indrect Speech 7. Tag Questions

PROSE 1. Handy Andy at the post Office 2. Swamy Vivekananda 3. Vikram Sarabhai 4. The Kings gretest prize 5. Kalpana the Star 6. What is Civilization 7. Magician with the ball 8. The women who did the sproud



POEMS 1. The Dove 2. The Beggar maid 3. Mother 4. Work is worship 5. God moves in a mysterious way 6. Tartary 7. Once upon a time 8. The miser and his gold 9.





ABOUT THE BOOK This book is brought out as an effort to improve the result of the S.S.L.C students in second language English. It is observed that the performance of the S.S.L.C students of Hassan district in second language English in the academic year 2011-12 was not up to the expectations.

In the previous year we introduced a Source Book for Social Science which proved to be so fruitful that the overall result of Social Science in Hassan district stood first among the six subjects. Therefore, we decided to bring out a Source Book with the aim of improving the result in the Board Examination, enhancing the communicative skills of the students and making the students gain mastery over English. As per the instructions of A. T. Chamaraj, The D.D.P.I., Hassan, we are bringing out this book. He has given the following suggestions and remedial measures: 1.To bring out a sourcebook which will make learning English easy and interesting. 2.To conduct a Grammar test for 50 marks every month 3.To build confidence in the students which will help them to attain proficiency in English . 4.To help the teachers to prepare the students to face the exam confidently

I hope that this book will be of great help for students and teachers in gaining and imparting English learning skills .I extend my gratitude to the committee members who have rendered their valuable assistance in bringing out this book in a successful manner. I also appeal to use theatre tools for the dialogues for the lessons given in this book and enable children to use it. you can also use the same technique for the poems and send a c.d. and we will upload in our website please visit our website and contribute to make it become a torch bearer to the teacher’s fraternity.

Smt. P. Vedavathi Subject inspector (English) D.D.P.I. Office, Hassan    


We are learning English as a second language. Before learning this language, we need to know the structure of this language. There is a marked difference in learning an European language and a Dravidian language Structure of English language   S + V +O          Raju  reads a book       

Structure of Kannada    S+O+V gÁdÄ ¥ÀĸÀÛPÀªÀ£ÀÄß NzÀÄvÁÛ£É.

  S        V         O   

   S +     O +             V 

J£ÀPÉÌ MgÀÄ §ÄPï ªÉÃtA (Malayalam) £À£ÀUÉ MAzÀÄ ¥ÀĸÀÛPÀ ¨ÉÃPÀÄ.  

Note: Unit of a language is a sentence. We shall try to speak in sentences. Grammar of a language helps us to use language in good form. Let us understand this, and use English.  PARTS


(There are 8 parts of speech) 1. Noun: ™ A word that denotes name is noun ( A noun is a naming word) Eg: Ram, Boy, Village, Chair 2. Pronoun: ™ A word used instead of noun is Pronoun

Note: A pronoun is used after a noun is used. Eg: Appaji is driver.He drives a jeep.



™ a word that qualifies or describes a noun is adjective.(A word that tells about a Noun).

Eg: A good boy, A tall man Note: noun group contains – noun, pronoun and adjcetive.


4. Verb:

# A word that denotes an action or state of being/possession in a sentence is verb. Eg: 1) Jump, Write, Think 2) Ram is a student. Note:- The verb is the most important word in an English sentence .We can not make even a single sentence without a verb in any situation. It tells us about the subject. 1. The boys drink the water. (action) 2. Ambika has a gold chain. (Possession) 3 .Nehru was the first prime minister of India .(state of being) *Transitive Verb:- A verb that describes an action which passes over from the doer or subject to an object. It takes an object; usually the object answers the question what or whom put on the verb. 1. The peon opened the gate.

* What did the peon open ? → the gate.

2. The teacher praised the pupils * Who/m did the teacher praise? → the pupils. Some transitive verbs require two objects after them. One is direct and the other is indirect. 1. My mother told me a story.

me – Indirect object

a story – Direct object

2. The teacher distributed the papers to students. The papers – Direct object.

Students – Indirect object

• Note: /Only these transitive verbs have passive voice. *Intransitive verb:- A verb that denotes an action which does not pass over to an object and it answers the question How or Where or When put on verb. 1. The train stopped suddenly. (action) Q. How did the train stop ? → suddenly. 2. The cow was in the garden. garden.

Q. Where was the cow? → in the

3. I get up early in the morning. (state) Q. When do you get up? →early in the morning [ The under lined words are compliments] The Conjuction / Principal Forms of Verbs. 1. Bare Infinitive : The root form in the dictionary or base form is present tense .If the subject of the sentence is third person singular, the verb in the present tense form takes ‘s’,’es’ or ‘ies form. Ex: 1. I/We/You/They ask a question. 3. It /Cat goes there.

2. He/Joshi sings a song. 4. She/Sunitha studies well.


2. Weak verbs (Regular) : The verbs form their past tense by adding d, ed ,or t to the present tense are called weak verbs. There should be ‘d’ sound both in past and past participle. Ex: die—died, talk—talked, learn—learnt.

3. Strong verbs (Irregular): Some verbs form their past tense by changing the inside vowel of the present tense verb. If any other sound except ‘d’ sound in column three should be considered as strong or irregular verbs. Ex: catch-caught, think-thought, tell-told, bring-brought, take -took, burnburnt.

4. Present participle: It is formed by adding ‘ing’ to the base form of the verb. It shows the action in progress. Present participle performs the function of both an adjective and verb. It is also known as verbal adjective/noun. Ex : teach— teaching, look—looking, observe –observing, sing- singing.

5. Past Participle : It expresses a completed action in the past. It ends in d, ed, t, n or en. It also called ‘en’ form. Ex: 1. The child has broken the glass. 2. We have learnt English.

6. Infinitive: The infinitive form of a verb is preceded by ‘to’, it is known as ‘to infinitive’. It is not limited by tense, number and person. Ex : 1. Kiran goes to Delhi to meet his friend. 2. She went to market to buy vegetables.


Graphical Structure of verbs

Finite [indicate tense]




Non finite [indicate meaning]



V -d





- ies



Progressive-V4 Infinitive- V5

to+ V0

V+ ing







to speak

Finite verbs: Finite verbs are action words, indicate tense and they are limited by tense, number and person. Finite verbs are either in present or past tense. Ex : come/s—came, bring/s – brought, visit/s—visited.

Non-Finite verbs: Non-Finite verbs are forms of the verb which function as nouns or adjectives. They cannot themselves perform the full function of the finite verb. They have no subject and take no modals but indicate meaning. Non-Finite verbs occur in three forms ;Perfective, Progressive and Infinitive. Ex: 1. He has finished his work. 2. Mother is preparing food. 3. She wants to learn English. 4. Walking in the sun is harmful to health. 5. Seeing the policeman, the thief ran away.

These non-finite forms of the verb : ‘ has finished ‘

–perfective. 9

‘Is preparing’



‘ to learn’       




‐‐ gerund. 



‐ participle 

The common irregular verbs.


Non – Finite 

Present tense 

Past tense 

Past participle

Present participle 











to build 





to bend 





to dwell 





to hear 





to keep 





to lend 








to spend 





to sweep 





to weep 


to lose 

When ‘n’/en is added to the past participle.        arise/s 










to bite 





to choose 





to fly 





to go 




       Arising  Bearing 


to arise  to bear 

to grow 

















        hiding  sinking           throwing 

to hide  to sink  to throw 


to wake 


to wear 

Where ‘n’/en is not added to the past participle.        awake/s 







to become 





to begin 





to hold 





to ring 





to swim 





to win 





to wind 





to quit 


to awake 

Where ‘d’ or ‘ed’ is added to the past participle        allow/s 




to allow 





to betray 





to honour 





to flow 





to perch 

Note: The verbs remain same in all the three forms: burst,cast,cost,cut,hit,hurt,let,put,read,rid,set,shed,shut,slit,spread,thrust,



Verbs have mainly two divisions Verbs

Main verbs Auxiliary verbs (Helping Verbs)

Main verbs

: Main verbs have a definite meaning of its own.They usually have present/past/past participle.

Auxiliary Verbs : Auxiliary verbs help to define the tense(time) and Mode of main verbs. Note:1. An Auxiliary verb is the tense decider of a main verb. 2. In the ‘Subject + Verb + Object ‘ form of a sentence the Verb means Finite. 3. No finite verb can stand on itself without being assisted by an auxiliary verb. There are 24 Auxiliary verbs:
















































Used to

Auxiliary Verbs : Classifications Auxiliary verbs are chiefly divided into two kinds. They are : a) Primary Auxiliaries b) Modal Auxiliaries a) Primary Auxiliaries

Forms of “Be’






Forms of ‘Do’






Forms of ‘Have’







Table of Primary Auxiliary Verbs Base Form

Present Tense

Past tense



I Person















b) Modal Auxiliaries The modal Auxiliary verbs are used to mention either attitudes or moods. Will, would, shall. Should, can, could, may, might, must, need, dare, ought and used to are called modal Auxiliaries. Modal Auxiliary verbs Present tense

Past tense










Had to (in reported speech only)

Note: In reported speech ‘had to’ is needed as the past form of’ must’. In certain cases it is seen as ‘must have + 3rd form of the verb’. Note: Will and shall’ are used to say something in the future.

Personal pronouns I ,we


} I Person


II Person

He/She/it/they } Person











Easiest way to use Auxiliaries Person



‘Be’ Form

‘Do’ Form

‘Have’ form





Present Past







































He, She, It
















Use correct Auxiliary verbs to be filled. 1) ………………you living in a village? A) Do B) Does C) Are 2) 3)

………………you do the work? A) Did B) Does C) Have

D) Will D) Are

He ……………. be awarded Nobel prize. A) Must B) Can C) Might

D) May


……………… you meet him yesterday? A) Do B) Did C) Does D) had


……………… you anything to say against it? A) Have B) Do C) Does D) Did


…………….. you completed your home work ? A) Had B) Have C) Has D) Didn’t


Has he …………….the home work ? A) Do B) Does C) Did D) Done


Children…………. done the homework. A) Have B) Has C) Had D) Did 9) …………….you going to school? A) Do B) Have

C) Are

D) will

10) Will he …………………. to Mumbai tomorrow? A) goes B) going C) went D) go 11) You ………………….right for once. A) is B) do C) was D) are

12) What …………… he spoken?


A) is

B) does

C) has

D) did

13) …………. he go to school everyday? A) do B) does C) have D) are 14) …………… ever seen God? A) Did B) Do C) Have

D) Does

15) ……………….you a doctor? A) Are B) have B) do

C) has

16) ………… you help me to choose it? A) must B) should C) can D) may 17) I ……………. not like coffee. A) Does B) is C) am

D) do

18) Why ……………….you running? A) do B) was C) are D) did 19) ....................they destroy the forest? A) are B) do C) did D) have 20) wait for me for some time ? A) have B) are C) do D) can 21) ………………. you know the story of the singing bird ? A) do B) did C) does D) has

5.Adverb: ™ A word that tells how an action is done is called an adverb. It tells about a verb. Eg: run fast Write Neatly





Note: All words that ends with -‘ly’ except reply, supply, apply are adverbs.

PROSE L.No. 1. correctly, wrongly, directly, satisfactorily, presently, honourably, simply, L.No. 2. especially, friendly, personally, L.No. 3. quickly, lively, really, gradually, L.No. 4. Normally, hardly, technically, highly L.No. 5. Initially


L.No. 6. Certainly, singly L.No. 7. flatly, heavily L.No. 8. suddenly, loudly, smilingly, strongly, quickly, heartily happily Supplementary Reading L.No. 1. Presently, lazily, completely L.No. 2. directly, cleverly L.No. 3. Calmly Note: verb group contains-verb and adverb Sentences formed using Adverbs 1. Vikram Sarabhai was very good at studies especially in science. 2. While Vikram Sarabhai was actively working at the physical Research Laboratory at Ahamedabad, he became interested in the study of outer space. 3. Vikram Sarabhai was very friendly with the students. 4. Dr. Sarabhai Personally supervised all the students. 5. Narendra was intelligent and learnt his lessons quickly. 6. Narendra answered all the questions correctly but the others couldn’t. 7. Swami Vivekananda absorbed in meditation for nearly an hour. 8. B.S Chandrashekar was able to get wickets easily with the help of close in fielders. 9. According to B.S Chandrashekar, Rahul Dravid is technically sound and highly dependable. 10. Many women fought silently for the freedom of our country. 11. The King become very serious suddenly. 12. How is it really possible to hatch boiled eggs?

6.PREPOSITION : ™ The words which tell us the direction, position, time , movement and so on are called preposition. ™ A Preposition is a word that tells about the relationship between noun group and object group. Eg:

on, in, of, to, by, from………………….

Eg: The book is on the table Shows the location 1) Vikaram sarabhai was born ------ 12th August 1919 2) _____________ Monday September 11 1983 the first session of Parliament of Religions held 3) A girl is riding to her school ------------ a bicycle 4) The sad news flashed ----------- Saturday


AT ( it shows the point of place or time) Raju comes at 10 ‘o’ clock. Indicates the time or Place 1) 2) 3) 4)

Vikram sarabhai started working --------------Meteorological department at Poona Vikarm’s earliest education was ----------Retreat Initially I used to bat well ---------- no. 10 or 11 Swamiji felt nervous ------------ the sight of such a large audience

The water is in the pot Indicates the location, position 1) 2) 3) 4)

As a young girl Kalpana would sleep ------ front yard of her house in summer. Dr. Sarabhai realized the importance of industries---------- India. He created a new chapter --------- India’s space age . The Oval is --------------England.

Note: A thing which is enclosed.( Ex:- water in a pot, boy in a room.)

With 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

Shakuntala Dhamanakar worked ____________ Shankar Kurthakoti. He is going ______ his friend. That is the signal she makes___________ a mirror. _____________ the support of her husband Kalapna earned her Phd. A few minutes later Albertino returned ____________the latest news.

Note: with is usually used with a living being and a non- living being.

From 1) Sri Ramakrishna suffered _________ cancer. 2) Andy took two letters____ the heap. 3) I get strength _______ desire to breath free air. 4) My maternal grand mother was _______ Bijapur.

To 1) 2) 3) 4)

Chandrashekar flew _______ Mumbai. I still look forward ______ going to Bangalore. They tried ___________ hit him off the ground . Sarabhai went _________ England.

OF 2) 3) 4) 5)

Chandrashekar was fond ___________ music. It is not for the pleasure trips _________ british officers.. Dr. Sarabhai was an ideal manager __________human resources. Dr. Sarabhai was made the chairman ______________ Atomic Energy Commission.

Note:- Of shows the relationship between noun group and object group.


7.CONJUNCTION ™ A word which joins two words or two sentences is conjunction Eg: and, but, or ………………………. 1) There are three or four who can be called great but Chandrashekar votes for Rahul Dravid. 2) I would be sentenced if I am caught. 3) I would be grateful to you if you would get me a small bundle of cotton. 4) Go back or I will horsewhip you . 5) I firmly believe that ODI’s can never replace cricket . 6) I Have neither gone mad nor have I been up to any mischief. 7) Remember not gun powder but a letter. 8) Vikram left for England and joined St. John’s college. 9) The newspaper proclaimed Swamiji as a prophet and a seer . 10) Tell me if there is any one who has an answer. 11) Kashi Bai’s reply made him so angry that the collector cancelled the registration 12) How can we find out whether a person or a society is barbarous or civilized? 13) The judge was dumbfounded and was so much confused , he ordered to arrest them. 14) The boy is intelligent but lazy .

Note ; Use a formula : + x + = +{ ( use” and” ) both are positive ideas} Eg: He studied hard and he passed in the examination. - X - = + { ( use” and” ) both are negative ideas } He did not study hard and he failed in the examination. - X + = - { ( use “but”) negative/positive idea} He did not study hard but he passed in the examination. + x - = - { ( use “but” ) positive/ negative idea} He studied hard but he failed in the examination.

8.INTERJECTION ™ A word which is used to express a strong or sudden feeling / emotion is interjection. Eg:

Oh !

+ Wh form +verb !

How beautiful the flower is ! Note: Remember to put exclamation mark ( ! )at the end.

PARTS OF SPEECH- Exercises 1) P.T. Usha runs fast the word ‘fast’ is used here as A) adverb

B) noun

C) adjective

D) verb

2) There are twenty mangoes in the basket. The word ‘basket’ is A) noun

B) adjective

C) verb

D) interjection


3) The earth moves around the sun. The word ‘moves’ is A) verb

B) adjective

C) adverb

D) preposition

4) I had a sweet dream yesterday. The word ‘sweet’ is A) noun

B) adjective

C) adverb

D) verb

5) Happiness is not found in wealth. Here in the word ‘happiness’ is ‘ A) verb

B) noun

C) adjective

D) adverb

6) Dreaming is a unique ability of human beings. Here the word ‘dreaming’ is A) verb

B) adverb

C) adjective

D) noun

7) Akbar Ali is a very handsome person. The word Akbar Ali is A) adjective

B) noun

C) verb

D) adverb

8)Ram is an honest man the word ‘ honest’ is A) Noun B) verb C) adjective D) adverb 9) Rose is a beautiful flower. The word ‘Rose’ is A) adjective B) noun C) conjunction

D) adverb

10) Chandrashekar was a great spinner. The word Chandrashekar is A) noun B) verb C) adjective D) adverb 11) She came running to meet her friend. The word ‘running’ is A) Verb B) noun C) adjective D) adverb 12) Kalpana get married to Harrison the word ‘ Harrison ‘ is A) an adverb B) a noun C) a verb D) a person 13) Kamala is a truthful girl. The word ‘truthful’ is A) a verb B) a noun C) an adjective

D) an adverb

14) The food was served quickly. The word ’quickly’ is A) adjective B) verb C) noun D) adverb 15) Your prize is happily yours. Here the word ‘ happily’ is A) an adjective B) a noun C) an adverb

D) a verb

16. Krishnamurthy is doing his work interestingly. The word ‘Krishnamuruthy’ is A) noun B) adverb C) verb D) adjective 17) Work hard with determination. The word ‘work’ is A) a verb B) an adverb C) adjective

D) a noun

18) Kiran is an intelligent boy. The word Kiran is A) a verb B) adverb C) adjective

D) noun

8. Homophones 1. Principle (³Ð³Ð÷):- Gandiji is a man of principle. Principal ( »Ñõ A ÆÐÔ»ÑäÐÔ) :- Our principal is very strict. 2. Whole ( ÊÐÀÐÔÊÐê) The whole school went on a picnic. Hole (¤Ð A ·°Ðõ) :- Rat came out of the hole. A 3. Break ( ÀÐÔÔ§) Sachin breaks all the records. Brake (³Ð®Ù) :- The driver applied the brake suddenly.


4. Meat (ÀÐ¦Ñ A ÊÐ):- Meat is a very delicious food. Meet (¾°ÙÓ«):- I meet my friend everyday. . 5. Write (½¤Ù A¦ÐÔÔÀÐÕ·ÐÔ) :- I am writing English exam. Right ( ÊЧ ) Whatever the teacher hs told is right . 6. Hour (–Ð AªÙ):- Children play hours together. Our (¹ÐÀÐÔó) :- Ours is a big family. 7. Weight (³ÐÖ‘Ð) I have put on lot of weight. Wait (‘ÑA ¦ÐÔÔÀÐÕ·ÐÔ) :- My father is waiting outside. 8. Waist (ÊÙÖ A©) :-My waist is 34 cms. Waste (ÀÐôμÐþ) :- We should not waste our time. 9. Some (‘ÙÃÀÐÕ) :- Some people eat more. Sum (ÄÙ‘ÐÜ) :- Our teacher gave us a sum. 10.

Cot (ÀÐÔ A ›Ð) :- The lord`s cot was made of Ivory. Caught (ͯ A ¦ÐÔÔÀÐÕ·ÐÔ);- The thief was caught by the police.

11. Know (´Ï A ¦ÐÔÔÀÐÕ·ÐÔ) :- I know the answer to the question. Now (†–Ð) : We are writing the examination now. 12. Whether (ºÁVzÀÝ°è) :- I am confused whether to take up Science or Arts. Weather (ÌÐÀÑÀЦѹÐ) :- Weather is excellent this morning . 13. Sight (¹ÙÖÓ©) ;- The sight of western Ghats is very beautiful. Site (ºÀÙÓÆйÐ) ;- We have bought a site in Bangalore. 14. Dear (¼õÓ´ A ¦ÐÔ) :- My mother is very dear to me. Deer ( £ A ‘Ù) :- We saw deer in Mysore Zoo. 15. Son (ÀÐÔ–Ð) :- I am the only son of my parents. Sun (ÊÐÖ A ¦ÐÔþ);- Sun is the only source of light and energy to the Earth. 16.

Piece(³ÐÔ A ®ÐÔ) :- He broke the glass into pieces. Peace (ÆÑ A ´):- We should maintain peace.

17. Steel (‡‘ÐÔÜ) :- Steel is a strong metal. Steal (‘и) :- Andy steals two letters from the parcel. 18. Night (¤Ñ´õ) :- Some animals hunt at night. Knight(AiÉÆÃzsÀ) :- Player moved the knight intelligently in the game of chess


9. ARTICLES Articles are the demonstrative adjectives. The articles are a, an, the `a` and `a `

Indefinite articles


Indefinite article

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate articles. [ a, an, the] 1. Andy waited for about half _____________hour. 2. A research student burnt up _________ electric meter. 3. Dr. Sarabhai was __________ideal manager. 4. Narendra was ________all rounder . 5. Have ___________ aim in your life. 6. He is _______MP/ MLA. 7. Cricket is_________ glorious game. 8. Here is__________ letter for Squire.. 9. He is __________European. 10. Dr. Sarabhai was __________kind hearted teacher. 11. Bhuvaneshwari Devi was _________Pious lady. 12. The dove was tied with ________ single thread. 13. Swamiji established ________ Ramakrishna Mission. 14. Dr. Sarabhai supervised all __________ work. 15. Daksha was _________ greatest prize. 16. I never thought about ___________disadvantage. 17. Civilization is_______________ reverse of that 18. It is not ________________pleasure trips for the British officers

Where do we use the articles? An


‘An` is used before a word beginning with vowel a vowel & sound like AEIOU

‘A’ is used before a word beginning with a consonant sound ‘A’ is used Eg:-

A cow A ball A dog


Honest, Hour, Honourable These are the examples for words which receives ‘an’ article

Use of the definite article ‘The’(‘ÙÎБЁ®Ð ÊЁ·Ð¾°Ðþ–ÐÎÐÅö article the ½ÎÐÊÐÃï®ÐÔ³Ðê·Ù.) ‘The’ article used before

Ocean and Sea (ÊіФРÀÐÔ³ÐÔê ÊÐÀÐÔÔ·Ðõ)

The Arabian ocean, The Atlantic

Rivers (¹Ð¸–ÐÎÐÔ)

The Ganga, The Kaveri


The Sahara, The Thar

Group of Islands (¸÷ӻРÊÐÀÐÔÖÌЖÐÎÐÔ)

The Lakshadweepa, The Andaman and Nikobar


Mountain ranges (»ÐÀÐþ³Ð ÆÙõÓ±Ò–ÐÎÐÔ)

The Himalayas, The Vindhya

Direction (¢PÀÄÌ–ÐÎÐÔ)

The South, The East

Seasons (‘ÑÖÐÎÐÔ)

The summer, The winter

Newspaper (ÀÐسÐê »Ð´õ‘Ù–ÐÎÐÔ)

The Times of India, The Samyukta Karnataka

Special buildings (ÁÆÙÓÈÐ ‘Щå®Ð–ÐÎÐÔ)

The Tajmahal, The Gol-Gumbaz

Unique things (ƒ¸÷´Ó¦ÐÔ ÀÐÊÐÔê–ÐÎÐÔ)

The sun, The sky, The earth, The eclipse

Certain books (–ÐõμЖÐÎÐÔ)

The Ramayana, The Bible

Superlatives (ƒ³ÐÔô¹Ðô³Ð ÌÙÖÓÅ‘Ù)

The best boy, The tallest building, the highest peak

Ordinals (‘ÐõÀÐÔÊÐ֛БЖÐÎÐÔ)

The first, The second

Musical instruments (ÊÐ0—ӳР‡»Ð‘Фб–ÐÎÐÔ)

The flute , The guitar

10. COMBINE SENTENCES Usage of Too-----to, so---that----not Combine the following pairs of sentences with too---to, so---that---not.

1. The sum is difficult. I can not solve it. The sum is too difficult to solve it. The sum is so difficult that I cannot solve it. 2. She is honest. She will not accept a bribe. She is too honest to accept a bribe. She is so honest that she will not accept a bribe. 3. The shock was severe. He could not bear it. The shock was too severe to bear it. The shock was so severe that he could not bear it 4. He is very clever. He can not be taken in. He is too clever to be taken in. He is so clever that he cannot be taken in.


5. She is proud. She does not own her fault. She is too proud to own her fault. She is so proud that she cannot own her fault. 6. He is weak. He cannot move about. He is too weak to move about. He is so weak that he cannot move about. 7. The hill is very high. I cannot climb it. The hill is too high to climb it. The hill so high that I cannot climb it. COMBINING SENTENCES - (Neither------Nor) 1. I have not gone mad. I have not been up to any mischief. I have neither gone mad nor been up to any mischief. 2. He is not clever. He is not intelligent. He is neither clever nor intelligent. 3. Your courtiers and ministers should not stop me. They should not come in my way as I take my prize away. Your courtiers and ministers should neither stop me nor come in my way as I take my prize away. 4. Chandrashekar was not a controversial man. He was not involved in any controversies on and off the field. Chandrashekar was neither a controversial man nor was he involved in any controversies on and off the field. 5. It is not possible to empty the ocean with a small wooden bowl. At the same time it is not possible to stop all the rivers flowing the ocean with the small bundle of cotton. It is neither possible to empty the ocean with a small wooden bowl nor at the same time to stop all the rivers flowing into ocean with the small bundle of cotton.



13. Give one word for the following 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Being disrespectful to an elderly person Impertinent Make fun of someone in order to hurt Taunt Make some one angry Provoke A person who lives a wandering life. Vagabond One who foretells things by studying stars Astrologer A person who travels in a spacecraft Astronaut One who studies rocks and soils Geologist One who studies the human mind Psychiatrist One who conducts a scientific study of the sun, the moon and the stars Astronomer 10. A person who is skilled in preparing medicines Pharmacist 11. Connected with the making of medicines Pharmaceutical 12. One who does something first Pioneer 13. Ability to think and judge quickly Acumen 14. Expressing a lower opinion of ones own ability Modest 15. One who has noble aims for future Visionary 16. Receive from ones parents Inherit 17. The ability to say things that are clever and amusing wit 18. A building in which monks live Monastery 19. A person who has been appointed or selected to attend a conferenceDelegate 20. State of being officially acceptable Validity 21. Say publically that something important is true Proclaim 22. A man whom people believe has been sent by God to lead them. Prophet 23. Someone who can see into the future and say what will happen Seer 24. A short statement which expresses the aims or belief of a person school or institution Motto 25. A strong, deeply felt emotion passion 26. Do something in a determined way persevere 27. The ability of a person caliber 28. To be disloyal to someone who trusts betray 29. Used to wish someone for a good journey Bonvoyage 30. Something that you say, do or give in order to express your respect or admiration for someone Tribute 31. Make first public appearance Debut 32. People who do something for the love of it Amateurs 33. Cruel and violent behaviour Barbarism 34. Make someone feel awkward Embarrass 35. To behave as if you have not heard or seen someone or something Ignoring 36. Someone who knows a lot about a subject Scholar 37. Something good mentioned in an official record Citation 38. Lack of particular good quality Bankruptcy 39. Turn white on ones face because of shock Pale 40. Say a prayer in singing voice Chant 41. Final release from rebirth Deliverance



Transformation of sentences 1.

Assertive sentence to interrogative / imperative/exclamatory and vice versa a). Assertive to interrogative and vice versa S+V+O.→V+S+O ? Note: If a sentence has main verb/independent verb use ‘do’ form. If a sentence has a helping verb / auxiliary verb, use the same form Remember in a statement : third person, singular number present tense verb takes ‘s’ /es/ies. 1. I want a letter. What do you want? 2. The gentleman paid the four pence postage. What did the gentleman pay? 3. The master is in a hurry. Who is in a hurry? 4. He visits the market on Sundays. When does he visit the market? 5. Aryabhata was launched in April 1975. When was Aryabhata launched? 6. Vikram was born on 12 August 1919. When was Vikram born? 7. He was awarded Ph.D by the Cambridge University. Who awarded Ph.D to him? 8. Dr. Sarabhai realized the Importance of industries. What did Dr.Sarabhai realize?. 9. Viswanath was known for charity What was Viswanath known for? 10. Sri.Ramakrishna suffered from cancer. What did Sri.Ramakrishna suffer from? 11. The teachers were kind and affectionate. How were the teachers? 12. His speech was very interesting. How was his speech? 13. Cricket is a glorious game. What kind of a game is cricket? 14. Chandrashekar made his test debut in 1964. When did Chandrashekar make his debut? 15. Karnal is in Haryana. Where is Karnal? 16. Kalpana chose Science. What did Kalpana choose? 17. Many people in Europe think that they are civilized. What do the people in Europe think?


18. The opposite of barbarism is civilization. What is the opposite. Of barbarism? 19. The Englishman was trying his best to kill Germans. What was the Englishman trying to do? 20. She inspired women through her writings. How did she inspire women? 21. INA was founded by Subash Chandra Bose . Who founded the INA?. 22. The women commanded the judge to get back. What did the women command the judge to do? 23. Daksha taught good manners to her father. What did Daksha teach her father? 24. The king of Kashmir sent the wisest man. Who sent the wisest man ? 25. The king looks worried. How does the king look? 26. Daksha was the king’s greatest prize. What was the king’s greatest prize? 27. Daksha went to the king’s court Where did Daksha go? 2.

Transformation of sentences b) Active and Passive Voice We use active voice when we give the importance to the doer of the action. We give importance to passive voice when action being done takes the prime role .






a fruit

A Fruit


eaten by


Object +helping verb + Verb (pp) + by + Subject Active voice ÀÑ‘ÐôÀйÐÔî Passive voice „— ½·ÐÅÊÐÃÔ ƒ¹ÐÔÊЧÊоÙÓ‘Ñ·Ð ºA ¦ÐÔÀÐÔ–ÐÎÐÔ 1. Identify the Subject , verb and object of the sentence. ‘ÙÖ©0å³ÐÌÐ ÀÑ‘Ðô·Ð ‘гÐÔþ, ‘ÐÀÐÔþ, ’õ A ¦Ð¦Ñ»Ð·Ð–ÐÎйÐÔî ‘ÐA®ÐÔͯÂÔ§. The object of the active voice is made the subject in the passive voice and the subject of the active voice is made the object in the passive voice. ‘ÐÀÐÔþ»Ð·ÐÀйÐÔî ‘Ð³ÐÔþÁ¹Ð ÊÑë¹Ð‘ÙÜ ÌÑ–ÐÖ ‘гÐÔþÀйÐÔî ‘ÐÀÐÔþ»Ð·Ð·Ð ÊÑë¹Ð‘ÙÜ ³Ð¤Ð¾ÙÓ‘ÐÔ. A helping verb is used with the main verb according to the number of the subject in the passive Voice. ÀÐÔÔ“ô ’õ A ¦Ð¦Ñ»Ð·Ð·Ð ¢ÙÖ³Ù A ¦ÐÔÅö ·ÐÔ ÊÐÌÑ A ¦ÐÔ‘Ð ’õ¦Ð¦Ñ»Ð·Ð ÀйÐÔî ½ÎÐÊÐÄÑ–ÐÔ³Ðê·Ù. ƒ·ÐÔ Passive voice ¹Ð ‘гÐÔþÁ¹Ð ÀЛйÐÀйÐÔî ƒÀÐÃA¿Ë¤ÐÔ³Ðê·Ù.


4. Past participle form of the verb should be used (ÀÐÔÔ“ô ’õA ¦Ð¦Ñ»Ð·Ð·Ð ¾°ÐֳР‘ÐØ·Ñ÷›Ð‘Ð ¤ÐÖ»ÐÀкî®Ð¾ÙÓ‘ÐÔ.) The object of the passive voice is followed by the preposition by passive voice ¹ÐÅö ‘ÐÀÐÔþ»Ð·Ð·Ð ÍA·Ù by ŠA½ ‡»ÐÊЖÑþÀÐô ½ÎÐÊоÙÓ‘ÐÔ. Changes of Pronouns

Present act




















I eat a mango.

I am eating mango.

I have eaten a mango.

A mango is being eaten by me.

A mango has been eaten by me..

I was eating a mango..

I had eaten a mango.

Pass A mango is eaten by me. Act I ate a mango. Past Pass

A mango was eaten by me.

Act I shall eat a mango.


A mango was being eaten by me,

A mango had been eaten by me..

I shall be eating

I shall have eaten a


mango. A mango will have been

Pass A mango will be

No passive voice

eaten by me.

eaten by me.

Note: There are twelve tenses in the Acitve voice, but eight in the passive.


Modals :-

Reshma will sing a song.

A song will be sung by Reshma. 

Would, can, could, should, may might, ought to, nee to …ÀÐÕ ‘ÐÀÐÔþ±Ò »ÐõA¦ÙÖӖзÐÅö `be` A ¦ÙÖA¸–Ù ƒ¹ÐÔÊÐ§Ë ½¤ÐÔ³Ðê·Ù 9. ‘ÐÀÐÔþ±Ò »Ðõ A ¦ÙÖӖзÐÅö ‘гÐþ§ »Ðõ A ¦ÙÖӖзРÀÙÖ·ÐùÙÓ ‘ÐÀÐÔþ »Ð·ÐÀйÐÔî „ A ¦ÙÔÜ ÀЦѮÐÔÀÐÕ·ÐÔ. ‘ÙÃÀÐÕ ÊÐA·Ð¾°Ðþ–ÎÐÅö ‘гÐþ§ »Ðõ A ¦ÙÖӖзРŠ¤Ð®Ð¹ÙÓ ‘ÐÀÐÔþ»Ð·Ð, ÀÙÖ·ÐùÙÓ ‘ÐÀÐÔþ »Ð·Ð’Ü A ³Ð »ÐõÀÐÔÔ“Àٺ˷ÐÅö „ »Ð·Ð¸A·ÐÄÙÓ ‘ÐÀÐÔþ±Ò »ÐõA ¦ÙÖÓ–Ð ÀЦѮÐÔÀÐÕ·ÐÔ. S


V +




(o1 →Object 1, ) (O2→ Object 2)

gave a letter to Andy.

Ex:- The post master

Andy was given a letter by the postmaster . Singular Object

Plural Object

Andy asks the postmaster. S


The king calls his ministers.



The postmaster is asked by Andy. Simple Present




His ministers are called by the king S




Narendra answers all the questions.

The entrance examination is passed by Narendra .

All the questions are answered by Narendra,

Andy asked the post master.

The king called his minister.




The postmaster was asked by Andy. S




India launched Aryabhata in 1975.

Aryabhata was launnched by India in 1975.


Narendra passes the entrance examination


Simple Past




His ministers were called by the king. S




Sarabhai solved the problems of his classmates. The Problems of his classmates were solved by Sarabhai .


Andy is asking the postmaster. S




The postmaster is being asked by Andy Present continuous

S +


Daksha is solving the problem.

His ministers are being called by the king. Sarabhai is studying cosmic rays.

The Problem is being solved by Daksha

Cosmic rays are being studied by Sarabhai.

Andy was asking the postmaster.

The king was calling his ministers




The postmaster was being asked by Andy Past Continous

The king is calling his ministers.

S + A.V+being+M.V+by+O Daksha was solving the problem..

The problem was being solved by Daksha

Singular Object ( has + been)Andy has asked the postmaster. S +has M.V


The postmaster has been asked by Andy. s+has+been+M.V+by+O 1.

Mr. Durfy has introduced Andy.

Present Perfect

His ministers were being called by the king. Sarabhai was studying cosmic rays.

Cosmic rays were being studied by Sarabhai.

Plural Object ( have + been) The king has called his ministers. His ministers have been called by the king. 1. India has launched satellites. Satellites have been launched by India.

Andy has been introduced by Mr. Durfy

2. Mahapanditji has presented the problem.

The problem has been presented by Mahapanditji. Andy had asked the postmaster. S



His employees have been sent abroad by Sarabhai.

The king had called his ministers.


The Postmaster had been asked by Andy. Past Perfect

2. Sarabhai has sent his employees abroad.


His ministers had been called by the king.

1. Daksha had solved the problem.


The problem had been solved by Daksha.

1. Narendra had answered all the questions.

2. Sarabhai had started Sarabhai

All the questions had been answered



Sarabhai Chemicals had been started by Sarabhai.

by Narendra. 2. The former had sowed the boiled beans.

The boiled beans had been sowed by the former.

Note: Insert “by” before the object EXAMPLES 1. The gentleman paid the four pence postage. The four pence postage was paid by the gentleman. 2. I never saw you before. You were never seen before by me. 3. Sarabhai dreamt of a Research Laboratory for studies on cosmic rays. A Research Laboratory for studies on cosmic rays was dreamt by Sarabhai. 4. A research student burnt up an electric meter. An electric meter was burnt up by a research student. 5. Our author interviewed B.S Chandrashekar. B.S Chandrashekar was interviewed by our author. 6. Dr. Sarabhai sent many of the employees abroad. Many of the employees were sent abroad by Dr. Sarabhai. 7. The committee made Dr. Sarabhai the chairman. Dr. Sarabhai was made the chairman by the committee. 8. Dr. Sarabhai realized the importance of industries The importance of industries was realized by Dr. Sarabhai . 9. He gave the committed workers more challenging work. The committed workers were given more challenging work by him. 10. Swami Vivekananda established the Ramakrishna Mission. The Ramakrishna Mission was established by Swami Vivekananda. 11. They founded a monastery at Baranagar. A monastery was founded by them at Baranagar. 12. She defeated the British army at Rangoon. The British army was defeated by her at Rangoon. 13. He called me near. I was called near by him. 14. You have to pay eleven pence postage. Eleven pence postage has to be paid by you. 15. The King of Kashmir has sent the wisest man of his court. The wisest man of his court has been sent by the King of Kashmir.


16. You have given me a great prize. A great prize has been given to me by you. 17. ISRO has launched a number of satellites and rockets. A number of satellites and rockets have been launched by ISRO. 18. Dr. Sarabhai would solve all their problems easily. All their problems would be solved easily by Dr. Sarabhai. 19. How else would you learn? How else would it be learnt by you. 20. You’ll never see me again? I will never be seen by you again. 21. They would never forgive this. This would never be forgiven by them. 22. I will use it for drying cow dung cakes. It will be used by me for drying cow dung cakes. 23. I will give you some boiled beans tomorrow. Some boiled beans will be given to you by me tomorrow. 24. We will have to honour the Pandit. The Pandit will have to be honoured by us. 25. The police couldn’t do anything. Nothing could be done by the police. 26. Who stole three letters from the heap? By whom were three letters stolen from the heap? 27. Who can see God? By whom can God be seen? 28. Who gave you those directions? By whom were those directions given to you.? 29. You could give it to me. It could be given to me by you.


DEGREES OF COMPARISON :- ( with adjectives ) ÌÙÖÓÅ‘ÙA ¦ÐÔ ‘ÐõÀÐÔÀйÐÔî …A—öÓÈý¹Åö ö ªÀÄƤÐÔ Á·°ÐÀÑ— Á¾°Ñ—ÊÐÄÑUÀijÐê·Ù. 1) Positive Degree

2) Comparative Degree ÀÐÔ³ÐÔê

3) Superlative Degree

1) Positive Degree Denotes a simple degree of quality of person / things or action Ex. Rahim is a tall boy. ½ñ ÀÐô’ê(ÀÐÊÐÔê) …¹ÙÖî½ñ¹ÐÈÙå (…¹ÙÖФÐÈÙå) …·Ñì¹Ù(…·Ù) ƒμÐÀÑ …®è Š§ Á›Ñ¤Ð ´ÏÊÐÔ³Ðê·Ù


…Åö ________ as ƒμÐÀÑ so________as »Ð·ÐÀÐÕ ‡»Ð¦ÙÖÓ—ÊÐÃï®ÐÔ³Ðê·Ù. Example- 1)Sudha is as tall as Latha 2) He is not so strong as Siddappa 2) Comparative Degree Denotes a higher or lower quality of two persons/ things ÊÑÀЦѹÐôÀÑ— (Š¤Ð®ÐÔ ÀÐÊÐÔê–ÐÎÐÔ ÌÑ–ÐÖ …½ñ¤ÐÔ ÀÐô’ê–ÐÎÐ ¹Ð®ÐÔÀÙ ÌÙÖÓőف¦ÐÔ ÊЁ·Ð¾°Ðþ·ÐÅö ½ÎÐÊÐÄÑ–ÐÔ³Ðê·Ù.) Example:Sudha taller than`more` Latha ½ÎÐË 2)HeComparative is not strongerdegree than Siddappa ÁÆÙÓÈб‘ÙÜ `er`is`r` ƒμÐÀÑ –Ù ½·ÐÅÊÐÄÑ–ÐÔ³Ùê·Ù ÌÑ–ÐÖ

ÁÆÙÓÈб·Ð ¹Ð³Ð¤Ð `than` ‡»Ð¦ÙÖÓ—ÊÐÄÑ–ÐÔ³Ðê·Ù. 1) Superlative Degree Denotes the highest or lowest quality of person or things ½ñ ÀÐô’ê (ÀÐÊÐÔê) ƒ¹ÙÓ‘Ð ÀÐô’ê–ÐÏ–Ù (ÀÐÊÐÔê–ÐÏ–Ù) ÌÙÖÓÅË·Ñ–Ð ƒ³Ðô³ÐêÀÐÔ Š½ Á›Ñ¤Ð ´ÏÊÐÔ³Ðê·Ù. Example: 1)The Ganga is the longest river in India 2)This is the easiest lesson in the book Example 01 Vikramaditya was (Proper noun

the H.V.

Artcle adj






No other girl

in the court


No other

wisest judge

wiser than any other

in the history of India.

C.noun girl

object group in the court


any other c.noun


as wiseas


H.V. as

adj as

C.noun other part

object group)


Example 02 Note: Use the following formula to interchange degrees of comparison Positive degree No other + common noun+ verb + as adj as+ proper noun +

Object group

No other scientist

of our country.


as famous as Vikram sarabhai

Comparative degree p.noun + verb+ more( adj. ) + than + any other + common noun + Vikram Sarabhai is

more famous than any other scientist

object group

of our country

Superlative degree Of all the+common noun + p.noun + Verb +the( superlative degree adj )+ object group Of all the Scientist ,

Vikrama sarabhai is the most famous

of our country.


Exercises: 1) India is the biggest country in Asia (Su.De) No other country in Asia is as big as India ( Po.De) India is bigger than any other country in Asia (Co De) 2) Nehru was greater than any other states man (Co. De) No other statesman was as great as Nehru (po De) Nehru was the greatest statesman. (su. De) 3) Bhimasena was stronger than any other Pandava ( Co.De) No other Pandava was as strong as Bhimasena (Po. De) Bhimasena was the strongest among the Pandava s(Su.De) 4) Chandrashekar was one of the greatest leg-break bowlers in the world. (Su.De) Very few leg-break bowlers in the world were as great as Chandrashekar (Po. De) Chandrashekar was greater than most of the leg-break bowlers in the world (Co.De) 5) Vivekanada was greater than most of the saints in the world. (Co.De) Very few saints in the world were as great as Vivekanda (Po.De.) Vivekanda was one of the greatest saints in the world (Su.De)

































More famous

Most famous


More useful

Most useful


More difficult

Most difficult

R and er takes est in Superlative

Y takes ier and iest in Superlative

Some adjectives that have two or more syllables, takes more and most















Irregular adjective

Note : if the adjective has two or more syllables , then add more/most. Ex: Famous (Fa´mous), beautiful ( bū´tĭ`f)                                                                                      


2. DIRECT SPEECH AND INDIRECT SPEECH (Reporting sentences) I person:


Active voice Passive voice



We Me


II Person ___ You/ You

Ok Let us play



Active voice



Passive voice



III Person ___




Active voice

He/She/ it


Passive voice

, him/her/it

Them / their

Note: When we use the exact words of the speaker. it is called the “Direct speech”. When we report the speech in our own words, it is called the “Indirect speech” or “Reported speech”. Look at it : Reporting verb

Tagore said,

Reported verb

“ I

[StepI ]

[StepII ]

Reporting sentence

Tagore said


[StepIII ]

your hospitality”

[StepIV ]

Reported sentence




his hospitality

Rules: We have to incorporate four major changes while changing a Direct speech into an indirect speech . 1. Keep the tense of the reporting verb as it is .. If the tone of the verb is in the form of order or request then you will have to change the Reporting Verb according to the form without changing the tense. 2. Inserting word has to be as per the following rules to remove comma and inverted comma . Step I. If the reported sentence ( which is in the inverted commas) is an assertive sentence add ‘that’ (if reported sentence starts with noun or pronoun add “ that “) Step II. If the reported sentence (which is in the inverted commas ) is an imperative sentence then add ‘to’( if reported sentence (If the reported sentence ( which is in the inverted commas) starts with independent verb/main verb add” to”) Step III. If the reported sentence ( which is in the inverted commas ) is interrogative sentence, then nothing to be added ie, ‘wh form ‘ i.e what, when, why, who , how etc.. Step IV. If the reported sentence ( which is in the inverted commas) is Yes or No type of questions add ‘if or whether’.( if it is a helping verb add “ if or whether . If the reported sentence ( which is in the inverted commas) starts with a helping verb- (is, are , am , was , were, do, does etc)add if or whether


CHANGE :        1. Direct  speech C£ÀÄß  Indirect UÉ §zÀ¯Á¬Ä¸ÀĪÁUÀ , j¥ÉÆÃmÉðqï ªÀ¨ïð £À mÉ£Àì C£ÀÄß §zÀ¯Á¬Ä¸ÀĪÀAw®è. 2nd step : Direct  speech C£ÀÄß  Indirect UÉ §zÀ¯Á¬Ä¸ÀĪÁUÀ j¥ÉÆÃnðAUï ªÀ¨ïð £ÀAvÀgÀ §gÀĪÀ ªÁPÀåzÀ°è£À C®à«gÁªÀÄ ªÀÄvÀÄÛ GzÀÝgÀt aºÉß UÀ¼À£ÀÄß vÉUÉAiÀĨÉÃPÀÄ. 3rd step : Direct  speech C£ÀÄß  Indirect UÉ §zÀ¯Á¬Ä¸ÀĪÁUÀ PÉÆnÖgÀĪÀAvÀºÀ ªÁPÀå EA¥ÀjnÃªï ¸ÉAmÉ£ïì DVzÀÝ°è j¥ÉÆÃnðAUï ªÀ¨ïð ªÀÄvÀÄÛ ªÀÄÄA¢ü£À ªÁPÀåzÀ £ÀqÀÄªÉ §¼À¸À¨ÉÃPÁzÀAvÀºÀ PÀ£ÉQÖAUï ªÀqïð to  §¼À¸À¨ÉÃPÀÄ. ºÁUÉAiÉÄà -                ASSERTIVE SENTENCE – that              INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE – If              “Wh” questions – No change (§zÀ¯Á¬Ä¸ÀĪÀAw®è)

4th step : Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

Simple present tense

Changes to simple past tense

Present continuous tense

Changes to past continuous tense

Present perfect tense

Changes to past perfect tense

Present perfect continuous tense

Changes to Past perfect continuous tense

Simple past tense

Changes to past perfect tense

Past continuous tense

Changes to past perfect continuous tense

Past perfect tense

Does not change

past perfect continuous tense

Does not change

If it is in future form

Will & shall Changes to would &should

5th step :

Direct speech command DVzÀÝ°è Indirect UÉ §zÀ¯Á¬Ä¸ÀĪÁUÀ Ordered ¥ÀzÀªÀ£ÀÄß §¼À¸À¨ÉÃPÀÄ. Direct



That day


The previous day/The day before


That night

Last week

The previous week


The next day














Modals Shall




Will Can









Do, does


Has, have


Change as

Certain verbs of time and place and demonstratives are changed as follow Direct Speech

Indirect Speech Said that, told that.

1. Assertive Sentence 2. Interrogative Sentence

Asked if / whether

(A) Yes/No Question

Asked + related `WH` words

(B) WH Question

Ordered to, requested to

3. Imperative Sentence

Exclaimed that,

4. Exclamatory Sentence .

Pronouns are Changed as follow


Direct Speech

Indirect Speech


He /She





You (plural)








he, she, it, they

Remain unchanged


Verbs in the direct speech are changed into their corresponding past forms Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

Simple Present

Simple Past

Present Continuous

Past Continuous

Present Perfect

Past Perfect

Present Perfect Continuous

Past Perfect Continuous

Simple Past

Past perfect

Past Continuous

Past Perfect Continuous

Past Perfect

Remains unchanged

Past perfect continuous

Remains unchanged

Articles. The Articles ‘a’, ‘an’ and ‘ the’ are demonstrative adjectives ,which are generally used before a common noun, singular countable nouns to tell about a particular or non particular person, place or thing. Mainly there are two kinds of Articles; 1. Indefinite Articles -- a, an 2. Definite Article -the. Uses of Indefinite Articles ; ‘a ‘ and ‘ an ‘ ‘ a ‘ and ‘ an ‘ are known as indefinite articles because they do not give definite or clear reference to person or thing and they show that we are talking about One person, place or thing. Ex ; A teacher [ any teacher ] A student [ any student ] An apple [ any apple ] An egg [ any egg ] 1. We use article ‘ a ‘ before a consonant sound irrespective whether the word begins with a vowel or a consonant letter . we choose ‘ a ‘ or ‘an’ because of pronunciation, not spelling. Ex ; a house, a hand, a horse BUT an hour [ The ‘ h ‘ is silent, so hour is like ‘our’] an ass , an umbrella, an aeroplane, BUT a university [pronouncedju .n v .s .ti/ a European, a uniform, a useful, a one pound [one- /w n/ exact number ] 2. We use ‘ an ‘ before a vowel sound whether the word begins with a vowel or consonant letter. Ex; an eagle, an image, an engine, an apple, an art, an order, an under; the words begin with a vowel letter and the sound is also vowel. BUT an honest, an honour, an MLA, an MP.; the words begin with a consonant letter and the sound is vowel.[observe the transcription ]

The Uses of the Definite Article ‘ the’ 1.We use ‘ the ‘ for particular person or thing . Ex ; 1. Vikram sent me a book, the book is informative.


2. This is the pen I lost yesterday. 2.We use ‘ the ‘ before only, first, second etc and superlatives like oldest, most. Ex ; 1. He is the only friend for me. 2. It is the first match against Australia. 3 She lives on the second floor. 4. This is the oldest temple in Belur. 5. He bought the most expensive car.

3. We often use a/an to talk about a person or thing for the first time, and ‘ the ‘ when we talk about the person or thing again. Ex ;

A man walked up to a policeman. The man took out a map and asked the policeman. 4. When a singular noun is used for a whole class. Ex ; 1. The lion is very ferocious.

2. Bangalore is the capital of Karnataka.

5. Before the names of sacred books, news papers, magazines, well known buildings. Ex ; The Mahabharatha,

The Bible,

The Indian Express, The Taj Mahal.

6. Before a proper noun when qualified by an adjective or defining adjective clause. Ex ;

Indira Gandhi was the Prime minister of India.

7. Before the names of mountains, deserts, rivers, oceans, seas, group of Islands. Ex ; The Himalaya, The Sahara, The Ganga, The Pacific, The Mediterranean, The Andaman & Nocobar Islands. 8. Before common nouns which are the names of things unique of their kind. Ex ;

The earth,

The sky,

The sun ,

The moon,


Omission of Articles. 1. Articles are not used before proper, abstract, uncountable and material nouns, when ; they are used in a general sense. When they are particularized ‘ the’ is used before them. Ex ;

a] Dr. A.P. J. Abdul Kalam is a man of principles. b] They have a lot of patience. c] There is no oil in any cans.

2. Articles are not used in these phrases. Ex;

by bicycle/ car/ bus/ on foot / messenger.

3. Articles are not used with names of meals, streets. etc. Ex ; a] My friend invited me to dinner. b] Sampige road is in Hassan.


4. Common nouns are used in pairs. Ex ; Both husband and wife are high school teachers. 5. After expressions such as, sort of, kind of, type of. Ex ;

a] What kind of teacher she is ?

b] What sort of man he is?

c[ What type of book it is?

6. The common nouns in the plural. Ex ; a] Children are fond of sweets. b] Houses are built of bricks.

Vowels; Vowels are speech sounds, during the articulation of which the air from the lungs escapes freely, continuously and through the mouth. That is, during the articulation of a vowel there is no obstruction or narrowing along the oral passage of air. All the vowel sounds are voiced.

Table of Vowel Sounds with Transcription.  S.No 











/ i .gl 


/si d/


/tri /


/ I / 




/ sɪt.i/  



/ e / 


/ en.dʒɪn/  



Does not occur 


/ æ / 


/ æp.l



Does not occur 


/ ɑ



/ɑ t/  


/tɑ sk/  


/kɑ r / 


/ ɜ



/ ɜ .l/  


/gɜ l/  


/fɜ r /  


/  / 




/s k ses/  


/ rʌb. r /  


/ ʌ / 


/ ʌ.d r /  



Does not occur 


/ u  / 


/u z/  


/mu v/  



/ u / 

Does not occur 



Does  not  occur[Only in  the weak form’to’/tu/’] 


/ɔ / 


/ ɔ .d r /  


/kɔ t/  



/  ɒ / 


/ ɒn.ɪst/  



Does not  occur 



/ ʃu






DIPHTHONGS;  A sound in which there is glide from one vowel quality to 

another combination of two phonemes or union of vowels (vowel  glides  Table of Diphthong Sounds with Transcription.  S.No  Symbols 








/ e





/le t/







/aɪ dɪ /  


/ka nd/







/ ɔɪ.st r /  






/ ɪ   /  


/ɪ r /  


/ zɪ .r ʊ  


/klɪ r /  


/ e  / 


/ e .ri. l/  


/ fe .ri/  


/ke  r  /  



Does not occur 


/ ʊ /  







ə /


/ t ə.r st/  

Tourist ʊ.v  r /  



Does not occur 


/sl ʊ/  


/ s ʊ/  


/kra d/


/na /

Triphthongs;  A vowel glide with three distinguishable vowel qualities or shift of vowel sounds.Tongue  shifts quickly ‐‐‐‐‐‐1 ‐‐‐‐‐‐2‐‐‐‐‐3‐‐‐‐‐4 and gives different sounds .Formed by adding /ə /to the diphthongs /  e




, ʊ

Table of Triphthong  Sounds with Transcription.                      S.No  Symbols 



/ aɪ  / 

ireland / aɪ .l nd/ 


/ a ə / 




  Does not occur


/ eɪ  / 

Doe             not           occur 


/ leɪ. r /  


/ ʊ  / 

Does           not            occur 


/ m ʊ. r /  

ə /


/a ə r /






/ saɪ   r n/ 


/faɪ r / 


/saʊ r / 

shower /ʃaʊ  r /  loyal 

/ l

. əl/

    Does not occur 


Consonants :  Consonants  are  speech  sounds  during  the  articulation  of  which  there  is  either  a  complete  or  a  partial  closure  of  the  air  passage  through  the  mouth./ p / is a consonant because during its articulation the two lips are in firm 


contact with  each  other  and  thus  there  is  a  total  obstruction  of  the  oral  air  passage.     

Table of Consonant Sounds with Transcription.  S. N 

Symb ol

1. / P/ 

Place &  







/p t/


/spi tʃ/  



/ ti .tʃ  r /  



tu n/  


/na t/


/ kɒn.v nt/  


/ del.ju d /




/ t æn. ə l/


/ pɪk.tʃ r /  




/ flaʊ. r /  


/ kɒf.ɪn/  




/θræ /


/ bɜ θ.deɪ/  


/ma θ/

Manner. Bilabial, 




2. / t  / 

Alveolar, Teacher  Plosive. 

3. /k/ 

Velar, Plosive 

4. / tʃ/ 

Palato   Alvr,Affr 

5. / f / 

Labioden atl Fricative 

6. / θ / 

Dental, Fricative 

7. /s / 

        /s k ses/  



/kɔ t/  



/h ʊm/  










Alveolar, Success      

si t/



/ preʃ. r /  




/ k ʊ.hɔ t/  

Does   not   occur 


/ kɒb.l r /  




/ læd. r /  


/bɔ d/  


/ beg. r /  



Fricative 8.  /ʃ / 

PlatoAlvr   Court  Fricative 

9. / h / 

Glottal, Fricative 

10 / b /  Vd 




11 / d / 

12 / g / 


/ gær. ,  



/ PostAlvlr   Judge 

13 /d


Affricate 14  / v / 


/ prɒdʒ.ekt/  

Damage / dæm.ɪdʒ/  

Labiodntl Village 

/ vɪl.ɪdʒ/  


/ lev. ə l/  


/ bɒt.l/  




/ fɑ .ð r /  

Bathe[v ]



/ zeb.rə/


/ b z.i/


/r ʊz/  


/ pleʒ. r /  

Does   not   occur 

Fricative 15  /ð / 

Dental Fricative 

16 / Z / 

Alveolar Fricative 

17 /ʒ / 

PostAlvlr Does   not    occur  Fricative 

18 /m / 



/ mɑ .kɪt/  


/ bʌm.p


/ti m/  


/n ʊt/  


/ s n.ə.n m/ Train 



/ sɪŋ. r /  



/gɜ l/  



Nasal 19  / n / 

Alveolar Nasal 

20 / ŋ / 


Does    not     occur 

Nasal 21  / l / 

AlveolrLt rlAprox




/rɪ leɪ.ʃ ə n/  


22 / w / 

Bilabial Aproxmt 


/ wʊm. n/  



Does    not   occur 

23 / r / 

24  / j / 

[semi vowel] 

PostAlvlr Republic  Aproxmt    

/rɪ pʌb.lɪk/  


/j ʊk/  




/ ær. ʊ/  

Does not occur  [Frictionles Continuant] 


/ baɪ.ɒ  

Does   not   occur  [Semivowel] 



TAG QUESTION Focus :When the statement is positive, the tag question should be negative. If the statement is negative / semi negative the tag question should be positive. Note : To make the negative, the short form of ‘not’ ‘n’t is added. The form of the question tag should be in agreement with the subject and the verb in the statement. The procedure for making the question tag are :1.

Find out the auxiliary verb from the given statement. In there is no Auxiliary, extract it from the main Verb in the statement. Example: Sings =




do sing



did sing

If the statement is negative, add ‘n‘t to the auxiliary verb. Exception : am

+ not

= aren’t

+ not

= won’t

Shall + not

= shan’t



does sing

Write the subject (personal pronoun ) of the statement. If the subject is not a personal pronoun, it should be transformed into the respective personal pronoun. Exception : ‘There’ 1. HANDY ANDY AT THE POST OFFICE


‘Handy Andy’ is the novel by Samuel Lover, isn’t it?


You know where to go, don’t you?


‘I don’t like to be troublesome, do I?


You’re right for once, said the Squire, aren’t you?


You could give it, if you like; couldn’t you?


I know you’re his servant, aren’t you?



He wouldn’t give it to me, sir, aren’t he?


The postmaster was selecting the letters, wasn’t he?


It was the great man’s pleasure to give him the letter, wasn’t it?

10. Samuel Lover was an Irish novelist, wasn’t he? 11. He is always remembered for his humorous novel, isn’t he? 12. Handy is the servant of squire Egan, isn’t he ? 13.

Andy has an unrivalled faculty of doing everything the wrong way, hasn’t he ?

14. Andy was a simpleton, wasn’t he? 15. He didn’t ask his master where to go, did he? 16. Durfy’s letter was bigger than his master’s letter, wasn’t it? 2. DR.VIKRAM SARABHAI 1.

‘Aryabhata’ was launched in April 1975, wasn’t he?


The Sarabhais had started a school called ‘Retreat’’ hadn’t he?


The teachers were kind and affectionate, weren’t they?


Vikram was good at studies, wasn’t he?


Vikram would make his mark as scientist, wouldn’t he ?


He was fond of science, wasn’t he?


He would solve the students’ problem, wouldn’t he?


It was a treat for him to work under C.V. Raman, wasn’t he?


He was successful in his efforts, wasn’t he?

10. A number of research scholars were trained, weren’t they? 11. He was so friendly with them, wasn’t he? 12. He was never angry at the mistakes his students made, was he? 13. Dr. Sarabhai would reprimand him, wouldn’t he? 14. We’ll buy another one, won’t we? 15. I’m sure, you ‘ll be more careful, won’t you ? 16. The employees were given the best training, weren’t they? 17. Committed workers were given challenging work, weren’t they? 18. Dr. Sarabhai was its first chairman, wasn’t he?


19. It was a prestigious position for Sarabhai, wasn’t it? 20. Dr. Sarabhai was not alive to see his dream, was he? 21. Dr. Sarabhai was a warm hearted human being, wasn’t he ? 3. SWAMI VIVEKANANDA 1.

Naredrnath was the son of Viswanath , wasn’t he ?


Viswanath was known for charity, won’t he?


Viswanath was respected by everyone, wasn’t he?


Bhuvaneshwari Devi was a pious lady, wasn’t she ?


She was a good story teller, wasn’t she ?


Narendra was an all rounder, wasn’t he?


He could sing well, couldn’t he?


He was good at sports, wasn’t he ?


He had a ready wit, hadn’t he?

10. He would get lost in his thoughts, wouldn’t he? 11. His friends were frightened, weren’t they? 12. He would not see anything around him, would he? 13. He did not here them, did he? 14. I was feeling very happy, wasn’t ? 15. He was very intelligent, wasn’t he? 16. I have never come across a lad, have I ? 17. Have you seen God, haven’t you? 18. Sri Ramakrishna was an extraordinary soul, wasn’t he? 19. Swamiji was a follower of Ramakrishna, wasn’t he? 20. He got an introductory letter, didn’t he? 21. He had stressed the greatness of all religions, hadn’t he? 22. He went to Chicago, didn’t he? 23. He had great concern for the poor, hadn’t he? 4. A MAGICIAN WITH THE BALL 1.

Cricket is a glorious game, isn’t it?



Great players have made the game immortal, haven’t they?


Chandra was respected by the West Indians, wasn’t he?


You were considered one of the great bowlers, weren’t you?


I have passion for the game, haven’t I?


I could bowl normally, couldn’t I?


I was able to get wickets, wasn’t I?


You could not face fast bowlers, could you?


I became a famous bowler, didn’t I?

10. That was the problem, wasn’t that? 11. You could destroy the mightiest, couldn’t you? 12. Do you agree with this, don’t you? 13. We had only medium pacers, hadn’t we? 14. We hardly betrayed our team, had we? 15. He was a technically perfect batsman, wasn’t he? 16. He could play spinners confidently, couldn’t he? 17. Test cricket has taken a back seats, hasn’t it? 18. You are going to the USA, aren’t you? 19. He was awarded a benefit match, wasn’t he? 20. He was a non-controversial man, wasn’t he? 21. He was a very likable man, wasn’t he? 22. B.S.Chandra is a lover of music, isn’t he? 23. They were great friends, weren’t they? 24. I am privileged to be his friend, aren’t I? 25. Cricket is played in all the commonwealth countries, isn’t it? 26. B.S.Chandra was famous leg spin bowler, wasn’t he? 5. KALPANA THE STAR


Kalpana Chawla was a Haryana girl, wasn’t she?


Columbia was getting ready for its re-entry, wasn’t it?


Space watchers were all excited, weren’t they?



Karnal is a small town in Haryana, isn’t it?


She is looking up, at the planes, isn’t she?


She would have gone on dreaming, haven’t she?


Kalpana would fill here pages with different planes, wouldn’t she?


She was very much interested in dancing, wasn’t she?


She was unique in many ways, wasn’t she?

10. I’m, not just another girl, am I? 11. I am going to be better than boys, aren’t I? 12. J.R.D. Tata had done some of the first mail flight, hadn’t he? 13. She was able to acquire Ph.D, wasn’t she? 14. Kalpana had worked for six years, hadn’t she? 15. She was trained for three years, wasn’t she? 16. She had traveled 6.5 million miles, hadn’t she? 17. Students at Karnal had gathered at the school, hadn’t they? 18. They were singing and dancing, weren’t they? 19. She is immortal, isn’t she/it ? 20. She is a permanent star in the sky, isn’t it? 21. She will always be there, won’t she? 22. Kalpana was a great astronaut, wasn’t she? 23. She chose Aerospace Engineering, didn’t she? 24. There was a technical snag, wasn’t there? 25. We can emulate Kalpana’s strong will power, can’t we? 6. WHAT IS CIVILIZATION ?


Europe think they are very civilized, aren’t they?


Few years ago there was a great war, wasn’t there?


The Germans were killing Englishmen, weren’t they?


You must have seen many war wounded people, haven’t you?


You will say it is not easy to understand civilization, won’t you?


England, Germany and others are not civilized, are they?



Fine building, pictures and everything that is beautiful are signs of civilization, aren’t they?


India was freed from clutches of the British rule, wasn’t it?


You are going to read about the scarifies of women, aren’t you?


I am not surprised at may courage, am I?


Police couldn’t do anything, could he?


I know they would never forgive this, would they?


Seeta was rewarded, wasn’t she?


Maternal grandmother was from Bijapur, wasn’t she?


She told me the story, didn’t she?


It is exclusively for family use, isn’t it?

10. I will cancel its registration, won’t I? 11. You will never be able to use the car, will you? 12. I will use it for drying cow dung cakes, won’t I? 13. He cancelled the registration, didn’t he? 14. Shakuntala was a twenty year old lady, wasn’t she? 15. She was leader of the college, wasn’t she? 16. The young lady was underground, wasn’t she? 17. Shankar was rather hesitant, wasn’t he? 18. They got married in February, didn’t they? 19. It is very interesting, isn’t it? 20. Bindacharya was a pious woman, wasn’t she? 21. Padmavathi Bai was arrested, wasn’t she? 22. Kamaladevi Chattopadhyaya led many struggles, didn’t she ? 23. Sarojini was a disciplined disciple of Gandhiji, wasn’t she? 24. Captain Laxmi Sehgal was a member of the INA, wasn’t she? 25. You were in the court to see the grit, weren’t you?


26. I am glad and feel very proud, aren’t I? 27.

I had to work against my own people, hadn’t I?


Daksha was the farmer’s daughter, wasn’t she?


I had taken the basket of mangoes, hadn’t I?


You should have been happy, shouldn’t you ?


I was rather frightened, wasn’t I ?


I could speak gentle and refine language, couldn’t I ?


He has sent the eggs with me, hasn’t he?


Both of us will be imprisoned for life, won’t we?


He has a problem to be solved, hasn’t he?


We shall solve the problem, shan’t we?

10. Is there no one who can venture an answer, there isn’t? 11. There is somebody to solve the problem, there isn’t ? 12

I should be grateful to you, shouldn’t I ?

13. I can empty the ocean with that small wooden bowl, can’t I ? 14. You are the wisest of the wise, aren’t you? 15. I have a humble request, haven’t I ? 16. This lady should not be stopped, should she? 17. Daksha would take away her prize, wouldn’t she? 18. You are my greatest prize, aren’t you ? 19. Daksha was claver and wise, wasn’t she ? 20. Can you stop all the rivers flowing, can’t you?


HANDY ANDY AT THE POST OFFICE NARRATOR: Misunderstanding , ignorance, mistaken identity or something else can cause laughter? Here is a play called “Handy Andy. It is a novel written by “Samuel Lover”. Handy Andy is one of the most famous comic creations in English literature. In this play Andy Rooney plays an important role. He was the servant of squire Egan. He had an ingenious knack of doing everything in the wrong way. So, Andy Rooney deserves the nick name Handy Andy. One day Squire Egan ordered Andy to ride into the town and see if there was any letter for him. Squire Egan: “Andy, ride into the town and see if there’s a letter for me”. Handy Andy: “Yes, sir”. Squire Egan:”Do you know where to go”? Handy Andy: “To the town, Sir.” Squire Egan: “But do you know where to go in the town? Handy Andy: “No, Sir.” Squire Egan: “And why don’t you ask, you stupid thief?” Handy Andy: “Sure I’d find out, Sir”. Squire Egan: “Didn’t I often tell you to ask what you have to do, when you don’ t know?” Handy Andy: “Yes, sir”. Squire Egan: “And why don’t you?” Handy Andy: “I don’t like to be troublesome, Sir”? Squire Egan:”Confound You!” “Well”, “ Go to the Post Office. You know the Post office I Suppose?” Handy Andy: “Yes, sir”, where they sell gunpowder”. Squire Egan:”You are right for once”. Then go to the post office and ask for a letter for me. Remember, not gunpowder. But a letter’.


Handy Andy: “Yes, sir”. Narrator: Andy, who got on his hack and trotted away to the post office. The postmaster carried on a brisk trade in groceries and linen. On arriving at the shop of the postmaster. Andy went to the counter. Handy Andy: “I want a letter, sir , if you please”. Post master: “And who do you want it for”? Handy Andy: “What’s that to you”? Post master: I cannot tell what letter to give you unless you tell me the Direction. Handy Andy: “The directions I got was to get a letter here, that’s the directions. Postmaster: “Who gave you those directions?” Handy Andy: “My Master”. Postmaster: “And who’s your master?” Handy Andy: “What’s that to you?” Postmaster: “Why, you stupid rascal! If you don’t tell me his name how can I give you the letter?” Handy Andy: “You could give it, if you liked; but you’re fond of asking impertinent questions because you think I’m simple”. Postmaster:”Get out! Your master must be as great a goose as yourself, to send such a messenger”. Handy Andy: “Is it squire Egan you dare to say goose?” Poster master: “Oh! Squire Egan’s your master then?” Handy Andy: “Yes; have you anything to say against it?”. Poster master: “Only that I never saw you before”. Handy Andy: Then you’ll never see me again of I have my way”. Post master:”I wont give you any letter for the Squire, unless I know you’re his servant. Is there any one in the town who knows you”? Andy:

“Plenty”. “It’s not everyone who is as ignorant as you!”.

Narrator: Just at this moment a person who knew Andy came into the shop. Mr. Durfy: Hello Andy! You are here.


Handy Andy: Hello Mr. Durfy. I came to collect the letter for my master. Postmaster: Do you know him? Mr.Durfy: Of course! He is the servant of Squire Egan. Mr.Durfy: “Have you one for me?” Post master: “Yes, sir”. Narrator: The gentleman paid the four pence postage and left the shop with his letter. Postmaster: “Here’s a letter for the squire. “You’ve to pay me eleven-pence postage. Handy Andy: What should I pay eleven-pence for?” Postmaster: “For postage”. Handy Andy: “To the devil with you! Didn’t I see you give Mr.Durfy a letter for four-pence this minute, and a bigger letter than this? And now you want me to pay eleven-pence for this scrap of a thing. Do you think I’m a fool?” Postmaster: No: but I’m sure of it”. Handy Andy: “Well. You’re welcome to be sure; but don’t delay me now, here’s four-pence and give me the letter”. Postmaster: “Go along, you stupid thief”. Narrator: The postmaster taking up the letter, ;and going to serve a customer with a mousetrap. While the postmaster was serving others. Andy walked up and down the shop, every now and then putting his head in the middle; and said. Handy Andy: Will you give the letter? Narrator: He waited for about half-an hour, in spite of the taunts of the postmaster, and at last left, when he found it impossible to get common justice for his master. The squire in the meantime was getting impatient for his return and when made his appearance asked if there was a letter for him. Handy Andy: “There is , sir”. Squire Egan: Then give it to me. Handy Andy: “I haven’t it, sir”. Squire Egan: “What do you mean?” Handy Andy: “He wouldn’t give it to me, Sir”. Squire Egan: “Who wouldn’t give it to you?” Handy Andy: “That old cheat beyond in the town wanting to charge double for it”.


Squire Egan: “May be it’s a double letter. Why the devil didn’t you pay what he asked for ?

Handy Andy: “Arrah, Sir, why would I let you be cheated? It’s not a double letter at all; not about half the size of the one Mr.Durfy got before my face for four-pence”. Squire Egan: “You’ll provoke me to break your neck some day. You vagabond! back for your life, you fool! And pay whatever he asks, and get me the letter. Handy Andy: “Why sir, I tell you that he was selling them before my face for fourpence a piece”. Post master: “Go back, you scoundrel! Or I’ll horsewhip you; and if you’re longer than an hour I’ll have you ducked in the horse pond!” Narrator: Andy vanished, and made a second visit to the post office. When he arrived two persons were getting letters. The postmaster was selecting the letters for each from a large parcel that lay before him on the counter. At the same time many customers were waiting to be served. Handy Andy: “I’m come for that letter. Postmaster: “I’ll attend to you by-and –by”. Handy Andy: “The master’s in a hurry”. Postmaster: “Let him wait till his hurry’s over. Handy Andy: “He’ll murder me it I’m not back soon”. Postmaster: “I’ m glad to hear it”. Narrator: While the postmaster went on with such provoking answers to these appeals for hurry. Andy’s eye caught the heap of letters which lay on the counter; so while the weighing of soap and tobacco was going on, he managed to take off two letters from the heap, and waited patiently enough till it was the great man’s pleasure to give him the letter directed to his master. Then Andy on his hack, and, in triumph at his trick on the postmaster, rattled along the road homeward as fast as the beast could carry him. He came into the squire’s presence his face beaming with delight, and an air of superiority in his manner. His master was puzzled until he pulled out three letters from his pocket. Handy Andy: “Look at that!”


Narrator: He next slapped them down under his fist on the table before the squire. Handy Andy: “Well! If he did make me pay eleven-pence, by God, I bought your honor the worth of your money anyhow!”.

A PLAY SWAMI VIVEKANANDA SCENE – 1 SCHOOL PLAY GROUND [ Children are playing different games. The boy Narendra and his friends are engaged in telling stories to one another] Ramu

:Naren , how did you learn all these puranic stories?


: Friends , my mother is a pious woman. She always used to tell me stories from Ramayana and Mahabharatha.


: Naren, What is your mother?


: My mother is a house wife. Her name is Bhuvaneshwari devi She is a pious lady and a good story teller. She always tells me stories from epics and puranas.


: Narendra, What about your Father?


: Friends , My father’s name is Vishwatha dutta , a well known lawyer of Kolkata


: Naren, how can you remember all these stories even at this age?


: It is my mother’s quality .I want to sing in the name of my mother. I want to play in the name of my mother. I want to be ever grateful to her for bringing me up with love and care and for teaching me to walk in the right path.


: Thank you Naren, You are a very good singer , intelligent and has a ready wit.

Narendra ; Thank you for the compliments. Let us mediate.



[Narendranath and his friends sat to mediate.A cobra came gliding . All the friends frightened.Narendranath was lost in his thought about god. He could not see or feel anything around him] Ravi : Why didn’t you run away , seeing the cobra. Naren : I was meditating , I didn’t know anything about the cobra. Teacher

: What are the seven sacred rivers mentioned in Sanskrit verse?


: The Ganga, The Yamuna, The Godavaru. The sarswathi, The Narmada, The sindhu, The Kaveri, are the seven sacred rivers mentioned in the Sanskrit verse.


: Good, sit down, Naren. Others stand up , I know you are all talking. This is a punishment for talking. [ Narendra stood up]


: Naren, Why are you standing? You need not stand, sit down.


: Sir, I must , for it was I who was talking . I am worthy to be punished , not others.


: Ramsingh, Hey Ramsingh call Narendranath. [ Narendranath appears] Narendranath , you have been selected for the quiz programme. I think you will do the best.


: Thank you sir in the name of God I will try my level best.


: Oh ! you have faith in God?


: Certainly sir, But no one convince me about god.


: Of course, But if you try to meet some spiritual persons , you will get answers for your questions about god.


: Thank you sir for your kind suggestion, I will try. But , what shall I do to know about god? Who can give me the answer for my doubts about god?


: Naren, Naren…… what are you thinking? I think you are looking worried.


: Yes, I have doubts about the existence of god. But no one answers to my questions.


: Ok, Do one thing , There is a spiritual master called Ramakrishna Paramahamsa at the Kali temple at Dakshineshwara near Kolkata.


If you meet him you will get your doubts solved. He is the only person who can answer your questions. Narendra

: Thank you uncle. Thank you very much for your advice. Now I shall go to Dakshineshwara.

SCENE – 3 [Sri Ramakrishana Ashram- Kneeling before Sri Ramakrishana’s feet] Narendra

: Swamiji. I am a student of Philosophy. I want to know about god.


: What do you want to know about god?


: “ Does god really exist”? “ If there is a god, What is he like”? “ What is man’s relation with Him”?


: Yes,……god is there,…… He has created the universe. He is the interpreter.


: If so, have you seen god?


: Yes, I have . If you wish I can show you. Dear disciples, If you want to do any good for the master, please take to monastic life. I have no more days to live. I am suffering from cancer. So, this is my wish to open a monastery at Baranagar and wear saffron robes

Monk 1

: What shall we do for life?


: Let us go begging.


Narendranath, I want that you must go to America to attend the parliament of religion.



With great pleasure Swamiji.

Ramakrishna : Fine, you visit professor Wright. He Will give you an introductory letter to Dr. Barrows. Monk 2

: What was in that letter?

Ramakrishna : The letter says, “ Here is a man who is more learned than all out professors put together”,.


Monk 3

: Fine, who is the chairman of the selection of the delegates?

Ramakrishana : Dr. Barrows. Narendra : “ Yes”, Shall I attend the conference at Chicago. Ramakrishana : Oh ! My son , god bless you and I hope that you will uphold the dignity and the greatness of Hindustan and Indian philosophy

SCENE – 6 [ On Sep..11- 1893, the first session of the religions parliament in the great hall of Columbus at Chicago in America Swamiji delivered a speech before a huge audience] Anchor : India is the land of great religions and philosophy . A delegate comes from this holy land. That is swami Vivekananda ,The greatest personality of Indian philosophy. Now on behalf of all hearty welcome to Swamiji to the stage to deliver his speech. S.V: “ My dear sisters and Brothers of America. Every religion has its own vision of god. Hindustan is a way of life which taught that all religions are true and that all of them should be accepted.Every religion has produced men and woman of the most exalted character,

endured with holiness , Purity , and charity . All

living beings are equal in the eyes of god. So , every person should preserve his individuality and at the same time to learn and understand the good points of all religions. And I request that every one should serve humanity and give importance to prayer and yoga. The service of humanity is to serve god. And one should try to seek god in service to the poor and sick. It is the way of the practice of religion and the greatness of all religion. Thank you. “ Sarve Jano sukino Bhavantu”. Audience 1

: Wow ! what a tremendous speech the saint gave!

Audience 2

: How foolish we are to send missionaries to this learned nation.

Audience 3

: Oh ! what a great personality India has.


: When Swamiji reached India , he established Ramakrishnna Mission in memory of his spiritual teacher. The motto of the mission is to translate into action the message of Sri Ramakrishna all over the world and for the service of the mankind. “After all these achievements”. It was feb.


04-1902, Swamiji went to his room in the evening absorbed in deep meditation for 1 hour then he laid himself down on his bed and breathed his last. “ Atmano Mokshartham jagat Hithayacha”. [ Spiritual liberation as well as the well being of humanity] Swamiji sayings: ¾ Strength is life weakness is death. ¾ Arise , awake and stop not till the goal is reached. ¾ Worship the poor , the miserable and the weak . let these people be your god. ¾ We want that education by which character is formed. ¾ Woman should have the same status as men in society . Society cannot progress , depending on men alone.



SCENE – 1 Tagore : Hello Amabalal. Nice to meet you Ambalal : Oh ! Come Tagore. How are you? Tagore : Fine Thank you. Sorry I could not attend your son’s naming ceremony. Ambalal : I was waiting for you, let it be . Tagore : What is the good name of your son/ Ambalal : Vikram Sarabai [ showing his son] See here is my son Vikram very active and more interested in science . He likes to play with toys convinced with science. Tagore : is it ! Oh ! fantastic ! then your son will become a great scientist in the universe .you are very lucky to have such a great child. Ambalal : Thank you , Tagore come let’s have some coffee. Sarala is it ready? Sarala devi : Ya ready Namasthe sir, pleasure to see you sir [ giving coffee] thanks Tagore. I like your hospitality [ Receiving coffee] I am very happy to see your child to be active . He is having all the features to become a scientist in future.


Ambalal and Saraladevi : It’s our pleasure . Tagore: Oh, I will leave then a little work is pending. Ambalal: Visit again when you are free tell our regards to your family. Tagore : Bye, Bye my dear child Vikram . Vikram : Bye, Tagore Conversation between Ambalal and his friends

™ Friends: Hey Ambalal see your son is acting brilliantly ™ Ambalal : Ye ! he is a genius . He is very much interested in science . like him other children may also be interested in these aspects . So I have decided to open a school for village children. ™ Vikram come here. Enough playing. Now read all this books and enrich your knowledge. ™ Friends : you have taken a great decision. May god bless you in this job. ™ After few months. ™ Ambalal: friends I am inviting you all to attend the opening ceremony of our new school , Retreat . ™ Friends: Thank you Ambalal ;you have done a great job. SCENE - 2 Vikram is engaged in listening to the teacher in class Teacher: [ pointing to Vikram] Vikram you are interested in science as a student you will solve the doubts of your friends . How can you do this? Vikram: Madam , my father is very encouraging person . He never discourages me , He always provides me the books and magazines which I need So I am thankful to my father. Teaher : Vikram you are ready genius you will be successful in your life. Conversation between Vikram and his father Father: Vikram now you have completed PUC with high score . What is your next plan? Vikram : Dear father I have planned to migrate to England and continue the studies at St. Joseph. Father : As your wish I will make arrangement but you should study well .Bring the good name for the country .Vikram definitely father.

SCENE – 4 Indian Institute of Science: Vikram : Sir you are a noble person .What inspired you to achieve that? Raman: I believe that hard work is the stepping stone of success. Try until you reach the goal . This is what I follow to reach success in my carrier. Vikram: Thank you for your wonderful tips sir. I will follow it in my life to gain success.


Raman: Sure my boy- may god bless you. Vikram: It’s my pleasure to work with you, thank you very much sir. Raman: You are very eager to conduct research on cosmic rays .Do you know about cosmic rays? Vikram: Yes sir I ‘ will tell you . It is the study of terrestrial magnetism and the atmosphere , the nature of the sun and outer space. Raman: Well ,you are working at the Meteorological Department at Poona and wish to continue your research on weather. Vikram: Sure sir I am having a wish to set up a research laboratory for studies on cosmic rays

SCENE -5 Conversation on the stage Guests : Mr. Vikram Sarabhai is awarded the degree in physics and mathematics I request him to receive the award. Conversation between friends and Sarabhai Friends: Vikram now you are a degree holder and the topper of the batch .What have you planned for the next? Vikram: Friends , Now I have decided to conduct experiments in physics I desire to invent something special which is useful for mankind. Friends: Have a grand intention .We all wish to have a great success in your discoveries. SCENE- 6 [Vikram was almost worshipped by his students . He was friendly with the students] [Once when a research student was engaged in doing an experiment the electric meter was burnt up] Student : Oh ! my god, the electric meter is burning .It is my ill fated day .I will be reprimanded by my teacher, Sarabai sir. [Sarabai enters into the lab and observed what had happened and smiled and said….] Sarabai: Why did it happen so my boy? Student : Just it was my mistake , I am sorry sir . This was because of my carelessness. Sarabai: Don’t worry we‘ll buy another one .How else would you learn ? Next time I am sure you will be more careful. Students: Thank you sir. I’ll not commit the mistake next time. Vikram talking with C.V Raman in phone


Vikram: Hello sir…… good morning….. this is VIkram Sarabai. C.V Raman : Good morning Vikram . How are you? How is your Research going on: I am fine sir. I have an idea . India got freedom recently. Already we are economically backward and cannot prepare medicine without the help of any other countries. so I am thinking about establishing a pharmaceutical industry which concerns in producing chemicals and medicines and in turn make India self reliant in the field of medical science. C.V Raman: What a good plan my boy .All the best. Vikram : Thank you very much Sir, Bye…. SCENE – 7 Environment of Sarabhai chemicals: Vikram: Dear colleagues , you are the main cause for the success of this “ Sarabhai chemicals? The exports of our company is increasing and so is the demand to our company for good quality medicines. I have decided to sent some of my colleagues abroad to get good training. Worker 1: Ok, thank you sir . I’ll be grateful to you. Worker 2: Sir you have a great scientific acumen which helps in building the scientific attitude in people. Vikram : You are right. Scientific attitude in people helps to eradicate many social problems. You can go now and happy Journey. SCENE – 8 Conversation between father & Vikram [Vikram is dialling to his father] Vikram : Good evening dad ……what’s the matter? How are you? Father : Fine my boy, I am feeling very happy after hearing your voice after several days. How is your work going on? Tell me about the programme which you have done in Indian committee on Space Research. Vikram: By this, ISRO, is helping many areas of importance like education communication & weather forecasting. I hope that it will make India a leader in the field of space science I am willing to rename the committee as ISRO which means Indian space Research Organization. Father: Well It’s a nice name . I hope you to become the first chairman of that committee . Vikram: Surly dad. Bye. SCENE – 9 Workers and Vikram [ as chairman] Vikram: Colleagues, we are successful in launching a station at Thumba. Very soon we are going to launch rocket from there? Vikram : Next, we are launching a sattelite from Sriharikota near Andhra Pradesh . I


need your support to do this so I am sending some of the workers abroad. Workers: You are really an ideal manager of human resources. Vikram: Thank you for your compliments. I will go to Thumba to see the progress in our project. Worker 1 & 2: Happy journey bye…… CONVERSATION IN THE LAB Friend: Vikram we all are very curious about your discoveries. What are these cosmic rays ? What are its uses? Friend: Yes Vikram we too Don’t know about that. friend Please explain us Vikram. Vikram: Of course friends I will solve you problem cosmic rays means… Conversation after receiving the award Death of Sarabhai Sarabhai is sleeping in Hotel Trivandrum’ at Thumba. [Dreaming] : Sarabhai sees the launching of Rocket from Thumba. THE KING’S GREATEST PRIZE

INTRODUCTION: (Dear Friends, This is a short play based on the Serbian story. The Peasant Girl and the King. Here we find the wisdom of a farmer’s daughter which enchanted the king so much that he was ready to accept her as his queen.‘The king Greatest Prize’s’ is enacted by my companion. Let’s watch) ( A thatched hut of a poor farmer in a certain village of Rajasthan. The farmer, sitting in front of his house, looks worried. Daksha, his twenty year old daughter, is putting patches on the ragged shirt of her father.) One fine day a poor farmer is seen talking with his daughter. Farmer: Sweety, I went to meet the king with my friends to show the sweat of my hard labour - The crop that is grown in our farm / orchard – mangoes. Daksha: Appa, what did he say ? why appa? What made you to go to the palace? Farmer: Sweety my dear! The king was shocked surprised and astonished Daksha: Why ! why appa? Appa, I forgot to ask you an important question. Farmer: What’s that my dear? Daksha: Did he let you in?


Farmer: Initially no. Daksha: Then !! Farmer: Sweety…….

(Daksha is seen puzzled)

Farmer: Oh, Sweet heart, you mean, about my dress!! (Farmer is seen with ragged clothes) Yes, you have plenty of questions in your mind) ! O.K , They tried to stop me at the gate.. Daksha: But why? ……Oh, yes. You entered the palace with this kind of Clothes………. torn Farmer: They tried to stop me,. Immediately, I showed the basket.. Daksha: Very interesting!!! Farmer : He called me near, I was embarrassed but was helpless. I approached him with my nervousness. My hands were trembling I was frightened Daksha: Then …… Farmer: They asked me a few questions! Daksha : Questions…… what kind of questions, appa? Farmer: It’s about my way of behavior. I think he was surprised about the Dress Well done sweaty ! ah yes ( thinks deeply ) He posed a few questions one after the other about my dress and manners, Gestures and refined language!!!! Daksha: What did you say appa ? ( anxious / Curious ) Farmer: Sweety! I told the king that my beautiful daughter, Daksha, taught me all these good manners and Language. After a deep pause he ordered the servant to bring a pot full of boiled eggs He has sent the eggs with me for you to hatch. ( He shows her the eggs) If you fail in responding to the question posed by him, both of us would be imprisoned, I am worried. How is it possible, Sweety , to hatch boiled eggs? Daksha: ( a brief pause ) Appa , don’t worry, tomorrow I will give you some boiled beans. You sow the beans in the field and you do so, keep saying loudly that you are


sowing boiled beans. If any body asks you how boiled beans can sprout, you just tell them this-

( She whispers in his ears )

In a loud voice say ‘I am sowing boiled seeds to get rich crop ) Farmer: ( Is seen sowing, and his voice is loud) I am sowing boiled beans ; I am sowing boiled beans………….

SCENE 2: (At the same time, people react ) Passerby 1 : This man must be crazy. Passerby 2 : ( laughs loudly ) Passerby 3 : How stupid of him to say that.!!! ( at the same time the king is seen moving and hears the farmer saying (the king) Farmer : I am sowing boiled beans …….. King: (The king reacts ) You foolish farmer, come here , what mischief are you up to ?you say you sow boiled beans to get a rich crop, Have you gone mad? You fool, how can you sow boiled seeds? Farmer : Pardon me, my lord, I have neither gone mad, nor I have been up to any mischief If boiled eggs could be hatched to get chickens, why is it not possible to get a rich crop sowing boiled beans ? King:

Who told you to do this ?

Farmer: My daughter, Daksha King: (Smiling) Oh! Good! Come with your daughter tomorrow morning to the court. SCENE – 3 ( The King’s court. Ministers and courtiers are seen sitting. The farmer and his daughter are standing in a corner. Daksha’s graceful charm draws the attention of everyone present. The king enters. Everyone present there bows as a mark of respect. The king sits on his throne. He looks at Daksha and is pleased. But hiding his happiness, he wears a serious look.) King:

( To all in the court) The King of Kashmir has sent the wisest man of


his court. (Pointing to a person sitting next to his minister). There he is. His name is Mahapanditji. (The man stands up with pride and bows to the king.) He has a problem and he wants it to be solved. If no one solves the problem, then this scholar will have to be declared, the wisest person in our kingdom. We will have to honour the pandit by taking him round in procession. Also a citation has to be presented stating that none in the country is equal to him in wisdom.

King : Something good mentioned in the an official record. One among them courtiers : Your Majesty! What is meaning of citation? Courtiers : Let us know the problem. We shall certainly solve it. We will keep the prestige of our kingdom very high. King : ( The king raises his hands. Voices sink slowly) Mahapanditji, please present the problem to this august gathering of the chosen intellectuals of my kingdom. Mahapanditji: ( Stands up and takes out a small wooden bowl from his bag) Is there anybody here who can empty the ocean with this wooden bowl? ( There is total silence for sometime. Slowly the courtiers start talking among themselves. Voices which are heard slowly become louder and the whole atmosphere becomes chaotic.The pandit is sitting with a victorious smile. The king looks worried. The din dies down as the king talks.) King: ( To his courtiers) Do you have any answer? Is there any one who can venture an answer? Silence continues. Courtiers are seen sitting with their heads bowed in shame.) King: Where has all your wit gone, my dear ministers? What has happened to all your wisdom, my intelligent courtiers? Has the time come to declare the intellectual bankruptcy of the kingdom? Tell me if there is no one who has an answer. ( In silence a cool, confident and melodious voice emerges) Daksha:

If your Majesty permits me, I can try to solve the problem. ( The whole court is stunned and looks Daksha in total disbelief.)

King: Thank God, there is somebody to solve the problem. You have my permission. Go ahead.



Daksha: I should be grateful to you, my Lord, if you would get me a small bundle of cotton. ( The king looks at his servant, who moves out quickly and comes back with a bundle of cotton and gives it to Daksha.) Daksha: ( Addressing the Pandit) I can empty the ocean with that small wooden bowl if you stop all rivers flowing into the ocean with this bundle of cotton. ( The pandit is shocked. He becomes pale. His broad smile disappears. He bows his head down in shame with a sense of defeat.) King: Oh! How clever!. My whole kingdom is proud of you, pretty lady. You are the wisest of the wise. ( All the courtiers stand up and clap in appreciation. The king comes near Daksha.) King: This clever lady deserves the highest honour and the richest prize. Lady, I permit you to take away anything that you like, from my palace as your prize. Daksha: Your Majesty, it’s so good of you to show such generosity on a poor and humble woman like me. But the prize that I wish to take away from your palace should please your majesty as well. King: Rest assured lady. Anything that you ask for would be happily yours. I promise to stand by , what I have said. Daksha: I have a humble request my Lord. Your ministers, courtiers and soldiers should neither stop me nor come in my way as I take my prize away. King: Be it so lady, (To all present) It is my order that this lady should not be stopped from taking away anything that she wants. Even I subject myself to the order. ( There is total silence. Everyone is curious as what Daksha would take as her prize. Daksha comes near the king and takes his hand and starts moving towards the door) King:

(Puzzled) What is this, Lady? What are you doing?

Daksha: I am taking away my prize. ( The king laughs heartily and all the people present cheer the lady.) Courtiers:

Long live our king. Long live our Queen.

King: Your prize is happily yours, Daksha. But you didn’t take any prize from me.


On the other hand, you have given me a great prize. And you are my greatest prize. ¥¥¥¥©©©©©¥¥¥¥

KALPANA THE STAR Here, an attempt is being made to make children to understand the passage effectively keeping in view to feel how the life of a great woman astronaut came to an end. In the beginning a sound of air craft flying is added and at the end a mourning music may be included along with Sanjay’s words such as “MY SISTER IS NOT DEAD”. She is immortal. She is permanent there where she belongs to. (These words can be narrated slowly along with the mourning music so that the audience as well as the students feel the death of a young, brave and dedicated lady who achieved something and contributed something to field of space). A girl on the street. She is riding her bicycle. She hears the sound of aircraft, listens to the sound of aircraft, looks up at the sky forgets the road feels as if she flies an aircraft. (Sanjay her brother warns her) Sanjay: (Shouts)”Sister mind the road” you are not flying, you are just riding a bicycle. Student 1: Madam, who is that sister/ girl? Teacher: Oh: you mean the girl riding a bicycle? Student: (Together) yes Madam. Teacher: Okay, I must tell you something about the girl. That girl is none other than Kalpana

Chawla a Haryana girl.

Student 2: Could you tell us about Kalpana today? Teacher: Yes. I will tell you. Listen! Kalpana was born on July 1st 1963 in (a village called) Karnal-125 Km from Delhi. Student 3: Madam, Who were the parents of Kalpana? Teacher: Yes I will tell you, Her parents were Banarasi das chawla and Sanjotha. Student 4: What is Special about the girl Kalpana?


Teacher: Children, have Patience! I will tell you everything about Kalpana. Kalpana was a unique girl She had great interest in flying. Even as a girl She had become the member of flying club in Karnal. With the consent of her father she flew Pushpak and even sailed a glider. Student 5: Madam, What are these Pushpak and a glider?

Teacher: Yes, Pushpak is an aeroplane and glider is also an aircraft but it has no engine. Student 6: Madam, will you tell us about Kalpana’s education? Teacher: Yes, I will. Kalpana studied both in India and abroad. She completed her primary education from Karnal School. She completed P.U.C with Science. As a student Kalpana was a unique girl. Student 7: Excuse me Madam, What do you mean by ‘ Unique’? Teacher: Anyone knows the meaning of ‘Unique’? Students: No Madam. Teacher: Okay, Unique means- Different from others. Students: How do you say that Kalpana as a girl was ‘Unique’? Teacher: Very Good; I told you that ‘Unique’ means she was entirely different from other girls of her age. Student 8: Madam, How do you say that Kalpana was a ‘Unique’ girl? Teacher: Kalpana was different from other girls of her age. She always longed to fly. She was first Indian born women to go into space. She was never bothered about her homework or home tuition or rank .She was drawing designs of Aeroplanes and Spaceships. She was totally an ambitious girl. Student 9: How do you say that she was very ambitious girl? Teacher: Yes, She had dreams in her life to become either Pilot or Astronaut. Student 10: Did her parents allow her to become Astronaut? Teacher: At first they resisted it. They advised her to choose either Electronics or Architecture. But she chose Aerospace Engineering. She was the only student for the course.


Student 11: Where did she study Aerospace Engineering? Madam. Teacher: She studied Engineering at Punjab Engineering College, Chandigarh. Later she moved to The United States and continued her studies in the University of Texas. She earned Master’s degree in Aerospace Engineering. And she met Jean Pierre Harrison.

Student 12: Who was Jean Pierre Harrison? And how did he encourage her? Teacher: Jean Pierre Harrison was a Free Lance Flying Instructor. He was also interested in flying. Both Kalpana and Harrison had same views on flying. They liked each other and got married in 1984. With his support and encouragement she got Ph.D, from Colarado University in 1988 and worked for NASA. Students: Earlier you said Kalpana was a dreamer. But did her dream come true? Teacher: Yes, her dream came true on November 1997 when ‘NASA’ selected her as an astronaut on space shuttle ‘Columbia’. This was her first travel on space shuttle. And second time she went into space on January 16th, 2003 aboard Columbia. Students: Madam, Did she complete her work on space shuttle? (A Sound of Crash………..) Teacher: Yes, she completed her work successfully, but she never returned. Students: What is that sound? Teacher: Children, it is really a great tragedy. Student: What is the tragedy Madam? Teacher: Kalpana and her Crew-mates were about to be landed. Just before landing, the Space Shuttle caught fire and perished. Karnal School Scene: Children gathered in front of the school to mourn. (mourning is over) Last scene: Sanjay: Kalpana is not dead, she is immortal. She is a Permanent Star in the Sky She will always be there where she belongs to?



DIALOGUE ON "WHAT IS CIVILIZATION?" (Teacher enters the class room, students wish the teacher) Teacher: Dear students today let's know what civilization is . Civilization means to be better, to refine and to replace the savage habits by good ones. In savage condition people behave like beasts that is called barbarism Chinnu (Student): Sir, Jawaharalal Nehru told that many people in Europe think that they are very civilized and the people of Asia are quite barbarous. Is it because of putting on clothes? Teacher: No Chinnu, because clothes depend on the climate, in a cold climate people put on more clothes than they do in a hot climate. Do you know about second world war? Danush: Yeh, sir Social teacher taught us about that,.The English men were trying to kill the Germans. Millinos of people were killed in this war and many thousand were maimed for life. We must have seen many of these multies-de-la guerrre. Nalini:

What is that multies-de-la guerrre?

Namitha: It is French word -its means war wounded people. Teacher: That's good Namitha, Dear students do you think it was very civilized thing for people to kill each other like this? Damini: No sir, If two men fight in the street, the policeman separates them and everybody wonders how silly they are. Like that great countries fought and killed millions of people. Countries fought like this are, England, Germany, France, Italy, and many others are not civilized. Teacher: Yes Damini, it's really ridiculous thing to fight like this. Chinnu:

Sir, how can we find out what the civilization is?

Teacher: Oh! that's good question, with fine building, fine pictures, books and also everything that is beautiful are the signs to find out civilization. Danush:

Sir, is a man who is unselfish, a sign of civilization?

Teacher: Yes Danush, your are certainly right, an unselfish man who works with others for the good of all and work together for the common good is the sign of civilization.



Nalini: Thank you very much sir. You made us to know more valuable things about civilization.

LESSON NAME THE WOMEN WHO DID US PROUD India was freed from the clutches of the British rule on the August 1947. Thousands of men and women participated in the freedom struggle. They loved their motherland more than themselves. In this lesson you are going to read about the contributions of a number of women who sacrificed all they had for the country. II. Monday March Today I feel victorious. The sound of ‘British, Quit India” still echoes in my heart. The appreciation in the eyes of freedom fighters at the Gowali Tank maidan in Bombay is encouraging. I am not surprised at my courage. I get strength from my desire to breathe free air. But it feels good that I could break the heavily cordoned off area and unfurl my beloved tricolour. The British police couldn’t do anything. I know they would never forgive me who have given them sleepless nights and would continue to give them a sense of defeat. But I enjoy this. I am proud, I did it.

III. Children, today I’ll tell you something nice, nice not because it is a fairy story where the witch was punished and the sincere Seeta was rewarded. I’ll tell you about a real incident. The story is about a familyin Jainapur in Bijapur district. You know my maternal grand mother was from Bijapur. She told me the story. The story is about a woman with an unwavering mind and strong determination. Do you want to listen? Many stories are told about Desais of Jainapur, an aristocractic family. This family was known for its wealth and generosity. The widowed lady of the family Kashibai had bought a Rolls Royce, a symbol of status in 1. The District collector :- You are Mrs Kashi Bai? Heard you own a Rolls Royce car. 2. Kashi Bai :- Yes Sir. 3. D.C. – I would order you to lend it for 2 days. I want it for the use of my superior officer. He is visiting Bijapur.


4. Kashi Bai – No. I flatly refuse, It is exclusively for my family use, not for the luxury of a British Officer.

5. D.C. – If you refuse to hand over the car I will cancel its registration. You will never be able to use the car in front of my bunglow.

6. Kashi Bai – ‘you are at your liberty to do so. In that case I will use my Rolls Rolls car for drying cowdung cakes but won’t bow down to your orders. 7. D.C. – ‘Take it from me! I have cancelled the registration of you car’. What do you think she id with the car, Chinni? What did she do mother? You cannot even imagine ……………… the lady stuck to her word. People could see the car parked with cowdung, cakes plastered on it for many years even after freedom was won. Think over, Chinni. What do you think of such a woman, proud of mad? Do you think what she did was right? What would you have done?

SHAKUNTALA DHAMANKAR 1. British officer :- Shakuntala Dhamankar is a twenty year old girl of Belgaum. She is patriotism personified. She is the leader of the college students who have abandoned their classes to serve India. Her mercurial agility is inspiring young men and women so much that thousands at her command could assemble within hours to agitate against our rule. We are trying hard to arrest her but she is eluding us. 2. Police – who does she work with? 3. Officer – She is working along with Shankar Kuntakoti. He is also eluding us and he carries a reward of 2000/- on his head. 4. Shakuntala – Shankar, we are like minded. I would like to marry you. 5. Shankar – I am a most wanted man I am carrying a reward of Rs 2000/-. If I am caught I could be sentenced to at least 15 – 20 years of imprisonment. I may even he hanged. What would happen to you then? 6. Shakuntala – I would be proud to be the wife of a person imprisoned for fighting for freedom. I would be prouder to be the widow of a freedom fighter in case you are hanged PADMAVATHI BURLI


Padmavathibai Burli, wife of the renowned freedom fighter. Bindacharya Burli, she was a silent and pious woman. Circumstances so conspired against the family that they had to struggle for two square meals a day. Bindacharya breathed patriotism and lived patriotism. 1. Bindacharya Burli – the cause and call of Mother India is always above my domestic obligations.

2. Padmavathi Burli – I will also lead a silent agitation against British oppressors. I would care my little children and feed the hungry freedom fighters who are in hiding. My children, eat a little less so that I can feed the sons of the nation who are committed to free Mother India from British oppressive rule. 3. Police officer – arrest her, she is feeding the Indian freedom fighters But her in the jail for 3 months. VIMAL GULWADI AND HEMA SHILONIKAR 1. Dear Roona – I am a government employee at the court. Vimal Gulwadi and Hema Shilonikar are the two great women who are ready to sacrifice their life even for the sake of our freedom. Lo! They have entered the courtroom. Oh! They are carrying our tri – colour flag how dare, are they! Oh God! they have occupied the judge’s seat. Others – oh! Judge has entered the court hall. He is shocked to see his seat occupied by the two women. Hema and Vimal – you English fool get back. Indian has attained freedom you oppressors have no place here. You have no place in our dear country. Judge – (fumbles) who is there – oh! What shall I do with these women. Arrest them and put them behind bars.

2. Employee – Hats off to their brave act. This has inspired me a lot. I feel ashamed of myself for working against my own people. I would resign my job and take part in the freedom struggle. Jai Hind.


INTRODUCTION FOR THE PLAY : TITLE: “A MAGICIAN WITH A BALL” A situation is created in the classroom where you could see the students happily conversing about the previous day‘s cricket match, watch and enjoy ! SCENE – 1 Adarsh


Hai ! Prajawal what are you doing?



Hello ! Adarsh I am completing my maths homework man.



Didn’t you do it yesterday ? What were you doing I say ?



Oh ! I was watching that thrilling cricket match between India and Pakistan man.



Oh ! It was really a wonderful match, in the Chinnaswamy Stadium, Prajwal.



Then, did you go to the stadium to watch the live match yesterday ?



Yes, Prajwal I went with my father and uncle and enjoyed it. What a match it was ! Did you see the shots of our Master blaster Sanchin Tendulkar ?



Amazing, you ought to have watched his sixes, man Adarsh, why are you so quite ?



I didn’t watch the cricket match yesterday, because I don’t know more about cricket and nobody in my family is interested to watch it.



My father loves to watch cricket and so yesterday we went to


watch the live match. Prajwal


In my house everybody loves to watch cricket, even my younger sister likes to watch it.



I know very little about cricket friends, can you give me some more information about it.


Oh ! Sure we will tell you in detail Adarsh, don’t worry.



It is getting late for the assembly ( prayer), Let us continue it later.



Oh ! Sure come let us go.

Prajwal & Adarsh

Scene – 2 Adarsh


I am eager to know about cricket game, please share your knowledge of cricket with me now.



Ok ! I think you know that cricket is played between two teams, each with eleven members. After the process of tossing, the winner of the toss is given to choose his play i.e., whether he would like to bowl or take up bating.



I know all these little things; better tell me other than these things.



Oh! Sure, cricket is a glorious game. It is very popular in all the common wealth countries.



Adarsh, do you know this, it is being played in more than twenty countries in all the continents now.



Is it? Can you name some great players?



Oh! Yes, there are many great players like Bradman, three Ws,Sobers,Hutton,Chandrashekar, Kapil Dev, Gavaskar and many Others who have made the game immortal.



I don’t understand who are these three Ws.




Let me also join your discussion about the Cricket game!



Oh! Yes, why not Nishath



Thank you, let me tell you who are those Three Ws, they are great players namely Frank Worrell, Everton weeks and Clyde Walcot who have made great wonders in the game of cricket.



All these players seem to be new, whom I haven’t heard about.



No, they are not the new players but the old ones. I heard, my father telling about their caliber.



Adarsh do you know the modern day players in the game of cricket?



No, not exactly friend.



Ok ! Let me tell you, in modern day cricket Sachin Tendulkar, Jaya Surya, Brian Lara, Brett Lee, Wasim Akaram, Rahul Dravid, Steve Waugh, to name a few have attained the status of stardom.



You told that they have attained the ‘status of stardom’. What do you mean by that ?



Yes, Status of Stardom means the state of being a famous performer. These players become famous because of their hard work and have got that status to be recognized in the world.



Can I also join your conversation, I think it is very interesting.

Adarsh &


Why not ! Prakruthi, you can.

Jaswanth Prakruthi


Do you know about the cricket player, who played cricket in the seventies of the last century.




Of course ! I have heard from my father. He used to tell me that India could boast of four great spinners like B.S.Chandrashekar, EAS Prasanna, B.S.Bedi and S.Venkataraghavan who won not only matches but also our hearts.



Among these four great cricket players whom do you feel was the best !



I don’t know, but I feel that B.S.Chandrashekar was the best.



Yes, Nishath your thinking is right. I heard my father speaking more about B.S.Chandrashekar. Adarsh he had once told that B.S.Chandrashekar was the most dangerous bowler with his fastest leg-breaks and googlies.



What do you mean by leg break and googlies ?



Ok, leg-break is a type of spin bowling and googly is a bowling with which the batsmen gets confused.



Prajwal have you heard about the great Vivian Richards, the West Indies player.



Oh !

Yes I came to know that B.S.Chandrashekar would

bamboozle even the great Vivian Richards. Nishath


Is it, What is bamboozle.........



I will make it clear for you, bamboozle means confuse by tricking i.e., bowling the gall trickily.



Do you all know what Gavaskar told about B.S.Chandrashekar ?



No, but let me know about it.



Gavaskar told that Chandra bowled superlatively and was always a bowler whom the West Indians respected.



You know Gavaskar also said that they tried to hit B.S.Chandra’s ball off the ground, but did not succeed and therefore decided to play as the ball came; rather than plan


anything against Chandra.



You know Gavaskar also wrote that to plan anything against Chandra was in fact, to invite disaster.

His bowling was

something which you really could not predict. Adarsh


I feel very happy to know all about Chandra. Can you please tell me about his career ?



Certainly, Adarsh let me tell you about his debut test.



Quiet interesting! Let me also hear about his debut test.



Chandrashekar made his test debut in 1964 against the England team.



Do you know who led that English team ?



I think it was led by Mike Smith.



Yes, Jaswanth you are right. In career spanning 15 years he took 247 wickets in test matches.



Do you know anything about his 1972-73 series at home against England ?



No, Jaswanth I don’t know anything about his seventies.



I will tell you in 1972-73 series at home against England he lowered the mark set by Vinoo Mankad for the highest number of wickets against England in a series by capturing 35 wickets, one more than Mankad’s tally.



That’s great of Chandrashekar. What a record has he created ? great job by him. SCENE -3

The next day ......... Prakruthi


Have you read the news ?




What’s the matter ?



Yesterday we all had great conversation about the Indian Cricket bowler B.S.Chandrashekar isn’t it ?



Yes, of course we did. So what ?



If you want, to know more about B.S.Chandrashekar, you can watch a live interview on Zee Channel at 8.30 a.m. tomorrow i.e., Sunday.



What’s that ?


It seems that there will be a live interview of B.S.Chandrashekar

and Prajwal Nishath

tomorrow on Zee Channel at 8.30 a.m. Jaswanth


It would be a fun I say, let us all watch together. You all come to may house tomorrow by 8.15 a.m. in the morning. SCENE – 4

The next day all the friends gather together at Jaswanth’s House to view the interview of B.S.Chandrashekar at 8.20 a.m. in the morning. T.V. Live Show Introducer

: A live show about B.S.Chandrashekar, come let us watch the amazing show now !


: Good Morning, Sir, how are you?

B.S.Chandra : Good Morning, I am fine. How are you ? Author

: Fine, thank you. Sir, you were considered one of the greatest leg bowlers in the world. How did you achieve the great feat? Your bowling arm was struck by polio.

B.S.Chandra : I never thought about the disadvantages. You come under pressure only when you begin to think of your disadvantage.



: That means B.S.Chandra was a disable person ?


: Yes, of course, but in spite of it he did his best.


: Prajwal, what do you mean by ‘feat’?


: Adarsh, feat means achievement. Please wait let’s watch it.......


: Ok ! Sure.


: What encouraged you to take to cricket?

B.S.Chandra : I have a passion for the game. That led me to persevere. Author

: When you began your career, there were great names in cricket Batsman like Ken Barrington, Clive Lloyd, Garifield, Sobers, Zaheer Abbas, Miandad, Barry Richards, Vivian Richards and many others. Didn’t you feel neverous, when you were asked to bowl to batsmen of such caliber?

B.S.Chandra : Oh ! Initially yes. But when once I gained experience and when I could detect their weakness, I could bowl normally. I was able to get wickets easily with the help of close in fielders. Nishath

: I didn’t understand when B.S.Chandra said that he had a passion - what’s passion ...............


: And also persevere...........


: Passion means a strong feeling, deeply felt emotion. Persevere means doing things in a very determined way in spite of difficulties.


: That means B.S.Chandra never thought of his difficulties and bowled his best in spite of his arm being struck by polio. Isn’t it.


: Stop talking, you can discuss after the show.........



: Which is your toughest test match ?

B.S.Chandra : I think it is the second test in Manchester in 1971, which we won. I took eight wickets in that match. Author

: Newspaper used to report that you could not face fast bowlers. What do you say ?



B.S.Chandra : Initially I used to bat well at No.10 or 11. When I became a famous bowler, the fast bowlers around the world began intimidating me. They tried to hit me. That was the problem. Adarsh

: What is intimidating mean ?


: Intimidating means to frighten someone..........


: Silence please ! Isssssh.........


: When you were at the peak, you had the support of famous spinners like Prasanna, Bedi and Venkataraghavan. You four joined together could destroy the mightiest of batting sides on a spinning pitch. It was said that pitches in India were prepared to suit you. Do you agree with this?

B.S.Chandra : No, certainly not. We used to take wickets on foreign pitches also. We had only medium pacers and not real fast bowlers on our side. Our team depended on us. We had to do our job well. We hardly betrayed our team. Jaswanth

: I didn’t understand when he told, we hardly betrayed our team.


: Chandra meant to say that he was hardly disloyal to someone who trusts them.


: Who do you think was the toughest batsman you had to bowl against?

B.S.Chandra : I could say it was Ken Barrington. He was a technically perfect batsman. Who could play spinners very confidently. Author

: Who do you think is the finest batsmen at the moment ?

B.S.Chandra : It’s very difficult question to answer. There are three or four who can be called great but I should vote for Rahul Dravid who is technically sound and highly dependable. Author

: Which is your greatest test match ?


B.S.Chandra : The oval test in 1971 which we won and I had taken 8 wickets in all. : Today one day internationals have become popular and they


bring in lot of money to players. And test cricket has taken a back seat. How do you react to it? B.S.Chandra : There is nothing wrong with ODIs.

They are highly

entertaining. But I firmly believe that ODIs can never replace test cricket. Test cricket may not be that popular, but I am certain, it’s going to come back and regain its popularity. : What’s your advice to the young cricketers ?


B.S.Chandra : Have an aim in life. Work hard with dedication, determination and perseverance. Come to the field alive and play cricket. : Really good piece of advice to the cricketers. Yes, we must


follow his words while playing cricket. Jaswanth

: Yes, we must follow his words while playing cricket.


: Thank you very much sir, You are going to U.S.A to spend some time with your son in California. I wish you born voyage and a pleasant stay there/

B.S.Chandra : Thank you very much, professor. All the friends gather and exchange their views............ Jaswanth


It was very interesting isn’t it !



Of course ! I too enjoyed his words.



Do you know when did B.S.Chandra retire from cricket.



No, tell me if you know.



B.S.Chandra retired in 1981, and was awarded a benefit match.



Benefit match what is it exactly ? How does it differ from other matches?




On! It’s nothing, benefit matches are organized by certain sponsorers to support the one who is in need.



I didn’t understand for whom was this benefit match played.



It was

played in favour of B.S.Chandra.

But according to

Gavaskar this benefit match could not commensurate with the effort he had put in for India dispite his handicap ( disability ) Prakruthi


I have also heard that B.S.Chandra was a non-controversial man, a man who went about his own ways without getting involved in any controversies on and off the field .........



Oh ! that is why he was a very likeable man you cold relay upon to be your friend.



Adarsh do you know about his hobbies ?



No, I don’t know.



B.S.Chandra is a lover of music, a great fan of Mukesh, the singer.



They also tell Mukesh and B.S.Chandra were great friends.



Of course! They were very close friends and when Mukesh died suddenly on a concert trip to America, Chandra who normally does not love to fly, flew to Bombay to attend his funeral.



I have also read in an article that Gavaskar has paid the greatest tribute to B.S.Chandra when he wrote. “He used to call me ‘Sun’ and it was a name he used with affection. And I am privileged to be his friend. Still look forward to going to Bangalore and every time I go there it is great fun to be able to sit with this greatest spinner and chat about our yesteryears.”


All also


others :

I think my mother will be waiting for me, It’s late bye see you.

Ok !

Bye ! Jaswanth we will also move, see you tomorrow in

the class, bye..........


12. FIGURES OF SPEECH A figure of speech is a form of expression that deviates from the ordinary course of ideas to make a great or more powerful or pleasing effect. It makes the languages beautiful and effective. I. SIMILE Comparison is made between two different objects or events. They should have at least one point in common, words like as, so, like are used to make a simile. Eg;-1.As shines the moon in clouded skies, She in her poor attire was seen. 2. Her voice is as sweet as that of the nightingale. 3. Like a hurt bitch, she bared her teeth. 4. My laugh in the mirror shows only my teeth like snake’s bare fangs. 5. As you sow so you reap. 6. Your compliments are as precious as gold. 7. She was ready to scratch like a monkey. 8. Not like the wives of Gandhi or Ramakrishna. 9. The mirror shows my teeth like a snake’s bare fangs. 10. Tippu fought against the British like a tiger. 11. Why not live sweetly as in the green trees? 12. I have learned to wear my faces like dresses. 13. I would wear a robe of beads white and gold and green they’d be cluttered and as thick as seeds. 14. Evening lamps would shine, yellow as honey, red as wine. 15. Her trembling lakes, like foamless seas. 16. With all their confirming smiles like a fixed portrait smile. 17. I want to be what I used to be when I was like you. 18. It is not everyone who is as ignorant as you. 19. Your master must be as great a goose as yourself. 20. The mangoes are as big as coconuts and as sweet as honey.


21. No prize was as great as Daksha for the king. 22. A huge monkey was shining like a blazing fire. 23. Be gentle as you are strong. 24. Hanuman stood four square to the world like a mountain. 25. While you roar like a lion in the battle field, my voice shall join you. II. METAPHOR A metaphor is an implied simile. In Metaphor, comparison is not openly stated but implied /hidden. It can be changed into a simile. 1. My mother black prolific, earth mother. 2. They used to shake hands with their hearts. 3. Young men are the salt of the nation. 4. Tippu was the tiger of Mysore. 5. My bed should be of ivory. 6. A jungle bear has no need for your Geetha. 7. A wild bear bearing a litter of little ones. 8. She is an angel in her form. 9. He was a lion in the fight. 10. The newspaper proclaimed Swamiji a prophet and a seer. 11. Cricket is a glorious game. 12. Work is worship. 13. You are a wise human being. 14. I am a Kshathriya hero. 15. The teacher was hard task master. 16. Gandhi is the father of the nation. 17. Sarabhai was an ideal manager of human resources. 18. Bhuvaneshwari Devi was a pious lady. III. PERSONIFICATION Inanimate object and abstract notions are spoken of as having life and intelligence. Eg;-1. God moves in a mysterious way. 2. He plans his footsteps in the sea. 3. He rides upon the storm. 4. He hides a smiling face. 5. Death lays his icy hands on the king. 6. Her flashing stars, her scented breeze. 7. God’s purposes will ripen fast.



IV. SYNECDOCHE A part is used to designate the whole or the whole to designate a part. Eg;-1. Sweet little red feet, why should you die? 2. Give us today our daily bread. 3. India won the match against Australia. 4. He has many mouths to feed. 5. All the best brains of Europe could not solve the problem. 6. India was freed from the clutches of the British. V. ALLITERATION Similar sounds or repetition of several letters are used to produce poetic effect. Eg;- 1. I had a dove and the sweet dove died. 2. She sells sea shells on the sea shore. 3. I saw a saw, such a saw, I never saw. Rhyming Words I. Pick out the word that does not rhyme with the others three words in each of the following 1. A) dear

B) Clear

C) rear

D) Hear

2. A)Short

B) Court

C) boat

D) port

3. A) good

B) food

C) hood

D) stood

4. A) Kill

B) will

C) shall

D) hill

5. A) face

B) lace

C) case

D) way

6. A ) maid

B) said

C) dead

D) head

II does rhyme with 1. The word’ sky’ rhymes with the word ____________ trees, been, high, fine 2. The word ‘pain’ rhymes with the word ___________ race, past, rain, cold 3. The word ‘gold’ rhymes with the word____________ boot, tatte r,bold mine 4. The word ‘shine’ rhymes with the word wine, mood, cost, farm


5. The word ‘grace’ rhymes with the word ___________ farm, dice, base, hide 6. The word ‘green’ rhymes with the word____________ last, clatter, seen,base.


THE DOVE The poem "The Dove" is written by John Keats. The poem deals with the subjects of love and freedom. The poem also deals with the poet's misunderstanding that love is more important than freedom. The poem begins with the description of the bird’s death. The poet brought it from the forest and kept it in a cage; like a king, who has kept a bird in a golden cage. The poet has tied it with a soft and single thread of his own hands weaving. He has fed it with white peas and kissed it very often. He has loved the bird so much that the words cannot explain. But in spite of all this the bird dies. The poet is at first not able to understand the cause of the bird’s death. He questions himself that the bird lived in the forest without anyone's love and care, happily but died at his house in spite of his great love and care. Ultimately he realizes that the bird died of grief of not being free. He understands the fact that love is important, but it should not be without freedom. There can be freedom without love, but there cannot be love without freedom.

zÀ qÀªï ``zÀ qÀªï"' JA§ F ¥ÀzÀåzÀ°è eÁ£ï QÃmïìgÀªÀgÀÄ ¸ÁévÀAvÀæ÷åzÀ ¥ÁæªÀÄÄRåvÉAiÀÄ£ÀÄß ¥Àæw©A©¹zÁÝgÉ. MAzÀÄ ¸ÀÄAzÀgÀªÁzÀ ¥ÁjªÁ¼ÀªÀ£ÀÄß PÀ«UÀ¼ÀÄ PÁr£À ºÀ¹gÀÄ ªÀÄgÀ¢AzÀ vÀAzÀÄ ¸ÁPÀÄvÁÛgÉ. D ¥ÁjªÁ¼ÀPÉÌ §mÁt PÁ¼ÀÄUÀ¼À£ÀÄß w¤ß¸ÀÄvÁÛgÉ. DUÁUÉÎ ªÀÄĢݸÀÄvÁÛ vÁªÉà £ÉÃAiÀÄÝ zÁgÀ¢AzÀ CzÀ£ÀÄß PÀnÖ ºÁPÀÄvÁÛgÉ. C¥ÁgÀ ¦æÃwAiÀÄ£ÀÄß PÉÆlÖ PÀ«UÀ¼ÀÄ vÀªÀÄUÀj«®èzÀAvÉ D ¥ÁjªÁ¼ÀzÀ ¸ÁévÀAvÀæ÷åªÀ£ÀÄß PÀ¹zÀÄPÉƼÀÄîvÁÛgÉ. vÀ£Àß ¸ÁévÀAvÀæ÷å PÀ¼ÉzÀÄPÉÆAqÀ zÀÄBRzÀ°è ¥ÁjªÁ¼ÀªÀÅ ¥Áæt ©qÀÄvÀÛzÉ. §zÀÄPÀ®Ä ¦æÃwVAvÀ®Æ ¸ÁévÀAvÀæ÷å ªÀÄÄRå JA§ÄzÀ£ÀÄß E°è CjAiÀħºÀÄzÀÄ. G¹gÀÄ fêÀPÉÌμÀÄÖ ªÀÄÄRåªÉÇà ¸ÁévÀAvÀæ÷åªÀÇ §zÀÄPÀ®μÉÖà ªÀÄÄRåªÁzÀÄzÀÄ JAzÀÄ PÀ« eÁ£ï QÃmïìgÀªÀgÀÄ F ¥ÀzÀåzÀ ªÀÄÆ®PÀ ¸ÁgÀÄvÁÛgÉ. F §UÉÎ ºÉaÑ£À ªÀiÁ»wUÁV ¥ÀÆtðZÀAzÀæ vÉÃd¹é gÀªÀgÀ “ PÀªÁð¯ÉÆÔ ¥ÀĸÀÛPÀªÀ£ÀÄß N¢.


THE BEGGAR MAID The poem Beggar Maid is written by Alfred Lord Tennyson. It has been written on the theme that real beauty is more important than status and wealth of a person. The poem "The Beggar Maid" begins with the entrance of a beggar maid in the court of a legendary African king Cophetua. The beggar maid enters the court with her arms across her breast. She tries to hide some parts of her body, seen from the torn clothes. She is also barefooted. She is so beautiful that the words cannot describe. When the king sees her he steps down from his throne against his status to meet and welcome her on her way. It’s a wonderful thing that the king steps down to meet and welcome a beggar maid who has no status of any kind. But the lords in the court say that it is no wonder for the king to do that. The lords add that the beggar maid is more beautiful than a day. They praise "As shines the moon in clouded skies". They also praise her ankles, her eyes, her dark hair and her lovesome appearance. In the end of the poem the king Cophetua announces that the beggar maid will be his queen. He proves that real beauty can win anyone in this world and it does not come in the way of status and wealth.





MOTHER The efforts of a mother to bring up her children is wonderfully brought in the poem 'Mother' by P.Lankesh. As his mother had borne every pain to make her husband and children happy, the poet compared her to fertile land. She did a hard labour of a farmer, she reared the cattle. She did all possible efforts to make her family happy. She spent all her youth in tattered sari. She didn’t live for self. She wept for a coin, ruined crops. Even in utter poverty she tried her best to make her husband and children walk upright among equals. At last she left the earth so coolly that as if she was leaving for the fields. The poet shed grateful tears for his great mother.



¦.®APÉñï gÀªÀgÀ ``CªÀé" JA§ F ¥ÀzÀåªÀÅ vÀ£Àß PÀÄlÄA§zÀ K½UÉUÁV ±Àæ«Ä¸ÀĪÀ vÁ¬Ä ºÁUÀÆ DPÉAiÀÄ »jªÉÄUÉ »rzÀ PÀ£ÀßrAiÀÄAwzÉ. ®APÉñïgÀªÀgÀÄ vÀ£Àß vÁ¬ÄUÉ ¥sÀ®ªÀvÁÛzÀ PÀ¥ÀÅà £É®PÉÌ ºÉÆð¸ÀÄvÁÛgÉ. ¸ÀÄlÖμÀÄÖ F ¨sÀÆ«ÄAiÀÄÄ ¥sÀ®ªÀvÁÛUÀĪÀ jÃw vÀ£Àß vÁ¬Ä £ÉÆAzÀμÀÄÖ EvÀgÀjUÉ D£ÀAzÀªÀ ¤ÃqÀÄvÁÛ¼É J£ÀÄßvÁÛgÉ. vÀ£Àß UÀAqÀ ªÀÄvÀÄÛ ªÀÄPÀ̽UÁV DPÉ ±ÀæªÀÄfë . gÉÊvÀ£À ºÁUÉ vÀ£Àß ºÉÆ®ªÀ£ÀÄß G¼ÀÄvÁÛ¼É. CzÀPÉÌ ¤ÃgÀÄ PÀlÄÖvÁÛ¼É ºÁUÀÆ PÀtÚ°è PÀtÂÚlÄÖ CzÀ£ÀÄß PÁAiÀÄÄvÁÛ¼É. DPÉ ZÀjvÉæAiÀÄ UËgÀªÀAiÀÄÄvÀ ºÉ¸ÀgÀÄUÀ¼ÁzÀ G«Äð¼Á, ¸Á«wæAiÀÄAvÀ®èö. DPÉUÉ ¨sÀUÀªÀ¢ÎÃvÉAiÀÄÆ ¨ÉÃqÀ. DPÉ vÀ£ÀUÁV K£À£ÀÆß §AiÀĸÀ°®èö. vÀ£Àß ¸ÀA¸ÁgÀzÀ G£ÀßwUÁV vÀ£ÀߣÉßà ªÀÄÄr¥ÁVlÖ¼ÀÄ. aA¢ ¹ÃgÉAiÀįÉèà vÀ£Àß AiÀi˪Àé£ÀªÀ£ÀÄß PÀ¼ÉzÀ¼ÀÄ. DPÉ, PÁ¹UÉ, PÉlÖ ¥ÉÊjUÉ, ¸ÀvÀÛ PÀgÀÄ«UÉ ºÁUÀÆ vÀ¦à¹PÉÆAqÀ ªÀÄÄ¢ JªÉÄäUÉ CzÉμÀÄÖ ¸À® PÀtÂÚÃjlÖ¼ÀÄ. ªÀÄUÀ PÉlÖgÉ, UÀAqÀ ¨ÉÃgÉ PÀqÉ ºÉÆÃzÀgÉ ,DPÉ GjzÉzÁݼÀÄ. DPÉAiÀÄ ¥Àæwà ±ÀæªÀÄ, ¥Àæwà PÀtÂÚÃgÀÄ, ¥Àæw ºÉeÉÓAiÀÄÆ vÀ£Àß UÀAqÀ ªÀÄvÀÄÛ ªÀÄPÀ̽UÉ ¸ÀjÃPÀgÀ JzÀÄgÀÄ vÀ¯ÉAiÉÄwÛ £ÀqÉAiÀÄĪÀ ºÁUÉ ªÀiÁqÀĪÀÅzÀPÉÌ DVvÀÄÛö. DPÉ vÀ£Àß ¸Á«£À®Æè PÀÆqÀ AiÀiÁjUÀÆ PÀμÀÖªÀ ¤ÃqÀ°®èö. ªÀģɬÄAzÀ ºÉÆ®PÉÌ ºÉÆÃUÀĪÀ jÃw DPÉ ºÉÆgÀlÄ ºÉÆÃzÀ¼É£ÀÄßvÁÛgÉ PÀ«UÀ¼ÀÄ. vÀ£ÀߣÀÄß ºÉwÛzÀÝPÉÌö, ¸ÁQzÀÝPÉÌ ®APÉñïgÀªÀgÀÄ DPÉUÉ PÀtÂÚÃj£À PÀÈvÀdÕvÉAiÀÄ£ÀÄß ¸À°è¸ÀÄvÁÛgÉ. WORK IS WORSHIP The poem "Work is worship" is written by Rabindranath Tagore. In the poem which has been adopted from "Gitanjali" the poet gives an important message that to work for the good of others is to worship the God. Tagore says God is not in the temple behind the doors. We need not pray and worship in the temple. God is with the farmer who works hard in the sun and rain. He tells us to find god by doing useful work to the society. Work is worship and it is the only way of getting deliverance.









PÁAiÀÄðUÀ¼À°è ¨ÉªÀgÀÄ ¸ÀÄj¹, ¸ÀªÀðjUÀÆ ¸ÀºÁAiÀĪÁUÀĪÀAvÀºÀ jÃwAiÀÄ°è ±Àæ«Ä¸ÀĪÀªÀjUÉ zÉêÀ ªÉÄZÀÄÑvÁÛ£É. CªÀgÀ ±ÀæªÀÄPÉÌ ¹UÀĪÀAvÀºÀ ¥Àæw¥sÀ®ªÉà ªÉÆÃPÀë J£ÀÄßvÁÛgÉ mÁåUÀÆgÀgÀÄ. GOD MOVES IN A MYSTERIOUS WAY The poem "God moves in a mysterious way" is written by William Cowper. The poem emphasizes on the fact that the God is omniscient, omnipresent and omnipotent. In the very first stanza of the poem the poet writes that the God moves always but his movement is completely mysterious. He has given an example to understand it that whenever there is storm in the sea the God is behind it. He plans His footsteps in the sea, but we can not see Him. The poet says that God has his own wonderful way to perform His duties. We are not able to understand Him and His ways and manners. We should not suddenly judge his performances and decisions by our weak sense of understanding Him and His ways. We should trust him every time for his grace, which is always there with us but we are not able to see it and even feel. If the God becomes angry with us it is only for a short period. He hides his smiling face behind his angry. If we observe carefully we can easily see His purposes ripening fast unfolding and becoming clear every time. The poet has given an example of God's mysterious way of His performance that he has a bitter test but its flower is sweet. The poet writes that in such conditions unbelieving the God is an error which we should not do at any cost. It is the same as scanning His work and performance wrongly. If the God has done something unlikable or odd for us. He only will do everything likable and plain one day as only he can interpret what he does not any one else, as He is the interpreter of Himself.



God moves in a mysterious way'

zÀ°è ºÉüÀÄwÛzÁÝgÉ. D zÉêÀgÀ ¥ÀªÁqÀUÀ¼ÀÄ

C£À£Àå ºÁUÀÆ D ¥ÀªÁqÀUÀ¼À£ÀÄß ¸ÁgÀĪÀ zÁjAiÀÄÆ gÀºÀ¸ÀåªÁzÀÄzÀÄ. DvÀ£À »jªÉÄ «ªÀj¸ÀÄvÁÛö, DvÀ£À vÀ£Àß PÁAiÀÄ𠤪Àð»¸À®Ä ¸ÀªÀÄÄzÀæzÀ°è ºÉeÉÓ EqÀ§ºÀÄzÀÄ CxÀªÁ ©gÀÄUÁ½AiÀÄ ªÉÄÃ®Æ ¸ÀªÁj ªÀiÁqÀ§ºÀÄzÀÄ J£ÀÄßvÁÛgÉ PÀ«UÀ¼ÀÄ. DvÀ£ÀÄ K£ÉAzÀÄ CjAiÀÄ®Ä ¥ÀæAiÀÄw߸ÀĪÀ §zÀ®Ä DvÀ£À zÀAiÉÄ ºÁUÀÆ PÀÈ¥ÉAiÀÄ°è £ÀA©PÉ EqÀ¨ÉÃPÀÄ. DvÀ£À PÉÆÃ¥ÀzÀ »AzÉAiÀÄÆ ªÁvÀì®å CqÀVgÀÄvÀÛzÉ. ªÉÆUÀÄÎ PÀ» EzÀÝgÀÆ ºÀƪÀÅ ¹» EgÀĪÀ jÃw DgÀA¨sÀzÀ°è PÀμÀÖ PÉÆlÖgÀÆ CAvÀåzÀ°è ¸ÀÄR ¤ÃqÀĪÀ£ÁvÀ J£ÀÄßvÁÛgÉ PÀ«UÀ¼ÀÄ. £ÀªÀÄä PÀÄgÀÄqÀÄvÀ£À¢AzÀ CxÀªÁ C¥À£ÀA©PɬÄAzÀ DvÀ£À£ÀÄß CxÉðʸÀĪÀÅzÀÄ vÀ¥ÀÅà ºÁUÀÆ ªÀåxÀð. CªÀ£ÀÄ K£À£ÀÄß ªÀiÁqÀÄvÁÛ£ÉÆà CzÀÄ CªÀ¤UÉ w½¢gÀÄvÀÛzÉ. CAvÀåzÀ°è £ÀªÀÄUÁV CªÀ£Éà J®èªÀ£ÀÆß ¸ÀgÀ¼ÀUÉƽ¸ÀÄvÁÛ£É. TARTARY The poet imagines his life as the sole lord of Tartary. He imagines his bed of ivory and throne of gold, the tigers of yellow skin and black stripes the dancing peacocks ,swimming fishes. The trumpeters would call him to meals. His palace will be shining with colorful lamps. The poet wears robes of beads and hears the sweet music of mandolin and flute. His chariot is drawn by seven Zebras. Being the Lord of Tartary, he is the Lord of fruits, rivers, hills and valleys. mÁgïlj



ONCE UPON A TIME The poet says that the people laugh with their teeth not with their hearts. Their laughter is artificial. They shake hands but not sincere. They hide their real feelings, but utter sweet words. The poet wants to give up all these feelings and wants to become innocent once again. He wants to get back innocence of his childhood with the help of his son.

MAzÁ£ÉÆAzÀÄ PÁ®zÀ°è ¨sÁªÀ£ÉUÀ¼Éà E®èzÀ EA¢£À PÀÈvÀPÀ §zÀÄQ£À §UÉÎ PÀ« UÁå©æAiÀįï MPÁågÀªÀgÀÄ vÀªÀÄä ¥ÀzÀåzÀ°è ` once upon a time` §gÉAiÀÄÄvÁÛgÉ. £ÉʸÀVðPÀvÉ E®èzÉ, ¨sÁªÀ£ÉUÀ¼ÀÆ E®èzÉ §jzÁzÀ EA¢£À vÀ¯ÉªÀiÁgÀ£ÀÄß PÀ« «ªÀj¸ÀÄvÁÛ ºÉÆÃUÀÄvÁÛgÉ. EA¢£À d£ÀgÀ £ÀUÀÄ«£À°è §gÉ vÉÆÃjPÉ EzÀÄÝö, CªÀgÀÄ PÉêÀ® vÀÄn¬ÄAzÀ ªÀiÁvÀæ £ÀUÀÄvÁÛgÉ. ºÀÈzÀAiÀÄzÀ°è AiÀiÁªÀ M¼Éî ¨sÁªÀ£ÉAiÀÄÆ EgÀĪÀÅ¢®èö. Cwy ¸ÀvÁÌgÀUÀ¼ÀÄ EAzÀÄ PÀAqÀħgÀĪÀÅ¢®èö. ªÀÄÄUÀÝvÉ J£ÀÄߪÀÅzÀÄ J°èAiÀÄÆ G½¢®è J£ÀÄßvÁÛgÉ PÀ«UÀ¼ÀÄ. AiÀiÁgÁåjUÁV JμÉÖμÀÄÖ £ÀUÀ¨ÉÃPÀÄ JA§ ¯ÉPÁÌZÁgÀ¢AzÀ¯Éà d£À £ÀUÀÄvÁÛgÉ. §mÉÖ §zÀ¯Á¬Ä¸ÀĪÀ vÀgÀºÀ ªÀÄÄRzÀ ¨sÁªÀ£ÉUÀ¼À£ÀÄß d£ÀgÀÄ §zÀ¯Á¬Ä¸ÀÄvÁÛgÉ. CzÀ£ÀÄß PÀ«UÀ¼ÀÆ F ¸ÀªÀiÁd¢AzÀ PÀ°wzÁÝgÉ. vÀ£Àß ªÀÄUÀ£À ªÀÄÄUÀÝvÉ ºÁUÀÆ ªÀÄÄUÀÝ £ÀUÀĪÀ£ÀÄß CªÀgÀÄ ¥ÀÅ£ÀB PÀ°AiÀÄ®Ä EaѸÀÄvÁÛgÉ. CzÀÆ vÀªÀÄä ªÀÄUÀ¤AzÀ¯Éà PÀ°AiÀÄ°aѸÀÄvÁÛgÉ. PÀ«UÀ¼ÀÄ ºÀÈzÀAiÀÄzÁ¼À¢AzÀ £ÀUÀĪÀÅzÀ£ÀÄß ºÁUÀÆ £ÉÊd ¨sÁªÀ£ÉUÀ½AzÀ vÀÄA©zÀ fêÀ£ÀªÀ£ÀÄß £ÀqɸÀ°aѸÀÄvÁÛgÉ. THE MISER AND HIS GOLD The miser had treasure and kept it in a hole. Every day he used to go to the hole to look at it and to get pleasure. One day a robber saw it and took away. As usual the miser came to see his treasure. It was not there. He cried. The neighbours came . He told them the reason and asked them what to do? They advised him to come daily to look at the empty hole

f¥ÀÅt ºÁUÀÆ DvÀ£À §AUÁgÀ eÉãï mÉîgï ªÀÄvÀÄÛ Då£ï mÉîgï gÀªÀgÀÄ ` The miser and his gold ` JA§ ¥ÀzÀåzÀ°è M§â f¥ÀÅt£À ªÀÄÆRðvÀ£ÀzÀ §UÉÎ «ªÀj¸ÀÄvÁÛ ºÉÆÃUÀÄvÁÛgÉ. £ÀªÀÄä ¸ÀA¥ÀvÀÛ£ÀÄß £ÁªÀÅ §Ä¢ÝªÀAwPɬÄAzÀ ºÁUÀÆ M¼ÉîAiÀÄ PÉ®¸ÀUÀ½UÁV G¥ÀAiÉÆÃV¸À¨ÉÃPÀÄ JA§ÄzÀ£ÀÄß F ¥ÀzÀåzÀ ªÀÄÆ®PÀ ¸ÁgÀÄvÁÛgÉ. F ¥ÀzÀåzÀ°è ºÉýgÀĪÀ f¥ÀÅt£ÀÄ vÀ£Àß ¸ÀA¥ÀwÛ£À ¸ÀzÀâ¼ÀPÉAiÀÄ §zÀ®Ä CzÀ£ÀÄß ºÀ¼ÀîzÀ°è §aÑqÀÄvÁÛ£É. ¥Àæw¢£À D ºÀ¼ÀîzÀ°è §VÎ £ÉÆÃr vÀ£Àß ¸ÀA¥ÀvÀÛ£ÀÄß PÀAqÀÄ ¸ÀAvÉÆö¸ÀÄwÛgÀÄvÁÛ£É. MªÉÄä M§â PÀ¼Àî DvÀ£À£ÀÄß ºÀ¼ÀîzÉqÉUÉ EtÄPÀÄwÛgÀĪÀÅzÀ£ÀÄß £ÉÆÃqÀÄvÁÛ£É. CzÉà gÁwæ DvÀ£ÀÄ f¥ÀÅt£À ¸ÀA¥ÀvÀÛ£ÀÄß PÉƼÉî ºÉÆqÉAiÀÄÄvÁÛ£É. vÀ£Àß ¸ÀA¥ÀvÀÛ£ÀÄß PÀ¼ÉzÀÄPÉÆAqÀ f¥ÀÅt£ÀÄ eÉÆÃgÁV CgÀaPÉƼÀÄîvÁÛ£É. DvÀ£À £ÉgÉ ºÉÆgÉAiÀĪÀgÀÄ §AzÀÄ «ZÁj¹zÁUÀ £ÀqÉzÀÄzÀ£ÀÄß ºÉüÀÄvÁÛ£É. DUÀ CªÀgÀÄ F f¥ÀÅt£À ªÀÄÆRðvÀ£À ºÁUÀÆ f¥ÀÅtvÉAiÀÄ §UÉÎ ªÀåAUÀå jÃwAiÀÄ°è DrPÉƼÀÄîvÁÛgÉ ºÁUÀÆ D ¸ÀA¥ÀwÛ£À §zÀ®Ä §jzÁzÀ ºÀ¼ÀîªÀ£ÀÄß £ÉÆÃqÀÄ JAzÀÄ bÉÃr¸ÀÄvÁÛgÉ.


Figure of Speech used in 10th Text 1) Simile : It is a comparison using the words 'like' or 'as'

`¹«Ä°' JA§ÄªÀÅzÀÄ MAzÀÄ `ºÉÆðPÉ' E°è ºÉÆðPÉ ªÀiÁqÀĪÁUÀ `¯ÉÊPï' CxÀªÁ Dåeï' JA§ ¥ÀzÀUÀ¼À §¼ÀPÉAiÀiÁUÀÄvÀÛzÉ. Ex :- 1. As shines the moon in the clouded skies she in her poor attire was seen" (The Beggar Maid) 2. Like a hurt bitch, she bared her teeth (Mother) – Simile

ªÉÆzÀ® ªÁPÀåzÀ°è 'as' JA§ ¥ÀzÀªÀ£ÀÄß §¼À¹ The Beggar Maid ¼À£ÀÄß 'moon' UÉ ºÉÆð¸À¯ÁVzÉ. JgÀqÀ£Éà ªÁPÀåzÀ°è 'like' JA§ ¥ÀzÀªÀ£ÀÄß §¼À¹ hurt bitch ºÁUÀÆ Mother C£ÀÄß ºÉÆð¸À¯ÁVzÉ. 2) Metaphor :- Metaphor stands a step ahead to simile in comparison. Here we are not using 'like' or 'as' to compare but comparing directly.

E°è 'like' or 'as' JA§ ¥ÀzÀªÀ£ÀÄß §¼À¸ÀzÉ £ÉÃgÀªÁV ºÉÆð¸À¯ÁUÀÄvÀÛzÉ. Ex :- (1) "A wild bear bearing a litter of little ones" (Mother) (2) "A jungle bear has no need for your Gita" (Mother)

ªÉÆzÀ®£ÉAiÀÄ ªÁPÀåzÀ°è Mother C£ÀÄß wild bear JAzÀÄ ¸ÀA¨ÉÆøÀ¯ÁVzÉ (ºÉüÀ¯ÁVzÉ JAzÀÄ ºÉÆð¸À¯ÁVzÉ). JgÀqÀ£Éà ªÁPÀåzÀ°è Mother C£ÀÄß jungle bear CAzÀgÉ §£ÀzÀ PÀgÀr JAzÀÄ ¸ÀA¨ÉÆâ¸À¯ÁVzÉ (ºÉüÀ¯ÁVzÉ CxÀªÁ ºÉÆð¸À¯ÁVzÉ) Difference between simile and metaphor. (a) Simile : Tippu sultan was like a lion in the battle field. (b) Metaphor :- Tippu sultan was a lion in the battle field.

E°è MAzÀ£Éà ªÁPÀåzÀ°è n¥ÀÅà ¸ÀįÁÛ£À£ÀÄ gÀt ¨sÀÆ«ÄAiÀÄ°è ¹AºÀ EzÀÝ ºÁUÉ CxÀªÁ ¹AºÀzÀ vÀgÀºÀ EzÀÝ£ÀÄ JAzÀÄ ºÉüÀ¯ÁVzÉ. CAzÀgÉ like JA§ ¥ÀzÀ §¼À¹ ºÉÆð¸À¯ÁVzÉ. EzÀ£ÀÄß Simile J£ÀÄßvÁÛgÉ. JgÀqÀ£Éà ªÁPÀåzÀ°è n¥ÀÅàªÀ£ÀÄß £ÉÃgÀªÁV gÀt¨sÀÆ«ÄAiÀÄ ¹AºÀ JAzÀÄ ºÉüÀ¯ÁVzÉ. EzÀ£ÀÄß Metaphor J£ÀÄßvÁÛgÉ. (2) Synecdoche :- A part is compared to whole or whole is compared to part is called synecdoche.

MAzÀÄ ¨sÁUÀªÀ£ÀÄß ¸ÀA¥ÀÇtðPÉÆÌà CxÀªÁ ¸ÀA¥ÀÇtðªÀ£ÀÄß MAzÀÄ ¨sÁUÀPÉÆÌà ºÉÆð¹zÀgÉ CzÀ£ÀÄß synecdoche J£ÀÄßvÁÛgÉ. Ex :- 1. "Sweet little red feet why should you die?" 2. "Some great brains had built this nation"

E°è MAzÀ£Éà ªÁPÀåzÀ°è 'red feet' JA§ 'dove' £À zÉúÀzÀ ¨sÁUÀªÀ£ÀÄß 'Dove' UÉ ºÉüÀ¯ÁVzÉ. E°è 'red feet' JAzÀgÉ 'Dove' JAzÀxÀð. JgÀqÀ£Éà ªÁPÀåzÀ°è "great brains" JAzÀgÉ "great men" JAzÀxÀð. E°è ªÀiÁ£ÀªÀ£À zÉúÀzÀ MAzÀÄ ¨sÁUÀ (brains) ªÀ£ÀÄß Erà ªÀiÁ£ÀªÀ¤UÉ ºÉÆð¸À¯ÁVzÉ (¸ÀA¥ÀÇtð ªÀiÁ£ÀªÀ zÉúÀPÉÌ ºÉÆð¸À¯ÁVzÉ). 4. Alliteration : If a letter is used repeatedly in a sentence to get musical effect or to make melodious to listen is called alliteration.

MAzÀÄ CPÀëgÀªÀ£ÀÄß MAzÉà ªÁPÀåzÀ°è ºÀ®ªÁgÀÄ ¨Áj G¥ÀAiÉÆÃV¹ PÉüÀ®Ä EA¥ÁVgÀĪÀ ºÁUÉ ªÀiÁqÀĪÀÅzÀ£ÀÄß alliteration J£ÀÄßvÁÛgÉ.


Ex :- (1)" I had a dove and the sweet dove died. (2) Defeat the defeat before the defeat defeats you. (3) She sells sea shells at the sea shore.

E°è (1) ºÁUÀÆ (2)£Éà ªÁPÀåUÀ¼À°è 'd' JA§ CPÀëgÀªÀ£ÀÄß ºÀ®ªÁgÀÄ ¨Áj G¥ÀAiÉÆÃV¹ EA¥ÁV¹zÁÝgÉ (¸ÀAVÃvÀªÀÄAiÀĪÁV¹zÁÝgÉ) CzÉà jÃw 3£Éà ªÁPÀåzÀ°è 's' JA§ CPÀëgÀªÀ£ÀÄß ºÀ®ªÁgÀÄ ¨Áj G¥ÀAiÉÆÃV¹ PÉüÀ®Ä EA¥ÁVgÀĪÀ ºÁUÉ ªÀiÁqÀ¯ÁVzÉ (¸ÀAVÃvÀªÀÄAiÀĪÁV¹zÁÝgÉ CazÀgÉ musical effect C£ÀÄß PÉÆqÀ¯ÁVzÉ) EzÀ£ÀÄß alliteration J£ÀÄßvÁÛgÉ. (5) Personification :To personify means to show the human actions or activities in other creatures as if they have life and feelings like human beings.

ªÀiÁ£ÀªÀ£À UÀÄtUÀ¼À£ÀÄß CxÀªÁ QæAiÀiÁ²Ã®vÉAiÀÄ£ÀÄß CxÀªÁ ¨sÁªÀ£ÉUÀ¼À£ÀÄß ªÀiÁ£ÀªÀ£À®èzÀ EvÀgÉ ¸ÀȶÖUÀ¼À°è vÉÆÃj¸ÀĪÀÅzÀÄ. (a) The sun is smiling in gay

¸ÀÆAiÀÄð£ÀÄ ¸ÀAvÉÆÃμÀzÀ°è £ÀUÀÄwgÀĪÀ£ÀÄ. (b) The dark night was crying in your absence.

¤£Àß UÉÊgÀÄ ºÁdjAiÀÄ°è PÀvÀÛ® gÁwæAiÀÄ C¼ÀÄwÛzÉ. (c) Death lays his icy hands upon the King.

¸ÁªÀÅ vÀ£Àß vÀtÚ£É PÉÊUÀ¼À£ÀÄß gÁd£À ªÉÄðj¹vÀÄ. (d) God moves in a mysterious way

zÉêÀgÀÄ ¤UÀÆqsÀªÁV ZÀ°¸ÀÄvÁÛ£É. (e) He (God) rides upon the storm.

CªÀ£ÀÄ (zÉêÀgÀÄ) ©gÀÄUÁ½AiÀÄ ªÉÄÃ¯É ¸ÀªÁj ªÀiÁqÀÄvÁÛ£É. E°è 1£Éà ªÁPÀåzÀ°è ¸ÀÆAiÀÄð£ÀÄ £ÀUÀÄwÛgÀĪÀ£ÉAzÀÄ ºÉüÀ¯ÁVzÉ. CAzÀgÉ ªÀiÁ£ÀªÀ£À £ÀUÀĪÀ UÀÄtªÀ£ÀÄß ¸ÀÆAiÀÄð£À°è vÉÆÃj¸À¯ÁVzÉ. CAzÀgÉ ¸ÀÆAiÀÄð£À£ÀÄß personify ªÀiÁqÀ¯ÁVzÉ. 2£Éà 3£Éà 4£Éà 5£ÉÃ

ªÁPÀåzÀ°è ``PÀvÀÛ® gÁwæ" C¼ÀÄwÛgÀĪÀÅzÀÄ. ªÁPÀåzÀ°è ``¸ÁªÀÅ" vÀ£Àß PÉÊUÀ¼À£ÀÄß gÁd£À ªÉÄðj¸ÀĪÀÅzÀÄ. ªÁPÀåzÀ°è zÉêÀgÀÄ ZÀ°¸ÀĪÀÅzÀÄ ªÁPÀåzÀ°è zÉêÀgÀÄ ¸ÀªÁj ªÀiÁqÀĪÀÅzÀÄ. F ªÉÄð£À ªÁPÀåUÀ¼À°è ªÀiÁ£ÀªÀ£À®èzÀªÀgÀÆ ªÀiÁ£ÀªÀ£À ºÁUÉ C¼ÀĪÀÅzÉÆÃ, PÉÊUÀ¼À¤ßj¸ÀĪÀÅzÉÆÃ,

ZÀ°¸ÀĪÀÅzÉÆà CxÀªÁ ¸ÀªÁj ªÀiÁqÀĪÀÅzÀ£ÉÆßà vÉÆÃj¸À¯ÁVzÉ. CAzÀgÉ E°è `gÁwæ' `¸ÁªÀÅ' ºÁUÀÆ zÉêÀgÀ£ÀÄß personify



Letter Writing • A letter is the most commonly used from of communication. Types of Letters a. Personal Letter b. Official Letter c. Application Letter d. Complaint Letter • Parts of a Letter A letter usually consists Seven Parts 1. From Address. 2. To Address 3. Salutation (Greeting Respected Sir 4. Subject of the letter 5. Body of the letter (matter) 6. Complementary close (Yours Faithfully) 7. Signature


OFFICIAL LETTER Step -1 Address of the Writer




Respected Sir – Step – 3 Step - 4 Sub: Regarding ------------------------Step – 5

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Thanking You,

Step – 7 Step – 6

Your Faithfully,






Imagine that you are Manjula/Harish X Std G.H.S. Agrahara Write a letter to the Editor of a newspaper about the roads and drainage system in your locality.

Manjula, X Std Govt High School, Agrahara. Date:

To, The Editor, Deccan Herald, Bangalore. Respected Sir, Sub:- Regarding bad conditions of roods.

There are four main roads and ten bye lanes in our village. The roads have not been swept for nearly one month. Flies and mosquitoes have been haunting us. I request you to draw the attention of concerned authorities to get the roads swept without fail. Thanking You,

Place: Yours Faithfully Date: Manjula



APPLICATION LETTER FORMAT Step -1 Address of the Writer From



Step-2 To,




Step – 3 Respected Sir,

- Salutation or Greeting Step - 4 Sub: Step – 5

I have passed the S.S.L.C. Examination in April this year,



Thanking You,

Step – 7 Step – 6 Place:

Your Obediently





APPLICATION LETTER Imagine that you are Raghu/Rani Studied in Govt High School Rampur. Write a letter to Your Head Master requesting to issue Transfer Certificate.

From, Raghu, S/o Ramaiah, No, 15, Library Road, Rampur

To, The Head Master, Govt High School, Rampur.

Respected Sir,

Sub:- Requesting to issue T.C.

I have passed the S.S.L.C. Examination in April this year, in first class, with Register No105067. I wish to continue my studies at Vivekananda College, Bangalore, I request you to kindly issue me the Transfer certificate. I have returned all the books I had borrowed from the school library.

Thanking You,

Place: Rampur Yours Faithfully Date: Raghu




From, ------------------------------------------------------------Date:

Step-2 My dear -----------------Step-3

I am fine expect the same of you, I am studying well ---------------------



I am waiting for your reply

Step – 4 Your lovingly XYZ Step - 5

Steps -

1. From Address with date. 2. Salutation. 3. Body of the letter. 4. Complementary close. 5. Address on envelope.


PERSONAL LETTER Imagine that you are Suma/ Sathish Studying in 10th Std Govt High School Bangalore. Write a letter to Your father requesting him to send Rs. 500/- buy stationary things..

Suma, Govt High School Bangalore. Date: My dear father,

I am fine, expect the same of you. I am studying well. The teacher has informed us to buy 10- two hundred page notebooks and 8- hundred page notebooks. I need Rs. 500/- will you Please send the amount to enable me to buy notebooks.

Yours lovingly,


Rangappa 10a, Patel Nagar, Mysore.  

For Details, Please Contact:  The Head Masters’ Association  Department of Public Instruction  Hassan District     


Live English for 10th Standard prepared by Head Master Association Hassan  
Live English for 10th Standard prepared by Head Master Association Hassan  

Live English for 10th Standard prepared by Head Master Association Hassan