Eco-Landscape Design John A. Flannery Â· Karen M. Smith
John A. Flannery • Karen M. Smith
John A. Flannery Boston Spa Media Boston Spa, Leeds United Kingdom www.bostonspamedia.com
Karen M. Smith Boston Spa Media Boston Spa, Leeds United Kingdom www.bostonspamedia.com
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ECO-LANDSCAPE DESIGN John A. Flannery and Karen M. Smith
ECO - LANDSCAPE DESIGN Public Open Space 4
Public Open Space 6
Grand Park, Los Angeles, USA
Dwellings and Workplace 52
Bosco Verticale, Milan, Italy
20 Junk to Park over Ancient Athens, Athens, Greece
Drs. Julian and Raye Richardson Apartments, San Francisco, USA
28 Qinhuangdao Forest Park, Qinhuangdao, China
Lochiel Park, Campbelltown, Australia
34 Evergreen Brickworks, Toronto, Canada
Smith-Clementi Residence, Venice, USA
40 Windsor Street Linear Trail, Adelaide, Australia
Lamar Advertising Headquarters, Baton Rouge, USA
48 Parc Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, Canada
Rivers, Shores and Islands 88
Gardens by the Bay, Marina Bay, Singapore
Conservation and Education 168 Viewpoint, Lista, Norway
104 Bushwick Inlet Park, New York, USA
178 The Center for Early Education Sustainability Vision Project, West Hollywood, USA
112 Pirrama Park, Pyrmont, Australia
188 The Dyck Field, Rhine Westphalia, Germany
122 Kunming Ecological Infrastructure and Greenways, Kunming, China
194 Red Rock Canyon Visitor Center, Las Vegas, USA
142 The Hive Worcester Library Landscape, Worcester, England
212 VanDusen Botanical Gardens, Vancouver, Canada
150 Landscapes of Cohabitation, Antiparos, Greece
222 Photo Credits
162 Narrabeen Lagoon Multi-Use Trail Stage 1, Narrabeen, Australia
Introduction Ecology: The study of organisms in relation to one another and to their surroundings. Landscape: The features of a land area as seen in broad view. Design: A preliminary outline or drawing for something that is to be made; the art of producing these.
On March 31st, 2014, the United Nations report entitled “Climate Change 2014, Impacts Adaptation and Vulnerability” was published by the Working Group II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The panel, meeting in Yokohama, Japan, held a press conference at which Chairperson, Rajendra K. Pachauri, issued his strongest warnings to date, stating that climate change caused by human activity is likely to be “severe, pervasive and irreversible”. The report predicts that a general increase in land and sea temperatures over the course of the 21st century; will cause some polar ice to melt, with consequential rises in sea levels. When combined with predicted increases in the incidence of extreme weather events, such as hurricanes, typhoons and prolonged storms, the IPCC warns of the potential severe impact on communities choosing to live in proximity to coastal regions and watercourses. The report also details the effects of severe drought on the world’s ability to produce food and the impact of this on the poorest people in the world. The IPCC again urges all member countries to reduce the prolonged dependence on fossil fuels (the combustion of carbon) as a vital strategy to preserve the diminishing ozone layer of the earth’s atmosphere; which protects the earth from the heat of the sun. For the first time, this U.N. report also contained a note of optimism by acknowledging mankind’s innate ability to adapt to changes in climate, natural or man-made and that the only constant factor affecting life on earth is change. The ingenuity employed in adapting to change informs the content of Eco-Landscape Design and the previous titles in the Eco-series. By consulting with architects and designers in diverse geographical locations, we are able to demonstrate best practice in coping with the climatic
conditions endured in various parts of the globe. The dissemination of this information will inform policy makers and future design practitioners as conditions and weather events shift from one region to another. Climate is not the only significant catalyst for change. The world’s population is predicted to increase to 9 billion by the middle of the 21st century, this would represent a threefold increase since 1960. Professor Hans Rosling, lecturing on the subject of global health in September 2012 discusses the paradox that, “only by raising the living standards of the poorest, and increasing child survival rates, can population growth be checked”. The realised projects featured in Eco-Landscape Design focus on raising the living standards of all socioeconomic groups, varying in location from the mega-cities of the world to remote, isolated communities. Public Open Space: innovations in this area of landscaping demonstrate how a thoughtfully designed public realm can make cities more habitable. Dwellings and Workplace: discusses designs for coping with human population growth in mega-cities and the strategies required to promote and maintain biodiversity. Shores, Rivers and Islands: features site specific solutions for living in close proximity to the life sustaining, fragile element of water. Conservation and Education: projects attempt to inform people how to protect fragile landscapes and resources by living in harmony with nature. John A. Flannery
Introduction | Eco-Landscape Design | Viewpoint | Lista | Norway | Fig. 1 opposite
Grand Park Los Angeles, USA 2012 RIOS CLEMENTI HALE STUDIOS www.RCHSTUDIOS.com
E Pluribus Unum can be translated as ‘many uniting as one’. The motto is as appropriate now as it was when first suggested by the committee that Congress appointed to design the Great Seal for the United States of America on July 4th, 1776. When Rios Clementi Hale Studios (RCHS) was commissioned by the County of Los Angeles to transform a neglected 12 acre open downtown space into a landmark urban park, the Grand Avenue Committee may well have had the motto in mind. The client’s brief was “to provide a unifying place that would appeal to the regions diverse communities as well as visitors from around the world”. The previously underused open space was originally designed in 1966 and featured the Arthur J. Will Memorial Fountain which is restored and rejuvenated in the vibrant new layout (Figs. 1, 2). Arthur J. Will was the Chief Administrative Officer for the County of Los Angeles in the 1950s and a civil engineering graduate of the University of Southern California. To create the Park for Everyone, the designers and engineers had to contend with a 90 feet grade change
along four city blocks. Consequently, a great deal of submerged infrastructure work was required to mitigate level changes and provide uninterrupted access for visitors of all levels of physical capability. However, the new Grand Park maintains the original alignment from Grand Avenue on the Western border running downhill to Spring Street on the Eastern boundary providing views of the iconic Los Angeles City Hall (Fig. 2). Grand Park’s pedestrian accessibility from Grand Avenue has been dramatically improved by the construction of the new terraced entrance. The entry totem designed by Suzzman / Prezja and Co. welcomes visitors in the 25 languages that are used on the Los Angeles County voter registration forms (Fig. 2). This area of the park was previously blocked and visually dominated by the ramps providing access to the underground parking which lies beneath the park. Visitors promenading gently down the slope to City Hall encounter four distinct public spaces as follows; Fountain Plaza and Performance Lawn punctuated by Olive Court, then Community Terrace and Event Lawn crossed by Broadway (Fig. 3).
Population | 3,857,799 Co-ordinates | 34°03’N 118°15’W Elevation | 71 m (233’) Precipitation | 379.2 mm (14.93”) Temperature | Average High: 75.2 C (24 F) Average Low: 55.7 C (13.2 F) Humidity | 75.54%
Grand Park | Los Angeles | USA | Fig. 1 above | Fig. 2 opposite | Fig. 3 next page
Grand Park | Los Angeles | USA | Fig. 4 above
RCHS entered into a lengthy planning consultation which included workshops with community and arts groups, alongside civic and governmental bodies. The concept that emerged was translated into a series of user friendly spaces designed to celebrate the ethnic diversity of Los Angeles residents. This phenomenon is most notably reflected in the eclectic nature of the floristic gardens. In keeping with the theme, the curving, meridian pathways that connect the distinct spaces are based on the Goode projection used for world maps (Fig. 4). Lawns, terraces, plazas, gardens and the aquatic fun provided by the interactive water features invite visitors to play and rest in the same way that Angelinos might relax in their own back yards. The â€˜yardâ€™ furniture designed by JANUS et Cie consists of 41 wall mounted benches, 120 cafe tables, 40 lounge chairs, 240 cafe chairs and, at the last count, 26 free standing benches, all distinctly finished in bright magenta evoking a reclaimed, domestic, outdoor feel (Fig. 5). Retained mature trees are complimented by a planting palette drawn from the worlds six Floristic Kingdoms; South African, Boreal, Australian, Neotropical, Paleotropical and Antarctic (Fig. 6). The environmental factors instrumental in nurturing the plants of these regions are described on the educational plant markers. The LA climate appears to be as welcoming for the diverse plant life as it is for its human population.
Grand Park | Los Angeles | USA | Fig. 5 above | Fig. 6 next page
Fig. 7 below right
The framework for the layered design elements (Fig. 9), is provided by the parallel walks, cross walks, meridian paths and the two city sidewalks within the site boundary. The floristic gardens are laid out within this framework and provide colourful punctuation to the main narrative flow of event spaces. Underpinning the comprehensive reconstruction of Grand Park was the requirement to provide a sustainable facility that would be efficient in its use of water. The key component of this was the irrigation system designed to comply with Ordinance AB 1881, which has been adopted by the City and County of Los Angeles. Sub-surface drip tubes supplying water directly to the roots of drought tolerant plants, are controlled by moisture sensors and auto shut-off valves. Lawn areas of durable Bermudagrass (Fig. 7) utilise water efficient spray systems with rotary heads to minimise water loss. The projected 5 million gallons of storm water per annum is filtered through planters and disbursement lawns to minimise run-off to city storm drains. During the construction process 50 of the siteâ€™s 150 retained mature trees had to be removed, maintained and then re-planted into the new layout.
Grand Park | Los Angeles | USA | Fig. 8 above
Grand Park | Los Angeles | USA | Fig. 9 above
Fig. 10 below right and opposite
All of these sustainability strategies are remarkably put into place above the retained subterranean parking lots. This is most dramatically illustrated on the architectâ€™s section through the park (Fig. 10). Above the landscaping works a programme of architecture was required to support and provide services to the numerous anticipated visitors to the park. In the vicinity of the Fountain Plaza new park buildings constructed under a sloping roof accommodate public restrooms, a park office, an elevator and retail space (Fig. 11). In the vicinity of Spring Street and the vast Event Lawn another new park building (Figs. 12, 14, 15) provides a covered outdoor space, a green room for performers and public restrooms. The Event Lawn (Figs. 15, 16) occupies the full width of the park between the North and South promenades, with paved connections linking the dog run (north side) (Fig. 13) and the Marketplace (south side), ensuring that the diverse needs of farmers selling produce, and canines requiring vigorous exercise are all provided for. The architectâ€™s carefully considered placement of Grand Parkâ€™s considerable facilities ensure that the Park for Everyone lives up to its aspirational motto.
Grand Park | Los Angeles | USA | Fig. 11 above
Grand Park | Los Angeles | USA | Fig. 12 above
Fig. 13. above | Fig. 14. below
Fig. 15. above | Fig. 16. below
Junk to Park over Ancient Athens Athens, Greece 2011 doxiadis+ www.doxiadisplus.com
The City of Athens is often cited as the ‘Cradle of Western Civilisation’. However, 21st century Athens does not find the responsibility of its ancient heritage particularly easy to bear. The straitened economic circumstances of southern European states such as Greece, Italy and Spain has placed the previously secure legacy of many important historical cities in jeopardy. Further south, across the Mediterranean Sea, the unexplored archaeological sites of Egypt, within plain sight of Cairo, the Pyramids of Giza and the Sphinx are subject to vandalistic excavation and plunder by desperate people. Following the political crisis and, subsequently the collapse of tourism industry that previously supported numerous Egyptian families the renowned Kenyan journalist, Aidan Hartley, investigated the situation for Unreported World in 2013. When Hartley interviewed the so-called ‘Tomb Raiders’, they expressed genuine regret for their actions. The desperate young men, responsible for dynamiting and plundering ancient burial grounds, were conscious that their actions, in providing for their families today, would
deny future generations of a means of earning potential income from the tourism industry that may well have been restored in a future, stable and secure Egypt. The historic sites of Athens are not, as yet, subject to anarchic behaviour. However, the need to protect the ancient burial grounds beneath the modern city of Athens, in lieu of funded, methodical, archeological excavation work, was recognised by its enlightened citizens. In 2011 this desire was manifested in affirmative actions taken by the citizens living in the suburbs adjacent to the site known as Demosio Sima, Kerameikos (Fig. 1). In conjunction with the landscape architects doxiadis +, measures were taken to protect the ancient burial site of Demosio Sima, an integral stop along the route connecting the three main archaeological sites of Classical Athens: the Acropolis, the Kerameikos Cemetry and Platos Academy (Fig. 2). The landscape design and works supervision were provided free of charge by doxiadis + in the challenging environment of a degraded neighbourhood. The English word ‘ceramic’ derives from Kerameikos.
Population | 3,752,973 Co-ordinates | 37°58’N 23°43’E Elevation | 70–338 m (230–1109’) Precipitation | 402 mm (15.81”) Temperature | Average High: 22.7 C (72.9 F) Average Low: 14.5 C (58.1 F) Humidity | 60.8%
Junk to Park over Ancient Athens | Athens | Greece | Fig. 1 above | Fig. 2 opposite
Junk to Park over Ancient Athens | Athens | Greece | Fig. 3 above | Concept visualisation sketch by doxiadis +
Junk to Park over Ancient Athens | Athens | Greece
The landscape design, provided by dioxadis + focused upon delivering a public open space with the appearance of an archaeological site upon the brink of exploration. The section through the site (Fig. 5) details the level of the 5th century B.C. Demosio Sima cemetery at + 0.00 and the existing city street level at + 4.00m level. Once the site was cleared of scrap metal and bricks, with the help of the neighbourhood Roma community, a boundary wall was reinstated at 0.8m above street level. This wall was constructed to the line once occupied by the demolished buildings with stone salvaged from the site. A protective capping layer of lime rubble could then be retained within the new boundary walls at a level of + 4.8 metres. Pedestrian access to the temporary park was created by constructing stepped ramps from both Plataiwn Street and Leonidou Street. The steps were also designed to prevent the entry of cars and vans into the reclaimed space (Fig. 6). Above the new plateau, mounds were constructed for the planting of olive trees to ensure that root penetration remained at an acceptable depth, stone benches were constructed in the shade of these trees (Fig. 4). Planting of hardy Mediterranean species provides a welcome visual respite for the citizens of Athens and a reminder of the Attic landscape beyond the city. Perhaps more importantly the landscape works, completed by volunteers in six days at a total cost of 3,000 Euros, has protected a vulnerable, historic, economic and cultural resource for the people of Greece.
Junk to Park over Ancient Athens | Athens | Greece | Fig. 4 above left
Fig. 5 below
Junk to Park over Ancient Athens | Athens | Greece | Fig. 6 above
Fig. 7 below | The site of the 5th century B.C. Demosio Sima cemetery before site clearance
Junk to Park over Ancient Athens | Athens | Greece | Fig. 8 above l work in progress
Fig. 9 below | planting behing the restored boundary walls
Junk to Park over Ancient Athens | Athens | Greece | Fig. 10 above | Olive tree mounds nearing completion
Qinhuangdao Forest Park Qinhuangdao, China 2011 Turenscape www.turenscape.com
Planted in the 1950s, the Qinhuangdao Forest covers 233 hectares (576 acres). The city of Qinhuangdao is a port city in Hebei Province renowned for being the worlds biggest coal hub and its proximity to the eastern end of the Great Wall of China. Forestation was both an attempt to form a windbreak for the city, and a way of mitigating the coastal erosion that was threatening rail links to the strategically important city on the edge of the Bohai Sea. The fast growing species of poplar (Populus Tomentosa and Populus Canadensis) thrived alongside the black locust (Robinia Pseudoacacia) forming a dense, if monotonous forest punctuated only by rice paddies and fish ponds; most of which fell into decline when the area was designated a National Forest Park in 1993. In the 21st century the growing demand for public amenities beyond the confines of the city focused attention on the rejuvenation of the Qinhuangdao Forest. The objectives set for the design team were detailed as follows: • Enrich and rejuvenate the monotonous overgrown
forest to enhance scenic value and biodiversity. • Rejuvenate the fishponds and agricultural land bringing them into the public realm for recreation and educational purposes. • Dramatically improve accessibility for all visitors to the Forest Park. • Achieve all of the above mindful of budget and programme. The method employed by the architects is described as ‘landscape acupuncture’. This involves the mapping of critical points and the use of minimal interventions to effect dramatic change as described below. The growing of rice, wheat, sorghum and other crops was brought into the public domain with local communities becoming involved in the production process (Fig. 1). A skywalk was constructed at the edge of the urban farm, allowing visitors to observe the agricultural process. (Figs. 2, 3) illustrate the changes in the landscape from the spring rice planting season to summer growth. Visitors can also observe the rice fields closely via a network of paths through the rice paddy in summer.
Population | 2,987,605 (City) Co-ordinates | 39°56’N 119°36’E Elevation | 6 m (19.685’) Precipitation | 634.2 mm (24.97”) Temperature | Average High: 15.7 C (60.2 F) Average Low: 7.0 C (44.6 F) Humidity | 62%
Qinhuangdao Forest Park | Qinhuangdao | China | Fig. 1 above | Fig. 2 | Fig. 3 | opposite
Fig. 4 below right
The network of abandoned fish farms was expanded to create wetlands accommodating seasonal rises in storm water levels. Where practical, some fishponds were made more accessible via boardwalks and platforms to provide the opportunity for sports fishing (Figs. 4, 5). Wetland plants such as water lily and lotus were introduced to increase the biodiversity of flora and fauna in the park (Fig. 6) features the introduction of ‘Nitrogen fixing’ plants as ground cover; in this case the (Amorpha Fruticosa) or Desert False Indigo. Wild flowers such as (Rudbeckia Laciniate) ‘variegated cornflower’ were planted in the newly created clearings to provide the colour and interest previously lacking in the forest floor (Fig. 7). The network of footpaths and boardwalks lead the visitors through the variety of newly inserted flora and fauna habitats providing a more stimulating forest experience. Pavilions and platforms provide framed viewpoints and photo opportunities for the pilgrims progressing through the park (Figs. 9, 10) next page. The ‘landscape acupuncture’ concept transforms the forest from an impenetrable wilderness into a functional, attractive landscape for active agriculturalists and transient city dwellers seeking peaceful respite. Urban park and urban farm coexist in the forest setting as a healing, hybrid landscape solution.
Qinhuangdao Forest Park | Qinhuangdao | China | Fig. 5 above
Fig. 6 below
Qinhuangdao Forest Park | Qinhuangdao | China | Fig. 7 above
Qinhuangdao Forest Park | Qinhuangdao | China | Fig. 8 above
Fig. 9 below
Figs. 1 to 10 are images taken at locations 15, 3, 4, 9, 13, 10, 11, 5 and 12 respectively, as detailed on the site plan (Fig. 8). The images illustrate the variety of landscape experiences injected into the Qinhuangdao Forest Park.
Qinhuangdao Forest Park | Qinhuangdao | China | Fig. 10 above
Evergreen Brickworks Toronto, Canada 2010 Claude Cormier + Associés inc www.claudecormier.com
While excavating post-holes for fencing, William Taylor encountered clay on the Don Valley property owned by himself and his brothers John and George. Seizing the opportunity that the earth had presented him with, William took a sample of the clay to be made into brick at a nearby works. This exercise confirmed the high quality of the raw material found on the Taylor brother’s land. By 1889 the Taylor brothers had begun both quarrying and brick making on the site, which became known as The Don Valley Pressed Brick Company. The archive photo (Fig. 1) shows quarrying activity at the north end of the plot and the four chimneys of the brick making plant at the south end. Two of these industrial relics can be seen in the aerial photograph (Fig. 2) as the iconic landmarks of the Evergreen Brickworks community environmental centre that now occupies the site. Evergreen is a Canadian national charity with the goal of ‘deepening the connection between people and nature’. The organisation’s involvement in the site has been long term, beginning in 1998 with the planting of
wildflower meadows in the Don Valley Brickworks Park. The connection between people and nature has always been evident throughout the history of the Don Valley brickworks, beginning with the utilisation of the clay beneath William Taylor’s feet. The first method of brick making on the site was known as the soft-mud process. Water drawn from nearby Mud Creek was mixed with the clay and placed in moulds, which were then dried and baked in kilns. When downdraught kilns were introduced, the combination of earth, wind, fire and water was producing up to 100,000 bricks per day by 1907. When fire destroyed a large area of downtown Toronto in 1904, the demand for the high quality bricks soared during the re-construction boom that followed until the Wall Street Crash of 1929. During the subsequent Great Depression, unemployed men from all over Canada could be found camped at the south side of the works, reportedly sleeping in the kilns during the cold winter nights. The varied interdependency between mankind and the vast hole in the landscape endured for most of the 20th century (Fig. 3).
Population | 2,615,060 Co-ordinates | 43°42’N 79°24’W Elevation | 76 m (249’) Precipitation | 831 mm (32.7”) Temperature | Average High: 12 C (53 F) Average Low: 5 C (40 F) Humidity | 71%
Evergreen Brickworks | Toronto | Canada | Fig. 1 above | Fig. 2 opposite page
Fig. 3 below right
In 1994 work began to remediate the site, beginning with the quarry being filled with excavated material from the Scotia Plaza tower site in downtown Toronto. The resulting 40 acres of landscaped and planted meadowland is punctuated with ponds and water channels that link Mud Creek to the Don River in a bid to alleviate flooding in the valley. The hydrology strategy was later completed by cutting a series of channels through the previously impermeable 12 acre hardstanding industrial platform (Fig. 4). Working as part of a multi-disciplinary team led by duToit Architects, the landscape architects Claude Cormier + Associes devised a design strategy for the project based upon the notion of this flow through the valley. This dynamic theory, or ‘‘trajectories of motion’’, was extended to inform layers of design including, water, cars, walkers, electricity, trains and wildlife and is illustrated in Fig. 6. The more porous site enables a free-flowing system of components to move through and around the Don Valley works. By allowing nature and movement back into the area, the design team have gradually removed the dams from the previously damned valley (Fig. 5).
Evergreen Brickworks | Toronto | Canada | Fig. 4 above
Fig. 5 below
Evergreen Brickworks | Toronto | Canada | Fig. 6 above
Fig. 7 below right
The Toronto and Region Conservation Authority, working with Evergreen, have stabilised the complex of approximately 16 shed-like rectangular masonry and steel original structures. The evolving programme of permanent and transient facilities is based upon an initial master plan completed by architects, Alliance. Features include a 110,000 square foot garden and nursery, a childrenâ€™s discovery area, conference and event facilities, skating surfaces, and an organic farmerâ€™s market. The renovation restores the elements of nature and plant life, whilst showcasing the heritage feel of the steel structures (Figs. 7, 8, 9). One new building designed by Diamond and Schmitt Architects is a monolithic 5-storey structure providing workspace for tenants working under the wing of Evergreen. The architectâ€™s ambitious goal of realising a LEED Platinum rating for the new building was achieved mainly through the high insulation values of the building envelope in conjunction with a high efficiency HVAC system incorporating heat recovery. The accreditation was achieved despite some of the original masonry walls of the industrial site being incorporated into the structure. The new building is known as the Centre for Green Cities (Fig. 10).
Evergreen Brickworks | Toronto | Canada | Fig. 8 above
Fig. 9 below
Evergreen Brickworks | Toronto | Canada | Fig. 10 above
Windsor Street Linear Trail Adelaide, Australia 2007 oxigen www.oxigen.net.au
Rapid urban development of Australia’s coastal suburbs in the third quarter of the twentieth century often rode roughshod over the topographical features of the landscape that had evolved naturally over centuries. In the rush to build housing for a growing population, the natural riparian systems of water channels and creeks were often interrupted or ignored in favour of the quick-fix concrete culverts installed to quickly divert water away from the new infrastructures. Inevitably some mistakes were made, hence the photograph used in the new landscape signage on Windsor Street, featuring residents paddling around in the flooded suburb in the 1980s. Besides the localised frequent incidences of flooding, the loss of natural drains and creeks in favour of concrete culverts also had a far-reaching impact on the ecology of the land. The vegetation found in creeks, drains and other natural catchment systems slows down the process of soakaway, feeding nutrients into the landscape and holding sediments back from water channels downstream. Slowing the water down also mitigates erosion.
The loss of these creeks in and around many cities also resulted in the loss of the native flora and fauna that once thrived in the natural environment. The city of Unley authorities resolved to address these issues. Consequently Oxigen Landscape Architects and environmental consultants were commissioned to redesign and reconstruct Windsor Street over a fiveyear period up to 2005. To reduce the flood risk it was decided that a new main arterial creek bed running along Windsor Street should carry most of the increased water volume during incidences of heavy rainfall. Other ‘ephemeral’ creek lines would also be introduced. A new 8 metre wide margin of pathway and planting was introduced to redress the ecological balance of the route (Fig. 1). Research revealed that around 725 species of plants once thrived in the city of Unley, of those 140 are now extinct and a further 393 are regarded as rare or threatened with extinction. Many of the newly planted 20,000 plants and trees along the Windsor Street trail were grown from seeds and cuttings (Fig. 2).
Population | 1,225,235 Co-ordinates | 34°55’44.4”S 138°36’3.6”W Elevation | 1,609 m (5,280’) Precipitation | 544.9 mm (21.45”) Temperature | Average High: 22.3 C (72.1 F) Average Low: 12.2 C (54 F) Humidity | 45.8%
Windsor Street Linear Trail | Adelaide | Australia | Fig. 1 above | Fig. 2 opposite
Fig. 3 below | Architectâ€™s drawing of the 950 metre long trail interrupted at 100m intervals by intersecting streets
Windsor Street Linear Trail | Adelaide | Australia | Fig. 4 above
Windsor Street Linear Trail | Adelaide | Australia | Fig. 5 above
The implementation of this native garden, stretching almost 1 kilometre in length, required a re-learning curve to be followed over five years with regard to horticultural techniques responsive to local climate and place. The trail was constructed using the site topsoil with minimum replenishment. A thick layer of mulch provided the desired level of water retention in the beds. The mulch was created by chipping the trees that were required to be removed from various locations along the trail. The irrigation system that was installed to initially establish the huge planting scheme has now been removed to allow adaptation to the climate. The notes on the site plan (Fig. 7) provide the general construction details. Recycled stone was specified for bridge and wall construction. Paving materials vary from exposed aggregate concrete to timber baulks, gravel and even sawdust on some of the informal paths, providing access to view the plant species at close quarters. The interpretive signage is designed to create local interest in the native plants and their historical uses by the indigenous people of the region (Fig. 6). The vast array of natural materials and planting throughout the trail (next page) creates a safe haven for the native fauna returning to the restored landscape.
Windsor Street Linear Trail | Adelaide | Australia | Fig. 6 above
Windsor Street Linear Trail | Adelaide | Australia | Fig. 7 above
Fig. 8. above | Fig. 9. below
Fig. 10. above | Fig. 11. below
Parc Hydro-Quebec Montreal, Canada 2013 Claude Cormier + Associes www.claudecormier.com
When the LEED Platinum rated Centre for Sustainable Development was completed in October 2011, its impressive list of attributes did not include a car park. A $27 million, downtown Montreal, commercial property would normally be required by law to provide spaces for parking cars, However, we are informed that in this case a consent was sought from the city to eliminate the statutory parking allocation from the project. Furthermore, in a bid to lead by example, and, not content with the 800 m2 green roof, the developers resolved to replace more of the city’s asphalt and concrete surfacing with green space (Fig. 2). In order to fulfil this aspiration Claude Cormier was inspired to reverse traditional thinking on tree planting in the city. Throughout Montreal, and similar urban landscapes, introducing new trees into a pedestrianised zone traditionally involved the construction of a soil filled tree-pit, perhaps with an irrigation tube to feed water to the root ball. Located in a desert of impervious paving, the tree pit and tree trunk would then be ‘protected’ by a metal grate placed roughly at street level. Survival of
the individual trees generally being a lottery of location. Cormier’s concept totally eliminates tree malevolent impervious paving. Alternatively, a considered attempt to replicate the growing conditions of a forest floor is ‘cut and filled’ within the boundaries of the site. The radical new function of the steel grate is not to roughly cover a tree pit, but to support pedestrians perambulating above the forest floor. The permeable platform allows rainwater to flow naturally into the soil (Fig. 1). In this environment, not only trees, but other flora can thrive (Fig. 7) mitigating the previous isolated fight for tree survival. The holistic, organic nature of the solution attracts birds and insects into the balanced site ecology accelerating seasonal growth cycles. The revised methodology: forestation before footpath, may contribute to the decline of the lesser spotted, stilleto heeled, human female. As if to restore the glamorous credentials of the cultural and artistic Quartier des Spectacles this unique green promenade is punctuated by star-shaped benches providing respite for the office weary walkers of Montreal (Figs. 5, 6).
Population | 7,903,001 Co-ordinates | 45° 30’ N 70° 25’ W Elevation | 47 m (154’) Precipitation | 980 mm (40”) Temperature | Average High: 11 C (52 F) Average Low: 1 C (33 F) Humidity | 66.3%
Parc Hydro-Quebec | Montreal | Canada | Fig. 1 above | Fig. 2 opposite
Fig. 3 below right
In a Montreal neighbourhood (Fig. 3) that records a significantly high incidence of heat and pollution related ailments reported by its diverse population; any attempt to increase green space and reduce automobile activity can only have a positive impact. Infra-red modelling of inner cities demonstrates a significant contribution to reducing the heat island effect by replacing dark, heat sink pavements and asphalt surfacing with energy absorbing canopy cover. Additional benefits of this particularly dramatic, adaptive re-use of a former parking lot include the decrease in storm water run-off by 100%, significantly relieving the strain on the municipal sewer system. When good ideas are implemented they may appear to be obviously brilliant in hindsight. The notion that trees might thrive better if they are placed in an environment in which they might fare well is one such example of this phenomenon (Fig. 4). Parc Hydro-Quebec demonstrates that a major catalyst for change can come from a single instance of inspired design innovation. When the ideas are combined with a genuine political will to change, then the ecological path to improving the health of a city no longer has to be made from concrete.
Park Hydro-Quebec | Montreal | Canada | Fig. 4 above
Fig. 5 below left, Fig. 6 below right
Parc Hydro-Quebec | Montreal | Canada | Fig. 7 above
Bosco Verticale Milan, Italy 2013 Stefano Boeri Architetti www.stefanoboeriarchitetti.net
In the first half of the 21st century the world’s population is predicted to grow to 9 billion people. In 1960 the population was estimated at 3 billion; a threefold increase in a period of less than one hundred years. The phenomenon of the super-metropolis, with populations counted in tens of millions is already a reality. The growth of these mega-cities and the consequential impact on the earth’s ecology has been the subject of much debate. The design teams responsible for the Bosco Verticale (Vertical Forest) have turned their attention to the dilemmas discussed at the Shanghai Expo. in 2010 (Better City Better Life) and looked forward to the Milan Expo. of 2015 (Feeding the Planet, Energy for Life). From this debate a project has emerged that uses biodiversity as the primary, guiding principle of design. Monitoring the experimental development may provide an answer to the question of ‘‘How to accommodate the huge population pressures without extending the territory of our metropolises to incorporate even the last shred of nature?’’. The design
philosophy of biodiversity attempts to redress the balance of nature in a polluted city. In planning space for an expanding human population to live and work, this school of thought considers that humanity cannot be indefinitely sustained if animal, bird and plant life is excluded. Boeri’s biodiversity design philosophy is cited as a non-anthropised approach to the urban phenomena. On September 28th 2012 the Swedish Professor, Hans Rosling, lecturing on the subject of global health discussed the paradox that, only by raising the living standards of the poorest and increasing child survival rates can population growth be checked. To this end the Bosco Verticale project attempts to ‘‘reduce the growing imbalances between small communities of wealthy citizens in closed protected and specialised enclaves and the vast expansion of informal settlements (slums, favelas, shantytowns) with no services, no infrastructure and no public spaces”. The first Vertical Forest is being developed in Milan’s Porta Nuova Isola area by Hines Italia (Figs. 1, 2, 4 - 6).
Population | 1,316,497 Co-ordinates | 45°28’N 09°11’E Elevation | 120 m (390’) Precipitation | 943.2 mm (37.134”) Temperature | Average High: 17.2 C (63 F) Average Low: 7.8 C (46 F) Humidity | 76.8%
Bosco Verticale | Milan | Italy | Fig. 1 above | Fig. 2 right
Fig. 3 opposite | Fig. 4 above | Fig. 5 below
Fig. 6 below right
Bosco Verticale Milan comprises two high density tower blocks rising to 80 and 112 metres elevation respectively. The verticality of the development is a deliberate policy to reduce urban expansion. Each of the towers provides housing equivalent to an urban sprawl of up to 50,000 square metres. The completed housing development will contain 480 large and medium size trees, 250 small size trees, 11,000 ground cover plants and 5,000 shrubs. This green densification is equivalent to one hectare of forest. The tree, shrub and plant selection and location are the result of a two year period of collaborative research between the architects and a team of botanists. The orientation and considered placement provides the best prospects for the various tree and plant species to thrive throughout the changing seasons. Fig. 7 below illustrates the seasonal changes in colour and appearance to the living facades of the towers. By creating a diverse green shroud for the buildings, the new microclimate will differ greatly from the polluted heat island urban experience. These biological air conditioning benefits are graphically illustrated in (Fig. 8). The architectâ€™s sectional details are shown in (Fig. 9) next page.
Bosco Verticale | Milan | Italy | Fig. 7 opposite | Fig. 8 above | Fig. 9 next page
Fig. 10 below right
The Vertical Forest is primarily a bold intervention strategy for the city; a leap of faith, a â€˜build it and they will comeâ€™ eco-evangelistâ€™s dream made reality. A home for flora is inevitably a home for fauna, including beetles, spiders, butterflies, finches, doves, and perhaps even kestrels. The source of this circle of life is, of course, the water required to sustain it. A network of pipe work, pumps, sensors and tanks attempts to balance the needs of all the inhabitants of the forest using every last drop of grey water available for collection and re-distribution (Fig. 10). By acting as a mountainous, man made haven and accumulation of biodiversity, the vertical forest will create a beacon for wild birds to move through the urban landscape from park to pond creating corridors of local migration. Historically, when the Italian people migrated from the country to the cities to work in the new industries or commerce, they took with them a part of the countryside. Apartment windows and balconies were festooned with growing boxes for the tomatoes and herbs required as fresh ingredients for the tradition of home cooking so highly valued by all Italians. Vines are still cultivated on the roofs of four storey city apartment blocks. In Bosco Verticale this vital connection between city residents and nature is enjoying a long overdue renaissance. The old wisdoms brought to bear in the philosophy, and the experience of realising this project may well provide compound benefits for the cities of the future.
Bosco Verticale | Milan | Italy | Fig. 11 above
Bosco Verticale | Milan | Italy | Fig. 12 above
Drs. Julian and Raye Richardson Apartments San Francisco, USA 2011 Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture www.acochran.com
The seismic shift that caused the collapse of San Francisco’s Central Freeway in 1989 became known as the Loma Prieta Earthquake. This occurrence resulted in the clearance of a half-acre plot of land near the corner of Gough and Fulton streets and its subsequent, meanwhile use as a parking lot. On this site today stands a new five-storey building that houses a counselling and medical centre specifically designed to meet the needs of the building’s 120 studio apartment residents. The residence provides a dignified home and respite centre for formerly homeless San Franciscans. It may not have been the Loma Prieta earthquake that created the straitened circumstances of any of the residents, as the trauma of finding oneself living on the streets can be the result of many and varied individual experiences. Such traumas are not easily reconciled, and can often depend on whether nature or nurture is the primary cause of the plight of the individuals who hover on the threshold of uncertainty. However, there can be no doubt that the caring environment to be found within the confines of the
Richardson Apartments, designed by David Baker + Partners Architects, can only be beneficial to the majority of people who find themselves housed here. At the heart of the community is the central courtyard providing a protective, outdoor enclave for pavement weary people. The courtyard is connected via large, sliding, fenestrated doors with the multi-purpose community room (Fig. 1). The courtyard has a southerly orientation and is populated by fan palms, giant chain ferns, Japanese painted ferns, western sword ferns and wood sorrel, all of which are durable, low-maintenance and capable of enduring both extreme exposure to sunlight and deep shade (Fig. 2). Ironically, the conditions endured by the plants are not unlike those previously experienced by the Richardson apartments residents. The man-made oasis for the weary travellers at the centre of the facility is complimented by the roof garden and external works detailed in Fig. 3. One of the key ecological design strategies for the site was ‘‘To contain and maximise the infiltration of rainwater’’; this is illustrated in Fig. 4.
Population | 825,111 Co-ordinates | 37°47’N 122°25’W Elevation | 16 m (52’) Precipitation | 600.2 mm (23.63”) Temperature | Average High: 7.7 C (63.9 F) Average Low: 10.4 C (50.7 F) Humidity | 73%
Richardson Apartments | San Francisco | USA | Fig. 1 above | Fig. 2 right
Richardson Apartments | San Francisco | USA | Fig. 3 above
Near North Apartments | San Francisco | USA | Fig. 4 above 65
Fig. 5 below right
The landscaped areas were designed by Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture. Within the internal courtyard, permeable paving feeds precipitation into a stormwater retention sub-surface gravel layer. The overflow from this system, and other paved areas irrigates the sandy soils providing a nurturing bed for the palm trees and ferns (Figs. 6, 8). Sturdy courtyard tables and block benches were fabricated from locally sourced Monterey cypress logs, and finished fit for outdoor use with a sealant low in volatile organic compounds (VOCâ€™s). The cantilevers and spatial arrangements of the furniture facilitate full accessibility for all residents including those of impaired mobility and the wheelchair bound (Figs. 5, 6). To the perimeter of the apartment block a programme of external works was undertaken to improve the aesthetic of the public realm and reduce stormwater run-off. Gough Streetâ€™s new trees were protected from vehicular traffic by the fitting of customised guards. Similar consideration is provided to the neighbourhood cyclists who benefit from the new bike stands installed in the generously proportioned parking bays (Fig. 7). On Fulton Street, rain gardens planted with fortnight lily are watered from pavement run-off and permeable setts adjacent to the kerbside (Fig. 9).
Richardson Apartments | San Francisco | USA | Fig. 6 above
Fig. 7 below
Richardson Apartments | San Francisco | USA | Fig. 8 above left | Fig. 9 above right
Richardson Apartments | San Francisco | USA | Fig. 10 above
Fig. 11 below
The healing power of plants, in the medicinal sense, has been exploited by mankind for hundreds of years, however, the therapeutic benefits to be gained from tending and nurturing plants has often been overlooked. On the roof of the Richardson Apartments, residents are provided with the opportunity to indulge in vegetable gardening in the raised beds that surround the seating area at the northerly, Fulton Street end, of the building. The green sedum roof bordering the planting beds further enhances the symbiotic nurturing environment for both the plants and their carers (Fig. 10). Throughout the integrated design of the residence the twin requirements of privacy and social interaction are equally considered. This is illustrated at ground floor where translucent scrim applied to the glazing affords courtyard views from the inside whilst maintaining the privacy of the consulting rooms (Figs. 6, 11). The courtyard stairwell, which is semi-enclosed by native grapevine trellises, provides the chance to greet passing neighbours (Fig. 11). Each individual studio apartment has a bathroom and a kitchenette, whilst laundry rooms and lounges are communal. The apartments are named in honour of Drs. Julian and Raye Richardson who owned Marcus Books in the Filmore district of San Francisco since 1946. The Richardsons are renowned for their mission to empower African Americans through dialogue and literature.
Richardson Apartments | San Francisco | USA
Lochiel Park Campbelltown, Australia 2009 oxigen www.oxigen.net.au
The Sustainable Landscapes project is an initiative in the state of South Australia. Collaborating groups include the Land Management Corporation, the Mawson Lakes Economic Development Project, Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges Natural Resources Management Boards, South Australia Water Corporation and the Botanic Gardens of Adelaide. In answering the question “What is a sustainable landscape?”, the groups simple reply is ‘‘A sustainable landscape is a healthy and resilient landscape that will endure over the long term without the need for high input of scarce resources such as water. The natural functions and processes of the landscape are able to maintain themselves into the future, Our South Australian urban landscapes are sustainable only when they are in harmony with local environmental conditions’’. In 2006 the Landscape Architecture firm, oxigen, were commissioned by the Land Management Corporation to develop the landscape master plan for a housing development on a 15 hectare site adjacent to the
River Torrens. The Lochiel Park site, eight kilometres north east of Adelaide, was planned as a green village to provide 106 new homes. From the outset the objective was ‘‘To develop a model Green Village of national significance incorporating a range of best practice sustainable technologies which will serve as a showcase for other urban developments’’. The Land Management Corporation and Oxigen recognised that if their goals were to be achieved, they would require a holistic approach, enabling integration of the dwellings and their inhabitants into the natural environment. Lochiel Park, in stark contrast to previous neighbouring developments provides a significant amount of public open space (over two thirds of the 15 hectares) around the residential allotments; graphically illustrated in (Fig. 1). This approach would no doubt have met with the approval of the grazier, and owner of Sections 309 and 310 on the River Torrens, Charles James Fox Campbell (1811-1859) after whom the city of Campbelltown is named. Campbell’s house ‘Lochend’ is preserved as an integral part of the cultural heritage of Lochiel Park.
Population | 10,400 Co-ordinates | 34°3’54”S 150°48’51”E Elevation | 105 m (344’) Precipitation | 829.1 mm (32.642”) Temperature | Average High: 23.3 C (73.9 F) Average Low: 10.4 C (50.7 F) Humidity | 74%
Lochiel Park | Campbelltown | Australia | Fig. 1 above | Fig. 2 opposite
Fig. 3 below right
The protected site has been established as an â€˜urban forestâ€™ through a policy of restored re-vegetation. In excess of 160,000 new plantings were required, with selection adhering to the South Australian guidelines. Particular attention was paid to the provision and conservation of habitat for local native fauna such as small birds, butterflies, bats, lizards and frogs. Oxigen also worked in partnership with civil and hydrological engineers to capture the storm water runoff from 260 acres of land above Lochiel Park; filtering it through the sites northern and southern wetlands (Fig. 7) this co-ordinated approach enabled the engineering of irrigation systems using recycled water. These systems are a key component in the early establishment of the sites open spaces and gardens until they become more self reliant in a balanced ecology. To compliment the green elements a minimal intervention approach was required for the public realm infrastructure. Expansive estate roads were eschewed in favour of single carriageways designed for personal and service vehicles. Similarly pedestrian routes are formed using pavers made from clay found on site, recycled exposed aggregate concrete and recycled timber hardwood decking (Figs. 4, 5, 6, 8, 9).
The axial nature of the pedestrian routes, in particular connecting the Lochend house community facility with the centre of the development, provides a contrast with the informality of the urban forest and the wetland zones. Lochiel Park designers have received PIA SA Awards for Planning Excellence, Environmental Planning or Conservation and will be subject to long term monitoring.
Lochiel Park | Campbelltown | Australia | Fig. 4 above
Lochiel Park | Campbelltown | Australia | Fig. 5 above
Fig. 6 above | Fig. 7 below
Fig. 8 above | Fig. 9 below
Smith-Clementi Residence Venice, USA 2013 Rios Clementi Hale Studios www.rchstudios.com
Walking along a quiet residential street in Venice, California one might be forgiven for taking a long lingering look at the surprising views on offer in the sunny suburban landscape. The city of Venice has a deserved reputation for street art, particularly along the seashore promenade of Venice Boulevard. However more gentile views may be enjoyed in the quieter neighbourhoods One such site for sore eyes is the remarkable landscape surrounding the Smith-Clementi residence. The original house built in 1920 occupied only 600 square feet of the lot. In 1996 the renovation of the house by the architect owners Frank Clementi and Julie Smith Clementi added a second floor. In 2012 the purchase of an adjoining second lot prompted an extensive reconfiguration of the public and private areas surrounding the extended home. The project seamlessly created connections between indoor and outdoor living space. The large covered and uncovered patio spaces blur the lines between landscape and architecture until the abundant decorative and productive garden space finally absorbs
the peripheries of the lot. The horizontal lap siding facade of the house, nearest to the public footpath, appropriately reminds passing pedestrians of the building’s bungalow origins. In stark contrast, the California modern, light filled additions to the rear are playfully linked to the raw-wood rustic picket fence by the abstract, vertical timber sun screening fabricated from 12 x 4 Douglas fir posts (Figs. 2, 3). The crowning glory of the garden, and focal point for many of the views is the 80-year old Magnolia Grande Flora tree. This specimen provides shade for the large plaza (Fig. 1), which is formed from linear concrete slabs, interspersed with pebble and grass expansion gaps. The magnificent magnolia also provided the inspiration for the muted colour scheme evident on the lower painted elements of the buildings facade. Shades of olive also reflect the verdant nature of the vegetable growing in the garden. The collage of imagery on the next pages (Figs. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8) completes the guided tour of the outdoors and the ground floor transitional spaces.
Population | 40,885 Co-ordinates | 33°59’27”N 118°27’33”W Elevation | 3.96 m (13’) Precipitation | 451.61 mm (17.78”) Temperature | Average High: 24.03 C (75.26 F) Average Low: 11.86 C (53.36 F) Humidity | 76.69%
Smith-Clementi Residence | Venice | USA | Fig. 1 above | Fig. 2 | Fig. 3 opposite
Fig. 4 below left | Fig. 5 below right
Smith-Clementi Residence | Venice | USA | Fig. 6 above left | Fig. 7 above right
Smith-Clementi Residence | Venice | USA | Fig. 8 above
Lamar Advertising Headquarters Baton Rouge, USA 2012 Spackman, Mossop + Michaels www.spackmanmossopmichaels.com
In 1699 the French explorer Pierre Le Moyne Sieur d’Iberville led an exploration party up the Mississippi river. Mindful of the presence of local Native American tribes, Pierre Le Moyne took particular note of the position of a totem decorated with bloody animals. It transpired that the cypress pole marked the hunting ground boundary observed between the Houma and the Bayou Goula tribes. Twenty years later in 1719, the French established a military post at the approximate location of the ‘red stick’ or ‘le baton rouge’. The Native American name for the site was “Istrouma”, and the Istrouma Bluff is the first natural land barrier upstream from the low-lying Mississippi River Delta. The bluff, in conjunction with a man made levee, provides protection from flooding for the modern city of Baton Rouge and a population (in excess of 800,000) that now resides in the greater metropolitan area. The humid sub-tropical climate produces approximately 55 inches of rainfall annually, making it the fifth wettest city in the United States. In addition, Baton Rouge is
exposed to hurricane force storms due to its close proximity to the Gulf of Mexico. It may be coincidence, however its seems appropriate that the headquarters of one of the nations oldest and largest outdoor signage companies, Lamar Advertising, can be found in Baton Rouge, the city named after one of the earliest posted signs in the landscape. Lamar billboards, bulletins, posters, wallscapes and digital displays form a highly visual element of the American landscape, and have recently been the subject of the company’s green initiatives campaign. Eco-landscape advertising sites now include considered material selection with recycling, weight reduction and the elimination of VOCs as a priority. Low energy light fittings, and the use of site-specific renewable energy sources are either currently employed or undergoing testing and monitoring regimes. Founded in 1902, this forward looking company has now turned its attention to the renewal of its Baton Rouge 1970s headquarters building and the integration of the work space into an improved, landscape (Figs. 1, 2).
Population | 815,298 Co-ordinates | 30°26’55”N 91°07’33”W Elevation | 17 m (56’) Precipitation | 1397 mm (55”) Temperature | Average High: 78.9 C (26.1 F) Average Low: 57.9 C (14.4 F) Humidity | 76.5%
Lamar Advertising Headquarters | Baton Rouge | USA | Fig. 1 above | Fig. 2 opposite
Fig. 3 below right
Landscape Architects, Spackman Mossop + Michaels, worked closely with New Orleans-based architecture firm Eskew+Dumez+Ripple in striving to ‘‘improve the environmental performance and aesthetics of the site as well as to extend the working space into the landscape, while also bringing the feel of the landscape into the building’’. Renovation and adaptive re-use of the whole facility was chosen as an ecologically superior strategy to that of demolition and subsequent new-build. This strategy looked to conserve resources and reduce costs. Crucial to the strategy was the need to address the significant site flooding issues caused primarily by insufficient drainage infrastructure serving the hard landscaped areas, and, in particular, the parking lot. This was achieved by the retrofitting of a storm water bio-detention system. The key components of the system were, firstly, the re-orientation of the parking pattern and the introduction of a series of bioswales to capture the storm water. Secondly, a large detention basin, including a sand filtration element was installed. This facility increases capacity to cope with extreme rainfall events and to improve the quality of the water run out of the site (Figs. 3, 4, 6).
Lamar Advertising Headquarters | Baton Rouge | USA | Fig. 4 above
Fig. 5 below
Lamar Advertising Headquarters | Baton Rouge | USA | Fig. 6 above
Fig. 7 below right
The design team following the brief from the client resolved to create a healthy, less stressful workplace by bringing people into closer contact with the natural environment. In this case the objective was achieved by thinking inside the box. A section of roof was removed from the building to create a light filled atrium open to the elements. The sides of the box were glazed with panels of differing degrees of opacity, blurring the boundaries between indoor and outdoor, mitigating solar gain, and flooding the workplace with natural light. A corner of the new green roof was angled upward to bring light into a central meeting room one level below. The technical issue of coping with hurricane level rainfall was addressed by ensuring that recycled glass skylights would also act as storm water channels (Figs. 9, 10). To the front of the building a parking lot was removed to create a breakout area for respite and meetings under the shade of the siteâ€™s original mature live oak trees (Figs. 11, 12, 13). A second floor conference room and balcony located above the courtyard benefits from proximity to the live oak canopy (Figs. 7, 8). The courtyard and building is now protected by a large earthwork berm which provides a sound barrier from the adjacent road and privacy for the courtyard. Planting the berm with native grasses and wildflowers goes some way to restoring the balance of nature (Fig. 14).
Lamar Advertising Headquarters | Baton Rouge | USA | Fig. 8 above
Fig. 9 below
Lamar Advertising Headquarters | Baton Rouge | USA | Fig. 10 above
Fig. 11 above | Fig. 12 below
Fig. 13 above | Fig. 14 below
Gardens by the Bay Marina Bay Singapore 2012 grant associates www.grant-associates.uk.com
The founder of modern Singapore, Thomas Stamford Raffles (1781-1826) was no stranger to the world of plants. When his first wife Olivia Mariamne died in Buitenzorg, West Java in 1814 Raffles erected a memorial stone in the National Botanical Gardens that he re-landscaped during his tenure as LieutenantGovernor of Java. The gardens and mansion house were originally established by the Dutch East India Company in 1744 and are now known as The Bogor Botanical Gardens. The tradition of research into plants and seeds from all over Indonesia, was largely established on the site by Professor Caspar Georg Carl Reinwardt and continues to this day. When Raffles returned to South East Asia in 1819 his knowledge of Malay history, culture and language enabled himself and Major William Farquhar to establish control of the island of Singapore for the British East India Company. The treaty made with Hussein, Shah of Jahore, would transform the largely uninhabited island at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula into one of the world most successful trading cities.
The Republic of Singapore (Lion City) is today an independent city-state with a population exceeding 5 million ethnically diverse people. Just under 75% are Chinese, around 14% are Malay, and approximately 9% are of Indian origin with the remainder being derived from other races. The combined efforts of this relatively small population recently achieved a remarkable Gross Domestic Product of S$326.8 billion. Overlooking the Straits of Singapore to the south of the island (Fig. 1) the Gardens by the Bay may well have defied even the vision of Singapore’s illustrious founder. Bay South, the first of three distinct gardens to be commissioned by the National Parks Board of Singapore was master-planned by UK based landscape architecture firm Grant Associates to provide a showcase for tropical horticulture in a sustainable modern architectural setting. The 54 hectare site adjacent to Marina Bay Sands opened in June 2012 will become a major attraction for Singapore’s residents and visitors, estimated to be currently 11.8 million per annum (Figs. 2, 3).
Population | 5,399,200 Co-ordinates | 1°17’N 103°50’E Elevation | 0 m - 166 m (544.62’) Precipitation | 2,342.5 mm (92.224”) Temperature | Average High: 31 C (87.8 F) Average Low: 24.1 C (75.4 F) Humidity | 84.2%
Gardens by the Bay | Marina Bay | Singapore | Fig. 1 above | Fig. 2 | Fig. 3 opposite
Gardens by the Bay will ultimately cover 101 hectares of reclaimed land at Marina Bay with the addition of Bay East and Bay Central. The ‘City in a Garden’ concept looks to further enhance Singapore’s standing as one of the worlds top destinations. Following the International Design Competition, Grant Associates collaborated with other British designers to deliver the Bay South project including Wilkinson Eyre (architects); Atelier Ten (environmental design consultants); Atelier One (structural engineers); Land design Studio (museum and visitor centre designers) and Thomas Matthews (communication designers). The master plan (Fig. 5) draws inspiration from the form of an orchid and is a ‘rich fusion of nature, technology and environmental management’. The natural element is provided by the horticultural gardens. The Heritage Gardens explore the symbiotic relationship between ‘Plants and People’ whilst The World of Plants illustrates the delicate ecological balance between ‘Plants and Planet’. Technology is manifested in the light and sound shows stimulating the visitor experience in and around the stunning architectural structures, event spaces and restaurants (Figs. 2,3,4). These elements are set in a beguiling forest and lake landscape and are all informed by the considered ecosystem design for this sensitive site detailed in Fig. 6.
Gardens by the Bay | Marina Bay | Singapore | Fig. 4 above
Gardens by the Bay | Marina Bay | Singapore | Fig. 5 above
Gardens by the Bay | Marina Bay | Singapore | Fig. 6 above
Gardens by the Bay | Marina Bay | Singapore
Fig. 7 below right
Located on the edge of the Marine channel, the climate controlled glazed domes (biomes) are perhaps the pieces de resistance of South Bay (Fig. 9). The larger of the two is the Flower Dome (Figs. 7, 8, 9, 10) covering 1.2 hectares and standing 38 metres high at the ridge. Within this structure a temperature of 23 to 25 degrees C is maintained with a balanced humidity of 60 to 80%. These conditions replicate the cool-dry climate of Mediterranean and semi-arid subtropical regions. The plants displayed include species endangered by climate change and loss of habitat brought about by human activity. The educational value of this attraction is enhanced by the changing colourful displays of the flower fields subject to seasonal change and demonstrating the traditional use of flowers in festival activity. The Flower Dome can accommodate up to 1,400 people and includes a 2,306 square metres indoor event space. Food and drink facilities within the conditioned space totals 1,119 square metres. It is estimated that approximately a quarter of a million species from every continent, with the exception of Antarctica will eventually be housed in the two domes providing a world class botanical facility.
Gardens by the Bay | Marina Bay | Singapore | Fig. 8 above
Fig. 9 below
Gardens by the Bay | Marina Bay | Singapore | Fig. 10 above
The Cloud Dome covers 0.8 hectares and stands at 58 metres high (Fig. 11). Within this space the climate control system maintains temperature between 23 and 25 degrees C with humidity balanced between 80 and 90%. These conditions replicate those of Tropical Montane regions with an elevation between 1,000 to 3,500 metres above sea level. Constructed inside the dome is a 35 metre tall manmade mountain, complete with waterfall and a vertical plantable surface area of 3,800 square metres (Fig. 12). In total 6,000 square metres of planting space is available in the Cloud Dome. The inspiration for the exhibit is cited as mount Kinabalu in Sabah, Malaysia and the high elevation areas found in tropical South America. To facilitate energy efficient cooling technologies for the two biomes, the design team employed site-specific energy modelling studies. The strategies that emerged from the study were implemented as follows. Solar Gain was mitigated by the use of spectrally selective glass and light sensitive shading. Selective Cooling of only the occupied zones. Chilled water pipes embedded in the concrete ground slabs promote thermal stratification where cool air settles at the lower occupied zones and warm air rises and collects to be ventilated at the higher levels. Dehumidification of the untreated air with lithium chloride prior to cooling allows energy savings are made by not cooling moisture laden air. On site generation of electrical power reduces reliance on the electrical grid for cooling the conservatories with chilled water. Waste is also captured to regenerate the liquid desiccant. This is achieved through the use of a Combined Heat Power biomass steam turbine. Biomass is generated mainly from the horticultural waste produced as a by-product of the gardening activity. The study concluded that employing the combined strategies detailed above would reduce energy consumption by 30% when compared with conventional cooling methods. The overall energy consumption for the two biomes would not exceed those of a comparable commercial building in Singapore for a 24-hour cooling period.
Gardens by the Bay | Marina Bay | Singapore | Figs. 11, top right | 12 bottom right
Fig. 13 below right
The Heritage Gardens at Bay South celebrate Singapore’s ethnic groups and colonial past. Symbolism and religion are reflected in the layout of the Indian garden. The Chinese Garden, (Figs. 13, 14) are tranquil places suitable for quiet reflection and the artistic pursuits associated with Chinese culture. The Malay Garden is inspired by the rhythm of life in a traditional ‘kampong’ (village) (Fig. 15). The Colonial Garden focuses on the trade between east and west in plants, spices and seeds, fuelling the empire builders and their trade routes. A further six horticultural themed gardens explore the biodiversity of plant life on the theme ‘Plants and Planet’ with the key elements annotated as follows. Secret Life of Trees : function and evolution World of Palms: diversity, ecology and man-made uses. Understorey: forest floor root zones and plant species. Fruits and Flowers: form, function and cultivation. Discovery Garden: Plant evolution relative to the planet. Web of Life: Interrelationship; rainforest flora and fauna, food chains, keystone species (Fig. 16).
Gardens by the Bay | Marina Bay | Singapore | Fig. 14 above
Fig. 15 below
Gardens by the Bay | Marina Bay | Singapore | Fig. 16 above
Bay South was constructed on reclaimed land, devoid of natural features. This reality presented the greatest challenge for Grant Associates; that of providing an immediate sense of scale and dimension to a garden site initially devoid of mature trees. This challenge was confronted with the phenomenal and innovative design concept of the ‘Supertree’ (Figs. 17, 18). Designed as an integral part of the site eco-system, the vertical gardens, (Supertrees) variably contain photovoltaic installations to harvest solar energy, rainwater harvesting and warm air exhaust risers from the cooled conservatories. Varying in height from 25 to 50 metres, a total of 18 Supertrees provide a vertical habitat for over 200 species of bromeliads, orchids, ferns and tropical flowering climbers. The plants selected for these towering trunks include the Tillandsia stricta from Brazil, Tillandsia fasciculate from Panama, Cattleya maxima from Ecuador, and Pseudorhipsalis, a native of Costa Rica. The selection for each tree is colour co-ordinated. The Supertrees provide a home for 162,900 hardy lightweight plants not commonly found in Singapore but suited to the climate. The tree canopies provide clusters of shade in the day and spectacular illuminated, landmark beacons by night. The 50 metre
high Supertree provides spectacular views from its treetop bistro and bar. Bay South’s proximity to Marina Channel provided an opportunity to construct a 1 kilometre tree lined promenade along the edge of the marina providing connectivity between the city centre and the barrage at the entrance to the bay. The aquatic theme and connectivity for Bay South was further enhanced by the construction of Dragonfly Lake, Bridge and boardwalks connecting the city to the gardens. The aquatic gardens and filter beds are an integral element of the sites water quality management. The South East Asian Rainforest is represented by native species planted in an area entitled Fragile Forest; this area also contains the nature themed Tadpole Play Area. Completing this remarkable facility is an Events Lawn capable of hosting outdoor concerts and other events. The capacity of this space is estimated to be in excess of 10.000 people. The aerial photograph (Fig. 19 next page) illustrates the words of Dr. Kiat W Tan, CEO, Gardens by the Bay: ‘‘We are excited to finally share the treasures of this new garden with Singapore and the rest of the world’’.
100 Gardens by the Bay | Marina Bay | Singapore | Fig. 17 above
Gardens by the Bay | Marina Bay | Singapore | Fig. 18 above 101
102 Gardens by the Bay | Marina Bay | Singapore | Fig. 19 above
Gardens by the Bay | Marina Bay | Singapore 103
Bushwick Inlet Park New York, USA 2013 Starr Whitehouse Landscape Architects and Planners PLLC www.starrwhitehouse.com
Frederick Law Olmsted would probably have disapproved of Bushwick Inlet Park. In Bill Bryson’s book entitled At Home (A Short History of Private Life) published by Doubleday in 2010, Mr. Bryson reveals that the man who designed and built New York’s famous Central Park was firmly against any park activity that was ‘‘noisy, vigorous or fun’’. Olmsted apparently preferred his open spaces to be used for ‘‘quiet walks and tranquil reflection’’. Perhaps the landscaper who banned baseball in Boston’s Franklin Park for those above the age of sixteen years may have thought that placing a ball park adjacent to a riverside walk was unseemly. Law Olmsted was born in 1822 and began the construction of Central Park with his design partner Calvert Vaux in 1857. This commission was followed by numerous projects, with Olmsted being credited with the design and construction of at least one hundred municipal parks in North America. Olmsted was influenced by the layout of early parks in Great Britain, however, his sedate promenade and picnic philosophy would be transformed by American park
authorities to reflect the nature of their citizens. The city park authorities adapted the space to the varied requirements of young and old by lapsing the rigid rules originally laid down by Olmsted. New York City’s Department of Parks and Recreation commissioned Starr Whitehouse Landscape Architects in collaboration with Kiss + Cathcart Architects to design Bushwick Inlet Park as a truly hybrid facility. Beginning with the construction of a new field house and sports field, the structure on Kent Avenue combines community space with yard and storage areas for the maintenance of Bushwick and other parks. Gregory Kiss, speaking to the Brooklyn Daily Eagle cites the 15,500 square feet building as ‘‘the most environmentally productive building in New York City’’. The field house roof is surfaced with a combination of hard and soft landscaping designed to capture and store rainwater for site irrigation (Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6). The space is sheltered and shaded along Kent Avenue with a 66-kilowatt photovoltaic canopy which is capable of providing 50% of the facility’s energy usage (Figs. 1, 3, 4, 5).
Population | 1,619,090 Co-ordinates | 40°43’42”N 73°59’39”W Elevation | 1 - 80 m (3.3 - 265’) Precipitation | 903.986 mm (35.59”) Temperature | Average High: 19.5 C (67.2 F) Average Low: 5.8 C (42.6 F) Humidity | 64%
104 Bushwick Inlet Park | New York | USA | Fig. 1 above | Fig. 2 opposite | View of the East River Navigation Beacon and Manhattan Island
Fig. 3 below
106 Bushwick Inlet Park | New York | USA | Fig. 4 above
Fig. 5 below
Bushwick Inlet Park | New York | USA | Fig. 6 above 107
In addition to the field house photovoltaic canopy, the ecocredentials of the new park facility are reinforced by the installation of ground source heat pump loops. This ensures that the parks multi-use building is efficiently heated and cooled via the radiant concrete slabs. Despite these attributes Bushwick Inlet Park is more likely to be defined by its relationship with the East River. When Breukelen, one of the first Dutch settlements in the west of Long Island, was conquered and claimed for the British Crown in 1664, it would eventually become one of the original six towns of Kings County; the influential monarch being King Charles II. Just over a century later, in 1776, the first major battle of the American Revolutionary War was fought in Kings County. The acknowledged defeat for General George Washington at the hands of the British, ended in a tactical retreat across the East River, which effectively enabled the Continental Army to live and fight another day. The hard fought political and economic independence of the U.S.A. enabled Brooklyn’s East River waterfront to thrive and trade freely with the wider world. In 1894, Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Queens and Richmond (Staten Island) joined forces to form the five boroughs of New York City. With the completion of rail links and the Brooklyn Bridge in the 1880s the East river became one of the busiest tidal channels in the world. Inevitably the channel became heavily polluted in the century that followed. In the 21st century the demise of industrial and heavy marine traffic on the East River has resulted in a progressive ecological recovery. Bushwick Inlet Park plays its part in that recovery through considered design of the areas progressing down to the shoreline. The section (Fig. 7) illustrates the new tree shaded waterfront terrace, footpath and grassy hill that separates the quieter nature walks of the western shore from the more animated elements of the sports field and playground activities of the eastern side. Olmsted may have relented and given a cursory nod of approval to this separation in the tradition of the channels he cut through Central Park to hide the cross-park traffic below the sight lines of the park users. The stormwater drainage concept for the site, illustrated on the plan (Fig. 4) is also pictorially illustrated on the section (Fig. 8). Filtered stormwater not used for irrigation is stored below the sports field and run-off as required into a pool planted with native upland species chosen to attract and sustain the birdlife visiting the park. A newly constructed weir (Figs. 2, 8, 9) provides an overflow into the East River Intertidal Pool behind the Waterfront Terrace. The looming presence of the Coast Guard Navigational Beacon (Figs. 2, 7) provides a permanent reminder that the East River is not a stretch of water to be underestimated. The Brooklyn Daily Eagle reports that ‘‘Bushwick Inlet Park is the first phase in transforming Greenpoint and Williamsburg’s industrial riverfront into a continuous strip of green space and public amenities”.
108 Bushwick Inlet Park | New York | USA
Fig. 7 below
Bushwick Inlet Park | New York | USA | Fig. 8 above 109
110 Bushwick Inlet Park | New York | USA | Fig. 9 above
Bushwick Inlet Park | New York | USA 111
Pirrama Park Pyrmont, Australia 2010 ASPECT Studios www.aspect.net.au
The Sydney suburb of Pyrmont has a long historic connection to the salty water lapping its peninsula, however the European name relates to the discovery of a mineral water spring apparently reminiscent of the one at Bad Pyrmont near Hanover, Germany. Long before the first Europeans set foot on the land, the indigenous Eora tribe hunted, fished and traded in the place they called Pirrama. The European history of Pyrmont begins in 1795 when a man named Thomas Jones was granted 55 acres of land on the peninsula; only to sell it the following year to a man called Obadiah Ikin for the sum of ten pounds. Mr. Ikin apparently gave up the plot to Captain John Macarthur in exchange for a gallon of rum in 1799. Pyrmonts land and natural resources began to be higher valued by the settlers from around 1850 when sandstone quarrying was pioneered by Charles Saunders. Some of Sydney’s landmark buildings were constructed from Pyrmont yellow sandstone including Sydney Town Hall, The University of Sydney and The NSW Art Gallery. The quarry endured until 1931 under
the descendants of Charles Saunders, a Pyrmont street bearing his name. The district prospered from Saunder’s time for one hundred years until the post World War 2 period when the once thriving wool industry, mills, wharves and power stations that had provided employment fell into decline and closure. Pyrmont’s long awaited renaissance began with the Better Cities Programme and the advent of 21st century information age investment and employment. The area is now re-populated with multi-cultural Australians in the village style suburb. This new, media-savvy community were instrumental in lobbying to keep the land, previously occupied by the Water Police, in the public domain when it may have been sold to condominium developers. A high level of community interest in the site has informed the development of a public park with strong links to its historical maritime history and industrial heritage. ASPECT studio’s comprehensive design for Pirrama Park (illustrated in Fig. 3) also reclaims the waterfront by adding ecological value in the greater context of Darling Harbour, and the City of Sydney.
Population | 11,618 Co-ordinates | 33°52’30”S 151°11’47”E Elevation | 21 m (68.9’) Precipitation | 884 mm (34.803”) Temperature | Average High: 23.6 C (74.5 F) Average Low: 13.9 C (57 F) Humidity | 65%
112 Pirrama Park | Pyrmont | Australia | Fig. 1 above | Fig. 2 opposite
114 Pirrama Park | Pyrmont | Australia | Fig. 3 above
Pirrama Park | Pyrmont | Australia 115
The community interest in the Pirrama park project further manifests itself in the new public square at the water’s edge accommodating the requirement for cultural events, performances, meetings, markets and other activities (Fig. 4). The provision of toilets, a cafe and a canopy provide the respite required in this area. The solar installation on the canopy (Fig. 5) supplies electrical power to the grid throughout the day equating to 80 to 90% of the park’s lighting requirements during the hours of darkness. This visual demonstration of renewable energy is also a reminder of the days when Pyrmonts power plants provided Sydney with all its power for lighting and trams. Another historic reference is the alignment of the promenade (Stevedore Walk) crossing the park to the original shoreline. Perhaps more importantly the promenade creates a vital link in the 14 kilometre chain of open space running from Rozelle to Rushcutters Bay. The route is designed to be shared by walkers and cyclists and forms a corridor connecting the various activity or rest ‘rooms’ of the park. A bio-swale adjacent to the promenade (Figs. 2, 3) forms part of a complex storm water filter and storage system. The harvesting and treatment of storm water
provides the park with 80% of its irrigation needs whilst filtering and improving the quality of any water run-off into Sydney harbour. Pirrama Park, in keeping with its industrial heritage has simple applied finishes to the concrete, wood and steel structures and enclosures. A wax sealant is applied to concrete, micaceous iron oxide protects the steel from the sea air and an oil finish ensures that the plantation and recycled timbers endure in the marine environment. Rugged, recycled and recyclable materials abound throughout the site including the sandstone features to be found in the playground (Fig. 6) that once adorned Pyrmont Bridge. The new sheltered bay created at the waters edge provides an ideal place for small craft to access the park for picnics and play. A series of stepped platforms provide safe easy access to the water for swimming, fishing or sight seeing. Pirrama Road forms the inland boundary of the park and is set against the backdrop of a durable old sandstone retaining wall, a visible reminder of Saunder’s quarries. The sandstone envelops the parkland in a reflected warm glow of colour that changes throughout the day and into dusk and evening (Figs. 7, 8, 9) next page.
116 Pirrama Park | Pyrmont | Australia | Fig. 4 above
Fig. 5 below
Pirrama Park | Pyrmont | Australia | Fig. 6 above 117
Fig. 7 below
The planting proposals for Pirrama Park were largely determined by a detailed study into the species endemic to the area. Plants, providing ground cover and swales were chosen to compliment the 150 new trees, of which 80% are endemic to the Pyrmont Peninsula. The flora was specifically selected to restore the habitat required for a wide variety of both land and marine fauna. It is hoped that, as the planting becomes established and evolves around the coastal edge of the park, it will attract birds such as honeyeaters, lorikeets and sulphur crested cockatoos. At the waters edge the conditions for a variety of crustaceans and colonies of molluscs to thrive are being created. The site-specific planting schedule developed for Pirrama Park by Aspect Studios is detailed in (Fig. 10). Pirrama Park was commissioned by the City of Sydney Council and has received numerous awards, including the Australian Institute of Landscape Architects National Award for Design in 2012. The master plan for the site was devised by ASPECT Studios in collaboration with Hill Thalis and CAB Consulting.
118 Pirrama Park | Pyrmont | Australia
Fig. 8 below
Pirrama Park | Pyrmont | Australia | Fig. 9 above 119
120 Pirrama Park | Pyrmont | Australia | Fig. 10 above
Pirrama Park | Pyrmont | Australia | Fig. 11 above 121
Kunming Ecological Infrastructure and Greenways Kunming, China 2010 Turenscape www.turenscape.com
The city of Kunming has a population of approximately 6 million people and is the capital of Yunnan Province in South West China. Kunming’s strategic location as the hub of transport links to South East Asia enabled the city to become the cultural, political and economic seat of provincial government serving 45 million people. The city stands at an elevation of 1900 metres above sea level in the heart of the Yunnan-Guizhou plateau and at latitude just north of the tropic of Cancer. Consequently the sub-tropical highland climate has earned Kunming the title of the ‘City of Eternal Spring’. Not surprisingly, Kunming is an important Chinese horticultural centre from which magnolias; azaleas, lilies and orchids are exported worldwide. The fertile plateau also produces important grain, vegetable and fruit crops. The ‘pearl of the plateau’ is Dianchi Lake, the sixth largest freshwater lake in China which lies to the south of the city and is connected to the Song Hua Ba reservoir in the north by the 23 kilometre stretch of the Pan Long River that passes through the city of Kunming. This idyllic landscape is surrounded by limestone hills rising
above the plateau and has evidence of settlements dating from 279 BC. The modern city of Kunming began to grow and prosper with the arrival of the railway link from Hanoi in 1910. Since that time successive phases of development have taken their toll on the source of all life, the water systems that sustain the region. The most recent rapid growth of urban development (Fig. 2) has substantially decreased the permeable areas of the city increasing the general risk from flooding, particularly in the rainy season from May to October. Tragically, pollution levels of the Pan Long River system and Dianchi Lake have become dangerously high as the expansion of the city sewer system has not kept pace with the rapid growth of the urban areas. Additionally, heavy industrialisation along the riverfront has added to the high incidence of pollution. To confront this threat to the region’s health and vitality, Turenscape architects under the direction of Professor Kongjian Yu, undertook an unprecedented research project in 2008-9 to develop an all-encompassing project to rejuvenate the Pan Long River (Fig. 1).
Population | 566,974 Co-ordinates | 25°04’N 102°41”E Elevation | 1,892 m (6,207’) Precipitation | 1011 mm (39.8”) Temperature | Average High: 21 C (69 F) Average Low: 10 C (50 F) Humidity | 69.6%%
122 Kunming Ecological Infrastructure and Greenways | Kunming | China | Fig. 1 above | Fig. 2 opposite
The master plan devised by Turenscape has four major objectives stated by the architect as follows and illustrated in Fig. 4 opposite. 1) The entire Pan Long River basin is to be re configured as a means to mitigate the threat from flooding. The hydrology scheme will also deal with the attenuation and purification of the city’s storm water. The scheme will incorporate the provision of public access to the riverfront. This element of the scheme will require the removal of the hard concrete embankment, semiculverted system, in favour of a regraded soft terraced and slope system of vegetated banks and pedestrian friendly access to the riverside. 2) The environmental upgrade of the Pan Long River is intended to rejuvenate the economy of the inner city by specifically increase the land values of the properties immediately adjacent to the remediated river frontage. 3) Particular attention is to be paid to the upper and lower reaches of the river, where the farmland and rural land-use is dominant. It is evident that the territory is one in transformation, but the project seeks to build upon the inherent qualities of the particular landscape features adjacent to the northern reservoir and the southern lake.
4) To initiate ecological restoration along the Pan River and the region as a larger system to increase biodiversity (including to collect water in the wet season and to release it in the dry season), to strengthen the link between the natural and cultural heritage and to create new systems for recreational and public space uses for Kunming and the Yunnan Province. To achieve these objectives and restore the ecological infrastructure of Kunming will require both ‘‘defensive measures’’ and ‘‘opportunistic interventions’’ in the key areas of landscape process described as: Abiotic: Water management (Figs. 5, 6) Biotic: Conservation of native species and the promotion of biodiversity (Figs. 7, 8) Cultural: Protection of heritage sites and recreational pursuits, (both traditional and contemporary). Figs. 9, 10 These elements are illustrated cartographically on the succeeding pages.
124 Kunming Ecological Infrastructure and Greenways | Kunming | China | Fig. 3 above | Fig. 4 opposite
Abiotics: Water management and the design of a new flood security pattern: The new flood security pattern was devised following extensive analysis of the existing river basin (Fig. 5 above) from the Song HuaBa reservoir to Danchi Lake. By appraising the systems on a regional scale the hydrologists looked to provide alternative solutions to the piecemeal, heavily engineered systems of concrete dams and semiculverted channels that currently blight the landscape. Alternatively, landscape security patterns were set up to provide natural water retaining capacity by capitalising on the potential assets of the natural landscape for water retention.
126 Kunming Ecological Infrastructure and Greenways | Kunming | China | Fig. 5 above
This is done primarily through an interconnecting network of wetlands, flood meadows, waterways and lakes. The cartographic approach enables the low, medium and high security patterns to be established for the potential 20, 50 and 100-year flood instances as detailed in (Fig. 6 above). The rivers canals, ponds and wetlands are enlarged; additionally new water bodies including flood meadows are created to form a self-sustaining water system. New river and canal embankments are designed to soften the landscape.
Kunming Ecological Infrastructure and Greenways | Kunming | China | Fig. 6 above 127
Biotic: The strategies for conservation of native species and the promotion of biodiversity were developed through analytical mapping of the river basin (Fig. 7). Particular attention was paid to land use and vegetation in relation to wildlife habitat and the principles of landscape ecology. The maps revealed critical areas that required careful managing to ensure the preservation of habitat and the related movement corridors.
128 Kunming Ecological Infrastructure and Greenways | Kunming | China | Fig. 7 above
Design interventions included the construction of underpasses and bridges for safe travel of wildlife where a natural corridor might intersect with road traffic (Fig. 8). Similarly, it would be necessary to ensure that water flows in all seasons remain uninterrupted for the preservation of aquatic life forms.
Kunming Ecological Infrastructure and Greenways | Kunming | China | Fig. 8 above 129
Cultural: The protection of heritage sites and the promotion of recreational pursuits (both traditional and contemporary) was approached in the same analytical way as water management and protection of wildlife. Sites of historical interest previously neglected or hidden in the urban expansion were mapped alongside the parks and recreational areas (Fig. 9). The exercise revealed many hidden gems in an area of outstanding resources, both man-made and natural.
130 Kunming Ecological Infrastructure and Greenways | Kunming | China | Fig. 9 above
One of the key concerns in planning the preservation of these resources is the issue of connectivity. The planning carefully considers the future use of a network of roads, pedestrian and cycle paths and the Pan Long River and tributaries (Fig. 10).
Kunming Ecological Infrastructure and Greenways | Kunming | China | Fig. 10 above 131
The southern downstream area running into Dianchi Lake is planned as a delicate balance of agricultural land, existing villages and new urban development designed to compliment the existing settlements. The vitality of the scheme relies upon the quality of treated sewage water (grey water) being improved prior to discharge (Figs. 11, 12). The Pan Long river remediation project commenced on site in December 2009 with phase 1 of the project targeting the 8.3 kilometre section of riverbank between the Guannan Bridge and the mouth of Dianchi Lake.
132 Kunming Ecological Infrastructure and Greenways | Kunming | China | Fig. 11 above
Fig. 12 below
To strengthen the soil banks against water flow erosion a policy of live staking (Fig. 13) was employed in conjunction with riprap. Porous paved bicycle and pedestrian trails have been introduced along the course of the river. Wooden platforms and outdoor furniture create spaces for quiet contemplation or social gatherings reconnecting the population with the riverfront. The upstream area (Figs. 18, 19, 20) near the Song Hua Ba Reservoir cluster of new housing development, wetlands and swales will coexist with the conservation of existing villages and fishponds.
Kunming Ecological Infrastructure and Greenways | Kunming | China | Fig. 13 above 133
Fig. 14 above | Fig. 15 below
Fig. 16 above | Fig. 17 below
136 Kunming Ecological Infrastructure and Greenways | Kunming | China | Fig. 18 above
Fig. 19 below
Kunming Ecological Infrastructure and Greenways | Kunming | China | Fig. 20 above 137
In the densely urbanised central stretch of the river the remediation plan includes the development of new parks and gardens connected to existing public open space and cultural amenities. Regrading and soft landscaping the existing channelised banks will enable the creation of public promenades and crossings, promoting significant changes in the quality of life of the citizens of Kunming. The movement for these changes has manifested itself in excursions and walks along the river being led by environmentalists and people of all age groups who enthusiastically lobby for full implementation the scheme.
138 Kunming Ecological Infrastructure and Greenways | Kunming | China | Fig. 21 above
Fig. 22 (above) details designs to re configure riverbank conditions. The designs provide a series of different relationships between land and water creating a diversity of experiences between landscape, urbanism and infrastructure by combining soft landscaping, a variety of vegetation types, surfacing and outdoor furniture.
Kunming Ecological Infrastructure and Greenways | Kunming | China 139
140 Kunming Ecological Infrastructure and Greenways | Kunming | China | Fig. 23 above
Fig. 24 below
Kunming Ecological Infrastructure and Greenways | Kunming | China | Fig. 25 above 141
The Hive Worcester Library Landscape Worcester, England 2012 grant associates www.grant-associates.uk.com
Sir Edward William Elgar was born in Lower Broadheath just outside Worcester. His musical compositions were inspired by the rolling English countryside surrounding his birthplace, in particular the Malvern Hills. It was here that he was able to find tranquillity in his walks, or as a fair-weather cyclist on his Royal Sunbeam bicycle, which he nicknamed ‘Mr. Phoebus’. In Elgar’s interpretation of Cardinal John Henry Newman’s poem “The Dream of Gerontius”, the oratorio describes the progression of the soul of Gerontius after death into a place apparently without space or time. Elgar’s remarkable ability to create the ethereal, otherworldly elements in his composition is thought to be derived from his deep connection to the world of nature that surrounded him. In Elgar’s home town of Worcester, the man-made landscape that surrounds The Hive, Europe’s first joint University and public library also draws inspiration from the Malvern Hills that can be seen in the distance from the indoor and outdoor reading rooms (Fig. 2). The BREEAM ‘outstanding’ project by architects Fielden
Clegg Bradley Studios is enhanced by a considered sustainable landscape design by Grant Associates who were tasked ‘to create a high quality landscape environment that would become a distinctive and exciting visitor attraction - a place which would capture a sense of history and place whilst reflecting on the contemporary themes of sustainability and technological innovation’. The landscape design (Fig. 3) develops three key storytelling themes derived from the River Severn’s progress through the city (Fig. 1) the Malvern hills and the Elgar heritage. The therapeutic benefits to be gained from immersion in nature, stimulated by the sights and sounds of birds, the fragrance of scented plants, and the visual experience of a meadow full of wildflowers are evident in the spaces surrounding The Hive (Figs. 4, 5) this element of the design is described as ‘Nature uplifts the spirits’. The importance of our rivers and streams in maintaining a balanced ecology is explored in ‘Healthy water for sustained life’.
Population | 98,768 Co-ordinates | 52°11’28.43”N 2°13’20.32”W Elevation | 29 m (95.14’) Precipitation | 738 mm (29.06”) Temperature | Average High: 15 C (59 F) Average Low: 8 C (46 F) Humidity | 74%
142 The Hive Worcester Library Landscape | Worcester | England | Fig. 1 above | Fig. 2 opposite
144 The Hive Worcester Library Landscape | Worcester | England | Fig. 3 above
The Hive Worcester Library Landscape | Worcester | England 145
Fig. 4 below right
The third theme, entirely appropriate for a place of learning, â€˜Knowledge and Heritageâ€™ defines the sense of place. This theme is delivered by connecting the primary circulation route (The Causeway) with the Library and History Centre and to the outdoor spaces surrounding The Hive and the Elgar trails beyond the confines of the city (Figs. 6, 7). Below The Causeway, the two hectare site is essentially a series of sunken wildflower meadows that form part of the seasonal flood management strategy for the Severn valley. The meadows also contain reed bed swales which filter the sites surface water as an integral part of the environmental engineering strategy for the site. Orientation to the southwesterly prevailing winds contribute to the evaporative element of the strategy. The seeds harvested locally, now planted in the meadows include cowslips, orchids, frittilaries and flag irises. The Water Meadows support a variety of bird and insect life including the iconic dragonfly. Rising out of the meadows are two habitat islets, designed to provide secluded nesting and roosting for both humans and wildlife in an urban setting. The Hive may well resemble a honeycomb, however the turreted roof line of the library clad in its gold coloured armour is also redolent of a moated castle; an architectural Arthurian idyll in the heart of a very English landscape. The childrenâ€™s library islet in the moat might well have been playfully connected by drawbridge, and is detailed on the Grant Associates drawing (Fig. 8 next page).
146 The Hive Worcester Library Landscape | Worcester | England | Fig. 5 above
Fig. 6 below
The Hive Worcester Library Landscape | Worcester | England | Fig. 7 above 147
148 The Hive Worcester Library Landscape | Worcester | England | Fig. 8 above
Fig. 9 below
The Hive Worcester Library Landscape | Worcester | England | Fig. 10 above 149
Landscapes of Cohabitation Antiparos, Greece 2007 doxiadis + www.doxiadisplus.com
Visitors to the 5th arrondissement of Paris should cross the Rue de Tornefort with care. It was here that the French botanist Joseph Pitton de Tornefort met his untimely death under the wheels of a carriage on the 28th of December 1708 at the age of 52 years. As the professor of botany at the Parisien Jardin des Plantes, Tornefort undertook numerous expeditions in Western Europe, in particular to the Pyrenean mountains to collect species for the extensive collection being compiled in Paris. Between 1700 and 1702 Tornefort embarked upon a journey to Constantinople, the Black Sea and Armenia accompanied by the German botanist Andreas Gundelheimer and the artist Claude Aubriet. Tornefort’s journal of the expedition (Relation d’une Voyage du Levant) records visits to various strategic islands along the route and reports that in 1770 the island of Antiparos had a total of 78 houses and 200 residents. More recently, the landscape architect Thomas Doxiadis, carried out a study of the island to determine how to facilitate a new development of villas and roads without
destroying the landscape. Doxiadis informs us that the Cycladic landscape is ‘‘a product of a man-made equilibrium, diverse, attractive, but also extremely fragile’’ (Fig. 1). The economic and cultural practices, ‘agriculture and pasturage’, that formed the landscape during the last 1000 years fell into decline during the first half of the 20th century. The new economic engine for 21st century Greece, tourism, delivers a profitable solution to the use of the landscape, whilst paradoxically, polluting the environment. The beautiful landscapes that attract visitors are now in danger of being driven into the hillside and trampled underfoot, destroyed by the same visitors, and residents who appreciate them so much. The Landscapes of Cohabitation project attempts to reconcile the conflict. The doxiadis + landscape architectural practice, in conjunction with deca architecture and clients, OLIAROS S.A., looked to the history of the natural and man-made use of the island’s ecology in order to inform the desirable sequence and progression for development (Figs. 2, 3).
Population | 1,211 Co-ordinates | 37°0’N 25°3’E Elevation | 216 m (709’) Precipitation | 390 mm (15.5”) Temperature | Average High: 26 C (78.8 F) Average Low: 8 C (46.4 F) Humidity | 65%
150 Landscapes of Cohabitation | Antiparos | Greece | Fig. 1 above | Fig. 2 opposite
Historic processes were identified in the study as a combination of both natural and man-made impacts. The primary concern regards soil erosion of the upper slopes. In terms of naturally occurring factors, this is the result of strong winds impacting on tilled areas during extended dry seasons, and a lack of regular rainfall resulting in a low incidence of running streams for irrigation. Over-grazing may also have contributed to the situation. In terms of the man-made impact this desertification has more recently been exacerbated by the decline of the traditional agricultural economy. The subsequent demise of the Pezoules (agricultural terraces, comprising retaining walls, buildings, wells, animal pens and structures for the cultivation of vines, vegetables and fruit) has probably been the most significant factor in degrading the Cycladic landscape. A key component of the Pezoules were the Xerolothies, (dry stone protective boundary walls). The Xerolothies that retained and effectively terraced the Pezoules also helped to reduce rainwater run-off and consequently mitigate soil erosion. With the subsequent decline in the quality of the soil the original vine culture became unsustainable and prompted a move toward grain. The repetitive crop failures were followed by the inevitable abandonment of the sites further impacting on the landscape. Vegetation, is now visually varied through the annual cycle, with hillsides and meadows characterised by fractal patterns of predominant species interspersed with occasional clusters of species from neighbouring beds. Green in winter, blossoming in spring, and drying to scrub in summer, the resulting beauty of the native Aegean prairie is greatly admired throughout the seasons by visitors to Antiparos. However with the new factor of development, (villas, roads, infrastructure, swimming pools) potentially impacting on the fragility of the islandsâ€™ ecology, the landscape architects of doxiadis + resolved to provide a new strategy to protect the site for the quiet enjoyment of future residents and visitors. The strategy is essentially derived from the topographical features of the site, likened to an amphitheatre or vortex. Progressing from the richer lower core of the vortex, (traditionally the vegetable producing areas of density) rising up to the sparse rims of the vortex, (traditionally used for grazing). Within the framework of the vortex elements are embedded into the spiralling landscape following a set of principles informed by the historic field study.
152 Landscapes of Cohabitation | Antiparos | Greece
Landscapes of Cohabitation | Antiparos | Greece | Fig. 3 above 153
Fig. 4 below right
The embedded elements include: Pezoules: Tracing, restoring and expanding the original stone structures using local masons, the terraces form a skeleton for the other elements. Rising up to the rim of the vortex, the structures eventually fade and disappear. The redefined systems mitigate the landscapes greatest threat, that of soil erosion. Roads: Setting out of roads alternately follows the horizontal or vertical lines of the pezoules or xerolithies. The tracks are compacted or retained by concrete on the steepest gradients. Habitation: The villas and access roads are located as far as possible within the framework of the restored Pezoule landscape forming â€˜islands of occupationâ€™. The restoration of the landscape relies upon a minimum of hard surfacing run-off maximising water retention in the pezoule framework. The construction details for some of these elements are detailed on the drawings (Figs. 6, 7). The progressive layering strategy is illustrated on the landscape drawings (Figs. 8, 9, 10, 11) next page.
154 Landscapes of Cohabitation | Antiparos | Greece | Fig. 5 above
Fig. 6 below
Landscapes of Cohabitation | Antiparos | Greece | Fig. 7 above 155
Fig. 8 below
156 Landscapes of Cohabitation | Antiparos | Greece | Fig. 9 above middle | Fig. 10 above
Fig. 11 below
Landscapes of Cohabitation | Antiparos | Greece | Fig. 12 above middle | Fig. 13 above 157
158 Landscapes of Cohabitation | Antiparos | Greece | Fig. 14 above
Doxiadis report concludes that the original vegetated landscape is no longer sustainable in full and cannot be reconstructed. The new re-vegetation strategy contributing to the success of the project is the result of a zonal approach as follows. Zone A: The existing native species in the landscape, protected from the impact of construction. This is designated as a naturally dynamic zone. Zone B: Consists of an unplanted area which is randomly irrigated in the first years to encourage recolonisation by the surrounding existing native species. As the irrigation requirement reduces to zero the zone will be considered as naturally dynamic. Zone C: A newly planted zone of ‘Mediterranean’ plants sporadically bedded to encourage re-colonisation of the gaps by adjacent native species beds. This zone is considered as a static / dynamic combination. Zone D: (Static) Is occupied by irrigated ‘Mediterranean’ planting. The plants are selected are hardy in nature and visually resemble the naturally occurring phrygana vegetation. A neighbouring island nursery cultivates the native plant requirement for the project. The evident results (Figs. 4, 5, 14, 15), mitigates the damage sustained by tourism and establishes an example of best practice for the main industry of the Cycladic islands and the whole of the Greek archipelago.
Landscapes of Cohabitation | Antiparos | Greece | Fig. 15 above 159
Fig. 16 above | Fig. 17 below
Fig. 18 above | Fig. 19 below
Narrabeen Lagoon Multi-use Trail Stage 1 Narrabeen, Sydney, Australia 2011 ASPECT Studios www.aspect.net.au
Narrabeen Man is not a reference to the current male inhabitants of the northern Sydney suburb, it is the name given to the 4000 year old indigenous Australian whose remains were discovered in December 2007. Workmen carrying out a routine excavation near a bus shelter in Octavia Street, Narrabeen were responsible for the remarkable discovery. Having determined that Narrabeen man had died as a result of a spear wound and not a prolonged wait for the arrival of a bus, his bones were returned to the ground in Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park. Despite the proximity of a golf club and other man made features, it is not difficult to imagine Aboriginal Narrabeen man hunting with spears on and around the Narrabeen lagoon. The lagoon has a surface area of 2.2 kilometres and a catchment area of 55 square kilometres of which approximately half remains intact as bush. Largely due to the efforts of local conservationists, the wilderness that remains is still occupied by 160 varieties of bird, 18 species of animals and 23 different species of reptile. The campaign to provide a multi-use recreational trail is
fully documented in Narrabeen Lagoon Circuit; A History by Jim Somerville published by FINGER-printing in 2012. Stage 1 (Figs. 4, 5) undertaken by ASPECT Studios for Waringah Council provides an upgrade to the existing trail to facilitate access for all. This was manifested in the creation of a multi-layered path to accommodate both pedestrians and cyclists along the lagoon edge. Beginning with a new bridge at Deep Creek, the first instalment completed in 2011 runs for 2.5 kilometres to Middle Creek. The ultimate goal is for the exemplar of Stage 1 to be extended around the entire crescent of the lagoon. The routing of the trail was determined from extensive studies of the ecology of the site which contains endangered ecological communities (EEC). These species include Swamp Oak forest (a terrestrial vegetation community) and the sea grass beds found in the intertidal marine zone of the lagoon (Figs. 1, 3). As most of the site consists of marine sediment with acid sulphate tendencies when exposed to air, a policy of minimal excavation was employed throughout.
Population | 6,362 Co-ordinates | 33°43’23”S 151°17’43”E Elevation | 38 m (4.984’) Precipitation | 126.6 mm (15.81”) Temperature | Average High: 25.6 C (78.08 F) Average Low: 16.6 C (61.88 F) Humidity | 53.5%
162 Narrabeen Lagoon | Narrabeen, Sydney | Australia | Fig. 1 above | Fig. 2 opposite
Fig. 3 below right
In response to climate change predictions the entire route is set at or above 1.4 metres AHD, which is the level considered to be above flood and predicted sea level rises modelled to 2030. The routing of the trail was also designed so as not to impede existing drainage routes into the lagoon. The harsh environment between bush and lagoon required careful selection of materials used in the construction of the paths and in particular the raised boardwalks. Low maintenance, durable materials were required for the boardwalks as follows: Class 1 (below ground) and Class 2 (above ground) Australian hardwood timbers certified as being sustainably sourced from Australian forests. Timber in contact with the ground received a non-toxic timber preservative treatment. Timbers were also de-sapped to remove a potential food source for both fungi and termites. Galvanised steel framing was used to ensure that the principle structure of the boardwalk will have a 50 year life expectancy in the semi-marine environment. Decks of lightweight fibreglass reinforced plastic were used to mitigate the use of lifting equipment in the siteâ€™s sensitive vegetated environment (Figs. 6, 7, 8, 9).
164 Narrabeen Lagoon | Narrabeen, Sydney | Australia | Fig. 4 above
Narrabeen Lagoon | Narrabeen, Sydney | Australia | Fig. 5 above 165
Fig. 6. above | Fig. 7. below
Fig. 8 above | Fig. 9 below
Viewpoint Lista, Norway 2013 TYIN tegnestue www.tyinarchitects.com
One of the great benefits of the information age is the ability to share experience with like-minded people worldwide. The Viewpoint project on Norway’s most southerly North Sea coast provided an opportunity for young people from two diverse regions of the world to share experience not just in cyberspace but also quite literally in the field. The lure of the super metropolis is a worldwide phenomenon, with rural people, particularly the young, migrating from the countryside to the city to seek education, employment and life experience. This growing trend in the developed and the developing world can often leave a rural region devoid of its most precious resource; its population. The Viewpoint project evolved from the desire of the people of Lista to combat this trend. The client was eventually defined as a co-operative group of up to 50 landowners. Led by Solveig Egeland, the group is seeking to realise the potential of the beautiful natural landscape of Lista, Farsund for eco-tourism; an ambition also shared by the local government. It was decided
that a focal point would be required where potential investors and key decision makers could gather and appreciate first-hand the outstanding natural beauty of the area. The idea had no sponsorship in place, no official government approval, no specific lot to work on and no housing for the project participants. Inevitably, this project was bound to attract the principals of TYIN tegnestue architects working in collaboration with a group of students from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, and students from the Tecnologico de Monterrey, Puebla, Mexico. TYIN’s positive, pragmatic approach to a lack of resources, gained through experience working in deprived areas well beyond the shores of their native Norway, would be brought to bear upon the landscape of Lista. The combined design and construction team resolved to create a physical structure in the midst of the sand dune landscape whilst abstaining from the use of concrete and steel. With building following hard on the heels of design, the first foundation piles were sunk in the sandy sub-soil (Figs. 1, 2).
Population | 9,433 Co-ordinates | 58°05’43”N 06°47’37”W Elevation | 1,609 m (46’) Precipitation | 402 mm (15.81”) Temperature | Average High: 17.9 C (64.2 F) Average Low: 2.1 C (35.8 F) Humidity | 53.5%
168 Viewpoint | Lista | Norway | Fig. 1 above | Fig. 2 opposite
Fig. 3 below right
The design concept called for the creation of a rigid structure that could be seen in the landscape as a positive man-made intervention. The photo-survey images (Fig. 4) and the sketches made in the field (Figs. 5, 6) reveal the landscape as a complex undulating form of linear ridges or dunes; successive waves of landscape, unsurprisingly not dissimilar to the seascape south of the site. To facilitate the chosen, elevated position of the â€˜viewpointâ€™, a 60-metre long timber walkway was constructed over the undulations to ensure, as far as possible, that access to the viewpoint cabin would be available to all. The walkway itself would also provide 360-degree views of the surrounding countryside. With a design and construction method established the community of Lista rallied round to provide the tools, equipment, materials, food and accommodation for the young, enthusiastic design and build team. Drawings were issued, tasks allocated and the project quickly gained a momentum that would prevail through until completion. The images on the next pages (Figs. 7 to 13 inclusive) best illustrate the enthusiasm of the group, combined with the civil engineering methods controlling line and level that ensured the success of the project.
170 Viewpoint | Lista | Norway | Fig. 4 above
Fig. 5 below
Viewpoint | Lista | Norway | Fig. 6 above 171
Fig. 7 below left | Fig. 8 below right
172 Viewpoint | Lista | Norway | Fig. 9 above
Fig. 10 below left | Fig. 11 below right
Viewpoint | Lista | Norway | Fig. 12 above left | Fig. 13 above right 173
Fig. 14 below right
After only three weeks, the combined efforts of the project group and the local community had completed a sizeable structure. The seamless transition from the linear walkway to the viewpoint cabin is reminiscent of the way a train passes through the countryside. Sitting lightly on the landscape, the carriage-like structure affords its passengers unparalleled views of their surroundings. The light filled interior of the cabin connects the visitor to the landscape outside whist providing a comforting secluded space in which to rest and read the informative studies of the terrain that are strategically positioned on the walls. The gallery feel of the interior space could well be interpreted from both inside and out as art in the landscape. The projects sponsors from the local community envisage that the 120 m2 development will enable investors to appreciate the potential of the area to sustain a native population in the future. The project became known among the local landowners as the Light of Lista alluding to the remarkable natural light quality of the region and perhaps as a beacon of hope for the future. Viewpointâ€™s sponsors include Innovasjon Norge, Byggvell, MontĂŠr, Naust Bygg, NorDan and Optimalt AS, NTNU.
174 Viewpoint | Lista | Norway | Fig. 15 above
Fig. 16 below
Viewpoint | Lista | Norway | Fig. 17 above 175
176 Viewpoint | Lista | Norway | Fig. 18 above
Fig. 19 below
The students working on the Viewpoint project were Håvard Eide, Marco Antonio Aparicio Kirwant, Jonas Velken Kverneland, Margarita Cuesta López, Hildne Nessa, Henriette Bakke Nielsen, Fernanda Miranda Noriega, Monir Jiménez Fernández Rafaelly, Paulina Martínez Rodríguez, Kornelie Solenes, Rosalba Martínez Villaseñor, Sissel Westvig and Simen Andreas Aas. The supervising architecture co-operative TYIN tegnestue led by principals Andreas G. Gertsen and Yashar Hanstad is based in Trondheim, Norway. In 2012 Gjertsen and Hanstad were named as winners of The European Prize for Architecture. The young Norwegian architects were recognised for their outstanding humanitarian work, designing and building with community participation in some of the poorest communities in Africa and Asia. The annual award is presented by the Chicao Athenaeum: Museum of Architecture and Design and the European centre for Art design and Urban Studies to architects ‘who have demonstrated a significant contribution to humanity and to the built environment through the art of architecture’. Closer to home for the TYIN practice, the Viewpoint project demonstrates that mankind’s considered impact on the landscape can be a positive one.
Viewpoint | Lista | Norway | Fig. 20 above 177
The Center for Early Education Sustainability Vision Project West Hollywood, USA 2012 Rios Clementi Hale Studios www.rchstudios.com
Located in the Los Angeles basin, between the Santa Monica mountain range and the Pacific Ocean, the city of West Hollywood and the greater Los Angeles urban sprawl disguises a geological function long submerged beneath the city’s pavements. Before the progressive development of the conurbation, starting with the railroad town of Sherman, the Rancho ‘La Brea’ benefited from the natural watercourse running through the area from the mountains to the ocean. The presence of the aquifer beneath the streets of West Hollywood provides the inspiration for Rios Clementi Hale Studio’s (RCHS) design for a ‘sustainability vision project’ at the Center for Early Education (CEE). The independent school, established in 1939, was seeking to find ways of improving the sustainability and environmental education component of their campus. This goal would provide a huge challenge for the teachers, administrators and parents of the school, given that the pre-existing structures and grounds consisted of three multi-storey buildings and a paved lot built over an underground parking garage that could
not be significantly altered. The landscape programme devised by RCHS and CEE sought to provide a series of interventions within the existing urban framework of the school to engage the students in a series of ecological learning moments. The interventions are integrated into the visual architectural fabric of the building and its circulation areas in a bid to provide the students with a taste of the natural elements of the region that have been lost in the process of urbanisation. Children of previous generations may well have gained these insights through helping their parents grow and tend the vegetables and fruit that found their way into the kitchens of California. The subsistence way of life is now confined to history for most city dwelling families. The interventions include a vertical living wall forming the entrance to the school (Fig. 2), native plant pockets hung from the outdoor circulation staircase balustrades (Fig. 1), a rooftop observatory, and an irrigation system fed from the subterranean aquifer. The combined philosophies of water, seed, plant, grow, observe and collect are graphically displayed on the campus (Fig. 3).
Population | 34,650 Co-ordinates | 34°5’16”N 118°22’20”W Elevation | 86 m (282’) Precipitation | 453.14 mm (17.84”) Temperature | Average High: 24.15 C (75.47 F) Average Low: 11.82 C (53.27 F) Humidity | 75.98%
178 The Center for Early Education Sustainability Vision Project | West Hollywood | USA | Fig. 1 above | Fig. 2 opposite | Fig. 3 next page
Fig. 4 below right
Beginning with the vertical garden framing the main entrance to the school, the design attempts to connect the building to its local and regional flora by growing and nurturing plant types in the 34 vertical planter boxes. These plant types are also visible in the surrounding areas that can be viewed from the schools rooftop observatory (Fig. 4). The planter boxes containing a variety of ‘California succulents’ are attached to a custom-fabricated steel frame, which incorporates the re-used original metal signage (Fig. 5). The rear of the structure features the exposed irrigation pipe work for the planters. The pre-existing, exterior, circulation stairway and its integral balustrade, rising and falling like the slopes of the Santa Monica mountains, was adorned with plants native to that range providing a living illustration of a climb to the summits (Figs. 6, 7). The blue, felt-like, plant pouches are made from a durable, recycled polypropylene. Visible irrigation tubes and spray heads again stress the imperative of water to sustain life. Through their formative years, the students of the Center for Early Education are able to measure the concept of ‘growth’ relative to themselves and other life forms that surround them.
182 The Center for Early Education Sustainability Vision Project | West Hollywood | USA | Fig. 5 above
Fig. 6 below
The Center for Early Education Sustainability Vision Project | West Hollywood | USA | Fig. 7 above 183
Fig. 8 below right
The process of seed and plant growth is concentrated in a mobile seed table designed to demonstrate seed germination and the inevitable influence of both nature and nurture in the survival prospects of a particular species (Figs. 8, 11). Not unlike the young students themselves, the seeds and plants are subject to a complex choice of food and drink options. When combined with exposure to, or shelter from, sunlight and temperature fluctuations the rate of growth of one species compared to another may be assessed. The improved environment in which the students learn will no doubt be measured by report cards in due course. Alongside composted feed and variable amounts of light and shade, the other vital element, water, the source of all life forms, was required in abundance for the viability of the planting project. This required RCHS to study the existing civil engineering systems employed on the site. When a pump was discovered in the basement parking garage dispersing 4,000 gallons a day to the cityâ€™s storm drain to keep the facility free from ground water, the projects irrigation requirement of 60 to 100 gallons per day was effectively sourced. Following positive testing of the reclaimed water the L.A. County Regional Water Board agreed its use as fit for purpose (Figs. 9, 10, 12).
184 The Center for Early Education Sustainability Vision Project | West Hollywood | USA | Fig. 9 above left | Fig. 10 above right
Fig. 11 below
The Center for Early Education Sustainability Vision Project | West Hollywood | USA | Fig. 12 above 185
Fig. 13 below right
Above the planted staircase, at the rooftop level of the school, the students encounter an invitation to observe. An unused architectural detail has been transformed into a highly visible tactile science laboratory. The blue colour used for water collection station found in the basement has been artistically used to paint the observation turret to remind the students of CEE’s primary environmental mission, that of water conservation (Fig. 13). Within the turret the students find an interactive solar powered weather station and a wind turbine. Eye-level dials display the variable voltages generated from each power source as weather conditions vary overhead. A supplementary hand-cranked generator completes the installation (Figs. 14, 15). Students patiently waiting their turn to work with the weather station can connect further with the outdoor environment, enjoying views of the landscape from the edge of their school building to the distant horizons. The school building now has its own report card being recognised in April 2012 by the Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS) as an ‘Operations Report Card High Performance School’. This online tool will also identify future measurable areas for improvement.
186 The Center for Early Education Sustainability Vision Project | West Hollywood | USA | Fig. 14 above
The Center for Early Education Sustainability Vision Project | West Hollywood | USA | Fig. 15 above 187
The Dyck Field Rhine Westphalia, Germany 2009 RMP Landschaftsarchitekten www.rmp-landschaftsarchitekten.de
The Centre for Garden Art and Landscape Culture is based around the Schloss Dyck in Northern Rhine Westphalia, Germany. The castle, built in the seventeenth century is regarded as one of the most important cultural centres of the lower Rhineland. In the nineteenth century Prince Joseph zu Salm-ReifferscheidtDyck commissioned the Scottish landscape gardener Thomas Blaikie to fashion the land surrounding the castle in the style of the English landscape garden. The moated castle and the parkland is at the heart of an annual programme of public and private cultural and business activity. In the 1990s the Countess Marie Christine Wolff Metternich joined forces with the government of North Rhine-Westphalia to secure the future of the Schloss Dyck estate for the region. The key to this programme was the establishment of a viable, long-term foundation to conserve the Schloss Dyck as an important German historical monument. Since 2002 the funding and sponsorship secured by the foundation has been invested not only in maintaining and restoring the Schloss and the English garden but also in the
development of extensive new gardens as part of the opening of the European Garden Network in 2006. An important part of the programme was the conversion of land previously used for agriculture into a contemporary park. The 25 hectare site is defined by a 200-year old chestnut grove that historically links the Schloss Dyck with the Convent St. Nicolaus (Figs. 2, 4). When Stephan Lenzen Landschaftsarchitekten of Bonn was commissioned to develop this important site he eschewed the temptation to use the traditional park as influence, choosing instead to find inspiration in the Rhinish use of land for agricultural. In doing so the Dyck Field’s designer utilises forward thinking; featuring vast beds of fast growing Miscanthus plant (elephant grass) (Figs. 1, 3) as the key crop surrounding 24 individually designed garden spaces. Lawns and linear paths of anthracite coloured slabs complete the quilt effect (Fig. 2). One of many ecological benefits to be gained from this choice of planting will be the use of the Miscanthus crop as a biomass fuel to fulfil the energy requirements of the Schloss Dyck.
Population | 22,379 Co-ordinates | 51°06’04”N 6°30’06”E Elevation | 82 m (269’) Precipitation | 758 mm (29.84”) Temperature | Average High: 13 C (55 F) Average Low: 4.8 C (40.3 F) Humidity | 60%
188 The Dyck Field | Rhine Westphalia | Germany | Fig. 1 above | Fig. 2 opposite
190 The Dyck Field | Rhine Westphalia | Germany | Fig. 3 above
The Dyck Field | Rhine Westphalia | Germany | Fig. 4 above 191
Fig. 5 below right
The European Garden Heritage Network (EGHN) led by the Schloss Dyck Foundation, links European cultural heritage assets with the sustainable development of cities regions and landscapes. A key initiative in fostering debate on this subject is the development of the ‘hybrid park’. The development of the Dyck Field is at the forefront of this concept and contributes its experiences in park and landscape management related to climate and tourism into the informed debate. The aspiration is that European best practice policies on green cities and urban development will emerge. At the heart of the Dyck Field hybrid landscape study is the Miscanthus biomass crop. With global climate change being firmly linked to the excessive combustion of fossil fuels, energy crops are seen as a potential path to reducing CO2 emissions. The fast growing cycle of Miscanthus giganteus draws down atmospheric CO2 through photosynthesis. If the harvested crop is then used to generate power in efficient biomass furnaces the release of CO2 is balanced by the subsequent growing season without a net zero increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The growth pattern is repeated annually for the life of the crop. Many European governments now incentivise the use of land for growing bioenergy crops. Other benefits of the Miscanthus beds (Figs. 6, 8) are detailed as follows: • A reduced requirement for fertilizers, as the rhizome system of the Miscanthus enables nutrients to be cycled seasonally to the plant portions above and below the ground. • A highly efficient use of available nutrients using the C4 photosynthetic pathway. • Improved soil and water management, with soil being retained by a fine root network and rainwater run-off slowed in winter by Miscanthus residual ground cover. • Additionally an RSPB study into wild bird population showed that the Miscanthus supports a much greater diversity of species when measured against a field of wheat of similar area. • Enhanced field cover for game birds and mammals. By enhancing the Miscanthus planted zones with areas of themed flower gardens (Fig. 5) the whole spectrum of insect, bird and mammal occupation can be studied. An open field area of stone sculpture, ‘Ten Variations of a Block’ by artist Ulrich Ruckriem provides varied views and perspectives on the landscape (Fig. 7). The harvest from the Dyck Field provides an annual dry mass yield of approximately 200 tons, sufficient to meet the heating requirement of the castle.
192 The Dyck Field | Rhine Westphalia | Germany | Fig. 6 above
Fig. 7 below
The Dyck Field | Rhine Westphalia | Germany | Fig. 8 above 193
Red Rock Canyon Visitor Center Las Vegas, USA 2011 Line and Space LLC www.lineandspace.com
Francisco Garces (1738 -1781) a Franciscan missionaryexplorer is considered to be the first European visitor to the Mojave Desert. He was certainly the first to document his extensive travels in the region and his encounters with the Native American population. Garces estimated the Mojave population in 1776 at approximately 3,000, by 1963 Lorraine M. Sherer’s research revealed that Fort Mojave and the Colorado River reservation had a combined population of 988. Garces, who valiantly attempted to mediate between the Mojave indigenous peoples and the Spanish military and settlers was killed in the Yuma uprising when native Americans revolted over the destruction of their crops by Spanish livestock. Garces recognised that the native Mojave people had survived in the harsh environment for hundreds of years by observing closely, and adapting to, the naturally connected elements of earth, water, fire and air. The Mojave Desert’s intense heat and sparse rainfall has always had a delicate ecology that prolongs the time taken to recover from human disturbance. It was this instinctive knowledge that caused the
Native resentment of the European incursion and the unfortunate demise of Garces, his compatriots and eventually the Mojave people’s traditional way of life. Fifteen miles east of the Red Rock Canyon Visitor Center a neon lit city with a population approaching two million people now permanently illuminates the dark desert sky. Las Vegas attracts thousands of new residents year upon year. The diverse population of this and other desert cities contrasts greatly from that of the original inhabitants of this fragile landscape. The declared mission of the Red Rock Canyon Visitor Center is to educate this growing population on sustainable living in the desert. Up to 1 million visitors per annum now pass through the exemplary, climate specific landscape architecture experience that incorporates 38,500 square feet of outdoor exhibits. In support of the Bureau of Land Managements mission to encourage stewardship of the land, Line and Space have delivered a facility which integrates and absorbs the visitor into the science, art and culture of the Mojave (Figs. 1, 2 3).
Population | 1,951,269 (Las Vegas metro) Co-ordinates | 36°10’30”N 115°8’11”W Elevation | 610 m (2,001’) Precipitation | 106.5 mm (4.19”) Temperature | Average High: 26.7 C (80.1 F) Average Low: 14.8 C (58.7 F) Humidity | 10%
194 Red Rock Canyon Visitor Center | Las Vegas | USA | Fig. 1 above | Fig. 2 opposite
196 Red Rock Canyon Visitor Center | Las Vegas | USA | Fig. 3 above, orientation platform
Red Rock Canyon Visitor Center | Las Vegas | USA 197
Fig. 4 below right
Similarly the Visitor Center itself is also designed to be integrated and absorbed into the vast panoramic landscape of the Mojave. By developing the new facility adjacent to the original Visitor Centre built in 1977 the impact on undisturbed native habitats is minimised. This strategy allowed the new Center to utilise existing road networks and parking lots. The existing parking lot was reorganised to accommodate and encourage the use of car-pooling, bus touring and alternative fuel usage for groups coming from nearby Las Vegas. Bike racks are provided for the increasing numbers of visitors employing pedal power. The groundwork required to accommodate the visitor arrival building and the outdoor exhibit areas was accomplished entirely with a cut and fill strategy to eliminate the requirement for material being brought or removed from the site. The arrival building complex is shaded in true Western style by a â€˜big hatâ€™ roof with ample overhangs (Figs. 4, 5). The earth coloured horizontal steel brim of the hat mimics the ridge line of the site. Consequently the Center has virtually no visual impact when viewed from the nearby highway as illustrated by the view diagrams and photographs (Figs. 6, 7).
198 Red Rock Canyon Visitor Center | Las Vegas | USA | Fig. 5 above
Fig. 6 below
Red Rock Canyon Visitor Center | Las Vegas | USA | Fig. 7 above 199
The majority of the 24,000 square feet of programmed space at the facility is given over to outdoor pavilions. A bioclimatic design philosophy responds to the year round climatic conditions experienced in the desert and the local topography. Consequently, the pavilions are oriented and overhung to provide the requirement for shade in the summer and warmth from the winter sun. Exposure to the low east and west sun positions is minimised by masonry wing walls which also protect visitors from the wintry winds blowing from the west. These computer modelled, passive solar strategies are backed up by low energy evaporative cooling units and fans, which are employed during the hottest months of the year to enhance the visitors comfort. The primary resource conservation strategy, that of locating the majority of exhibits and circulation areas in sheltered outdoor pavilions, (Fig. 8), reduced the interior air-conditioned space requirement to 1/3rd of the 24,000 square feet facility. The Floor Plan (Fig. 9) was completed following an in-depth site analysis in conjunction with the client, staff and community. Workshops were held to gather information, from which the facilities detailed from 1 to 27 on the plan were eventually programmed. The structures housing the Visitor Arrival Center and exterior exhibits are constructed using concrete masonry, steel and glass. Selected for their durability, low maintenance and regional availability, these recyclable materials are minimally finished (Figs. 10, 11, 12).
200 Red Rock Canyon Visitor Center | Las Vegas | USA | Fig. 8 above
Red Rock Canyon Visitor Center | Las Vegas | USA | Fig. 9 above 201
Fig. 10 above | Fig. 11 below
Fig. 12 above | Fig. 13 below
The fiery power of the sun to light and warm the earth was well understood by the early inhabitants of the Mojave Desert. The earthâ€™s natural cycles and the ability to sustain life all stem from the suns impact on the earth and the effect on the abundance or sparsity of water and food supplies. The modern desert dwellers ability to harvest the power of the sun and wind has in recent years manifested itself in the technologies that make living in a desert landscape more sustainable for a larger population. The Red Rock Visitor Center celebrates these technologies in a visible demonstration of how to convert the intense power of the desert sun into free energy. A 60 kW photovoltaic array (Fig. 15) provides more than 40% of the annual energy requirement of the Center, whilst a solar powered hot water system produces 95% of the sites hot water needs and tempers the air for the mechanical system. The initial capital required for such a large photo voltaic system was demonstrated to the client through careful energy modelling produced by specialist consultants. In conjunction with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory an innovative transpired solar wall (Fig. 16) was developed to warm the rest room interiors as and
when required. When air is drawn through the perforated metal skin of the collector its temperature increases by as much as 40 degrees Fahrenheit. The heated air rises to the top of the wall where it can be distributed to the interiors of the rest rooms or stored in high mass walls. Connections to light and air are evident throughout the exhibit spaces, all of which are located within tempered exterior microclimates (Figs. 17, 18, 19 next page) not air-conditioned exterior space. The interior class room and other air conditioned spaces are all fitted to with sealed revolving doors reducing conditioned air loss by up to 8 times compared with conventional swing doors. An intensive on-site commissioning programme allowed the design consultants to work closely with the staff of the Visitor Center to ensure maximum operating efficiency. Reviews and monitoring of the projects energy performance is continuing using the design guidelines as a base. The project funding was enabled by the Southern Nevada Public Land Management Act, which authorised the proceeds of land sold by the Bureau of Land Management to be used to fund public projects. The Red Rock Canyon Interpretive Association helps to staff this important Landscape Conservation and Education facility.
204 Red Rock Canyon Visitor Center | Las Vegas | USA | Fig. 14 above
Fig. 15 below
Red Rock Canyon Visitor Center | Las Vegas | USA | Fig. 16 above 205
Fig. 17 below
206 Red Rock Canyon Visitor Center | Las Vegas | USA | Fig. 18 above
Red Rock Canyon Visitor Center | Las Vegas | USA | Fig. 19 above 207
Fig. 20 below right
Water Conservation at Red Rock Canyon is a highly visible demonstration of best practice for the desert region and its growing population. Beginning with the 16,000 square feet of roof surface that collects rainwater and snow melt and channels it into a 15,000 -gallon storage tank. The precious resource is then distributed to the interpretive elements of the exhibits (Figs. 20, 21,) and to the native drought tolerant vegetation. Storm water falling on open ground is also collected and utilised for irrigation. This is done through the use of bioswales and pervious surfaces like the fractured granite that is used throughout the outdoor exhibits. Hard-landscaped surfaces are surrounded by French drains that collect and re-distribute the run-off to the planted exhibits. 100% of the wastewater from drinking fountains and HVAC condensate is also diverted towards the landscaping. Similarly low-flow plumbing is employed for the toilets, hand washbasins and showers. A grey water recirculation system will replace the Visitor Centerâ€™s current septic tank system, allowing the use of reclaimed water to be used in toilet flushing. All of the strategies employed raise consumer awareness of the importance of design in the conservation of the stunning desert landscape (Figs. 22, 23, 24).
208 Red Rock Canyon Visitor Center | Las Vegas | USA | Fig. 21 above
Fig. 22 below
Red Rock Canyon Visitor Center | Las Vegas | USA | Fig. 23 above | Fig. 24 next page 209
VanDusen Botanical Gardens Vancouver, Canada 2011 Perkins + Will www.perkinswill.com
‘The plant never lapses into mere arid functionalism; it fashions and shapes according to logic and suitability, and with its primeval force compels everything to attain the highest artistic form’. - Karl Blossfeldt (1865 1932). In 1891 Karl Blossfeldt received a scholarship, which allowed him to travel extensively throughout Italy, Greece, Egypt and other regions of North Africa. Five years later he returned to Berlin with a collection of rare and beautiful plants specimens gathered on his travels. In his quest to study the structural forms of these plants Blossfeldt built a large-format camera and began taking photographic images of his extensive collection of plants. The remarkable images produced enabled Blossfeldt to expand the Jugenstil movement, which used organic designs found in nature as its inspiration. ‘Young Style’ was a German expression of Art Nouveau. Blossfeldt’s artistic photographic work was first published in 1928 entitled Urformen der Kunst (Art Forms in Nature). This work was followed by Wundergarten Der Natur (Magic Garden of Nature)
published in 1932, the year of Blossfeldt’s death. Peter Busby, senior partner of Perkins + Will, in collaboration with the renowned Vancouver landscape architect, Cornelia Hahn Oberlander, cite Blossfeldt’s plant life photographs as the inspiration for the orchid petal design concept (Fig. 1) used to develop the undulating form of the new VanDusen Botanical Garden Visitor Centre. The result of this inspired collaboration quite literally blurs the lines between architecture and landscape as the green meadow roof curves down and rolls itself into the surrounding gardens (Fig. 2). The new visitor centre is the key component in the re-organisation of the botanical gardens. The brief from Vancouver Board of Parks and Recreation was to heighten public awareness of the garden and its conservation mandate. The location of the new combined entrance and visitor centre on Oak Street solves the paradox of both welcoming and protecting visitors from the urbanisation surrounding the 22 hectare site. The architect’s sections (Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6) best demonstrate the facility’s integration into the existing garden.
Population | 603,502 Co-ordinates | 49°15’0”N 123°6’5”W Elevation | 0-152 m (0-501’) Precipitation | 1.189 mm (46,811”) Temperature | Average High: 13.9 C (57 F) Average Low: 6.8 C (44.2 F) Humidity | 70.3%
212 VanDusen Botanical Gardens | Vancouver | Canada | Fig. 1 above | Fig. 2 opposite
Fig. 3. above North Elevation| Fig. 4. below South Elevation
Fig. 5. above East Elevation | Fig. 6. below West Elevation
The visitor centre was designed to exceed LEED Platinum criteria, however ‘in seeking to create a harmonious balance between architecture and landscape, from a visual and ecological perspective’ the architects applied for the Living Building Challenge. The programme would include a minimum of 12 months consecutive proven performance of energy and water systems. The centre uses on-site, renewable resources to achieve net-zero energy on an annual basis. To this end a solar photovoltaic installation in the parking lot contributes 11 kW of power to the facility. ‘Domestic’ hot water is heated on site in 400 solar tubes. The water is stored below ground in 50 geoexchange boreholes. This stored energy can be used seasonally for heating or cooling as well as day-to-day hot water requirements. Excess heat energy is transferred to a nearby restaurant; in return the centre receives hydro-generated electricity from the grid. Additionally, a number of passive design strategies add metaphorical fuel to the fire. These include the insulating green roofs with wide overhangs to mitigate solar gain. A heat recovery unit maximises the benefits of the return air, which is heated by the sun in the cauldron-like oculus at the centre of the building. The energy strategy also benefits from the thermal mass effect of the concrete and rammed earth walls. Carefully considered use of space relative to daylight levels ensured a 45% reduction in supplementary lighting power. Total electrical energy consumption for the facility is 285.7 MJ / m2 per annum, a 67% reduction when measured against the reference building. The measured performance and energy exchange results in net zero energy consumption and carbon neutrality. The Living Building challenge also demanded a net zero water usage. To achieve this rainwater is captured on the green roof, then filtered and stored in a 300,000 litre cistern. This resource combined with filtered grey water from sinks is used for toilet flushing. All blackwater is collected on site and processed through a bio-reactor prior to release into a percolation field and garden. Potable water is supplied by the City of Vancouver, as on site chlorination would have been in contravention with Living Building criteria. The energy and water systems are illustrated comprehensively on the architect’s schematic section (Fig. 7). Perhaps the most innovative live component is the solar chimney located 13.5 metres above the facilities radiant floor and designed to both capture the heating power of the sun and aid ventilation. The glazed oculus houses an aluminium heat sink, which maximises heat gain and promotes air movement due to differentials in temperature. This sculptural motor is positioned at the pinnacle of the highly visual central atrium providing a daily demonstration of solar power (Figs. 7, 8).
216 VanDusen Botanical Gardens | Vancouver | Canada | Fig. 7 above
VanDusen Botanical Gardens | Vancouver | Canada 217
218 VanDusen Botanical Gardens | Vancouver | Canada | Fig. 8 above
Fig. 9 below
The Materials Imperative contained in The Living Building Challenge proved to be the most difficult for the architects as the Red List excludes some of the most commonly used construction materials. Many materials were denied to the project on the basis of proximity thresholds. Fortunately, the Pacific Northwest region provides an abundance of local, readily available timber for construction. However the organic nature of the design form is thought to be the most geometrically complex form ever to be constructed from panelised wood in lieu of steel and, or concrete. To facilitate the design, manufacture and construction of the 71 different panels the team used extensive advanced computer modelling linked with machine-factory production. Impact on the ecologically sensitive site was minimised through off-site prefabrication of the panels including factory fitting of components such as sprinklers, lighting conduits, acoustic liners and even ceiling slats. Only a close collaboration between the design and contractors teams ensured the success of the fast-track project. Besides FSC certified wood for the main structural elements, on-site and off-site salvaged and fallen wood was used throughout the scheme. 96% of site waste was recycled, including bridge construction (Fig. 10).
VanDusen Botanical Gardens | Vancouver | Canada | Fig. 10 above 219
220 VanDusen Botanical Gardens | Vancouver | Canada | Fig. 11 above
Fig. 12 below
Throughout the project to integrate natural and human systems the ecological balance of the garden was paramount. The new buildings green roof merges into the surrounding landscape using only native plants. A series of distinct ecological zones for the garden, as follows, are identified as a balanced system. The water system increases the amount of wetland vegetation creating a habitat for fauna such as red winged blackbirds and Pacific tree frogs. By expanding the existing meadow system around the green roof the resulting carpet of wildflowers and long grass provides a home for butterflies and bees. To maintain a healthy diverse forest system, the site was carefully regraded to preserve the conditions where the many native large trees, such as Douglas firs, would continue to thrive. By preserving the natural riparian systems the infiltration of rainwater nourishes the forests large root systems. As an anonymous philanthropist Whitford Julian VanDusen (1889 - 1978) purchased the Shaughnessy golf club for $1 million when it was threatened with development. The site was later entrusted to the City of Vancouver. There can be no doubt that VanDusen, whose first job was with the Dominion Forest service, would have approved of the landscape that now bears his name. VanDusen Botanical Gardens | Vancouver | Canada 221
Photo Credits .
Bosco Verticale, Milan, Italy Lorenza Baronceli: 52, 53, 55, 56 top, 60 left Dwellings and Workplace Boeri Studio: 54, 56 bottom, 57, 58-59, 60-61
Public Open Space 6
Grand Park, Los Angeles, USA Tom Bonner: 6, Jim Simmons: 7, 11, 14, 16 bottom, 18, 19 Rios Clementi Hale Studios: 2 left, 8-9, 10, 12-13, 15, 16 top, 17,
Bosco Verticale, Milan, Italy Lorenza Baroncelli: 52, 53, 55, 56 top, 60 bottom left Boeri Studio: 2 centre, 54, 56 bottom, 57, 58-59, 60-61
Junk to Park over Ancient Athens, Athens, Greece doxiadis+: 20, 21, 22-23, 24, 25, 26, 27
Qinhuangdao Forest Park, Qinhuangdao, China Turenscape: 28, 29, 30, 31, 32-33
Drs. Julian and Raye Richardson Apartments, San Francisco, USA Bruce Damonte (www.brucedamonte.com): 62, 63, 66 bottom, 67, 68, 69 Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture: 63, 64 Ryan Hughes: 66 top,
Evergreen Brickworks, Toronto, Canada claude cormier et associés inc. (CC+A): 34, 37 bottom Model-Evergreen: 35 Quarry Circa: 36 top Du toit Architects (DTAH): 36 centre, bottom, 37 top, 38 bottom, 39, Ferruccio Sardella et CCAPI: 38 top
Lochiel Park, Campbelltown, Australia oxigen: 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75,
Smith-Clementi Residence, Venice, USA Undine Prîhl: 76, 77, 78, 79
Lamar Advertising Headquarters, Baton Rouge, USA Spackman Mossop + Michaels: 80, 81, 82, 83, 85 top, 86, 87 Tim Hursley; 84, 85 bottom
Windsor Street Linear Trail, Adelaide, Australia oxigen: 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47
Parc Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, Canada Guillaume Paradis Claude Cormier + Associés (CC+A): 48, 49, 50, 51
Rivers, Shores and Islands
Conservation and Education
Gardens by the Bay, Marina Bay, Singapore Craig Sheppard: 88, Darren Chin, 89, 100 Robert Such: 90 left, 102-103 Grant Associates: 90-91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 101
168 Viewpoint, Lista, Norway TYIN tegnestue: 168, 171 Pasi Aalto: 4, 169, 170, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177
104 Bushwick Inlet Park, New York, USA Starr Whitehouse Landscape Architects and Planners: 104, 105, 106-, 107, 108-109, 110-111 112 Pirrama Park, Pyrmont, Australia Adrian Boddy: 112, 116, 117 top Florian Groehn: 113, 118 top left, 119, 121 Aspect Sudios: 114-115, 120 Fiona Robbe: 117 bottom 122 Kunming Ecological Infrastructure and Greenways, Kunming, China Turenscape: 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141 142 The Hive Worcester Library Landscape, Worcester, England Grant Associates: 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149 150 Landscapes of Cohabitation, Antiparos, Greece Cathy Cunliffe: 150, 151, 152-153, 154 top, 157 bottom, 160 top, 161 top Clive Nichols: 154 bottom, 159 bottom right, 160 bottom, 161 bottom doxiadis+: 155, 156, 157 top, 157 centre, 158159 162 Narrabeen Lagoon Multi-Use Trail Stage 1, Narrabeen, Australia Aspect Studios: 2 centre, 162, 164 bottom, 165 Simon Wood: 163, 164 top. 166, 167
178 The Center for Early Education Sustainability Vision Project, West Hollywood, USA Jim Simmons: 178, 179, 182 bottom, 183. 184, 185, 186 top, 187 Rios Clemnti Hale Studios: 2 centre, 180-181. 182 top, 186 bottom 188 The Dyck Field, Rhine Westphalia, Germany RMP Stephan Lenzen Landschaftsarchitekten: 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193 194 Red Rock Canyon Visitor Center, Las Vegas, USA Robert Reck: Cover, 194, 195, 196-197, 198 top, 199 bottom, 200 left, 205, 206 bottom, 208 bottom, 210-211 Les Wallach, FAIA: 198 bottom, 207 Line and Space: 199 top, 200-201, 201, 201, 203, 206 top, 209 John Birkinbine, AIA: 204 Henry Tom, 208 top 212 VanDusen Botanical Gardens, Vancouver, Canada Perkins+Will: 212, 214-215, 216-217, Nic Lehoux: / Courtesy: Perkins+Will: 218, 219, 220, 221
A Acropolis, 20, 21 Adelaide, 40–47, 70 Andrea Cochran Landscape Architecture, 62–69 Antiparos, 150–161 Aquatic gardens, 100 Arthur J. Will Memorial Fountain, 6 ASPECT Studios, 112–121, 162–167 Athens, 20–27 Australia, 40–47, 70–75, 112–121, 162–167 Australian hardwood timbers, 164 Australian Institute of Landscape Architects National Award for Design, 118 B Balanced ecology, 72, 142 Baton Rouge, 80–87 Bay South, 88–90, 94, 98, 100–103 Bermudagrass, 14 Better Cities Programme, 112 Bio-detention system, 82 Biodiversity, 4, 28, 30, 52, 60, 98, 124, 128 Biological air conditioning, 56 The Bogor Botanical Gardens, 88 Bohai Sea, 28 Bosco Verticale biodiversity, 52 growing boxes, 60 seasonal colour changes, 56 sectional details, 56, 57 tower blocks, 56 vegetation, 61 vertical forest, 52–56 water supply system, 60 Bushwick Inlet Park field house and sports field, 104 footpath and grassy hill, 108, 109 ground source heat pump loops, 108 photovoltaic canopy, 104, 107 rainwater storage, 104 shaded waterfront terrace, 108, 109 storm water drainage concept, 106, 108, 109 weir, 105, 108–111 C California, 6, 76–79, 178, 182 ‘California succulents’, 182
Campbelltown, 70–75 Canada, 34–39, 48–51, 212–221 CEE’s primary environmental mission, 186 Center for Early Education (CEE), 178, 186 Centre for Green Cities, 38, 39 China, 28–33, 122–141 Chinese garden, 98 ‘City in a Garden’ concept, 90 Civil engineering methods, 170–173 Claude Cormier + Associés inc., 34–39, 48–51 “Climate Change 2014, Impacts Adaptation and Vulnerability”, 4 Climate controlled glazed domes, 94, 95 Cohabitation landscapes Cycladic, 150, 152, 154, 158–161 habitation, 154–157 historic processes, 152 islands, Cycladic, 154, 158–161 Pezoules, 152, 154 re-vegetation strategy, 159 roads, 154 sequence and progression development, 150–153 visitors, 150 Colonial garden, 98 Combined heat power biomass steam turbine, 96 Cycladic landscapes, 150, 152, 154, 158–161 D Dehumidification, 96 Diamond and Schmitt Architects, 38 Demosio Sima cemetery, 20, 24, 25 The Don Valley Pressed Brick Company, 34 Don Valley property, 34, 36 Douglas fir, 76, 77, 221 doxiadis+, 20–27, 150–161 Dragonfly Lake, bridge, 100 Dutch East India Company, 88 duToit Architects, 36 The Dyck Field atmospheric CO2 concentrations, 192 EGHN, 192 fast growing Miscanthus plant (elephant grass), 188, 190–191 Garden Art and Landscape Culture, 188 Miscanthus beds, 192, 193 themed flower gardens, 192 views and perspectives, 192, 193 200-year old chestnut grove, 188, 189, 191 224
E Early Education Sustainability Vision Project ‘California succulents’, 182 CEE’s primary environmental mission, 186 combined philosophies, 179–181 Los Angeles basin, 178 native plant pockets, 178 ‘Operations Report Card High Performance School’, 186 RCHS and CEE, 178 seed process and plant growth, 184, 185 stairway and integral balustrade, 182, 183 supplementary hand-cranked generator, 186, 187 vertical living wall forming, entrance, 178, 179 vertical planter boxes, 182 Eco-landscape advertising sites, 80 Elephant grass (Miscanthus plant), 188, 190–191 Endangered ecological communities (EEC), 162 Energy absorbing canopy cover, 50 Energy efficient cooling technologies, 96 England, 142–149 Entry totem, Grand Park, 6, 7 Erosion, 28, 40, 133, 152, 154 The European Garden Heritage Network (EGHN), 192 Evergreen Brickworks brick making, 34 excavating post-holes, 34 hydrology strategy, 36 LEED Platinum rating, 38 ponds and water channels, 35, 36 steel structures, 38 Toronto and Region Conservation Authority, 38–39 Expansive estate roads, 72
planning consultation, 10–11 planting palette, 11–13 ‘yard’ furniture, 11 Grant Associates, 88–103, 142–149 Grapevine trellises, 69 Greece, 150–161 Green densification, 56 Green village, 70
F Fence, 34, 76, 77 Fishponds, 28, 30, 133 The Floor Plan, 200–201
J JANUS et Cie, 11 Drs. Julian and Raye Richardson apartments courtyard stairwell, 62, 69 landscaped areas, 66–69 man-made oasis, 62 parking bays, 66, 67 rainwater infiltration, 62, 65 roof garden, 62, 64 sunlight and deep shade, 62, 63 tables and block benches, 66 vegetable gardening, 69 Junk to park, ancient Athens Acropolis, the Kerameikos Cemetry and Platos Academy, 20, 21 Demosio Sima cemetery, 20, 24, 25 olive tree mounds, 27 planting of trees, 24, 27 stepped ramps, 24, 25
G Galvanised steel framing, Narrabeen Lagoon, 164 Gardens by the Bay architectural structures, 89, 90 Bay South, 88–90, 94, 98, 100–103 climate controlled glazed domes, 94, 95 Cloud Dome, 96, 97 dehumidification, 96 eco-system design, 90, 92, 93 Flower Dome, 94, 95 The Heritage Gardens, 98–99 horticultural gardens, 90 selective cooling, 96 on site generation, 96 solar gain, 96 Germany, 188–193 Grand Park, Los Angeles Community Terrace and Event Lawn, 6, 9 entry totem, Grand Park, 6, 7 The Event Lawn, 16, 19 Fountain Plaza and Performance Lawn, 6, 8 lawn areas, 14 layered design elements, 14, 15 outdoor space, green room and public restrooms, 16–19 paved connections, 16, 18 pedestrian accessibility, 6
H Heritage Gardens, Bay South, 98–99 Historic processes, cohabitation landscapes, 152 The Hive Worcester Library Landscape children’s library islet, 146 design, 144, 145 drawbridge, 146, 148, 149 Malvern Hills, 142, 143 outdoor spaces, 146, 147 reed bed swales, 146 water meadows, 146 wildflower meadows, 142, 146 Horticultural wastes, 96 Hurricane, 4, 80, 84 I Infra-red modelling, 50 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 4 Irrigation system, 14, 44, 72, 178 Istrouma Bluff, 80 Italy, 52–61
K Kerameikos, 20, 21 Kunming Ecological Infrastructure and Greenways abiotic, water management, 124, 126, 127 biotic, native species and biodiversity, 124, 128, 129 cultural landscapes, 124, 130, 131 Dianchi Lake, 122 Pan Long River, 122, 124, 125 preservation planning, 131 reconfigure riverbank conditions, 139–141 remediation plan, densely urbanised central river, 138 soil banks, water flow erosion, 133–135
Kunming Ecological Infrastructure and Greenways (cont.) Song Hua Ba Reservoir cluster, 133, 136, 137 The southern downstream area, Dianchi Lake, 132, 133 urban development, 122, 123 L L.A. County Regional Water Board, 184, 185 Lamar Advertising Headquarters Baton Rouge headquarters, 80, 81 glass skylights, 84, 85 live oak trees, 84, 86, 87 renovation and adaptive re-use, 82 storm water bio-detention system, 82 Land Management Corporation, 70 ‘Landscape acupuncture’, 28, 30 Las Vegas, USA, 194–211 LEED Platinum rating, 38, 48, 216 Lightweight fibreglass reinforced plastics, Narrabeen Lagoon, 164, 166, 167 Lista, 168–177 Living Building criteria, 216–217, 219–221 Lochend house, 70, 72 Lochiel Park collaborating groups, 70 expansive estate roads, 72 pedestrian routes, 72–75 public open space, 70 Loma Prieta earthquake, 62 Los Angeles, 6–19, 178 Los Angeles City Hall, 6, 7 Low energy light fittings, 80 M Magnolia Grande Flora tree, 76, 78 Malay garden, 98, 99 Malvern Hills, 142, 143 Man-made oasis, 62 Marina Bay, 88–103 The Mawson Lakes Economic Development Project, 70 Milan, 52–61 Miscanthus beds, 192, 193 Mississippi River, 80 Mojave Desert, 194, 198, 204 Montreal, 48–51 Mount Lofty Ranges Natural Resources Management Boards, 70 N Narrabeen Lagoon ASPECT Studios, Waringah Council, 162, 164, 165 galvanised steel framing, 164 harsh environment, 164 lightweight fibreglass reinforced plastics, 164, 166, 167 local conservationists, wilderness, 162 Swamp Oak forest and sea grass beds, 162, 164 National Botanical Gardens, 88 National Forest Park, 28 National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 204, 205 Natural land barrier, 80 New York, 104–111 ‘Nitrogen fixing’ plants, 30 Norway, 168–177
O Oak trees, 84, 86, 87 Olive tree mounds, 27 ‘Operations Report Card High Performance School’, 186 Orchid petal design concept, 212 Orleans-based architecture firm Eskew+Dumez+Ripple, 82 Oxigen Landscape Architecture firm, 40–47, 70–75 P Pan Long River master plan, 124 rejuvenation, 122 remediation project, 132 and tributaries, 131 Parc Hydro-Quebec birds and insects, 48 concrete surfacing, green space, 48, 49 infra-red modelling, inner cities, 50 permeable platform, 48 star-shaped benches, 48 tree planting, 48, 50, 51 Pavers, 72–75 Pezoules, 152, 154 Photovoltaic canopy, 104, 107 Photovoltaic installations, 100 PIA SA Awards, 72 Pirrama Park benches, 121 Better Cities Programme, 112 bio-swale, 112, 114, 116 design, 112, 114 flora, 118 playground and sandstone features, 116, 117 public square, 116 sandstone, 112, 116–119 site-specific planting schedule, 118, 120 solar installation, canopy, 116, 117 Poplar species, 28 Porta Nuova Isola area, 52 Pyrmont, 112–121 Q Qinhuangdao Forest Park fishponds, 30 objectives, design team, 28 pavilions and platforms, 30, 33 poplar species, 28 production process, 28 site plan, 32–33 skywalk, 28, 29 wild flowers, 30, 31 R Rain gardens, 66 Rainwater harvesting, 100 Rainwater infiltration, 48, 62, 65 Rainwater site irrigation, 104, 106, 107 Raw-wood rustic picket fence, 76, 77 Recycled exposed aggregate concrete, 72–75 Recycled stone, 44 Recycled timber hardwood decking, 72–75
Index Red Rock Canyon Visitor Center art and culture, Mojave, 194–197 ‘big hat’ roof with ample overhangs, 198 fiery power, early inhabitants, 204 The Floor Plan, 200–201 Francisco Garces (1738–1781), 194 innovative transpired solar wall, 204, 205 Landscape Conservation and education facility, 204 low maintenance and regional availability, 200, 202, 203 photovoltaic array, 204, 205 road networks and parking, 198 sheltered outdoor pavilions, 200 sustainable living, Mojave Desert, 194 tempered exterior microclimates, 204, 206, 207 view diagrams and photographs, 198, 199 water conservation, 208–211 Reed bed swales, 146 Renewable energy, 80, 116 The Republic of Singapore (Lion City), 88 Re-vegetation, 72, 159 Rhine Westphalia, 188–193 Rios Clementi Hale Studios (RCHS), 6–19, 76–79, 178–187 S Sand filtration element, 82 Sandstone, 112, 116–119 San Francisco, 62–69 Sea grass beds, 162, 164 Seed process and plant growth, 184, 185 Seismic shift, 62 Selective cooling, 96 Shanghai Expo., 52 Singapore, 88–103 Skywalk, 28, 29 Smith-Clementi Residence Magnolia Grande Flora tree, 76, 78 outdoors and ground floor, 76, 78, 79 patio space, 76 raw-wood rustic picket fence, 76, 77 Solar gain, 84, 96, 216 Song Hua Ba Reservoir cluster, 133, 136, 137 South East Asian rainforest, 100 The Southern downstream area, Dianchi Lake, 132, 133 Southern Nevada Public Land Management Act, 204 Spackman, Mossop + Michaels, 80–87 Starr Whitehouse Landscape Architects and Planners PLLC, 104–111 Steel grate, 48 Stefano Boeri Architetti, 52–61 Storm water, 14, 30, 50, 66, 72, 82, 84, 106, 108, 109, 116, 124, 208 Subterranean parking lots, 16 Suburban landscape, 76 ‘Supertree’, 100 Supplementary hand-cranked generator, 186, 187 Sustainable landscapes, 70–75, 142 Swamp Oak forest, 162, 164 Sydney, 162–167 T Toronto, 34–39 Torrens River, 70
Tree-pit, 48 Tropical horticulture, 88 Turenscape, 28–33, 122–141 TYIN tegnestue, 168–177 U Urban development, 40, 70, 122, 132, 192 ‘Urban forest’, 72 USA, 76–87, 104–111 V Vancouver, 212–221 VanDusen Botanical Gardens architecture and landscapes, 212, 213 facility’s integration, existing garden, 212, 214, 215 forest system, 221 LEED Platinum criteria, 216 Living Building criteria, 216–217, 219–221 meadow system, 221 orchid petal design concept, 212 visual central atrium, solar power demonstration, 216–218 water system, 221 Vegetable gardening, 69 Venice, 76–79 Vertical forest, 52–61 Vertical planter boxes, 182 Vertical timber sun screening, 76 Viewpoint, Lista design concept, 170–173 eco-tourism, 168 experience with like-minded peoples, 168 foundation piles, sandy sub-soil, 168, 169 landowners, 168 sponsors, 174 structure, 174–176 students, 177 TYIN tegnestue, 168 Vines, 60 Vohabitation landscapes, 150 W Water conservation, Red Rock Canyon, 208–211 Water meadows, 146 Water retention, 44, 66, 126, 154 West Hollywood, USA, 178–187 Wetland plants, 30 Wildflower meadows, 34, 142, 146 Windsor Street Linear Trail arterial creek bed running, 40 flood risk, 40 implementation, 44–47 notes, site plan, 44, 45 plants and trees, 40, 41 trail, architect’s drawing, 42 Worcester, 142–149 X Xerolithies (dry stone protective boundary walls), 152, 154