Thinking about School Effectiveness and Improvement in Chile Today:
10 Key Challenges Jos茅 Weinstein Head Innovation Center of Education Fundaci贸n Chile
Characteristics of Chile
Population: Total (millions ) 16.572 (Census, 2012)
GDP (current US$)(2011): 281 billion (LatinIndex)
GDP per capita (current US$) (2012): 17.974 (IMF)
Poverty: 14.4 (CASEN 2011)
Students K-12: 3.700.000
Teachers K-12: 170.000
Challenge 1: Respond to strong public expectations How to effectively focus and respond to the high public expectations for education (especially among the middle and lower income families), that have been generated by rapidly accelerating access to higher levels of education for the current generation of students(the â€œrevolution of accessâ€?).
The revolution of access: accelerating access to higher levels of education for the current generation of students Population that has attained at least upper secondary degree by age % of various age groups 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
Source: OECD, Education at a glance, 2012
Tertiary Education Enrolment increase in tertiary education (2000-2011) 1.200.000
1.000.000 800.000 600.000
400.000 200.000 0 2000
Source: Casen, 2011
High Citizen Expectations and Strong Demand for Quality Education for All
Challenge 2: Quality of student achievement Consolidate and accelerate the improvement trend in student achievement in literacy, mathematics, and science.
Improvement on international tests: Chile is ranked second among the countries that most improved in Reading in PISA 2000-2009
Nota: La comparación considera 23 países OCDE que participaron en las tres mediciones
Chilean student results improved 40 points in Reading between 2000 and 2009, approaching the OECD average. Chile is the country showing the second largest increase in Reading results between 2000 and 2009. Peru is the country showing the greatest increase (43 points).
Chile is one of the countries that most improved in TIMSS 2011 Trends in TIMSS 8th grade achivement 1999-2011 Mathematics and Science 510 490
470 461 450 430 420
370 350 1999 Mathematics
2011 TIMSS scale centerpoint
Though still far from where we would like to be
Challenge 3: Social equity and integration Reduce the gap segregation among schools, advancing towards a more inclusive education with results that are less attributable to variations in student social background, and a stronger public education sector
Chile is the country that made the most progress in closing the gaps between socioeconomic groups: 2000-2009
ď‚§ In Chile, a reduction in the gap between the highest and the lowest socioeconomic group is observed.
ď‚§ All socioeconomic groups increased their Reading scores between 2000 and 2009.
Chile is one of the most segregated countries in the world School segregation ranking – Pisa 2009 (Duncan Index)
(30% of students with low Socioeconomic status, Pisa index of economic, social and cultural status 2009
(Source: Presentación JP Valenzuela – “Fortalecer la educación pública: un desafío de interés nacional”)
Challenge 4: Good teaching for all Guarantee high quality teaching in all classrooms by attracting, retaining, developing and equitably deploying effective teachers
Setting clear expectations for teachers expectations for teachers
Preparing teachers with useful training and experience
TEACHER STATUS ISSUE Professional Careers Incomes 2nd and 4th year ofgraduate
All the analyzed education careers (16), perceive lower earnings than the average income of the total number of professional careers
Source: Futuro Laboral
Challenge 5: Improved instructional leadership Strengthen the instructional leadership capacity and impact the quality of teaching and learning of school principals and leadership teams in both public and private sector schools.
School Leader Practices in Chile Percentage of teachers answering “strongly agree” concerning practices in each of these areas or dimensions.
Source: Author’s elaboration according to teacher survey.
Instructional Management : the weakest practices The principal releases teachers from activities that may distract them from their work (IM)
The principal encourages teachers to take part in exchange networks with other schools so as to improve the teaching-â€Ś
After classroom observation, the principal gives them feedback and suggestions to improve their lessons (IM) During the last year, the principal has helped them planning their teaching work considering the students' individual â€Ś The principal observes their lessons frecuently (IM)
Source: Authorâ€™s elaboration according to teacher survey.
Challenge 6: Leadership and support for school improvement at the intermediary level (public and private) Develop educational leadership at the intermediary levels of local authority (e.g., public school districts, independent private authorities) beyond their traditional administrative-financial responsibilities in order to provide better support for school improvement.
A Complex Realityâ€Ś School Administrator
Public Schools Administrators Today: 345
Public Schools Today: 1.380.000 students in 6.100 schools
Private Subsidized schools administrators Today: 3.278
Private subsidized schools Today: 1.800.000 students in 4.300 schools
Number of schools per school administrator
The accelerated growth of private subsidized schools enrolment Trends in enrolment by type of school dependency 2003 2011 2.000.000
1.800.000 1.600.000 Municipal
Corporaci贸n de administraci贸n delegada
Source: Mineduc, 2012
Challenge 7: Institutional restructuring of responsibility for educational accountability and quality at the national level Complete the transition at the national level to a new institutional reality that includes the establishment of new national organizations such as the Agency for Quality, the Superintendency, the National Council of Education that are oriented towards ensuring that high quality education services aligned with rigorous performance standards are delivered at all levels (schools, school district and private authorities)
World Bank (2007):
There are no successful countries in education who have chosen the â€œgeneral frameworkâ€? organization of Chile Autonomy General
Control Quality Contract
United Kingdom, Finland, E.E.U.U.
A stronger rol of the State: the new institutional organization Oversees and enforces sanctions
Systemâ€™s rector organism
Ministery Of Education
Approves curriculum and reports
Assessing learning outcomes
Agency for Quality
National Council of Education curriculum
Challenge 8: Policy focus on improvement Consolidate policies for school improvement, focusing on key educational problems (e.g., increasing pre-school education enrolment, improving the quality of primary school results, strengthening the relevance and quality of technical education). Make better use of available data on student performance (e.g., SIMCE results) to mobilize and focus improvement, and achieve the school communities participation on the improvement process.
Full school journey (since 1997…) 24% more time at school (equivalent of two years more in K-12 trajectory). Double of m2 in educational buildings (1997-2010). Some positive academic impact and strong social impact
SEP RELATED RESOURCES
US$ 650 mill (per year)
Subsidy amount is increased up to 50% for each priority student.
7.500 Schools with SEP subsidy 780.000 students 4 years Improvement plans
Positive effects on learning results
US$113 (con JEC)
- US$67,41 between NT1 and 6th - US$44,78 between 7th – 4th
With Preferential Allowance
Without Preferential Allowance
Challenge 9: Adequate public financing Achieve a sufficient level of public funding for education that will permit the realization of the measures associated with the preceeding challenges (e.g., high quality teachers), and that reduces the economic burden on middle/low income families.
Increase in expenditure on education Trends in Expenditure on Education (US$) Expenditure on education
14.000 12.000 10.000 8.000 6.000 4.000 2.000
Source: Mineduc, 2012
Though still far from the most effective educational systems Annual expenditure per student by educational institutions for all services, Primary education (2009) In equivalent USD converted using PPPs, based onf full-time equivalents 18000 16000 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000
Source: OECD, Education at a Glance (2012)
Challenge 10: Strengthen link between education research and policy Develop research capacity in Chile to investigate high priority problems in education and use the resulting knowledge to effectively inform education policy and program decisions so that they are not simply base on blind intuition.
Educational Research in Chile and Latin America In the last twelve years (2000-2012), there were only 95 articles involving one or more Latin American country in the following major international education. There were Only 6 articles involving Chile.
Annual total (average)
Comparative educational review
International Journal of Educational Development
School Effectiveness and School Improvement
Source: Authorâ€™s elaboration based on Daniela Bramwell, 2012
Closure Education in Chile is in motion. The quality has improved in the last two decades, but there is still much more to improve. â€œChile cannot be content to remain as leaders in the second divisionâ€? (Andreas Schleicher).
One of the greatest challenges is to improve the effectiveness of our schools, and to genuinely achieve the potential of our policies for improvement. It is our hope that our participation in ICSEI can help Chile to transform into reality the dream desired by our grand teacher and poet, Gabriela Mistral, who In 1918 urged her teacher colleagues to lead the improvement of schools
“…MAKE YOUR SCHOOL PROFICIENT IN EVERYTHING SIGNIFICANT HAPPENING OR THAT HAS HAPPENED AROUND THE WORLD”
“ HAZ CAPAZ A TU ESCUELA DE TODO LO GRANDE QUE PASA O HA PASADO POR EL MUNDO” Gabriela Mistral.