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Thinking about School Effectiveness and Improvement in Chile Today:

10 Key Challenges Jos茅 Weinstein Head Innovation Center of Education Fundaci贸n Chile


Characteristics of Chile 

Population: Total (millions ) 16.572 (Census, 2012)

GDP (current US$)(2011): 281 billion (LatinIndex)

GDP per capita (current US$) (2012): 17.974 (IMF)

Poverty: 14.4 (CASEN 2011)

Students K-12: 3.700.000

Teachers K-12: 170.000


Challenge 1: Respond to strong public expectations How to effectively focus and respond to the high public expectations for education (especially among the middle and lower income families), that have been generated by rapidly accelerating access to higher levels of education for the current generation of students(the “revolution of access�).


The revolution of access: accelerating access to higher levels of education for the current generation of students Population that has attained at least upper secondary degree by age % of various age groups 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

98 86

81

61 43

43

42 19

Korea

Chile

OECD average

55-64

Source: OECD, Education at a glance, 2012

25-34

Turkey


Tertiary Education Enrolment increase in tertiary education (2000-2011) 1.200.000

1.068.263

1.000.000 800.000 600.000

400.000 200.000 0 2000

2001

Source: Casen, 2011

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

MatrĂ­cula total

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011


High Citizen Expectations and Strong Demand for Quality Education for All


expectations

Challenge 2: Quality of student achievement Consolidate and accelerate the improvement trend in student achievement in literacy, mathematics, and science.


Improvement on international tests: Chile is ranked second among the countries that most improved in Reading in PISA 2000-2009

Nota: La comparación considera 23 países OCDE que participaron en las tres mediciones

 Chilean student results improved 40 points in Reading between 2000 and 2009, approaching the OECD average.  Chile is the country showing the second largest increase in Reading results between 2000 and 2009. Peru is the country showing the greatest increase (43 points).


Chile is one of the countries that most improved in TIMSS 2011 Trends in TIMSS 8th grade achivement 1999-2011 Mathematics and Science 510 490

470 461 450 430 420

413

410 390

392

416

387

370 350 1999 Mathematics

2003 Science

2011 TIMSS scale centerpoint


Though still far from where we would like to be


expectations achievement

Challenge 3: Social equity and integration Reduce the gap segregation among schools, advancing towards a more inclusive education with results that are less attributable to variations in student social background, and a stronger public education sector


Chile is the country that made the most progress in closing the gaps between socioeconomic groups: 2000-2009

 In Chile, a reduction in the gap between the highest and the lowest socioeconomic group is observed.

 All socioeconomic groups increased their Reading scores between 2000 and 2009.


Chile is one of the most segregated countries in the world School segregation ranking – Pisa 2009 (Duncan Index)

(30% of students with low Socioeconomic status, Pisa index of economic, social and cultural status 2009

(Source: Presentación JP Valenzuela – “Fortalecer la educación pública: un desafío de interés nacional”)


integration

expectations achievement

Challenge 4: Good teaching for all Guarantee high quality teaching in all classrooms by attracting, retaining, developing and equitably deploying effective teachers


Setting clear expectations for teachers expectations for teachers

Source: SABER-Teachers

Shanghai

Singapore

South Korea

Japan

Mexico

Chile

Above average


Preparing teachers with useful training and experience

Shanghai

Singapore

Japan

South Korea

Source: SABER-Teachers

Mexico

Chile

Above average


TEACHER STATUS ISSUE Professional Careers Incomes 2nd and 4th year ofgraduate

All the analyzed education careers (16), perceive lower earnings than the average income of the total number of professional careers

Source: Futuro Laboral


teaching

integration

expectations achievement

Challenge 5: Improved instructional leadership Strengthen the instructional leadership capacity and impact the quality of teaching and learning of school principals and leadership teams in both public and private sector schools.


School Leader Practices in Chile Percentage of teachers answering “strongly agree” concerning practices in each of these areas or dimensions.

Source: Author’s elaboration according to teacher survey.


Instructional Management : the weakest practices The principal releases teachers from activities that may distract them from their work (IM)

26%

The principal encourages teachers to take part in exchange networks with other schools so as to improve the teaching-‌

23%

After classroom observation, the principal gives them feedback and suggestions to improve their lessons (IM) During the last year, the principal has helped them planning their teaching work considering the students' individual ‌ The principal observes their lessons frecuently (IM)

Source: Author’s elaboration according to teacher survey.

20%

17%

13%


leadership

teaching

integration

expectations achievement

Challenge 6: Leadership and support for school improvement at the intermediary level (public and private) Develop educational leadership at the intermediary levels of local authority (e.g., public school districts, independent private authorities) beyond their traditional administrative-financial responsibilities in order to provide better support for school improvement.


A Complex Reality‌ School Administrator

Public Schools Administrators Today: 345

Public Schools Today: 1.380.000 students in 6.100 schools

17,7

Private Subsidized schools administrators Today: 3.278

Private subsidized schools Today: 1.800.000 students in 4.300 schools

Number of schools per school administrator

1,32


The accelerated growth of private subsidized schools enrolment Trends in enrolment by type of school dependency 2003 2011 2.000.000

1.800.000 1.600.000 Municipal

1.400.000

1.200.000

Particular subvencionado

1.000.000 800.000

Particular pagado

600.000

Corporaci贸n de administraci贸n delegada

400.000 200.000

0 2003

2004

Source: Mineduc, 2012

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011


intermediary level

leadership

teaching

integration

expectations achievement

Challenge 7: Institutional restructuring of responsibility for educational accountability and quality at the national level Complete the transition at the national level to a new institutional reality that includes the establishment of new national organizations such as the Agency for Quality, the Superintendency, the National Council of Education that are oriented towards ensuring that high quality education services aligned with rigorous performance standards are delivered at all levels (schools, school district and private authorities)


World Bank (2007):

There are no successful countries in education who have chosen the “general framework� organization of Chile Autonomy General

Framework

Chile

Control Quality Contract

New Zealand

Differentiated

Directed

Instruction

Instruction

United Kingdom, Finland, E.E.U.U.

Korea


A stronger rol of the State: the new institutional organization Oversees and enforces sanctions

System’s rector organism

Ministery Of Education

Superintendency

School

Approves curriculum and reports

Assessing learning outcomes

Agency for Quality

National Council of Education curriculum


institutions

intermediary level

leadership

teaching

integration

expectations achievement

Challenge 8: Policy focus on improvement Consolidate policies for school improvement, focusing on key educational problems (e.g., increasing pre-school education enrolment, improving the quality of primary school results, strengthening the relevance and quality of technical education). Make better use of available data on student performance (e.g., SIMCE results) to mobilize and focus improvement, and achieve the school communities participation on the improvement process.


Full school journey (since 1997…)  24% more time at school (equivalent of two years more in K-12 trajectory).  Double of m2 in educational buildings (1997-2010).  Some positive academic impact and strong social impact


SEP RELATED RESOURCES 

US$ 650 mill (per year)

Subsidy amount is increased up to 50% for each priority student.

7.500 Schools with SEP subsidy 780.000 students 4 years Improvement plans

Positive effects on learning results

US$64,71 (máx.)

US$113 (con JEC)

Preferential Subsidy

- US$67,41 between NT1 and 6th - US$44,78 between 7th – 4th

Base Subsidy

With Preferential Allowance

Without Preferential Allowance


improvement

institutions

intermediary level

leadership

teaching

integration

expectations achievement

Challenge 9: Adequate public financing Achieve a sufficient level of public funding for education that will permit the realization of the measures associated with the preceeding challenges (e.g., high quality teachers), and that reduces the economic burden on middle/low income families.


Increase in expenditure on education Trends in Expenditure on Education (US$) Expenditure on education

14.000 12.000 10.000 8.000 6.000 4.000 2.000

0 1990

Source: Mineduc, 2012

1994

2000

2006

2010


Though still far from the most effective educational systems Annual expenditure per student by educational institutions for all services, Primary education (2009) In equivalent USD converted using PPPs, based onf full-time equivalents 18000 16000 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000

Primary education

Source: OECD, Education at a Glance (2012)

OECD average

South Africa

Mexico

Brazil

Argentina

Chile

Czech Republic

Hungary

Slovak Republic

Israel

Poland

Estonia

Portugal

France

Germany

Korea

New Zealand

Finland

Spain

Japan

Netherlands

Ireland

Australia

Belgium

Italy

United Kingdom

Sweden

Austria

Iceland

Switzerland

United States

Denmark

Norway

Luxembourg

0


financing

improvement

institutions

intermediary level

leadership

teaching

integration

expectations achievement

Challenge 10: Strengthen link between education research and policy Develop research capacity in Chile to investigate high priority problems in education and use the resulting knowledge to effectively inform education policy and program decisions so that they are not simply base on blind intuition.


Educational Research in Chile and Latin America In the last twelve years (2000-2012), there were only 95 articles involving one or more Latin American country in the following major international education. There were Only 6 articles involving Chile.

Journal

Latin America

Chile

Annual total (average)

Total 20002012

Comparative educational review

33

2

21

252

Compare

25

1

32

384

International Journal of Educational Development

33

2

85

1.020

School Effectiveness and School Improvement

4

1

19

228

Total

95

6

157

1.884

Source: Author’s elaboration based on Daniela Bramwell, 2012


Closure Education in Chile is in motion. The quality has improved in the last two decades, but there is still much more to improve. “Chile cannot be content to remain as leaders in the second division� (Andreas Schleicher).

One of the greatest challenges is to improve the effectiveness of our schools, and to genuinely achieve the potential of our policies for improvement. It is our hope that our participation in ICSEI can help Chile to transform into reality the dream desired by our grand teacher and poet, Gabriela Mistral, who In 1918 urged her teacher colleagues to lead the improvement of schools


“…MAKE YOUR SCHOOL PROFICIENT IN EVERYTHING SIGNIFICANT HAPPENING OR THAT HAS HAPPENED AROUND THE WORLD”

“ HAZ CAPAZ A TU ESCUELA DE TODO LO GRANDE QUE PASA O HA PASADO POR EL MUNDO” Gabriela Mistral.


Inaguración ICSEI 2013 José Weinstein