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By Eduarda Rond達o

COMPILATION

Compilation of personal work

Pedagogical Processing in E-Learning Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogical Open University, Lisbon Fev.2010


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

Unit 1 Activity 1

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Activity 2

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Activity 3

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Activity 4

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Unit 2 Activity 1

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Activity 2

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Activity 3

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Activity 4

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Unit 3 Activity 1

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Activity 2

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Activity 3

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Activity 4

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Compilation By Eduarda Rond達o (Fev.2010)


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

Unit 1

Activity 1 - Annotated Bibliography

Summary The Cooperative Theory of Freedom combines the strengths of individual learning with collaborative learning. On the one hand the flexibility and individual freedom is the most important in individual learning, on the other hand it lacks the enrichment that the exchange of experiences and discussion can provide and that can be given by cooperative learning. Furthermore it enhances the mutual help and the positive reinforcement. In general, cooperative learning requires virtual learning environments that enable students to have freedom within individual communities (groups) of online learning. Thus, cooperative learning is only possible through the existence of the network, and social networking tools available to stakeholders (students, teachers and institutions), The use of the network and its tools are important because they provide space and tools to collaborate, store and display the work done and allow to recommend, organize, add notes and approve resources that other members have created and shared. The quality of the final work and the level of knowledge acquired by participants will tend to increase with cooperative learning. The sharing and discussion on construction extend the knowledge of all the stakeholders. However, in order to accept and foster cooperative learning there has to be a change of mindset. It is necessary to recognize its advantages, including the increasing of knowledge provide by sharing its construction. In this first annotated bibliography I refer seven articles I read to better understand the concept of The Theory of Cooperative Freedom. -----Cooperative Freedom: An Online Education Theory By Morten Paulsen (2003) In http://www.studymentor.com/cooperative_freedom.pdf(Accessed October 21, 2009 and February 10, 2010)

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Compilation By Eduarda Rond達o (Fev.2010)


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

In this article the author presents the theory of cooperative freedom. This theory is based on current theoretical perspectives and explains how to apply in online education. The theory of cooperative freedom argues that online education can promote both individual freedom and cooperation with the group. Many theoretical perspectives on distance education were presented during the last decades. Keegan (1988b) identifies three theoretical positions: • theories of autonomy and independence, • theories of industrialization and • theories of interaction and communication. In this article, Morten Paulsen discusses the theoretical perspectives outlined above and their implications for online education. Morten said that the theory of cooperative freedom can be classified as a theory of autonomy and independence and is influenced by the theory of andragogy (Knowles 1970). In distance education, cooperation may be difficult to achieve. A major problem for many students online is the loneliness that results from limited access to colleagues and want individual freedom can intensify this problem. However, the new communication technologies (Web 2.0), such as audio conferencing, video conferencing and computer conferencing have facilitated cooperation in the distance. In an environment of distance education, collaboration is even more difficult to get cooperation. For many people, the need for further studies has been increasing. Today's students, however, have jobs and family to look after. Many students are unwilling to give up their family and their quality of life to study. Thus, they need a flexible education: education that allows them to combine work, family and education in a flexible way. The theory of cooperative freedom suggests that areas of particular importance to distance education are: time, space, average rate of access and content. However, if we could develop a system of distance education that combines the freedom of the individual with the cooperation with the group, we would reach a distance education based on freedom cooperative. Adult learners of the future need for flexibility and individual freedom. But at the same time, many need or prefer the collaboration with the group. These objectives are difficult to match, but the online education, using all available communication tools

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Compilation By Eduarda Rondão (Fev.2010)


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

can be a way to unite individual and collective freedoms in a truly flexible unit of distance education, and to achieve a cooperative education. -----Cooperative Online Education in Seminar.net - International journal of media, technology and lifelong learning Vol. 4 – Issue 2-2008 By Morten Paulsen (2008) In http://seminar.net/index.php/volume-4-issue-2-2008-previousissuesmeny-124/100cooperative-online-education (Accessed October 21, 2009 and February 10, 2010) In this article Morten Paulsen presents his theory of “Cooperative learning”. The article describes how he developed a virtual learning environment that allows students to have optimal individual freedom within online learning communities. This article demonstrates that cooperative learning can be implemented successfully through a set of instruments or means. Paulsen reports positive results from surveys and experiences with cooperative learning, and relate these issues like web 2.0, transparency, learning partners and individual progression plans. Cooperative learning seeks to develop virtual learning environments that allow students to have optimal individual freedom within online learning communities. The pedagogical and administrative challenges with regard to accommodating both individual freedom and cooperation are explained in the Theory of Cooperative Freedom. This article shows that cooperative learning can be implemented successfully through a set of instruments or means. To illustrate this with current examples, the article presents NKI Distance Education’s surveys and experiences with cooperative learning. This article also presents results from four evaluations which included questions about NKI’s cooperative tools and services -----The Hexagon Of Cooperative Freedom: A Distance Education Theory Attuned to Computer Conferencing By Paulsen, Morten (1993) In http://www.nettskolen.com/forskning/21/hexagon.html (Accessed October 22, 2009 and February 9, 2010) The article is a first attempt to Morten Paulsen to develop a theory of distance education attuned specifically to CMC. Focusing on the interplay of independence and cooperation within the dimensions of time, space, pace, medium, access, and curriculum within distance education contexts, it is argued that computer conferencing can foster both freedom for the individual and group cooperation.

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Compilation By Eduarda Rondão (Fev.2010)


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

Morten Paulsen continued to investigate, and revised and updates this theory several times. -----Affinity Groups in Self-paced Online Learning By Terry Anderson (2006) In http://terrya.edublogs.org/2006/02/25/affinity-groups-in-self-paced-onlinelearning/ (Accessed October 22, 2009 and February 8, 2010) In this article, Terry Anderson examines the literature on the type of community that can be created in this self-paced context. He argue that an online affinity group provides a useful model that we can use and support to increase participation in and successful completion of self-paced, formal online courses. Terry considers that learners enrolled in a course share a community of interest- that being successful completion of that course. But what is often lacking in self-paced learning is a mechanism to explore and develop that “sympathy” with others. He thinks “The scant literature directly relating to affinity groups in education suggests that affinity groups are both pedagogically useful and generally appreciated by learners. One can easily extrapolate from the volumes of studies related to both classroom and online collaborative and cooperative learning research and can see affinity groups as a subset of this socialized form of learning. Affinity groups may be a very useful organizational model that stimulates social activity and social presence even within self-paced and continuous learning. This form of education has been described as independent study, but I argue that with appropriate technological, social and pedagogical support, self-paced learning need not be independent learning. One cannot however expect affinity groups to suddenly and spontaneously emerge from education models and systems based upon independent study assumptions. Rather the following organizational interventions are suggested: Discovery; Activities, Leadership and Research and measure. -----Transparency in Cooperative Online Education By Christian Dalsgaard and Morten Paulsen (2009) In http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/671/1267 (Accessed October 22, 2009 and February 10, 2010) After Morten Paulsen has dealt, in general terms, the inclusion of Web 2.0 tools in education, in this article Morten Paulsen and Christian Dalsgaard aims to discuss the

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Compilation By Eduarda Rondão (Fev.2010)


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

following question: What is the potential of social networking within cooperative online education? The authors argue that transparency is a unique feature of social networking services. Transparency gives students insight into each other's actions. Cooperative learning seeks to develop virtual learning environments that allow students to have optimal individual freedom within online learning communities. This article demonstrates how cooperative learning can be supported by transparency. To illustrate this with current examples, the article presents NKI Distance Education’s surveys and experiences with cooperative learning. The article discusses by which means social networking and transparency may be utilized within cooperative online education. Transparency means that you and your doings are visible to fellow students and teachers within a learning environment. For instance, transparency could mean that students and teachers are made aware of and have access to each other’s interests, thoughts, concerns, ideas, writings, references, and assignments. The purpose of transparency is to enable students and teachers to see and follow the work of fellow students and teachers within a learning environment and in that sense to make participants available to each other as resources for their learning activities. This article illustrates the theory of cooperative freedom with current examples from NKI Distance Education in Norway. They conclude that social networking sites are not the new learning management systems. From the perspective of the theory of cooperative freedom, however, the special kind of communication and interaction afforded by social networking sites is interesting and has pedagogical potential. From this point of view, social networking should be considered as a supplement to other tools. The potential of social networking lies within transparency and the ability to create awareness among students. -----Internet Based E-learning, Pedagogy and Support Systems By Torstein Rekkedal and Svein Qvist-Eriksen (2003) In http://learning.ericsson.net/socrates/doc/norway.doc (Accessed October 23, 2009 and February 9, 2010) This paper intends to identify and discuss the areas of e-learning that are important in describing the state of the art in e-learning specifically related to the need for systems and actions supporting the learner and helping him/her to succeed and reach learning goals, whether these learning goals are set by the institution, employer and/or the learner. They argue that in cooperative learning the theory is that everyone wins no one looses. The learning process is not seen as an individual pursuit concerned with

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Compilation By Eduarda RondĂŁo (Fev.2010)


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

accumulating knowledge, but as part of a social process where students helps each other to develop understanding in an enjoyable and stimulating context. The learning is process driven and learners must be involved in the social process and pay attention to this process to achieve their desired goals. The outcomes are not only academic, but involve increased competence in working with others, self understanding and self confidence. The learning activities may end up in group products which would not be achievable if learners worked individually, or the process may consist of learners helping and supporting each other in achieving individual learning goals. -----Learning partner - opportunities for cooperation in distance learning By Slaatto Torhild and Morten Paulsen (2006) In http://www.elearningeuropa.info/directory/index.php?page=doc&doc_id=8294&docl ng=6 (Accessed October 22, 2009 and February 10, 2010) In this paper an approach to NKI and its mode of operation They state that NKI Distance Education facilitates individual freedom within a learning community in which online students serve as mutual resources without being dependent on each other. We build on adult education principles and seek to foster benefits from both individual freedom and cooperation in our online learning community. NKI's learning philosophy is based on Professor Morten Flate Paulsen's Theory of Cooperative Freedom. A cornerstone in cooperative learning is that cooperation should be voluntary. However, the Theory of Cooperative Freedom states that cooperation should be attractive, appealing and alluring. It should be offered as an attractive opportunity to those who seek cooperation. The challenge is therefore primarily to help those who are interested in cooperation to find suitable learning partners. For this reason, NKI has developed the Learning Partner tools within its LMS system. In cooperative learning, individual flexibility and freedom are essential. The theory suggests that the facets of flexibility that are of special importance are time, space, pace, medium, access and content. To illustrate this, the authors report some experiences of students from NKI. -----Theory of Cooperative Freedom By Morten Paulsen (2008)

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Compilation By Eduarda Rond達o (Fev.2010)


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

In http://toonlet.com/archive?m=s&i=10870 (Accessed October 20, 2009 and February 10, 2010)

-----Theory of Cooperative Freedom By Morten Paulsen (2008) In http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HVXtbLg5ycE (Accessed October 20, 2009 and February 10, 2010) ------

Compilation


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

Theory of Cooperative Freedom By Morten Paulsen (2007) In http://www.slideshare.net/MortenFP/cooperative-freedom-as-a-guiding-star-foronline-education (Accessed October 20, 2009 and February 10, 2010)

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Compilation By Eduarda Rond達o (Fev.2010)


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

Unit 1

Activity 2 – Learning Object

http://www.slideshare.net/eduardarondao/the-theory-of-cooperative-freedomreview

Compilation


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

Unit 1

Activity 3 – Review of Learning Object

Hi all. I confess, the choise was difficult. However, I decided to choose two Learning Objects that I think are opposites. Learning Objects from Teresa Rafael and Teresa Fernandes. -----Learning Object from Teresa Rafael

Compilation


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

Teresa Rafael built a learning object very interesting. In a very attractive way she managed to make the abstract theory based on the fundamentals of Morten Paulsen. Besides this Teresa highlighted the key aspects on which the theory is based. He also managed to illustrate all this with beautiful images and very relaxing music. I think with this subject, any person, can have a clear understanding of the principles of this theory.

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Learning Object from Teresa Fernandes

Teresa Fernandes built a comic that takes its role as a student online. It creates various characters one of which the Education and the other their daughters Cooperative and Freedom. Compilation


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

Thus, Teresa creates a simple dialog between three which explains the advantage of the theory. Finally, in its role (online student) discusses the advantages of this type of learning. Using this tool, Teresa, build a simple but very apprealing and interesting learning object.

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Compilation By Eduarda Rond達o (Fev.2010)


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

Unit 1

Activity 4 – Discussion

Hi all. In general, the women's group presented the main characteristics of self-paced, some of which are: •

• •

The student controls the pace of learning, he’s not dependent on a structure or rhythm imposed by someone. The use of the Internet is a great advantage as the students can both download the materials for their activities and have access to them at anytime, as they are available 24 hours a day. In self-paced, the teacher has a very important role, for it is he who guides the student in their learning process. The group of men, defender of the group-paced, chose to oppose the points made by the group of women. They highlighted the lack of interaction and isolation that can lead to situations of lack of motivation. On the other hand, they presented some of its strengths, including working in groups, as they contribute greatly to learning through the sharing of ideas and mutual assistance which is almost constant, thus strengthening the motivation of the students.

In conclusion, the women’s group has shown good arguments in defence of their model, but the same arguments are repeated too many times. The men group also presents good arguments but it is very supported by the argument of the other group. Finally, we emphasize the interesting debate which took place in such a short space of time. Congratulations to both groups. Well done! José Carlos, Pedro e Eduarda

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Compilation By Eduarda Rondão (Fev.2010)


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

Activity 4 – Role play

Hi, all. This is my role play :-( Jane was a top-level athlete. She loved her profession but she knows will be a short time. Jane was a good student and she managed to reconcile their work and studies. She completed her cycle of studies. She makes His candidature to the University and came to the course she wanted. But she gave up. She could not attend classes and examinations, because she had training, travels, stages and competitions. Jane was very concerned about their future, and will do after finishing His sports career. Was then that a conversation with friends she heard of EaD. She was curious and went searching. She liked what she found and decided to try. Enrolled in an EaD course and enjoying it. But more importantly that is succeeded. When she was in Portugal, after training she tries to accomplish as much work as possible. When she displaced for various countries, she took her laptop and using the Internet she able to do activities. Unfortunately w when she was finishing the course suffered a serious lesion forced her to abandon her career. He finished the course and today is a respected professional. All this was possible because this course admit freedom of time, pace, space and access. Eduarda

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Compilation By Eduarda RondĂŁo (Fev.2010)


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

Unit 2

Activity 1 - Annotated Bibliography

Summary From the research I conducted about online teaching techniques highlight two articles from Morten Paulsen, that give us an insight teaching methods and techniques for computer-mediated-communication (CMC) and an overview of possible pedagogical CMC techniques. -----Teaching methods and techniques for computer-mediated communication By Morten Paulsen In http://www.nettskolen.com/forskning/22/icdepenn.htm (Accessed November 19, 2009 and February 10, 2010) In the first article, Morten Paulsen gives an overview of the possible educational and pedagogical techniques for the CMC. Morten Paulsen begins to reveal their arguments in relation to the theory of cooperative freedom. He argued that students' adult will get the flexibility and individual freedom. At the same time, they need the cooperation of the group and social unity. Conference by computer, when integrated with other media, can be the means of uniting freedom and truly flexible unit distance, cooperative education programs.". Morten says that a teaching technique is a way to achieve the objectives of education. The techniques presented here are organized according to the four communication paradigms used in computer-mediated communication (one, one-to-one, one-to-many and many to many). One - The techniques are classified as a stand-alone are characterized by retrieval of information through online resources and the fact that a student can accomplish the learning task without communication with the teacher or other students. One-To-one - techniques classified as one-to-one can be accomplished through application of e-mail. One-to-many - The techniques discussed as one-to-many will typically be conducted via the World Wide Web, bulletin boards or mailing lists e-mail.

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Compilation By Eduarda Rond達o (Fev.2010)


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

Many-to-many - The techniques presented as many to many may be organized within the computer systems conference, bulletin board systems, mailing lists or e-mail. A comprehensive review of literature led by Paulsen (1995) presented the experiences of some 25 different teaching techniques that were applied in the CMC-systems. Based on the examples found in the literature review Paulsen, some techniques seem prevalent and others seem rare. The review showed, however, that practitioners have a wide range of techniques to choose from. -----The Online Report on Pedagogical Techniques for Computer-Mediated Communication By Morten Paulsen In http://www.nettskolen.com/forskning/19/cmcped.html#a (Accessed November 19, 2009 and February 10, 2010)

In the second article the author addresses such important issues as methods, techniques and devices for CMC. He draws an Overview of Possible Pedagogical CMC Techniques in general adult education. With regard to techniques, he states that "pedagogical technique is a manner of accomplishing teaching objectives. It summarizes the techniques as follows: One-alone Techniques - The techniques classified as one-alone are characterized by retrieval of information from online resources and the fact that a student can perform the learning task without communication with the teacher or other students. One-to-one Techniques - The techniques classified as one-to-one can be conducted via e-mail applications. One-to-many Techniques - The techniques discussed the one-to-many will typically be conducted via bulletin boards or distribution lists for e-mail. Many-to-many Techniques - The techniques presented as many-to-many can be organized within computer conferencing systems, bulletin board systems, or distribution lists for e-mail. Then he thoroughly explores all of these techniques by reference to several studies. Finally, he warns that “The techniques presented here are by no means meant to constitute an exhaustive list of pedagogical CMC techniques. They represent, however, a comprehensive array of examples that show the gamut of techniques that are

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Compilation By Eduarda RondĂŁo (Fev.2010)


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

available for teachers, program planners, and designers of computer-mediated communication courses. Based on the examples found in the literature review, some techniques seem prevalent and others seem rare. The review showed, though, that practitioners have a wide range of techniques to choose from.” -----Preparing K-12 Teachers to Teach Online By Greg Kearsley and Robert Blomeyer (2003) In http://home.sprynet.com/~gkearsley/TeachingOnline.htm (Accessed November 19, 2009 and February 10, 2010) In the article "Preparing K-12 Teachers to Teach Online", Greg Kearsley and Robert Blomeyer, describe some of the issues associated with preparing school teachers to teach online. While the focus of the discussion is K-12, most of these issues also apply to higher education faculty and instructors in the training domain. The authors discuss some aspects such as: • the requirements for an effective online teacher; • In addition to the personal qualities there some preconditions that online teachers must satisfy; • What competencies online teachers need; • Advantages to want to be a teacher online; • Online teaching strategies; • Workload; • What kind of support teachers and students need; • The materials used in online courses can be provided or developed by teachers themselves. Teachers may want to customize or supplement them. I enjoyed this article because it employs a simple and clear language that becomes easily understandable. -----How to manage your Online Teacher workload By Kate Butler (2003)

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Compilation By Eduarda Rondão (Fev.2010)


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

In http://community.flexiblelearning.net.au/ManagingFlexibleDelivery/content/article_4 180.htm (Accessed November 19, 2009 and February 10, 2010) This is another article that I found interesting because it gives us information how to manage teacher workload, focusing on aspects such as: time management, information management and technologies. All the articles I found and spoke of online teacher workload, reported that the time spent by an online teacher is greater. One can almost say that an online course, the teacher is available 24 hours, 7 days a week. Here the time management is very important. -----Modelling new skills for online teaching By G. Salter and S. Hansen In http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/brisbane99/papers/salterhansen.pdf (Accessed February 10, 2010) This paper examines the theoretical background for the integration and modeling of online teaching within a staff development program. There is a need to support staff development, recognizing the fears that staff may have, and also a need to model the new teaching strategies and skills required for teaching successfully in an online environment. The authors refer to as key success factors of online learning in different contexts the structure, relevance and support. -----Teaching Behavioral-Based Skills Online By Gerri Hura (2008) In http://jolt.merlot.org/vol4no3/hura_0908.htm (Accessed February 10, 2010) This article review various methods and techniques that any instructor can use to adapt their behavioral-based course content into a rich and rewarding online learning experience for students. In addition, this article provides several examples of online instructional methods for behavioral-based skills or courses. ------

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Compilation By Eduarda Rond達o (Fev.2010)


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

Tips and Tricks for Teaching Online: How to Teach Like a Pro! By Kaye Shelton and George Saltsman (2004) In http://www.itdl.org/Journal/Oct_04/article04.htm (Accessed February 10, 2010) This paper summarizes some of the best ideas and practices gathered from successful online instructors and recent literature. Suggestions include good online class design, syllabus development, and online class facilitation offering hints for success for both new and experienced online instructors. In conclusion the authors state that online teaching has brought a new modality to distance education. It has also brought frustration and anxiety to the instructors attempting this new methodology. Instructors who are comfortable with the traditional methods for teaching in the classroom struggle to engage students over the Internet. While many of the same techniques apply, teaching online requires additional techniques for success. These techniques are similar to the same steps a gardener takes to develop a garden. In the online classroom, the ground is prepared with a carefully designed syllabus and policies, the seed is planted in the first session of class, and the learning community is nurtured to grow and become self-sufficient. These steps yield students who are engaged and working toward completion of the learning objectives. By utilizing these strategies for teaching online effectively, an instructor will engage the online learner, nurture a successful learning community, and alleviate the frustration and fear that goes along with teaching online. -----Online Pedagogy By Judy Backer (2007) In http://www.slideshare.net/bakerjudy/online-pedagogy (Accessed February 10, 2010) Another key aspect is the tools that the teacher has at his disposal. It should always be updated and know how to use them to improve the quality of the online course In this blog we can find a list of tools of Web 2.0. The author organized this list after and then we can see that in http://hubpages.com/hub/Education20 Another list of tools (Web 2.0) we can find here http://classtools.net/ http://hubpages.com/hub/Education20 http://teachweb2.wikispaces.com/

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Compilation By Eduarda Rond達o (Fev.2010)


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

Unit 2

Activity 2 – Learning Object

Here you can see my learning object. I made a Learning Object very simple and summarized. Use this tool was very easy and fun. Just had to have a great power of synthesis ... I tried to address some online teaching strategies.

You can find it here

Helena Prieto reply with humor focusing on the teacher's online effort to monitor all the work done by students and which is spread over several sites. She wrote in their reviews of learning objects:

Compilation


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

"I started this assignment by writing a review on Eduarda Rondão learning object, which I found very interesting and straight forward. Eduard shows a great capacity to synthesize the main success factors of online courses in her cartoon. Eduarda Rondão’s learning object is a cartoon produced with toonlet.com creator. Her learning object is about the role of the teacher in distance education. It presents the challenges any online teacher must face and consider to create a truly online curse, focusing in the most crucial aspects of online education - instructional design, keep track of students progress along with the update of resources, foster learning communities and mentorships, assessment and grading. It also points out the need to consider both teacher and students’ workload. All these aspects are very important to be considered because they are factors of success. Instructional design is very important because students must understand what they must do clearly, to be more efficient and save time. Not understanding instructions can be very frustrating and lead to failure. It is also time consuming because the student have to ask for clarification and wait for the teacher’s answer . Also important and good to know in advance is how our work is going to be evaluated. Regular feedback is also a need in online courses. Students feel more at ease if they know that the teacher is there to help them. In spite of being able to resource to other colleagues and group members, it is always good to have teacher’s feedback once and a while, so that we know how we are doing, what could we do better, how can we improve our work …. The update of resources is also a success factor. Everyone needs to have updated information and this is also a measure of the course quality. Online courses tend to be more and more interactive and group based work is quite stimulating and helps build up a sense of community. It can be in itself a factor of success because people feel that they belong and don’t feel so isolated in their work. Sharing doubts, learning with their peers is more motivating than being/ feeling alone, though most time online students are bound by their own time and pace. Mentorships can be a very helpful and useful resources. This might be a success factor because it is good to learn new things from people who clearly know a great deal more than we do about a common interest subject. Having in mind a reasonable work load is also critical factor of success. Not too much … not too less. This is very difficult to access since students needs and previous knowledge are different from student to student.

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Compilation By Eduarda Rondão (Fev.2010)


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

Teacher’s workload must also consider students needs. Instructional design must consider both teacher and students’ workload and propose reasonable quantity of tasks. As a kind of answer and comment to Eduarda’s learning object I a made this shorter cartoon"

You can find it here

Compilation


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

Unit 2

Activity 3 – Review of Learning Object

Review of two Learning Objects The two Learning Objects I will comment on are the work of Rosalina and the work of Telma de Jesus. I will start with the work of Rosalina. The wikis are one of my favorite tools. Rosalina produced a very attractive wiki. Although not exhaustive addresses the main aspects of Online Teaching Techniques. In my view a Learning Object should not be exhaustive but only focus on the main aspects. The wiki was well chosen because at the same time allows the interaction. If Rosalina permits, other colleagues can be invited for discussion and thus build an learning object based on collaboration and cooperation. Secondly I will comment on the work of Telma. I want to comment not so much the content but more the shape and purpose. I find it very interesting the idea that Telma had to draw this learning object thinking in people with a disability. If we search, we have difficulty in finding a learning object made to think about these people. I would like to know more about the tool used to Telma. Congratulations. Eduarda

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Compilation By Eduarda RondĂŁo (Fev.2010)


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

Unit 2

Activity 4 – One-Question-Interviews

Hi all. My one-question interview was made to Dr. Greg Kearsley (Dr. Greg Kearsley is currently an independent consultant specializing in online education. He has designed online courses for NCREL, Walden Institute and the MEPP program at the University of Wisconsin. He has taught at many universities including the University of Maryland, Nova Southeastern University and the George Washington University; was the Chief Executive Officer of Park Row Inc., a software publishing company in San Diego; chief scientist of Courseware Incorporated, a training development firm based in San Diego; and a senior scientist at the Human Resources Research Organization ( HumRRO ) in Alexandria, VA.). And I was lucky because he has answered me.

Eduarda Rondão (Dec. 10/2009) Dear Dr. Greg Kearsley My name is Eduarda Rondão and I am taking a master on E-Learning Pedagogy. I cited your interesting paper Preparing K-12 Teachers to Teach Online in a study. I would like to ask you some questions: Think that the workload of teachers in online courses can be an obstacle to the development of online learning? What activities do you think will take more time for teachers? Thank you for your availability. Best regards, Eduarda Rondão

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Compilation By Eduarda Rondão (Fev.2010)


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

Dr. Greg Kearsley (Dec.11/2009) Hello Eduarda, Thanks for writing to me. There is no question that online teaching means more work for most teachers and that is a problem for those individuals who are not prepared to put their total effort into teaching. Anyone who thinks that teaching is a 9-5 job, definitely won't like online teaching. Most of the extra time required for online teaching is spent reading and commenting on student discussion postings and journal entries. This higher level of engagement and interaction between student and instructors is what makes online learning so powerful, but it means more work for the teacher. Attached is a short editoral I wrote for a journal that discusses some of the issues associated with online teaching at the college level Good luck with your studies. Greg The article sent by Dr. Greg Kearsley is posted on my Blog. Eduarda

The article sent by Dr. Greg Kearsley

Online Teaching: State of the Art Greg Kearsley, University of New England As instructor-led online classes become increasingly prevalent at colleges, universities and school systems around the world, the issue of online teaching quality is becoming a major topic. There are a lot of sides to this issue including: (1) impact on student achievement, (2) faculty satisfaction, (3) assessing online teaching effectiveness, and (4) how to improve online teaching. Let me say a few words about each of these in turn.

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Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

Although I haven’t seen any studies that directly correlate instructor actions with student outcomes, I have reviewed hundreds of course evaluations of online courses over the years and one of the most frequent complaints from students is lack of instructor feedback or involvement in the class. Students expect to get timely and substantive feedback from their instructors on their assignments and they also expect instructors to participate actively in discussion forums, chat sessions or whatever form of interaction exists in the class. While the consequences of a “hands-off” instructor may not affect learning directly, it certainly influences student motivation to do well in an online class and affects their overall performance and attitudes. This is particularly true for students who need extra help with the subject matter or keeping up in an online class. The question is why don’t some instructors participate fully in their online classes? The answer as far as I can tell is the workload involved. Reading and responding to the discussion postings or assignments generated by a class of 20 or more students requires a considerable amount of time and many faculty see it as an unreasonable workload. In some cases, there may be an issue of not understanding how to respond to students using the particularly technology involved, but I think this is unlikely with today’s easy to use learning tools. A more plausible explanation is that they do not find the kind of limited interaction possible with online learning systems to permit the kind of response they’d like to make to students. At any rate, some instructors asked to teach online classes do not find it satisfying. On the other hand many instructors like online classes. Most find the opportunity to interact extensively and intensively with students to be very rewarding. To some extent their enjoyment of online classes may derive from use of technology, although this not a prime motivating factor for all faculty. Certainly the convenience factor of being able to teach wherever they like (and whenever in the case of asynchronous systems) is a big attraction. For some faculty, the ability to reach out to students anywhere in the world, and to draw on the global database of resources is exciting. So, online teaching can be very satisfying to a subset of faculty, who are not deterred by the workload issue. These two opposite reactions to online teaching brings up the issue of evaluating online teaching effectiveness (Roberts, 2006; Williams, Hricko & Howell, 2006). Because faculty range considerably in their skills and motivation to teach online, the results can be quite variable. Administrators of online programs need to monitor the progress of classes to ensure that faculty are participating fully and being responsive to students. (Ironically, this kind of oversight almost never happens in traditional classes.) However, the dilemma is what to measure? The number of responses to students, or the amount of time faculty spend online are data easily available from Learning Management Systems and provide a general measure of course involvement. End of

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Compilation By Eduarda Rondão (Fev.2010)


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

course evaluations can measure student satisfaction and self-ratings of learning accomplishment. But these measurements don’t indicate how well an instructor can get students to interact with each other and engage in the content of the course. It is possible to do this by going through discussion postings and examining feedback messages, but this is very laborious and considered intrusive by faculty. So the measurement of online instructor effectiveness is problematic. Which brings us to perhaps the most important issue associated with online teaching: how to improve it (Gudea, 2008; Ko, 2010; Palloff & Pratt, 2007). This question assumes that we understand the nature of online teaching well enough to provide unequivocal guidance, which is not the case. But we do know some things: Hands-on practice with the learning system/tools being used is critical; instructors are unlikely to teach well unless they are quite comfortable with the technology involved. Peer support and interaction is important (i.e., faculty like to learn from each other). Learning how to facilitate student interaction is usually the most difficult skill for faculty to learn since its not an element of traditional classroom instruction. So faculty need to practice moderating discussion groups or web conference sessions in which they play a coaching role (“guide on the side versus sage on the stage”). What works best is to have faculty participate in a short online course; understanding what it’s like to be an online learner provides the basis for effective online teaching. Teaching online is still a new activity for most teachers, although thousands have mastered the art in the past decade or two and it has been extended into many new areas (e.g., Downing & Holtz, 2008; Edmundson, 2007; Rees et al., 2008) As online learning becomes commonplace, the issues discussed in this overview will receive a lot more attention. Eventually, online teaching skills are likely to become the norm. But for now, they require extra attention in terms of training, support and assessment. References: Downing, K. & Holtz, J. (2008). Online science learning: Best practices and technologies. Information Science Publishing. Edmundson, A. (2007). Globalized e-Learning cultural challenges. Information Science Publishing. Gudea, S.W. (2008). Expectations and demands in online teaching: Practical experiences. Information Science Publishing. Ko, S. (2010). Teaching online: A practical guide (3rd Ed). Routledge. Palloff, R. & Pratt, K. (2007). Building online learning communities: Effective strategies for the virtual classroom (2nd Ed). Jossey-Bass.

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Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

Rees, P. et al. (2008). E-Learning for geographers: Online materials, resources, and repositories. Information Science Publishing. Roberts. T. (2006). Self, peer and group assessment in e-learning. Information Science Publishing. Williams, D., Hricko, M. & Howell, S. (2006). Online assessment, measurement and evaluation: Emerging practices. Information Science Publishing.

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Compilation By Eduarda Rond達o (Fev.2010)


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

Unit 3

Activity 1 - Annotated Bibliography

Realized that the readings in this activity I would highlight two aspects that are important and fundamental: 1)The use of social networking and Web 2.0; 2)Student Profiles (NKI’s) Online Catalogue.

For Christian Dalsgaard and Morten Paulsen transparency is important to cooperative online education. People can cooperate only if they know about each other and have access to some common information and services. Transparency means that you and your doings are visible to fellow students and teachers within a learning environment. For instance, transparency could mean that students and teachers are made aware of and have access to each other’s interests, thoughts, concerns, ideas, writings, references, and assignments. The purpose of transparency is to enable students and teachers to see and follow the work of fellow students and teachers within a learning environment and in that sense to make participants available to each other as resources for their learning activities. Transparency is not a given, especially within online education. Students might work at a distance and individually, and, thus, they are not necessarily aware of the activities of other students. In their individual work, however, students write notes, search for literature, find relevant websites, write assignments, etc. This information and these products are relevant to other students. A central aspect of cooperative learning is to enable students to make use of each other while at the same time maintaining individual freedom. Transparency implies that users to a certain extent can see and be seen, but it is important to find a suitable transparency level. Transparency is also an important driver for improved quality. It has the following three positive effects on quality: Preventive quality improvement

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Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

We are prone to provide better quality when we know that others have access to the information and contributions we provide. Constructive quality improvement We may learn from others when we have access to their data and contributions. Reactive quality improvement We may receive feedback from others when they have access to our data and contributions.

For Morten and Dalsgaard student catalogues are important tools for showing students that they have access to a learning community. A comprehensive catalogue that provides relevant information about students is crucial to students acquiring an overview of the learning community. Student catalogues usually provide information about all students enrolled in a course; however, if students can access information about the students enrolled in other courses offered by the institution, they may benefit from taking part in a larger learning community. Moreover, a catalog that includes alumni could be of interest to students who seek advice on courses they are considering or on future employment. To facilitate cooperation, a student catalogue should include information that makes it easy to initiate and maintain communication, such as e-mail addresses, telephone numbers, chatting identities, etc. It may also include information on geographical location (e.g., zip codes) to facilitate identification of potential partners for occasional face-to-face meetings. Similarly, it may include progress plan information so that students can identify peers who are working with the same study unit. Finally, one may argue that student catalogues should include CV-type information to make it possible to search for peers who have special competencies. Student catalogues must address privacy issues appropriately. Some information in student catalogues may be regarded as sensitive and may require student consent. Some students may also be opposed to inclusion in a student catalogue. The challenge is to find the balance between providing as much relevant information as possible to stimulate cooperation without trespassing students’ privacy thresholds. A viable solution is to ask students for permission to make the information available to the staff, to the students enrolled in the actual course, or to all students in all courses. For Morten the benefits of Student Profiles (NKI’s) Online Catalogue are: Firstly, it seems like many students appreciate the opportunity to share information about their online course activities with family, friends and colleagues. Others seem to

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Compilation By Eduarda RondĂŁo (Fev.2010)


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

use the presentation as an online CV to support job applications. In any case, most presentations act as favorable personal homepages that focus on the students’ achievements. Secondly, the catalogue appears to be a valuable resource for NKI. The users are excellent ambassadors for NKI when they share their presentation with others. They provide a lot of relevant information for prospective students and key words for the search engines. All the positive and trustworthy testimonials from current students and teachers will probably have a positive effect on NKI’s future course enrolments. Thirdly, the fact that so many serious, hard-working and successful students are willing to share achievements and experiences in an open, online catalogue is valuable for the field of online education. Traditionally, distance students tend to be quite invisible compared to other groups of students. They are so dispersed and so busy with their courses, jobs and family obligations that they seldom form action groups or student unions. Online student catalogues may help these students become more visible as a group that deserves more attention. And the riscks are: Risks: inappropriate content, copyright issues, criticisms from dissatisfied students, student who explore too much personal information. But on the whole have had few issues and problems. Paulsen believed transparency improves quality, error correction, preventive quality, learning quality. Also it promotes cooperation. I was curious and went to see some of the Student Profiles (NKI’s) Online Catalogue (http://www.nki.no/pp/EikelandAnette; http://www.nki.no/pp/SiriKverneland; http://www.nki.no/pp/kvalvikt; http://www.nki.no/pp/skogbergetr). I found it interesting to confirm the profile of the majority of students online (employed, married with children, living outside the major cities, who for various reasons did not continue studies when young and now have an opportunity here to do it). I believe that the disclosure of the profile can encourage other students.

In his article, Christopher Hill reported on the purpose of Transparency by Design. This is an initiative from a consortium of adult-serving educational institutions with significant commitments to distance education, is based on the premise that a wellinformed student—or prospective student—benefits everyone. A key focus of the plan is providing program-specific outcomes data that allows students to make informed decisions about their education investment. Transparency by Design institutions began issuing annual reports that include comprehensive data for each course of study, including student demographics, completion rates, costs,

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Compilation By Eduarda Rondão (Fev.2010)


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

student engagement, and knowledge and skills learned. Most important, Transparency by Design reports include outcomes at the program specialization level, allowing prospective students to assess how well a program will prepare them for their professional pursuits. Christopher refers a few basic principles for institutions that really want to be transparent. • Make distance education a central element of your mission; • Accountability to stakeholders; • Responsiveness; • Faculty competence; • Institutional integrity; • Excellence in student services; • Integrity in marketing; • Curricular quality. It seems a foregone conclusion that the quality of online education is related to transparency. For this to happen institutions must make the disclosure without compromising the appearance of the privacy of students. This idea is also supported by Terry Anderson in his article when he refers “Again it seems obvious that without transparency, learners in distance learning contexts can not compare their performance with others, possibly resulting in anxiety and less opportunity for effective self-evaluation, self-enhancement and self-improvement. The individualized nature of some forms of distance education however may be useful for both high and low achievers who may find such comparisons either depressing or ego inflating to the degree that performance and or motivation is impaired.” Very curious and interesting is how George Siemens opens its article referring to himself and how transparency has benefited him. He says “I’ve gained much from being a transparent learner. Over the last nine years – on blogs, wikis, and recently Twitter – I’ve expressed half-formed ideas and received the benefit of constructive (and critical feedback). I generally focus on what I’ve gained, but I suspect readers of my sites and articles have gained something from the experience as well. Putting ideas out for discussion contrasts with formal “reach a conclusion and publish” model.” In the last article, Christian Dalsgaard make an approach to the educational potentials of social software or Web 2.0. He exploits the potential of social software / Web 2.0 in

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Compilation By Eduarda Rondão (Fev.2010)


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

education and try to understand how they can support transparency between students. One of the problems encountered Dalsgaard was that the use of social software / Web 2.0, students combine the entries related to learning and personal entries. The challenge is to create a balance between personal tools and tools for collaborative group work that are also suitable for transparency between students.

References Transparency in Cooperative Online Education By Christian Dalsgaard and Morten Paulsen (2009) In http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/671/1267 (Accessed December 28, 2009 and February 12, 2010) -----Transparency in Cooperative Online Education By Morten Paulsen (2009) In http://home.nki.no/morten/index.php/component/content/article/3-artikler-utenkommentarer/86-transparency-in-cooperative-online-education.html (Accessed December 28, 2009 and February 13, 2010) -----Keynote: Paulsen - Visualizing student profiles through NKI’s online catalogue and student network By Morten Paulsen (2009) In http://cloudworks.ac.uk/cloud/view/2340 (Accessed December 29, 2009 and February 13, 2010) -----Social networking sites: Transparency in online education By Christian Dalsgaard In http://eunis.dk/papers/p41.pdf

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Compilation By Eduarda RondĂŁo (Fev.2010)


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

(Accessed December 29, 2009 and February 12, 2010) -----Profiling Online Students By Morten Paulsen In http://www.eden-online.org/blog/2008/10/01/profiling-online-students/ (Accessed December 30, 2009 and February 13, 2010) -----Principles for Improving Online Transparency, Quality By Christopher Hill (2009) In http://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/distance-learning/principles-for-improvingonline-transparency-quality/ (Accessed December 30, 2009 and February 14, 2010) -----Social Software related reviews By Terry Anderson (2009) In http://terrya.edublogs.org/2009/01/26/social-software-related-reviews/ (Accessed December 29, 2009 and February 13, 2010) -----Teaching as transparent learning By George Siemens (2009) In http://www.connectivism.ca/?p=122 (Accessed December 29, 2009 and February 13, 2010) -----Supporting Transparency between Students By Christian Dalsgaard (2009) In http://person.au.dk/fil/16581515/Dalsgaard_Supporting_Transparency.pdf

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Compilation By Eduarda Rond達o (Fev.2010)


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

(Accessed December 28, 2009 and February 14, 2010)

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Compilation By Eduarda Rond達o (Fev.2010)


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

Unit 3

Activity 2 – Learning Object

I decided to do a book with a compilation of the most read articles. I think it is a good way to help those seeking information on the subject. Reviewed this LO due to copyright. So I sent email to all authors whose articles appeared in this publication, requesting authorization to build. To my amazement, they all replied in the affirmative, with the exception of Terry Anderson and Christopher Hill, who did not respond. To all my thank you.

Compilation


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

Dear Dr. Christian Dalsgaard (Jan.17.2010) My name is Eduarda Rond達o and I am taking a master on E-Learning Pedagogy (Open University, Portugal). I am currently doing a task for the unit pedagogical processes in e-learning, and as a teacher, Morten Flate Paulsen. For this task we have been asked to work on Transparency in Online Education. I would like to make a compilation of some relevant articles on the subject. To this I would like to get your permission to include yours excellent articles: Transparency in Cooperative Online Education; Social networking sites: Transparency in online education; Supporting Transparency between Students and Teaching as transparent learning. I already have the authorization of the teacher Morten I thank you now and I look forward to your response Best regards Eduarda Rond達o

Dear Eduarda (Jan.18.2010) Thank you for your mail. I am glad that you find my articles useful, and you are very welcome to include them in your work. Good luck on your master. Best Christian Dalsgaard

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Compilation By Eduarda Rond達o (Fev.2010)


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

Dear Dr. George Siemens (Jan.17.2010) My name is Eduarda Rond達o and I am taking a master on E-Learning Pedagogy (Open University, Portugal). I am currently doing a task for the unit pedagogical processes in e-learning, and as a teacher, Morten Flate Paulsen. For this task we have been asked to work on Transparency in Online Education. I would like to make a compilation of some relevant articles on the subject. To this I would like to get your permission to include your excellent article: Teaching as transparent learning I would like to tell you how much I appreciate your work and has been an inspiration to me. I thank you now and I look forward to your response Best regards Eduarda Rond達o

Hi Eduarda (Jan.18.2010) - yes, feel free to use the article. Thanks for your kind comments :). George

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Compilation By Eduarda Rond達o (Fev.2010)


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

Unit 3

Activity 3 – Review of Learning Object

The object of learning that I chose for my analysis is the work done by Helena Prieto. There are several reasons why I chose this learning object. It is visually very attractive and appealing. It requires, however, that the author has a great power of synthesis. It is interesting as a "poster" to include the video. Helena's summary of the information on the subject she want to explore and does in a very correct way. The Helena ultimately alert us to the importance of sharing and cooperation. I also think is very important the reference by Helena on privacy. Privacy is important but can not be an obstacle in finding colleagues to be a learning partner. I liked the approach that Helen was on the advantages of having a learning partner.

Compilation


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

I found particularly interesting the introduction of video and references to other sources to increase knowledge.

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Compilation By Eduarda Rond達o (Fev.2010)


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

Unit 3

Activity 3 – Review of Annotated Bibliography

Hi all. I’d like to comment the annotated bibliography that Luís Rodrigues posted on his blog. To make the annotated bibliography, Luis chose four of the most relevant published work. He organized his annotated bibliography of the following: • Put the title of the article with a link to your location; • Mentioned the name (s) of authors; • Said the site where the article can be found; • Indicated the date on which accessed the article. All the posts are well organized. For each article Louis not only refers to parts of the article considers most important or relevant but gives an opinion on the subject. The research we have done has proved that on this subject a few articles published, so the bibliography of Louis was based on a small number of items. I liked the way that Louis made his AB. I have no suggestions to make.

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Compilation By Eduarda Rondão (Fev.2010)


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

Unit 3

Activity 4 – One-Question-Interviews

Good morning I agree with the view of colleagues that everyone can see all the forums but only in part of their course. Thus the student can follow the forums that interest you and transparency would be greater. The fact that the student can not participate in all the forums also facilitates the work of the teacher tutor. Because I think it is a very absorbing and exhausting for the teacher can follow any responses to their pupils in all forums. Eduarda

Good morning. Like most colleagues, I also would not change anything in my comments. Also because most of our comments illustrate our line of thinking and that is placed on articles we publish our blogs and therefore is accessible to all of us. Eduarda

Hi all. As regards the disclosure of personal data, I agree with Helena and Teresa Fernandes. There are certain types of data that should only be disclosed with the consent of the student in question. I refer to social security numbers, phone and address. The other data I think that should be disclosed. However I also put the issue of Rosalina, the disclosure of data contributes how to improve learning? I think it may be more relevant to the institution itself for the student.

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Compilation By Eduarda RondĂŁo (Fev.2010)


Pedagogical Processes in E-Learning By Morten Paulsen Master Degree in E-Learning Pedagogy Open University, Lisbon

But, increasing the confidence in the institution will not increase the quality of learning? For example, a credible institution can bring to you a group of the most respected teachers and thereby improve the quality of their teaching. Eduarda

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Compilation By Eduarda Rond達o (Fev.2010)


PPEL - Compilation