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N° 45 • May/June 2019

MAGAZINE European Defence Review Defiant Turkish Aerospace Through-Deck Amphibious Vessels: the European Way

Wheeled armoured personnel carriers: the intermediate 3-axles solution Self-protection evolution for rotary-wing platforms Learn to Test - Test to Learn


I S S U E N° 45 2019

Publisher: Joseph Roukoz Editor-in-chief: Paolo Valpolini Aviation & Space Editor: David Oliver Naval Editor: Luca Peruzzi European Defence Review (EDR) is published by European Defence Publishing SAS

Turkish Aerospace’s Anka is in operational service with the Turkish Air Force and is one of the key products of the Turkish aerospace industry. © Turkish Aerospace

www.edrmagazine.eu

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Defiant Turkish Aerospace

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Through-Deck Amphibious Vessels: the European Way

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Wheeled armoured personnel carriers: the intermediate 3-axles solution

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Self-protection evolution for rotary-wing platforms

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Learn to Test Test to Learn

By David Oliver

By Luca Peruzzi

By Paolo Valpolini

By Luca Peruzzi

By David Oliver

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The first Turkish F-35A was rolled out at Lockheed Martin’s Fort Worth facility in June 2018 before deliveries was put on hold by the US Congress. © Lockheed Martin

Defiant Turkish Aerospace By David Oliver The United States and Turkey have been NATO allies since 1952 and share some vital interests but the strategic relationship between the two nations seems to be over. While Turkey remains formally a NATO ally, it is not currently a partner of the United States. Turkey has vowed to continue fighting a US-backed Kurdish militia which it views as a terrorist group after US President Donald Trump warned of economic devastation if Ankara attacked Kurdish forces as American troops withdraw.

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ensions between Washington and Ankara was raised again in March 2019 when NATO’s supreme allied commander US General Curtis Scaparrotti warned that if Turkey deploys the Russian S-400 air defence system, the United States should not deliver Lockheed Martin’s F-35 Joint Strike Fighter to Turkey and should consider prohibiting the nation from buying other military technologies. In addition to citing technology security concerns associated with operating the S-400 alongside US aircraft, Gen Scaparrotti claimed that the

Russian air defence system is not interoperable with NATO systems. In response to the general’s warning Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan said the deal for Russian S-400 system has nothing to do with Pentagon and should not imperil F-35 fighter jet acquisition. Turkey has been a Level III programme partner with Lockheed Martin under the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) programme since its inception in 1999, and it received delivery of its first aircraft in a ceremony held in Fort Worth, Texas in June 2018.

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Turkish Aerospace is developing an indigenous Fifth-Generation combat aircraft to the replace the Turkish Air Force’s F-16s. © TAI

Turkey plans to purchase 100 F-35A Conventional Take-off and Landing variants with industrial opportunities for Turkish companies, and Turkish Aerospace Industries (TAI) in particular, expected to reach $12 billion. The centre fuselage components, inlet duct skins, and air-to-ground weapon pylons are being produced by TAI, the rear hub for Pratt & Whitney F135 turbofan engines, nickel and titanium discs, landing gear, brake system and aircraft structural parts are being produced by Alp Aviation, the panoramic cockpit display and missile remote interface unit components by Ayesa, aircraft fuselage and wing structural parts by Kale Aerospace and various engine parts for the F135 engines by Kale Pratt & Whitney. However, the sale of F-35s to Turkey was put on hold by the US Congress on 2 August 2018 as part of a National Defense Authorization Act, pending a report from Pentagon assessing the necessary measures and full costs of cutting F-35

The first of 15 Hurkus-B basic turboprop trainers for the Turkish Air Force flew in January 2018. © TAI

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deliveries to Turkey and the impasse continues to the this day. Any delay in introducing the F-35A into service would be a serious concern for the Turkish Air Force which is still reeling from the repercussions of the failed military coup d’état of July 2016 which was supported by some air force officers, while others defended the government. More than 500 air force officers, including a former commander-in-chief and a large number of pilots were arrested and dismissed from the service. However TAI, recently renamed Turkish Aerospace, under the leadership of Temel Kotil is pressing ahead with a series of ambitious military programmes. At the head of the list is the TF-X programme officially known as National Combat Aircraft, to replace the Turkish Air Force F-16s. The Fifth-Generation TF-X is planned to have a maximum take-off weight (MTOW) of 27,215 kg, a length of 19 meters and a wingspan of 12 meters.


12 Hurkus-C light attack/armed reconnaissance aircraft equipped with an EO/IR surveillance reconnaissance aircraft and targeting system are on order for the Turkish Air Force. © David Oliver

It will be powered by two 90 kN thrust-class turbofan engines with afterburning. It is expected to have an operational radius of over 1,100 km and a flight ceiling of over 16,764 meters (55,000 ft) and a maximum speed of Mach 2. TAI stated that the TF-X is envisaged to operate with F-35A planes planned to enter the inventory of the Turkish Air Force, adding that TF-X production would run until 2070. Under Ankara’s policy of domestically sourcing defence equipment, TAI and its Turkish industry partners aim to manufacture the TF-X low radar cross-section airframe, engine, munitions, situational awareness elements and its sensor fusion inputs indigenously in Turkey. On November 2018, Turkey’s Minister of Defence (MoD) Nurettin Canikli said that TAI, the MoD and Turkey’s Presidency of Defence Industries (SSB) remained committed to achieving a maiden test flight of a prototype TF-X powered by General Electric F110s in 2023, stating it was the “primary goal” of the Turkish government. In January 2015, the TAI and the SSM awarded BAE Systems a contract worth over £100 million to help design the TF-X. Under the four-year contract, BAE is to provide 400 man/years of engineering consulting and technical support work to TAI. Upon its completion, BAE is expected to receive another contract to support the development of the TF-X in Turkey.

With regard to the TF-X turbofan engine programme, the Turkish MoD emphasized that it was still looking at its options. Although the UK government has provided an Open General Export License to Turkey, enabling Rolls-Royce to partner with the private Turkish company Kale Group to form TAEC Uçak Motor Sanayi AS in May 2017. Rolls-Royce planned to train 350 Turkish engineers and utilise Turkish technical capacities as part of the development process. However, the Turkish MoD made it clear that Turkey was not looking to depend on one country for the TF-X programme, stating, “When you work with a single company, or when you depend on a single country, you could face different problems in certain stages of the project.” Turkey has also embarked on an indigenous TF-X engine development programme with the establishment of a consortium called TRMotor that may have international partners involved in the project. In December 2018 it was reported that RollsRoyce revealed that it had proposed improved terms to the Turkish government with its partner Kale Group for the nation’s TF-X fighter development, while at the same time the UK engine manufacturer confirmed that it had scaled back its involvement in the project. Issues that have arisen between the two parties are due to problems surrounding the transfer of intellectual

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property, and although this has not been confirmed by Rolls-Royce the company affirmed that it is still involved in the project and continues to pursue opportunities with its Turkish partner. At the 2018 Farnborough International Airshow TAI showcased a mock-up of its proposed singleengine Hurjet advanced jet trainer. According to TAI’s corporate marketing and vice president, Tamer Ozman, Hurjet is expected to make its first flight in 2022 and the first should enter Turkish Air Force service in 2025. In July TAI, SSB, and the Turkish Air Force had signed the Hurjet project protocol agreement that there would be five Hurjet prototypes, manufactured in two different configurations, an Advanced Jet Trainer (AJT) and a Light Combat Aircraft (LCA). TAI intends to design a Mach 1.2 jet that will allow fighter pilots to move seamlessly from a turboprop trainer to a Fifth-Generation jet fighter. The Hurjet will replace the TAF T-38 fleet that TAI upgraded between 2011-2016. The TAI Hurkus-B is a basic and primary turboprop trainer aircraft equipped with a BAE Systems LiteHUD lightweight head-up display in the front cockpit, multifunctional cockpit displays, a mission computer and Martin-Baker Mk T16N ejection seats. Fifteen have been ordered for the TAF. Turkish Aerospace is also developing a

The T129 ATAK combat helicopter is being delivered to the Turkish Armed Forces and selected by the Pakistan Army. © TAI

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light attack/armed reconnaissance variant, the Hurkus-C which is equipped with a total of seven hardpoints, three under each wing and one on the fuselage, to carry external loads weighing up to 1,500 kg. It can carry a fuel tank with a capacity of 70 gallons (318 liters) on external mounts. Armament options include the Roketsan UMTAS/ LUMTAS anti-tank missile system, the Roketsan Cirit 2.75in laser-guided air-to-surface rocket system, GBU-12 laser-guided bombs, MK.81 and MK.82 unguided general purpose bombs, BDU33 and MK-106 practice bombs, and HGK-3 INS/ GPS and KGK-82 wing-assisted guidance kits for general purpose bombs. The aircraft can also be armed with a 12.7 mm machine gun and a 20 mm machine gun pod. Turkish Aerospace is heavily involved in the design and production of rotary-wing aircraft including the two-seat twin-engine T129 ATAK advanced attack and reconnaissance helicopter developed from the AgustaWestland AW129 Mangusta. A total of 59 T129s are being delivered to the Turkish Army and in July 2018 Pakistan signed a $1.5 billion contract with TAI to supply 30 T129 ATAK combat helicopters. However, following the breakdown of relations between the United Sates and Turkey the US Department of Defense (DoD) denied Turkey an export license required for the T129’s T800-4A turboshaft engines made in the


The multirole 6-ton T625 is designed for both military and civil application powered by an indigenous turboshaft engines. © David Oliver

United States by the LHTEC partnership between Honeywell and Rolls-Royce. Another situation that is currently ongoing. Looking for future export opportunities, Turkish Aerospace launched its “T129 ATAK Brazil Roadshow” at LAAD 2019 in Rio de Janeiro, the largest defence industry exhibition in Latin America. In February 2019 Turkey’s SSB signed a contract with Turkish Aerospace for a Heavy Class Attack Helicopter Project. Designated T130 ATAK-2, the Heavy Class Attack helicopter will have two engines driving a five-blade main rotor, with a tandem armoured cockpit configuration for pilot and gunner. It will have a modular avionics package that will include a four-axis autopilot and helmet-mounted displays for the crew. Turkish Aerospace will design and produce the advanced attack helicopter capable of carrying a large payload, resistant to challenging environmental factors and equipped with stateof-the-art technology target tracking and imaging, electronic warfare, navigation, communications and weapon systems. The Heavy Class Attack Helicopter which is planned to take to the air in 2024 will be another project designed to play an

important role in reducing external dependency of Turkey’s defence sector. Tusaş Engine Industries (TEI), a sister company of Turkish Aerospace is spearheading the development of a 1,400 shp turboshaft engine for the ATAK-2 Heavy Class Attack Helicopter, and for the Turkish Aerospace T-625 multirole helicopter that conducted its first flight on 6 September 2018. The T625 is a new generation 6-ton, twin engine, 12 seat + 2 crew helicopter designed for military, paramilitary and civilian purposes. Its state-of-the-art avionics, new technology transmission and rotor systems are designed for exceptional performance at hot and high geographical conditions.

A 10-ton utility helicopter is under development aimed at the search & rescue and offshore support operations. © TAI

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A 10-ton utility helicopter with military configuration suitable for search and rescue and offshore operations will also be developed with advanced avionics and mission systems. The helicopter will be designed to meet a wide range of operational requirements, and will have a large and high cabin, a rear down-ramp and retractable landing gear. The helicopter will be designed to carry 20+ personnel, with a maximum speed of 170 knots, and have a range of 1,000 km. Turkish Aerospace is also active in the design and development of unmanned aerial systems. The ANKA medium-altitude long-endurance (MALE) was launched by the SSM in December 2004. The 8 meters long UAV has a wingspan of 17.3 meters and is powered by a 155 hp heavy fuel engine. As an initial order for ten ANKA Block-B air vehicles and 12 ground control stations (GCS) are being delivered to the Turkish Air Force, Turkish Aerospace have launched the ANKA-S which was initiated in October 2013 to meet the demands of the TAF. The ANKA-S integrates domestically developed sub-systems such as the Aselsan CATS EO/

IR camera system in addition to the ASELFLIR 300T and SARPER SAR system. Although the ANKA Block-B system can reach beyond 200 km through Link Relay capabilities, the ANKA-S has a satellite control capability, which enables it to perform Beyond-Line-Of-Sight (BLOS) day and night autonomous flight and navigation. The ANKA-S GCS can operate up to six UAVs simultaneously via Ku Band satellite links with 10 Mbps bandwith capacity. A domestically developed personnel locating system, national IFF, MILSEC-3 radio communications with data encryption and radio relay functions have been adopted for ANKA-S. Technical and flight training with the system provided for the Air Forces Command started in October 2017 and have been successfully completed. In spite of the political machinations that swirl around the country, Turkey is preparing to significantly increase its 2019 defence budget and one of the main beneficiaries will be Turkish Aerospace which is focused on enhancing its success in the defence industry of Turkey by bringing together national and indigenous capabilities.

ANKA-B medium-altitude long-endurance (MALE) UAVs are being delivered to the Turkish Air Force while advanced ANKA-S is under development. Š David Oliver

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Through-Deck Amphibious Vessels: the European Way By Luca Peruzzi

Fincantieri has gained success with the Enhanced San Giusto-class LPD design, which is in service with the Algerian Navy since 2015 and was contracted in a further evolved version for the Qatar Emiri Naval Forces. © Luca Peruzzi

The latest years’ worldwide humanitarian relief and crisis management or enforcement operations highlighted the need for first- and second-rank naval forces to deploy large multipurpose amphibious ships able to support out-of-area operations, with extended accommodation for personnel, materiel, vehicles and medical/primary care capabilities, alongside with strengthened rotary-wing, watercraft and C3 capabilities. European’s Fincantieri, Naval Group, Navantia and TAIS shipbuilding groups’ proposals analysed.

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incantieri has gained success with the Enhanced San Giusto-class throughdeck LPD design, which is in service with the Algerian Navy since 2015 and was contracted in a further evolved version for the Qatar Emiri Naval Forces (QENF). Based on the through-deck LPD design except for

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the bow-area accommodating the main gun mounting, the Enhanced San Giusto-class has an 8,880 tons full load displacement, a length and beam of respectively 142.9 and 21.5 meters, and a propulsion system based on two main diesel engines providing a 20 knots maximum speed and an endurance of 7,000 NM at 15 knots. The


The Enhanced San Giusto-class LPD is reporting strong interest by Middle East region countries, in particular the Saudi Arabia. © US navy

flight deck features two Leonardo AW-101-type helicopter (forward and rear of the island) spots and a central 30 tons elevator for vehicles and material or Super Lynx-type helicopters to reach the hangar deck, capable to accommodate up to 15 heavy vehicles. The stern dock (20.5 x 7 m) allows operations with three Cantiere Navale Vittoria-provided Landing Craft Mechanised (LCMs), sided by three Landing Craft Vehicle and Personnel and one Landing Craft Personnel (Large) crafts stations on the port vessel side. With a 152 complement and accommodation for 450 troops and personnel, the vessel features a robust command, control, communications and operations management complex and weapon suite provided mainly by Leonardo. To be delivered in 2024, the further Enhanced San Giusto-class LPD for QENF has a more powerful propulsion system and further evolved combat system provided by Leonardo and centred on a new-generation Athena CMS family solution, while Fincantieri’s Seastema company provides a new-generation integrated platform management system (IPMS). The Leonardo-provided sensor suite will include Grand Kronos Naval multifunction AESA radar, conformal IFF, the new fully-digital L-band Kronos Power Shield AESA long-range surveillance radar for tactical ballistic missile detection and engagement, SASS IRST, a NA-30S Mk2 dual-band radar/EO and Medusa fire control systems for guns, an Elettronica’s

RESM/CESM/ECM integrated suite with decoy launchers, in addition to navigation/helicopter control radars. The armament suite includes the MBDA Italia SAAM ESD air defence system with Aster 30 Block 1 missiles (up to 16 vertical cells), a Leonardo Super Rapido 76/62 mm gun and four 30 mm Marlin remotely-controlled guns. Fincantieri also unveiled a 20,000 tons LHD design with 190 meters length and 33 meters beam, up to six AW101 helicopter-type spots flight deck and capable to accommodate up to 750 troops in addition to a 200 complement and up to 1,200 metric lanes deck capability for vehicles.

The Enhanced San Giusto-class LPD for QENF has a Leonardoprovided combat system with AESA multifunction and longrange surveillance radars, and MBDA Italian SAAM ESD air defence system. © Luca Peruzzi

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To complete the range of the Italian group’s amphibious vessel solutions, the Italian MoD awarded in 2015 to a Fincantieri-led industrial team a contract for a large and capable LHD to be launched in 2019 and delivered to the Italian Navy in 2022. With a 33,000 tonnes full load displacement, a length and beam of respectively 245 and 36 meters, the new Trieste LHD is equipped with a COmbined Diesel or Gas (CODOG) with electric motors propulsion system including two Rolls-Royce MT30 gas turbines, two MAN 20V32/44R diesel engines and two electrical motors on two shafts with conventional rudders and controllable pitch propellers, offering a maximum speed of respectively 25, 18 and 10 knots. Endurance reaches 7,000 NM at 16 knots. Accommodations include 1,064 beds for a 460 complement and the remaining aviation, embarked C4I and amphibious unit personnel.

The Italian MoD awarded in 2015 to a Fincantieri-led industrial team a contract for a 33,000 tonnes LHD to delivered to the Italian Navy in 2022. © Luca Peruzzi

The LHD presents a full-length flight deck with a two-structures island, two 40 tonnes capable elevators and six plus three helicopter spots capable to accommodate both Italian Navy and Army helicopters in addition to unspecified STOVL aircraft, CH-53s and V-22 tiltrotors type platforms. The 2,300 m2 hangar can accommodate both aircraft and vehicles for 530 meters available lines while the forward vessel area features a fully equipped 770 m2 NATO Role 2-E hospital area and the 470 m2 embarked amphibious C4I staff area. The 700 m2 underneath main garage and 50x15 meters stern well deck can respectively accommodate wheeled and armored vehicles weighing up to 62 tonnes and up to four Cantiere Navale Vittoria-built 23 meters LCMs. While Fincantieri’s Seastema company provides the integrated platform management system (IPMS), Leonardo supplies the combat system centered on the new generation SADOC Mk 4 Command Management System (CMS) and a sensor suite including the new X-band Kronos StarFire four fixed-faces EASA radar, and the new L-band Kronos Power Shield AESA longrange surveillance radar with anti-ballistic missile capabilities, conformal IFF, a distributed static staring IRST (DSS-IRST) as well as an integrated

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The model of the two-structures island of new LHD Trieste for Italian Navy. © Luca Peruzzi


communications suite with multiple data links processor. The Elettronica group provides the RESM/CESM/RECM suite with two Leonardo ODLS-20 decoy launchers and the Black Snake towed-array torpedo detection system, in addition to obstacle avoidance sonar and surface longrange non-lethal defence systems. The ILDS is based on three 76/62 Super Rapido gun-mounts with Strales guided ammunitions and three dual-band radar-EO/IR NA-30S Mk2 fire control system and 25/80 mm smaller guns. The French Naval Group shipbuilder is offering its family of Mistral amphibious/multirole platforms based on the successful Bâtiment de Projection et Commandement (BPC) design, built by today Naval Group and Chantiers de l’Atlantique (ex STX France) with Naval Group acting as the combat system supplier and integrator for the French Navy’s joint expeditionary capabilities plans. With a 21,500 tonnes full load displacement, 199 meters length and 32 meters beam, and an all-electric propulsion system based on three Wärtsilä diesel generators and two RollsRoyce Mermaid azimuth thrusters providing a maximum speed of 19 knots, the Mistral class/ BPC design can transport a battle group made of 450 troops and 60 armored vehicles, among which 13 Leclerc main battle tanks. The BPC design offers a 6,400 m2 flight deck with six

helicopter spots and an 1,800 m2 hangar deck capable to accommodate 16 helicopters, ample capacity for hospital facilities, and extensive joint command operations modular assets. The Mistral amphibious/multirole platforms family incorporates the lessons learned by the French Navy’s fleet of three BPCs operations around the world, from the evacuation of international citizens in Lebanon to the deployment of troops to Mali, passing through the participation to Libyan operations with an embarked airmobile group including Puma, Gazelle and Tiger helicopters, which contributed to the rotary-wing raids over Libyan territory. The BPCs are equipped with Thales’ SENIT 9 combat management system (CMS), the MRR3D-NG multirole radar, a radio and SATCOM communications suite, and the SIC 21 command support system. A sensors suite upgrade for the whole French Navy’s amphibious fleet introduced the Safran EOMS NG electrooptical multifunction system, providing both 360 degree surveillance and weapon system control. Inner-layer defence is provided by two MBDA Simbad twin-Mistral missiles launchers and two Nexter Narwhal remotely controlled 20 mm guns. Troops, materiel and vehicles can be delivered ashore by up to 16 embarked rotary-wing platforms, including NHIndustries NH90 TTH/ NFH and Airbus Helicopters H225M medium tactical transport, supported by Airbus Helicopter

The Naval Group Mistral-class LHD is in service with French and Egyptian Navies, and its family of platforms being proposed primarily in Asia and Middle East. © Giorgio Arra

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The Egyptian Navy has acquired two Mistral-class LHDs, of which here is depicted the Anwar El Sadat vessel. © Giorgio Arra

Tigre HAP/HAD combat helicopters, in addition to four CTM (Chaland de Transport de Matériel) or the new EDA-S landing craft type to be delivered by CNIM-led industrial team, in alternative to two L-CAT/EDA-R (Engin de Débarquement Amphibie-Rapide) high-speed landing craft. Build by CNIM and delivered in four examples to the French Navy, these platforms offer enhanced performance and transport capabilities, being capable to carry 80 tonnes at 20 kts speed. The first Naval Group LHD-class export customer has been the Egyptian Navy, which received two BPC platforms (previously destined to the Russian Navy) respectively in June and September 2016 under the strategic partnership agreement and contract signed in 2015, with the Egyptian Ministry of Defence (MoD) and French Government support. These two platforms differ for some modifications such as the higher hangar ceiling to embark Russian helicopters, but has received French and western command and control, sensors and electronics equipment. The self-protection is assured by four mobile AN/ TWQ-1 Avenger Air Defense Systems. In addition to training and support, the contract with the Egyptian MoD also included the delivery of Naval Group’s new-generation landing crafts (CTM NG) and CNIM EDA-R fast amphibious landing crafts. The Naval Group’s LHD family also includes the Mistral/BPC 140 design with a 14,000 tonnes

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full load displacement, 170 meters length and 30 meters beam with a propulsion system based on two azimuth pods and a range of 6,000 NM at 15 knots. The flight deck would feature five helicopter landing spots with an embarkation capability of up-to-ten helicopters and a 400 m2 joint operations center for a command staff. The Mistral 140 will have accommodation for about 500 troops as well as over 30 vehicles and a 30-bed hospital. This platform is being offered by Naval Group to satisfy worldwide operators’ requirements, including the multirole support ships (MRSS) programme for three platforms in Malaysia in addition to the Middle East region and South Africa, while the larger Mistral/BPC 210 is being promoted in India with Pipavav (now Reliance) as partner, the RfP offer having been submitted and a decision from the Indian government being awaited. All those offers include technology transfer schemes, as already successfully achieved worldwide by Naval Group. The Buque de Proyección Estratégica (BPE) or strategic projection ship Juan Carlos I for the Spanish Navy has become the Navantia shipbudiling group’s LHD-type successful design, after having been selected and built for both Royal Australian and Turkish navies and currently being offered as part of the Athlas (Amphibious Transport Helicopter Landing Attack Ship) family of platforms, such as in India in partnership with Larsen & Toubro for the local tender of four LHD-


The French and Egyptian Navy’s Mistral class LHD can deploy the CNIM L-CAT/EDA-R high-speed landing craft capable to carry 80 tonnes at 20 kts speed. © Giorgio Arra

type platforms. Commissioned in September 2010 to later become the Spanish Navy’s aviation carrier platform, the BPE has a 27,050 tons full load displacement, length and beam of respectively 230.8 and 32 meters, with a combined dieselelectric and gas turbine propulsion system with two POD-type propellers offering a max speed of 21 knots. Characterized by a 12 degrees sky-jump and aviation facilities for Boeing AV-8B Harrier II Plus STOVL aircraft, the Juan Carlos/BPE design can transport up to 910 troops, 1,800 m2 and 1,480 m2 being available respectively for lightweight and heavyweight vehicles and materiel. Troops and materiel can be delivered ashore by 18-25 rotary-wing platforms, including The Mistral-class LHDs feature a 6,400 m2 flight deck with six helicopter spots and an 1,800 m2 hangar deck capable to accommodate 16 helicopters, in addition to a 2,650 m2 garage deck for vehicles, material and main battle tanks, hospital facilities, and extensive joint command operations modular assets. © Naval Group

NH90 TTH/NFH, Sea King SH-3D, AB-212, CH47 Chinook, supported by Tigre HAD combat helicopters, in addition to four Navantia-build LCM1E type landing craft or one Landing Craft Air Cushion (LCAC). Built by Navantia and BAE Systems Australia Defence, with the latter as prime contractor for ADAS (Amphibious Deployment and Sustainment) JP2048 phase 4A/B programme, and respectively delivered to the Royal Australian Navy in November 2014 and December 2015, two Canberra-class LHDs differs from the Juan Carlos class mainly for their equipment suite including a derivative of the Saab 9VL Mk3E

Commissioned in September 2010 to later become the Spanish Navy’s aviation carrier platform, the Navantia’s BPE design has been selected by Royal Australian and Turkish Navies. © NATO

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combat management system, Safran Vampir-NG EO/IR, Saab Giraffe AMB multifunction radar, L-3 Communications integrated communication systems, Sperry and Kelvin Hughes integrated navigation and helicopter control radar suite, and a self-defence package based on Harris ES-3701 ESM, BAE Systems Australia Nulka missile decoys plus four Rafael’s 25 mm Typhoon remotely-controlled weapon systems. In addition to an air component that can include Tiger Armed Reconnaissance Helicopters (ARH), NH90 TTHs, Sikorsky Blackhawks/Seahawks and Boeing CH-47 Chinooks, the around 1,050 troops, 110 vehicles and materiel can be delivered with the same Navantia-build LCM1E type landing craft, acquired in 12 examples under a separate contract.

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Based on a contract awarded in May 2015 to Turkish private shipyard Sedef (today part of TAIS’s shipyards group) with Navantia group as a technological partner, the keel of the future Turkish Navy’s Anadolu LHD based on the Athlas 26,000/Juan Carlos I platform design has been laid on February 2018 at the same local shipyard, for a planned delivery in 2021. The largest ship ever built for the Turkish Navy, to meet the latter’s requirements, the Anadolu LHD will be equipped with a combat system and its command management system (namely the Genesis Avent), provided by the Turkish industry, together with modifications to the well dock for the simultaneous operation of two LCACs and

a CODAD-configured propulsion system with five MAN 16V32/40 diesel generators and two Siemens eSIPOD to offer redundancy. The Turkish LHD will be able to accommodate and operate the Lockheed Martin F-35B with the sky-jump since the entry-into-service and operate with 12 F-35B plus a similar number of medium helicopters as aircraft carrier while accommodating 30 aircraft between medium sized and heavy helicopters such as V-22 Osprey when deployed for amphibious operations. With a 27,436 tonnes displacement, 231 meters length and 32 meters beam, the ship will be able to reach a 21 knots maximum speed with a 9,000 NM endurance at economical speed. The Anadolu-class LHD will feature a 5,440 m2 flight deck with six landing spots, the space for hosting the amphibious force including a 1,410 m2 garage for heavy loads, 1,165 m2 for the dock capable to accommodate up four Navantia-built LCM1E or two LCAC as well as an 1,880 m2 light cargo garage and a 900 m2 aviation hangar. The combat system will be centered on the Genesis Advent CMS with amphibious operation capabilities and Link11/16/22/JRE/ VMF, together with a sensors suite including a 3D SMART-S Mk2 radar, two LPI and two navigation radars, air traffic and control radar, APR radar, IRST, in addition to Aselsan RESM/RECM, decoy launchers and torpedo countermeasures system. The armament package will include 2 Phalanx inner-layer defence systems (ILDS), five 25 mm Stop and three 12.7mm Stamp remotely controlled guns.

All three customers which have chosen the Navantia’s BPE design, have also procured the Navantia-build LCM1E type fast medium landing craft. © Australian DoD

The future Turkish Navy’s Anadolu LHD based on the Athlas 26,000/Juan Carlos I platform, will be able to carry six F-35Bs, 4 T-129 Atak, 10 medium-type transport helicopters and two UAVs. © Paolo Valpolini

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Wheeled armoured personnel carriers: the intermediate 3-axles solution By Paolo Valpolini

At DSA 2018 Hanwha Defense Systems unveiled its Tigon, the successor of the Black Fox, which is proposed to Malaysia for its incoming 6x6 programme. Š P. Valpolini

While the struggle between tracks and wheels is still ongoing, and will probably never come to an end, within the wheeled community different solutions are available to cope with variable requirements. The key elements of an armoured vehicle remaining mobility, protection and firepower, priorities can stretch the triangle towards one of those elements or reduce it, depending on the mission assigned to the vehicle.

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hat is clear is that as far as crosscountry mobility is concerned there is a limit that can be supported by each axle, not necessarily for mechanical issues, but for pure mobility reasons in term of specific ground pressure which, if too high, will hamper the

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vehicle’s movements especially on soft terrain, i.e. mud or snow. Usually an 8 tonnes per axel limit is accepted, although many 8x8 are exceeding the 32 tonnes combat weight that should be the maximum if adopting the abovementioned figure. However the vehicle’s golden triangle does not take in count one element that has become key


The second prototype of Patria’s new 6x6 features a number of improvements, the most visible one being the bigger driver’s cabin. © Patria

in a time of shrinking budgets: cost. Adding an axle to a vehicle means extra cost, and not necessarily in a linear way. While 4x4s remain either a lightweight solution or, if weight goes up, a low mobility solution, at the other end we find 8x8s, which are now considered real fighting vehicles, although the only nation that decided to operate 4-axles wheeled IFVs alongside main battle tanks remains, for the time being, France. While 10x10 have not yet been adopted, although some designers told us that if customers insist in asking more and more protection the related weight increase will inevitably lead to a 5-axles solution, the intermediate solution, the 6x6, is considered viable for many countries facing limited threats or for combat support missions, operating alongside 8x8 vehicles of the same family. In 2018 at least two new 6x6 appeared on the market. The first one was unveiled in April by Hanwha of South Korea which exhibited in real its new Tigon at DSA in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia being one of the countries that have an ongoing requirement for a 6x6 armoured vehicle. In the previous years Hanwha developed the Black Fox, both in 6x6 and 8x8 versions, aiming at the South Korean Army programme which went to its competitor, but in the end it succeeded in exporting the 6x6 in Indonesia in the early 2010s, fitted with a CMI Defence CSE 90LP turret; the

43 vehicles are known as Tarantula and used as infantry fire support vehicles. Compared to the Black Fox 6x6 the Tigon is heavier, 21 tonnes GVW with some growth margin, and is powered by a Caterpillar C9.3 530 hp engine coupled to a full automatic Allison 4500SP transmission providing a good 25 hp/t power-to-weight ratio. Off-road mobility is ensured by the independent wishbone suspensions with coil spring and shock absorbers, while on-road maximum speed is 100 km/h, speed in water being 8.5 km/h, the Tigon being fitted with two waterjets at the rear. No data were provided for protection, the vehicle being able to carry a two-man crew plus nine dismounts in the APC version, firepower ranging from light RCWS up to 90 mm turrets. The current prototype completed summer trials in Malaysia and in the United Arab Emirates; these have shown some areas of improvement, i.e. access to subsystems to facilitate maintenance, Hanwha being ready to implement those modifications when the Tigon production will eventually start. Another vehicle made surface at Eurosatory where Patria of Finland unveiled its new 6x6. While maintaining some of the company AMV features, it is designed for affordability, both in acquisition and running costs. The Patria 6x6 is an “armoured infantry transporter”, according to company wording, the one-piece windscreen providing optimal visibility. The chassis subframe

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design is based on that of the AMV, however other elements, such as the Scania 5-cylinder diesel turbocharged 395 hp engine, are COTS that helps reducing costs and ensuring worldwide spares availability. At 24 tonnes maximum GVW, the payload is 8.5 tonnes allowing the all-round Level 2 protection to be increased to Level 4, with still a 4 tonnes payload left. The inherent modularity allows exploiting elements designed for other vehicles: rear doors are close derivatives of those used on the AMV, but can be replaced by other systems, such as a ramp, also already available, should the customer require it. Designed as an APC, with a crew of two and 10 dismounts at the rear, the Patria 6x6 can be fitted with manned or unmanned turrets, the crew becoming a 3+9, the internal volume being designed to host personnel together with all the equipment needed for a 72-hours mission. Depending on customer’s needs the vehicle is available with independent double wishbone suspensions fitted either with hydro pneumatic dampers or coil springs. The power generator provides 150 A, a 350 A solution being available. Other options are proposed; while standard steering is on the first two axles, a rear counter-steering axle is available, central

tire inflation system being also an add-on, as well as the rear propellers providing amphibious capability. Patria decided to build two more prototypes adding to that seen at Eurosatory. During a visit to Hämeenlinna in early March it was impossible to see the second prototype as it was already on the road together with prototype n.1. The lessons learned in the first trials, with company personnel as well as with potential customers, led to an increase in the cabin volume, obtained moving forward the windscreen. Prototype n.2 is not amphibious, the one fitted with the screws being thus n.3, which is planned for Q2 2019; floatability will be ensured at 21-22 tonnes, the company being still trying to reduce the vehicle’s kerb weight in order to further increase payload. Leveraging its experience in delocalising production, its AMV is currently being manufactured in Poland, Slovenia, Croatia and South Africa, Patria designed from inception its 6x6 to make technology and production transfer as easy as possible. Producing the vehicle locally does not need huge machining centres, while some elements will be delivered

The first prototype of the new Patria 6x6 pictured in Lapland during winter trials; the vehicle proved extremely easy to drive. © P. Valpolini

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FNSS’ PARS III 6x6 is being produced for Oman, the sultanate having acquired from the Turkish company a mix of 172 6x6 and 8x8 vehicles. © FNSS

from Finland, such as the engine and the axles, provided by Sisu Axles. The local content can be trimmed depending on the workforce skills and on the production rate required, scaling up or down the level of subsystems to be produced. The Hämeenlinna plant will ensure the assembly of some pre-production vehicles, used to train the customer’s workforce, Patria assisting in the ramp-up at the new production location. Although the AMV production has been delocalised in the four aforementioned countries, Patria maintains a 100 vehicles per year production capability at Hämeenlinna. For its 6x6 the Finnish company is looking at the numerous countries which armies are equipped with wheeled or tracked APCs dating from the 1950-60’s, promoting its 6x6 as a high mobility, easy to use and affordable design. Patria is also active in the upgrade of legacy XA180 6x6 APCs in service with the Finnish Army. In Turkey two 6x6 vehicles are available. FNSS’s PARS III 6x6 launch customer is Oman, the threeaxle vehicle being part of a contract for overall 172 among 8x8 and 6x6 versions. Oman is in fact the launch customer not only of the 6x6 version, but also of the PARS III standard, which independent hydropneumatic suspensions provide not only a very high wheel travel but also allow to considerably increase the protected volume. In

the infantry fighting vehicle configuration the FNSS vehicle has a combat weight of 25 tonnes, the type and output of the engine remaining undisclosed as usual with FNSS vehicles. The Ankara-based company is looking with interest at other opportunities, especially in the Middle East and South East Asia; one of the potential customers is Malaysia, where FNSS’s PARS 8x8 has been the base for the AV-8 co-developed with Deftech, a follow-on choice for a 6x6 with high commonalities by the Malaysian Army making sense under the logistic point of view. FNSS is also awaiting a contract for around 100 vehicles from the Turkish Land Forces; a potential requirement for some 475 6x6 and 8x8 vehicles has been around for over a decade to cover a series of missions requirements, but budgetary reasons led to a reduction in numbers, the PARS III 6x6 being planned in special configurations in EW recce, with mast mounted radar and optronic sensors, and in NBC recce. How the needs that had to be covered with the remaining vehicles, mostly support roles, will be dealt with remains to be seen. Otokar is proposing its Arma 6x6 that has been in service for quite some time with the Bahraini Army and used in Coalition operations, while the first customer was the Turkish Jandarma. The 18.5 tonnes GVW vehicle is powered by a 450 hp engine

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In service in Turkey and Bahrain, Otokar’s Arma 6x6 is actively marketed, the company strongly believing in this market segment. © Otokar

and is fitted with independent suspensions; the customer can chose between two options, with telescopic shock absorber and helical spring or with hydro-pneumatic strut. Optionally amphibious, it can reach 8 km/h top speed afloat while on road its maximum speed exceeds 105 km/h. Among other optional systems we find a power-operated ramp, which replaces the single right-hinged door provided as standard. The 6x6 maintains a high commonality with the 8x8 version of the Arma. Both Turkish companies feel that there is an increasing interest for 6x6 vehicles, with some new requirements being awaited in the near future. Designed according to the French Army requirements, the Griffon will mostly be marketed through government-togovernment agreements, such as it was the case of Belgium. © P. Valpolini

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As part of the Scorpion programme that will see a complete reshuffling of the Armée de Terre France is developing the Griffon APC. Developed by a temporary business grouping made of Arquus, Nexter and Thales it will feature the SICS battle management system that will be the core of the Scorpion system. At 24.5 tonnes in combat configuration, the Griffon is fitted with a 400 hp engine and independent hydro-mechanic suspensions, and is capable to carry a two-man crew plus eight dismounts, the latter accessing the vehicle via the single rear left-hinged door. No data were provided on the protection level,


Arquus’ VAB Mk III pictured at IDEX, fitted with active add on protection and cage armour, to improve protection against tandem-warhead shaped charges. © P. Valpolini

however add-on kits can be installed to improve crew protection. Six variants will be procured, APC (with four sub-versions), Command Post, Ambulance, Engineer, Artillery Observation, NBC Reconnaissance. The vehicle architecture sees the engine at the front, followed by the crew cabin, the two rear axles being under the troop transport compartment. The 2.5 meters width shows that the Griffon was designed keeping in mind operations in urban scenarios. Most APC versions will be fitted with a turret developed by Arquus armed with a 12.7 or 7.62 mm machine gun or a 40 mm automatic grenade launcher. The Griffon will replace the VAB 4x4 in service in the Armée de Terre. The 2019-2025 Military Programming Law increased the funding for Scorpion, the number of Griffon being increased to 1,872, 150 more than scheduled, 936 of which to be delivered within 2025 (+156). In late October 2018 the Belgian Council of Ministers approved the intergovernmental agreement with France that establishes a strategic partnership in the field of land mobility under the CaMo programme, the plan including 382 Griffons and 60 Jaguars. According to industry sources any other potential export order will go through govto-gov agreements. Two other 6x6 APCs of French origin are on the market. One is Arquus VAB Mk III, the 20

April 30 - May 3 Please visit us Hall: 7 | Stand No: 710


Nexter’s Titus will get soon a first contract with the Czech Republic, although a second undisclosed customer seems to have acquired this 6x6 based on a Tatra high mobility chassis. © P. Valpolini

tonnes successor to the older generation of VABs, capable of providing its 2+10 crew with an MRAP protection level against mines and a Level 4 ballistic protection. The latest appearance of the vehicle at IDEX saw it with an add-on protection against tandem shaped charges, the so-called Advanced Survivability System. The top side was fitted with what looked very much the SMARTPROTech modular active armour system unveiled at last Eurosatory by IBD Deisenroth Engineering, the lower and front part adopting a cage armour of unknown model. Arquus is actively marketing its VAB Mk III, especially to those customers using ageing VABs. A contract for 150 vehicles for Lebanon, financed by Saudi Arabia, remained on standby as the latter withdrew its financing. The third French 6x6 on the market is of a different breed: the 27 tonnes Titus can be considered by many as an MRAP, however it is in fact an APC, which exploits a Tatra chassis featuring the Czech company independently suspended swinging half-axles providing top cross country mobility at a much lower cost than fully independent

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suspensions. At the Future Forces Forum in Prague last October the Czech MoD officially announced the incoming signing of a contract for 62 Titus, prime contractor being Eldis Pardubice. Thirty-six will be configured as Armoured Communications Vehicle, 20 as Fire Support Coordination Element vehicles and six as Armoured Command Post, deliveries being expected in the 2020-2026 timeframe. EDR Magazine understood that a second export customer has already been bagged, the company remaining silent on that subject. A version featuring unmanned add-on solutions, both ground and air, was shown at Eurosatory, while a more powerful engine will be fitted on a prototype. Extending the vehicle scope, Nexter is working on a low profile version of its ARX-25 25 mm RCWS, the current one being too high, while a mortar version known as MEPAC (Mortier Embarqué Pour l’Appui au Contact) is also in the pipeline. Rheinmetall’s Fuchs 2 is the current standard for newly built Fuchs vehicles, the NBC version


Designed by Iveco DV in cooperation with Iveco do Brasil and based on Brazilian Army requirements, the Guarani is now in service and is marketed in Latin America and the Middle East. © Brazilian Army

being in service with the UAE and another Middle East country. However the bigger market for this vehicle is definitely Algeria, where a deal for setting up a production facility was signed in 2011, Rheinmetall constantly providing some of the vehicle subcomponents. The announcement in October 2018 of a three-digit million Euro contract to an “international customer” means that production is still going on, probably beyond the 980 vehicles initially established. While the company does not comment on that issue, due to non-disclosure agreements with the

customer, Rheinmetall is busy in upgrading part of the Bundeswehr fleet of Fuchs 1 to the Fuchs 1A8 configuration that provides much higher protection against mines, IEDs and ballistic threats; the last lot was contracted in 2016, 48 vehicles having been delivered in 2018, 45 to be delivered in 2019, the over 100 vehicles final deliveries being scheduled for Q1 2020. This will bring the number of Fuchs 1A8 in Bundeswehr service to around 270, and although things remain unclear a further upgraded lot might be required. A Post Design Services programme to deal with

A Jais 6x6 MRAP produced by Nimr in the UAE pictured during the dynamic demonstration at IDEX 2019. © P. Valpolini

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At Sofex 2018 KADDB unveiled its 24 tonnes Al-Fares 6x6, which completes the range of nationally designed vehicles ranging from 4x4 to 8x8. Š P. Valpolini

the obsolescences of the whole fleet, numbered at over 900, is ongoing. Germany intends to keep in service its Fuchs beyond 2030. A Latin American vehicle but with Italian DNA, the Guarani 6x6 is being manufactured at the Iveco plant in Sete Lagoas (Minas Gerais). The 20-tonnes class vehicle is now well in service with the Brazilian Army, around 350 having been delivered at a pace of 40-60 per year, the delivery of the last of the 1,580 vehicles scheduled being awaited for 2035. Personnel carrier and fighting vehicles will be the majority, 1,033, IFVs being only 35, while the further 547 vehicles will come in combat and combat service support configurations. Iveco is looking with interest at possible customers in Latin America, Chile and Paraguay being probably the two nations looking for such class of vehicles. The company also exhibited its VBTP-MR, the Brazilian acronym for the vehicle, at EDEX 2018 in Cairo, showing its intention not to limit the export market to Latin America.

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Numerous other 6x6 are available in the world: in the Middle East Nimr of the UAE produces the Jais 6x6 MRAP, in service with the national armed forces, while the Streit Group, also UAEbased, proposes its Varan and Alligator AFVs and Typhoon and Fiona MRAPs. At Sofex 2018 KADDB unveiled the Al-Fares 24 tonnes 6x6 based on a Belarus chassis, which can reach an all-round Level 3 ballistic and a Level 4a/3b antimine protection levels. It can carry a crew of three and eight dismounts, and this seems to end the cooperation between KADDB and the Paramount Group, announced in 2014 and aimed at producing the Mbombe 6x6in Jordan. Numerous countries are upgrading their existing 6x6 armoured vehicles, while new opportunities seem to surface. Malaysia was already mentioned, New Zealand’s Protected Mobility Capability Project being another potential programme that might see 6x6 APCs in the run to replace the Army LAV fleet. The three-axle solution is definitely far from being dead.


Leonardo provides DAS across the UK Armed Forces’ helicopter fleets as well as Electronic Warfare Operational Support (EWOS) support. Latest platform is the AH-64E Apache. Leonardo/UK © MoD Crowncopyright

Self-protection evolution for rotary-wing platforms By Luca Peruzzi Recent conflicts, peace-enforcing and peace-keeping operations including Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya and more recently Syria, have reaffirmed the need to provide helicopters of all kinds with robust platform self-protection capabilities. The latter have to deal with the return of both manportable air-defence systems (MANPADS) as well as radio-frequency (RF) threats in addition to gun fire of any kind, prompting European as well as Israeli armed forces and industries to develop integrated defensive aids suite (IDAS) based on EW controller capable to manage radar-warning receiver (RWR) missile- and laser-warners (MWS and LWS) with hostile fire indicator (HFI) capabilities, Directed InfraRed Countermeasures (DIRCM) as well as RFjammers and smart countermeasure dispensing system (CMDS), in addition to reinforced Electronic Warfare Operational Support (EWOS) capabilities. A significant requested effort against reduced budget’s, personnel training and long-term programmes.

I

n April 2018, Leonardo was contracted by the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) to provide a defensive aid suite (DAS) for the British Army’s new fleet of Boeing Apache

AH-64E helicopters, which are planned to be delivered from 2020. Under related contracts from the UK MoD and Boeing, Leonardo is integrating sensors and countermeasures. The group already

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Leonardo is offering the digital and programmable SEER RWR which in a UK-specific variant equips UK Armed Force’s helicopter fleets. © Leonardo

provides DAS across the UK Armed Forces’ helicopter fleet as well as Electronic Warfare Operational Support (EWOS) support to all of these platforms. Boeing Apache AH-64Es that come off the production line, for all end-users, have already a built-in Leonardo defensive aids suite processor, called ‘AGP’ (Aircraft Gateway Processor). In addition to the latter, the new UK MoD Apache’s DAS will integrate a number of sensors and countermeasure systems including Leonardo’s Sky Guardian 200-D (SG200-D) radar warning receiver (the UK-specific variant of the

company’s SEER family) as well as re-use of a number of systems that are currently on-board the Army’s fleet of Apache AH Mk1 including Leonardo’s S1223 laser warning receiver, the BAE Systems AN/AAR-57 missile approach warner and the Thales Vicon countermeasure dispensing system. Designed as a fit/form replacement of the previous generation Sky Guardian 200 system, in the standard E-J band configuration, the Leonardo-developed SEER programmable RWR system comprises one compact signal processing unit and two dual-channel wideband digital detector heads installed close to the antenna pairs. The C-D and K-band extensions are also available. Leonardo has also retrofitted all UK Chinook (including the latest HC Mk6 standard) and Puma fleet helicopters and is conducting a similar retrofit integration for the Merlin platforms under the HC Mk4 upgrade programme. All are equipped with the latest SG200-D RWR capabilities. Leonardo’s HIDAS (Helicopter Integrated Defensive Aids Suite) also equips both UK Royal Navy’s and South Korean Navy’s AW159 Wildcat helicopters, the latter also provided with Leonardo’s latest-generation SAGE electronic warfare systems. Leonardo is also providing a new DAS suite to the renewed Super Lynx AH-11B being re-delivered from January 2019 to the Brazilian Navy, alongside the SAGE

UK Royal Navy and South Korean Navy are using Leonardo HIDAS suite on board AW159 Wildcats. © Leonardo

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system. Under a multi-stage UK MoD programme, Leonardo and UK Thales developed and successfully tested together in 2018 a new DAS suite based on Leonardo’s Miysis DIRCM and UK Thales Elix-IR and integrated through Leonardo’s Defensive Aids Suite (DAS) Controller with UK MoD jamming codes. The readily exportable and fully qualified Miysis DIRCM comprises a point tracker solution and a specifically developed Type 160 IRCM laser module in a baseline integrated turret solution characterized by reduced size and drag, weight and power consumption. The system is under production for two international customers, being the Royal Canadian Air Force for fixed-wing application and an undisclosed Middle-East operator. The readily exportable Thales UK Elix-IR single-color IR multifunction passive Threat Warning System (TWS) provides advanced combined simultaneous and unimpeded missile warning, hostile fire indicator (HFI) and 360° spherical coverage imagery with a single sensor system.

The readily exportable Miysis DIRCM is under production or delivery by Leonardo for two international customers. © Leonardo

The Elettronica group is proposing a new generation of defensive aid packages for rotarywing applications, ranging from multi-function, single-box multispectral Virgilius suite to light ELT/741 ESM and light ELT/160 RWR families, all capable to act as EW managers, as well as a portfolio of advanced countermeasures to deal with the latest infrared and radio-frequency threats, including today fibre-laser ELT-572 DIRCM and soon-to-be qualified quantum cascade-laser EuroDIRQM, active phased array radar jammer,

Elettronica provides an integrated DAS for AW101 CSAR helicopters based on Virgilius ES/AE suite and ELT/572 DIRCM suite. © Italian Air Force

and under testing expandable active decoys. The higher-end application of Elettronica’s DAS solutions is the Italian Air Force’s AW101 Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR) and Special Forces support version procurement programme, with fully-equipped platforms planned to be delivered in 2019. The AW101 CSAR’s Virgilius ESM/ECM IEWS(V)12 integrated DAS manages a dualturret ELT/572 DIRCM suite with Hensoldt AN/ AAR-60 MILDS Block 2 MWS, Elettronica’s advanced RF-jammer solution, Leonardo’s RALM 02/V2 LWS and MES ECDS-2 CMDS. The fully digital, network centric compatible, scalable and modular multi-function single-box system acts as EW suite manager, where the three main functions (threat awareness, surveillance and jamming) are executed by a single set of processors, making the package (including the core multi-function unit (MFC), DF antennas and GaN-based solid-state, AESA array transmitters) lighter and less power-demanding. The Virgilius performs data fusion of information coming from different on board and off-board sensors via datalink and automatically reacts against the simultaneously incoming threats. Based on fibreoptic laser technology operating simultaneously in the first and fourth IR bands, the dual-turret ELT/572 DIRCM configuration provides quasispherical coverage and simultaneous multithreats engagements. Together with Italian

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The Elettronica’s Virgilius integrated DAS here displayed with RESM and RF-Jammers antennas. © Elettronica

The Elettronica’s fibre-optic ELT/572 DIRCM system will soon be sided by Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) technology-employing EURODIRQM. © Elettronica

Air Force, Elettronica also validated joint flareDIRCM countermeasures techniques claimed to be effective against 4th generation image seekers used by the latest MANPADSs and demonstrated during NATO EMBOW XV trails context (in closed loop with real victim seeker). Elettronica is also proposing the ELT/160 RWR, which was selected and contracted by the Italian MoD to update or newly-equip the complete NHIndustries fleet of Italian Army’s and Navy’s NH90 transport and utility helicopters, while other customers have expressed interest in the system. Characterized by a lightweight design and capable to act as EW manager, the ELT160 has a wideband RF coverage (E to K), and can automatically analyse, classify, display and record also unknown emissions, together with full digital signal processing and

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Elettronica’s lightweight ELT/160 RWR is planned to equip the NHIndustries NH90 fleet. © Elettronica

countermeasures integration. To cope with latest RF threats, Elettronica is also validating expandable active decoys (EAD) which, used in combination with on-board RECM, enable to protect medium-to-large RCS platforms using ad-hoc ECM waveforms. With a long tradition in electronic warfare and a range of solutions for fixed- and rotary-wing platforms and EWOS, Thales is offering integrated DAS centred on its family of Compact Airborne Threat Surveyor (CATS) ESM/RWR operational on-board rotary-wing platforms serving several undisclosed Armed Forces, advanced MWS solutions, including both active and passive systems and smart CMDS. The CATS-170 ESM/ RWR solution offers fast radar threat detection,


identification and tracking with high probability of intercept. Dealing with all type of radar threats, the system is resistant to communication signals interferences thanks to its digital lowband receiver. Characterized by low-volume and lightweight, it can record threats for data base improvement. Under the partnership unveiled at Farnborough 2016, Elettronica and Thales groups have put to common their know-how, marketing and products portfolio to offer jointly and seemly helicopter and aircraft self-protection

capabilities under the Cybele family suites. These include two main configurations based on common Elettronica-provided EW controller and including Thales CATS170 RWR, Elettronica ELT741 ESM, Thales Elix-IR MWS and Vicon XF CMDS, Elettronica ELT/572 DIRCM and Virgilius ECM functions, laser warner and future expandable active decoys (EADs), depending on requirements. Already operational on the worldmarket, the partnership is working on different proposals including the EW suite to equip the

Thales UK’s new generation Threat Warning System’s Elix-IR processing and Sensor Modules. © Thales

French Air Force’s Cougar Mk2 CSAR helicopters employ Thales EW systems. © Airbus Helicopters

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OCCAR’s managed Tiger’s future Mk3 attack helicopter version programme with an ad-hoc solution capable to defeat current and future decades’ threats.

defensive aids controller, with the Hensoldt AAR60 MILDS UV MWS, Hensoldt’s ALTAS-2Q LWS, and the MBDA Saphir-M CMDS. The latter is to be replaced by ELIPS-NH on the NH90 fleet.

Elettronica together with Indra are pursuing innovations in the DIRCM technology. The Quantum cascade laser technology (QCL) is the latest development in this sector and represents a step forward from conventional semiconductor lasers. Elettronica, together with Indra, promotes this solution, dubbed EuroDIRQM, as the first ITAR free, fully developed in Europe and one of the most advanced in the market. The under-qualification jointly-developed EuroDIRQM is being promoted by both companies for fixed-wing as well as rotary-wing applications, among the latter initial targeted platform being the Spanish Army’s new helicopters while new acquisitions and follow-on replacement of ELT/572 are expected for Italian MoD’s platforms. Spanish systems house Indra has supplied its SIMBA self-protection suite for NH90, Chinook, and Cougar transport helicopters and Tiger attack helicopters serving with the Spanish Army Aviation. SIMBA combines the company’s ALR-400 RWR based on a wideband 4th generation digital receiver and embedded

Saab’s Electronic Defence Systems’ Integrated Defensive Aids Suite and Compact Integrated Defensive Aids Suite (IDAS/CIDAS) modular product families have evolved over time to meet new operational requirements While the IDAS is a fully integrated DAS putting together RWR, LWS and MWR with automatic countermeasures decoy dispensing, CIDAS is a smaller and lighter weight variant with only MWS and a more compact controller. Both variants are fully integrated with Saab’s BOP-L lightweight countermeasures dispensing system. The baseline CIDAS fit comprises Saab’s MAW-300 ultraviolet (UV) MWS with four sensor heads, the LWS-310 laser warning system and BOP-L series countermeasures dispensers, all managed by the EWC100 electronic warfare controller (EWC) box. The more comprehensive IDAS suite adds an RWS-300 radar warning receiver (RWR), featuring a compact, wide-band, high-sensitivity solution with a high probability of intercept (POI). The optional addition of a digital receiver endows a full electronic

Airbus Helicopters’ Tiger combat helicopter for the Spanish Army is equipped with Indra’s EW equipment. © Indra

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Helibras H225M with the Saab EW suite. @ Airbus Helicopters

support measures (ESM) function. The modular flexible architecture of the IDAS/CIDAS enables tailoring of individual systems to user requirements with any of the sensor types, says Saab, while Human-Machine Interface (HMI) is via a dedicated full-colour threat display and control unit, or using existing onboard colour multifunction displays. The IDAS has been installed on a large number of rotary-wing platforms, including Leonardo AW109 and Super Lynx 300, Boeing CH-47 Chinook, Denel Rooivalk, Airbus Helicopters Cougar, Puma, and Super Puma, and NH Industries’ NH90. Deliveries of the latter suite in the IDAS-2 variant are ongoing for the family of HAL Dhruv Advanced Light Helicopter versions, the latest contract having been awarded in August 2018, the system having been selected and being provided to Airbus Helicopters to equip the H225M Caracal multirole utility helicopter for an undisclosed customer, reportedly being the Brazilian Navy.

and proven operational experience of the SPS65V-5 Sprectrolite integrated suite and IR Passive Airborne Warning System (PAWS) family systems, the ALL-in-SMALL integrated EW suite offers multi-spectral DAS and ESM capabilities. Leveraging advanced proprietary capabilities including IR-CENTRIC, ESM and Multi-Spectral Emitter Geo-Location, ALL-in-SMALL supports mission execution by providing precise sensor-to-shooter information as well as enhancing situational Swedish Armed Force NHIndustries NH90 helicopters are equipped with the Saab EW suite. © Saab

The Elisra company of Israeli’s Elbit Systems Group is offering the ALL-in-SMALL integrated DAS, which is enjoying export success. Merging in a single Line Replaceable Unit (LRU) the benefit of both high-end technological capabilities

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The Elbit group’s Elisra All-in-Small EW suite equipment are used by Indian and Republic of Singapore AH-64 and CH-47 helicopters. © Elbit

awareness. Extremely compact in size and lightweight, the ALL-in-SMALL is managed by an EW Controller offering weapon system threat data fusion (RWR, LWS and MWS), interoperability management (embedded blanking centre), voice and tone warning, HMI management, in-flight suite record management and provision for network-centric operations. The suite can include advanced wide and narrow bands digital RWRs offering full-band coverage, modern radar threat handling, high-sensitivity in dense environment, accurate direction finding and geolocation, in addition to ESM capabilities, the IR MWS offering multiple and simultaneous threat detection and effectiveness against missiles, other hostile fire sources (HFI), as well as IR-CENTRIC and laser DIRCM activation, multi-band coverage LWS with laser beam-rider handling capabilities, and CMDS management and automatic detection, classification and warning of hostile fire (HFI). The ALL-in-SMALL has been conceived to work with the same groups’ Electro-optics Elop’s mini-MUSIC (Multi Spectral Infrared Countermeasure) fibre-laser DIRCM system. With a proven track record of protecting multiple types of aircraft against heat-seeking ground-to-air IR missiles and a compact and lightweight package solution for installation on small to medium helicopters and aircraft, the mini-MUSIC is characterized by a hyper-hemispherical dome for maximum coverage and offers a single or dual (19 kg

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The newly delivered Boeing AH-64E for Indian Air Force are equipped with Elisra’s All-in-Small EW suite equipment. © Boeing India

each) installation. In addition to reportedly Israeli Armed Forces’ customized solutions, the ALLin-SMALL integrated DAS has been procured by international customers. Even if no confirms or information have been released, elements of tailored suite configuration systems have been observed on board Republic of Singapore Air Force’s AH-64 and CH-47 platforms understood as part of upgrading programmes or installed on new platforms such as the AH-64E and CH-47F for the Indian Air Force. IAI’s Elta company offers its EL/L-8260/2 IDAS including a central controller, RWR, LWR, the same-company’s radar-based EL/M-2160(V1) and CMDS, based on more than 30 years of EW systems’ design and manufacture.

A long-term framework agreement to equip Airbus Helicopters platforms with Hensoldt Airborne Missile Protection System (AMPS). © Airbus Helicopters


Airbus Helicopters’ H225M for Thai Air Foce are equipped with Hensoldt’s AMPS suite. © Airbus Helicopters

In late 2018 Hensoldt Sensors GmbH entered into a long-term framework agreement with Airbus Helicopters for equipping its platforms with the Airborne Missile Protection System (AMPS) and was assigned a first order for a total of 20 complete AMPS for H145M helicopters in 2019-2020. Hensoldt is offering the AMPS family of solutions in cooperation with Israeli systems house Bird Aerosystems. The AMPS has a modular design with a mission control and display unit (MCDU) performing EW controller functions, which could integrate Hensoldt AN/ AAR-60 MILDS or MILDS Block 2 UV MWS, the latter providing hostile fire indicator capabilities, Hensoldt ALTAS LWS in both ALTAS-2 baseline and enhanced ALTAS-2QB, providing in-time warning for countermeasures against beamriding threats (e.g. flight manoeuvres), Elettronica ELT/160(V)1 RWR, CMDS, DIRCM and an Inertial Measure Unit (IMU). The AMPS system has been certified by Airbus Helicopters and Mil Design Bureau and selected by NATO nations, US and Canadian governments, and the United Nations. Rotary-wing installations include Airbus Helicopters EC/H135M, EC635, EC/H145M, BK117, EC155, Cougar, and EC/H225M, Mil Mi-8

and Mi-17, as well as Sikorsky UH-60, S-92, and CH-53. The baseline AMPS-M system includes Bird Aerosystems’ Mission Control & Display Unit (MCDU) with Hensoldt’s MILDS MWS and third party’s CMDS. The more advanced AMPS-MV (missile verification) system introduces a missile approach confirmation sensor (MACS) in the form of a narrow beam, high pulse-repetition frequency (PRF) pulse-Doppler radar. Upon receiving a pre-alarm warning from the MILDS UV sensor, the MCDU cues the MACS radar to slew onto the direction of the incoming threat, search for the incoming missile, and validate or reject the detected threat for optimal deployment of countermeasures and/or a DIRCM engagement. The Aselsan group is delivering its integrated Helicopter Electronic Warfare System (HEWS) suite to the Turkish Armed Forces, homeland security forces and international customers. Integrated via a central processing system, HEWS provides radar, missile and laser warning, RF jamming, and chaff/flare dispensing functions together with aircrew situational awareness and threat-specific countermeasure responses. The RWR features digital receivers operating in both

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HEWS system variants have been qualified for Turkish T-129 attack helicopters, T-70 (S-70i) Black Hawk and Cougar support helicopters, while on the export market, it has been identified on Chilean Army Cougars. It is also reported to be an integral part of the T129 Attack helicopter deal with Pakistan.

The Aselsan group provides the HEWS EW suite, which elements are here depicted, for Turkish Armed Forces and international customers. © Luca Peruzzi

narrow and wide bands, while the RF jammer uses digital RF memory (DRFM) technology together with an active electronically scanned phased antenna (AESA) architecture. Other features include programmable audio messages and advanced HMI, in-flight event recording, simultaneous threat evaluation, situation, aircraft and intelligence data, single-point mission data file and mission report loading/downloading. Characterized by a flexible and open system architecture, allowing the system configuration change without software modifications, the

RUAG Aviation, working with Saab, has been integrating the IDAS suite on board the Swiss Air Force’s Super Pumas and Cougars. In January 2019, the Swiss company announced it will subject eight of the latter helicopters to a comprehensive upgrading programme including the installation of the enhanced IDAS-3 variant of Saab EW suite with a new flare dispenser. RUAG has also developed its Integrated Self-Protection Plug-on Device (ISSYS POD) as a modular, self-contained DAS installation targeted as a retrofit for light helicopters such as the UH-1 and Alouette III. It integrates Saab IDAS/CIDAS system components with all other equipment needed for a self-contained system. The open architecture system comprises two pods mounted on external hardpoints or weapon stores carriers, their installation typically being achieved by two people in less than 30 minutes. Each mechanical

RUAG’s renewed Cougar Helicopter for the Swiss Air Force equipped with Saab IDAS 3 EW suite. © RUAG

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The Netherlands air force’s Apache combat helicopters are equipped with Terma MASE pods. © The Nederlands MoD

pod structure weighs 34 kg while the total system weight (two pods in basic configuration without interface adapter, harness, and countermeasures dispenser) is of weighs 106 kg. RUAG has also integrated the Leonardo Miysis DIRCM system together with Saab MAW-300 MWS for live trials, further demonstrating ISSYS POD capabilities. During the Farnborough International Airshow 2018, Danish systems and sensors house Terma presented a new upgraded and cost-effective version of its generic Modular Aircraft Survivability Equipment (MASE) Pod-mounted DAS solution. The latter has been developed for installation of role-fit solutions for a wide range of platforms since 2003, including Boeing AH-64D (and soon upgraded to AH-64E version) Apache, CH-47D/F Chinook, Leonardo AW101, Airbus Helicopters Fennec, NHIndustries NFH90, Sikorsky HH-60G, Mil Mi-17 and Mil Mi-24 helicopters. Thanks to its modular approach and Terma’s AN/ALQ-213(V) Electronic Warfare Management System (EWMS), the 2 meters-long and 31.8 cm-large MASE pod is fully adaptable to any DIRCM, LWS, MWS, as well as Terma or third party’s CMDS, for either standalone installations or as part of on-board DAS.

For small and light helicopter platforms, Terma offers the Light Aircraft Survivability Equipment (LASE) concept which is a unique light-weight stand-alone system that enables non-complex integrations onto helicopter platforms. Terma has also developed the Universal DIRCM Pod (UDP) system designed to enable rapid rotation of DIRCM installations across multiple aircraft types. The ‘plug-on’ system, based on a family of compact, lightweight (15 kg without B-kit) pods, can accommodate the whole DIRCM suite, including turret, electronics and missile warning system (using either UV or IR sensors) in a configuration including two pods for overall platform’s protection. The system was selected and used by UK MoD, Leonardo and Thales UK for the latter companies’ Myisis DIRCM and Elix-IR MWS suite live trials. During FIA 2018, Terma also presented a re-engineered and upgraded version of its Advanced Countermeasures Dispenser System (ACMDS) with enhanced operational capabilities and increased reliability. The ACMDS is today operational on both fixed and rotarywing platforms in Belgium, the Netherlands and Denmark.

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The Empire Test Pilots School (ETPS) has replaced its Alpha Jets with Pilatus PC-21 advanced training aircraft. © QinetiQ

Two new Grob 120TP training aircraft have been added to the ETPS fleet. © David Oliver

Learn to Test Test to Learn By David Oliver Since the dawn of aviation over 100 years ago, it has been the responsibility of the test pilot to prove that the designer’s concept will actually fly - and fly safely. A test pilot has to have additional training to fly and evaluate experimental, newly produced and modified aircraft with specific manoeuvres. Military test flying in the United Kingdom began during the First World War when an experimental flight was formed at the Central Flying School, part of the Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE) at Farnborough Airfield.

H

owever, it was the establishment of the first school in the world dedicated to teaching test flying at RAF Boscombe Down that changed the status of the test pilot. What is now the Empire Test Pilots School (ETPS) was founded in 1943 by Group Captain Sammy Wroath who established the principles of flight test training. These were developing flying and engineering skills, practising critical thinking and taking a broad perspective in order to distil and communicate useful findings from complex flight test programmes, and these principles remain the same today.

Since 2001 ETPS has been managed by QinetiQ which maintains that it is direct human experience that generates the most valuable insights, a philosophy that is embodied in its motto: ‘Learn to Test, Test to Learn’. From the very beginning, students at ETPS have graduated as highly effective professionals who have gone on to succeed in demanding roles at the forefront of the flight test industry around the globe. In the modern aviation industry there is no time to learn on the job. Graduates leave ETPS with skills not only in flight test and analysis, but also EDR | May/June 2019

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The two four-jet Avro RJs are recent additions to the ETPS fleet that enable students to train in large aircraft test techniques to meet military and civil (CS25) requirements. A twin engine propellerdriven Diamond DA42 is used mainly as a systems assessment demonstrator and the school uses a variable stability Calpsan Learjet for stability and control, flying qualities and high order flight control system (HOFCS) demonstrations.

ETPS trainees have use of a fourth generation Saab Gripen JAS39 combat aircraft flown from Linkoping in Sweden. © David Oliver

in reporting their findings succinctly and ready to provide expert advice that enables organisations to make the right procurement decisions, cut costs and time, and save lives. ETPS’s EASA-compliant fixed wing and rotary wing courses delivered by highly qualified instructors give students both theoretical understanding and direct hands-on experience. The ETPS fleet of aircraft is one of the most extensive, varied and modern in the flight test-training world which results in pilots and engineers gaining direct experience of many different types and technologies. The school’s partnerships with other test centres and organisations around the world give students access to a broad range of training platforms that include variable stability systems allowing students to experience a full spectrum of aircraft handling behaviours in a single flight.

Extensively modified AgustaWestland A109 helicopters and four-jet Avro RJs have been added to the ETPS fleet. © David Oliver

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Two extensively modified A109 helicopters provide digital engine control and glass cockpits with integrated real-time instrumentation data for both pilot and flight test engineer students. Dedicated flight test engineer work consoles are mounted in the main cabin enabling students to monitor parameters in flight and make immediate flight test management decisions. A Bell 412 HAR.2 provides a heavy aircraft and multi-crew environment for the students to operate in. In addition, a new fleet purchased in 2017 as part of the £85 million investment package, comprises two Grob 120TP and two Pilatus PC-21 fixed wing aircraft with a fully integrated Flight Test instrumentation capability, alongside four Airbus H125 helicopters. The school will continue to be led by military staff with the UK Ministry of Defence (MOD) being intrinsically involved in the running, supervision and oversight of courses. ETPS is the only test pilot school with a syllabus that includes extensive flying in a fourth

A Pilatus PC-7 operated by France’s School of Flight Test and Reception Personnel (EPNER) based at Istres-Le Tubé Air Base. © EPNER


EPNER pilots have access to the Direction Générale de l’Armement (DGA) fleet of aircraft included instrumented SA-330 Puma helicopters. © David Oliver

generation combat aircraft. Flown from SAAB’s airfield at Linkoping, Sweden, the Gripen JAS39 is used to train students in the techniques needed to evaluate complex, cutting-edge, agile fighter aircraft and their associated systems. The platform is used for the testing of aero-systems, advanced flight control systems, handling qualities and performance. France followed ETPS by establishing the School of Flight Test and Reception Personnel (EPNER) in 1946, within the Direction Générale de l’Armement (DGA) to train crews involved in test flights. Now based at Istres-Le Tubé Air Base near Marseille in the South of France its theoretical instruction and the realisation of practical test exercises allow pilots to test in flight the characteristics of the aircraft in the best safety conditions. The development of new fixed-wing and rotarywing aircraft, the retrofitting of existing aircraft or participation in such programmes has always been a human, technical and economic challenge. Highly qualified flight test pilots and engineers are essential to control the safety, complexity and cost of aircraft programmes, and to drive them to success.

EPNER is continuously improving its training programmes to meet the needs of the international flight-testing community, and the school has already trained more than 2,000 pilots and engineers from 24 countries. In 2016 EPNER gained Approval Training Organisation (ATO) status from the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) which resulted in it adopting two qualifications, Flight Test Rating Category 1 and 2. The one-year Category 1 course is for experimental test pilots, flight engineers and technicians, flight test engineers, and air test controllers. It covers all the most demanding tests to be performed on all types of aircraft and helicopters. The four-month Category 2 course is designed for training pilots, engineers and technicians for non-experimental trials with tests that are carried out on aircraft or helicopters, within an already known flight domain. A Light aircraft test course is intended for pilots and concerns trials that are carried out on light aircraft with a single engine with power of less than 400 Kw (540 hp). Customised courses can be developed by the EPNER specialists on request, to meet specific training needs, for example in the context of projects or special programmes such as optronics EDR | May/June 2019

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Teaching in French allows trainees to have in-depth discussions with a large number of stakeholders from the French State and industry, all specialists active in their field, and to better assimilate the expertise they have. Each year, 25 to 35 French and foreign trainees benefit from the high international level of the school’s training progammes.

A US National Test Pilot School (NTPS) L-39 Albatros flying over Star Wars Canyon in the Mojave Desert. © NTPS

and radar systems certification, weapon systems trials and recently unmanned aerial vehicle test operator courses. The short courses are offered in French or English. Air traffic controllers are also trained at EPNER as a team with the test crews throughout the experimental flight-test courses. The goal is to provide controllers with a solid practical experience of the constraints relating to the different types of flight tests, and improved efficiency in the application of French regulations concerning the air traffic control of flight tests.

The school uses aircraft from the Direction Générale de l’Armement (DGA), the French Government Defence procurement and technology agency responsible for the programme management, development and purchase of weapon systems for the French military. These include a Pilatus PC-7, Alpha Jets, the first production Dassault Mirage 2000N and a Dassault Mystere XX. Its instrumented rotary-wing fleet includes Fennec, Dauphin and Puma helicopters. EPNER has a close relationship with major French Aerospace manufacturers including Airbus and Dassault and has access to their prototypes and production aircraft in addition to the DGA fleet. With its high level of international training that allows exchanges of trainees with the other government schools in the Western world, and

NTPS trainees being briefed on one of the school’s Eurocopter EC145 helicopters at the Mojave base prior to flight. © NTPS

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with its own characteristics that respond to current trends in aeronautics for both the State and the industry. The United States has two governmentsponsored test pilot schools, the US Air Force Test Pilot School (AFTPS) at Edwards AFB in the Mojave desert, California while the US Navy Test Pilot School at Patuxent River, Maryland is currently the busiest school, training about 72 pilots a year. Two of the largest privately funded test pilot schools are located in North America, the National Test Pilot School and the International Test Pilots School. Located at Mojave in California, the National Test Pilot School (NTPS) is a not-for-profit civilian educational institution established in 1981 to meet the flight test training needs of both the US and international aerospace communities. NPTS uses the finest flight test area in the United States, the R-2508 Complex also used by the AFTS at Edwards AFB and China Lake NAS. Many of the more than thirty aircraft operated by NTPS are instrumented for flight test training and it claims that no other school utilises the variety of specially acquired aircraft to support flight test training. These include the L-39 Albatros, T-38 Talon and MB-326M Impala jet trainers, and the school operates two twin-jet Sabreliner NA-265 aircraft, each equipped with an autopilot, a weather Radar, an integrated GPS system, TAWS and TCAS, one of which is also fully instrumented for performance and flying qualities assessments.

A two-seat supersonic MiG-21UM aircraft is the latest addition to NTPS’s fleet of jet aircraft. © NTPS

In 2018, NTPS took delivery of a two-seat MiG21UM, a Third-Generation fighter aircraft with flight controls and handling characteristics that predate the highly augmented and fly-bywire systems currently in use. In addition, its top speed of Mach 2.05 can demonstrate the effects of transonic and supersonic speeds on the aircraft. A Diamond DA-42 is used for systems training and a DHC-1 Chipmunk piston-engine tail dragger is used to demonstrate spin characteristics, spin chase and formation flight training. Rotarywing test pilot training is conducted on Bell UH-1H, Bell OH-58C Kiowa and Eurocopter EC-145 helicopters. Other fixed and rotary-wing flight test aircraft can be leased in support of in-flight validation of engineering concepts and analysis methods, evaluation of a newly designed aeronautical system, flight testing of modified equipment which require a dedicated, instrumented platform. Flight simulators are used to bridge the gap between the classroom and the cockpit to allow students to explore, practice, and ask questions about flight test techniques before flying in the aircraft. NTPS has a diverse and experienced staff of instructors who come from the top test organisations in the United States and around the globe averaging more than 15 years of flight test experience and more than 10 years of flight test instructional experience. The International Flight Test Pilots School (ITPS) based at London in Ontario Canada offers a range of training courses for test Pilots and flight test engineers. Its team of highly qualified instructors ensures that ITPS provides upto-date, effective and affordable training to customers and has been chosen by 25 air arms to date and received recognition for providing up to date training programmes that include new and emerging technologies and bespoke programmes developed to meet customer’s specifications and budgets. A high instructor to student ratio ensures personal attention, particularly for students whose first language is not English. EDR | May/June 2019

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A MBB Bo 105 helicopter and an L-39 Albatros are two of the International Test Pilots School (ITPS) based at London in Ontario Canada. © ITPS

ITPS uses consultants still currently active in latest technology programmes such as Lockheed F-35 and A400M and the cornerstone of its programme is exposure to a variety of relevant aircraft featuring performance, handling or avionics which challenge the student’s capabilities. ITPS has access to the widest variety of modern and vintage aircraft, comprising jet fighters and trainers, business jets and high performance single and multi engine propeller aircraft. Courses are designed for civil and military pilots and engineers who upon graduation will be employed in experimental flight tests. These are tests in new or modified aircraft where the aircraft’s operating envelope has yet to be verified or where the performance or handling qualities may have significantly been affected by the modifications. The course of 500 hours of ground school and 110 hours of flight consists

of performance, stability and control, fly-by-wire, avionics and systems testing modules. It also includes Variable Stability flights. Since 2002 ITPS has been providing a Fighter Weapons Instructor Course (FWIC) and is the only civilian company to have provided such training to military customers. Other courses include a five-week Advanced Tactics Course and a threeweek Mission Commander Course. ITPS has also provided Night Vision Goggles training from introductory training, to NVG instructor training. The school also offers cost effective flight test training for operational pilots and engineers who will be involved in the testing of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). The ITPS programme has been designed specifically for UAS pilots and operators and is taught by experts in the field with experience of many UAS flight test programmes. ITPS has a course for testing unmanned aerial system (UAS) as well as combat courses for international students. © ITPS

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European Defence Review

MAGAZINE

European Defence Review (EDR) is the first magazine in English focusing on defence issues with a European perspective and one which is fully managed by well-known journalists specialised in defence and security. EDR addresses every topic of the defence sector: equipment and industrial issues, armed forces and operations, but also strategic and political news concerning defence and security issues. Although the articles will be mainly focused on European topics, the review also discusses the main countrie’s partners of Europe and emerging markets: Russia, the Middle East, Brazil, India… EDR distributes during the major international defence trade fairs. The readers include military decision-makers, both political and industrial, from European countries as well as traditional or potential partners of the European defence community. Finally, EDR covers all of the major defence exhibitions worldwide; privileged accasions where policy makers, military and trade-related, are attending. N° 44 • March/April 2019

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