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International Journal of Advance Engineering and Research Development (IJAERD) Volume 4, Issue 12, December-2017, e-ISSN: 2348 - 4470, print-ISSN: 2348-6406

Experimental Analysis of Concrete With The Partial Replacement of Fireclay by Cement And Foundry Sand by Fine Aggregate P. Vijaya Lakshmi*, N. R. Gowthami**, T. Naresh Kumar*** *Post Graduate Student, Department of Civil Engineering, AITS, Rajampet **Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, AITS, Rajampet. ***Assistant Professor, Department of civil Engineering, Rajampet. Abstract: Concrete a composite material made from cement, water, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate. But at present, researchers are in interest of finding new materials by waste products produced from industries which are harmful to environment. The present paper deals with partial replacement of cement with fireclay and fine aggregate with foundry sand which is having silica used as admixture for making concrete. Making 20% partial replacement of fine aggregate with foundry sand as constant and 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% fireclay is made partial replacement of cement. Results revealed that the combination of fireclay and foundry sand provided a positive influence on the mechanical properties of concrete. The samples incorporating the replacement with a combination of 10% FC and 20% FS showed maximum compressive strength of 40.27MPa. In terms of chloride ion penetration, the mix having 15% FC and 20% FS reduces the penetration of chloride ion when compared with the rest of the mixtures. Key words: Fire clay, Foundry sand, Concrete, Compressive Strength, Split Tensile Strength, Water Penetration, Rapid Chloride Ion-Penetration. 1.

INTRODUCTION

Concrete is most extensively used as construction material in the, and it has a lot of advantages, including good mechanical and durability properties, low cost, and high rigidity. Over the several years, the need for concrete has been arises rapidly due to growth in infrastructure development. Concrete is a composite material obtained by mixing cement, aggregate and water. Natural river sand is one of the leading constituents in concrete fabrication, and it is used as a fine aggregate. The necessity of concrete has resulted in the over-exploitation of river sand in the river bed, and this has led to a series of destructive concerns, including increased river bed depth. The constraint in the withdrawal of sand from the river increases the price of sand and has harshly affected the stability of the construction industry. As such, finding an alternative material to river sand has become crucial. There are several possible industrial waste products that have the potential to replace aggregates in concrete such as: copper slag, fly ash, rubber, steel slag kernel shell powder, tyre waste and leather wastes. Yet, foundry sand and fire clay are the materials come out from the Industries that are discussed in this research. 2. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM 2.1 Materials: i. Cement: Cement is the most important material in concrete and it acts as a binding material. The cement is of 53 grade OPC manufactured by Zuari Cement Company confirming to IS 12269-1987 is used in this investigation. The below table 2.1 shows the physical properties of cement. S. No 1 2 3 4

ii.

Property Test results Normal consistency 29% Specific gravity 3.13 Initial setting time 92 minutes Final setting time 195 minutes Table 2.1: Properties of cement

Fine aggregate: In this investigation, natural sand was used as fine aggregate. Sand was obtained from Cheyyeru River near Nandalur in Kadapa district. The table 2.2 shows the physical properties of fine aggregate.

S.no 1 2 3

Paticulars Type Specific gravity Grading size

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Results Normal sand 2.65 4.75mm -0.075mm

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International Journal of Advance Engineering and Research Development (IJAERD) Volume 4, Issue 12, December-2017, e-ISSN: 2348 - 4470, print-ISSN: 2348-6406 4 5 6

iii.

Coarse Aggregate: In the present investigation, crushed granite aggregate of 20mm size was used. The coarse aggregate which is used in this project is obtained from nearby quarry (Aakepadu quarry). The following table shows the physical properties of coarse aggregate. S.no 1 2 3 4 5 6

iv.

Water absorption 1% Fineness modulus 2.28 Bulk density 1378.2 Kg/m3 Table 2.2: Properties of fine aggregate

Paticulars Results Type Crushed stone Specific gravity 2.70 Maximum size 20 mm Water absorption 0.8% Fineness modulus 4.30 Bulk density 1388 Kg/m3 Table 2.3: Physical properties of coarse aggregate

Water: Water is used for mixing and curing of concrete. In the present investigation, tap water available in the campus having pH of 7.1 was used for both mixing and curing of concrete.

v.

Foundry Sand: Foundry sand is clean, well graded, high quality silica sand, used in foundry casting processes. The sand is bonded to form moulds or patterns used for ferrous (iron and steel) and non-ferrous (copper, aluminium, brass) metal castings. Shake-out sand from completed metal casting is often reclaimed back into the foundry sand process. Foundry sand used in this project is brought from Vivekananda Chemimcals, Hyderabad. The table 2.5 shows the chemical composition of foundry sand.

Constituent SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 vi.

Value

Fig. 2.1: Foundry sand Constituent Value Constituent

87.91 CaO 0.14 Na2O2 4.70 MgO 0.30 K2O2 0.94 SO3 0.09 TiO2 Table 2.5: Chemical composition of foundry sand

Value 0.19 0.25 0.15

Fire clay: Fire clay is a range of refractory clays used in the manufacture of ceramics, especially fire brick. The United States Environmental Protection Agency defines fire clay very generally as a “mineral aggregate composed of hydrous silicates of aluminium (Al2 O3·2SiO2·2H2O) with or without free silica”. Fire clay used in this project is obtained from Vivekananda Chemicals, Hyderabad.

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International Journal of Advance Engineering and Research Development (IJAERD) Volume 4, Issue 12, December-2017, e-ISSN: 2348 - 4470, print-ISSN: 2348-6406

Fig. 2.2: Fire clay X-Ray Diffraction analysis of fireclay: Meas. data:fire clay powder Calc. data:fire clay powder Error Residual

Intensity (cps)

1.5e+004

1.0e+004

Intensity (cps)

5.0e+003

0.0e+000 3000 2000 1000 0 -1000 -2000 -3000 20

40

60

80

2-theta (deg)

  

Particle size should satisfy by Bragg’s Law equation (nλ=2d sin θ).2θ obtained by rotating sample, d is spacing of unit cell dimensions, λ is wave length, n is an integer. By using Debye – Scherer equation Nano particle size can be obtained Particle size, D=33.17 nm.

2.2 Mix design optimisation and mixture composition: Mix design can be defined as the process of selecting suitable ingredients of concrete and determining their relative proportions with the objectives of producing concrete of certain minimum strength and durability as economically as possible. To design the concrete mix is not a simple task on account of widely varying properties of the constituent. The details of mix proportions (1:2:3.26) and the quantities of various ingredients of concrete are given below table 2.6. As per mix design Kg/m3

S.No.

Material

1 2 3 4

Cement 352 Fine aggregate 704.4 Coarse aggregate 1149.3 Water 176 Table 2.6: Quantities of materials

The binder, cement was replaced with fire clay by 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by weight of cement and fine aggregate is replaced with foundry sand at 20% by total weight and kept as constant. Control concrete mixture is designed for M30 as per Indian Standard Specifications IS: 10262–2009 to have 28-days characteristic compressive strength of 38.25 MPa as A1. The other concrete mix proportions were A2, A3, A4, A5 and A6 were made by replacing cement with 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of fire clay by weight of cement and fine aggregate with 20% of foundry sand as constant by weight. Design quantities are given in below table.

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International Journal of Advance Engineering and Research Development (IJAERD) Volume 4, Issue 12, December-2017, e-ISSN: 2348 - 4470, print-ISSN: 2348-6406 Material (↓)

A1

A2

A3

A4

A5

A6

Cement, Kg/m3 Fire clay % Fire clay, Kg/m3 Fine aggregate, Kg/m3 Foundry sand % Foundry sand, Kg/m3 Water, Kg/m3 Coarse aggregate W/binder

352 0 0 704.4 0 0 175 1149.3 0.5

352 0 0 493.08 20 211.32 175 1149.3 0.5

334.4 5 17.6 493.08 20 211.32 175 1149.3 0.5

316.8 10 35.2 493.08 20 211.32 175 1149.3 0.5

299.2 15 52.8 493.08 20 211.32 175 1149.3 0.5

281.6 20 70.4 493.08 20 211.32 175 1149.3 0.5

Table 2.7: Mixture proportions 2.3 Testing procedures: 2.3.1 Compressive Strength Test: The compressive strength of concrete (150 mm × 150 mm × 150 mm) are tested by means of compressive testing machine according to ASTM C39. All proportions were tested after 7 days, 14 days and 28 days curing period at standard 20 ± 2°C. Along with this test a Non-Destructive Test (NDT) is also conducted called Rebound hammer test to the all mix proportions. 2.3.2 Split Tensile Strength Test: Split tensile strength test on concrete cylinder is a method to determine the tensile strength of concrete. Spilt tensile strength of concrete is as prescribed by ASTM C496 is conducted. Specimens of 150mm diameter × 300mm height were used for this test. The specimens were tested for 7, 14, 28 and 60days. 2.3.3 Rapid Chloride ion penetration test: According to ASTM C1202 test, a water-saturated, 50 mm thick, 100 mm diameter concrete specimen is subjected to a 60v applied DC voltage for 6 hours using the RCPT apparatus. In one reservoir is a 3.0% NaCl solution and in the other reservoir is a 0.3 M NaOH solution. The total charge passed is determined and this is used to rate the concrete according to the criteria included. 2.3.4 Water permeability test: The determination of water penetration depth is specified by BS EN- 12390-8:2000. In this test, water was applied on the face of the 150mm concrete cube specimen under a pressure of 5 to 10 kg/cm2. The constant pressure maintained for a period of 72h. After the period, the specimen were taken out and split into halves. The water penetration contour in the concrete surface was marked and then maximum depth of penetration value has to be recorded as water penetration. This test will be conducted after 28 days water curing of concrete cubes. 3.

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

3.1 Compressive Strength: Mix No.

A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6

Proportions of Binding Materials

Conventional mix 20% foundry sand + 0% fire clay 20% foundry sand + 5 % fire clay 20% foundry sand + 10% fire clay 20% foundry sand + 15% fire clay 20% foundry sand + 20% fire clay

Compressive strength N/mm2 7 days

14 days

28 days

21.78 20.76 24.1 25.63 27.0 16.4

27.78 28.76 27.13 29.36 31.56 19.2

38.67 38.7 39.2 40.27 34.40 23.36

Table 3.1: Compressive strength test results The above table shows that, at 7 days curing period, it was observed that the compressive strength showed an increase as the fire clay content increased up to 15% of cement content. Slight enhancement of about 10.65%, 17.67% and 23.96% was observed compared to the control specimen at fire clay content of 5%, 10% and 15% respectively by keeping foundry sand constant with 20%.

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International Journal of Advance Engineering and Research Development (IJAERD) Volume 4, Issue 12, December-2017, e-ISSN: 2348 - 4470, print-ISSN: 2348-6406

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH Compressive Strength, MPa

45 40 35 30 25 20

7 DAYS

15

14 DAYS

10

28 DAYS

5 0 A1

A2

A3

A4

A5

A6

Percentage of F.S snd F.C

Fig. 3.1: Compressive strength Vs percentage of F.S and F.C From fig. 3.1, at 28days of curing period, the maximum compressive strength is attained by replacing 20% foundry sand in fine aggregate and 10% fireclay in cement which shows an increment of 4.13% with the control mix. Rebound hammer test (N.D.T): The test results for 7days, 14 days and 28 days of compressive strength by N.D.T with various percentages replacement of cement by fireclay and fine aggregate by foundry sand are presented in table 3.2 and then discussed. Compressive strength N/mm2

Mix no.

Proportion of Binding Materials

A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6

7 Days 14 Days Conventional mix 21.00 27.5 20% foundry sand + 0% fire clay 20.7 28.5 20% foundry sand + 5 % fire clay 24.0 27.1 20% foundry sand + 10% fire clay 25.1 29.1 20% foundry sand + 15% fire clay 27.0 31.56 20% foundry sand + 20% fire clay 16.0 19.0 Table 3.2: Non-destructive test results

28 Days 38.0 35.0 36.7 37.0 32.3 23.2

From the above results of table 3.1 and 3.2, we can say that the strength gained by two methods i.e., destructive and non destructive tests were almost same. There by the results which we obtained were in similar manner. 3.2 Split Tensile Strength: Mix no. Proportion of Binding Materials A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6

Conventional mix 20% foundry sand + 0% fire clay 20% foundry sand + 5% fire clay 20% foundry sand + 10% fire clay 20% foundry sand + 15% fire clay 20% foundry sand + 20% fire clay

Split Tensile Strength N/mm2 7-days 14-days 28-days 3.07 3.09 3.182 3.082 3.265 3.34 2.289 2.70 3.256 2.39 2.83 3.56 2.646 3.425 3.22 2.581 3.425 3.15

Table 3.2: Split tensile strength test results From table 3.2, At 28 days age of curing the tensile strength of 4.96% and 2.325% increases for the A2 and A3 mixes respectively when compared to control mix. At 10% cement replacement with fireclay and 20% fine aggregate with foundry sand, the tensile strength was enormously increases at a rate of 11.87% and at 20% replacement of cement with fire clay the tensile strength was decreased slightly when compared to the control mix.

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International Journal of Advance Engineering and Research Development (IJAERD) Volume 4, Issue 12, December-2017, e-ISSN: 2348 - 4470, print-ISSN: 2348-6406 SPLIT TENSILE STRENGTH Split tensile strength, Mpa

4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0

7 days 14 days 28 days

A1

A2

A3

A4

A5

A6

Percentage of F.s and F.c

Fig.3.3: Split tensile strength Vs percentage of F.S and F.C 3.3 Water penetration: The test results for 28days, 56 days of water penetration with various percentages replacement of cement by fire clay and foundry sand, are presented in tables and then discussed. From the results it may observed that increment and decrement of results by replacing various percentages of materials with CA and FA. Mix No.

Proportion of Binding Materials

Water penetration, c. m 28 days 56 days A1 Conventional mix 1.7 1.4 A2 20% foundry sand + 0% fire clay 1.3 1.2 A3 20% foundry sand + 5% fire clay 1.1 1.0 A4 20% foundry sand + 10% fire clay 0.9 0.75 A5 20% foundry sand + 15% fire clay 1.0 1.2 A6 20% foundry sand + 20% fire clay 1.3 1.5 Table 3.5: water penetration test results for using fire clay and foundry sand. From the above table 3.5 we can observe that the water penetration values are decreased as the substitution of fireclay content increase in cement concrete. A minimum penetration of 7.5mm was observed at 10% fireclay replacement as cement and 20% foundry sand replacement as fine aggregate.

Water Penetration,

Water Penetration 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0

28 DAYS 56 DAYS

A1

A2

A3

A4

A5

A6

Percentage of F.S snd F.C

Fig. 3.3: water penetration Vs percentage of F.S and F.C

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International Journal of Advance Engineering and Research Development (IJAERD) Volume 4, Issue 12, December-2017, e-ISSN: 2348 - 4470, print-ISSN: 2348-6406 3.4 Rapid chloride penetration test: The Rapid chloride penetration test of M30 grade concrete mixes replacing OPC by fire clay at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% and foundry sand 20% as constant is investigated. The results of rapid chloride permeability test of A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 and A6 concrete mixtures tested at 28 days and 56 days are represented in table 3.7. Mix no.

Proportion of Binding Materials

Rapid chloride permeability test, mAh 28 days

56 days

A1

Conventional mix

1500 (L)

1200 (L)

A2

20% foundry sand + 0% fire clay

1300 (L)

1100 (L)

A3

20% foundry sand + 5% fire clay

1200 (L)

1080 (L)

A4

20% foundry sand + 10% fire clay

1150 (L)

980 (V.L)

A5

20% foundry sand + 15% fire clay

1050 (L)

970 (V.L)

A6

20% foundry sand + 20% fire clay

985 (V.L)

875 (V.L)

Table 3.7: Chloride ion permeability rating

Chloride Penetration, mAh

RAPID CHLORIDE ION PENETRATION 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0

28 DAYS 56 DAYS

A1

A2

A3

A4

A5

A6

Percentage of F.S snd F.C

Fig. 3.7: Chloride penetration Vs percentage of foundry sand and fireclay The above figure 3.7 shows the chloride diffusion coefficient of all concrete samples. At the age of 56 days, the chloride diffusion coefficient of mixes was approximately low rating. In addition, at 28 days of curing the chloride ion permeability of mix A6 was marked as “very low” rating. At 56 days of curing the replacement of cement with fire clay leads to decrease the chloride diffusion coefficient when compared to control mix. However, the mix A6 i.e., F.C20 F.S20 specimens manifest incredibly lower chloride diffusion coefficient than that of control mix. 4

Conclusions

Based on the findings of the experimental program presented above, the following conclusions can be drawn:  A combination of 10% fireclay and 20% foundry sand in concrete is found to be optimum for compressive strength (40.27N/mm2) at 28 days. Addition of fireclay beyond 20% the strength will fell down to 34.4 N/mm2. The FC10FS20 specimen enhanced the compressive strength by 4.13% in comparison with the conventional mix.  A combination of 10% fireclay and 20% foundry sand in concrete is found to be optimum for split tensile strength at 28 days. The tensile strength of 3.56 N/mm2 is recorded as maximum and enhanced the strength by 11.87% for FC10FS20 mix when compare to the normal concrete mix. Further addition of fireclay in concrete leads to lowering in split tensile strength to 3.22 MPa.  With the obtained results, the compressive strength results with the both destructive and non destructive techniques are similar.  A combination of 20% fireclay and 20% foundry sand in concrete shows the lowest chloride permeability, i.e., At 56 days of curing period, 27% of chloride permeability is reduced when compare to the normal concrete.  The results from the water penetration test, the mix having 10% fireclay and 20% foundry sand which had highest compressive strength had shown lowest permeability, which is a good sign for concrete.

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International Journal of Advance Engineering and Research Development (IJAERD) Volume 4, Issue 12, December-2017, e-ISSN: 2348 - 4470, print-ISSN: 2348-6406  

Amongst all the mixes the conventional mix and the mix having 10% fireclay and 20% foundry sand shown the minimum permeability (0.75 c.m) when compare to the rest of mixes. By considering the all above test results the mix having 10% fireclay and 20% foundry sand exhibits the highest strength and good durability properties and hence, the mix FC10FS20 is found to be optimum mix.

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Experimental analysis of concrete with the partial replacement of fireclay by cement and foundry san  
Experimental analysis of concrete with the partial replacement of fireclay by cement and foundry san  
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