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MANUAL DO PROFESSOR

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Organizadora: Editora FTD

MANUAL DO PROFESSOR

Open Roads

Obra coletiva concebida, desenvolvida e produzida pela Editora FTD

Editora responsável: Flávia Miguel

Open Roads

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ENSINO MÉDIO COMPONENTE CURRICULAR LÍNGUA ESTRANGEIRA MODERNA – INGLÊS

Organizadora: Editora FTD Obra coletiva concebida, desenvolvida e produzida pela Editora FTD | Editora responsável: Flávia Miguel

ISBN 978-85-96-00395-7

ENSINO MÉDIO

9

788596 003957

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COMPONENTE CURRICULAR LÍNGUA ESTRANGEIRA MODERNA – INGLÊS

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Open Roads ENSINO MÉDIO COMPONENTE CURRICULAR

LÍNGUA ESTRANGEIRA MODERNA – INGLÊS

Flávia da Cruz Miguel Mestre em Interdisciplinar de Linguística Aplicada pela Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Especialização em Literaturas de Língua Inglesa pela Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Bacharel em Letras (Português/Inglês) pela Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Professora de Inglês na rede estadual de educação há mais de 16 anos. Autora e editora de materiais didáticos.

2a edição São Paulo – 2016

MANUAL DO PROFESSOR

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Copyright © Editora FTD, 2016

Diretor editorial Lauri Cericato Diretora editorial técnica Maria Eugenia Sanson Editora responsável Flávia da Cruz Miguel Gerente editorial Cayube Galas Editora de conteúdo Márcia Castelo Branco Nogueira Coordenadora editorial Ana Carolina Costa Lopes Assessora técnica pedagógica Cláudia Hilsdorf Rocha Assistentes editoriais Gislene Aparecida Benedito, Gladys Roberta Garcia Gerente de produção editorial Mariana Milani Coordenador de produção editorial Marcelo Henrique Ferreira Fontes Coordenadora de arte Daniela Máximo Projeto gráfico Estúdio Insólito Projeto de capa Bruno Attili Foto de capa Thais Falcão/Olho do Falcão Modelos da capa: Andrei Lopes, Angélica Souza, Beatriz Raielle, Bruna Soares, Bruno Guedes, Caio Freitas, Denis Wiltemburg, Eloá Souza, Jardo Gomes, Karina Farias, Karoline Vicente, Letícia Silva, Lilith Moreira, Maria Eduarda Ferreira, Rafael Souza, Tarik Abdo, Thaís Souza Supervisora de arte Patricia de Michelis Editor de arte Lucas Trevelin Diagramação Ponto Inicial Estúdio Gráfico Tratamento de imagens Ana Isabela Maraschin Coordenadora de ilustrações e cartografia Márcia Berne Ilustrações Renato Faccini Cartografia Allmaps Coordenadora de preparação e revisão Lilian Semenichin Supervisora de preparação e revisão Viviam Moreira Revisão Amanda di Santis, Enymilia Guimarães, Iraci Miyuki Kishi, Júlia Tomazini Coordenador de iconografia e licenciamento de textos Expedito Arantes Supervisora de licenciamento de textos Elaine Bueno Iconografia Marcia Trindade Diretor de operações e produção gráfica Reginaldo Soares Damasceno

Dados Internacionais de Catalogação na Publicação (CIP) (Câmara Brasileira do Livro, SP, Brasil) Open roads : ensino médio : 3o ano / organizadora Editora FTD, obra coletiva concebida, desenvolvida e produzida pela Editora FTD; editora responsável Flávia da Cruz Miguel. — 2. ed. — São Paulo : FTD, 2016. — (Coleção Open roads) "Componente curricular: Língua estrangeira moderna : Inglês" ISBN 978-85-96-00394-0 (aluno) ISBN 978-85-96-00395-7 (professor)

ELABORAÇÃO DOS ORIGINAIS Ana Lúcia Alouche Busso Licenciada em Letras (Português/Inglês) pela Universidade de São Paulo. Bacharel em Letras (Português/Inglês) pela Universidade de São Paulo. Professora de Inglês na rede particular de educação. Angela Maria de Vasconcellos Licenciada em Letras (Português/Inglês) pela Universidade Católica de Petrópolis. Professora de Inglês em cursos de idiomas. Tradutora. Cristiane Craveiro de Azeredo Mendes Mestre em Letras pela Universidade Federal Fluminense. Especialização em Linguística pela Universidade Estácio de Sá. Licenciada em Letras (Inglês/Literaturas) pela Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Bacharel em Letras (Inglês/Literaturas) pela Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Professora de Inglês na rede pública de educação e em cursos de idiomas. Gladys Roberta Garcia Bacharel em Secretariado Executivo Bilíngue pela Faculdade Sumaré. Professora de Inglês em cursos de idiomas, na rede particular de educação e em empresas. Coordenadora pedagógica em curso de idiomas. Isadora Ferreira da Veiga Bacharel em Ciências Biológicas pela Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Professora de Inglês em cursos de idiomas. Tradutora. José Carlos Aissa Doutor em Letras pela Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho. Professor Adjunto de Língua Inglesa e respectiva Literatura e do Programa de Pós-Graduação Stricto Sensu em Letras da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná. Tradutor público e intérprete comercial. Maria Angela da Silva Mestre em Letras pela Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro. Especialização em Interação e Discurso pela Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Licenciada em Letras (Português/Inglês) pela Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Bacharel em Letras (Português/Inglês) pela Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Professora de Inglês na rede pública de educação e em cursos de idiomas. Maria Tereza Trica Especialização em Educação com Aplicação da Informática pela Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Licenciada em Letras (Inglês/Literaturas) pela Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Bacharel em Letras (Inglês/Literaturas) pela Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Professora de Inglês na rede particular de educação e em curso de idiomas. Wallace Cândido Marinho Licenciado em Letras (Português/Inglês) pela Universidade Estácio de Sá. Professor de Inglês em cursos de idiomas.

1. Inglês (Ensino médio) I. Miguel, Flávia da Cruz. II. Série. 16-02874 CDD-420.7 Índices para catálogo sistemático: 1. Inglês : Ensino médio 420.7 Reprodução proibida: Art. 184 do Código Penal e Lei 9.610 de 19 de fevereiro de 1998. Todos os direitos reservados à

EDITORA FTD S.A. Rua Rui Barbosa, 156 – Bela Vista – São Paulo-SP CEP 01326-010 – Tel. (0-XX-11) 3598-6000 Caixa Postal 65149 – CEP da Caixa Postal 01390-970 www.ftd.com.br E-mail: central.atendimento@ftd.com.br

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Em respeito ao meio ambiente, as folhas deste livro foram produzidas com fibras obtidas de árvores de florestas plantadas, com origem certificada.

Impresso no Parque Gráfico da Editora FTD S.A. CNPJ 61.186.490/0016-33 Avenida Antonio Bardella, 300 Guarulhos-SP – CEP 07220-020 Tel. (11) 3545-8600 e Fax (11) 2412-5375

5/27/16 18:41


APRESENTAÇÃO Caro(a) aluno(a), Estamos vivendo uma revolução do conhecimento, impulsionada pelo rápido avanço das tecnologias de informação e comunicação e da globalização. Tal revolução rompe paradigmas em todos os âmbitos da atuação humana: social, profissional e educacional. Nesse contexto contemporâneo surge a demanda por um novo perfil de cidadão, capaz de aprender a conhecer, aprender a fazer, aprender a viver juntos e aprender a ser (Unesco, 1998). O conhecimento da língua inglesa é importante, pois contribui para a sua inserção nesse cenário. A proposta didático-pedagógica desta coleção visa criar oportunidades para o seu crescimento intelectual, fornecendo condições para que você enfrente os desafios do mercado de trabalho e incremente seu desenvolvimento pessoal. Nesta obra, o trabalho com gêneros textuais e com a competência leitora o(a) ajudará a compreender e a interpretar textos das várias esferas sociais, contribuindo para o seu sucesso acadêmico e preparando-o(a) para a continuação dos seus estudos. As atividades interdisciplinares aqui propostas visam estimular sua curiosidade investigativa, sua colaboração e sua autonomia, características indispensáveis ao aprendiz do século XXI. A seleção de temas atuais e instigantes tem por objetivo estimular sua participação e, consequentemente, seu aprendizado. O trabalho com itens linguísticos, de forma contextualizada, permite a análise e a compreensão de seus significados e usos. A partir desse ponto, você será incentivado(a) a usar seus conhecimentos linguísticos por meio de atividades orais e escritas significativas. A integração sistemática das habilidades de ler, ouvir, falar e escrever permite que você experimente a língua inglesa em sua totalidade. A obra busca, ainda, contribuir para a sua formação como cidadão(ã) consciente e crítico(a), capaz de refletir sobre tópicos fundamentais na atualidade, como ética, saúde e meio ambiente, e de agir em prol de uma sociedade mais justa e igualitária. As discussões propostas têm por objetivo não somente dar voz às suas opiniões e reflexões como também elevar a sua autoconfiança ao se comunicar com as pessoas ao seu redor. Esperamos que esta coleção o(a) conduza à conquista de suas metas acadêmicas e contribua para o desenvolvimento de valores e competências essenciais à sua atuação responsável na sociedade em que vivemos. Bom aprendizado!

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CONHEÇA SEU LIVRO Página de abertura

THE POWER OF WOMEN

Think about It

THINK ABOUT IT 1. Look at the text and answer the questions in the notebook. a. What text genre is it? b. Where would you find a text like this? c. Who was the text wri en for? d. What is the text about?

Apresenta o tema da unidade por meio de uma imagem acompanhada de uma epígrafe.

(LEWIS, Jone Johnson. Gloria Steinem Quotes. About.com. Available at: <http://womenshistory. about.com/cs/quotes/a/qu_g_steinem.htm>. Accessed on: Mar. 12, 2016.)

Photos.com/Thinkstock

2. Read the quiz and write T (true) and F (false) in the notebook. Then check your score.

CULTURAL AWARENESS QUIZ Are you planning to travel abroad? How much do you know about other people’s cultures and customs? Take this quiz and find out how culturally aware you are. 1. In Japan, you don’t have to take off your shoes when you go into someone’s home. 2. In India, you must show respect to your elders. 3. Eating with your right hand is taboo in Saudi Arabia.

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

Gloria Steinem (1934– ), American writer, lecturer, editor and feminist activist.

Estúdio Insólito

UNIT 1

“Some of us are becoming the men we wanted to marry.”

4. It’s considered very rude to jump queues in Britain. 5. You must be punctual in Japan. It’s very bad manners to be late there.

Stockbyte/Thinkstock

6. In Italy, it isn’t common for everyone to speak at the same time at gatherings. 7. In Argentina, the OK sign and the thumbs up gesture are considered vulgar.

Ativa seu conhecimento prévio sobre o tema e estimula a troca de ideias sobre o assunto.

8. It’s rude to chew with your mouth open in China. iStockphoto/Thinkstock

NOW CHECK YOUR ANSWERS AND READ THE SCORE. 6 to 8 Awesome! You know a lot about other cultures. You’re ready to become an international traveler! 3 to 5 Good! But you should try and learn a bit more about other cultures. 0 to 2 You don’t know much about other cultures, do you? Maybe you should learn more about other people’s customs before deciding to travel abroad. Answer key: 1. False 2. True 3. False 4. True 5. True 6. False 7. True 8. False (Research sources: Argentina Travel Tips. Travel Taboo. Available at: <http://www.traveltaboo.com/argentina-travel-tips-dos-and-donts/>; Italy Business Etiquette, Culture & Manners. Available at: <http://www.cyborlink.com/besite/italy.htm>. Accessed on: Mar. 16, 2016.)

VIEWPOINTS Converse com seu professor e colegas. O quiz mostra exemplos de alguns hábitos e costumes que não compartilhamos na cultura brasileira. Você acha importante aprender essas diferenças entre as culturas? Por quê? “Human diversity makes tolerance more than a virtue; it makes it a requirement for survival.” Rene Dubos. Você concorda com essa citação? Por quê? Você se lembra de algum exemplo, noticiado na mídia, em que a falta de tolerância com a diferença causou desrespeito ou até mesmo violência? Como você procura combater a intolerância diante das diferenças? (Rene Dubos Quotes. Thinkexist.com. Available at: <http://thinkexist.com/quotation/human-diversity-makes-tolerance-more-than-a/535975. html>. Accessed on: Mar. 16, 2016.)

IT TAKES ALL SORTS | UNIT 4

Reading

READING GET READY TO READ

FALSE COGNATES 1. Read the text below and, in the notebook, make a list of the words that are similar to Portuguese. I realized quickly what Mandela and Tambo meant to ordinary Africans. It was a place where they could come and find a sympathetic ear and a competent ally, a place where they would not be either turned away or

a. In your opinion, what are the texts about?

Prepara para a leitura de textos de gêneros variados e propõe atividades que desenvolvem e estimulam a competência leitora e o letramento crítico.

b. What do you know about this foundation?

1. News

Image Gallery

Case Studies in Global Health

Consortium Staff Pages

Editoria de arte

Rogério Reis/Pulsar Imagens

Access to Pharmaceuticals > The ATP consortium > Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ)

Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ) FIOCRUZ has its presence throughout Brazil, through its support to the Sistema Único de Saúde (Unified Health System, the Brazilian public health system), and has significant influence on Brazil’s public health policy-making, its research activities, its scientific expeditions and the reach of its health services and products. Inaugurated on May 25, 1900 under the name of Federal Serotherapy Institute, FIOCRUZ was given the mission of fighting the great problems of public health in Brazil. Therefore, FIOCRUZ became a think tank concerned with the Brazilian reality and experimental medicine. Today the institution is responsible for a range of activities which include research development, highlyregarded hospital and ambulatory care services, production of vaccines, drugs, reagents, and diagnostic kits; education and training of human resources, information and communication in the area of health, science and technology; quality control of products and services and the implementation of social programs. It has over 7,500 employees and health professionals with different levels of involvement, a workforce proud of being at the service of life. FIOCRUZ is based at a 800,000-square meter campus in Manguinhos, a neighborhood in the northern part of the city of Rio de Janeiro. Around the three historical buildings of the old Federal Serotherapy Institute — the Moorish Pavilion, the Clock Pavilion and the Mews — are located ten of FIOCRUZ ‘s thirteen technical-scientific units and all the technical and administrative support units. Another five units are located in Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Salvador, Recife and Manaus.

(Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ). Access to Pharmaceuticals. Available at: <http://www.accesstopharmaceuticals.org/about/institutionsfioc/>. Accessed on: Mar. 12, 2016.)

2.

Cognates are words in two languages that share a similar meaning, spelling, and pronunciation. But be careful with the false cognates! They are similar, but have different meanings.

2. Match the words to their meanings, writing them down in the notebook. Then, classify them into two categories. a. Actually

Az throughout – por todo UN – ONU warn – advertir workforce – força de trabalho

Access to Pharmaceuticals is a consortium focused on the promotion of Socially Responsible Licensing as a means to improve the availability of essential medicines in the developing world. Oswaldo Cruz Foundation is one of the partners.

You can learn more about Fundação Oswaldo Cruz at <http://portal.fiocruz.br/pt-br>. (Accessed on: Mar. 13, 2016.)

b. Competent

2. Solidário

c. Represented

3. Realmente

d. Sympathetic

4. Representado

False Cognates

Here you have a list of some more false cognates:

IN CONTEXT

employees – empregados proud – orgulhoso research – pesquisa through – através

1. Competente

True Cognates

(UBWANI, Zephania. Unaids warns of 2.5m more Aids deaths in Africa by 2025. The Citizen, East Africa, Apr. 2012. Available at: <http://thecitizen. co.tz/news/4-national-news/21255>. Accessed on: Apr. 2, 2013.)

GO BEYOND

Apresenta itens lexicais em contexto e promove oportunidades para aprimorar seu vocabulário.

cheated, a place where they might actually feel proud to be represented by men of their own skin color. Nelson Mandela (1918-2013). South African anti-apartheid revolutionary and former president of South Africa. (Available at: <www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/n/nelsonmand717933.html>. Accessed on: Mar. 13, 2016.)

The UN warns that over 2.5m people will have died of AIDS in Africa by 2025.

GLOSSARY

Vocabulary

VOCABULARY

1. Look at the texts and discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates. Then read the texts and check your predictions.

About us

51

English – Portuguese

Portuguese – English

actually (adv.) – na verdade, de fato to attend (v.) – estar presente, assistir to intend (v.) – pretender lunch (n.) – almoço parents (n.) – pais to pretend (v.) – fingir to push (v.) – empurrar to retire (v.) – aposentar-se sensible (adj.) – sensato to shoot (v.) – disparar, atirar sympathetic (adj.) – solidário time (n.) – hora, tempo

atualmente – nowadays atender – to answer entender – to understand lanche – snack parentes – relatives pretender – to intend puxar – to pull retirar – to remove sensível – sensitive chutar – to kick simpático – friendly time – team

3. Read the sentences and, in the notebook, write the correct options. a. Actually / Nowadays he isn’t a doctor. He’s a nurse. b. A: What do you pretend / intend to be when you grow up? B: I’d like to be a scientist. c. The phone is ringing. Could you please answer / attend it? d. What’s your favorite soccer time / team? e. I can’t understand / intend any word in Japanese. f. Goalkeepers can sometimes shoot / kick the ball.

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UNIT 2 | ALIVE AND HEALTHY

UNIT 2 | ALIVE AND HEALTHY

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Grammar

LANGUAGE DISCOVERY

READING 1. Read the text and number, in the notebook, the topics below according to the order in which they are mentioned. a. Reasons for the destruction of the Atlantic Forest.

1. “I know a lot of students who are seniors at UMES and don't have jobs,” Dillard said.

Apresenta o foco gramatical da unidade de maneira contextualizada e indutiva e oferece oportunidades para colocá-lo em prática.

3. Memo Diriker said there were two factors contributing to the improvement of the job market. a. In sentences

someone reports what someone else has said.

b. In sentences

someone reports what someone else has said with the author's words.

c. In sentence

someone reports what someone else has said with her/his own words.

2. Read the sentences below in the Direct and Indirect Speech and pay attention to the words in bold. Then, complete the statements in the notebook.

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

Simple Present: Allie said, “I work here.”

Simple Past: She said (that) she worked there.

Simple Past: Jeff said, “I worked here.”

Past Perfect Simple: He said (that) he had worked there.

Present Perfect Simple: Cora said, “I have worked here.”

Past Perfect Simple: She said (that) she had worked there.

Past Perfect Simple: Kevin said, “I had worked here.”

Past Perfect Simple: He said (that) he had worked there.

Present Continuous: Laura said, “I am working here.”

Past Continuous: She said (that) she was working there.

Past Continuous: Brian said, “I was working here.”

Past Perfect Continuous: He said (that) he had been working there.

Will: Macy said, “I will work here.”

Would: She said (that) she would work there.

Can: Leon said, “I can work here.”

Could: He said (that) he could work there.

Must: Lisa said, “I must work here.”

Had to: She said (that) she had to work there.

Expressions of Time

Expressions of Place

Direct Speech

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

b. The location / extension of the Atlantic Forest. c. What is le of the Atlantic Forest. Editoria de arte

2. Dillard: “I feel privileged and excited to have a job in general, and it's a job I'm interested in, so that's even better.”

Integrated Skills

INTEGRATED SKILLS

1. In the notebook, complete the sentences with the corresponding numbers.

What We Do

Our Earth

You Can Help

Atlantic Forests, South America Stretching along South America's east coast and extending inland towards the Amazon, the Atlantic Forest is one of the world’s most ecologically diverse regions. It is also one of the most vulnerable. […]

News & Stories

DONATE!

Second only to the Amazon The Atlantic Forest stretches from northeast Brazil, south along the Brazilian Atlantic coastline and inland into northeast Argentina and eastern Paraguay. Although only a small part of the original forests remains, it is still one of the most diverse ecosystems on the planet, second only to the Amazon. […]

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

GRAMMAR

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Conserving what's left Very little of the Atlantic Forest remains and what does is highly fragmented. The forests continue to be vulnerable to logging and agricultural expansion, particularly soy production. Habitat loss and hunting put many species in danger of extinction […]

Favorece a integração das habilidades de compreensão e produção por meio do trabalho com diferentes gêneros textuais escritos e orais.

Indirect Speech (Atlantic Forests, South America. WWF. Available at: <http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/where_we_work/atlantic_forests/>. Accessed on: Mar. 24, 2016.)

now

then

here

there

today

that day

this (place)

that (place)

tomorrow

the next day, the following day

next (week)

the following (week)

yesterday

the day before, the previous day

last (night)

the night before, the previous night

2. Read the text again and answer the questions below in the notebook. a. Where is the Atlantic Forest located? b. How much of the original Atlantic Forest is le? c. Which is the most diverse ecosystem on the planet? d. Which causes for deforestation are mentioned in the text? e. Why are many species in the Atlantic Forest in danger of extinction?

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UNIT 5 | FIT FOR WORK

UNIT 7 | A WARMING WORLD?

Cross-Curricular Link

CROSS-CURRICULAR CROSS-CURRICULAR LINK LINK 1. Look at the paintings and talk to your teacher and classmates. iStockphoto/Thinkstock

a. Which painting do you associate with peace / war? Why? b. Which of the paintings do you like best? Why? c. What feelings do they evoke in you? d. Would you like to see other paintings by the same artists? Why?

VIEWPOINTS

IN CONTEXT Pieter Bruegel, c. 1562. Oil on panel. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain

Pieter Bruegel (1525 – 1569) was a Renaissance painter known for his landscapes and peasant scenes. Edward Lamson Henry (1841 – 1919) was an American artist who painted realistic genre scenes of rural America in the 19th century.

Converse com seu professor e colegas. Você tem o hábito de visitar museus? Por quê? Como você se sente ao apreciar obras de arte? Quais elementos dos quadros The Triumph of Death e An October Day mais chamam a sua atenção? Por quê? Como você definiria guerra? E paz?

Apresenta atividades que promovem o diálogo com outras disciplinas e estimulam a sua atuação como cidadão crítico.

2. Choose one of the paintings as your source of inspiration and write a sentence defining either war or peace in the notebook. 3. Making a collage. » Make a collage based on one of the themes of the

pairs below: day – night happiness – sadness » Get a big sheet of cardboard and make a collage The Triumph of Death.  x  cm.

poster. You can use images and other materials. » Write a sentence defining the theme you chose.

Edward Lamson Henry, 1903. Oil on panel. Private collection

» Add the sentence to your collage. » Hang your collage poster on the classroom bulletin

Remember to » use photographs, magazine

cutouts and copyleft images. » use a variety of materials, including

recycled ones. » use symbols related to the topic.

board or organize a poster exhibition in your school.

WEB SEARCH Go to the following site to get more information on how to make a collage: eHow: <http://ler.vc/ra83to>. (Accessed on: Mar. 16, 2016.)

SELF-EVALUATION Evaluate your collage. Is it appealing? Does it convey the message you want to convey? Are there any improvements you can make to your collage?

An October Day.  x . cm.

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CROSS-CURRICULAR LINK LINK 122 CROSS-CURRICULAR

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CROSS-CURRICULAR CROSS-CURRICULAR LINK 123LINK

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Ícones no Livro do Aluno Faixa de áudio

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Variedade linguística

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Autoavaliação

Autoavaliação Responda às perguntas do quadro a seguir em seu caderno para avaliar seu desempenho ao longo das unidades 7 e 8. = regular

= muito bom

= fraco

Sou capaz de...

Unidade

a. ler, ouvir e falar sobre assuntos relacionados ao meio ambiente.

7

b. ler e reconhecer as características do gênero textual outdoor.

7

c. nomear desastres naturais.

7

d. compreender e usar em contexto dicas que ajudam o meio ambiente.

7

e. entender quando usar o gerúndio e o infinitivo após certos verbos.

A cada duas unidades, apresenta a autoavaliação e oferece sugestões de aprimoramento visando desenvolver a sua autonomia.

Avaliação

7

f. ler uma ficha informativa, reconhecer suas características e produzir uma semelhante.

7

g. ler, ouvir e falar a respeito de sonhos e planos para o futuro.

8

h. compreender os diferentes usos do verbo to get.

8

i. reconhecer e usar expressões com o verbo to get.

8

j. reconhecer e usar em contexto expressões relacionadas às conquistas pessoais.

8

k. compreender a formação de palavras (substantivos, adjetivos, verbos e advérbios, e usá-las apropriadamente em contexto.

8

l. entender e usar os Causative Verbs (to make, to have, to get e to let).

8

m. ler e reconhecer as características dos gêneros textuais discurso de formatura e lista de resoluções de Ano-Novo e produzir textos semelhantes.

8

MELHORANDO SEU DESEMPENHO Refaça os exercícios das unidades 7 e 8. Esclareça suas dúvidas com o(a) professor(a). Assista a filmes em inglês. Fique atento a mensagens em inglês em camisetas, outdoors etc. Participe de um chat online em inglês.

AUTOAVALIAÇÃO

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EXAM PRACTICE

Questão 9 / UFBA (1ª FASE – 2009) 1. São perguntas que encontram resposta no cartoon

Jerry King (www.CartoonStock.com)

O objetivo desta seção é familiarizá-lo com alguns tipos de questões utilizados como instrumento de avaliação para o ingresso no Ensino Superior.

PARTE I SIMULADOS DO ENEM (EXAME NACIONAL DO ENSINO MÉDIO)

em destaque: a. How fit is Smith? c. When does Smith have to get to work? d. Why can’t Smith use the elevator anymore? e. What does the other man in the picture tell Smith to do? f. How long does it take to climb the building and

Questão 1

get to the office? g. Who asks Smith to use the stairs instead of the

Wheelhouse Enterprise content published on March 14, 2011.

Exam Practice

b. Which floor is the office on?

elevator?

Visa familiarizá-lo(a) com alguns instrumentos de avaliação para o ingresso no Ensino Superior por meio de simulados e questões de exames oficiais.

KING. You’re out of shape, Smith. Disponível em: <http://www.cartoonstock.com>. Acesso em: 11 abr. 2013.

Questão 10 / UNIFESP (2012) Longevity: Habits May Extend Life Only So Much By Nicholas Bakalar August 8, 2011 The eating, drinking and exercise habits of extremely old but healthy people differ little from those of the rest of us, a new study has found. Gerontologists at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine recruited 477 Ashkenazi Jews ages 95 to 112 who were living independently. The researchers took blood samples, did physical examinations and obtained detailed personal and medical histories from each participant. Then they compared them with 1,374 non-Hispanic white adults, ages 65 to 74, from the general population. For both men and women, consumption of alcohol, amount of physical activity and the percentage of people on low-calorie or low-salt diets were almost identical in the two groups. Long-lived men were less likely to be obese than their younger counterparts, although no less likely to be overweight. The oldest women were more likely to be overweight and less likely to be obese. More men among the oldest were nonsmokers, but smoking habits were not significantly different among the women.

4

that it all depends on genes, and we might as well eat, drink and be merry? No, according to the senior

author, Dr. Nir Barzilai, director of the Institute for Aging Research at Albert Einstein College of Medicine. “For most of us who forth, you are

5

genes for longevity,” he said, “if you follow the healthy lifestyle the medical community has put

6

to live past 80.”

The study was published online last week in The Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. www.nytimes.com (adaptado). Disponível em: <http://www.comparebusinessproducts.com/fyi/state-worlds-female-ceos>. Acesso em: 26 abr. 2013 (fragmento).

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EXAM PRACTICE

EXAM PRACTICE

IRREGULAR VERBS Infinitive

Past

Past Participle

Infinitive

Past

Past Participle

Translation

was / were

been

ser, estar

eat

ate

eaten

comer

beat

beaten

vencer, superar, bater

fall

fell

fallen

cair, baixar

become

became

become

tornar-se, ficar

feed

fed

fed

alimentar

begin

began

bite

bit

begun bitten

começar morder, picar

feel fight

felt fought

felt fought

sentir brigar, lutar

bleed

bled

bled

sangrar

find

found

found

encontrar

blow

blew

blown

soprar

flee

fled

fled

fugir

break

broke

breed

bred

bring

brought

broken bred brought

Other Features

GLOSSARY Translation

be beat

quebrar, partir criar (animais), cultivar (plantas) trazer

fly forbid forget

flew forbade forgot

flown forbidden forgotten

voar proibir esquecer

Abbreviations adj. = adjective / adjective phrase adv. = adverb / adverbial phrase conj. = conjunction exclam.= exclamation m.v. = multi-word verb

A abolish (v.)

abolir

abusive (adj.)

abusivo(a), insultuoso(a)

n. = noun / noun phrase phr. = phrase prep.= preposition / prepositional phrase pron. = pronoun v. = verb

art gallery (n.)

galeria de arte, museu de belas-artes

articulate (adj.)

bem articulado(a), eloquente

accomplishment (n.)

realização

ashamed (adj.)

envergonhado(a)

ache (n.)

dor

assertive (adj.)

autoconfiante, decidido(a)

achieve (v.)

alcançar, conseguir

assignment (n.)

dever de casa, trabalho

achievement (n.)

façanha, conquista

availability (n.)

disponibilidade

acting (n.)

representação, encenação

available (adj.)

disponível

activist (n.)

ativista, militante

average (adj.)

médio(a)

add (v.)

adicionar, somar

avoid (v.)

evitar

address (v.)

dirigir-se a

award (n.; v.)

prêmio; premiar, conceder

advertise (v.)

anunciar

aware (adj.)

ciente, informado

broadcast

broadcast

broadcast

transmitir (por rádio ou TV)

forgive

forgave

forgiven

perdoar

advice (n.)

conselho

awareness (n.)

consciência

advice column (n.)

coluna de aconselhamento

awe-inspiring (adj.)

inspirador(a), imponente

build

built

built

construir

freeze

froze

frozen

congelar

advise (v.)

aconselhar

burnt / burned

incrível, impressionante, maravilhoso(a)

queimar

get

got

got / gotten

receber, obter, conseguir

afetar

awesome (adj.)

burnt / burned

affect (v.)

burn

affection (n.)

afeto, carinho

awful (adj.)

horrível

buy

bought

bought

comprar

give

gave

given

dar

catch

caught

caught

pegar, agarrar

go

went

gone

ir

choose

chose

chosen

escolher

grow hang

grew hung

grown hung

crescer pendurar

come

came

come

vir, chegar

cost

cost

cost

custar

have

had

had

ter

heard

heard

ouvir

afraid (adj.)

amedrontado(a)

agency (n.)

agência, órgão

agent (n.)

representante, agente

backache (n.)

dor nas costas

AIDS (abbreviation)

síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida (SIDA)

balloon (n.)

balão de fala

barber (n.)

barbeiro

airborne (adj.)

transportado pelo ar

battle (n.)

batalha, luta

allow (v.)

deixar, permitir

become (v.)

tornar-se

alone (adj.)

sozinho(a)

behavior (n.)

comportamento

ambulatory (n.)

ambulatório

behind (prep.)

atrás de

amount (n.)

quantia, quantidade

belief (n.)

crença, convicção

cut

cut

cut

cortar

amphibian (n.)

anfíbio

belong (v.)

pertencer

deal

dealt

dealt

tratar de, lidar

hide

hid

hid / hidden

esconder(-se)

angry (adj.)

zangado(a)

bestow (v.)

dar, entregar, conceder

anonymous (adj.)

anônimo(a)

betray (v.)

trair, atraiçoar

dig

dug

dug

cavar, escavar

hit

hit

hit

bater

apothecary (n.)

farmacêutico(a), boticário(a)

bill (n.)

nota, cédula, conta

appeal (n.)

apelo, atrativo

billboard (n.)

cartaz grande, outdoor

do

did

done

fazer

hold

held

held

segurar

appealing (adj.)

atraente

biodegradable (adj.)

biodegradável

draw

drew

drawn

desenhar

hurt

hurt

hurt

machucar

dream

dreamed / dreamt

dreamed / dreamt

sonhar

keep

kept

kept

manter, continuar

drink

drank

drunk

beber

know

knew

known

saber, conhecer

144

drove

driven

dirigir

lay

laid

laid

colocar, pôr

IRREGULAR VERBS

CS1-ING-EM-4008-V3-INICIAIS-LA-G18.indd 5

appear (v.)

parecer, aparecer

birth (n.)

nascimento, origem

apply (v.)

usar, empregar, pôr em prática

blacksmith (n.)

ferreiro(a)

appointment (n.)

encontro, compromisso, hora marcada

blame (v.)

culpar, responsabilizar

blind (adj.)

cego(a)

argue (v.)

brigar, discutir

block (n.)

quadra, quarteirão

armor (n.)

armadura

blood pressure (n.)

pressão sanguínea

arrangement (n.)

acordo, combinação

blow (v.)

soprar

arrest (v.)

aprisionar, deter, prender

breadwinner (n.)

arrimo de família

146

As seções Irregular Verbs, Glossary, False Cognates, Audioscripts e Bibliography complementam o trabalho das unidades e incentivam o desenvolvimento da sua autonomia.

B

hear

drive

135

GLOSSARY

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CONTENTS UNIT 1 – THE POWER OF WOMEN

8

Think about It

9

Reading

10

Vocabulary: Adjectives Followed by Preposition; Gender Differences

12

Grammar: Present Perfect Simple and Present Perfect Continuous; Past Perfect Simple and Past Perfect Continuous

14

Integrated Skills

18

UNIT 2 – ALIVE AND HEALTHY

22

Think about It

23

Reading

24

Vocabulary: False Cognates; Parts of the Body; Illnesses and Symptoms

26

Grammar: Future Perfect Simple

29

Integrated Skills

31

Autoavaliação – Units 1 & 2

35

UNIT 3 – ART FOR CHANGE

36

Think about It

37

Reading

38

Vocabulary: Common Noun Suffixes; Art Forms

40

Grammar: Relative Pronouns; Relative Clauses

43

Integrated Skills

46

UNIT 4 – IT TAKES ALL SORTS

50

Think about It

51

Reading

52

Vocabulary: Commonly Confused Words; New Year’s Traditions in Brazil

54

Grammar: Modals of Obligation, Prohibition and No Obligation

56

Integrated Skills

59

Autoavaliação– Units 3 & 4

63

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UNIT 5 – FIT FOR WORK

64

Think about It

65

Reading

66

Vocabulary: Work

68

Grammar: Direct and Indirect Speech: Statements; Questions and Imperatives

70

Integrated Skills

74

UNIT 6 – A MATTER OF CONSCIENCE

78

Think about It

79

Reading

80

Vocabulary: Ethics; Idioms with Animals

82

Grammar: First Conditional; Second Conditional; Third Conditional

84

Integrated Skills

87

Autoavaliação – Units 5 & 6

91

UNIT 7 – A WARMING WORLD?

92

Think about It

93

Reading

93

Vocabulary: Natural Disasters; Eco-friendly Tips

95

Grammar: Verbs Followed by Infinitive; Verbs Followed by -ing; Verbs Followed by Infinitive and -ing

97

Integrated Skills

100

UNIT 8 – DREAM BIG!

104

Think about It

105

Reading

106

Vocabulary: Different Meanings of the Verb to get; Expressions with the Verb to get; Life Achievements; Word Formation

108

Grammar: Causative Verbs

113

Integrated Skills

114

Autoavaliação – Units 7 & 8

119

CROSS-CURRICULAR LINK

120

FALSE COGNATES

154

EXAM PRACTICE

128

AUDIOSCRIPTS

156

IRREGULAR VERBS

144

BIBLIOGRAPHY

160

GLOSSARY

146

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THE POWER OF WOMEN UNIT 1

“Some of us are becoming the men we wanted to marry.” Gloria Steinem (1934– ), American writer, lecturer, editor and feminist activist. (LEWIS, Jone Johnson. Gloria Steinem Quotes. About.com. Available at: <http://womenshistory. about.com/cs/quotes/a/qu_g_steinem.htm>. Accessed on: Mar. 12, 2016.)

Stockbyte/Thinkstock

LEIA NOTA CULTURAL E SUGESTÃO INTERDISCIPLINAR NO MP

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THINK ABOUT IT

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

Habilidade de leitura: HL17 – Fazer inferências a partir de informações implícitas em um texto.

Harris, S/Cartoonstock

Baloo/CartoonStock

1. Read the cartoons and in the notebook complete de statements with the correct option. 1.

(Available at: <http://www.cartoonstock.com/cartoonview. asp?catref=rman9544>. Accessed on: Mar. 12, 2016.)

2.

(Available at: <http://www.cartoonstock.com/cartoonview. asp?catref=shrn1452>. Accessed on: Mar. 12, 2016.)

a. We can infer from the first cartoon that

b. According to the second cartoon,

.

comfortable about their new roles.

1. men prefer to take on women’s roles

1. men don’t feel

2. women prefer to take on men’s roles

2. women don’t feel

3. men and women are reversing their

3. neither men nor women feel

traditional roles

TALK ABOUT IT 2. Nowadays more women are taking on traditional male jobs and more men are taking on traditional female jobs. With your teacher and classmates discuss your views about men and women doing the following jobs. Add one of your own and discuss it too. Respostas pessoais. » babysier

» construction worker

» nurse

» ballet dancer

» engineer

» teacher of children

» bus driver

» hairdresser

VIEWPOINTS

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

Converse com seu professor e colegas. O que você acha de, hoje em dia, algumas mulheres assumirem as despesas da casa enquanto seus parceiros cuidam dos filhos e fazem as tarefas domésticas? Você acredita que homens e mulheres possam exercer as mesmas profissões? Por quê? Como você se posiciona em relação ao fato de que muitas mulheres, em vários países, continuam a receber um salário inferior em comparação aos homens que ocupam as mesmas funções?

THE POWER OF WOMEN | UNIT 1

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READING Habilidades de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto; HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

GET READY TO READ Focus on Genre

1. Look at the text below and write down in the notebook the asked information. a. The text genre. opinion article b. Where the text was published. newspaper c. The article’s headline. They Call It the Reverse Gender Gap d. The publication date. December 13

Estúdio Insólito

e. The author's name. Luisita Lopez Torregrosa

They Call It the Reverse Gender Gap NEW YORK, Dec. 13 – As the year ends, much of the talk around women – at least in the United States – has moved from empowerment and global gender gaps to the trend of young single women outearning men and the rise of female breadwinners. […] They are marrying later and later, or not marrying at all. They no longer need husbands to have children, or want no children (40 percent of births in the United States each year are now to single women). […] The emergence of this cohort of high-earning young women and the increasing number of female breadwinners are transforming gender relationships, upending

patterns of matchmaking, marriage and motherhood, creating a new conflict between the sexes, redefining the word “breadwinner” and inspiring tracts on the leveling of men’s roles. It is being called the reverse gender gap. Increasingly, if by no means yet the majority, women bring home the bacon while husbands or male partners take care of an ever greater share of the domestic front. This reversal of roles, evolving over the past decade or so, too often comes with a certain stigma. “Many couples are perfectly content and well adjusted, but for the stigmatizing opposition of friends, family, in-laws and even religious traditions,” said Liza

By LUISITA LOPEZ TORREGROSA

Mundy, a fellow at the New America Foundation […] She met high-achieving women who, afraid to put men off, devise strategies to play down their affluence. One woman carries small bills to pay for tips, drinks, parking and other dating expenses rather than whipping out her high-limit credit card. “Some of these women had learned the hard way that when they went to bars, they were better off lying about what they did — saying that they were a cosmetologist or music teacher rather than a software consultant or lawyer,” Ms. Mundy said. […] “As women have climbed ever higher, men have been falling behind,” she said […]

(TORREGROSA, Luisita Lopez. They Call It the Reverse Gender Gap. The International Herald Tribune, New York, Dec. 2011. The Female Factor.)

GLOSSARY

Az

affluence – riqueza, fartura be better off – estar numa condição melhor cohort – grupo empowerment – fortalecimento

10

leveling – nivelamento out-earning – ganhando mais play down – subestimar trend – tendência

TIP Inglês americano: bill Inglês britânico: note

UNIT 1 | THE POWER OF WOMEN

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2. Read the opinion article and choose only the characteristics of the genre from the options below to write down in the notebook.

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

a. Opinion articles are fiction. b. They are usually short. c. They usually have eye-catching headlines. d. They show the name of the writer. e. They usually start with a lead sentence which sums up the focus of the article. f. They exploit current controversial topics and stimulate community discussion. g. They allow writers to bring their own perspectives to the news. h. They usually appear on the front page.

Habilidade de leitura: HL16 – Inferir o sentido de palavras ou expressões desconhecidas do texto por meio de comparação com a língua materna, análise do contexto e uso de conhecimento morfológico.

READING COMPREHENSION

1. According to the text, what is “reverse gender gap”? Choose the best option to complete the sentence and write it down in the notebook. A new type of conflict between...

LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

a. men and women who compete for the higher-paying positions in companies b. different generations of one family c. men and women who will redefine their roles in modern western society

Habilidade de leitura: HL4 – Localizar informações relevantes no texto para completar uma tarefa ou solucionar um problema.

2. Based on the ideas presented in the text, write down in the notebook complete statements with the sentences halves below. a. Today young women

b share housework with their wives. ....

b. Modern husbands

d is a member of the New American Foundation. ....

c. Some high-achieving women

ac

d. Liza Mundy

a....c don’t need to get married to have children.

.... try to seem less important than they really are.

LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

GO BEYOND You can learn more about Liza Mundy at <http://ler.vc/rftuov>. (Accessed on: March 9, 2016.)

3. Based on the text, write down in the notebook only the correct sentences. a. The profile of young women is changing because of their high salaries. b. The reversal of roles may not be perfectly understood by society.

Habilidade de leitura: HL17 – Fazer inferências a partir de informações implícitas em um texto.

c. Successful women always show that they have plenty of money to buy expensive things. d. As men climb higher, women become less successful.

VIEWPOINTS

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

Converse com seu professor e colegas. De acordo com o artigo, está acontecendo uma inversão dos papéis de homens e mulheres na sociedade. Isso também é válido para a realidade brasileira? O que você pensa sobre essa inversão de papéis? LEIA DICA E SUGESTÃO INTERDISCIPLINAR NO MP THE POWER OF WOMEN | UNIT 1

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VOCABULARY ADJECTIVES FOLLOWED BY PREPOSITION 1. Read the following sentences and answer the questions in the notebook. • Many couples are perfectly content with the reversal of their roles. • Many women are well adjusted to being the breadwinner in the family. • Some women are responsible for raising their kids alone. • The athlete was pleased with the opportunity to talk about her career. • Some people are prejudiced against women drivers. • Malala is worried about girl’s education in her country. • Girls can be good at playing football or dancing ballet. • Gisele loves her job, but she is tired of travelling every week. • The girl’s were disappointed with the treatment they received at the airport. a. Make a list with the words that follow de adjectives in bold type. With, to, for, against, about, at, of b. Are these words verbs, adjectives or prepositions? Prepositions

2. Note that some of the prepositions are followed by verbs. In this case, the verbs must end in -ing. LEIA DICA NO MP

TRACK 2

PRONUNCIATION Linking – Consonant + Vowel In spoken form, words are connected when a word ends in a consonant sound and the next word starts with a vowel sound. Listen and repeat. upset about good at bad at interested in afraid of tired of

3. Write down the sentences in the notebook completing them with the correct preposition. a. Women are sometimes upset at / for / about men’s aitudes. b. Some young people aren’t prejudiced of / against / with reversing gender roles. c. Both men and women should be responsible for / of / about the housework. d. The teacher was pleased with / of / at Bob’s answer. e. Dad was disappointed of / against / with my behavior. f. I’m tired in / of / with studying. Let’s take a break and go out for a walk!

TALK ABOUT IT 4. In pairs, talk about the topics given or other topics of your choice. You can use the following expressions. Editoria de arte

Sugestões de respostas:

a. I’m interested... in math / history / English / music / art / watching TV b. I’m good... c. I’m afraid... d. I’m worried...

12

*

**

of violence / cockroaches / mice / dogs about violence / my exams

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GENDER DIFFERENCES 1. Leia este textos e escreva no caderno as respostas corretas. “[…] women bring home the bacon while husbands or male partners take

Estúdio Insólito

care of an ever greater share of the domestic front.”

a. Como dizemos to bring home the bacon em português? √ • Ganhar o pão.

• Levar bacon para casa. b. Como dizemos to wear the pants em língua portuguesa?

TIP

• Usar calças. √ • Ser o chefe da casa.

Existem diferenças no grau de formalidade de algumas expressões. to bring home the bacon – informal to be the breadwinner – neutra

c. A que tópico essas duas expressões idiomáticas se referem? √ • Aos papéis do homem e da mulher dentro da família.

• À rivalidade entre homens e mulheres no trabalho.

2. Read the definitions and, in the notebook, complete them with words from the box. breadwinner

chauvinism girlie

feminism

gender

macho

sexism chauvinism

a. A strong belief that the sex to which you belong is beer than the other sex: b. If a thing is this, it is suitable for females rather than males: c. Discrimination based on sex:

sexism

girlie

.

.

.

breadwinner

d. The person in a family who works to provide the money that the family needs to live on: feminism

e. The belief that women should have the same rights as men:

f. The physical and/or social condition of being male or female: g. A man who is aggressively proud of his masculinity:

macho

.

.

gender

.

.

3. Complete the sentences, in your notebook, using six of the words in exercise 2. a. Discrimination on the basis of race, b. Ann is such a

girlie

gender

or age is not allowed here.

girl. All her clothes are pink. breadwinner

c. Are men still expected to be the

in the family?

d. Our group isn’t chauvinist. We are commied to eradicating all forms of e. A study has revealed that men with

macho

sexism

.

aitudes are more reluctant to seek health care. THE POWER OF WOMEN | UNIT 1

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GRAMMAR LANGUAGE DISCOVERY 1. Read the following sentences and answer the questions in your notebook. 1. “[...] much of the talk around women has moved from empowerment and global gender gaps to the trend of young single women out-earning men […]” 2. “As women have climbed ever higher, men have been falling behind.” 3. “Darling, what’s happened to us?” a. In which of the sentences the verb form in bold type describes an action that occurred sometime in the past, but the exact time is unknown? 1 e 3 b. In which of the sentences the verb form in bold type describes an action that starts in the past and continues into the present? 2

2. Read the following sentences in the Present Perfect tense and, in the notebook, complete the definition bellow. a. Ana has written two books. b. Oliver hasn’t cleaned the kitchen very well. c. The cats have gone. I can’t find them anywhere. d. I can’t run today because I have cut my foot. e. Have you seen my keys? The Present Perfect affirmative

• In the

Simple

tense is used to describe an action that happened in a undefined time in the

past

.

it is formed by: Subject + Has or Have + the Past Participle. Hasn’t or Haven’t

• In the negative it is formed by: Subject +

+ the Past Participle.

Has or Have + subject + the • In the interrogative it is formed by: . Past Participle

3. Read the following sentences in the Present Perfect Continuous tense and, in the notebook, complete the definition bellow. a. Clara is tired. She has been running for an hour. b. I have been working on this report for two days. c. Grandpa hasn’t been feeling well recently. d. Where have you been? We have been looking for you since lunch time. e. Have you been painting? There is green paint in your hair. The present perfect continuous tense is used to describe an action that starts in the the

present

.

continues

and

into

Has / Have been

• In the affirmative it is formed by: Subject + negative

past

+ main verb + ing.

Haven’t been

• In the

it is formed by: Subject + Hasn’t or

• In the

it is formed by: Has / Have + subject + been +

interrogative

+ main verb + ing.

main verb + ing

.

4. In the notebook, write T (true) or F (false) for the following statements, correcting the wrong one(s). T a. The Present Perfect Simple and the Present Perfect Continuous are used to describe actions that

happened in the past, but have connection with the present. T b. We use the Present Perfect Simple to emphasize the result of the action. T c. We use the Present Perfect Continuous to focus on the action itself. F d. There is no difference in use between the Present Perfect Simple and the Present Perfect Continuous. There are some differences in use. F e.  The Present Perfect Simple is used to describe actions that are happening now. The Present Perfect Simple is used to describe actions that happened in the past, but has connection with the present.

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5. Choose the correct option to complete the sentences and write it down in the notebook. a. Angela’s house looks absolutely gorgeous! She has been redecorating / has redecorated it. b. Where were you, Sam? I have been waiting / have waited for you for hours. c. It has rained / has been raining for days. My street is completely flooded. d. I have read / have been reading the book, so I can lend it to you now. e. Sarah can’t read the test because she has lost / has been losing her glasses. f. You should go on a diet. You have eaten / have been eating a lot lately. g. We have known / have been knowing each other for ten years.

6. In your notebook, complete the sentences with the appropriate form of the verbs in parentheses. b. Mum

has lost

has gone

have been learning

c. I

it. (lose)

Creatista/Shutterstock.com

a. He can’t find his glasses. I think he

out. She’ll be back in an hour. (go)

English for five years. (learn)

have been waiting

d. We

here for twenty minutes. (wait) haven’t been

e. We would like to go, but we

has been working

f. She is very tired. She g.

Have

you

cooked

hard. (work)

the dinner? (cook)

I’ve forgotten

h. He told me his phone number, but have bought

i. They j. k.

Have Have

to Manaus yet. (go)

it. (forget)

a new car. (buy)

you

finished

the twins

your homework? (finish)

taken

the dog for a walk? (take)

LANGUAGE DISCOVERY

1.  They arrived at home in the evening and found that somebody had broken into the

Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock.com

Silatip/Shutterstock.com

1. Read the following statements and complete the sentences in the notebook.

2.  She had been working for hours when she fell asleep.

house during the day. a. In sentence b. In sentence

2 1

, one action in the past was in course when another one happened. , one action in the past happened before another action in the past.

Now, answer the question in he notebook.

Somebody had broken.

What happened first? They arrived or somebody had broken?

THE POWER OF WOMEN | UNIT 1

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• When Claire arrived home from work, her kids had gone to bed. • Had he read the report when the meeting started? • The kids hadn’t gone to bed when I got home. a. These statements refer to √ • two actions that happened in the past. • an action that is happening now and another in the past.

Anekoho/Shutterstock.com

2. Read the following sentences in the Past Perfect Simple, then choose the correct affirmatives and write them down in the notebook.

• √ an action in the past that happened before another action in the past. b. We use the Past Perfect Simple tense to refer to • √ an action in the past that happened before another action in the past. • an action in the past that happened after another action in the past.

3. In the notebook, write down the correct answer to complete the following statements. a. For affirmative sentences, we use √ • subject + had + past participle.

• subject + had + verb in the basic form. b. For negative sentences, we use • subject + hadn’t + verb in the basic form. √ • subject + hadn’t + past participle.

c. For interrogative sentences, we use √ • had + subject + past participle.

4. Read the following sentences in the Past Perfect Continuous, then choose the correct option and write them down in the notebook. • A  na had been working there for ten years when she was dismissed. • When I asked, Grandma said the kids hadn’t been watching TV for a long time. • Paula looked really awful yesterday. Had she been crying? a. We use the Past Perfect Continuous when we want to

badahos/Shutterstock.com

• subject + had + past participle.

describe two actions that happened in the past. • √ focus on the duration or the repetition of an action in the •

past that happened before another action in the past. • emphasize an action in the past that happened after another action in the past.

5. In your notebook, complete the sentences about the Past Perfect Continuous. had been

a. For affirmative sentences, we use subject +

hadn’t been

b. For negative sentences, we use subject + c. For interrogative sentences, we use

16

had

+ verb + ing

+ verb + ing

+ subject +

been

+ verb + ing

UNIT 1 | THE POWER OF WOMEN

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6. Choose the correct option to complete the sentences bellow. Then, write them down in the notebook. a. When we arrived at the concert, the band had played / had been playing for half an hour. b. I had seen / had been seeing many pictures of the Mona Lisa, but when I saw the painting at the Louvre, I was delighted. c. Thomas hadn’t climbed / hadn’t been climbing many mountains before he tried Mount Everest. He had to train really hard. d. Tim had driven / had been driving for five hours when he finally stopped for lunch. e. I couldn’t get into my house because I had left / had been leaving my keys in the office. f. The professor had spoken / had been speaking for an hour when Marge arrived at the lecture.

7. In the notebook, complete the sentences with the appropriate form of the verbs in parentheses. had given

a. Alan lost the book I

him for Christmas. (give) hadn’t been sleeping

b. Tom looked exhausted because he

very well. (not sleep)

c. When I arrived at Sarah’s house, everybody

had le

hadn’t booked

d. I couldn’t get a hotel room because I

in advance. (not book)

had been playing

e. The kids f.

Had

you

in the rain, so they were completely soaked. (play)

studied

Spanish before you moved to Mexico? (study) had been painting

g. Mary was covered from head to toe in paint. She hadn’t been working

h. Rick’s boss told him off because he

had been waiting

i. My parents were furious! They had

never

gone

the walls. (paint)

hard enough. (not work)

for me for a long time. (wait)

j. Tim couldn’t pay the bill because he k. My parents

. (leave)

had lost

his wallet. (lose)

abroad before their trip to Spain in 2010. (go) LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

SUFFRAGE » Women’s right to vote When Governor Glasgow signed the Electoral Bill on 19 September 1893, New Zealand became the had won first self-governing nation in the world where women (win) the right to vote. The Bill was the outcome of years of meetings in towns and cities across the country, with women often travelling considerable distances to hear lectures and speeches, pass resolutions and sign petitions. Available at: <http://archives.govt.nz/womens-suffrage-petition>. Accessed on: Mar. 11, 2016.

The First World War provided the first opportunity for women to take on traditional male jobs so it isn't surprising that in 1918 women over 30 were given the same political rights as men [in UK]. But this change had been campaigning was not just a result of war – women (campaign) for decades to be given the right to vote.

Ch. Chusseau-Flaviens (www.Commons. Wikimedia.org)

8. In the notebook, complete the texts with the appropriate verb tenses.

Available at: <http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/mwh/britain/votesforwomenrev_print.shtml>. Accessed on: Mar. 11, 2016.

had

started

The move for women to have the vote really (start) in 1897 when Millicent Fawcett founded the National Union of Women’s Suffrage. “Suffrage” means the right to vote and that is what women wanted [...]. Available at: <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/the-role-of-british-women-in-the-twentieth-century/suffragettes/>. Accessed on: Mar. 11, 2016.

LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP THE POWER OF WOMEN | UNIT 1

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INTEGRATED SKILLS

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

Habilidade de leitura: HL4 – Localizar informações relevantes no texto para completar uma tarefa ou solucionar um problema.

READING

1. Read the online opinion article. Then, write, in your notebook, the true sentences according to it. a. The recession in the USA led to a change in women’s roles when they had to start working to support their families. b. American women occupy more than 80 percent of the country’s jobs. c. During World War II, women replaced men in factories and offices in the USA.

Editoria de arte

d. Lately more men have decided to stay home to raise their children.

Home / Culture / People / Culture & Traditions / Relationships

Are men and women's roles in society changing? by Molly Edmonds

Dean Mitchel/Shutterstock.com

Among the many news stories dedicated to the recession that gripped the United States in the late 2000s were several pieces that asked whether the economic downturn had led to a change in traditional gender roles. More than 80 percent of the jobs lost during the recession had belonged to men [...]. With their husbands unemployed, women now take on the role of breadwinner, while the men take care of the home. [...] Women in the U.S. got one of their first tastes of the working world during World War II. The men went to war, and the women went to the factories and offices. [...] The social changes of the 1960s and 1970s caused a cultural revolution that found many women pursuing careers outside the home. In recent years, more men have expressed a desire to take on the role of primary caregiver to the children. [...] Many women struggle to balance work and family.

Though change is still in the air, there's no doubt that men and women's roles have become less strictly defined, and many families have made the male and female roles more egalitarian when it comes to jobs, housework and childcare.

(EDMONDS, Molly. Are men and women’s roles in society changing? Howstuffworks.com. Available at: <http://people.howstuffworks.com/menwomen-roles-changing.htm>. Accessed on: Mar. 14, 2016.)

WEB SEARCH Go to the following websites and read about some female world leaders. Choose one of them and make some notes so you can talk to your classmates about her. Time: <http://ler.vc/2xgzmb>. (Accessed on: Mar. 12, 2016.) Filibuster: <http://ler.vc/q4megq>. (Accessed on: Mar. 12, 2016.)

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LISTENING TRACK 3 1. Before you listen to a conversation between two friends, match the words in English with the corresponding translations and write down the numbers and letters in the notebook. a. be ahead of time

e 1. desempregado(a)

b. be fair

d 2. perdedor(a), derrotado(a)

c. be madly in love

b 3. ser justo(a)

d. loser

a 4. estar à frente de seu tempo

e. unemployed, between jobs

c 5. estar perdidamente apaixonado(a)

TRACK 4 2. You are going to hear a conversation between an American woman called Beth and her Canadian friend Vicky. They are talking about their friend Carla, who has a new boyfriend named Steve. Listen for the words and expressions used to refer to Carla and Steve. In the notebook, write C for Carla and S for Steve. C a. madly in love S b. unemployed

C c. successful

S e. not a loser

S d. between jobs

C f. ahead of time

TRACK 4 3. Now listen to the phone call again and, in the notebook, write the correct option to complete the sentences. a. Vicky is worried about Carla / Steve. b. Steve is Carla’s husband / boyfriend. c. Carla is a successful engineer / doctor.

d. In Beth’s opinion, if they got married, Carla / Steve could be the breadwinner. e. It's difficult for Vicky / Beth to accept changes in society.

VIEWPOINTS

LEIA DICA NO MP

Converse com seu professor e colegas. Você tende a concordar com a postura mais tradicional de Vicky ou com o posicionamento mais moderno de Beth em relação à mudança dos papéis do homem e da mulher na sociedade moderna? Por quê? Você vê exemplos dessa mudança em filmes, novelas, músicas etc.?

SPEAKING Agreeing, Disagreeing and Justifying Opinions 1. Match the expressions in bold with their communicative functions and write the letters and numbers in the notebook. Vicky: Beth: Vicky: Beth: Vicky:

Carla’s got a new boyfriend. She said she's madly in love with him! Oh, good for her. She's been alone for too long. (1) That's quite true! (2) But, on the other hand, it seems the guy is unemployed! And what’s the problem with that? (3) Let me explain. You see, Carla is such a successful engineer and I don’t think it's fair on her to date a guy who doesn't even have a job.

2 a. To disagree and present an argument. 1 b. To agree with what was said. 3 c.

To justify your opinion. THE POWER OF WOMEN | UNIT 1

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TRACK 5 2. Draw the following table in the notebook. Then, listen to the sentences and write them down in the appropriate box based on their functions. That's not the way I see it.

Well, I don't think so.

Yeah, I agree.

The point is that… That's quite true! I'm afraid I disagree Let me explain. You see...

Well, I'm afraid I disagree because… That's what I think too. Well, I agree because...

You're so right! But, on the other hand... Let me explain why I (dis)agree...

Agreeing

Disagreeing

Justifying Opinions

That's quite true! That's what I think too.

But, on the other hand... I'm afraid I disagree.

Let me explain. You see... Let me explain why I (dis)agree... Well, I agree because...

TALK ABOUT IT

Yeah, I agree. You're so right!

That's not the way I see it. Well, I don't think so.

The point is that… Well, I'm afraid I disagree because…

3. Read the following statements. Do you agree or disagree with them? Respostas pessoais. • Women should stay at home and take care of children. • In these times, it is better not to have children. • Men are emotionally weaker than women. • Men and women should have the same rights and obligations. 1. Think about each topic and write down your ideas about them in the notebook. 2. Plan your argues carefully. You can use the expressions we have just seen. 3. Show the argues to your teacher, doing any necessary changes. 4. Follow your teacher’s instruction in order to discuss about these topics with your classmates. Remember: in an argue, the non-verbal communication is very important and must be considered. Habilidades de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto; HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

WRITING Focus on Genre

1. A girl sent the following message to an online advice column. Read her question and, in the notebook, match the features to the corresponding arrows. Editoria de arte

a. Asking for advice.

b. Greeting the columnist.

Free Online Advice Column

Victim of injustice

c. Thanking the columnist. d. Explaining the problem.

Home

Advice

About

Privacy Statement

April 2, 2013

b1

Hello, Sound iTip!

d2

I got a job at a great company but I have been having problems with a male co-worker. He spends most of his time online, on the phone with his girlfriend and chatting with other male colleagues. Because of that he ends up working only three or four hours a day! We have the same position and I have to do the things he doesn't do! To make things worse, I just found out that his salary is higher than mine! Is it happening because I'm a young woman?

a3

Should I complain about his performance or just accept the situation?

c4

Thank you so much, Victim of Injustice Available at: <http://www.dearmrsweb.com/work.htm>. Accessed on: Mar. 11, 2016.

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2. Read the message and answer the questions in the notebook. a. How many hours does the girl's co-worker works a day? Only three or four hours. b. What does he do in the remaining time? He spends time on personal phone calls and chaing with other workers.

c. What does his behavior cause to Victim of injustice? She has to do the things she doesn't do. d. Which two choices is she in doubt about? If she should complain about his performance or accept the situation. LEIA O ALUNO NO MUNDO DO TRABALHO NO MP

TALK ABOUT IT 3. In pairs, choose the ideas you think could help the girl. In the notebook, you can add an idea of your own. Then discuss the statements with your teacher and classmates. Respostas pessoais. a. The girl should ignore her co-worker and continue doing her job. b. She should talk to her boss and complain about her co-worker. c. She should talk to her co-worker and ask if he could help her with some of the work. d. She should accept the situation because she has just started working there. e. She should call him and ask for help every time she sees the colleague is wasting time. That way their co-workers will see that he isn’t doing anything. f. She should

.

You can use the expressions to give opinion, agree and disagree that we have seen.

4. Make believe you are the columnist at the online advice column and, in the notebook, write the reply to the girl who asked for advice.

» Select some ideas from exercise 3 and write other suggestions that you think could help her.

Resposta pessoal.

» Write the first dra of your reply. Remember to greet the girl, thank her for the message and give her your advice.

» Show your first dra to some classmates. Take notes of their suggestions.

» Write your revised version. » Show your revised version to your teacher and take notes of his / her suggestions.

TIP Ao publicar textos em colunas de aconselhamento, tome cuidado para não fornecer informações pessoais ou detalhes que possam identificá-lo(a) ou identificar outras pessoas envolvidas na situação. Por esse motivo, o uso de apelido é bastante comum nesse gênero textual.

» Write your final version and hand it in to your teacher. SELF-EVALUATION Evaluate your reply to the girl who asked for advice. Did you greet the reader? Did you thank her for her message? Did you give her sensible advice? Did you incorporate your classmates’ and teacher’s suggestions? Are there any other improvements you can make?

GO BEYOND Song about modern women and their relationship with men nowadays: Modern Woman by Billy Joel. Book on the history of feminism in Brazil: PINTO, Celi. Uma história do feminismo no Brasil. São Paulo: Fundação Perseu Abramo, 2003. Movie about a female college graduate who gets a job as a co-assistant to a powerful fashion magazine editor: The Devil Wears Prada (O diabo veste Prada). Directed by: David Frankel. United States: 2006.

THE POWER OF WOMEN | UNIT 1

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UNIT 2

LEIA SUGESTÃO INTERDISCIPLINAR E SAIBA MAIS NO MP

CS1-ING-EM-4008-V3-U2-LA-G18.indd 22

“Prevention is better than cure.” Desiderius Erasmus (1469–1536), Dutch Renaissance humanist, social critic and teacher. (ERASMUS, Desiderius. Prevention is better than cure. Brainy Quote. Available at: <http://www.brainyquote. com/quotes/quotes/d/desiderius148997.html>. Accessed on: Mar. 12, 2016.)

lisafx/Thinkstock/Getty Images

ALIVE AND HEALTHY

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THINK ABOUT IT Focus on Genre 1. Look at the text and answer the questions in your notebook. a. b. c. d.

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

What text genre is it? A table. What is the title of the text? Change in Average Life Expectancy at Birth (Years). What is the purpose of a table? To allow people to compare information about similar items more easily. What are the main characteristics of a table? Write in the notebook.

√ • It has a title.

√ • It is systematically organized.

√ • It contains rows and columns.

√ • It contains numbers and percentages.

√ • The rows and the columns have titles.

• It needs a text to be fully understood.

<http://globalsherpa.org/charts-and-data/>

√ • It contains a great amount of information.

CHANGE IN AVERAGE LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH (YEARS) COUNTRY BANGLADESH BRAZIL FRANCE INDIA INDONESIA NEPAL SOUTH AFRICA U.K. U.S. ZIMBABWE

1960 40 54 70 42 41 38 49 71 70 51

1980 48 62 74 55 54 48 57 74 74 59

2008 66 72 82 64 71 67 51 80 78 44

% CHANGE 1960–2008 65.0% 33.3% 17.1% 52.4% 73.2% 76.3% 4.1% 12.7% 11.4% -13.7%

LOW INCOME AVERAGE MIDDLE INCOME AVERAGE HIGH INCOME AVERAGE WORLD AVERAGE

41 48 69 52

49 61 73 63

57 69 80 69

39.0% 43.8% 15.9% 32.7%

(Extract from the table Change in average life expectancy at birth(years). Charts and tables. Global Sherpa. Available at: <http://www.globalsherpa. org/charts-and-data>. Accessed on: Apr. 2, 2013.)

2. The table shows data about life expectancy at birth over five decades in ten countries. Look at the Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar table and, in the notebook, answer the questions based on it. a. What was the average life expectancy in the world in 2008? 69 years.

informações explícitas em um texto.

b. Which country had the highest life expectancy in 2008? France (82 years). c. Which country had the lowest life expectancy in 2008? Zimbabwe (44 years). d. What was the life expectancy in Brazil in 2008? 72 years. e. What was the life expectancy in South Africa in 2008? 51 years.

LEIA SAIBA MAIS NO MP

TALK ABOUT IT 3. According to the table, some poor countries in Africa have had a small increase, or even a decrease, in average life expectancy since 1960. Which factors may have contributed to these low results? Write in your notebook what you consider to be the three most important factors and, in small groups, discuss the issue. Respostas pessoais. • corruption

• low level of education

• famine

• poverty

• lack of medicine and vaccines

• widespread AIDS

You can use the expressions on page 20 to express your opinion. LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP ALIVE AND HEALTHY | UNIT 2

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READING

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

Habilidades de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros; HL19 – Validar ou reformular hipóteses sobre o conteúdo do texto, com base em indicadores contidos no texto.

GET READY TO READ

1. Look at the texts and discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates. Then read the texts and check your predictions. a. In your opinion, what are the texts about? Resposta possível: Health and disease. b. What do you know about this foundation? Respostas pessoais.

1. About us

News

Image Gallery

Case Studies in Global Health

Consortium Staff Pages

Editoria de arte

Rogério Reis/Pulsar Imagens

Access to Pharmaceuticals > The ATP consortium > Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ) 1

Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ)

(FIOCRUZ has its presence throughout Brazil, through its support to the Sistema

Único de Saúde (Unified Health System, the Brazilian public health system), and has significant influence on Brazil’s public health policy-making, its research activities, its 2 scientific expeditions and the reach of its health services and products.)(Inaugurated on May 25, 1900 under the name of Federal Serotherapy Institute, FIOCRUZ was given the mission of fighting the great problems of public health in Brazil. Therefore, FIOCRUZ became a think tank concerned with the Brazilian reality and experimental 3 medicine.)(Today the institution is responsible for a range of activities which include research development, highlyregarded hospital and ambulatory care services, production of vaccines, drugs, reagents, and diagnostic kits; education and training of human resources, information and communication in the area of health, science and technology; quality control of products and services and the implementation of social programs. It has over 7,500 employees and health 4 professionals with different levels of involvement, a workforce proud of being at the service of life.)(FIOCRUZ is based at a 800,000-square meter campus in Manguinhos, a neighborhood in the northern part of the city of Rio de Janeiro. Around the three historical buildings of the old Federal Serotherapy Institute — the Moorish Pavilion, the Clock Pavilion and the Mews — are located ten of FIOCRUZ ‘s thirteen technical-scientific units and all the technical and administrative support units. Another five units are located in Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Salvador, Recife and Manaus. )

(Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ). Access to Pharmaceuticals. Available at: <http://www.accesstopharmaceuticals.org/about/institutionsfioc/>. Accessed on: Mar. 12, 2016.)

2.

The UN warns that over 2.5m people will have died of AIDS in Africa by 2025. (UBWANI, Zephania. Unaids warns of 2.5m more Aids deaths in Africa by 2025. The Citizen, East Africa, Apr. 2012. Available at: <http://thecitizen. co.tz/news/4-national-news/21255>. Accessed on: Apr. 2, 2013.) LEIA NOTA CULTURAL E SAIBA MAIS NO MP

GLOSSARY

Az

employees – empregados proud – orgulhoso research – pesquisa through – através

IN CONTEXT throughout – por todo UN – ONU warn – advertir workforce – força de trabalho

GO BEYOND You can learn more about Fundação Oswaldo Cruz at <http://portal.fiocruz.br/pt-br>. (Accessed on: Mar. 13, 2016.)

24

Access to Pharmaceuticals is a consortium focused on the promotion of Socially Responsible Licensing as a means to improve the availability of essential medicines in the developing world. Oswaldo Cruz Foundation is one of the partners.

UNIT 2 | ALIVE AND HEALTHY

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READING COMPREHENSION

Habilidade de leitura: HL4 – Localizar informações relevantes no texto para completar uma tarefa ou solucionar um problema.

1. Read text 1 and divide it into four paragraphs. In the notebook, write the first word of the paragraph, ellipsis [...] and the last word. Remember that each paragraph develops a particular theme. Paragraph 1 – The relation between FIOCRUZ and public health. Paragraph 2 – Historical information about FIOCRUZ. Paragraph 3 – Information about the institution today. Paragraph 4 – The location of FIOCRUZ.

2. Answer in the notebook: What do these figures refer to in text 1? a. 1900 the year FIOCRUZ

b. 7,500 the number of people who work at FIOCRUZ.

was inaugurated.

Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

c. 800,000 the size of the Manguinhos campus (in square meters).

TIP Inglês americano: meter

Inglês britânico: metre

3. Answer in the notebook: What does 2.5m mean in text 2? 2,500,000 people

TIP

Habilidade de leitura: HL16 – Inferir o sentido de palavras ou expressões desconhecidas do texto por meio de comparação com a língua materna, análise do contexto e uso de conhecimento morfológico.

Em língua inglesa, usam-se vírgulas, em vez de pontos como em língua portuguesa, entre grupos de três dígitos em numerais de mil em diante.

4. Write in the notebook: According to text 1, we can infer that FIOCRUZ may have contributed to the... Habilidade de leitura: HL17 – Fazer inferências a partir de informações implícitas em um texto.

a. public health system all over the world. b. increase of life expectancy in Brazil.

5. In the notebook, write T (true) or F (false).

Habilidades de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto; HL17 – Fazer inferências a partir de informações implícitas em um texto.

F a. Both texts present an optimistic view of life expectancy. T b. FIOCRUZ is an institution which is in charge of research, production of vaccines, drugs, reagents and

diagnostic kits, among other activities. T c. AIDS is expected to cause millions of deaths in Africa in the beginning of the twenty-first century. F d. The production of vaccines and diagnostic kits will increase life expectancy everywhere in the world.

VIEWPOINTS

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

Converse com seu professor e colegas. Você concorda que a prevenção é o melhor remédio? Por quê? Que atitudes e hábitos você pode adotar para prevenir doenças? Que doenças podem ser evitadas com o auxílio de vacinas? De que forma a população e o poder público podem ajudar na prevenção de doenças como poliomielite, sarampo etc.?

ALIVE AND HEALTHY | UNIT 2

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VOCABULARY FALSE COGNATES 1. Read the text below and, in the notebook, make a list of the words that are similar to Portuguese. I realized quickly what Mandela and Tambo meant to ordinary Africans. It was a place where they could come and find a sympathetic ear and a competent ally, a place where they would not be either turned away or cheated, a place where they might actually feel proud to be represented by men of their own skin color. Nelson Mandela (1918-2013). South African anti-apartheid revolutionary and former president of South Africa. (Available at: <www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/n/nelsonmand717933.html>. Accessed on: Mar. 13, 2016.)

Cognates are words in two languages that share a similar meaning, spelling, and pronunciation. But be careful with the false cognates! They are similar, but have different meanings.

2. Match the words to their meanings, writing them down in the notebook. Then, classify them into two categories. a-3, b-1, c-4, d-2 a. Actually

1. Competente

b. Competent

2. Solidário

c. Represented

3. Realmente

d. Sympathetic

4. Representado

True Cognates

Competent Represented

False Cognates

Sympathetic Actually

Here you have a list of some more false cognates:

English – Portuguese

Portuguese – English

actually (adv.) – na verdade, de fato to attend (v.) – estar presente, assistir to intend (v.) – pretender lunch (n.) – almoço parents (n.) – pais to pretend (v.) – fingir to push (v.) – empurrar to retire (v.) – aposentar-se sensible (adj.) – sensato to shoot (v.) – disparar, atirar sympathetic (adj.) – solidário time (n.) – hora, tempo

atualmente – nowadays atender – to answer entender – to understand lanche – snack parentes – relatives pretender – to intend puxar – to pull retirar – to remove sensível – sensitive chutar – to kick simpático – friendly time – team

3. Read the sentences and, in the notebook, write the correct options.

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a. Actually / Nowadays he isn’t a doctor. He’s a nurse. b. A: What do you pretend / intend to be when you grow up? B: I’d like to be a scientist. c. The phone is ringing. Could you please answer / attend it? d. What’s your favorite soccer time / team? e. I can’t understand / intend any word in Japanese. f. Goalkeepers can sometimes shoot / kick the ball.

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4. In your notebook, complete the sentences using one word from the pairs. friendly / sympathetic

lunch / snack

pretend / intend

parents / relatives

sensible / sensitive

push / pull

a. I always have

lunch

at noon.

push

b. My car broke down. Can you help me

c. Uncle Ben and Aunt Julia are my favorite d. We

intend

it?

relatives

.

to get married in two years’ time. sensitive

e. Don’t shout at her. She is a very

girl.

sympathetic

f. If you need a friend, someone to lend you a

ear, remember I'm here for you.

PARTS OF THE BODY 1. In the notebook, label the parts of the body with the words from the box.

dimdimich/Getty Images

arm

back

face

foot

hand

knee

leg

neck

face

l. head

a.

stomach

neck

m. n. shoulder

b. chest

back

o.

arm

c. d.

p. elbow

stomach hand

e. f. finger

leg

g. thigh

q.

knee

h. i. shin j. k. toe

foot

r. ankle

TRACK 6

PRONUNCIATION Sounds /  / and /  / Listen and repeat. // fit // feet

hit heat

TIP ship sheep

sick seek

Singular foot

Plural feet

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LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

Habilidades de leitura: HL17 – Fazer inferências a partir de informações implícitas em um texto; HL22 – Identificar efeitos de ironia ou humor em textos variados.

ILLNESSES AND SYMPTOMS

1. Read the cartoon and, in the notebook, write the correct option to complete the sentences. Fray, Brian/Cartoonstock

In this cartoon the word rash can have two meanings: rash (adj.) – careless and not thinking enough about the results rash (n.) – red spots on the skin a. The doctor is / isn’t sure about the patient’s illness. b. The humorous effect is achieved by the double meaning of the word decision / rash.

2.

Influenza (flu) sneezing a cough a sore throat a fever a headache an earache a backache

Food poisoning a fever a headache a stomachache vomiting a rash

An allergy a cough a fever sneezing vomiting a rash

(FRAY, Brian. I’ll have to think about this… I don’t want to make a rash decision! Cartoonstock. Available at: <http://www.cartoonstock.com/ cartoonview.asp?catref=bfrn117>. Accessed on: Mar. 18, 2013.)

Influenza (flu)

vomiting

a backache

Food poisoning

Yuri/Thinkstock/Getty Images

a fever

a headache 1MoreCreative/Thinkstock/Getty Images

xalanx/Thinkstock/Getty Images

iStockphoto.com/DRB Images, LLC

Sugestões de respostas:

william87/Thinkstock/Getty Images

a stomachache

a sore throat

jsteel77/Thinkstock/Getty Images

a rash

a cough

Nadezhda Bolotina/Thinkstock/Getty Images

justme_yo/Thinkstock/Getty Images

sneezing

Tom Le Goff/Thinkstock/Getty Images

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

2. Write the symptoms in the appropriate box according to what people say about each disease.

an earache

An allergy

sneezing

LEIA SAIBA MAIS NO MP

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TALK ABOUT IT 3. Work in pairs. You are the patient and your partner is the doctor. You are not feeling well and go to see the doctor. Based on exercise 2, on page 28, describe the symptoms and your colleague says what is the

Stockbyte/Thinkstock/Getty Images

disease. Then take turns. Student A: You’re a doctor. Student B: You’re a patient. A: Good morning. What’s the matter with you? B: I’m sneezing and I have a fever. A: You have the flu. You should stay in bed and drink a lot of fluids. B: Thank you. LEIA O ALUNO NO MUNDO DO TRABALHO NO MP

GRAMMAR LANGUAGE DISCOVERY 1. Read the folowing sentences and, in the notebook, write the correct option. 1. The UN warns that over 2.5m people will have died of AIDS in Africa by 2025. 2. By 2100, scientists will have cured most diseases. 3. Congo: 15,000 will die of AIDS waiting for drugs over the next three years. (Research source: THE ASSOCIATED PRESS. Congo: 15,000 will die of aids waiting for drugs, group warns. The New York Times, New York, Jan. 2012. Available at: <http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/26/world/africa/congo-15000-will-die-of-aids-waiting-for-drugs-group-warns.html>. Accessed on: Apr. 3, 2013.)

a. De acordo com a frase 1, 2.500.000 pessoas

de AIDS até 2025.

√ terão morrido • morrerão •

b. De acordo com a frase 2, os cientistas √ terão curado •

c. De acordo com a frase 3, 15.000 pessoas √ morrerão de AIDS nos próximos •

a maioria das doenças até 2100. • curarão três anos. • terão morrido de AIDS em até

2. Read the following sentences in the Future Perfect Simple, then write the time expressions in the notebook. When Sally gets home this evening, her son will not have gone to bed. Will Julian have spent all his money by the end of his vacation? The mechanic will not have repaired the car by Saturday. By the end of the day, Paul will have received your message. By this time next week, my parents will have come back from the trip.

3. Now, read the sentences again, choose the correct options and write them down in the notebook. a. These statements refer to √ • actions in the future. • actions in the past.

one action in the past and another in the • future.

b. We use the Future Perfect Simple to • describe a situation that will be completed by a particular time in the future. √ • describe an action that will happen in the future after another action. ALIVE AND HEALTHY | UNIT 2

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4. In the notebook, write down the correct answer to complete the following statements. a. For affirmative sentences, we use √ • subject + will have + past participle.

• subject + will have + verb in the basic form.

b. For negative sentences, we use • subject + haven’t + verb in the basic form.

√ • subject + will not have + past participle.

c. For interrogative sentences, we use √ • will + subject + have + past participle.

• subject + had + past participle.

5. In the notebook, complete the sentences with the appropriate form of the verbs in the box. not finish

leave

not sleep

solve

start

take

won’t have slept

a. By this time tomorrow, the nurse

will have le

b. If we don’t hurry, the train

for 24 hours. She’ll be exhausted.

by the time we get to the station.

will have started

c. The traffic is awful. By the time we get to the theater, the movie won’t have finished

d. He’s very slow. He

cleaning the house when I arrive.

I will have taken

e. I have to study hard now. By the end of next week, will have solved

f. Don’t worry. I’m sure you

ten tests.

.

LEIA DICA NO MP

this problem by the end of the week. LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

6. Read the text about predictions for the year 2040 and, in the notebook, do the following activities. a. Answer the questions.

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

1. What text genre is it? An e-mail.

2. Who wrote this text? M. M.’s e-mail address, the addressee’s e-mail address and the subject of 3. Which information is missing in the text? the e-mail.

b. Now read the e-mail again and, in the notebook, fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs in

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parentheses.

From: To: Subject: Hi! I love the Destination: 2040 website! Well done! I'd like to tell you what my predictions are. will be will have changed (be) very different in 2040 because technology (change) and everything will be better. First of all, life will have learned will have developed will have Scientists (learn) more so they (develop) lots of machines like robots. Houses (have) robots which will cook will have lost (cook) and clean the bedrooms. Also many people (lose) their jobs because robots will have taken them won't have will be since they (be) very fast. Secondly, schools will be really different. Some countries (not have) schools will have will be because students will use PCs to learn everything. In other countries robots (be) teachers! Finally, people will have (have) more free time. Everyone will have a 3D TV and computers (have) thousands of films available over the Internet and amazing computer games! Thanks! Bye, M. (Project 2040: Future predictions by D’Class. Teaching and Learning English, Apr. 2012. Available at: <http://markaki-students.blogspot.com. br/2012/04/project-2040-future-predictions-by-d.html>. Accessed on: Apr. 3, 2013.) LEIA DICA NO MP

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INTEGRATED SKILLS READING 1. What do you know about dengue fever? In the noteboook, write T for true or F for false. T a. Dengue fever is caused by a virus. T b. Dengue fever is transmitted by a mosquito called Aedes aegypti. F c. Dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever are the same illness. T d. One of the symptoms of dengue is high fever.

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F e. Dengue lasts one or two days.

2. Look at the text and answer the questions in the notebook. a. Where does the text come from? A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia.

Habilidades de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto; HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

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b. Who was it written for? Medical professionals and people who want to learn about dengue.

Home > Diseases and Conditions > Dengue fever

A.D.A.M. MEDICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA.

Search

GO

Dengue fever

O'nyong-nyong fever; Dengue-like disease; Breakbone fever Last reviewed: August 24, 2011.

Dengue fever is a virus-caused disease that is spread by mosquitoes. See also: Dengue hemorrhagic fever Dengue fever is caused by one of four different but related viruses. It is spread by the bite of mosquitoes, most commonly the mosquito Aedes aegypti, which is found in tropic and subtropic regions. […]. Symptoms Dengue fever begins with a sudden high fever, often as high as 104-105 degrees Fahrenheit, 4 to 7 days after the infection. A flat, red rash may appear over most of the body 2-5 days after the fever starts. […]

Other symptoms include: » Fatigue » Headache (especially behind the eyes) » Joint aches » Muscle aches » Nausea » Swollen lymph nodes » Vomiting [...] Treatment There is no specific treatment for dengue fever. You will need fluids if there are signs of dehydration. Acetaminophen […] is used to treat a high fever. […] Expectations (prognosis) The condition generally lasts a week or more.

(A.D.A.M. MEDICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA. Dengue Fever. PubMed Health, Aug. 2011. Available at: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/ article/001374.htm. Accessed on: Mar. 14, 2016.)

3. Read the text and check your answers to the sentences in exercise 1.

IN CONTEXT

LEIA SAIBA MAIS NO MP

Habilidade de leitura: HL19 – Validar ou reformular hipóteses sobre o conteúdo do texto, com base em indicadores contidos no texto.

Dengue fever is a viral disease common to tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The first dengue fever epidemics were reported in 1779 – 1780 in North America, Asia and Africa. Nowadays, this disease is considered one of the most common viral diseases in the world and it is estimated by the World Health Organization that more than 50,000,000 people are affected by it every year. Research sources: Dengue matters: <http://ler.vc/ca2uz8>. (Accessed on: Mar. 14, 2016.) News-Medical: <http://ler.vc/23qrvu>. (Accessed on: Mar. 14, 2016.) World Health Organization: <http://ler.vc/wvvtp6>. (Accessed on: Mar. 14, 2016.)

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TIP Celsius (oC) e Fahrenheit (oF) são duas escalas de temperatura. Para fazer a conversão de uma escala para a outra, usamos as seguintes fórmulas: Conversão de

para

Fórmula

grau Celsius

grau Fahrenheit

°F = °C × 1,8 + 32

grau Fahrenheit

grau Celsius

°C = (°F − 32) / 1,8

LISTENING 1. You are going to hear two American students, Roberta and Sheila, talking to David, a Brazilian classmate, about their science project. They are planning a campaign to inform people about dengue fever. Before you listen to their conversation, write in the notebook the topics you think they will talk about. Respostas pessoais. a. The title of their campaign.

d. How dengue fever is treated.

b. The symptoms of dengue fever.

e. Some prevention tips.

c. The characteristics of the mosquito.

TRACK 7 2. Now listen to the conversation and check your predictions in exercise 1. TRACK 7 3. Listen to the conversation again and, in the notebook, write the correct answers. a. What type of campaign media are the students planning? • A blog. √ • A flyer.

b. Which title have they chosen for the campaign? √ • Kill the dengue mosquito.

• Kill dengue. c. Which prevention tips did they mention? • Use of mosquito nets and insect repellent.

VIEWPOINTS Converse com seu professor e colegas. Você, ou alguém que você conhece, já teve dengue ou dengue hemorrágica? As ações de combate à dengue focam basicamente a divulgação de informações. Você acha que, sozinhas, as campanhas de conscientização sobre a dengue têm a capacidade de erradicar a doença? Em caso negativo, que outras ações seriam necessárias?

√ • Eradication of the mosquitoes and use of insect repellent.

SPEAKING Interrupting Politely 1. Read the following dialog and, in the notebook, write the function of the expressions in bold. Sheila:

It has to be short and simple, like "Kill dengue" or...

Roberta: Excuse me, Sheila, but I think it’s important to say we need to eliminate the mosquito too. [...] Roberta: Now prevention. David:

Sorry for interrupting, but maybe we should also mention vomiting and rash.

a. Discordar educadamente. b. Expressar desapontamento. c. Interromper educadamente.

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2. Read the expressions for interrupting politely and write in the notebook the formal ones. Monkey Business Images/ Shutterstock.com

a. Can I say something? b. Excuse me, but… c. I'd like to make a comment about that. d. I'd like to say something if I may. e. May I add something? f. Sorry for interrupting, but…

TALK ABOUT IT 3. In pairs, talk about an experience you, someone in your family or your community had with dengue fever. Try to use some of the expressions for interrupt politely we have just seen. Respostas pessoais.

WRITING Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

Focus on Genre

1. David, Sheila and Roberta made a flyer about dengue fever as part of their project. Read the flyer and match the features to the corresponding arrows, writing them down in the notebook. a. List of symptoms. b. Invitation for the reader to take part. c. Appealing title. d. Prevention measures.

4 EASY STEPS TO KILL THE DENGUE MOSQUITO

c

a

2

Remove water from potted plants on alternate days.

3

Turn over all water storage containers.

Renato Faccini

Change water in vases on alternate days.

Renato Faccini

1

Renato Faccini

SYMPTOMS: SEVERE HEADACHE • HIGH FEVER • MUSCLE PAIN • VOMITING • RASH Renato Faccini

Estúdio Insólito enciKtat/Thinkstock/Getty Images

e. Illustrative images.

4

Use insect repellent on exposed skin.

d

e

b

DO YOUR PART IN THIS FIGHT! PASS THESE TIPS ALONG TO YOUR FAMILY, FRIENDS AND NEIGHBORS! (Research source: Pamphlets / booklets. Campaign against dengue. Available at: <http://www.dengue.gov.sg/subject.asp?id=52>. Accessed on: Mar. 14, 2016.)

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2. Read the flyer again and answer the questions in the notebook. a. What is the purpose of the flyer? To persuade the reader to fight the dengue mosquito. b. What kind of information does it contain? The symptoms of the disease and disease prevention measures. c. Who is the target audience of the flyer? Its readers, their relatives, friends and neighbors.

3. In groups, create an HIV and AIDS prevention flyer to be distributed to the students in your school.

» » » » » » » » »

Research information about HIV and AIDS (check the Web Search links below). Resposta pessoal. Create an appealing title and an engaging closing message. Write your text. Remember to include symptoms, transmission and prevention. Show your first dra to some classmates. Take notes of their suggestions. Write your revised version. Show your revised version to your teacher and take notes of his / her suggestions. Incorporate feedback and write your final version. Choose interesting pictures or draw your own illustrations. Create and distribute your flyer.

WEB SEARCH Go to the sites listed below and read about HIV and AIDS. Take notes of the symptoms of the disease, how it is transmitted and how it can be prevented. You will need this information to create your flyer. Planned Parenthood: <http://ler.vc/dr649x>. (Accessed on: Mar. 15, 2016.) NHS choices: <http://ler.vc/7crf4z>. (Accessed on: Mar. 15, 2016.) Avert: <http://ler.vc/5w8se6>. (Accessed on: Mar. 15, 2016.) Avert: <http://ler.vc/nbivey>. (Accessed on: Mar. 15, 2016.)

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SELF-EVALUATION Evaluate your flyer. Did you write an appealing title? Did you include information about symptoms, transmission and prevention? Did you include an invitation for the reader to take active part in the campaign? Did you incorporate your classmates’ and teacher’s suggestions? Are there any other improvements you can make?

GO BEYOND Books about the history of epidemics throughout the ages: UJVARI, Stefan Cunha. A história da humanidade contada pelos vírus. São Paulo: Editora Contexto, 2008. UJVARI, Stefan Cunha. A história e suas epidemias: a convivência do homem com os microrganismos. São Paulo: Senac, 2003. Movie about a deadly disease caused by a lethal airborne virus that kills within days: CONTAGION (CONTÁGIO). Directed by: Steven Soderbergh. United States: 2011. Video about how to make a mosquito trap: <http://ler.vc/nfabuo>. (Accessed on: Mar. 15, 2016.)

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Autoavaliação Responda às perguntas do quadro a seguir em seu caderno para avaliar seu desempenho ao longo das unidades 1 e 2. = muito bom

= regular

= fraco

Sou capaz de... a. ler, ouvir e falar sobre assuntos relacionados aos novos papéis de homens e mulheres na sociedade moderna. b. ler e reconhecer as características do gênero textual artigo. c. usar adjetivos seguidos por preposições.

Unidade 1 1 1

d. entender e usar vocabulário relacionado a diferenças dos gêneros masculino e feminino.

1

e. entender as diferenças entre Present Perfect Simple e Present Perfect Continuous e usá-los de maneira apropriada.

1

f. compreender as diferenças entre Past Perfect Simple e Past Perfect Continuous e usá-los apropriadamente.

1

g. ler uma mensagem enviada a uma coluna de aconselhamento, reconhecer suas características e produzir uma resposta para essa mensagem.

1

h. ler, ouvir e falar a respeito de questões relacionadas a saúde, prevenção de doenças e expectativa de vida.

2

i. ler e reconhecer as características do gênero textual tabela. j. compreender a diferença entre cognatos e falsos cognatos e aprender a usá-los em contexto. k. nomear partes do corpo. l. nomear doenças e sintomas. m. entender e usar o Future Perfect Simple em contexto de maneira apropriada. n. ler um panfleto, reconhecer suas características e produzir um semelhante.

Avaliação

2 2 2 2 2 2

MELHORANDO SEU DESEMPENHO Releia os textos das unidades. Refaça os exercícios das unidades 1 e 2. Assista a filmes em inglês. Crie o próprio glossário / dicionário. Ouça músicas em inglês.

AUTOAVALIAÇÃO

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LEIA SAIBA MAIS E NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

ART FOR CHANGE

“I am spraying for change. It is my mission to talk to the Haitian people.” Jerry Rosembert (1984–), Haitian graffiti artist. (MAGNIER, Mathilde. Graffiti for change in Haiti. Caritas.org. Available at:<http:// www.caritas.org/2010/04/graffiti-forchange-in-haiti/>. Accessed on: Mar. 15, 2016.)

AP Photo/Alan Diaz

UNIT 3

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Habilidades de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto; HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

THINK ABOUT IT Focus on Genre

IN CONTEXT

1. Look at the text and answer the questions in the notebook. a. What text genre is it? An online article. b. What is the title of the text? Graffiti for change in Haiti. c. Read the caption to the picture. What are its main characteristics? • It is a long text. √ • It is located under or to the side of the picture.

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√ • It explains and reinforces the information given by the picture. √ •

It adds extra information to the picture.

√ •

The caption font size is smaller than the text font.

ABOUT US

OUR WORK

AROUND THE WORLD

RESOURCES

The Republic of Haiti is located in the Caribbean and its capital is Port-au-Prince. It was colonized by the French and became independent on January 1, 1804. Haiti’s two official languages are French and Haitian Creole.

SERVICES

SEARCH

Our Work > Emergencies > Graffiti for change in Haiti Caritas

Graffiti for change in Haiti by Mathilde Magnier Graffiti artist Jerry has been covering the walls of Haiti’s relief camps with his works of art. His objective is tough. It is to encourage the Haitians to apply basic hygiene principles. [...]

A Haitian graffiti artist hired by Caritas has completed a number of murals and will be painting several more throughout the city. The murals depict messages reinforcing hand washing and good hygiene practices.

Jerry Rosembert is famous in Port-au-Prince. For one year, with a mask and a cap hiding his face, he has been covering the capital’s walls with his drawings during the night. […] The message is simple, but essential. Haitian’s awareness on hygiene questions is raised and they are encouraged to wash their hands regularly. The main objective is to prevent infectious diseases and other epidemics that could spread in the overpopulated camps during the rainy season. [...]

(MAGNIER, Mathilde. Graffiti for change in Haiti. Caritas.org. Available at: <http://www.caritas.org/2010/04/graffiti-for-change-in-haiti/>. Accessed on: Mar. 15, 2016.) LEIA NOTA CULTURAL E SAIBA MAIS NO MP

2. Read the article and answer the questions in the notebook. a. What does Jerry paint? The walls of Haiti’s relief camps.

Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

b. When does Jerry work? At night. c. What is the aim of Jerry’s graffiti? To encourage the Haitians to apply basic principles of hygiene and to prevent infectious diseases and other epidemics.

TALK ABOUT IT

Anna Ivanova/Thinkstock/ Getty Images

Thinkstock/Getty Images

Toby Burrows/Thinkstock/ Getty Images

3. In your opinion, is street dancing an art form? Look at some forms of street art and discuss this issue with your teacher and classmates. Respostas pessoais.

street performance / busking

street dancing

street installation

ART FOR CHANGE | UNIT 3

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READING

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

Habilidades de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto; HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

GET READY TO READ

1. Look at the text. Discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates. a. What text genre is it? An online article. b. Where would you find it? On the internet. c. When was it published? On November 9, 2015.

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d. By reading the title, what do you think the text is about? Resposta pessoal.

Articles

Creativity

News

Profiles

Recipes

Humour

Horoscope

Voyages

How A Brazilian Graffiti Artist Is Empowering Women Around The World “Art is how we can be influenced and be an influence.”

Panmela Castro is speaking out through her art to combat Brazil’s high rates of violence against women. Based in Rio de Janeiro, the feminist graffiti artist and activist uses her skills to create murals addressing the country’s problem with domestic violence, gender inequality and the mistreatment of women. “We face different situations that we are conditioned to obey and that most of the time are oppressive and/or prejudiced,” she told The Huffington Post via email. “This is why we have to change what it means to be a woman in the world.” Being a woman in Brazil can come with its dangers. According to the United Nations Trust Fund to End Violence against Women, a woman is assaulted in São Paulo every 15 seconds. [...] Castro hopes to spark a broader conversation about gender and feminism through her work, as well as through an organization she started called Rede Nami, which holds workshops throughout Brazil and around the world to help empower women using art. “In the workshops we have a safe space to create a work that gives a voice to women who in other situations would never talk about that part of their lives,” she told HuffPost. “In this way, graffiti is a tool for communication.” Though she is based in Brazil, Castro has done street art around the world, using her work to teach others that art can make an impact. “In the arts, there is not the wrong or the right, good or bad, nice or ugly,” she said. “It is a space for experimentation, freedom, and thought. Art is how we can be influenced and be an influence.”

Tumblr artista/Panmela Castro

11/09/2015 11:21 am ET | Updated Nov 10, 2015 Taylor Pittman Voices Staff Writer, The Huffington Post

(PITTMAN, Taylor. How A Brazilian Graffiti Artist Is Empowering Women Around The World. Nov. 10, 2015. Available at: <http://www.huffingtonpost. com/entry/panmela-castro-graffiti-artist-brazil_us_563cf31be4b0307f2cad508f>. Accessed on: May 20, 2016.) LEIA SAIBA MAIS NO MP

GLOSSARY Az mistreatment – maus-tratos trust fund – fundo fiduciário assaulted – agredido(a)

38

to spark – instigar broader – mais amplo

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2. Read the text and check your predictions to letter d in exercise 1.

TIP A melhor estratégia de leitura para este exercício é uma leitura rápida (skimming) sem se preocupar em entender todas as palavras. Realizamos esse tipo de leitura quando, por exemplo, queremos verificar se nossas hipóteses sobre um texto estão corretas ou não.

READING COMPREHENSION 1. What is Panmela’s main objective with her art? a. To show the world the Brazilian party atmosphere. b. To address the problems women face every day, such as domestic violence and abuse. √

2. Match the sentences halves and write down the corresponding letters and numbers in the notebook. a. Panmela Castro is

b 1. a project about women’s art and empowerment.

b. Rede Nami is

c 2. assaulted every 15 seconds.

c. In São Paulo a woman is

a 3. a Brazilian graffiti artist and activist.

3. In the sentence “Though she is based in Brazil, Castro has done street art around the world, using her work to teach others that art can make an impact,” what does the linker though express the idea of? Write the correct option in the notebook. a. addition

b. contrast

c. consequence

4. What do the words which and who refer to, respectively, in the sentences below? Write the correct option in the notebook. “[...] an organization she started called Rede Nami, which holds workshops throughout Brazil and around the world to help empower women using art.” “In the workshops we have a safe space to create a work that gives a voice to women who in other situations would never talk about that part of their lives [...]” a. art and graffiti b. Rede Nami and Panmela c. Rede Nami and women

VIEWPOINTS Converse com seu professor e colegas. O artigo desta seção apresenta uma artista afro-brasileira que usa sua arte para promover a reflexão crítica e a conscientização das pessoas sobre a violência contra a mulher e o sexismo. Você acha que a arte pode ser usada para promover uma mudança social? No seu bairro ou na sua comunidade, existe algum projeto como o da Rede Nami, de envolver as pessoas com arte a fim de fomentar o engajamento social?

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VOCABULARY COMMON NOUN SUFFIXES 1. Read the sentences and write the correct options in the notebook. “Haitian’s awareness on hygiene questions is raised and they are encouraged to wash their hands regularly.” “[...] the feminist graffiti artist and activist uses her skills to create murals addressing the country’s problem with domestic violence, gender inequality [...]” “Art has been defined as a vehicle for the expression or communication of emotions and ideas […]” (Art. Wikipedia, Dec. 2011. Available at: <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art>. Accessed on: Apr. 3, 2016.)

a. The words in bold are...

• adjectives

√ • nouns

b. Match the words in bold to their base form. Write the corresponding letters and numbers in the notebook. a-4, b-5, c-2, d-3, e-1, f-6

a. awareness b. artist

1. to express (verb)

2. (un)equal (adjective)

c. inequality

3. act (verb)

d. activist

4. aware (adjective)

e. expression

5. art (noun)

f. communication

6. to communicate (verb)

c. The words in bold are formed with a... √ • suffix

• prefix

The table below has some common suffixes.

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Suffix

Verb

Noun

-ance

to appear

appearance

-ion

to express

expression

-er

to teach

teacher

-ment

to pay

payment

-tion

to communicate / to predict

prediction

-or

to edit

editor

Suffix

Adjective

Noun

-ance

important

importance

-ence

independent

independence

-ity

generous

generosity

-ness

happy

happiness

-th

warm

warmth

Suffix

Noun

Noun

-hood

child

childhood

-cian

music

musician

-ing

film / paint

filming / painting

-ism

critic

criticism

-ship

friend

friendship

-ist

science

scientist

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TRACK 8

LEIA DICA NO MP

PRONUNCIATION -tion suffix – sound /

/

The -tion suffix is pronounced with the sound /  /. Listen and repeat. communication collection discrimination education

invention

prediction

TIP Como vimos anteriormente, os sufixos modificam a função das palavras, ou seja, a sua classe gramatical. Conhecer o significado dos sufixos pode nos auxiliar na compreensão de palavras desconhecidas, além de nos ajudar a criar palavras novas a partir de vocábulos que já conhecemos.

2. Read the sentences and write the correct options in the notebook. a. Discrimination / Discriminate based on race is illegal in Brazil. b. The develop / development of a country depends on many factors. c. What is the relationship / relation between you and that guy? d. Traveling / Travel alone can be fun. e. Parenthood includes affection and responsible / responsibility. f. Ann just got her first job and is enjoying a feeling of independence / independent. Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

3. Read this extract from a book about art and do the following activities. a. Look at the text and at the cover and answer the questions in the notebook. 1. What's the title of the book? Art & Fear. 2. Who wrote it? David Bayles and Ted Orland. 3. Who did they write this book for? Artists, art students and people interested in art. b. Add a suffix to the words given and complete the text in the notebook.

Ted Orland/Image Continuum Press

-ance

-er

-ist

-ment

ARTMAKING INVOLVES SKILLS THAT CAN BE LEARNED. The conventional wisdom here is that while “craft” can be taught, “art” remains a magical gift bestowed only by the gods. Not so. In large measure becoming an

artist

(art) consists of learning to

accept yourself, which makes your work personal, and in following your own voice, which makes your work distinctive. Clearly, these qualities can be nurtured by others. perseverance

Even talent is rarely distinguishable, over the long run, from

(persevere) and

lots of hard work. It’s true that every few years the authors encounter some beginning photography student whose first-semester prints appear as finely crafted as any Ansel Adams might have made. And it’s true that a natural gift like that (especially coming encouragement

at the fragile early learning stage) returns priceless

(encourage) to its

maker

(make). But all that has nothing to do with artistic content. Rather, it simply points up the fact that most of us (including Adams himself!) had to work years to perfect our art.

(ORLAND, Ted; BAYLES, David. Art & Fear – Observations On the Perils (and Rewards) of Artmaking. Oregon: Image Continuum Press, 2001, chapter 1.)

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ART FORMS 1. Read the sentence and write down in your notebook the art forms mentioned. â&#x20AC;&#x153;There are three forms of visual art: painting is art to look at, sculpture is art you can walk around, and architecture is art you can walk through.â&#x20AC;? Dan Rice

(Architecture quotes. Think exist.com. Available at: <http://thinkexist.com/quotations/architecture/>. Accessed on: Mar. 15, 2016.)

2. Match the art forms and the pictures. Four words will not be used. Write down the answers in the notebook. dancing

drawing

graphic design

music

painting

photography

poetry

sculpture

singing

b.

d.

f.

ceramics

carving

e.

acting

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iStockphoto/Thinkstock

graphic design

sculpture

c.

Jupiterimages/Comstock/Thinkstock

a.

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

collage

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

ceramics

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

carving

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

acting

drawing

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h.

i.

collage

painting

dancing

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

Jupiterimages/Brand X Pictures/Thinkstock

g.

TALK ABOUT IT 3. Give your opinion about the art forms in exercise 2 and compare them to different forms of street art. Talk to your teacher and classmates. You can use the adjectives below. Respostas pessoais. » accessible

» difficult

» modern

» awe-inspiring

» easy

» popular

» calming

» expressive

» special

» decorative

» inspiring

» traditional

GRAMMAR LANGUAGE DISCOVERY 1. Clause is a part of a sentence. Pay attention to the clauses in bold in the sentences below and write down the correct option in the notebook. 1. The graffiti artist who is spraying for change is from Haiti. 2. The works of art which Jerry creates encourage Haitians to use better principles of hygiene. 3. The country where Jerry lives is very poor. a. The clause in bold in sentence 1 refers to Haiti / graffiti artist. This clause is introduced by the relative pronoun who / which. b. The clause in bold in sentence 2 refers to Haitians / works of art. This sentence is introduced by the relative pronoun where / which. c. The clause in bold in sentence 3 refers to Jerry / country. This clause is introduced by the relative pronoun where / which.

2. Read the sentences in exercise 1 again and complete the following sentences in the notebook. a. We use relative

pronouns

to introduce a relative

clause

to a sentence.

who

b. The relative pronoun refers to something that has already been mentioned in the sentence. We use in a relative clause when we are talking about people, which

which

we are talking about things and

where

when we are talking about places. ART FOR CHANGE | UNIT 3

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3. Read the sentences below and write down the correct affirmatives in the notebook. • Guernica is the painting that expresses Picasso’s horror of war. • Leonardo da Vinci is the artist who painted the Mona Lisa. • Auguste Rodin is the artist that sculpted The Thinker. • The artist about whom I have most books is Gauguin. • Van Gogh is one of the artists whose paintings sell for millions. a. Who and that refer to people.

d. Whom is used after a preposition.

b. Only who refers to people.

e. Whose refers to possession.

c. That refers to things and people.

4. Write the correct Relative Pronoun in the notebook. a. That girl who / whose / whom is playing with a dog is my niece. b. This is the new TV where / which / whom my father gave me for Christmas. c. This is the fitness club whom / where / which I work out after class. d. That is my friend who / whom / whose son is a talented singer. e. These are the classmates which / who / whom helped me with the art project. The man with who / whom / whose I was talking is my uncle. f. 

Monkey Business Images/ Shutterstock.com

Mirco Vacca/Shutterstock.com

5. In the notebook, complete the sentences with the appropriate word.

who

helped me carry

b. A: Is that your car?  B: No, mine is the one

which

is parked near the tree.

whose

Wavebreakmedia/ Shutterstock.com

c. This is the woman famous graffiti artist.

44

brother is a

Ivica Drusany/Shutterstock.com

Air Images/Shutterstock.com

a. That is the man my bags.

d. Look at this place. Isn’t it the art gallery bought those paintings?

e. Steve is the guy to have any question.

whom

where

we

you should talk if you

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LANGUAGE DISCOVERY 1. Read the sentences and answer the questions in the notebook. 1. Rede Nami is a project which helps empowering women through art. 2. Panmela Castro, who is based in Rio de Janeiro, believes art can change society. 3. AfroReggae is a Brazilian organization which aims at using art education to reduce crime and the use of drugs in the favelas. a. In which sentence(s) the clause in bold is used to give essential information that we need in order to understand what is being referred to? Sentences 1 and 3. b. In which sentence(s) the clause in bold is used to give extra information about the person so don’t need it to understand who is being referred to? Sentence 2.

2. Read the sentences in the exercise 1 again and complete the statements below in the notebook. a. In sentences

1 and 3

we have defining relative clauses. These clauses aren't separated by commas and we

can also use the relative pronoun that. b. In sentence

2

we have a non-defining relative clause. These clauses are separated by commas and

we can't use the relative pronoun that.

3. Read the quotations and write the correct option in the notebook. a. “Paintings have a life of their own that / who derives from the painter's soul.” Vincent van Gogh b. “The aim of every artist is to arrest motion, whom / which is life, by artificial means and hold it fixed so that a hundred years later, when a stranger looks at it, it moves again since it is life.” William Faulkner c. “A man's work is nothing but this slow trek to rediscover, through the detours of art, those two or three great and simple images in who / whose presence his heart first opened.” Albert Camus d. “Art is contemplation. It is the pleasure of the mind who / which searches into nature and which there divines the spirit of which / where nature herself is animated.” Auguste Rodin (BrainyQuote. Available at: <http://www.brainyquote.com/>. Accessed on: Apr. 3, 2013.)

e. “An artist is someone who / which produces things that people don't need to have but that he – for some reason – thinks it would be a good idea to give them.” Andy Warhol

LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

(QuoteDb. Available at: <http://www.quotedb.com/quotes/3484>. Accessed on: Apr. 3, 2013.)

4. Make Defining Relative Clauses by joining the sentences with a suitable Relative Pronoun. Write them down in the notebook. a. This is a bike. I bought it last week. This is the bike which I bought last week. b. This is a pub. I used to come here at your age. This is the pub where I used to come at your age. c. This is a teacher. She teaches art at my school. This is the teacher who teaches art at my school. d. This is a sweater. My grandmother made it for me. This is the sweater which my grandmother made for me. e. This is a village. My grandfather was born here. This is the village where my grandfather was born.

5. Make Non-defining Relative Clauses by joining the sentences with a suitable Relative Pronoun. Write them down in the notebook. a. My brother has two daughters. He is a street performer. My brother, who is a street performer, has two daughters. My brother, who has two daughters, is a street performer.

b. Verona is in Italy. It is a very old city. Verona, which is in Italy, is a very old city. Verona, which is a very old city, is in Italy.

c. Mandarin Chinese is an interesting language. Its words are difficult to pronounce. Mandarin Chinese, whose words are difficult to pronounce, is an interesting language.

d. The Waldorf Hotel is very comfortable. We stayed there on our last vacation. The Waldorf Hotel, where we stayed on our last vacation, is very comfortable.

e. Jeff plays the drums really well. He was invited to join a rock band. Jeff, who plays the drums very well, was invited to join a rock band. Jeff, who was invited to join a rock band, plays the drums very well.

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INTEGRATED SKILLS LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

READING

Habilidade de leitura: HL18 – Selecionar um título ou legenda apropriada para um texto.

1. Match the articles and the corresponding headlines. Write the answers in the notebook. a. Deteriorating sight won't stop me b. Art changed my life

b

Local artist Gary Fisher knows firsthand that life can change in an instant. After stopping by the Corcoran Gallery for lunch one day many years ago, he picked up a brochure for adult art classes. According to Fisher, what looked like a fun way to spend an evening or two ended up changing his life. He discovered a passion for art, entered into early retirement from the U.S. Department of Justice and started a second career as a professional artist. […]

2.

a

Editoria de arte

1.

Editoria de arte

Editoria de arte

c. If I wrote a book, it would be called Art Saved My Life

3.

c

Dawn Parkinson is a highly talented artist who exhibits throughout the world, but she has never seen any of her paintings.

Growing up in Santo Domingo,

Dawn is registered blind. She started losing her sight before she was four and lost it completely in her left eye in 1987. She also has serious problems with the vision in her right eye.

near Boston, neighbors threw

She paints in tiny grids with the use of a special little telescope – a monocular – gradually building up into a full painting. […]

Robert Castillo was the richest child on the block. […] But when he and his family later moved to Chelsea, a small town garbage at them […]. Now an illustrator and storyboard artist living in Jersey City, Castillo turned his trials and tribulations into a movie […]. "If I wrote a book, it would be called Art Saved My Life", Castillo says. "All the time, I was drawing. I didn't want to do drugs, fight or join a gang […]".

(Gary Fisher: Art Changed my Life. Borderstan, New York, Apr. 2011. Available at:<http://www. borderstan.com/04/gary-fisher-art-changedmy-life>. Accessed on: Apr. 3, 2013.)

VIEWPOINTS

(Deteriorating sight won’t stop me. BBCNews, United Kingdom, Oct. 2002. Available at:<http:// news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/2285552.stm>. Accessed on: Apr. 3, 2013.)

(LEVENSON, Claire. If I wrote a book, it would be called ‘Art saved my life’. NYDaily News, New York, Jun. 2008. Available at: <http:// www.nydailynews.com/new-york/wrotebook-called-art-saved-life-article-1.297032>. Accessed on: Apr. 3, 2013.)

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

Converse com seu professor e colegas. Você acha que a arte pode ajudar as pessoas a superarem problemas como: perda de um ente querido, depressão, vício em drogas, marginalidade etc.? Por quê? Que tipo de arte você faz ou gostaria de fazer? Justifique.

WEB SEARCH Go to <http://ler.vc/5ad2ro> and take a virtual walk around the different art collections. Read about the pieces that interest you and share the information with your classmates and teacher.

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LISTENING TRACK 9 1. Before you listen to a British Museum tour guide describing a painting, match the words in English with the corresponding translations. Write the letters and numbers in the notebook. a. to hover (v.)

d 1. lado esquerdo

b. cliff (n.)

b 2. penhasco

c. seagull (n.)

a 3. flutuar no ar, pairar

d. left-hand side (adv. phr.)

e 4. pedregoso(a) (com pedrinhas)

e. pebbly (adj.)

c 5. gaivota

TRACK 10

b.

Zoonar/Thinkstock

a.

Dawn Parkinson

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

2. Listen to the description of a painting, then choose the corresponding picture and write the answer in the notebook. c.

TRACK 11 3. Listen to an extract from the painting description again and complete the sentences. a. T  he painting is called b. There is a c. The

seagull

cliff

Alone

.

hovering over the ocean.

is on the left-hand side. pebbly

d. At the bottom of the cliff there is a

beach.

4. Discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates.

Respostas pessoais.

a. Why do you think the painting is called Alone? b. Do you like the painting by Dawn Parkinson? What feelings does it evoke in you?

SPEAKING Describing a Painting 1. Read the sentences and, in the notebook, write the communicative function of the expressions in bold. “The cliff dominates the left-hand side of the painting.” “In the center of the painting, the seagull itself hangs effortlessly in the air.” “Another gull flies in the distance.” a. Informar o ouvinte sobre o posicionamento dos elementos. b. Dar instruções ao ouvinte. c. Emitir opiniões em relação aos elementos. ART FOR CHANGE | UNIT 3

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TRACK 12 2. Look at the painting and at the expressions to describe pictures. In the notebook, complete the sentences and then listen and repeat. in the background / distance

on the left-hand side

on the right-hand side

at the top in the middle / Palma il Vecchio, c. 1520. Oil on canvas. Gemäldergalerie Alte Meister, Dresden, Germany

center

at the bottom

Jacob and Rachel. 146.5 x 250.5 cm.

in the foreground a. There’s a loving couple. in the middle / center b. There are some tall trees. on the le-hand side c. There are some mountains. in the background / distance d. There are lots of animals. on the right-hand side e. There are two dogs. at the boom f. There’s a cloudy sky. at the top

LEIA DICA NO MP

TALK ABOUT IT

The Bedroom. 72 x 90 cm.

b.

The Beach at Trouville. 38 x 46.5 cm.

Mauricio de Sousa Editora Ltda

a.

Claude Monet, 1870. Oil on canvas, National Gallery, London, England

Vincent van Gogh, 1888. Oil on canvas. Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam, Netherlands

3. Describe the following paintings to your classmates. They should be able to guess which one you’re describing. You can use the expressions in exercise 2. Respostas pessoais. c.

Mauricio de Sousa, Meninas do Limoeiro Dançando, 1993. Acrilic on canvas, 95 x 115.5 cm.

LEIA NOTA CULTURAL E DICA NO MP

4. Discuss with your classmates. Which of the paintings do you like best? Why? 48

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WRITING Focus on Genre 1. Haiku is a form of poetry originated in Japan many centuries ago. Read the poem and, in the notebook, write T for true or F for false, correcting the false statements. Estúdio Insólito

F a. The traditional Japanese haiku consists of five lines.

three

T b. The first and the third line have five syllables and the middle

Spring Haiku

line has seven. T c. Haiku is usually set during a particular season or month. T d. Haiku emphasizes images rather than explanations.

delicate wind blows floating over country flowers spring is breaking out Specially written for this book.

T e. Haiku focuses on the present moment so it is written in the

present tense. F f. The beginning of every line is always capitalized in haiku.

never

T g. Haiku does not have rhyming words. T h. Haiku poems may have titles, but they don’t always have them. LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

2. Talk to your classmates. Did you enjoy reading the haiku? Would you like to read others? Why? 3. Make believe you have decided to take part in a haiku contest on the internet. The theme of the contest is Nature Represented in Art.

»

Resposta pessoal.

Choose one of the works of art in this unit as inspiration for your haiku. Write down some thoughts related to it.

»

Write your haiku organizing your ideas onto three lines. If necessary, you can use a syllable counter on the internet (http://www.wordcalc.com/).

» » » »

Show the first draft of your haiku to some classmates. Take notes of their suggestions. Write your revised version. Show your revised version to your teacher and take notes of his / her suggestions.

LEIA DICA NO MP

Write your final version and hand it in to your teacher.

SELF-EVALUATION Evaluate your haiku. Did you write three lines? Did you check the number of syllables in each line? Did you use the present tense? Did you incorporate your classmates’ and teacher’s suggestions? Are there any other improvements you can make?

GO BEYOND Video about the graffiti project on Kelburn Castle: <http://ler.vc/rg9coc>. (Accessed on: Mar. 16, 2016.) Books that document the history of graffiti all over the world and in Brazil: GANZ, Nicholas. O Mundo do Grafite: Arte Urbana dos Cinco Continentes. São Paulo: WMF Martins Fontes, 2010. MALLAND, Julien. Tropical Spray: Viagem ao Coração do Grafite Brasileiro. São Paulo: Martins Editora, 2012.

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IT TAKES ALL SORTS UNIT 4

“Peace is not unity in similarity, but unity in diversity, in the comparison and conciliation of differences.” Mikhail Gorbachev (1931–), former Soviet statesman and 1990 Nobel Peace Prize winner.

LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

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Yamini Chao/Digital Vision/Thinkstock iStockphoto/Thinkstock

(Mikhail Gorbachev, Wikiquotes. Available at: <http://en.wikiquote.org/ wiki/Mikhail_Gorbachev>. Accessed on: Mar. 16, 2016.)

5/11/16 08:28


THINK ABOUT IT

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

1. Look at the text and answer the questions in the notebook. a. What text genre is it? A quiz. b. Where would you find a text like this? In a magazine. c. Who was the text written for? For teenagers and young adults.

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

d. What is the text about? About cultural awareness.

Photos.com/Thinkstock

Estúdio Insólito

2. Read the quiz and write T (true) and F (false) in the notebook. Then check your score.

CULTURAL AWARENESS QUIZ Are you planning to travel abroad? How much do you know about other people’s cultures and customs? Take this quiz and find out how culturally aware you are. 1. In Japan, you don’t have to take off your shoes when you go into someone’s home. T

3. Eating with your right hand is taboo in Saudi Arabia. 4. It’s considered very rude to jump queues in Britain.

F T

5. You must be punctual in Japan. It’s very bad manners to be late there.

T

6. In Italy, it isn’t common for everyone to speak at the same time at gatherings. 7. In Argentina, the OK sign and the thumbs up gesture are considered vulgar. 8. It’s rude to chew with your mouth open in China.

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

2. In India, you must show respect to your elders.

F

F

T

F

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

NOW CHECK YOUR ANSWERS AND READ THE SCORE. 6 to 8 Awesome! You know a lot about other cultures. You’re ready to become an international traveler! 3 to 5 Good! But you should try and learn a bit more about other cultures. 0 to 2 You don’t know much about other cultures, do you? Maybe you should learn more about other people’s customs before deciding to travel abroad. Answer key: 1. False 2. True 3. False 4. True 5. True 6. False 7. True 8. False (Research sources: Argentina Travel Tips. Travel Taboo. Available at: <http://www.traveltaboo.com/argentina-travel-tips-dos-and-donts/>; Italy Business Etiquette, Culture & Manners. Available at: <http://www.cyborlink.com/besite/italy.htm>. Accessed on: Mar. 16, 2016.)

VIEWPOINTS

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

Converse com seu professor e colegas. O quiz mostra exemplos de alguns hábitos e costumes que não compartilhamos na cultura brasileira. Você acha importante aprender essas diferenças entre as culturas? Por quê? “Human diversity makes tolerance more than a virtue; it makes it a requirement for survival.” Rene Dubos. Você concorda com essa citação? Por quê? Você se lembra de algum exemplo, noticiado na mídia, em que a falta de tolerância com a diferença causou desrespeito ou até mesmo violência? Como você procura combater a intolerância diante das diferenças? (Rene Dubos Quotes. Thinkexist.com. Available at: <http://thinkexist.com/quotation/human-diversity-makes-tolerance-more-than-a/535975. html>. Accessed on: Mar. 16, 2016.)

LEIA DICA E O ALUNO NO MUNDO DO TRABALHO NO MP IT TAKES ALL SORTS | UNIT 4

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READING GET READY TO READ

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

Habilidades de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto; HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

1. Look at the text and the pictures and answer the questions in the notebook. a. Where would you find this text? On the Internet. b. What is their purpose? Some traditional native Brazilian festivals and rituals.

Kim-Ir-Sam, 1973. Michel Pellanders, 1989.

The funerary ritual of the Bororo (State of Mato Grosso) is a special moment of socialization for the young. Not only because many of them are formally initiated then, but also because it is through their participation in the collective chants, dances and hunting and fishing expeditions that they have the opportunity of learning and grasping the wealth of their culture. Photo: Kim-Ir-Sam, 1973. In the log race, which is associated with several rituals, the Krahó of the State of Tocantins form two groups, called “halves”. Each of them carries a section of the trunk of a buriti palm (or another tree), whose format, size and decoration may vary. The Krahó are a Timbira group of the Jê linguistic family. Other Timbira and Jê peoples also perform the log race. Photo: Michel Pellanders, 1989. [...] In the yãkwa, a ritual performed by the Enawenê-Nawê of the State of Mato Grosso, the villagers, divided in clans, exchange food, chants and dances. The ritual, which lasts several months and has two phases, aims at putting into practice the teachings of the underground spirits, yakairiti. Photo: Vincent Carelli, n/d. [...] Xingu men participate of the huka-huka in the village of the Yawalapiti, in the State of Mato Grosso. This contest is part of the intertribal ritual called kwarúp, performed to honor the dead of the various groups that live in the Upper Xingu River region. Photo: Milton Guran, 1985. [...]

Vincent Carelli, n/d.

A panorama of diversity

Milton Guran, 1985.

Editoria de arte

c. What do you know about this topic? Resposta pessoal.

(SZTUTMAN, Renato. Rituals. Available at: <https://pib.socioambiental.org/en/c/no-brasil-atual/modos-de-vida/rituais>. Accessed on: May 20, 2016.)

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GLOSSARY Az chants – cânticos grasping – compreender, compreensão wealth – riqueza log – tora

trunk – tronco (de árvore) exchange – permutam, trocam aims at – tem como objetivo underground – subterrâneo

READING COMPREHENSION 1. In the notebook, number the following items 1-5 in the order they are mentioned in the text. One of the items will not be used. 5 • Information about the contest called huka-huka. 1 • Bororo’s formal initiation rituals. 3 • The linguistic family of the Krahó. 2 • How the log race is performed. - • The language spoken by the Enawenê-Nawê. 4 • How the yãkwa festival is celebrated.

2. Read the text again and answer the questions in pairs. It’s through the participation in the ritual that they can learn the wealth of their culture. b. What are the groups called in the log race? They are called “halves”.

a. What is the importance of the funerary ritual of the Bororo?

c. Which of the rituals mentioned lasts for months according to the text? The yãkwa. d. Is the kwarúp celebrated among just one tribe? No, it’s an intertribal ritual.

3. Write the name of the festivals in the correct categories. There may be more than one category for each. Log race; Kwarúp

Celebrated by more than one tribe

Kwarúp

Celebrates the dead

Log race; Kwarúp

Displays of strength

Bororo; Yãkwa

Dancing and music

VIEWPOINTS Converse com seu professor e colegas. Você conhecia algumas das tradições das tribos indígenas mencionadas no texto? Você conhece outras? É importante preservar essa cultura indígena brasileira? Por quê?

GO BEYOND You can learn more about the rituals and traditions of some Brazilian tribes at <https://pib.socioambiental. org/pt>. (Accessed on May 20, 2016.)

IT TAKES ALL SORTS | UNIT 4

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VOCABULARY COMMONLY CONFUSED WORDS 1. Pay attention to the words in bold in the sentences below, then choose the correct option and write it in the notebook. “It’s a Chinese custom to enter the new year with a clean house and new clothing […]” (Let’s Celebrate: Promises of the Dragon. Nyack-Piermont Patch, Jan. 2012. Available at: <http://nyack.patch.com/blog_posts/lets-celebratepromises-of-the-dragon>. Accessed on: Apr. 13, 2013.)

"In China, the traditional New Year's Day parade includes a group of people who wind through the street wearing a large dragon costume.” (Introduction to Dragon. Dragnix. Available at: <http://www.dragnix.net/Basic/>. Accessed on: Apr. 13, 2013.)

1. The word custom means costume / fantasia in Portuguese. 2. The word costume means costume / fantasia in Portuguese. It’s considered very rude to jump queues in Britain. “Often when people visit other countries, they get lost and miss subtle cultural cues, which lead them to misinterpret others.” (How to Communicate Well with People from Other Cultures. WikiHow to do anything. Available at: <http://www.wikihow.com/CommunicateWell-With-People-from-Other-Cultures>. Accessed on: Apr. 13, 2013.)

3. The word queues means pistas / filas in Portuguese. 4. The word cues means pistas / filas in Portuguese. There are many words in English that look or sound alike, but have different meanings. Here you have a list of pairs of words that regularly cause people problems.

Word 1

Meaning

Word 2

Meaning

aloud (adv.)

alto, em voz alta

allowed (v.)

permitido(a)

brake (n.) (v.)

freio; frear

break (v.)

quebrar, pausar

cereal (n.)

flocos de milho, cereal

serial (n.) (adj.)

série (na TV); em série (assassino em série)

cue (n.)

pista, sinal

queue (n.) (v.)

fila; fazer fila

custom (n.)

costume, hábito

costume (n.)

fantasia, traje típico

desert (n.)

deserto

dessert (n.)

sobremesa

lie (n.) (v.)

mentira; ficar deitado, mentir

lay (v.)

colocar, pôr (a mesa, um ovo)

loose (adj.)

solto(a), folgado(a)

lose (v.)

perder

piece (n.)

pedaço

peace (n.)

paz, tranquilidade

pull (v.)

puxar

push (v.)

empurrar

quiet (adj.) (n.)

silencioso(a), quieto(a), calado(a); silêncio

quite (adv.)

bastante, muito, totalmente

sight (n.)

vista, cena

site (n.)

local, lugar, sítio (arqueológico, da internet) LEIA DICA NO MP

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2. Write, in the notebook, the correct words to complete the sentences. a. Betty is making healthier food choices, so she will skip... • desert

√ • dessert

b. Mark was invited to a fancy dress party, so he needs to buy a nice... • custom

√ • costume

c. My car broke down, but some friends helped me... it off the road. • pull

√ • push

d. I’ve lost a lot of weight and now my jeans are extremely... √ • loose

• lose

e. A healthy... should provide you with low calories, high fiber, high protein, vitamins and minerals. • serial

√ • cereal

Inglês americano: costume party Inglês britânico: fancy dress party

f. The pain made the baby cry... √ • aloud

TIP

• allowed

3. Read the sentences and write the correct options in the notebook. a. The women in Morocco are quiet / quite beautiful. b. Do you believe in love at first sight / site? c. Surprisingly, there wasn’t a cue / queue at the restaurant, so we just walked in. d. You need to step on the break / brake to stop your car. e. I’d like another piece / peace of chocolate cake, please. f. After a busy day, I like to lie / lay down on my bed and rest.

NEW YEAR’S TRADITIONS IN BRAZIL 1. Read the sentence about New Year's Eve in Brazil and write, in the notebook, the Brazilian customs mentioned. “In Brazil, most New Year's Eve customs are related to good luck or fortune. For example, if they are in a beach city, after midnight, people go to the beach, jump over seven waves and throw flowers in the sea while making a wish. […]” (New Year’s Customs from Around the World. Topics Online Magazine. Available at: <http://www.topics-mag.com/internatl/holidays/new-year/ customs/around_the_world.htm>. Accessed on: Mar. 16, 2016.)

2. In the notebook, complete the Brazilian New Year’s traditions with the verbs in the box. carry

dress

eat

jump

a.

light up

throw

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

throw

over seven waves

wear

c.

b.

jump

watch

eat

flowers in the ocean

grapes and lentils IT TAKES ALL SORTS | UNIT 4

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wear

e.

Jupiterimages/Polka Dot/Thinkstock

Hemera/Thinkstock

d.

dress

light up

g.

h.

carry

watch

seven promegranate seeds in your wallet

firework

candles on the beach

Stockbyte/Thinkstock

f.

in white Hemera/Thinkstock

Hemera/Thinkstock

brightly colored underwear

TALK ABOUT IT

3. Do you have any traditions for New Year's Eve? Talk to your teacher and classmates about your New Year’s traditions. Respostas pessoais.

GRAMMAR LANGUAGE DISCOVERY 1. Read the sentences below and write, in the notebook, T (true) or F (false). 1. In India, you must show respect to the elders. 2. You mustn’t be late in Japan. it’s very bad manners to be late there. 3. You mustn’t drive on the right in the UK. 4. In Japan, you have to take off your shoes when you go into someone’s home. 5. In Brazil, you don’t have to dress in white on New Year’s Eve. T a. In sentences 1 and 2 must/mustn't is used to give a strong advice. F b. In sentences 1 and 2 must/mustn't is used to say what people can do. T c. In sentence 3 mustn't is used to express a prohibition. T d. In sentence 4, have to is used to talk about a rule, an obligation. F e. In sentence 5, don't have to is used to give an order.

TRACK 13

PRONUNCIATION must / mustn’t Listen and repeat. /, strong / must /

56

/ You must be punctual.

mustn’t /

/

You mustn’t be late.

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a. You

mustn’t

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

Ron Chapple Studios/Thinkstock

Hemera/Thinkstock

2. Look at the signs and complete the sentences in the notebook.

b. You

smoke in public

be careful because

mustn’t

drop litter in the

mustn’t

use your cell phone

Stockbyte/Thinkstock

at a gas station.

Hemera/Thinkstock

d. You

c. You

the road is slippery.

Hemera/Thinkstock

buildings.

must

e. You

must

turn right at the

f. You

must

stop.

next intersection.

streets.

3. Write the correct option in the notebook. a. Police officers don’t have to / have to wear a uniform at work. b. My bike’s very dirty. I mustn’t / must wash it. c. I’ll let you in on a secret, but you have to / mustn’t tell Paul. d. We have to / mustn’t go to the supermarket, there’s no milk in the fridge. e. You don’t have to / must decide now. Think about it and make your decision later. f. This parking lot isn’t free. You don’t have to / have to pay to park your car here.

TIP Inglês americano: gas station Inglês britânico: petrol station

cell phone mobile phone

parking lot car park

4. Complete the sentences with the appropriate modal verb. a. We

have to

hurry now or we’ll be late for class.

b. This is a non-smoking area. You

mustn’t

don’t have to

c. You can go now, you

wait for me.

d. Sally is a doctor. Sometimes she e. I

have to

smoke in here.

has to

work at weekends.

study very hard because the math test will be very difficult. don’t have to

f. The doctor said my eyes are fine, so I

wear glasses. IT TAKES ALL SORTS | UNIT 4

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5. Read the letters written by students from Yekaterinburg, Russia. Do the activities below in the notebook. LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP a. Read the text and write T for true or F for false. T 1. The text is part of a website.

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

T 2. It can be found on the Join World Class page. T 3. This webpage contains extracts from letters by students around the world. F 4. The letters have all the characteristics of the letter genre.

Editoria de arte

b. Now read the text again and write in the notebook the correct options.

Home

Olympic Dreams Network

Assemblies

Schools World Service

Join World Class

25 January 2012 Last updated at 15:37

LETTERS TO CHANGE THE WORLD Pupils around the world have written letters explaining how they would change the world […]. Inna writes: "Indifference and inertness spoil the world. That's why I think that to change the world, you have to / mustn’t change yourself. You don’t have to / have to be tolerant, active, […] able to make and achieve goals. Then, you will find medicine for diseases; you will study, think, invent and create. You will share your energy with people and lead them. You have to / mustn’t just stop sitting in your comfortable chairs and start doing something: either act or study, communicate and work." Julia writes: "I wish our world would be more polite than it is now. We must / mustn’t use our energy for good actions. For example: we don’t have to / must build more museums and other cultural centres. We must remember our past and respect it. We mustn't / have to destroy our nature. That's incorrect. We have to / don’t have to protect our mountains, forests and lakes. They are very beautiful. […] Then, I would stop all the wars... many innocent people die. We must / mustn't quarrel with each other... We have to learn to find compromises. […]" (Letters to change the world. BBC Worldclass. Available at: <http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldclass/16491296>. Accessed on: Apr. 13, 2013.)

6. What are the rules in your school? Write down some of them in the notebook. Sugestões de respostas: a. We must... use good manners b. We mustn’t... use cell phones in the classroom c. We have to... do the homework

TIP

d. We don’t have to... speak English in all classes e. We... must look after our school

Inglês americano: center Inglês britânico: centre

f. We... have to study for tests

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INTEGRATED SKILLS READING Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

Focus on Genre

1. The following texts are dictionary entries. Look at them and complete the sentences in the notebook. dictionary

a. You can find text 1 in a b. Both texts are about

prom

c. The aim of the texts is to 1

Internet

and text 2 on the

.

.

explain the meaning of the word prom

.

prom /prɒm/ (proms) - A prom is a formal dance at a school or college that is usually held at the end of the academic year. []  I didn’t want to go to the prom with Craig.

Editoria de arte

(Collins Cobuild Advanced Dictionary of American English. Boston: Thomson Heinle, 2007, p. 1038)

2

DICTIONARY prom – definition NOUN [COUNTABLE]

PRONUNCIATION

/prɒm/

a formal dance for high school students, usually held at the end of the academic year prom night: We met on prom night. Cultural note: prom In the US, prom night is especially important to seniors (=students in their last year of high school). They buy expensive prom dresses or rent tuxedos (=formal men’s suits), give corsages (=flowers you wear on your dress or jacket) to their dates (=person you ask to go with you to the dance), and sometimes ride to the prom in a rented limo (=very long, expensive car.)

(Prom. Macmillan Dictionary. Available at: <http://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/american/prom>. Accessed on: Apr. 13, 2013.)

IN CONTEXT Prom is short for promenade, which means a march of guests into a ballroom at the beginning of a ball. In the USA, the first proms took place in the 19th century and were similar to a debutante ball.

2. In which dictionary entries can you find the following features? In the notebook, write P (printed Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características version) or O (online version). principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

a. the phonetic transcription of the word PO

d. the word’s part of speech PO

b. the recording of the word O

e. the definition of the word PO

c. an example sentence PO

f. a cultural note O IT TAKES ALL SORTS | UNIT 4

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Habilidade de leitura: HL16 – Inferir o sentido de palavras ou expressões desconhecidas do texto por meio de comparação com a língua materna, análise do contexto e uso de conhecimento morfológico.

a.

b.

Comstock/Thinkstock

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

c.

prom dress

prom / prom night

d.

iStockphoto.com/Nicholas Monu

Jack Hollingsworth/Photodisc/Thinkstock

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

3. Find words in the cultural note of the online dictionary entry on page 59 to label the following pictures in the notebook.

e.

tuxedo

VIEWPOINTS Discuta com seu professor e colegas. Existe alguma festa parecida com o prom no Brasil?

LEIA NOTA CULTURAL E SAIBA MAIS NO MP

corsages

limo

LISTENING TRACK 14 1. Before you listen to a radio interview with an Australian girl, match the typical Australian expressions to their meanings. Write the corresponding letters and numbers in the notebook. a. A bloke should try to be witty.

1. girls / women d

b. I’m Aussie.

2. Australian b

c. It’ll be apples.

3. a boy / guy a

d. Sheilas love clever blokes.

4. be OK / all right c

e. G'day, Bob.

5. hi / hello e

LEIA SAIBA MAIS NO MP

TRACK 15 2. You are going to hear a radio interview with Lara Jones, a professional dating expert. She will give advice on how boys should ask girls to prom. Listen and write Lara’s recommendations in the notebook. The boy should... a. read the book The Art of Conversation.

d. look the girl in the eyes.

b. be witty.

e. smile at the girl.

c. ask the girl in a public place.

f. go to the prom alone if the girl says no.

3. After you’ve listened, discuss the questions.

Respostas pessoais.

a. What do you think about Lara’s recommendations? Are they effective in your opinion? b. Do you have any other recommendation? Which one(s)?

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LEIA SAIBA MAIS NO MP

VIEWPOINTS

Converse com seu professor e colegas. Uma língua não é falada da mesma maneira por todos os seus usuários. Ela está sujeita a variações de época, de região, de grupo social e, até mesmo, de situação. Existe certo e errado quando se trata de variações linguísticas? As variações linguísticas podem ser causa de preconceitos? Por quê? Dê alguns exemplos de variações da língua portuguesa.

SPEAKING Confirming and Clarifying Information 1. Read the sentences and write, in the notebook, the communicative functions of the expressions in bold. a. Host: I’m not sure what you mean by Aussie. Lara: Oh, sorry. I'm Australian. I was born in Sydney. b. Host: Sorry, what do you mean by bloke? Lara: I mean boy, guy. c. Host: Sheilas? Do you mean girls? Lara: Yeah, sheilas, girls... d. Host: I’m not sure if I fully understand what you mean by it’ll be apples. Lara: I mean, it’ll be all right. √

»

Confirmar informações.

»

Esclarecer informações.

»

Questionar opiniões.

TRACK 16 2. Look at the sentences in bold in exercise 1. Listen and repeat.

TALK ABOUT IT 3. The sentences below contain British variations of the English language. In pairs, read the sentences and ask for clarification or confirmation using the expressions in exercise 1. Remember to take turns. Student A: Make believe you’re a British person and say the sentences from the box. Student B: Ask about the meaning of the words in bold. Student A: Respond.

Student A

Student B

a. Can you change a fifty-dollar note?

a. Is there a car park near here?

b. The check-in queue was very long.

b. The underground is crowded during rush hour.

c. Remember to buy tickets for the football match.

c. Let’s go to the cinema tonight. a. note = bill b. queue = line c. football = soccer

Student A

a. car park = parking lot b. underground = subway c. cinema = movies

Student B A: Can you change a fifty-dollar note? B: Sorry, what do you mean by note? A: I mean bill.

IT TAKES ALL SORTS | UNIT 4

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WRITING Focus on Genre

Habilidades de leitura: HL2 – Localizar e relacionar informações explícitas sobre um mesmo assunto ou tema em diferentes textos; HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

1. Read the following texts and answer the questions in the notebook. 2 Cláudia Rocha (Specially created for this book.) / Photo: Medioimages/Photodisc/Thinkstock

Cláudia Rocha (Specially created for this book.)

1

a. What text genre are they? Invitations. b. What information do they contain? The date, the time and the place of the events. c. Which of the two is more formal? 1 d. Who wrote the texts? Probably students. e. Why were they written? To invite students to the prom.

2. In groups, write the invitation to your graduation party.

» » » » » »

Make notes of the information you’re going to include on your invitation: when (day and time) and where. Decide on writing style: formal or informal. Write the first draft and show it to your teacher and classmates. Incorporate feedback and write your final version. Choose interesting pictures or draw your own illustrations. LEIA DICA NO MP

Create and distribute your invitation.

SELF-EVALUATION Evaluate your invitation. Compare it to the other two on this page. How similar or different are they? Does yours contain all the necessary information? Is the language appropriate? Are there any improvements you can make?

62

Resposta pessoal.

GO BEYOND Book about the concept of cultural pluralism and its importance in the modern world: CRUZ, Eduardo Oswaldo (Org.). Nós e os outros: histórias de diferentes culturas. 2. ed. São Paulo: Ática, 2002.

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Autoavaliação Responda às perguntas do quadro a seguir em seu caderno para avaliar seu desempenho ao longo das unidades 3 e 4. = muito bom

= regular

= fraco

Sou capaz de...

Unidade

a. ler, ouvir e falar a respeito da arte como instrumento de mudança social.

3

b. ler e reconhecer as características do gênero textual reportagem.

3

c. criar substantivos por meio do acréscimo de sufixos a verbos, a adjetivos e a outros substantivos e usá-los em contexto.

3

d. nomear diferentes expressões artísticas.

3

e. entender o significado dos Relative Pronouns e usá-los de maneira apropriada.

3

f. entender a diferença entre Defining Relative Clauses e Non-defining Relative Clauses e produzi-las corretamente.

3

g. ler um poema haicai, reconhecer suas características e produzir um poema semelhante.

3

h. ler, ouvir e falar sobre diversidade cultural.

4

i. ler e reconhecer as semelhanças e diferenças entre os gêneros textuais verbete de dicionário impresso e online.

4

j. reconhecer palavras que são facilmente confundidas e usá-las adequadamente em contexto.

4

k. nomear tradições brasileiras para a comemoração do Ano-novo.

4

l. compreender o significado dos modais must, have to, mustn’t e don’t have to e usá-los apropriadamente em contexto.

4

m. ler convites para um evento estudantil, observar suas características e produzir um semelhante.

4

Avaliação

MELHORANDO SEU DESEMPENHO Esclareça suas dúvidas com o(a) professor(a). Crie o hábito de consultar glossários, dicionários e gramáticas. Visite uma biblioteca e faça uma leitura de seu interesse. Participe de um chat online em inglês. Ouça os áudios novamente.

AUTOAVALIAÇÃO

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UNIT 5

LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

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“If you love your work, if you enjoy it, you’re already a success.” Jack Canfield (1944 – ), American motivational speaker and author. (Success Quotes II. Notable Quotes. Available at: <http:// www.notable-quotes.com/s/success_quotes_iv.html>. Accessed on: Mar. 19, 2016.)

Stockbyte/Thinkstock

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LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

THINK ABOUT IT

Habilidades de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto; HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

1. The following text gives information about unemployment in Brazil. Look at the text and write T for true or F for false in the notebook. a. This text is a graph. T b. You can find this text in the economy or finance section of a newspaper. T c. The text was written for economists, politicians and people who are interested in the Brazilian economy. T d. The graph covers the period from 1980 to 2010. T

Unemployment rates dropped from 2003 to 2010.

www.IndexMundi.com

e. According to the graph, unemployment rates rose from 2003 to 2010. F

(CIA World Factbook. Brazil Unemployment rate. Index Mundi, Jul. 2012. Available at: <http://www.indexmundi.com/brazil/unemployment_rate.html>. Accessed on: Mar. 13, 2013.)

2. Look at the graph and complete the sentences in the notebook.

Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

a. Unemployment in Brazil reached its highest rate in... 2003 b. The lowest unemployment rate was less than 4% in... 1989 c. The largest increase in unemployment took place between 2000 and... 2001 d. In the 1990s, the highest unemployment rate was in... 1998 / 1999

TALK ABOUT IT 3. What is the most important factors in finding a job? Choose three of them from the list below and discuss with your teacher and classmates. Respostas pessoais. • Going to job fairs.

• Getting a good internship.

• Being aware of openings on the job market.

• Being able to write a good résumé.

• Having a network of friends.

• Being prepared for a job interview.

• Having a university degree.

• Speaking a foreign language.

TIP Inglês americano: résumé Inglês britânico: curriculum vitae (CV)

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READING GET READY TO READ

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

1. Look at the text below and complete the sentences in the notebook. a. This text is a

newspaper

b. The headline is

article.

“Graduates to enter improving job market”

c. It was written by

.

Sarah Lake

.

d. This piece of news happened in

Princess Anne

.

e. Based on the article’s title you can say it’s about Estúdio Insólito

Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

Respostas pessoais.

.

Graduates to enter improving job market P R I NC E S S A N N E - While officials say the job market appears to be improving, the roughly 1,590 students graduating from local universities next week are entering a still shaky economy, whose unemployment rate now stands at 8.1 percent. Melissa Dillard, 23, of Salisbury is graduating from the University of Maryland Eastern Shore's Hotel & Restaurant Management program and, thanks to an internship she's held the last two years, she's managed to land a job in her field. […] "I know a lot of students who are seniors at UMES and don't have

jobs," Dillard said. "I feel privileged and excited to have a job in general, and it's a job I'm interested in, so that's even better." […]

Proceeding with caution According to the National Association of Colleges and Employers' 2012 Job Outlook, employers are proceeding, but with caution. Those participating in the NACE survey said they plan to hire 9.5 percent more new graduates this year than they did last year. Memo Diriker, founding director of the Business, Economic and Community Outreach Network

By Sarah Lake / Staff Writer

at SU, said there are two factors contributing to the improvement of this year's job market. "First, students seem to be getting job offers sooner rather than later. Last year a lot of students had to wait till after the summer, and now they're getting job offers before graduation," Diriker said. "The other piece is the quality of job offers seems to be improving. […]"

Hiring trends Diriker said hiring numbers are likely to increase next year, after the presidential election. […]

(LAKE, Sarah. Graduates to enter improving job market. The Daily Times – Salisbury, Salisbury, 6 May 2012.)

LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

GLOSSARY Az caution – cautela improve – melhorar increase – aumentar likely – provável

rather than – em vez de roughly – aproximadamente shaky – instável survey – pesquisa LEIA SAIBA MAIS NO MP

TIP SU – Salisbury University NACE – National Association of Colleges and Employers

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UMES – University of Maryland Eastern Shore

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2. Read the text and check your predictions for letter e in exercise 1.

READING COMPREHENSION

Habilidade de leitura: HL19 – Validar ou reformular hipóteses sobre o conteúdo do texto, com base em indicadores contidos no texto.

1. In the notebook, write the sentence that best summarizes the central idea of the article. Habilidade de leitura: HL7 – Identificar a tese principal ou o conflito central de um texto.

a. The job market tends to improve if more students graduate. b. There are enough jobs to meet the demands of the labor market.

c. Despite the unstable economy, it seems to be easier now for graduates to get a job than last year.

2. This extract from the article shows two sides of the same topic. Read it and write the correct option in the notebook. “While officials say the job market appears to be improving, the roughly 1,590 students graduating from local universities next week are entering a still shaky economy […]”. The ideas are similar / opposing / complementary.

Habilidade de leitura: HL20 – Reconhecer posições distintas entre duas ou mais opiniões relativas ao mesmo fato ou mesmo tema.

3. According to the article, which two factors are contributing to the improvement of the job market this year? Write the correct answers in the notebook. a. Some students are being offered jobs before they graduate. b. The quality of job offers is getting better. c. The quality of the university courses is improving.

Habilidade de leitura: HL4 – Localizar informações relevantes no texto para completar uma tarefa ou solucionar um problema. Habilidade de leitura: HL8 – Estabelecer relação entre a tese de um texto e os argumentos oferecidos para sustentá-la.

4. According to Sarah Lake, graduates from local universities are entering a shaky economy. Write, in the notebook, the arguments she uses to support this idea. a. The unemployment rate is quite high (8.1 percent). b. There are a lot of unemployed seniors. c. The quality of job offers seems to be getting better. d. Employers are cautious about hiring new employees.

Habilidade de leitura: HL4 – Localizar informações relevantes no texto para completar uma tarefa ou solucionar um problema.

5. Match the columns based on what each person said. Write down the corresponding letters and numbers in the notebook. a. Melissa Dillard

b 1. said the job market is improving due to two factors.

b. Memo Diriker

a 2. is graduating from the University of Maryland Eastern Shore. b 3. said hiring numbers may increase after the presidential election. a 4. got a job in her field due to an internship she had. a 5. feels privileged to have a job she’s interested in.

VIEWPOINTS

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

Converse com seu professor e colegas. O texto apresenta uma visão otimista em relação ao crescimento do mercado de trabalho e, consequentemente, a novas oportunidades de emprego em Princess Anne, nos Estados Unidos. Está acontecendo o mesmo no Brasil? O nível de desemprego está subindo ou caindo em nosso país? Que profissões têm uma maior demanda no mercado de trabalho brasileiro atualmente? O que você pode fazer para se preparar para esse mercado de trabalho?

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VOCABULARY WORK 1. Pay attention to the words in bold in the sentences below, then, write in the notebook the correct option. “Melissa Dillard, 23, of Salisbury is graduating from the University of Maryland Eastern Shore […] and, thanks to an internship […] she's managed to land a job in her field. […]” “[…] employers are proceeding, but with caution.” “[…] the NACE survey said they plan to hire 9.5 percent more new graduates this year than […]” The words in bold are related to work / study.

2. Read this extract from the Australian Government website, then match the words in bold to their meanings. Write the corresponding letters and numbers in the notebook. "Employees must be paid at least the minimum wage provided in their award or agreement. [...] The agreement is negotiated between the employer, a group of employees and their representatives. The agreement is then lodged with the Fair Work Commission for approval. [...] Employees can be hired as permanent employees or on a fixed term contract. [...] Employment can end for many different reasons. An employee may resign or can be dismissed (fired). However it ends, it’s important to follow the rules about dismissal, notice and final pay. [...] There is no longer a fixed retirement age in Australia. Many people choose to retire at the time they become eligible for the age pension. The age pension age is currently 65. (Available at: <https://www.fairwork.gov.au/employee-entitlements/types-of-employees>). Accessed on: Mar. 19, 2016.

a. Employees

d 1. The lowest remuneration that employers may legally pay to workers.

b. Employer

h 2. The act of ending your working or professional career.

c. Employment

g 3. Voluntarily leave a job.

d. Minimum wage

c 4. Activity in which one engages or is employed.

e. Hire (hired)

f 5. Dismiss from a job.

f. Fire (fired)

b 6. A person or firm that employs workers.

g. Resign

a 7. A worker who is hired to perform a job.

h. Retirement

e 8. Give someone a job.

3. Write, in the notebook, the correct option to complete the sentences. a. Although Mr. Murphy is a bit strict, he’s always concerned about the well-being of his staff. He’s an excellent employee / employer ! b. Carol is the best in her department and deserves to be promoted / retired. c. A colleague of mine decided to study abroad, so she had to retire / resign from her job. d. My manager got fired / hired because of his abusive language and disrespectful attitude towards the staff. e. My sister finally got a new work / job after looking for one for over a year! f. Grandpa finally retired / fired last year after working for over 35 years for a multinational company. LEIA SAIBA MAIS NO MP

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apply for

hire

job

salary

employee

internship

promotion

work

Jupiterimages/Comstock/Thinkstock

4. In the notebook, complete the text below, using the words in the box.

When my daughter Joanne graduated five years ago, she

internship

thought the company where she was doing her would

hire

her, and she was very disappointed when

it didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t happen. Since she wanted to

work

in the

fashion industry, she decided to leave her hometown and look for a

apply for

job

in a big city. She decided to

one in New York. To her surprise, she got the job

she wanted along with an excellent employee

a very committed

salary

. As she was

promotion

, she soon got a

, and

now she is the manager of her department.

5. Read this text about discrimination at workplace in New Zealand and write the correct option in the notebook. In New Zealand, the Human Rights Act 1993 and Employment Relations Act 2000 makes it unlawful for an employer / employee to discriminate against an employee (or potential employee) on certain, specified grounds (eg gender, age, disability, sexual orientation, and race). [...] Salary / job and remuneration packages are a term and condition of employment / employer. Equal pay for work / worker of equal value must be provided. This is a positive obligation. It is not a defence to say that the

ChameleonsEye/Shutterstock.com

complainant never asked for the same pay as colleagues. Arbitrary starting and finishing times that are not necessary for the efficient performance of the job / pay and which create hardship for workers / employer with family responsibilities, can constitute family status discrimination. [...] (Available at: <http://www.findlaw.co.nz/articles/4335/employmentagreements-and-discrimination.aspx> Accessed on: Mar. 19, 2016.)

workers protesting for equal pay for equal work in auckland, new zealand, 2015. FIT FOR WORK | UNIT 5

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GRAMMAR LANGUAGE DISCOVERY 1. In the notebook, complete the sentences with the corresponding numbers. 1. “I know a lot of students who are seniors at UMES and don't have jobs,” Dillard said. 2. Dillard: “I feel privileged and excited to have a job in general, and it's a job I'm interested in, so that's even better.” 3. Memo Diriker said there were two factors contributing to the improvement of the job market. a. In sentences b. In sentences

1, 2 and 3 1 and 2

c. In sentence

3

someone reports what someone else has said.

someone reports what someone else has said with the author's words.

someone reports what someone else has said with her/his own words.

2. Read the sentences below in the Direct and Indirect Speech and pay attention to the words in bold. Then, complete the statements in the notebook.

70

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

Simple Present: Allie said, “I work here.”

Simple Past: She said (that) she worked there.

Simple Past: Jeff said, “I worked here.”

Past Perfect Simple: He said (that) he had worked there.

Present Perfect Simple: Cora said, “I have worked here.”

Past Perfect Simple: She said (that) she had worked there.

Past Perfect Simple: Kevin said, “I had worked here.”

Past Perfect Simple: He said (that) he had worked there.

Present Continuous: Laura said, “I am working here.”

Past Continuous: She said (that) she was working there.

Past Continuous: Brian said, “I was working here.”

Past Perfect Continuous: He said (that) he had been working there.

Will: Macy said, “I will work here.”

Would: She said (that) she would work there.

Can: Leon said, “I can work here.”

Could: He said (that) he could work there.

Must: Lisa said, “I must work here.”

Had to: She said (that) she had to work there.

Expressions of Time

Expressions of Place

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

now

then

here

there

today

that day

this (place)

that (place)

tomorrow

the next day, the following day

next (week)

the following (week)

yesterday

the day before, the previous day

last (night)

the night before, the previous night

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a. When we want to tell what was said we can do this by repeating what the person has said ( Indirect

or by reporting what was said ( b. When we use c. When we use

Indirect Direct

Direct

Speech)

Speech).

Speech we have to do some changes in the sentence. Speech we place the original sentence between quotation marks and there are no

changes.

3. Complete the sentences in the notebook. a. Logan said, “I had a job interview last week.” Logan said he

had had

a job interview

the week before / the previous week

.

b. Mariana said, “I will give Mary a call tomorrow.” would give

Mariana said she

the following day

Mary a call

.

c. My brother said, “I can win this competition today.” could win that

My brother said he

competition

that day

.

d. Paul said, “I didn’t finish my report yesterday.” hadn’t finished

Paul said he

his report

the day before / the previous day

.

e. My boss said, “We must have a meeting next week.” had to have

My boss said we

the following week

a meeting

.

4. In the notebook, put the sentences into Indirect Speech. a. Thomas said, “I visited my grandparents yesterday.”

Thomas said (that) he had visited his grandparents the previous day / the day before.

b. Chris said, “I have a lot of work this week.” Chris said (that) he had a lot of work that week.

c. Martha said, “I will graduate next year.”

Martha said (that) she would graduate the following year.

d. Dad said, “I have worked here for a long time.” Dad said (that) he had worked there for a long time.

e. Diana said, “We are coming back home today.”

Diana said (that) they were coming back home that day.

5. Read the comic strip and do the following activities in the notebook. LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

a. Answer the questions. 1. What is the national unemployment rate? 8% 2. What is the unemployment rate at the table in the comic strip? 25%

3. Why is unemployment rate so high at that table? Because one person is unemployed.

1

2

Dustin used with the permission of the Steve Kelley, Jeff Parker, King Features Syndicate and the Cartoonist Group. All rights reserved.

b. Put the sentences into Indirect Speech. 3

(Available at: <http://www.comicstrips.com/store/add_strip.php?iid=62255>. Accessed on: April 13, 2013.)

1. She said... (that) she had read that the national unemployment rate was 8%. 2. He said... (that) in some locations it was even higher than that. 3. She said... (that) it was 25% at that table alone. FIT FOR WORK | UNIT 5

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LANGUAGE DISCOVERY 1. In the notebook, match the sentences and answer the questions. Direct Speech Indirect Speech 1. “When is the job interview?”

4 a. The interviewer told me to close the door.

2. “Take a seat, please.”

2 b. The interviewer asked me to take a seat.

3. “Do you speak English?”

1 c. Mom asked me when the job interview was.

4. “Close the door.”

3 d. The interviewer asked me if I spoke English.

a. What verb is used to report questions? To ask. b. What verbs are used to report requests and orders? To ask and to tell.

2. Match the sentences below. Write the corresponding letters and numbers in the notebook. 1-c, 2-a, 3-b

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

1. “Do you have any previous experience?”

a. He asked me how I had learned about the job.

2. “How did you learn about the job?”

b. He asked me if I was a senior in college.

3. “Are you a senior in college?”

c. He asked me if I had any previous experience.

3. Complete the table below in the notebook. Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

“Could you sit down, please?”

He He

Affirmative Form

“Call us tomorrow, Mrs. Blair.”

He He

“Don’t touch anything, please.”

He He

Negative Form

“Don’t smoke here, sir.”

He He

asked told asked told asked asked asked told

me to sit down. to sit

me

down.

her to call them the next day. her to call

them

the next day.

us not to touch anything. us

not to

him

not

touch anything. to smoke there.

him not to smoke there.

TRACK 17

PRONUNCIATION Linking - /d/ + him & her In spoken form, the words him and her usually lose the /h/ sound when said after the reporting verbs. Listen and repeat. asked him – I asked him to go.

asked her – I asked her to go.

told him – I told him to go.

told her – I told her to go.

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4. In the notebook, write the correct reporting verb to complete the sentences. a. The doctor told / said to me to take these pills three times a day. b. Martin asked / told me if I could help him with his homework. c. My boss said to / told us not to be late for the meeting. d. The coordinator asked / told the boys how they got to school that day. e. Daniel told / asked me if I could give him a ride home. f. Dad told / said to me to start studying more.

a. “What did you do last weekend?” She asked me... what I had done the

b. “Where are you going tonight?” He asked me...

weekend before.

c. “Can you play the piano?” She asked me...

where I was going that night.

if I could play the piano.

Alberto Zornetta/ Shutterstock.com

Iakov Filimov/Shutterstock.com

spass/Shutterstock.com

Anton Havelaar/ Shutterstock.com

mimagephotography/ Shutterstock.com

Rommel Canlas/ Shutterstock.com

5. In the notebook, complete the sentences below.

d. “Will you come to my party f. “Give me the car keys,” Dad said e. “What time is the doctor’s tomorrow?” if I would come to his to me. appointment?” what time the doctor's me to give him the car He asked me... party the next day / the She asked me... appointment was. Dad told... keys. Africa Studio/Shutterstock.com

Steve Lovegrove/ Shutterstock.com

following day.

h. “Don’t call me after 11 p.m., please,” Laura told Tim. Laura told Tim... not to call her after 11 p.m. Rugdal/Shutterstock.com

Monkey Business Images/ Shutterstock.com

g. “Take off your shoes,” Maggie told us. Maggie told... us to take off our shoes.

j. “Don’t take any pictures here,” the museum guide told us. The museum guide told... us not to take any pictures there.

i. “Turn off the lights, please," Mom told me. Mom told... me to turn off the lights.

LEIA DICA NO MP

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INTEGRATED SKILLS READING Focus on Genre

Habilidades de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros; HL7 – Identificar a tese principal ou o conflito central de um texto.

1. Look at the texts and answer the questions in the notebook. a. What text genre are they? • Headlines.

√ • Ads.

• Posters.

b. What is the purpose of the texts? • To sell clothes.

• To promote new restaurants.

√ • To advertise jobs.

c. Where would you find these texts? Number in the notebook the options 1, 2 or 3 according to the ads. 3 • In a store window.

2 • In front of a restaurant.

English Teacher Required A renowned educational institution is seeking committed and dedicated professional.

Selection Criteria - Master’s Degree - 3 – 5 years experience - Full time availability - Excellent English language skills - Excellent teaching skills

3

============= HELP WANTED ============= Looking for < chef >

&

We offer - Attractive salary - Fringe benefits Send your résumé to info@education.teachers.nz or fax it to 402-454-3746

< barista >.

Estúdio Insólito (Specially created for this book.)

2 Estúdio Insólito (Specially created for this book.)

Estúdio Insólito (Specially created for this book.)

1

1 • In the classified section of a newspaper.

POSITION AVAILABLE FOR FULL-TIME SALES ASSISTANT Evening and weekend availability essential. Apply inside with résumé.

Apply within with résumé.

2. Look at the ads again and write in the notebook the characteristics of the genre. Job ads... a. usually have short sentences. b. show the name of the job (usually highlighted).

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

c. may show the name of the company. d. always contain requests for photographs. e. usually list the job requirements. f. provide information on how to apply for the job.

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LISTENING 1. You are going to listen to an interview with John Woodrow, a British human resources professional. Before you listen, read the following advice on how to write a CV. CVS...

Your opinion Respostas pessoais.

John Woodrow’s opinion

should be short.

T

should be simple.

T

should be relevant.

T

should be clearly written.

T

shouldn’t have any spelling mistakes.

T

should have fancy fonts.

F

should have photographs.

F

TRACK 18 2. Listen to the introduction of an interview with John Woodrow. Write T for true or F for false in the notebook, according to what he says. TRACK 19 3. Listen to the second part of the interview. Write, in the notebook, the problems the bad CV presents. a. It’s very long.

d. There’s a photograph attached to it.

b. The font is fancy.

e. It contains irrelevant information.

c. The font is too small.

f. There are spelling mistakes.

VIEWPOINTS Converse com seu professor e colegas. O que você acha sobre as recomendações de John? Em sua opinião, elas são eficazes? Por quê? Conquistar o primeiro emprego é uma preocupação para os jovens. Qual é a maior dificuldade na hora de conseguir o primeiro emprego? Quais qualificações podem representar vantagens?

SPEAKING

LEIA SUGESTÃO INTERDISCIPLINAR E O ALUNO NO MUNDO DO TRABALHO NO MP

Paraphrasing 1. Read the following dialogs and write, in the notebook, the communicative function of the expressions in bold. Receptionist: Can I help you? Visitor: Yes, I’d like to speak to someone who works here, the person who reads all the CVs. Receptionist: You mean the human resources recruiter? Visitor: Exactly.

Sales assistant: Can I help you? Customer: Yes, I’m looking for something, I don’t know what it’s called but it’s a thing that protects your neck from the cold. Sales assistant: You mean a scarf? Customer: Yes, that’s it.

a. To introduce a new idea or clause. b. To paraphrase, that is, explain a word or idea using other words.

LEIA DICA NO MP

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TALK ABOUT IT 2. In pairs, you will create dialogs. Suppose you need to talk to the professionals or buy the objects listed in the box. Make believe you don't know their names in English, so you can use the structures in exercise 1 to describe them. Respostas pessoais. barista

chef

coffee machine

manager

WRITING

umbrella

wallet

Habilidades de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto; HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

Focus on Genre

1. Read the following text and answer the questions in the notebook. a. What text genre is it? A résumé / CV / curriculum vitae. b. Who wrote this text? Diana Martin. c. Which job does the person want to apply for? Sales assistant. d. Which of the ads on page 74 (1, 2 or 3) should Diana Martin apply for? Ad 3. e. In your opinion, does Diana have the necessary qualifications to get the job? Respostas pessoais.

2. Read the résumé again and analyze it. Write down the answers in the notebook. a. Which topics does it include? Profile, career history, key skills and competencies, academic qualifications, references. b. How good is Diana’s résumé? • Is it short (one page long)? Yes

• Is it visually clear? Yes

• Is it simple? Yes

• Is the font clear? Yes

• Is the information relevant? Yes

• Is it easy to find her contact information? Yes

• Is it clearly written? Yes DIANA MARTIN | Sales Assistant 31 Southampton Row, London, WC1B 5HJ Mobile: 7031846455 / Home: (020) 3178-4590 / dianam@lol.co.uk PROFILE An articulate and polite sales assistant with three years of experience, able to multi-task, work as part of a team and motivate customers to make a purchase. CAREER HISTORY NEW LOOK - WOMEN’S, MEN’S AND TEEN FASHION Sales Assistant – From 2009 to 2012 Responsible for assisting customers, cashing up the till, ordering stock and checking deliveries. Significant Achievements – Delivery of first-class customer service – Achievement of sales targets KEY SKILLS AND COMPETENCIES – Good people skills – Able to use computerized equipment and retailing software – Able to commit to working evenings and weekends – Stock management ACADEMIC QUALIFICATIONS Lewisham College 2007 – 2010 Retail sales Diploma REFERENCES: Available on request.

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TIP Inglês americano: cell phone store

Inglês britânico: mobile shop

WEB SEARCH Go to the following sites and find a job you would like to apply for: Monster: <http://ler.vc/gcjoyb>. (Accessed on: Mar. 19, 2016.) Australian Government: <https://www.apsjobs.gov.au/quickSearch.aspx?mn=JobSearch&ifm=true>. (Accessed on: Mar. 19, 2016.) (Research sources: Sales assistant CV template. Dayjob.com. Available at: <http://www.dayjob.com/content/sales-assistant-cv-template-369.htm>; Retail Sales Assistant CV. Scribd. Available at: <http://pt.scribd.com/doc/13728147/Retail-Sales-Assistant-CV-Universal-CV-and-Resume-Template> and Retail – Sales Assistant CV Template. Monster career advice. Available at: <http://career-advice.monster.ie/cvs-applications/free-cv-templates/ retail-sales-assistant-cv-template-ie/article.aspx>. Accessed on: Mar. 19, 2016.)

3. Choose a job you would like to apply for from one of the sites in the Web Search box. Write your own résumé to apply for the job.

»

Make notes of the information you’re going to include in your résumé. Your profile Your career history Your key skills and competencies Your academic qualifications

» » » » »

Write your first dra and show it to some classmates. Take notes of their suggestions. Write your revised version. Show your revised version to your teacher and take notes of his / her suggestions. Write your final version. Type it, print it out and hand it in to your teacher.

SELF-EVALUATION Evaluate your résumé. Compare it to the one on the previous page. How similar are they? Did you include all the necessary topics? Did you include your contact information? Is it visually clear? Did you choose a clear font? Did you check the spelling? Are there any other improvements you can make?

GO BEYOND Book about the future job market and the skills workers will have to have to face its challenges: SCHWARTZ, Gilson. As profissões do futuro. São Paulo: Publifolha, 2000. Website where you can learn more about internships in Brazil: <http://ler.vc/tnrcp4>. (Accessed on: Mar. 20, 2016.)

FIT FOR WORK | UNIT 5

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A MATTER OF CONSCIENCE UNIT 6

“Ethics is knowing the difference between what you have a right to do and what is right to do.” Potter Stewart (1915–1985), Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court. (Ethics Quotes. Brainy Quotes. Available at: <http://www. brainyquotes.com/quotes/keywords/ethics.html>. Accessed on: Mar. 21, 2016.)

iStockphoto/Thinkstock Hemera/Thinkstock

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THINK ABOUT IT Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

Focus on Genre

1. Look at the text and, in the notebook, write the main characteristics of comic strips. e. Most comic strips are humorous.

b. The text appears in balloons or captions.

f. Most strips use a fixed set of characters.

c. All comic strips are a full page long.

g. Some strips have animals as main characters.

d. They usually discuss political and social issues.

h. They are always printed in black and white.

Calvin & Hobbes, Bill Watterson©1989 Watterson/Dist. by Universal Uclick

a. They are stories told through text and illustrations.

(Available at: <http://pactiss.org/2008/08/19/calvin-hobbes-ethics/>. Accessed on: Mar. 21, 2016.)

LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

Habilidade de leitura: HL17 – Fazer inferências a partir de informações implícitas em um texto.

2. Read the comic strip and write the correct answer in the notebook. a. According to Calvin, all is fair if it

.

• is morally right √ • benefits him

b. At the end of the story, Hobbes

.

• decides Calvin’s outlook on life is right √ • uses Calvin’s outlook on life against him

3. Calvin uses some sayings and quotes to support his outlook on life. What are they? Write down the The ends justify the means. / Get what you can while the getting’s good! / Might makes right! / answer in the notebook. The winners write the history books! / It’s a dog-eat-dog world.

TIP

Habilidade de leitura: HL3 – Localizar e organizar várias informações explícitas no texto sintetizadas em ideia geral, categoria ou conceito.

Existem variações da língua inglesa que, pelo fato de serem informais, não devem ser usadas em todos os contextos. Uma delas é a expressão You dolt! dolt = stupid

VIEWPOINTS

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

Qual é a sua opinião sobre a filosofia de vida de Calvin? Você diria que, baseado em sua filosofia de vida, Calvin tem condutas éticas? Por quê? O que você acha que aconteceria se a filosofia de vida de Calvin fosse aplicada por todas as pessoas? Dê exemplos práticos que ilustrem a sua opinião.

A MATTER OF CONSCIENCE | UNIT 6

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READING GET READY TO READ

The Oath by Idries Shah A man who was troubled in mind once swore that if his problems were solved, he would sell his house and give all the money gained from it to the poor. The time came when he realized that he must redeem his oath. But he did not want to give away so much money. So he thought of a way out. He put the house on sale for one silver piece. Included with the house, however, was a cat. The price asked for this animal was ten thousand pieces of silver. Another man bought the house and the cat. The first man gave the single piece of silver to the poor, and pocketed the ten thousand for himself. […]

(SHAH, I. The Oath. In: Compass, 1967. p. 68.)

. Tales of the Dervishes – Teaching Stories of the Sufi Masters over the Past Thousand Years. New York: Penguin

GLOSSARY Az give away – doar oath – juramento, promessa redeem – resgatar swear – jurar troubled – perturbado, com problema way out – saída, solução

IN CONTEXT Idries Shah (1924–1996) was a Sufi story writer and master who was born in India but grew up in England. He wrote books on several different topics such as psychology, spirituality, cultural studies, among others. His books sold over 15 million copies and were translated into over 12 languages.

Focus on Genre 1. Look at the text and answer the questions in the notebook.

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

a. What text genre is it? • A recipe. • A speech. √ • A Sufi story.

b. What is the title of the story? The Oath. c. Who wrote it? Idries Shah.

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Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

2. Read the text and write, in the notebook, the characteristics of the genre. a. Sufi stories are short / long parables. b. They are suitable for children only / people of all ages.

GO BEYOND

c. They are teaching stories / frightening stories.

You can learn more about Idries Shah and sufism at <http://ler.vc/ xzb357>. (Accessed on: Mar. 21, 2016.)

d. They usually involve a character facing a financial problem / moral dilemma. e. They usually make use of humor / rhymes.

3. Talk to a classmate. Did you enjoy reading the story? Would you like to read other Sufi stories? Justify your answers.

LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

Habilidade de leitura: HL7 – Identificar a tese principal ou o conflito central de um texto.

READING COMPREHENSION

1. Read the story again and write, in the notebook, the sentence that best summarizes it. a. Live your life with integrity. Habilidade de leitura: HL5 – Localizar e organizar em uma ordem ou sequência informações explícitas distribuídas ao longo do texto.

b. The ends justify the means. c. Honesty is not a virtue but an obligation.

2. In the notebook, identify the paragraphs of the story based on the topics they deal with. a. The man puts his plan into practice. 3rd paragraph b. The man thinks of a plan not to give away so much money. 2nd paragraph c. The man keeps the oath without losing his money. 4th paragraph d. A man makes an oath. 1st paragraph

Habilidade de leitura: HL12 – Estabelecer relações lógico-discursivas presentes no texto, marcadas por conjunções, advérbios etc.

3. Write in the notebook. In the sentence “[…] if his problems were solved, he would sell his house and give all the money gained from it to the poor,” the word if gives the idea of... a. contrast

b. condition

c. consequence

Habilidade de leitura: HL13 – Estabelecer relações entre segmentos de um texto identificando recursos que contribuam para a sua continuidade (concordâncias nominal e gramatical, uso de elementos de coesão etc.).

4. What do the words in bold refer to? Answer in the notebook.

a. “A man who was troubled in mind once swore that if his problems were solved, he would sell his house […]” a man who was troubled in mind

b. “[…] he would sell his house and give all the money gained from it to the poor.” (selling) the house

c. “Included with the house, however, was a cat. The price asked for this animal was […]” the cat

d. “The first man gave the single piece of silver to the poor, and pocketed the ten thousand for himself.” the first man / the man who sold the house

Habilidade de leitura: HL11 – Relacionar temas, assuntos ou recursos em diferentes textos, representados em diferentes linguagens.

5. Compare the Sufi story to Calvin and Hobbes comic strip on page 79. What is similar between them? Sugestões de respostas: the idea that the ends justify the means or that you can do whatever you have to and let others argue about whether it’s right or not.

VIEWPOINTS

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

Converse com seu professor e colegas. A história apresenta um homem que encontrou uma maneira de pagar a sua promessa e de manter seu capital. Você acha que a sua atitude foi ética? Por quê? Em nossa sociedade, é comum vermos pessoas pensando em seus interesses pessoais e negligenciando as suas obrigações com o outro? Quais atitudes podemos tomar em nosso dia a dia para colocarmos em prática os conceitos de ética e cidadania?

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VOCABULARY ETHICS 1. Read the sentence and answer the question in the notebook. “I don’t believe in ethics any more.” “[…] and let others argue about whether it’s ‘right’ or not.” “The first man gave the single piece of silver to the poor, and pocketed the ten thousand for himself.” The words and expressions in bold are related to what topic? Ética e falta de ética.

2. Complete the dictionary entries with the words in the box. Write them down in the notebook. blame

bribe

cheat

corruption

deceive

dilemma

pull strings

to use your influence to gain an advantage

blame

/bleɪm/ verb [] […] to think or say that a certain person or thing is responsible for sth bad that has happened: The teacher blamed me for the accident. dilemma

/dəˈlɛmə/ noun [] a situation in which you have to make a difficult choice between two or more things: to face a moral dilemma bribe

/braɪb/ noun [] money, etc. that sb gives to another person, such as an official, to persuade him / her to do sth, especially sth dishonest […]

morals

pocket

pull strings

morals

deceive

/dɪˈsiv/ verb [] […] to try to make sb believe sth that is not true: Her story didn’t deceive me – I knew it was a lie. […]

integrity

[…]

[plural] standards or principles of good

behavior pocket

/ˈpɑkət/ verb [] […] to steal sth or to keep money for yourself corruption

/kəˈrʌpʃn/ noun [] behavior that is not honest or legal, especially by people in official positions: accusations of corruption among senior police officers integrity

/ɪnˈtɛɡrəti/ noun [] the quality of being honest and having firm moral ideas: He’s a person of courage and integrity. cheat

/tʃit/ verb [] to act in a dishonest or unfair way in order to get an advantage for yourself: Len got caught cheating on the test. – to cheat at cards

(Oxford American Wordpower Dictionary. Inglaterra: Oxford University Press, 1998.)

3. In the notebook, write the correct option to complete the sentences. a. Corruption / Integrity is a serious problem in many developing countries. b. What would you do if you were caught bribing / cheating on a test? c. Sooner or later, everyone faces moral dilemmas / integrity in life. d. If I get caught doing something wrong, I never blame / deceive anyone else. e. Colin sold his wife’s car and pocketed / cheated the money. f. A businessman was accused of offering a bribe / dilemma to some congressmen to favor his company. g. My friend asked me to pull some strings / deceive to get him a new job. h. Nobody can cheat / deceive my mother. She is very smart.

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IDIOMS WITH ANIMALS 1. Read the sentence and answer the questions in the notebook. “It’s a dog-eat-dog world, so I’ll do whatever I have to and let others argue about whether it’s ‘right’ or not.” a. The idiomatic expression "dog-eat-dog world" indicates... • cannibalism. √ a situation in which people compete for success in a selfish and cruel way. •

b. There is a similar expression in Portuguese, but related to another animal. What expression is this? Cobra comendo cobra.

 There are many idiomatic expressions related to animals. Look at the list below of some of them and their meanings.

English

Meaning

to be like to feel like

to feel uncomfortable because one is in a situation he or she is unsuited to

a fish out of water

to be a wolf in sheep’s clothing

a person who pretends to be good but who is, in fact, bad ser um lobo em pele de cordeiro

to do the donkey work

to work very hard

to eat like a horse

to eat a lot comer como um boi / uma vaca

to hit the bull's-eye

to reach the main point acertar na mosca

to kill two birds with one stone

to solve two problems or handle two situations with one action matar dois coelhos com uma cajadada só

to lead a dog’s life

to work hard and be treated unkindly

trabalhar como um cachorro / burro (de carga)

levar uma vida de cão

not to hurt a fly

not aggressive or violent não matar nem uma mosca

to take the bull by the horns

to face the problem and take action pegar o touro à unha

2. In the notebook, make a list of idioms in Portuguese which have the same meaning as the expressions in English from the table. 3. Complete, in the notebook, the sentences using the idioms from the table.

like a fish out of water

a. All the guests at the party studied at the same school except for Mary. She felt leads a dog’s life

b. Poor Susan

. She works too hard and doesn’t have much time to enjoy herself. take the bull by the horns

c. It's a tough job. So we're trying to find someone who will done well.

and get the job

a wolf in sheep’s clothing

d. I wish you wouldn’t trust Kate so much. Wake up. She’s kill two birds with one stone

e. We can

.

.

by going to Miami. We can go to the wedding and visit my aunt in the hospital. not hurt a fly

f. I’m sure Ben didn’t hurt his wife. He would

ate like a horse

g. The meal was absolutely delicious and I

.

!

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GRAMMAR LANGUAGE DISCOVERY 1. R  ead the sentences and write the correct option in the notebook. 1. If my problems are solved, I will sell my house and give all the money to the poor. 2. If I had a lot of money, I would help the poor. 3. If the man hadn’t broken his oath, he would have given lots of money to the poor. a. The sentences express imaginary / real situations which result is conditioned on satisfaction of a particular condition. b. Sentence 1 / 2 / 3 refers to a situation that is likely to happen in the future. c. Sentence 1 / 2 / 3 refers to a situation that is unlikely to happen in the future. d. Sentence 1 / 2 / 3 refers to a situation that didn't happen in the past.

2. In exercise 1 we have Conditional Clauses, that is, clauses that express the dependence between a condition and the result of this condition. Look at the table below and match the sentences in exercise 1 to each kind of conditional clause, writing the answers in the notebook. First Conditional

- sentence 1

Condition in the present (If + Simple Present)

Result in the future (will)

If you need help,

I will be there for you.

If I don’t have enough money,

I won’t pay all my bills.

Second Conditional - sentence 2 Unlikely / Impossible condition (If + Simple Past)

Imagined result (would)

If I won the lottery,

I would donate some money to charity.

If I didn’t have to study,

I would go to the beach now.

Third Conditional

- sentence 3

Condition not implemented (If + Past Perfect)

Imagined result (would + have + past participle)

If I had gone to college,

I would have studied philosophy.

If I hadn’t been late,

I wouldn’t have missed the job interview.

3. Match the columns to make First Conditional sentences, writing the answers in the notebook. a. If we play chess,

c 1. I will go to the beach.

b. If I see her,

a 2. we will win.

c. If it doesn’t rain,

e 3. you won’t lose weight.

d. If you don’t go home now,

b 4. I will give her the message.

e. If you don’t exercise,

d 5. you will miss the game.

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4. In the notebook, use the verbs in parentheses in the correct tense to complete the sentences. don’t study

a. If you

hard, you will fail the exam. (not study)

b. Your wife

will be

angry if you get home late again. (be) won’t travel

c. If Lauren doesn’t get good grades, she d. Melissa will get sick unless she

stops

doesn’t go

e. If Paulo

anywhere on her vacation. (not travel)

smoking. (stop)

to school today, he will miss an important test. (not go)

will help

f. If I have time, I

you with your homework later. (help)

5. In the notebook, use the verbs in parentheses in the correct tense to complete the sentences. a. If I

were

you, I wouldn’t cheat on tests. (be)

wouldn’t blame

b. You

my brother for that if you knew him well. (not blame)

c. What would you do if you

met

your idol? (meet) would accept

d. If the police officer weren’t honest, he Would

e.

you

f. If Peter

drove

lie

bribes. (accept)

about your age if you could save money on a movie ticket? (lie)

more slowly, he wouldn’t get any fines. (drive)

6. In the notebook, finish the sentences using your own ideas. Sugestões de respostas: a. If I were a millionaire, ...

d. If I were President, ...

b. If I had more free time, ...

e. If I found $100 in the street, ...

c. I would be happier if ...

f. I would succeed in school if ... homework every day.

I would travel around the world.

I would help poor people. / I would combat corruption.

I would do a sport. / I would read more.

I would keep it. / I would spend it.

all people were treated with respect. / there were no homeless people.

I studied harder. / I did my

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

7. Read the following texts and do the following activities in the notebook. a. Answer the questions. 1. What text genre are they?Song lyrics.

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de 2. What are they called? textos de diferentes gêneros. If I Could Turn Back Time and If I Could.

b. Now use the verbs in parentheses in the correct tense to complete the lyrics.

If I Could Martha Vanessa Sharron, Kenny Hirsch and Ronald Norman Miller

If I Could Turn Back Time Diane Warren could

If I

could

If I I

turn back time (can)

[…]

find a way (can)

'd / would take

back those words that hurt you (take) and 'd / would stay

you

(stay)

If I I

could

(can)

'd / would teach

you all the things I've never learned (teach)

'd / would help

you cross the bridges that I've

And I

I don’t know why I did the things I did

burned (help)

I don’t know why I said the things I said

Yes, I would

Pride’s like a knife it can cut deep inside

[…]

Words are like weapons they wound sometimes […] If I If I

could could

I find a way (can)

I

could

could

(can)

'd / would help

you make it through the hungry years

(help)

turn back time (can)

and maybe, maybe, maybe you If I

If I

'd / would stay

(stay)

reach the stars (can)

'd / would give

’em all to you (give)

(WARREN, Diane. If I Could Turn Back Time, 1989. Available at: <http:// www.vagalume.com.br/cher/if-i-could-turn-back-time.html>. Accessed on: Apr. 27, 2016.)

But I know that I could never cry your tears But I would If I could […] (HIRSCH, Kenny; MILLER, Ronald Norman; SHARRON, Martha Vanessa. If I Could, 2004. Available at: <http://www.elyrics.net/>. Accessed on: Mar. 22, 2016.)

c. Talk to a classmate about how you felt aer reading the lyrics. Would you like to listen to the songs? Justify your answers. LEIA DICA NO MP A MATTER OF CONSCIENCE | UNIT 6

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TALK ABOUT IT 8. In pairs, talk about the topics given.

»

(not have) time to study for a test Respostas pessoais.

»

(fall) in love with your best friend’s boyfriend / girlfriend

»

(see) a friend bullying another student

»

(see) a friend posting offensive comments on a social network

»

(find out) a friend had a drug problem

TRACK 20

PRONUNCIATION Connected speech – would have In connected speech, have after would has a weak pronunciation and sounds like /əv/ or /ə/. Listen and repeat. would have = would've /wʊdəv/ I would have studied philosophy. He would have gotten the job.

9. In the notebook, use the verbs in parentheses in the correct tense to complete the sentences. a. I would have had a great time if I

had gone

out with you. (go)

would have helped

b. If you had asked me I

you. (help)

wouldn’t have seen

c. Sheila

her ex-boyfriend if she had stayed home. (not see) had listened

d. We would have finished the project earlier if you hadn’t taken

e. If he

to me. (listen)

a taxi, he would have arrived late. (not take)

a. If I see Gina, I will tell / would tell her to call you. b. If you had studied harder, you would pass / would have passed the test. c. If Susan were taller, she would play / would have played basketball professionally. d. If the weather is / was good tomorrow, I’ll go to the beach.

PANYA KUANUN/Shutterstock.com

10. In the notebook, choose and write the correct option to complete the sentences.

e. If I didn’t invite / hadn’t invited Bill to the party, he would have been really angry.

TIP A palavra buck é uma variação informal da língua inglesa falada nos Estados Unidos e na Austrália. buck – informal dollar – neutro

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INTEGRATED SKILLS LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

READING

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

1. Take the following quiz on ethics and then check your score. Write the answers in the notebook. Editoria de arte

Respostas pessoais.

QUIZZES

STORIES

POEMS

LYRICS

HOW ETHICAL ARE YOU?

GAMES

HELP

Take this short quiz and find out how ethical you are. Read the questions and click on Yes or No.

1. You are at a department store and the cashier gives you too much change. Is it right to keep it?

Yes

No

2. You are at a movie theater and there are some open seats that are better than yours. Is it OK to move to one of them?

Yes

No

3. Your teacher gives you credit for a project on which a classmate did most of the work. Is it fair to accept the praise?

Yes

No

4. You find a wallet with some money, an ID and a piece of paper with the owner’s address and phone number on it. Is it right to keep the wallet?

Yes

No

5. You suspect your boyfriend / girlfriend is cheating on you. Is it OK to sneak a peek at his / her e-mail or cell phone?

Yes

No

6. Your best friend asks you to cover for him / her by telling his / her parents that he / she spent the night at your house. Is it OK to do that?

Yes

No

7. Is it OK to sit in a priority seat on the subway if there is an elderly person or a pregnant woman standing?

Yes

No

8. You are shopping at a supermarket with your little brother and he eats a candy bar inside the store. Is it OK not to pay for it?

Yes

No

More No Answers: High Ethics - You are a very ethical person. Continue to set an example! More Yes Answers: Low Ethics - Ethics seem to be a bit of a problem for you. It might be a good idea to check your morals.

NOW READ YOUR SCORE: QUIZZES

STORIES

POEMS

LYRICS

GAMES

Editoria de arte

(Research sources: The Ultimate Ethic Quiz. Go to Quiz. Available at: <http://www.gotoquiz.com/the_ultimate_ethics_quiz> and Everyday ethics quiz. Real Simple. Available at: <http://www.realsimple.com/work-life/life-strategies/ethics-quiz-00000000028644/index.html>. Accessed on: Mar. 14, 2013.)

HELP

TALK ABOUT IT 2. In pairs, discuss the moral dilemmas in the quiz. What would you do in the mentioned situations? Respostas pessoais.

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LISTENING

Editoria de arte

1. You are going to listen to a survey on moral dilemmas carried out in the USA. Before you listen to it, read the following situation and write down in the notebook what you would do. Resposta pessoal.

[…] You are driving down the road in your car on a wild, stormy night, when you pass a bus stop and you see three people waiting for the bus: 1. An old lady who looks as if she is about to die. 2. An old friend who once saved your life. 3. The perfect partner you have been dreaming about. Which one would you choose to offer a ride to, knowing that there could only be one passenger in your car? […] (CARMICHAEL, D. G. Problem Solving for Engineers. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2013. p. 245.)

TRACK 21 2. Listen to the first part of the survey and write the correct answers in the notebook. a. Who is taking part in it?

b. Who would this person offer a ride to?

1. A teacher and a student.

1. To the old lady.

2. An interviewer and a passerby.

2. To his old friend.

3. A psychologist and a patient.

3. To his perfect partner.

TRACK 22 3. Listen to two other passerby. Then, in the notebook, complete the sentences according to the correct passerby. 2 a. Passerby

3

b. Passerby

3

c. Passerby

would pick up the old friend. is in a hurry.

would lend the car to his friend who would take the old lady to the hospital and he

would wait for the bus with the partner of his dreams.

VIEWPOINTS Converse com seu professor e colegas. Qual das respostas dadas pelos três entrevistados você considera a melhor decisão ética? Por quê?

LEIA DICA NO MP

WEB SEARCH Visit the website <http://ler.vc/xivxg2>, read the dilemmas and choose one you would like to discuss with your classmates. In groups, decide what you would do or suggest in each situation. (Accessed on: Mar. 22, 2016).

SPEAKING Getting People’s Attention 1. Read the following sentences and write, in the notebook, the communicative function of the sentences in bold. Interviewer: Passerby 1: Interviewer: Passerby 2: Interviewer: Passerby 3:

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Excuse me, do you have a minute for a quick survey? Yes, I think so. Excuse me, can you spare a moment or two? Sure. Go ahead. Could I ask you a question? It depends on what it is.

a. Interrupt a conversation politely. b. Apologize politely. c. Call someone's attention politely.

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2. Here are some other examples. a. Excuse me, are you in a hurry? b. Excuse me, can you help me with something? c. Excuse me, do you have a moment?

iSto ckp hot o/T hink stoc

k

TRACK 23

d. Excuse me, do you have time to answer a question? e. Sorry to bother you, but could I ask you something?

TALK ABOUT IT 3. Work in pairs.

Respostas pessoais.

Make believe you’re doing a survey in the streets. Try to get your partner’s attention politely and ask him / her a question about a subject of your interest. Your partner should make believe he/she is a passerby and answer your question. You have some suggestions in the box below.

» » »

Should people be punished for animal cruelty? Should nuclear energy be produced? Should same sex marriage be legalized?

Estúdio Insólito

WRITING

Kevin Peterson/Photodisc/Thinkstock

Ask Brainy Adviser

» » »

Should gambling be abolished? Should euthanasia be legalized? How can corruption be eradicated?

LEIA DICA NO MP

Q. Some of my best friends have created a website and they post offensive comments attacking our classmates and our teachers. I think it is wrong and I told them to stop but they won’t listen to me. The principal wants to know who did it and I am the only one who knows. Should I betray my classmates and tell the truth to the principal or should I lie to him? LOYAL FRIEND

Q. I am very worried about my best friend. She is only 15 and she is wrapped up in an online relationship with some older guy she met on a social networking website. I think it is dangerous and I told her that but she resents my warnings and wants me to leave her alone. What can I do without risking our friendship? JULIE – DENVER

Q. I'm very good at physics and I do well on class assignments and on homework. However, when I take a test I seem to forget everything and get terrible grades. I think I fall apart under the stress of tests. I have tried everything and nothing seems to work for me. Should I write down some notes on a piece of paper and cheat just a little? PHYSICS FAILURE

(Research sources: DENISON, Chris. The Daily Dilemma Archive. Ethical Dilemma for Classroom Discussion. Available at: <http://www.goodcharacter. com/dilemma/archive.html> and Moral Dilemma for Student’s. Buzzle. Available at: <http://www.buzzle.com/articles/moral-dilemmas-for-students. html>. Accessed on: May 6 2016.)

A MATTER OF CONSCIENCE | UNIT 6

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Habilidades de leitura: HL4 – Localizar informações relevantes no texto para completar uma tarefa ou solucionar um problema; HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

Focus on Genre

Physics Failure

1. Read the text on page 89 and answer the questions in the

A. Dear , It may seem unfair that you work so hard but are not rewarded for your work but cheating is not the solution. You know that you master the contents so it is your nerves that you must control. Remember to think positively, believe in yourself and you will achieve whatever you desire. BRAINY ADVISER

notebook. a. What text genre is it? An advice column. b. Where would you find it? In a magazine. c. What does the advice column contain? Leers from readers. d. What information do these texts contain? Readers explain their problems and ask for advice.

e. Read the answer to one of the leers and, in the notebook, complete the greeting with the name of the person to whom it is addressed.

2. Read the text again and, in the notebook, write the main characteristics of a letter to an advice Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – column.

» » √ » √ » √ » √ » √ » √

It is a leer from a reader who has a difficult or an embarrassing problem. It is a formal leer. The problem is usually explained in detail. The leer contains a request for advice. The leer is usually anonymous.

The writer uses a signature that summarizes the problem or his / her first name only. The names of all people involved are changed or omied.

3. Write a letter asking for advice on an ethical problem you are facing.

»

Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

Resposta pessoal.

Make notes about your problem. Problem:

.

People involved:

.

»

Write the first dra of your leer and compare it to the ones on page 89.

»

Show your first dra to some classmates. Take notes of their suggestions.

»

Write your revised version.

»

Show your revised version to your teacher and take notes of his / her suggestions.

»

Write your final version and hand it in to your teacher. LEIA DICA E O ALUNO NO MUNDO DO TRABALHO NO MP

SELF-EVALUATION Evaluate your letter to an advice column. Did you explain the problem in detail? Did you ask for advice? Did you remember to omit people’s names, including yours? Did you incorporate your classmates’ and teacher’s suggestions? Are there any other improvements you can make?

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GO BEYOND Movie about a lawyer who faces an ethical dilemma regarding the company he works for: THE FIRM (A FIRMA). Directed by: Sydney Pollack. United States: 1993. Book that discusses the concept of ethics and what ethics has meant to society since the ancient Greeks: VALLS, Alvaro L. M. O que é Ética. São Paulo: Brasiliense, 1994.

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Autoavaliação Responda às perguntas do quadro a seguir em seu caderno para avaliar seu desempenho ao longo das unidades 5 e 6. = muito bom

= regular

Sou capaz de...

= fraco

Unidade

a. ler, ouvir e falar sobre assuntos relacionados ao trabalho.

5

b. compreender e usar apropriadamente vocabulário relativo ao trabalho.

5

c. entender e produzir frases, perguntas e ordens no discurso indireto.

5

d. ler e reconhecer as características do gênero textual anúncio de emprego.

5

e. ler um currículo, reconhecer suas características e produzir um semelhante.

5

f. ler e reconhecer as características do gênero textual tira de humor.

6

g. ler e reconhecer as características do gênero história sufista.

6

h. entender e usar vocabulário relacionado à ética.

6

i. compreender e usar em contexto expressões idiomáticas com animals.

6

j. entender os usos dos Conditionals e usá-los de maneira apropriada.

6

k. ler cartas enviadas para uma coluna de aconselhamento, reconhecer suas características e produzir uma carta semelhante.

6

Avaliação

MELHORANDO SEU DESEMPENHO Refaça os exercícios das unidades 5 e 6. Esclareça suas dúvidas com o(a) professor(a). Crie o hábito de consultar glossários, dicionários e gramáticas. Releia os textos das unidades 5 e 6. Crie grupos de estudo.

AUTOAVALIAÇÃO

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A WARMING WORLD? UNIT 7

“I want to testify today about what I believe is a planetary emergency – a crisis that threatens the survival of our civilization and the habitability of the Earth.” Al Gore (1948–), American journalist, ecologist, politician and vice-president of the United States from 1993 to 2001. (Famous Global Warming Quotes, Quotations, Saying about Climate Changing. All Great Quotes. Available at: <http://www.allgreatquotes.com/global_warming_quotes.shtml>. Accessed on: Mar. 23, 2016.)

Hemera/Thinkstock

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THINK ABOUT IT Focus on Genre 1. Look at the text and answer the questions in the notebook. a. What text genre is it?

√ • A billboard.

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 - Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

• An article.

b. What is being advertised? The website: www.thisisclimatechange.org. c. What are the main characteristics of a billboard? 1. It is meant to attract attention to a product, a

3. It usually contains striking images. 4. It usually contains short texts.

service or an event.

5. It always contains a slogan.

www.ThisIsClimateChange.org

2. It has a strong visual appeal.

Habilidades de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto; HL17 – Fazer inferências a partir de informações implícitas em um texto.

(Climate News and Views. World View of Global Warming, Oct. 2011. Available at: <http://www.worldviewofglobalwarming.org/pages/nvoctober11.html>. Accessed on: Mar. 14, 2013.)

2. Read the billboard again and answer the following questions in the notebook. a. What has happened to Mendenhall glacier?

c. What is the message of the billboard?

It has disappeared.

Sugestão de resposta: To make people reflect by showing them evidence that the climate is changing.

b. How long did this change take to happen? A hundred and fourteen years.

3. Read the statements. Write, in the notebook, the ones you agree with. Then, discuss the statements with your teacher and classmates. Respostas pessoais.

a. The main cause of global warming is human action. b. Rich countries should lead the global warming battle. c. Each person can play a role in helping to reduce global warming. d. The effects of global warming will affect everything from ecosystems to the economy.

LEIA SUGESTÃO INTERDISCIPLINAR NO MP

GO BEYOND You can learn more about global warming at <http://ler.vc/3opf3v>; <http://ler.vc/6j5ugv> and <http://ler. vc/2f4xxe>. (Accessed on: Mar. 23, 2016.)

READING GET READY TO READ

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 - Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

1. Read the text and write, in the notebook, the best options to complete the sentences. a. The text is an article / advertisement.

c. It contains opinions / facts about climate change.

b. It was published in a newspaper / on a website.

d. It aims at informing / entertaining the reader.

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP A WARMING WORLD? | UNIT 7

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Editoria de arte

LEIA SAIBA MAIS NO MP

Sun

Earth

Solar System

Space

Sciences

Culture

People

Games

Teachers

More…

EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE TODAY Over 100 years ago, people worldwide began burning more coal and oil for homes, factories, and transportation. Burning these fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. These added greenhouse gases have caused Earth to warm more quickly than it has in the past. […] Below are some effects of climate change that we see happening now. •

Sea level is rising. […] sea level may rise as much as 59 cm (23 inches) during the 21st century, threatening coastal communities, wetlands, and coral reefs. […]

Glaciers and permafrost are melting. Over the past 100 years, mountain glaciers in all areas of the world have decreased in size and so has the amount of permafrost in the Arctic. […]

Sea-surface temperatures are warming. Warmer waters in the shallow oceans have contributed to the death of about a quarter of the world's coral reefs in the last few decades. […]

Heavier rainfall causes flooding in many regions. Warmer temperatures have led to more intense rainfall events in some areas. This can cause flooding.

Extreme drought is increasing. Higher temperatures cause a higher rate of evaporation and more drought in some areas of the world.

Crops are withering. Increased temperatures and extreme drought are causing a decline in crop productivity around the world. Decreased crop productivity can mean food shortages. […]

Ecosystems are changing. As temperatures warm, species may either move to a cooler habitat or die. […]

Hurricanes have changed in frequency and strength. There is evidence that the number of intense hurricanes has increased in the Atlantic since 1970. […]

Warmer temperatures affect human health. There have been more deaths due to heat waves and more allergy attacks as the pollen season grows longer. There have also been some changes in the ranges of animals that carry disease like mosquitoes. […] Last modified October 15, 2011 by Jennifer Bergman.

(Windows to the Universe® (http://windows2universe.org) © 2010, National Earth Science Teachers Association.)

GLOSSARY Az burn – queimar melt – derreter release – liberar shortages – escassez, falta

threaten – ameaçar wetlands – pântano wither – murchar, secar worldwide – mundialmente

READING COMPREHENSION

Habilidade de leitura: HL4 – Localizar informações relevantes no texto para completar uma tarefa ou solucionar um problema.

1. Read the sentences and, in the notebook, write T for true or F for false based on the article. T a. The greenhouse gases increase the Earth’s temperature. T b. The ice in the Arctic is melting. F c. Higher temperatures do not cause more droughts around the world. T d. We may have food shortages due to extreme drought.

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2. Find these highlighted words in the article and match them to their meanings. Write down in the notebook the corresponding letters and numbers. a. greenhouse

c 1. solo congelado

b. coral reefs

e 2. lavouras, colheitas

c. permafrost

d 3. enchentes

d. flooding

a 4. estufa

e. crops

b 5. recifes de coral

Habilidade de leitura: HL16 – Inferir o sentido de palavras ou expressões desconhecidas do texto por meio de comparação com a língua materna, análise do contexto e uso de conhecimento morfológico.

3. Read the article again. In the notebook, draw (]) to say the following items are increasing / rising or ([) decreasing / lowering as a result of climate change. Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

] a. the sea level

] d. flooding

[ b. the size of mountain glaciers

[ e. crop productivity

] c. the sea-surface temperature

] f. the number and intensity of hurricanes Habilidade de leitura: HL12 – Estabelecer relações lógico-discursivas presentes no texto, marcadas por conjunções, advérbios etc.

4. In the sentence “There have been more deaths due to heat waves …”, due to gives the idea of... a. contrast.

b. condition.

c. cause.

Habilidade de leitura: HL3 – Localizar e organizar várias informações explícitas no texto sintetizadas em ideia geral, categoria ou conceito.

5. Write down, in the notebook, three environmental problems mentioned in the article and their consequences to the world. Sugestões de respostas:

Environmental problem: burning coal and oil - Consequence: greenhouse gases; Environmental problem: warmer / higher temperatures Consequence: glacier and permafrost melting, more droughts, decline in crop productivity, allergy, change in ecosystems, death; Environmental problem: glacier and permafrost melting - Consequence: sea-level rise.

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

VIEWPOINTS

Converse com seu professor e colegas. Como você acha que nosso planeta estará daqui a cinquenta anos? Como é a participação dos jovens nas questões ambientais? O que você fez ou faz, em sua casa ou comunidade, para favorecer o meio ambiente?

VOCABULARY NATURAL DISASTERS 1. Read the sentences and write, in the notebook, the words related to natural disasters. 1. “Heavier rainfall causes flooding in many regions.” 2. “Extreme drought is increasing.”

3. “Hurricanes have changed in frequency and strength.”

2. In the notebook, write the pictures of natural disasters to their corresponding names. One word will not be used. e forest fire

i landslide

g snow storm

a tsunami

d volcanic eruption

a.

b.

Zoonar/Thinkstock

f earthquake

Hemera/Thinkstock

c drought

iStockphoto.com/elgol

b avalanche

h hurricane

flood

c.

A WARMING WORLD? | UNIT 7

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Stockbyte/Thinkstock

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

f.

h.

Hemera/Thinkstock

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

g.

e.

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

d.

i.

3. In the notebook, complete the sentences with words or expressions from exercise 2. a.

Floods

caused by heavy rains made about 1,000 people homeless in Pakistan yesterday.

forest fires

b. Many

volcanic eruption

c. A

in Brazil are caused by balloons during June Festivals.

occurs when magma is released from the mouth of a volcano. snow storm

d. Last night a heavy

hit New York City. Everything was covered in five inches of snow in the

morning. e. A

tsunami

f. A severe

is a series of long waves generated by earthquakes in the ocean.

drought

over the northeast of Brazil has left rivers and lakes dry, destroying crops and killing

livestock.

landslides

g. In 2011, the cities of Petrópolis, Teresópolis and Nova Friburgo were partially destroyed by heavy rain.

after very

LEIA DICA NO MP

ECO-FRIENDLY TIPS 1. Read the following statements and, in the notebook, write the eco-friendly tips mentioned in them. “The benefit of using biodegradable products is that they will decompose naturally over short periods of time. […]” (What are the benefits of using biodegradable products. Wikianswers. Available at: <http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_benefits_of_using_ biodegradable_products>. Accessed on: Mar. 14, 2013.)

“Turn off televisions, stereos, DVD players, and other audio/visual equipment before you leave home. […]” (MEASOM, Chyntia. How to Save Energy at Home by Turning off Unused Eletronics. EHow, Nov. 2012. Available at: <http://www.ehow.com/ how_5863166_save-turning-off-unused-electronics.html>. Accessed on: Mar. 14, 2013.)

2. Complete, in the notebook, the following eco-friendly tips with the verbs from the box. buy

b. c. d. e. f. g. h.

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ride donate use use buy take turn off

recycle

ride

take

turn off

use (2x)

LEIA O ALUNO NO MUNDO DO TRABALHO E SAIBA MAIS NO MP

newspaper a bike to school / work one's cell phone fluorescent light bulb biodegradable products

Stockbyte/Thinkstock

a.

recycle

donate

washable diapers reusable bags to the supermarket the tap when brushing your teeth

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TRACK 24

PRONUNCIATION Word Stress – three-syllable words

TIP

In three-syllable words, the stress can fall on the first, on the middle or on the final vowel sound. Listen and repeat. article avalanche hurricane

survival tsunami volcanic

Inglês americano: diaper

decompose milllionaire volunteer

Inglês britânico: nappy

TALK ABOUT IT 3. What do you do to help the planet? Talk to your teacher and classmates. Respostas pessoais.

GRAMMAR LANGUAGE DISCOVERY 1. Read the sentences and write the correct option in the notebook. 1. “I want to testify today about what I believe is a planetary emergency […]” 2. “Over 100 years ago, people worldwide began burning more coal and oil for homes, factories, […]” 3. Some countries still avoid taking part in the ecological debate. 4. “We need to treat climate change […] as an immediate threat to our security and prosperity.” John Ashton (435 quotes and quotations on "Sustainable development, climate change etc." listed. Quotes corner. Available at: <http://www.philharding.net/ quotes-corner/quotes-corner-1sd.htm>. Accessed on: Mar. 14, 2013.)

a. The verbs to want and to need are followed by verbs in the infinitive / -ing form. b. The verbs to begin and to avoid are followed by verbs in the infinitive / -ing form.

2. Read the sentences below. Then, in the notebook, draw the following table and complete it with the verbs from the sentences. Verbs Followed by Infinitive with to

Verbs Followed by -ing

a. Can we agree to do something about global warming. b. The new party appears to be worried about deforestation in the Amazon. c. We should avoid using plastic bags and use cloth bags instead. d. The residents hope to have their houses rebuilt aer the landslides. e. We intend to ride our bikes to school from now on. f. People should consider riding a bike to go to school or work.

Followed by Infinitive: to agree, to appear, to decide, to hope, to intend, to manage, to offer, to plan, to promise, to refuse. Followed by Gerund: to avoid, to consider, to deny, to enjoy, to feel like, to finish, to give up, to keep, to mind.

g. The company denied having contaminated the local water supply. h. My family managed to leave New Orleans before the hurricane struck. i. A company offered to donate diapers to families in need. j. My friends and I enjoy helping the environment by planting trees. k. Unfortunately, Peter doesn’t feel like going vegetarian, even for one meal. l. Our school has finished writing the Environmental Management Plan. A WARMING WORLD? | UNIT 7

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m. The city where I live is planning to start recycling soon. n. The mayor promised to pay more attention to environmental issues. o. Some countries refused to sign the Kyoto Protocol. p. I know it is hard sometimes but you shouldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t give up recycling. q. We keep wasting energy by leaving electrical appliances plugged in. r. Would you mind turning off the TV when you leave the room, please?

3. In the notebook, write the correct options to complete the sentences. a. My family convinced me to spend / spend our vacation in Portugal. b. Carol decided to celebrate / celebrate her birthday at home this year. c. Mr. Smith managed to pay / pay his bills on time. d. My parents taught me be / to be environmentally friendly. e. We plan buy / to buy a new house pretty soon. f. I convinced my friend to download / download only legal files.

4. In the notebook, complete the sentences using the appropriate verbs from the box. be

cheat

a. The teacher suggested b. You should consider c. I canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t stand

being

do

doing

eating

dream

drink

eat

more research for the project.

less meat. It would be good for your health and for the environment.

one of the last to finish a marathon. I am very competitive.

dreaming

d. Never give up

. This is what keeps us moving forward.

e. If you suffer from insomnia, you should avoid

drinking

coffee eight hours before bedtime.

cheating

f. When Ms. Taylor questioned Donald, he denied

on the exam.

VERBS FOLLOWED BY INFINITIVE AND -ING Verbs with the Same Meaning

98

to begin

We began to incorporate green practices last year. We began incorporating green practices last year.

to continue

My family needs to continue to reduce our consumption. My family needs to continue reducing our consumption.

to hate

My boss hates to print files out when not really necessary. My boss hates printing files out when not really necessary.

to like

I like to see that our efforts to go green have paid off. I like seeing that our efforts to go green have paid off.

to love

Mom loves to contribute to making the world a better place. Mom loves contributing to making the world a better place.

to prefer

Would you prefer to complain or to do something about it? Would you prefer complaining or doing something about it?

to start

It is high time we all started to save energy. It is high time we all started saving energy.

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Verbs that Change Meaning to remember

Remember to turn off the tap. (lembrar-se de fechar a torneira) I remember turning off the tap. (lembrar-se de ter fechado a torneira)

to stop

Simon stopped to smoke. (parou o que estava fazendo para fumar) Simon stopped smoking. (parou de fumar, abandonou o hábito)

to try

I tried to send you an e-mail but my connection was down. (houve um esforço, mas o resultado não foi alcançado) I tried sending her flowers, as you suggested, but still she didn’t forgive me. (houve uma tentativa em resposta a uma sugestão, mas o resultado não foi alcançado)

LEIA DICA NO MP

5. Read the sentences and write the correct option in the notebook. a. The farmers stopped to burn / burning down trees after being fined. b. Did you remember to pay / paying the bills? They were due today. c. Mariana saw her neighbor on the street and stopped to talk / talking to her. d. The computer is not working. I have tried to reboot / rebooting it but it didn’t work. e. Remember to do / doing your homework for our next class.

6. Complete, in the notebook, the sentences using the verbs from the box in the appropriate form. bring

look

smoke

a. When we travel by car, Dad likes to stop a lot

to take

take

turn off

pictures.

b. A: Where are the car keys, darling? B: I don’t know. Have you tried c. Paul stopped

looking

smoking

turning off

d. I remember

for them in your pockets?

last year. It was a bad habit.

the TV before leaving home.

e. Next time we come to the supermarket, remember

to bring

a reusable shopping bag. LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

7. Read an extract from a Percy Jackson book and do the following activities in the notebook. a. Look at the text and the cover and answer the questions. 1. What's the title of the book?

Percy Jackson and the Lightning Thief

3. Who did he write this book for?

2. Who wrote it?

Teenagers and young adults.

Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

Rick Riordan.

Look, I didn't want

to be

Penguin Books Ltd.

b. Now, in the notebook, complete the text with the right form of the verbs in parentheses. (be) a half-blood.

If you're reading this because you think you might be one, my advice is: close this book right now. Believe whatever lie your mom or dad told you about your birth, and try

to lead

(lead) a normal life. […]

If you’re a normal kid, reading this because you think it’s fiction, great. Read on. to believe

I envy you for being able

(believe) that none of this ever happened.

But if you recognize yourself in these pages—if you feel something stirring inside— stop

reading

(read) immediately. You might be one of us. And once you know that,

it's only a matter of time before they sense it too, and they'll come for you. […] (RIORDAN, Rick. Percy Jackson and the Lightning Thief. London: Penguin, 2008.) LEIA NOTA CULTURAL E SAIBA MAIS NO MP A WARMING WORLD? | UNIT 7

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INTEGRATED SKILLS

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

Habilidade de leitura: HL5 – Localizar e organizar em uma ordem ou sequência, informações explícitas distribuídas ao longo do texto.

READING

1. Read the text and number, in the notebook, the topics below according to the order in which they are mentioned. 3 a. Reasons for the destruction of the Atlantic Forest. 1 b. The location / extension of the Atlantic Forest.

Editoria de arte

2 c. What is left of the Atlantic Forest.

What We Do

Our Earth

You Can Help

Atlantic Forests, South America Stretching along South America's east coast and extending inland towards the Amazon, the Atlantic Forest is one of the world’s most ecologically diverse regions. It is also one of the most vulnerable. […]

News & Stories

DONATE!

Second only to the Amazon The Atlantic Forest stretches from northeast Brazil, south along the Brazilian Atlantic coastline and inland into northeast Argentina and eastern Paraguay.

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

Although only a small part of the original forests remains, it is still one of the most diverse ecosystems on the planet, second only to the Amazon. […]

Conserving what's left Very little of the Atlantic Forest remains and what does is highly fragmented. The forests continue to be vulnerable to logging and agricultural expansion, particularly soy production. Habitat loss and hunting put many species in danger of extinction […]

(Atlantic Forests, South America. WWF. Available at: <http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/where_we_work/atlantic_forests/>. Accessed on: Mar. 24, 2016.)

2. Read the text again and answer the questions below in the notebook. a. Where is the Atlantic Forest located?

Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

It stretches along South America's east coast and extends inland towards the Amazon. / In South America.

b. How much of the original Atlantic Forest is left? Only a small part of it. / Very little of it.

c. Which is the most diverse ecosystem on the planet? The Amazon Forest.

d. Which causes for deforestation are mentioned in the text? Logging and agricultural expansion.

e. Why are many species in the Atlantic Forest in danger of extinction? Because of habitat loss and hunting.

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LISTENING TRACK 25 1. George, an American student, and his New Zealander classmate Alysha are doing a school project about the Atlantic Forest. Before you listen to their conversation, read the following statements and decide if the information is T (true) or F (false). Write your answers in the notebook. Then listen and check your predictions. Respostas pessoais. T a. About 90% of the original Atlantic Forest has been destroyed. T b. A vast area of the Atlantic Forest has been replaced by plantations. F c. Nowadays there aren’t many animal species in the Atlantic Forest. F d. Not many people live in the Atlantic Forest region.

TRACK 25 2. Listen again and, in the notebook, complete the sentences with the numbers from the box. 2,000

23,000

99,900

a. Today the Atlantic Forest covers an area of about

1,300,000 99,900

square kilometers.

b. Five hundred years ago the Atlantic Forest covered an area of c. There are about

2,000

d. There are around

120,000,000

1,300,000

square kilometers.

animal species in the Atlantic Forest.

23,000

species of plants in the Atlantic Forest too.

120,000,000

e. Nowadays approximately

people live in the forest region.

VIEWPOINTS Converse com seu professor e colegas. Uma das causas da devastação da Mata Atlântica é o avanço da área urbana. Como as pessoas poderiam ter espaço para morar sem devastar as matas e florestas? Como podemos associar desenvolvimento com sustentabilidade, porém preservando o meio ambiente? Você conhece algumas iniciativas nessa área?

LEIA SUGESTÃO INTERDISCIPLINAR NO MP

SPEAKING Saying Big Numbers TRACK 26 1. Look at the following numbers. Listen and repeat. 100 – a / one hundred

100,000 – a / one hundred thousand

1,000 – a / one thousand

1,000,000 – a / one million

10,000 – ten thousand

TRACK 27 2. Write the following numbers in the notebook. Then listen and check. a. 349 three hundred and forty-nine

d. 544,000 five hundred and forty-four thousand

b. 2,863 two thousand, eight hundred and sixty-three

e. 9,300,000 nine million, three hundred thousand

c. 20,250 twenty thousand and two hundred and fifty

f. 170,000,000 a / one hundred and seventy million A WARMING WORLD? | UNIT 7

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Using Stress for Clarification TRACK 28 1. Read and listen to the dialogs below. Then, write the correct option in the notebook. George: So the Atlantic Forest has declined by over 90 percent. Alysha: 19 percent? George: No. 90 percent. Alysha: Cool! Yes, I can see here that there are around 23,000 species of plants. George: So there are about 26,000 plant species left. Right? Alysha: No. There are 23,000 species of plants. Why the parts in bold are stressed? a. Because they are important information. b. Because they clarify something that was not understood correctly.

TRACK 29 Vitormarigo/Shutterstock.com

2. Here are some other examples. Listen and repeat. a. A: The Atlantic Forest is in South America. B: In Central America? A: No, South America. b. A: There aren't lots of plant species in the forest. B: There are? A: No, there aren't. c. A: I'm interested in sustainable development. B: You're not? A: No, I am. Atlantic Forest view from Mirante do Último

TALK ABOUT IT

Adeus in Itatiaia Park, Rio de Janeiro.

3. In pairs, talk about what else you know about Atlantic Forest and Amazon Forest. Listen to your partner's comments and, if necessary, check your understanding of what he / she said.

WRITING Focus on Genre 1. Look at the text on page 103 and answer the questions in the notebook. a. What text genre is it? A fact file.

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

b. What is the topic of the text? The Atlantic Forest. c. What are the main characteristics of a fact file? Write the true sentences in the notebook. √ • It contains factual information related to a specific person, place or event. √ • The information is organized in topics. √ • It can contain textual information. √ • It can contain numerical information. • It can contain opinions.

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Editoria de arte

FACT FILE

jAtlantic Forest Location: it stretches along Brazil’s coastline and covers part of Paraguay and Argentina Land Area: from approximately 1.3 million square kilometers in 1500 to approximately 99,900 square kilometers today Human Population: approximately 120 million people live in the Atlantic Forest area Fauna: around 2,000 species of mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians Flora: around 23,000 species of plants Deforestation Rate: 0.35 percent loss annually Causes of Deforestation: agriculture, urban sprawl, pasture, logging, fire

(Research sources: HANCE, Jeremy. Brazil’s Atlantic Forest. Mata Atlântica. Available at: <http://rainforests.mongabay.com/mata-atlantica/mataatlantica.html> and Brazil Atlantic Forest. The nature Conservancy. Available at: <http://www.nature.org/ourinitiatives/regions/southamerica/brazil/ placesweprotect/atlantic-forest.xml>. Accessed on: Mar. 14, 2013.)

2. Read the text and write in the notebook the topics used in the fact file.

location, land area, human population, fauna, flora, deforestation rate, causes of deforestation

3. In groups, write a fact file about the Amazon rainforest. Resposta pessoal.

» » » » » »

Habilidade de leitura: HL3 – Localizar e organizar várias informações explícitas no texto sintetizadas em ideia geral, categoria ou conceito.

Research information about the Amazon rainforest (check the Web Search links below). Write your fact file. Remember to include the topics used in the Atlantic Forest fact file. Show your first dra to some classmates. Take notes of their suggestions. Write your revised version. Show your revised version to your teacher and take notes of his / her suggestions. Incorporate feedback and write your final version.

WEB SEARCH Go to the following sites and find information about the Amazon rainforest. Take notes about its location, land area, human population, fauna, flora, deforestation rate and causes of deforestation. You will need this information to write your fact file. WWF: <http://ler.vc/6xoepr>. (Accessed on: Mar. 24, 2016.) Blue Planet Biomes: <http://ler.vc/83p9zn>. (Accessed on: Mar. 24, 2016.) Encyclopaedia Britannica: <http://ler.vc/ncnp3g>. (Accessed on: Mar. 24, 2016.)

SELF-EVALUATION Evaluate your fact file. Did you include information about all the topics suggested? Did you check all the facts? Did you incorporate your classmates’ and teacher’s suggestions? Are there any other improvements you can make?

GO BEYOND Documentary about Al Gore’s campaign to educate citizens about global warming: AN INCONVENIENT TRUTH (UMA VERDADE INCONVENIENTE). Directed by: Davis Guggenheim. United States: 2006. Website where you can learn more about environmental problems and natural disasters: <http://ler.vc/aayqkk>. (Accessed on: Mar. 24, 2016.)

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Hemera/Thinkstock

DREAM BIG!

“The future belongs to those who believe in the beauty of their dreams.”

UNIT 8

Eleanor Roosevelt (1884– 1962), wife of Franklin Delano Roosevelt and the longest serving First Lady of the United States, from 1933 to 1945. (Dreams Quotes. Motivating Quotes. Available at: <http://www. motivatingquotes.com/dreams.htm>. Accessed on: Mar. 25, 2016.)

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THINK ABOUT IT

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

Habilidades de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto; HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

1. Read the text and answer the following questions in the notebook. a. What text genre is it? A poem.

c. What is its title? Always Believe in Yourself.

b. Who wrote it? Susan Polis Schutz.

d. Who did she write this text for? Sugestão de resposta: Probably young people.

Always Believe in Yourself

Susan Polis Schutz

Get to know yourself – what you can do and what you cannot do – for only you can make your life happy

Believe in appreciating life Be sure to have fun every day and to enjoy the beauty in the world

Believe that by working learning and achieving you can reach your goals and be successful

Believe in love Love your friends your family yourself and your life

Believe in your own creativity as a means of expressing your true feelings

Believe in your dreams and your dreams can become a reality

(SCHUTZ, Susan Polis. You Have the Power to Make Your Dreams Come True. In: WAYANT, Patricia (Org.). Dream Big, Stay Positive, and Believe in Yourself. Colorado: Blue Mountain Arts, 2012. p. 16-17.)

IN CONTEXT Susan Polis Schutz (1944–) is an American poet whose poetry has been published all over the world. She is also a humanist, an environmentalist and a producer of greeting cards. (Research sources: Biography of Susan Polis Schutz. Anyone and Everyone. Available at: <http://www.anyoneandeveryone.com/biography. html> and <http://www.whoislog.info/profile/susan-polis-schutz.html>. Accessed on: April 15, 2013.)

2. What is the main message of the poem? Write the correct option in the notebook. Habilidade de leitura: HL7 – Identificar a tese principal ou o conflito central de um texto.

a. It encourages people to live life wildly.

b. It encourages people to have faith in their ability to have a good life.

Habilidade de leitura: HL5 – Localizar e organizar em uma ordem ou sequência informações explícitas distribuídas ao longo do texto.

3. In the notebook, number the ideas below according to the order in which they are mentioned in the poem. 3 a. Creativity is important.

4 d. Life should be enjoyed.

5 b. Love is an essential feeling.

1 e. Your happiness depends on you.

2 c. Success can be achieved through hard work.

6 f. You can make your dreams come true.

TALK ABOUT IT 4. Talk to a classmate about the poem Always Believe in Yourself. Did you like the poem? Why (not)? What feelings does it evoke in you?

5. What is your opinion about the statements in exercise 3? Discuss them with your teacher and classmates. Respostas pessoais.

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READING

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

GET READY TO READ 1. Look at the text and answer these questions in the notebook. a. What text genre is it? An article.

Habilidades de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto; HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

b. Where would you find it? In a newspaper. c. What is the headline of the article? Youth with Down syndrome graduates from university.

Estúdio Insólito

d. Where was it published? In Istanbul.

Youth with Down syndrome graduates from university A young man with Down syndrome has graduated from university, what he once called his greatest dream. Olcayto Tunçel made his dreams come true when he graduated last August from the department of bureau management and executive assistantship at Anadolu University in Eskişehir province. He said his new objective is to attend another university and study history. "I studied hard every day with my friends and passed all my exams successfully. I was extremely excited when I

received my diploma," Tunçel said. "My parents were proud of me. All my friends called to congratulate me. My aim, for now, is to attend another university and study history."

Tunçel also said he received job offers from various companies as soon as he received his diploma. "I am considering one of these offers," he said. Tunçel's mother, Hülya Tunçel, expressed happiness over He advised all people with her son's success. "My son's disabilities to pursue their graduation from university was dreams. "As a young person a source of indescribable pride with Down syndrome, my and happiness for us. We have diploma is of great importance," received many calls from parents he said. "I hope my ambition with children who have Down to continue my education will syndrome," she said. "They set an example for all other congratulated us, and I shared disabled people. I am sure all my experience with Olcayto." those who study and work hard Istanbul – Today’s Zaman with wires will be successful."

(Youth With Down Syndrome Graduates From University. Today’s Zaman with wires, Istanbul, Jan. 2009.)

LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

GLOSSARY Az assistantship – assistência disabilities – deficiências management – gerenciamento

106

pride – orgulho source – fonte attend – cursar

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READING COMPREHENSION Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

1. In the notebook, write T for true or F for false.

P. Chinnapong/Shutterstock.com

T a. Olcayto Tunçel has Down syndrome. F b. He majored in history. T c. Now he wants to aend another university. T d. Olcayto hopes to set an example for other people

with disabilities. T e. Olcayto’s mother was happy about his success. F f. Olcayto didn’t receive any job offers. blue and yellow ribbon, the logo of the world down syndrome day. celebrated on march 21.

GO BEYOND You can learn more about Down syndrome at <http://ler.vc/p7svrv>. (Accessed on: Mar. 25, 2016.) Habilidade de leitura: HL16 – Inferir o sentido de palavras ou expressões desconhecidas do texto por meio de comparação com a língua materna, análise do contexto e uso de conhecimento morfológico.

2. Find these highlighted words in the text and match them to their meanings. Write the corresponding letters and numbers in the notebook. a. proud (adj.)

b 1. parabenizar

b. congratulate (v.)

e 2. indescritível

c. pursue (v.)

d 3. deficiente

d. disabled (adj.)

a 4. orgulhoso(a) de algo / alguém

e. indescribable (adj.)

c 5. procurar alcançar (uma meta)

3. In the sentence, “Tunçel also said he received job offers from various companies as soon as he received his diploma,” what does the expression as soon as mean? Write the correct answer in the notebook.

Habilidade de leitura: HL16 – Inferir o sentido de palavras ou expressões desconhecidas do texto por meio de comparação com a língua materna, análise do contexto e uso de conhecimento morfológico.

a. immediately before

b. immediately aer

c. a long time later

Habilidade de leitura: HL11 – Relacionar temas, assuntos ou recursos em diferentes textos, representados em diferentes linguagens.

4. Compare the message of this article to the message of the poem Always Believe in Yourself. Can you find any similarities between them? Write down the answer in the notebook. Sugestões de respostas: You should believe in your dreams and they will come true. / If you work hard, you can make your dreams come true. / You should get to know yourself and work hard to achieve your objectives.

VIEWPOINTS

LEIA DICA NO MP

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

Converse com seu professor e colegas. Você conhece outras obras (filmes, letras de música, ditos populares etc.) que trabalhem a mesma temática do poema Always Believe in Yourself? Quais? Você conhece alguém que seja um exemplo desse pensamento? Qual é o seu sonho? O que você tem feito para realizá-lo? Você acredita que podemos tornar todos os nossos sonhos realidade? Como? Você acha que existem limitações que dificultem ou mesmo impeçam alguns sonhos de se realizarem? Quais seriam? O que pode ser feito para superá-las?

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VOCABULARY DIFFERENT MEANINGS OF THE VERB TO GET 1. Read the sentences and complete the statements in the notebook. 1. Olcayto wants to get a degree in history. 2. Olcayto got excited when he received his diploma. 3. Olcayto’s family got many calls from parents of children with Down syndrome. a. In sentence b. In sentence c. In sentence

3

1 2

the verb to get means to receive. the verb to get means to obtain. the verb to get means to become.

The verb to get can have different meanings dependig on the context.

Meanings of the verb to get

Example

to capture (capturar)

The policeman got the thief and took him to jail.

to arrive (chegar)

I have an important job interview today. I can’t get there late.

to earn or receive (ganhar; receber)

John got some good money from his investments.

to understand (entender)

I never got why Rick didn’t believe in himself. He’s such a wonderful person!

to score (marcar)

That team got many points and won the competition.

to obtain (obter, conseguir)

If you work hard you might get a promotion.

to catch (ser afetado por, pegar)

I have a fever. I think I got a cold.

to become (tornar-se)

As we get older, we achieve many goals.

to bring or fetch (trazer; buscar)

Get the champagne, please. Let’s celebrate!

LEIA SAIBA MAIS NO MP

2. Read the sentences and, in the notebook, write the correct meaning of the verb to get. a. The Brazilian team got three goals in the game against England. (bring / score) b. Did you get my point? Do I have to explain it again? (score / understand) c. Laura is so determined that she’ll get everything she wants. (catch / obtain) d. I got some new clothes from my mother for Christmas. (arrive / receive) e. Can I get you something to drink? (become / fetch) f.  It was the first time I didn’t get to the airport on time. (arrive / catch)

3. Read the sentences and, in the notebook, complete with the correct meaning of the verb to get. a. Because Ronald was late, he didn’t get the bus. catch b. The detectives were able to get the kidnappers because they left their fingerprints in the car. capture c. Peter gets $10 an hour when he works there. earn d. I feel awful. I think I’m getting sick. become e. Can you get me a glass of water, please? bring / fetch

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EXPRESSIONS WITH THE VERB TO GET 1. Read the extract of the poem Always Believe in Yourself below and write in the notebook the expression that has the same meaning as the phrase the Greek philosopher Socrates used to say to his disciples.

GO BEYOND

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Get to know yourself â&#x20AC;&#x201C; what you can do and what you cannot do [...]â&#x20AC;?

You can learn more about Socrates at <http://ler.vc/mwm57v>. (Accessed on: Mar. 26, 2016.)

LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

Expressions with the verb to get.

Expressions

Meaning

Examples

to get a kick out of something

curtir

I get a kick out of hanging out with my friends.

to get cold feet

ficar com medo, amarelar

He was about to go bungee jumping, but he got cold feet and gave up.

to get in touch

entrar em contato

My classmates never got in touch after we graduated.

to get into trouble

arrumar confusĂŁo

Those kids are always getting into trouble.

to get on oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nerves

irritar-se profundamente

Her voice gets on my nerves.

to get real

cair na real

Do you think she likes you? Come on! Get real!

to get rid of something

livrar-se

We have to get rid of this old car.

to get to know somebody / something

conhecer

Traveling by car is the best way to get to know a city.

2. In the notebook, complete the sentences with one of the expressions below. a kick out of

cold feet

in touch

into trouble

on my nerves

rid of

into trouble

a. James got

b. Charles got

when the teacher caught him cheating.

cold feet

and decided not to marry his long-time girlfriend.

a kick out of

c. Bey really gets

watching TV. Her TV is on for at least five hours every day. on my nerves

d. Geing stuck in traffic gets

.

e. We need to clean up the house and get

rid of

old stuff.

in touch

f. I donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know what happened to Mark. He promised to get

aer our first date.

3. In the notebook, rewrite the sentences using expressions with the verb to get to replace the parts in bold. a. Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve been trying to get in contact with the company with no success. Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve been trying to get in touch with the company with no success.

b. We need to discard all those old toys. We need to get rid of those old toys.

c. My family enjoys going to the beach in the summer.

My family gets a kick out of going to the beach in the summer.

d. Loud music really irritates her.

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4. Answer the questions in the notebook. Sugestões de respostas: a. When do you get cold feet? I get cold feet when I have to speak in public. / I get cold feet when I have tests at school. b. What do you need to get rid of in your house? I need to get rid of the clothes I don’t wear anymore. c. What do you get a kick out of doing on weekends? I get a kick out of playing video games with my friends. d. What gets on your nerves? Talkative people get on my nerves. / Loud music gets on my nerves. e. When was the last time you got into trouble? I got into trouble when I got home late last week.

LIFE ACHIEVEMENTS 1. Read the sentences and, in the notebook, write some expressions used to describe life achievements. “A young man with Down syndrome has graduated from university […]” “A person with Down syndrome can get a job, live independently and enjoy recreational activities in their community.” “Many people with Down syndrome get married and have lasting relationships.” (Test your knowledge on Down Syndrome. Available at: <https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:PjnouQE1M_YJ: www.cdss.ca/images/ images_NDSAW/DS_quiz.pdf+people+with+down+syndrome+can+get+married+have+children&hl=pt-PT&gl=br&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESgtaooO Cm5ViDEAPH7CmcuBi5e67A8SYYc3VkZdMJFv6GkZ69k-wuGq1MKMKZC6iFOjDKR4dQnqiE-VkH-LGG_axXvQTznSYhq8eX5edO8uCV9WGOS3OGz 38bmJb9rezsdalwtB&sig=AHIEtbRTNk_YUIxJq4i3G7tS9gknSCBCtw>. Accessed on: Mar. 14, 2013.)

2. Match the expressions to describe life achievements and the pictures. Write down the answers in the notebook. to get a university degree

to get married

to have children

to learn a foreign language

to visit another country

to get a university degree

to buy a house

110

to get married Jupiterimages/Brand X Pictures/Thinkstock

d.

c.

e.

to learn a foreign language

to have children

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

b.

Jupiterimages/Comstock/Thinkstock

a.

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

to get a good job

Stockbyte/Thinkstock

to buy a house

Stockbyte/Thinkstock

to buy a car

f.

to buy a car

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iStockphoto/Thinkstock

Ron Chapple Studios/Thinkstock

g.

h.

to visit another country

to get a good job

TALK ABOUT IT 3. Look at the expressions related to life achievements in exercise 2 and, in pairs, talk about your plans for the future. Respostas pessoais.

WORD FORMATION 1. Read the sentences and write, in the notebook, the words that belong to the family of the verb to succeed. “I studied hard every day with my friends and passed all my exams successfully.” “I am sure all those who study and work hard will be successful.” “Tunçel's mother, Hülya Tunçel, expressed happiness over her son's success.” Look at this list with some word families.

Verb

Noun

Adjective

Adverb

to act

activity, action

active

actively

to continue

continuation

continuous

continuously

to create

creativity

creative

creatively

to educate

education

educational

educationally

to experience

experience

experienced

-

to express

expression

expressive

expressively

-

happiness

happy

happily

-

independence

independent

independently

to manage

management

manageable

manageably

to succeed

success

successful

successfully

-

truth

true

truly

TIP Conhecer as principais regras de formação de palavras, como o uso de sufixos, permite a identificação da classe gramatical de um vocábulo, mesmo quando não se conhece o seu significado, o que é de grande utilidade na interpretação de textos.

TRACK 30

PRONUNCIATION

suffix -ous /əs/

Listen and repeat. continuous famous

furious nervous

ridiculous serious

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2. Read the sentences and, in the notebook, write the right options to complete them. a. I need to move to a new house, but I have to find one with management / manageable costs. b. It’s very important to express / expressive yourself in order to be respected. c. My dream is to find a nice partner and be happily / happy married like my parents. d. Is it important to always tell the true / truth? e. My grandfather is my favorite teacher. He is such an experience / experienced person. f. Patricia is a very creative / creatively person. She always has great ideas.

3. In the notebook, complete the sentences with a word derived from the words from the box. educated

independence

activity

continuation

manage

express

education

a. Can success only be achieved through

?

independently

b. Being able to work c.

Active

is also an important skill.

people usually live longer. management

d. Why did you

continue

e. Good

that course if you didn’t like it?

of your life is the key to success. expressive

f. Pamela has such an

face that it is easy to know what she is feeling.

4. Read the text and, in the notebook, do the following activities. a. Look at the text and write T for true or F for false. T 1.

Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto. LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

The text is part of a website.

F 2. The text contains scientific information. T 3. The text contains various definitions of success given by disabled people.

Editoria de arte

b. In the notebook, complete the text with the words from the box. actively

creative

DO-IT Home

Events

education

About Us

experiences

For Educators

independently

For Students

success

For Employees

successful

For Veterans

Students with disabilities sharing tips for success By Sheryl Burgstahler, Ph.D.

experiences successful […] Perhaps young people with disabilities will find the of others useful as they set their course toward , self-determined lives. Define success for yourself. success People define in many ways. Several successful people with disabilities use these words: •

Success is defined by who we are, what we believe in, and what we think it means to be successful. For some it is money; for education others it could be relationships, family, jobs, religion, or . […] – college student who is deaf […]

actively

engaged in

creative

A successful life is one where I can be

Success is a kind of by-product and NOT an end in itself! – professor who is blind independently To me, having a successful life is being able to do things for myself, and not always have someone there to do

activities that make a contribution to the lives of others.

things for me. It's achieving my goals on my own terms and at my own pace. – high school student with a mobility and orthopedic impairment […] (BURGSTAHLER, Sheryl. Students with disabilities sharing tips for success. University of Washington. Available at: <http://www.washington.edu/doit/ Brochures/Technology/charge.html>. Accessed on: Mar. 25, 2016.)

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GRAMMAR LANGUAGE DISCOVERY 1. Read the sentences and write, in the notebook, T (true) or F (false). 1. “Olcayto Tunçel made his dreams come true when he graduated last August […]” 2. He had his friends help him with the most difficult subjects. 3. “Leadership: The art of getting someone else to do something you want done because he wants to do it.” Dwight D. Eisenhower 4. “Let us believe neither half of the good people tell us of ourselves, nor half of the evil they say of others.” J. Petit Senn (Motivational and Inspirational Quotes Collection. Inspirational Quotes. Available at: <http://www.inspirational-quotes.info/>. Accessed on: Mar. 25, 2016.)

T a. The verbs to make, to have, to get and to let describe actions that cause other actions. T b. The verbs to make, to have and to let are followed by object + infinitive without to. F c. The verb to get is followed by object + infinitive without to.

CAUSATIVE VERBS Causative Verbs (to make, to have, to get and to let) are used to describe actions that cause other actions. Causative Verbs Verb

Meaning

to have

atribuir responsabilidade a alguém para fazer alguma coisa

to let

permitir que alguém faça alguma coisa

to make

forçar alguém a fazer alguma coisa

to get

convencer alguém a fazer alguma coisa

Form

Example It’s important to have disabled children try new experiences. Have the next patient come in, please.

verb + object + infinitive without to

Don’t let anyone steal your dreams. Our parents let us play in the yard. Olcayto makes me believe that anything is possible. Social injustice makes me feel depressed.

verb + object + infinitive with to

Our teacher gets us to do our best. See if you can get the washing machine to work.

2. Read the sentences and write, in the notebook, the correct options to complete them. a. That movie was very sad. It made / got me cry. b. Ann is very tired. Please, don’t wake her up. Get / Let her sleep as much as possible. c. The teacher wasn’t feeling very well, so she got / let the students to leave early. d. Mom gets / makes me clean my room every day. e. I need some new programs in my computer. I’ll have / get a technician to install them. f. Jill’s parents have / get her do her homework every evening.

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3. Complete the sentences with the correct form of to make, to let or to get and a verb from the box. copy

deliver

drive

help lets

a. Aiden got his driving license so his dad sometimes b. Uncle Jacob is so funny! He always

makes

c. Bianca is very persuasive. She always

everybody

gets

d. Our teacher is very strict. Yesterday she

us to

made

us

stay

copy

e. I don’t have time to go to the post office now, so I’ll f. Those bags look very heavy.

Let

me

help

him

laugh

get

laugh

drive

stay

the car.

.

at her house longer than we intend to. a lot of sentences from the board. someone to

deliver

the package for me.

you carry them.

4. In the notebook, answer the questions about you. Sugestões de respostas: a. What don’t your parents let you do? They don’t let me go to all-night parties. b. What do your parents usually make you do? They make me do homework. / They make me clean up my bedroom. c. What do your teachers never let you do? They never let me chew gum in class. / They never let me cheat. d. What do your parents always let you do? They let me use the computer. / They let me have sleepovers. e. What do your teachers get you to do? They get me to study hard. / They get me to do homework.

INTEGRATED SKILLS LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

READING

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

1. Read the texts related to Archbishop Desmond Tutu and complete the sentences in the notebook. a. Text

2

is a transcription of part of an interview.

b. Text

1

is an online biography.

Editoria de arte

Text 1

Biography Tinseltown/Shutterstock

profile

video

photos

news

QUICK FACTS NAME: Desmond Mpilo Tutu BIRTH DATE: October 7, 1931 BIRTH PLACE: Klerksdorp, Transvaal, South Africa OCCUPATION: South African social activist, former Secretary General, South African Council of Churches (S.A.C.C.), Bishop of Johannesburg EDUCATION: Bantu Normal Teacher's College, Pretoria, 1953, South Africa; University of

South Africa, Johannesburg, B.A, 1954; St. Peter's Theological College, Johannesburg, South Africa, 1960 AWARDS: The Nobel Peace Prize, 1984, and many other international prizes.

Desmond Tutu was the first black South African Archbishop of Cape Town who valiantly fought against apartheid. He has also worked to end AIDS, poverty, racism, and homophobia throughout the world. (Research sources: Nobelprize.org. Available at: <http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1984/tutu-facts.html>. Accessed on: Mar. 26, 2016. Desmond Tutu Fast Facts. Available at: <http://edition.cnn.com/2013/01/25/world/africa/desmond-tutu-fast-facts/>. Accessed on: Mar. 26, 2016. Bishop Desmond Tutu. Available at: <http://www.famousbirthdays.com/people/desmond-tutu.html>. Accessed on: Mar. 26, 2016.)

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martin luther king jr., statue in west potomac park, washington, d.c., usa.

tviolet/Shutterstock.com

"God's dream is that you and I and all of us will realize that we are family, that we are made for togetherness, for goodness, and for compassion. In God’s family, there are no outsiders, no enemies. Black and white, rich and poor, gay and straight, Jew and Arab, Muslim and Christian, Hindu and Buddhist, Hutu and Tutsi, Pakistani and Indian—all belong. When we start to live as brothers and sisters and to recognize our interdependence, we become fully human.This dream can be found throughout the Bible and has been repeated by all of God's prophets right down to Martin Luther King, Jr., and Mahatma Gandhi."

Julie Clopper/Shutterstock.com

Text 2

the statue of mahatma gandhi in parliament square, london, england.

(Desmond Tutu's recipe for Peace (An interview about his book God has a dream). Available at: <http://www.beliefnet.com/Inspiration/2004/04/ Desmond-Tutus-Recipe-For-Peace.aspx>. Accessed on: Mar. 27, 2016.)

IN CONTEXT Apartheid is the name of the racial institution that was established in 1948 by the National Party that governed South Africa until 1994. The term, which literally means “apartness,” reflected a violently repressive policy designed to ensure that whites, who comprised 20% of the nation's population, would continue to dominate the country. (Available at: <http://www.blackpast.org/gah/apartheid-1948-1994>. Accessed on: Mar. 26, 2016.)

2. Read the texts in activity 1 and write T for true or F for false in the notebook. T 1. Desmond Tutu is a social activist and a religious leader. F 2. Desmond Tutu was awarded a Nobel Prize in Literature.

Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

T 3. Desmond Tutu mentioned other two activists. T 4. Desmond Tutu believes in a fair world where people would live as a family.

3. Who are the other two social activists mentioned by Desmond Tutu?

American Baptist minister, Civil Rights activist Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929 - 1968) and Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948) leader of the Indian independence movement, employing nonviolent civil disobedience.

4. Do Desmond Tutu, Martin Luther King, Jr. and Mahatma Gandhi have similar dreams? What is this dream? A world where people could live in peace, despite the differences.

GO BEYOND

LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

You can see more about apartheid at <http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/apartheid/> and <http://www. blackpast.org/gah/apartheid-1948-1994>. (Accessed on: Mar. 26, 2016.)

VIEWPOINTS

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

Converse com seu professor e colegas. Você compartilha os sonhos de Desmond Tutu, Mahatma Gandhi e Martin Luther King, Jr.? Por quê? E no Brasil? O que você acha que podemos fazer para garantir que todas as pessoas sejam tratadas com igualdade? E os governantes, o que eles podem fazer? Qual é o seu sonho? O que você pretende fazer para realizá-lo?

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LISTENING TRACK 31 1. You're going to listen to Amelia Williams, an Australian girl, giving a speech at her college graduation. Before you listen, write in the notebook, the people and institutions you think she addresses in her speech. Then, listen and check your predictions. a. chancellor

g. neighbors

b. vice chancellor

h. guests

c. faculty

i.

graduates

d. staff

j.

parents

e. families

k. professors

f. friends

l.

mentors

TRACK 31 2. Listen again and match the people Amelia addresses and the reasons why she mentions them. Write in the notebook the corresponding letters and numbers. PEOPLE

REASONS FOR ADDRESSING THEM

a. parents, families and friends

b 1. to thank them for their patience, dedication and priceless help

b. professors, mentors and staff

c 2. to congratulate them on achieving their goals

c. fellow graduates

a 3. to thank them for their support and encouragement

Focus on Genre TRACK 31 3. Listen to the graduation speech again and, in the notebook, write some of its main characteristics. a. It usually has a formal tone. b. The speaker speaks on behalf of the graduating class. c. It is usually dedicated to expressing gratitude to parents, teachers, friends and others. d. The speaker talks about his / her beliefs, thoughts and emotions. e. It usually mentions accomplishments. f. It usually mentions expectations. g. It usually depicts education as a tool kit to create a perfect future. h. Its main purpose is to serve as a source of information.

VIEWPOINTS Converse com seu professor e colegas. O discurso de Amelia Williams fala de situações de mudança e de expectativas em relação ao futuro. Você também está vivendo uma situação de mudança em sua vida. Quais são os seus planos em relação a essa nova fase que está prestes a se iniciar?

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SPEAKING Saying Thank You TRACK 32 1. Read the following sentences and answer the question in the notebook. "I would like to say thank you to our parents, families and friends." "I would like to thank our professors, mentors and staff for sharing their knowledge with us." What is the communicative function of the parts in bold? Saying thank you.

TRACK 33 2. Read, listen the sentences and write them in the appropriate box according to their level of formality. Draw the following table in the notebook. I appreciate it.

Thank you.

I would like to say thank you to…

Thank you very much.

I would like to thank…

Thanks.

My sincere thanks to…

I would like to say thank you from the bottom of my heart for…

Informal I appreciate it. Thanks.

Neutral

Formal

Thank you. Thank you very much.

I would like to say thank you to… I would like to thank… My sincere thanks to… I would like to say thank you from the bottom of my heart for…

3. Look at the expressions for saying thank you in exercise 2 and write in the notebook the ones you would use in a graduation speech to thank all those who contributed to the graduates’ achievements. Respostas pessoais.

TALK ABOUT IT 4. Prepare a short speech for your graduation ceremony.

Respostas pessoais.

» Write your speech. Think about who you would like to thank or congratulate and why. » Get some classmates to read your speech and make suggestions. » Write the revised version of your speech. » Rehearse it. Pay attention to your intonation and remember to look at the audience. Start like this:

Finish like this:

Principal, teachers, guests and fellow graduates.

I hope you enjoy today, and all the best. Thank you.

Good

! I'm honored to address you today on

behalf of graduation students of… LEIA DICA E SUGESTÃO INTERDISCIPLINAR NO MP

WRITING

Habilidade de leitura: HL4 – Localizar informações relevantes no texto para completar uma tarefa ou solucionar um problema.

1. The text on page 118 is an extract from the book Bridget Jones’s Diary. Read Bridget’s New Year's resolutions and, in the notebook, complete the sentences with the verbs from the box. be (2x)

give (2x)

listen

eat

go

read

get up

improve

save up

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Give

all clothes which have not worn for two Give years or more to homeless.

Improve

career and find new job with potential. Save up Be Be

money in form of savings. […] more confident. more assertive.

Not go out every night but stay in and books and Give

listen

read

Penguin Group (USA) Inc.

NEW YEAR’S RESOLUTIONS [...] I WILL […]

to classical music.

proportion of earnings to charity.

Be kinder and help others more. Eat

Get up

more fiber.

straight away when wake up in mornings. Go

to gym three times a week not merely to buy sandwiches. […]

Make better use of time. (FIELDING, Helen. Bridget Jones’s Diary. London: Penguin Books, 1999.)

LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

2. Talk to a classmate. Did you enjoy reading Bridget Jones’s New Year’s resolutions list? Would you like to read the whole book? Justify your answers. Resposta pessoal.

Focus on Genre 3. Read the text again and answer the following questions in the notebook. a. What text genre is it? A New Year's resolutions list. b. Write, in the notebook, the sentences that are true about the text.

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

1. The author writes this kind of text to himself / herself. 2. Formal language is used. 3. The text contains a number of items organized one aer the other. 4. The items are related to plans and wishes. 5. The sentences are brief and straight to the point.

Resposta pessoal.

4. Think about what you'd like to accomplish next year and write your own New Year's resolutions list.

» » » » » » »

Make brief notes about the aspects of your life you would like to change and things you would like to achieve. Research the most common New Year’s resolutions people make (check the Web Search links below). Write the final dra of your New Year’s resolutions list. Remember to include all your plans and wishes. Show your list to some classmates. Take notes of their suggestions. Write your revised version. Show your revised version to your teacher and take notes of his / her suggestions. Write your final version.

SELF-EVALUATION

WEB SEARCH Go to the following websites and find out the most common New Year’s resolutions people make. USA.gov: <http://ler.vc/xpr86p>. (Accessed on: Mar. 26, 2016.) Life 123: <http://ler.vc/yptndu>. (Accessed on: Mar. 26, 2016.)

GO BEYOND

Evaluate your New Year’s resolutions list. Did you include all your plans and wishes and dreams? Did you incorporate your classmates’ and teacher’s suggestions? Are there any other improvements you can make?

LEIA O ALUNO NO MUNDO DO TRABALHO NO MP

Recording of Steve Jobs’ 2005 Stanford Commencement Address: <http://ler.vc/mqzcc6>. (Accessed on: Mar. 25, 2016.)

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Autoavaliação Responda às perguntas do quadro a seguir em seu caderno para avaliar seu desempenho ao longo das unidades 7 e 8. = muito bom

= regular

= fraco

Sou capaz de...

Unidade

a. ler, ouvir e falar sobre assuntos relacionados ao meio ambiente.

7

b. ler e reconhecer as características do gênero textual outdoor.

7

c. nomear desastres naturais.

7

d. compreender e usar em contexto dicas que ajudam o meio ambiente.

7

e. entender quando usar o gerúndio e o infinitivo após certos verbos.

7

f. ler uma ficha informativa, reconhecer suas características e produzir uma semelhante.

7

g. ler, ouvir e falar a respeito de sonhos e planos para o futuro.

8

h. compreender os diferentes usos do verbo to get.

8

i. reconhecer e usar expressões com o verbo to get.

8

j. reconhecer e usar em contexto expressões relacionadas às conquistas pessoais.

8

k. compreender a formação de palavras (substantivos, adjetivos, verbos e advérbios) e usá-las apropriadamente em contexto.

8

l. entender e usar os Causative Verbs (to make, to have, to get e to let).

8

m. ler e reconhecer as características dos gêneros textuais discurso de formatura e lista de resoluções de Ano-Novo e produzir textos semelhantes.

8

Avaliação

MELHORANDO SEU DESEMPENHO Refaça os exercícios das unidades 7 e 8. Esclareça suas dúvidas com o(a) professor(a). Assista a filmes em inglês. Fique atento a mensagens em inglês em camisetas, outdoors etc. Participe de um chat online em inglês.

AUTOAVALIAÇÃO

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CROSS-CURRICULAR LINK

Women

changing History “History is the analysis and interpretation of the human past that enables us to study continuity and change over time. […]” (What is History & Why Study it? Siena College. Available at: <http://www.siena.edu/pages/3289. asp>. Accessed on: Mar. 12, 2016.)

“History isn't what happened, but a story of what happened. And there are always different versions, different stories, about the same events.” (History is a weapon. Available at: <http://www.historyisaweapon.com/>. Accessed on: Mar. 12, 2016.)

“[…] history is not made exclusively by great men. It is also made by ordinary people in the everyday course of their lives. Some of the most important cultural transformations are the result of countless individuals in their daily lives […]” (MINTZ, Steven. The History of Private Life: An Overview. Digital History. Available at: <http:// www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/historyonline/plife_overview.cfm>. Accessed on: Mar. 12, 2016.)

VIEWPOINTS Leia as frases e discuta com seu professor e colegas. O que é história para você? Você gosta de estudar história? Justifique. Quem faz história, em sua opinião? Você acredita que pessoas comuns podem fazer história? Por quê?

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

1. Read Maya Angelou’s biography and, in the notebook, write T (true) or F (false) for the following Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar statements. F a. Maya had a happy childhood.

informações explícitas em um texto. F c. Maya didn’t have many jobs.

T b. Maya was the first African American woman to

T d. Maya’s life can be considered successful.

Short Biography April 4, 1928 – […] Maya was born as Marguerite Ann Johnson in Saint Louis, Missouri. Her parents were Bailey and Vivian Baxter Johnson. 1931

Her parents marriage ended and Maya and her brother were sent to live with her father's mother. […]

1935

The children were returned to the care of their mother in St. Louis.

1937

Maya was sexually abused and raped by her mother's boyfriend, Mr. Freeman. The shock made Maya mute and the children were sent back to live with their grandmother once again.

1941

Maya and her brother returned to live with her mother in San Francisco. […]

1942

Teacher Bertha Flowers helped Maya to talk again and encouraged her interest in literature.

1942

She dropped out of school in her teens to become San Francisco's first African American female cable car conductor.

1943

Maya returned to high school, but became pregnant and graduated a few weeks before giving birth to her son, Guy. She left home to bring up her son as a single mother working as a waitress.

1952

She married a Greek sailor named Tosh Angelos but the marriage quickly failed. She began her career as a nightclub singer and during this time took the name Maya Angelou.

1959

Became involved with Civil Rights Activists.

1970

I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings is published. [Her first book]

Derek Bauer/FilmMagic/Getty Images

Estúdio Insólito

conduct cable cars in San Francisco.

Available at: <http://www.datesandevents.org/people-timelines/19-maya-angelou-timeline.htm>. Accessed on: Mar. 12, 2016. LEIA SAIBA MAIS NO MP

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IN CONTEXT Maya Angelou is an African American poet, actress and an important figure in the American Civil Rights Movement. She has published over 30 books and has been honored by universities, literary organizations, government agencies and other groups.

VIEWPOINTS

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

Converse com seu professor e colegas. Você acha que Maya Angelou mudou a história? Por quê? Você conhece alguma mulher que tenha mudado a história de seu bairro ou cidade? Quem é ela? O que ela fez?

2. Making a poster. • Choose a female member of your family, school, neighborhood or community who has an inspiring life story. • Prepare five or six questions to ask her. Find out about › her life (biographical information: family, childhood, studies, professional life, etc.). › her achievements. › problems she has had to overcome. › life lessons she has learned.

Making a Timeline Biography

Remember to » write the date and place of birth of the chosen person. » choose the most important events of her life. » write the years on the left and the corresponding events on the right.

• Interview her and take notes (or record the interview). You can take photos too. • Write her timeline biography. • Prepare a poster so you can present the information you collected to the class. Remember to include the timeline, photos and other information you may have about her. • Hang your poster on the classroom’s bulletin board.

SELF-EVALUATION Evaluate your poster. Is it attractive? Are there photos? Is there a title? How similar is the timeline to the one in exercise 1? Did you write the date and place of birth of the chosen person? Did you list the dates and the most important events of her life? Are there any improvements you can make to your timeline?

CROSS-CURRICULAR LINK

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Pieter Bruegel, c. 1562. Oil on panel. Museo del Prado, Madrid, Spain

CROSS-CURRICULAR LINK

Edward Lamson Henry, 1903. Oil on panel. Private collection

The Triumph of Death.  x  cm.

An October Day.  x . cm.

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1. Look at the paintings and talk to your teacher and classmates. Which painting do you associate with peace / war? Why? Which of the paintings do you like best? Why? What feelings do they evoke in you? Would you like to see other paintings by the same artists? Why?

IN CONTEXT

LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

a. b. c. d.

VIEWPOINTS

Pieter Bruegel (1525 – 1569) was a Renaissance painter known for his landscapes and peasant scenes. Edward Lamson Henry (1841 – 1919) was an American artist who painted realistic genre scenes of rural America in the 19th century.

Converse com seu professor e colegas. Você tem o hábito de visitar museus? Por quê? Como você se sente ao apreciar obras de arte? Quais elementos dos quadros The Triumph of Death e An October Day mais chamam a sua atenção? Por quê? Como você definiria guerra? E paz?

2. Choose one of the paintings as your source of inspiration and write a sentence defining either war or peace in the notebook. Respostas pessoais. 3. Making a collage. » Make a collage based on one of the themes of the

pairs below: day – night happiness – sadness » Get a big sheet of cardboard and make a collage

poster. You can use images and other materials. » Write a sentence defining the theme you chose. » Add the sentence to your collage. » Hang your collage poster on the classroom bulletin

Remember to » use photographs, magazine

cutouts and copyleft images. » use a variety of materials, including

recycled ones. » use symbols related to the topic.

board or organize a poster exhibition in your school.

WEB SEARCH Go to the following site to get more information on how to make a collage: eHow: <http://ler.vc/ra83to>. (Accessed on: Mar. 16, 2016.)

SELF-EVALUATION Evaluate your collage. Is it appealing? Does it convey the message you want to convey? Are there any improvements you can make to your collage?

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CROSS-CURRICULAR LINK

Jobs

and present future

past,

1. Read the text and, in the notebook, write T for true or F for false.

Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

T a. In the Medieval period, apothecaries were usually clergy people. T b. A blacksmith was considered a very important job in the Middle Ages.

T c. In the Medieval period, a messenger could be killed while performing his duty. F d. In the Middle Ages, people who wrote books were called scribes.

pothecaries made medicine from plants, roots and herbs to help sick people. They were usually priests or monks.

Estúdio Insólito

Renato Faccini

arbers did much more than cut hair or trim beards. They were also dentists and surgeons. Blacksmiths forged and sharpened weapons and repaired armors. It was one of the most important occupations of the Medieval period. arpenters were skilled professionals who shaped or made things out of wood. They made furniture, roofing and wood panelling.

Renato Faccini

Medieval Jobs Knights were professional warriors who fought to protect their lords.

essengers carried letters, receipts and commodities. It was a dangerous job because they could be killed depending on the content of the message. instrels were entertainers who could sing, play instruments and recite poetry. cribes were people who copied books and documents by hand.

(Research sources: Medieval Jobs. Medieval Life Time. Available at: <http://www.medieval-life-and-times.info/medieval-england/medieval-jobs. htm> and Medieval Jobs. Available at: <http://medieval.stormthecastle.com/medieval-jobs.htm>. Accessed on: Mar. 20, 2016.) LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

IN CONTEXT The Middle Ages is the period in European history that lasted from the 5th to the 15th centuries. It began with the collapse of Roman civilization and was followed by the Renaissance. (Research sources: Middle Ages. Encyclopedia Britannica. Available at: <http://global.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/380873/MiddleAges>; Middle Ages. Wikipedia. Available at: <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle-Ages>. Accessed on: Mar. 19, 2016.)

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VIEWPOINTS

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

Converse com seu professor e colegas. Que outras profissões da Idade Média você conhece? Quais das profissões citadas no texto ainda existem, quais se modificaram ao longo do tempo e quais deixaram de existir? Em sua opinião, que motivos levam à extinção de algumas profissões? Você se lembra de alguma profissão da atualidade que provavelmente se extinguirá no futuro? Qual? Você conhece alguma nova que provavelmente será muito importante no futuro? Qual? Você sabe em que consistem as profissões do futuro listadas no exercício 2?

2. In the notebook, match the sentence halves to make definitions for the following jobs of the future. 1. A cyber security specialist 3. An organic food farmer

5. A sustainability officer

2. A genetic counselor

6. A mobile application developer

4. A stem cell researcher

5 a. implements eco-friendly policies in an organization. 1 b. protects sites and exposes hackers. 2 c. runs tests that will predict genetic conditions in an unborn child. 4 d. investigates the cure for diseases, genetic enhancements and other information these cells may hold. 6 e. develops applications for gadgets and combats security and compatibility issues. 3 f. applies organic farming techniques to improve the growth of food. (Research source: FARREL, Rachel. 10 jobs of the future. MSN Careers. Available at: <http://msn.careerbuilder.com/Article/MSN-2520-Job-Infoand-Trends-10-jobs-of-the-future/>. Accessed on: Apr. 13, 2013.) LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

3. Making a poster. › Choose one of the jobs in exercise 2 or choose another job of the future (see Web Search box). › Get more information about it on the web or magazines. Find out: % the main characteristics of the job

% place of work

% skills and qualities required of the professional

% advantages and disadvantages of the career

% main responsibilities of the professional › Organize the information and write the first draft of your text. › Show your draft to your teacher and classmates and take notes of their suggestions. › Prepare the final version of the poster and hang it on the school bulletin board.

remember to > keep the message simple and make sure it grabs the reader's attention. > use colors and images effectively and creatively.

WEB SEARCH Visit the following sites to find more jobs of the future: The Guardian: <http://ler.vc/yz9jw3>. (Accessed on: Mar. 19, 2013.) Futurist Speaker: <http://ler.vc/b8dszp>. (Accessed on: Mar. 19, 2016.)

SELF-EVALUATION Evaluate your poster. Is it visually clear and appealing? Is it informative and interesting? Are there any improvements you could make to it?

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CROSS-CURRICULAR LINK

Carbon footprint

Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

1. Read the texts and complete the sentences in the notebook. carbon footprint

a. We can measure

by analyzing the amount of greenhouse gases produced in our

everyday life. primary

footprint

c. Our buying habits can cause secondary

d. The gas and electricity we use at home cause

Editoria de arte

e.

20

.

27

percent of our carbon footprint.

percent of our carbon footprint comes from buying new things.

CARBON FOOTPRINT

Editoria de arte

footprint is caused by domestic energy consumption and transportation.

Estúdio Insólito

b. The

What does one’s Carbon Footprint consist of?

A carbon footprint is a measure of the impact our activities have on the environment, and in particular climate change. It relates to the amount of greenhouse gases produced in our day-to-day lives through burning fossil fuels for electricity, heating and transportation etc. […] A carbon footprint is made up of the sum of two parts, the primary footprint (home energy use and transportation) and the secondary footprint (everything else). 1. The primary footprint is a measure of our direct emissions of CO2 from the burning of fossil fuels including domestic energy consumption and transportation (e.g. car and plane). We have direct control of these. 2. The secondary footprint is a measure of the indirect CO2 emissions from the whole lifecycle of products we use – those associated with their manufacture and eventual breakdown. To put it very simply – the more we buy the more emissions will be caused on our behalf. (Carbon Footprint. Environmental Center. Available at: <http://www.colorado.edu/ecenter/ energyclimate/what-you-can-do/carbon-footprint>. Accessed on: Mar. 14, 2013.)

VIEWPOINTS

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

Converse com seu professor e colegas. Cada um de nós é responsável pela emissão de uma parcela de CO2 na atmosfera. O que você faz, no dia a dia, para reduzir suas emissões? Que outras ações você pode incorporar ao seu cotidiano a fim de contribuir com a preservação do meio ambiente e dos recursos naturais? Que ações podem ser tomadas, individual e coletivamente?

126

Food & drink . . . . . . . . . . . . 5% Home energy use . . . . . . . 27% Purchase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20% Transportation . . . . . . . . . 19% Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15% Recreation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14% (Carbon Footprints. Gaia Education. Available at: <http://www.selba.org/engtaster/ecological/ ecologicaldesign/CarbonFootprints.html>. Accessed on: Mar. 20, 2013.)

GO BEYOND You can calculate your carbon footprint at <http://ler.vc/6xxdao>. (Accessed on: Mar. 24, 2016.)

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Habilidade de leitura: HL11 – Relacionar temas, assuntos ou recursos em diferentes textos, representados em diferentes linguagens.

Cláudia Rocha (Specially created for this book.)

2. Look at the poster, compare it to the texts on page 126 and answer the questions in the notebook. a. What does the word one refer to in the question “Which one is yours?” Carbon footprint.

b. Which item from the graph is the poster related to? Transportation.

3. Making a Poster for a Campaign. Organize a “Shrinking the Footprint” campaign with your classmates. Work in groups. Brainstorm some ideas people can implement to reduce their carbon footprint. You can refer to some of the ideas presented on page 126. Write the message you want to use in the poster and search for some powerful images. Show your first draft to your teacher and classmates and take notes of their suggestions. Make the final version of your poster and hang it on one of the school’s bulletin boards.

REMEMBER TO: • write a simple message to grab the reader’s attention • use colors and images effectively and creatively

SELF-EVALUATION Evaluate your poster. Compare it to the one on this page. How similar or different are the two posters? Is it visually clear? Did the message get across? Are there any improvements you can make to it?

LEIA DICA NO MP

WEB SEARCH Visit the following websites to learn more about carbon footprint and ways to reduce it. Brave New Climate: <http://ler.vc/2sdrtk>. (Accessed on: Mar. 24, 2016.) Carbon Footprint: <http://ler.vc/5c4suy>. (Accessed on: Mar. 24, 2016.) Sustainability: <http://ler.vc/st4ixw>. (Accessed on: Mar. 24, 2016.) Squidoo: <http://ler.vc/5b5i9d>. (Accessed on: Mar. 24, 2016.)

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EXAM PRACTICE O objetivo desta seção é familiarizá-lo com alguns tipos de questões utilizados como instrumento de avaliação para o ingresso no Ensino Superior.

PARTE I SIMULADOS DO ENEM (EXAME NACIONAL DO ENSINO MÉDIO)

Wheelhouse Enterprise content published on March 14, 2011.

Questão 1

Disponível em: <http://www.comparebusinessproducts.com/fyi/state-worlds-female-ceos>. Acesso em: 26 abr. 2013 (fragmento).

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1. O quadro retrata a situação das mulheres em cargos de comando nas empresas ao redor do mundo, analisada por diferentes fontes e sob diferentes aspectos. De acordo com os dados apresentados, é correto afirmar que a. a maior parte das empresas do mundo é comandada por mulheres. b. houve ligeira queda no número de mulheres que comandam as maiores empresas do mundo. c. no Canadá, trinta mulheres comandam empresas. d. nos EUA, 35% das empresas têm mulheres ocupando altas funções. e. as empresas canadenses contratam mais mulheres para diversas funções. 2. Segundo os dados de Standard & Poor’s, os salários recebidos por mulheres em cargos de CEO a. são equivalentes aos salários recebidos por homens. b. tiveram aumento equivalente à queda dos salários recebidos pelos homens. c. aumentaram 19% em 2009. d. excedem os salários dos homens em $ 14 milhões. e. sofreram aumento de 43%. 3. N  o estudo que envolveu 11 milhões de CEOs de empresas de tamanhos e rendas diferentes, foi concluído que a. mulheres ganham 75% a mais que os homens. b. os salários das mulheres são aproximadamente 25% menores que os salários dos homens. c. homens ganham 75% a mais que as mulheres. d. 25% dos homens ganham menos que as mulheres. e. 75% das mulheres ganham mais que os homens.

Questão 2 Life stressors increase obesity risk in young girls When young girls live in a stressful home where violence, depression or other disruptions are common they are more likely to become obese by age 5, compared to children raised in more stable homes. And when preschool girls witness a couple of bad events at once, they have an even higher risk of becoming obese, according to research presented in this week's medical journal Pediatrics. The study did not find the same obesity patterns in boys. Researchers aren't sure why, but suspect that it's because boys may cope with stress, in part, by being more physically active. So why are girls gaining weight when home life is stressful? […] The experts suggest that one of the reasons these factors tie into weight gain in girls has to do with how a mom relates to her child. […] Another possible explanation is that the child is experiencing the same stressors as the mom and that this is affecting her biologically. […] Scientists know that if you're an obese child then you're more likely to be an obese teen and in turn, an obese adult. […] Experts point out that addressing the factors that increase the odds for childhood obesity is imperative. […] Disponível em: <http://thechart.blogs.cnn.com/2012/04/16/life-stressors-increase-obesity-risk-in-young-girls/?hpt=he_c2>. Acesso em: 16 abr. 2013 (fragmento).

1. O texto estabelece algumas relações entre a obesidade e certos tipos de ambiente em que vivem meninas. De acordo com o texto, meninas que vivem em casas sob forte estresse, ou enfrentando violência ou depressão, a. são tão estressadas quanto as meninas que vivem em casas harmoniosas. b. têm dificuldade de escolher alimentos adequados para uma dieta saudável. c. serão mais gordas que as demais meninas, na adolescência. d. são consideradas obesas, por compensarem suas ansiedades com a comida. e. têm maior propensão a serem obesas aos cinco anos. EXAM PRACTICE

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2. O texto faz uma comparação entre meninos e meninas, no que se refere à influência do estresse na saúde. De acordo com o texto, é possível afirmar que a. meninas sob estresse ganham menos peso que meninos na mesma situação. b. meninos e meninas ganham peso da mesma maneira, em decorrência do estresse. c. meninas são mais ativas que meninos e, portanto, menos estressadas. d. meninas sob estresse ganham mais peso que meninos sob estresse. e. meninos lidam muito bem com o estresse. 3. Os especialistas sugerem que o ganho de peso por meninas que vivem em lares com estresse é explicado parcialmente a. pela influência genética de fatores que estressam sua mãe. b. em decorrência do estresse dos pais. c. pelo modo como a mãe se relaciona com sua filha. d. por dificuldades de seus pais em se relacionarem. e. por fatores diversos aos que causam estresse em suas mães.

Questão 3 Artwork at hospitals can help in the healing process […] A growing body of research shows that decorating hospitals with specific types of artwork can speed up a patient's healing process, while gloomy walls or the wrong kind of art can cause physical distress. "It's the whole emotional and perceptual context you are in," says Upali Nanda, vice president and director of research for American Art Resources, a health-care art-consulting firm in Houston. "When you're in a hospital, it's high stress. When we are high stress, we go back to our primal need to be soothed." Nanda, who has a doctorate in architecture with a specialization in health-care systems and design, says scientific studies show that art can aid in the recovery of patients, shorten hospital stays and help manage pain. But she says it has to be the right art – vivid paintings of landscapes, friendly faces and familiar objects can lower blood pressure and heart rate, while abstract pictures can have the opposite effect. […] Disponível em: <http://phys.org/news170083652.html>. Acesso em: 16 abr. 2013 (fragmento).

1. Pesquisas mostram que decorar paredes de hospitais com obras de arte é extremamente favorável aos pacientes. De acordo com o texto, as obras de arte que favorecem os doentes podem a. conter figuras abstratas. b. ser coloridas e de tom vivo, representando qualquer tipo de objeto. c. representar paisagens de tom vivo. d. conter rostos que exprimem todo tipo de emoção. e. ser de diversos tamanhos e formas. 2. De acordo com o texto, certo tipo de arte em hospitais causa efeitos benéficos em seus pacientes. Quanto a esses efeitos, é correto afirmar que o uso dessa arte em hospitais a. ajuda na recuperação dos pacientes, mas não tem influência na sua dor. b. é um modo de auxiliar o paciente a administrar sua dor. c. pouco influencia no tempo de internação dos pacientes. d. diminui a pressão arterial e aumenta a frequência cardíaca. e. é bastante questionado por alguns médicos atualmente.

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3. Os efeitos benéficos da arte em hospitais podem ser explicados a. pela percepção aguçada dos pacientes. b. pelo contexto emocional que a arte evoca. c. pela busca pela sobrevivência, necessidade primária de quem está doente. d. pelo estado emocional dos pacientes, que precisam ser confortados. e. pelo estresse e sofrimento que os pacientes enfrentam e que os levam à depressão.

Copyright 2013 by Randy Glasbergen (www.Glasbergen.com)

Questão 4

Disponível em: <http://www.glasbergen.com/?count=2&s=cultural%20diversity>. Acesso em: 16 abr. 2013.

1. Podemos inferir que a empresa exposta na charge a. precisa obter melhores resultados financeiros. b. é um bom exemplo de respeito aos seus funcionários. c. atende ao princípio de igualdade entre os seres humanos. d. tem sido questionada sobre a falta de diversidade em seu quadro de empregados. e. apresenta relações hierárquicas complexas, nas quais quem manda é o homem. 2. A fala do chefe com sua funcionária revela que o chefe a. é bastante democrático e gere a empresa juntamente com seus funcionários. b. está aberto a opiniões, ainda que contrárias às dele. c. busca pessoas que tragam novas ideias à empresa. d. trata seus funcionários com indiferença. e. preocupa-se mais com o que a empresa aparenta ser do que com o que ela é de fato. 3. O profissional que provavelmente será contratado por esta empresa deverá a. ter opiniões próprias, demonstrando segurança. b. sempre concordar com o chefe. c. ser fisicamente parecido com os demais funcionários da empresa. d. ter ideias que possam contribuir para a renovação da empresa. e. reconhecer a diversidade cultural como algo fundamental em uma sociedade.

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Questão 5 'World's best female chef' shares recipe for success From Becky Anderson, CNN April 10, 2012 – Updated 1651 GMT (0051 HKT) Valence, France (CNN) – French gastronomy is a male-dominated world, and its centuries-old traditions are fiercely protected. So, although Anne-Sophie Pic is the daughter and granddaughter of Michelin-starred chefs, it was not always clear she would continue the family tradition. But in 2007, with no formal training, Pic became the only female chef in France (and only the fourth woman in history) to earn the culinary world's top honor – a three-Michelin-star rating – for her family's restaurant, La Maison Pic, in the Rhone-Alpes town of Valence. While in 2011, she was voted World's Best Female Chef as part of the World's 50 Best Restaurants Awards. Pic believes her success comes because of, not in spite of, being a woman. She considers the lighthearted taste combinations she has pioneered to be an expression of her femininity […] The men in Pic's life are also important to her success, though. Having left her hometown as a teenager to study management, Pic returned to Valence, aged 23, to learn cooking from her father, shortly before he died. […] Disponível em: <http://www.cnn.com/2012/04/10/world/europe/anne-sophie-pic/index.html?iref=allsearch>. Acesso em: 12 abr. 2013 (fragmento).

1. Anne-Sophie Pic é uma chefe de cozinha bem-sucedida. Segundo o texto, Pic a. escolheu essa profissão por ser um ofício essencialmente feminino. b. seguiu o exemplo de sua bisavó, uma grande chefe de cozinha. c. soube desde criança que queria seguir essa profissão. d. é filha e neta de grandes chefes de cozinha. e. se formou em gastronomia na universidade. 2. Segundo o texto, a gastronomia francesa a. somente admite mulheres que têm em sua família uma tradição gastronômica. b. é rodeada de mistério, o que é alvo de crítica por parte das mulheres. c. é um mundo predominantemente masculino. d. tem revelado suas tradições, guardadas por séculos. e. tem seguidores no mundo inteiro. 3. Pic atingiu o sucesso na carreira que escolheu. Sobre a sua trajetória, é correto afirmar que Pic a. precisou de muito treinamento para tornar-se uma chefe de cozinha bem-sucedida. b. foi escolhida a melhor chefe de cozinha mulher. c. sempre soube que seguiria a tradição culinária de sua família. d. foi a primeira mulher no mundo a ter seu restaurante qualificado como três estrelas no Guia Michelin. e. é dona de seu próprio restaurante na cidade de Valence. 4. Pic atribui seu sucesso a. ao fato de ser mulher. b. às combinações que inventou, apesar de ela ser mulher. c. exclusivamente aos homens de sua vida. d. à insistência de seu pai em ensiná-la a cozinhar. e. ao modo como ela expressa sua feminilidade.

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Questão 6 Studies Suggest 'It's Complicated' When It Comes to Teens and Online Ethics Sep 21, 2010 – 7:59 PM (Sept. 21) The internet is great, but it can also be a scary place, haunted by unethical teens, "cyberbullies" and, of course, insidious, anonymous online commentators. That's at least according to several recent studies indicating that even in an increasingly Web-friendly world, logging online can still be a somewhat pernicious activity. […]

Teens fail to consider ethics online According to an ongoing study from Harvard researcher Carrie James and her colleagues at the GoodPlay Project, today's internet-savvy "digital youth" lack moral and ethical judgment as well as consideration for others when surfing the Web. […] While […] parents […] probably won't consider the claim that children on the internet lack judgment abilities as groundbreaking, James sees the ethical lapse as an untapped opportunity for social change. James hopes to enable adults to facilitate an understanding of social media as not exclusively for fun and help children reconsider what she calls a "lack of efficacy" to change what they experience on the internet. […] Disponível em: <http://www.aolnews.com/2010/09/21/studies-suggest-its-complicated-when-it-comes-to-teens-and-on/>. Acesso em: 04 abr. 2013 (fragmento).

1. A internet trouxe inegáveis benefícios à sociedade atual, com acesso rápido à informação e novas formas de comunicação. Segundo o texto, a internet a. é maravilhosa e não tem desvantagens. b. é um ambiente amigável onde os adolescentes se sentem seguros. c. é assutadora para quem não sabe utilizá-la. d. pode ser utilizada como veículo de bullying e comentários maldosos. e. é povoada por pessoas antiéticas de todas as idades. 2. Com relação ao mundo virtual, o texto afirma que a. a ocorrência de crimes virtuais é facilitada pela possibilidade de comentários anônimos. b. alguns adolescentes agem de maneira antiética ao utilizarem a internet. c. comportamentos antiéticos na internet ainda não são devidamente punidos. d. a internet é amedrontadora, pois incentiva comportamentos perniciosos. e. os adolescentes sofrem menos bullying na internet que no mundo real. 3. C  arrie James e seus colegas de Harvard desenvolvem um projeto que estuda o comportamento de adolescentes na internet. De acordo com esse estudo, a “juventude digital”, quando navega na internet, a. tem conhecimento sobre a internet, mas não possui discernimento moral e ético. b. não tem maturidade para absorver a quantidade de informações veiculadas na rede. c. não possui discernimento moral e ético, mas demonstra consideração pelos outros. d. demonstra capacidade de julgar o que é ético ou não, mas não o faz deliberadamente. e. busca mais divertimento que informações culturais na internet. 4. De acordo com o texto, Carrie James a. acha que os pais dos adolescentes não ligam para o comportamento antiético de seus filhos na internet. b. considera que a mídia social não deve ser utilizada exclusivamente para diversão. c. considera a internet um meio ineficaz para educar adolescentes. d. acredita em uma mudança social motivada pela punição de adolescentes que agem de maneira antiética. e. propõe aos adolescentes que utilizem a internet por menos tempo diariamente.

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Calvin & Hobbes, Bill Watterson © 1993 Watterson / Dist. by Universal Uclick

Questão 7

Disponível em: <http://calvinandhobbes.wikia.com/wiki/File:SnowmanThe_Triumph_of_Perseverance.gif>. Acesso em: 10 abr. 2013.

1. Calvin diz a seu amigo Haroldo que está construindo uma escultura de neve. O tigre, ao perguntar sobre a escultura, no terceiro quadrinho, demonstra a. assombro. b. desprezo. c. interesse. d. desconfiança. e. orgulho. 2. O resultado final apresentado no último quadrinho a. revela o talento de Calvin como escultor. b. é uma homenagem do garoto a todos que triunfam. c. demonstra a força de vontade do menino em fazer um bom trabalho. d. deixou Calvin bastante satisfeito. e. gera um efeito de humor à tirinha. 3. Haroldo, ao constatar o resultado final, demonstra a. tristeza. b. compaixão. c. insatisfação. d. surpresa. e. contentamento.

PARTE II QUESTÕES DE VESTIBULAR Questão 8 / UFG (2011-2) The Newsweek magazine brings on the cover:

MAN UP! The Traditional Male Is an Endangered Species. It's Time to Rethink Masculinity. ROMANO, A.; DOKOUPIL, T. Men's Lib. Newsweek, New York, Sept. 27, 2010.

1. This traditional male is usually seen as someone who a. assumes girly jobs. b. raises his children on his own. c. refuses to do the housework. d. talks about his intimate feelings. e. discusses his role in the family.

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Questão 9 / UFBA (1ª FASE – 2009) Jerry King (www.CartoonStock.com)

1. São perguntas que encontram resposta no cartoon em destaque: a. How fit is Smith? b. Which floor is the office on? c. When does Smith have to get to work? d. Why can’t Smith use the elevator anymore? e. What does the other man in the picture tell Smith to do? f. How long does it take to climb the building and get to the office? g. Who asks Smith to use the stairs instead of the elevator?

KING. You’re out of shape, Smith. Disponível em: <http://www.cartoonstock.com>. Acesso em: 11 abr. 2013.

Questão 10 / UNIFESP (2012) Longevity: Habits May Extend Life Only So Much By Nicholas Bakalar August 8, 2011 The eating, drinking and exercise habits of extremely old but healthy people differ little from those of the rest of us, a new study has found. Gerontologists at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine recruited 477 Ashkenazi Jews ages 95 to 112 who were living independently. The researchers took blood samples, did physical examinations and obtained detailed personal and medical histories from each participant. Then they compared them with 1,374 non-Hispanic white adults, ages 65 to 74, from the general population. For both men and women, consumption of alcohol, amount of physical activity and the percentage of people on low-calorie or low-salt diets were almost identical in the two groups. Long-lived men were less likely to be obese than their younger counterparts, although no less likely to be overweight. The oldest women were more likely to be overweight and less likely to be obese. More men among the oldest were nonsmokers, but smoking habits were not significantly different among the women.

4

that it all depends on genes, and we might as well eat, drink and be merry? No, according to the senior

author, Dr. Nir Barzilai, director of the Institute for Aging Research at Albert Einstein College of Medicine. “For most of us who forth, you are

5

genes for longevity,” he said, “if you follow the healthy lifestyle the medical community has put

6

to live past 80.”

The study was published online last week in The Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. www.nytimes.com (adaptado).

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1. According to the text, a. independent elderly people are more likely to live more and in a healthy way. b. the research compared two groups: one of men aged from 95 to 112 and one of women aged from 65 to 74. c. the study concluded that extremely old people do not have significantly different eating, drinking and exercise habits from the rest of the population. d. women in the oldest group were more likely to be nonsmokers when compared to women in the 65 to 74 group. e. non-Hispanic white adults tend to live less than Ashkenazi Jews, probably because of their lifestyle. 2. Os homens que fizeram parte do grupo da faixa etária mais velha a. eram todos antitabagistas. b. apresentaram propensão à obesidade e ao sobrepeso. c. não consumiam bebidas alcoólicas e faziam dieta com restrição de calorias e de sal. d. não eram sedentários, mas também não praticavam exercícios físicos. e. apresentaram uma tendência ao sobrepeso semelhante à dos homens na faixa dos 65 a 74 anos. 3. No trecho do segundo parágrafo – Long-lived men were less likely to be obese than their younger counterparts, although no less likely to be overweight. – a palavra although pode ser substituída, sem alteração de sentido, por a. but. c. or. e. thus. b. so. d. since. Instrução: Assinale as alternativas que completam correta e respectivamente as lacunas numeradas no texto. 4. a. Do you talk

5. a. doesn’t express

6. a. less likely

b. Have they done

b. do not have

b. can’t like

c. Has it said

c. had been living

c. much more likely

d. Does this mean

d. shows

d. even more like

e. Is he showing

e. will present

e. least probable

Questão 11 / UNESP (2013) Analyze an advertisement Peter Sells Sierra Gonzalez Not all advertisements make perfect sense. Not all of them promote or imply acceptance of social values that everyone would agree are what we should hope for, in an enlightened and civilized society. Some advertisements appear to degrade our images of ourselves, our language, and appear to move the emphasis of interaction in our society to (even more) consumerism. There may even be a dark, seamy, or seedy side to advertising. This is hardly surprising, as our society is indeed a consumer society, and it is highly capitalistic in the simplest sense. There is no doubt that advertising promotes a consumer culture, and helps create and perpetuate the ideology that creates the apparent need for the products it markets. For our purposes here, none of this matters. Our task is to analyze advertisements, and to see if we can understand how they do what they do. We will leave the task of how we interpret our findings in the larger social, moral and cultural contexts for another occasion. It is often said that advertising is irrational, and, again, that may well be true. But this is where the crossover between information and persuasion becomes important; an advertisement does not have to be factually informative (but it cannot be factually misleading). In a discussion of what kind of benefit an advertisement might offer to a consumer, Jim Aitchison (1999) provides the following quote from Gary Goldsmith of Lowe & Partners, New York. It sums up perfectly what it is that one should look for in an advertisement. The question posed is “Is advertising more powerful if it offers a rational benefit?” Here is Goldsmith’s answer: “I don’t think you need to offer a rational benefit. I think you need to offer a benefit that a rational person can understand.” www.stanford.edu (adaptado).

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1. O principal objetivo do texto é analisar a. como muitos anúncios deixam de cumprir seu papel. b. como anúncios valorizam a imagem do consumidor. c. aspectos racionais e irracionais contidos em anúncios. d. anúncios e procurar entender como cumprem seu papel. e. elementos linguísticos e valores sociais em anúncios. 2. De acordo com o texto, a. alguns anúncios contêm elementos que supervalorizam o papel social da língua. b. alguns anúncios contêm elementos que podem denegrir a imagem do capitalismo. c. alguns anúncios possuem até mesmo um aspecto obscuro, um tanto sórdido. d. anúncios devem conter um apelo irracional aos benefícios do produto anunciado. e. anúncios não devem destacar benefícios ou valores sociais dos produtos anunciados. 3. A resposta à questão apresentada no último parágrafo do texto foi: a. benefícios racionais atenderão melhor às necessidades dos consumidores do produto anunciado. b. não se deve pensar nos benefícios de um produto anunciado de maneira capitalista e racional. c. anúncios precisam apresentar benefícios racionais, para que os consumidores possam entendê-los. d. benefícios do produto anunciado devem ser compreendidos por pessoas que desconhecem o produto. e. anúncios devem salientar qualidades de um produto que sejam entendidas de modo racional pelos consumidores. 4. O pronome it, utilizado na última linha do primeiro parágrafo, na frase for the products it markets, refere-se a. à necessidade da propaganda. b. à área de publicidade. c. à ideologia da propaganda. d. aos mercados consumidores. e. à cultura do consumismo. 5. A expressão none of this matters, no segundo parágrafo, refere-se a. às características de anúncios mencionadas no primeiro parágrafo. b. à falta de coerência e de sentido que certos anúncios podem conter. c. às características positivas de anúncios mencionadas no texto. d. à interpretação de anúncios de acordo com uma ideologia de consumo. e. aos valores culturais, morais e sociais que caracterizam um anúncio.

Questão 12 / UFG (2010) Leia o texto. S. Fred Singer has recently published a book, The Great Global Warming Swindle, based on sound science and interviews with real climate scientists. The main scientific argument presented in the book is that there is no proof that the current warming is caused by a rise of greenhouse gases from human activity. Ice core records from the past 650,000 years show that temperature increases have preceded – not resulted from – increases in CO2 by hundreds of years, suggesting that the warming of the oceans is an important source of the rise in atmospheric CO2. Disponível em: <http://www.ourcivilisation.com/aginatur/swindle.htm>. Acesso em: 30 set. 2009 (adaptado).

Glossary: swindle: farsa / sound: confiáveis 1. W  hich statement supports the argument presented in the book? a. The current warming is part of a natural cycle of climate warming and cooling. b. Carbon dioxide emissions should be controlled by rationing. c. Alternative energy helps to decrease greenhouse gases. d. The worst consequence of global warming will be the rise in sea level. e. Human activity has been the driving force in climate change over the last 50 years. EXAM PRACTICE

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Questão 13 / UnB (2º VESTIBULAR – 2012) The Festival of Lights (Divali) in Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago Hindu festivals, customs and traditions form an integral part of society and “Divali” is no exception. A large percentage of the population consists of ethnic Indians and many are Hindus. The celebration of “Divali” in Trinidad and Tobago is a national holiday with a significant amount of functions to celebrate the occasion. Recently the celebration has not only been extended to the homes and communities but organizations have also embraced this festival with special events held to commemorate it. This is evident in banks, schools and other organizations where members of staff organize “Divali” cultural programmes, dress in Indian ethnic wear and distribute sweets to their staff and customers. One of the highpoints of the celebrations is held at the Divali Nagar site which is the official headquarters of the National Council of Indian Culture. At the Nagar there is a week of cultural, religious, educational and commercial activities which attract a wide cross section of the population including members of government, diplomatic agencies and parliamentarians. Hindus in Trinidad and Tobago are also involved in cleaning and redecorating their homes for this auspicious occasion. They also maintain a period of abstinence or fasting. The day of “Divali” is marked with a host of activities in the homes where various dishes and sweets are prepared and “Pooja” is performed. Family members participate in evening worship at 6 o’clock to Mother Lakshmi, the Goddess of prosperity and wealth. They then light their homes with several dozens of “deyas” and distribute delicacies to their families, friends and the community. This sacred festival is known to bring about positive feelings to the community such as a sense of unity, cleanliness, harmony and festivity. www2.nalis.gov.tt (adaptado).

1. Based on the text, judge the items below. a. “Pooja” is an example of a sweet offered during “Divali”. b. In the last sentence of the text, “bring about” conveys the opposite idea of inhibit. c. B  esides “Divali”, other Hindu celebrations take place in Trinidad and Tobago. d. “Divali” has become increasingly popular in Trinidad and Tobago. e. Divali Nagar is the official webpage for “Divali”.

Questão 14 / FUVEST (1ª FASE - 2013) Missing Out: In Praise of the Unlived Life is Adam Phillips's 17th book and is a characteristic blend of literary criticism and philosophical reflection packaged around a central idea. The theme here is missed opportunities, roads not taken, alternative versions of our lives and ourselves, all of which, Phillips argues, exert a powerful hold over our imaginations. Using a series of examples and close readings of authors including Philip Larkin and Shakespeare, the book suggests that a broader understanding of life's inevitable disappointments and thwarted desires can enable us to live fuller, richer lives. Good things come to those who wait. Does he see himself as a champion of frustration? “I'm not on the side of frustration exactly, so much as the idea that one has to be able to bear frustration in order for satisfaction to be realistic. I'm interested in how the culture of consumer capitalism depends on the idea that we can't bear frustration, so that every time we feel a bit restless or bored or irritable, we eat, or we shop.” www.guardian.co.uk, 1 abr. 2013 (adaptado).

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1. Segundo o texto, o livro Missing Out: In Praise of the Unlived Life sugere que a. a fantasia deve se sobrepor a nossos planos de vida. b. uma compreensão maior das decepções e dos desejos não realizados pode nos ajudar a viver melhor. c. os relatos de vida dos escritores não nos servem de exemplo. d. um controle maior de nossa imaginação é importante para lidarmos com nossas frustrações. e. as oportunidades perdidas devem ser recuperadas para uma vida satisfatória. 2. No texto, em resposta à pergunta “Does he see himself as a champion of frustration?”, o autor do livro argumenta ser necessário que as pessoas a. tenham experiências satisfatórias para compreender a frustração. b. entendam cada vez mais a cultura capitalista de consumo. c. se distraiam fazendo compras quando estão irritadas. d. lidem com as frustrações para que suas satisfações sejam realistas. e. percebam o que as deixa frustradas no dia a dia.

OttoGraphic

Questão 15 / FUVEST (1ª FASE – 2010) Last month America’s unemployment rate climbed to 8.1%, the highest in a quarter of a century. For those newly out of a job, the chances of finding another soon are the worst since records began 50 years ago. In China 20m 05

migrant workers (maybe 3% of the labour force) have been laid off. Cambodia’s textile industry, its main source of exports, has cut one worker in ten. In Spain the building bust has pushed the jobless rate up by two-thirds in a year, to 14.8% in January. And in Japan, where

10

official unemployment used to be all but unknown, tens of thousands of people on temporary contracts are losing not just their jobs but also the housing provided by their employers. The next phase of the world’s economic downturn is

15

taking shape: a global jobs crisis. Its contours are only just becoming clear, but the severity, breadth and likely length of the recession, together with changes in the structure of labour markets in both rich and emerging economies, suggest the world is about to undergo its biggest increase

20

in unemployment for decades. The Economist, March 14th 2009.

www.guardian.co.uk, 1 jun. 2012 (adaptado).

1. De acordo com o texto, publicado em março de 2009, a. o aumento de postos de trabalho é vital para as economias emergentes. b. a crise mundial poderia afetar sobretudo os países mais pobres. c. a estrutura do mercado de trabalho vigente em países ricos é a principal responsável pela crise. d. o mundo poderia enfrentar a maior crise de desemprego das últimas décadas. e. a crise que a economia mundial vivencia vem sendo anunciada há décadas. EXAM PRACTICE

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2. Segundo o texto, no Japão, a. o número oficial de desempregados é desconhecido. b. milhares de pessoas estão perdendo seus empregos e sua moradia. c. grande parte dos trabalhadores possui contratos temporários de trabalho. d. os empregadores omitem o número de postos de trabalho porque muitos não são oficiais. e. os desempregados estão lutando para manter suas casas. 3. O pronome “another” (L. 3) na sentença “...the chances of finding another...” refere-se a a. país. b. trabalhador. c. emprego. d. oportunidade. e. recorde.

Questão 16 / UNIFESP (2011) To Scientists, Laughter Is No Joke - It’s Serious March 31, 2010. So a scientist walks into a shopping mall to watch people laugh. There’s no punchline. Laughter is a serious scientific subject, one that researchers are still trying to figure out. Laughing is primal, our first way of communicating. Apes laugh. So do dogs and rats. Babies laugh long before they speak. No one teaches you how to laugh. You just do. And often you laugh involuntarily, in a specific rhythm and in certain spots in conversation. You may laugh at a prank on April Fools’ Day. But surprisingly, only 10 to 15 percent of laughter is the result of someone making a joke, said Baltimore neuroscientist Robert Provine, who has studied laughter for decades. Laughter is mostly about social responses rather than reaction to a joke. “Laughter above all else is a social thing,’’ Provine said. “The requirement for laughter is another person.’’ Over the years, Provine, a professor with the University of Maryland Baltimore County, has boiled laughter down to its basics. “All language groups laugh ‘ha-ha-ha’ basically the same way,’’ he said. “Whether you speak Mandarin, French or English, everyone will understand laughter. [...] There’s a pattern generator in our brain that produces this sound.’’ Each “ha’’ is about one-15th of a second, repeated every fifth of a second, he said. Laugh faster or slower than that and it sounds more like panting or something else. Deaf people laugh without hearing, and people on cell phones laugh without seeing, illustrating that laughter isn’t dependent on a single sense but on social interactions, said Provine, author of the book “Laughter: A Scientific Investigation.’’ “It’s joy, it’s positive engagement with life,’’ said Jaak Panksepp, a Bowling Green University psychology professor. “It’s deeply social.’’ And it’s not just a people thing either. Chimps tickle each other and even laugh when another chimp pretends to tickle them. By studying rats, Panksepp and other scientists can figure out what’s going on in the brain during laughter. And it holds promise for human ills. Northwestern biomedical engineering professor Jeffrey Burgdorf has found that laughter in rats produces an insulin-like growth factor chemical that acts as an antidepressant and anxiety-reducer. He thinks the same thing probably happens in humans, too. This would give doctors a new chemical target in the brain in their effort to develop drugs that fight depression and anxiety in people. Even so, laughter itself hasn’t been proven to be the best medicine, experts said. www.nytimes.com (adaptado).

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1. Segundo o texto, a risada a. foi estudada pelos cientistas em locais com aglomeração de gente. b. só é prontamente entendida entre falantes do mesmo grupo linguístico. c. agrega diversos sentidos, como visão e audição, para ser comunicada. d. já foi estudada por cientistas das principais universidades do mundo. e. é uma resposta social, que pode ser observada em alguns animais. 2. According to the text, a. chimpanzees have the same laughing pattern as humans. b. one responds to laughing if people around are laughing too. c. laughter is prompted mostly by a joke or a trick. d. both Provine and Panksepp agree that laughter is a social response. e. children laugh as soon as they start learning a language. 3. Jeffrey Burgdorf discovered that a. rats that laugh grow bigger. b. there is a chemical produced in the body by laughter in rats. c. people who laugh a lot are less prone to anxiety and depression. d. benefits produced by laughter are better than many medicines. e. all animals that laugh feel better. 4. The excerpt of the first paragraph – You just do. – means that a. people simply laugh. b. you laugh because you learned it. c. people laugh involuntarily. d. you started laughing since you were a baby. e. people laugh the same way. 5. No trecho do terceiro parágrafo – Whether you speak Mandarin, French or English, everyone will understand laughter. – a palavra whether pode ser substituída, sem alteração de sentido, por a. Whatsoever. b. In due time. c. Nevertheless. d. No matter if. e. Furthermore. 6. No trecho do quarto parágrafo – Laugh faster or slower than that and it sounds more like panting or something else. – a palavra like indica a. preferência. b. probabilidade. c. semelhança. d. condição. e. ênfase.

EXAM PRACTICE

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Questão 17 / UFPB (2013) Read the text below and answer questions 1 to 5, according to it.

01

04

The road to resilience How do people deal with difficult events that change their lives? The death of a loved one, loss of a job, serious illness, terrorist attacks and other traumatic events: these are all examples of very challenging life experiences. Many people react to such circumstances with a flood of strong emotions and a sense of uncertainty. Yet people generally adapt well over time to life-changing situations and stressful conditions. What enables them to do so? It involves resilience, an ongoing process that requires time and effort and engages people in taking a number of steps.

08

12

16

Resilience is the process of adapting well in the face of adversity, trauma, tragedy, threats, or even significant sources of stress – such as family and relationship problems, serious health problems, or workplace and financial stressors. It means “bouncing back” from difficult experiences. Research has shown that resilience is ordinary, not extraordinary. People commonly demonstrate resilience. One example is the response of many Americans to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks and individuals’ efforts to rebuild their lives. Being resilient does not mean that a person doesn’t experience difficulty or distress. Emotional pain and sadness are common in people who have suffered major adversity or trauma in their lives. In fact, the road to resilience is likely to involve considerable emotional distress. Resilience is not a trait that people either have or do not have. It involves behaviours, thoughts, and actions that can be learned and developed in anyone.

20

A combination of factors contributes to resilience. Many studies show that the primary factor in resilience is having caring and supportive relationships within and outside the family. Relationship that create love and trust, provide role models, and other encouragement and reassurance help support a person’s resilience.

Disponível em: <http//apa.org/helpcenter/road-resilience.aspx.>. Acesso em: 26 mar. 2012 (texto adaptado).

1. According to the text, resilience means a. treating well serious diseases.

d. dealing well with all sorts of problems.

b. engaging in stressful situations.

e. going on a process of financial difficulties.

c. showing an attitude of resignation. 2. According to the text, in the road to resilience a person a. faces no type of distress.

d. builds a sense of uncertainty.

b. retains traumatic thoughts.

e. develops an aggressive behaviour.

c. makes effort to reconstruct life. 3. According to the text, many factors support a person’s resilience, but the principal one is having a. personal care.

c. financial success.

b. self confidence.

d. caring relationships.

e. professional encouragement.

4. In the sentence “It involves behaviours, thoughts, and actions that can be learned and developed in anyone” (lines 17 - 18), the modal verb can indicates a. ability.

c. advisability.

b. possibility.

d. necessity.

e. predictability.

5. In the sentence “Yet people generally adapt well over time to life-changing situations and stressful conditions” (line 5), the word yet expresses the idea of a. contrast.

c. conclusion.

b. addition.

d. comparison.

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e. consequence.

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SIGLAS UFG – Universidade Federal de Goiás

UnB – Universidade de Brasília

UFBA – Universidade Federal da Bahia

Fuvest – Fundação Universitária para o Vestibular

Unifesp – Universidade Federal de São Paulo

UFPB – Universidade Federal da Paraíba

Unesp – Universidade Estadual Paulista

ANSWER KEY PARTE I / Simulados do ENEM Questão 1 1–b 2–c 3–b

2–e 3–a 4–d 5–b 6–c

Questão 2 1–e 2–d 3–c

Questão 11 1–d 2–c 3–e 4–b 5–a

Questão 3 1–c 2–b 3–d Questão 4 1–d 2–e 3–b Questão 5 1–d 2–c 3–b 4–a Questão 6 1–d 2–b 3–a 4–b Questão 7 1–c 2–e 3–d PARTE II / Questões de Vestibular Questão 8 1–c Questão 9 1 – a; d; e; g Questão 10 1–c

Questão 12 1–a Questão 13 a – errado b – certo c – certo d – certo e – errado Questão 14 1–b 2–d Questão 15 1–d 2–b 3–c Questão 16 1–e 2–d 3–b 4–a 5–d 6–c Questão 17 1–d 2–c 3–d 4–b 5–a

EXAM PRACTICE

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IRREGULAR VERBS Infinitive

Past

Past Participle

Translation

Infinitive

Past

Past Participle

Translation

be

was / were

been

ser, estar

eat

ate

eaten

comer

beat

beat

beaten

vencer, superar, bater

fall

fell

fallen

cair, baixar

become

became

become

tornar-se, ficar

feed

fed

fed

alimentar

begin

began

begun

começar

feel

felt

felt

sentir

bite

bit

bitten

morder, picar

fight

fought

fought

brigar, lutar

bleed

bled

bled

sangrar

find

found

found

encontrar

blow

blew

blown

soprar

flee

fled

fled

fugir

break

broke

broken

quebrar, partir

fly

flew

flown

voar

breed

bred

bred

criar (animais), cultivar (plantas)

forbid

forbade

forbidden

proibir

bring

brought

brought

trazer

forget

forgot

forgotten

esquecer

broadcast

broadcast

broadcast

transmitir (por rádio ou TV)

forgive

forgave

forgiven

perdoar

build

built

built

construir

freeze

froze

frozen

congelar

burn

burnt / burned

burnt / burned

queimar

get

got

got / gotten

receber, obter, conseguir

buy

bought

bought

comprar

give

gave

given

dar

catch

caught

caught

pegar, agarrar

go

went

gone

ir

choose

chose

chosen

escolher

grow

grew

grown

crescer

come

came

come

vir, chegar

hang

hung

hung

pendurar

cost

cost

cost

custar

have

had

had

ter

cut

cut

cut

cortar

hear

heard

heard

ouvir

deal

dealt

dealt

tratar de, lidar

hide

hid

hid / hidden

esconder(-se)

dig

dug

dug

cavar, escavar

hit

hit

hit

bater

do

did

done

fazer

hold

held

held

segurar

draw

drew

drawn

desenhar

hurt

hurt

hurt

machucar

dream

dreamed / dreamt

dreamed / dreamt

sonhar

keep

kept

kept

manter, continuar

drink

drank

drunk

beber

know

knew

known

saber, conhecer

drive

drove

driven

dirigir

lay

laid

laid

colocar, pôr

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IRREGULAR VERBS

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Infinitive

Past

Past Participle

Translation

Infinitive

Past

Past Participle

Translation

lead

led

led

levar, conduzir

shine

shone

shone

brilhar

learn

learned / learnt

learned / learnt

aprender

shoot

shot

shot

disparar

leave

left

left

sair, deixar

show

showed

shown

mostrar

lend

lent

lent

emprestar

shut

shut

shut

fechar

let

let

let

deixar, permitir

sing

sang

sung

cantar

lie

lay

lain

deitar-se

sink

sank

sunk

afundar

lose

lost

lost

perder

sit

sat

sat

sentar-se

make

made

made

fazer

sleep

slept

slept

dormir

mean

meant

meant

significar, pretender

speak

spoke

spoken

falar

meet

met

met

encontrar

spend

spent

spent

gastar

overcome

overcame

overcome

superar

stand

stood

stood

ficar em pĂŠ

pay

paid

paid

pagar

steal

stole

stolen

roubar

put

put

put

colocar

strike

struck

struck

atingir, ficar impressionado

quit

quit

quit

largar, desistir

swear

swore

sworn

jurar

read

read

read

ler

swim

swam

swum

nadar

ride

rode

ridden

montar, cavalgar

take

took

taken

pegar, tomar, levar

ring

rang

rung

tocar, soar

teach

taught

taught

ensinar

rise

rose

risen

levantar-se, aumentar

tear

tore

torn

rasgar

run

ran

run

correr

tell

told

told

dizer

say

said

said

dizer

think

thought

thought

pensar

see

saw

seen

ver

throw

threw

thrown

jogar, arremessar

seek

sought

sought

procurar

understand

understood

understood

entender

sell

sold

sold

vender

wake

woke

woken

acordar, despertar

send

sent

sent

enviar

wear

wore

worn

vestir

set

set

set

pĂ´r, arrumar

win

won

won

vencer

shake

shook

shaken

sacudir, agitar

write

wrote

written

escrever

IRREGULAR VERBS

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GLOSSARY Abbreviations adj. = adjective / adjective phrase adv. = adverb / adverbial phrase conj. = conjunction exclam.= exclamation m.v. = multi-word verb

A

n. = noun / noun phrase phr. = phrase prep.= preposition / prepositional phrase pron. = pronoun v. = verb

art gallery (n.)

galeria de arte, museu de belas-artes

abusivo(a), insultuoso(a)

articulate (adj.)

bem articulado(a), eloquente

realização

ashamed (adj.)

envergonhado(a)

ache (n.)

dor

assertive (adj.)

autoconfiante, decidido(a)

achieve (v.)

alcançar, conseguir

assignment (n.)

dever de casa, trabalho

achievement (n.)

façanha, conquista

availability (n.)

disponibilidade

acting (n.)

representação, encenação

available (adj.)

disponível

activist (n.)

ativista, militante

average (adj.)

médio(a)

add (v.)

adicionar, somar

avoid (v.)

evitar

address (v.)

dirigir-se a

award (n.; v.)

prêmio; premiar, conceder

advertise (v.)

anunciar

aware (adj.)

ciente, informado

advice (n.)

conselho

awareness (n.)

consciência

advice column (n.)

coluna de aconselhamento

awe-inspiring (adj.)

inspirador(a), imponente

advise (v.)

aconselhar

affect (v.)

afetar

awesome (adj.)

incrível, impressionante, maravilhoso(a)

affection (n.)

afeto, carinho

awful (adj.)

horrível

afraid (adj.)

amedrontado(a)

agency (n.)

agência, órgão

B

agent (n.)

representante, agente

backache (n.)

dor nas costas

AIDS (abbreviation)

síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida (SIDA)

balloon (n.)

balão de fala

barber (n.)

barbeiro

airborne (adj.)

transportado pelo ar

battle (n.)

batalha, luta

allow (v.)

deixar, permitir

become (v.)

tornar-se

alone (adj.)

sozinho(a)

behavior (n.)

comportamento

ambulatory (n.)

ambulatório

behind (prep.)

atrás de

amount (n.)

quantia, quantidade

belief (n.)

crença, convicção

amphibian (n.)

anfíbio

belong (v.)

pertencer

angry (adj.)

zangado(a)

bestow (v.)

dar, entregar, conceder

anonymous (adj.)

anônimo(a)

betray (v.)

trair, atraiçoar

apothecary (n.)

farmacêutico(a), boticário(a)

bill (n.)

nota, cédula, conta

appeal (n.)

apelo, atrativo

billboard (n.)

cartaz grande, outdoor

appealing (adj.)

atraente

biodegradable (adj.)

biodegradável

appear (v.)

parecer, aparecer

birth (n.)

nascimento, origem

apply (v.)

usar, empregar, pôr em prática

blacksmith (n.)

ferreiro(a)

appointment (n.)

encontro, compromisso, hora marcada

blame (v.)

culpar, responsabilizar

blind (adj.)

cego(a)

argue (v.)

brigar, discutir

block (n.)

quadra, quarteirão

armor (n.)

armadura

blood pressure (n.)

pressão sanguínea

arrangement (n.)

acordo, combinação

blow (v.)

soprar

arrest (v.)

aprisionar, deter, prender

breadwinner (n.)

arrimo de família

abolish (v.)

abolir

abusive (adj.) accomplishment (n.)

146

GLOSSARY

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bribe (n.)

suborno

commit (v.)

empenhar-se, comprometer-se

brief (adj.)

rápido(a), breve, curto(a)

committed (adj.)

leal, comprometido(a)

brightly colored (adj.)

de cor viva

competency (n.)

competência

brochure (n.)

folheto, prospecto, panfleto

competent (adj.)

competente, satisfatório(a)

broom (n.)

vassoura

complain (v.)

reclamar, queixar-se

build up (m. v.)

aumentar, desenvolver

compromise (n.)

acordo, concessão

building (n.)

prédio

concerned (adj.)

preocupado(a), interessado(a)

bulletin (n.)

boletim de ocorrência

conciliation (n.)

conciliação

bus (n.)

ônibus

condition (n.)

doença, problema, condição

busking (n.)

atividade de tocar, cantar ou dançar nas ruas em troca de dinheiro

conductor (n.)

condutor

conflict (n.)

conflito

button (n.)

botão, tecla

conscience (n.)

consciência

by accident (adv.)

por acaso, ao acaso

construction worker (n.)

trabalhador(a) da construção civil

consultant (n.)

consultor(a)

C cable car (n.)

teleférico, bondinho

consumption (n.)

consumo

campaign (n.)

campanha

container (n.)

recipiente, contêiner

candle (n.)

vela

content (adj.)

satisfeito(a)

candy bar (n.)

barra de chocolate

cook (n.)

cozinheiro(a)

cap (n.)

boné

costume (n.)

fantasia

caption (n.)

legenda

cough (n.)

tosse

caregiver (n.)

cuidador(a)

couple (n.)

casal

carpenter (n.)

carpinteiro(a)

courage (n.)

coragem

car rental (n.)

aluguel de carro

cashier (n.)

caixa, encarregado do caixa

cover (n., v.)

capa de livro; cobrir a superfície de

catch (v.)

pegar, flagrar, surpreender

co-worker (n.)

colega de trabalho

century (n.)

século

craft (n.)

artesanato

ceramics (n.)

cerâmica

create (v.)

criar

change (n.)

troco

creed (n.)

credo, crença

charity (n.)

caridade

crew (n.)

equipe

chauvinism (n.)

chauvinismo

crisis (n.)

crise

cheat (v.)

colar (em prova), enganar, trapacear

critic (n.)

crítico(a)

cruelty (n.)

crueldade

chef (n.)

cozinheiro-chefe, cozinheira-chefe

cry (v.)

chorar

current (adj.)

atual, corrente

chess (n.)

xadrez

chew (v.)

mastigar, mascar

cyber security specialist (n.)

especialista em segurança cibernética

childhood (n.)

infância

choice (n.)

escolha

D

choose (v.)

escolher

dangerous (adj.)

perigoso(a)

civil rights (n.)

direitos civis

date (n.)

data, encontro

clearly (adv.)

obviamente, claramente

deadly (adj.)

letal, mortal

clergy (n.)

clero

deaf (adj.)

surdo(a)

clever (adj.)

inteligente, esperto(a)

death (n.)

morte

climb (v.)

subir, escalar

debt (n.)

dívida

cloth (n.)

tecido, pano

decade (n.)

década

coal (n.)

carvão

deceive (v.)

enganar, iludir

cockroach (n.)

barata

decompose (v.)

decompor-se

collage (n.)

colagem

decrease (n.)

redução, queda

colleague (n.)

colega de trabalho

collect (v.)

recolher, juntar, colecionar

deforestation (n.)

desmatamento, desflorestamento

column (n.)

coluna

degree (n.)

grau, diploma

GLOSSARY

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dehydration (n.)

desidratação

ethical (adj.)

ético(a)

demand (n.)

exigência

ethics (n.)

ética

deny (v.)

negar

evaluate (v.)

avaliar

depict (v.)

retratar, descrever

evaporation (n.)

evaporação

derive (v.)

derivar-se de

evil (n.)

mal, maldade

desire (n.)

desejo

exhibition (n.)

exposição, exibição

deteriorate (v.)

deteriorar-se

expedition (n.)

expedição

detour (n.)

desvio

expense (n.)

despesa

diagnostic kit (n.)

kit de diagnóstico

experimental (adj.)

experimental

diaper (n.)

fralda

exploit (v.)

explorar

discriminate (v.)

discriminar

exposed (adj.)

exposto(a)

discrimination (n.)

discriminação

exposure (n.)

exposição

disrespectful (adj.)

desrespeitoso(a)

eye-catching (adj.)

chamativo(a)

distinctive (adj.)

inconfundível, característico(a)

distinguishable (adj.)

distinguível, perceptível

F

diversity (n.)

diversidade

factor (n.)

fator

double room (n.)

quarto de casal

failure (n.)

fracasso, falha

downturn (n.)

declínio

fair (n.)

feira

drawing (n.)

desenho

fall apart (v.)

desmanchar-se, desmoronar

driver (n.)

motorista

fall asleep (phr.)

dormir, adormecer

driving license (n.)

carteira de motorista

famine (n.)

fome, inanição

drop (v.)

deixar cair

fancy (adj.)

extravagante

due to (prep.)

devido a, por causa de

fancy dress (n.)

fantasia

duty (n.)

dever, obrigação

fashion industry (n.)

indústria da moda

fatigue (n.)

cansaço, fadiga

fear (n.)

medo, temor

fellow (n.)

companheiro(a)

female (adj.; n.)

feminina, do sexo feminino; fêmea, mulher

E earache (n.)

dor de ouvido

eastern (adj.)

oriental, do leste

eccentric (adj.)

excêntrico(a)

ecologist (n.)

ecologista

feminism (n.)

feminismo

economist (n.)

economista

feminist (n.)

feminista

economy (n.)

economia

fever (n.)

febre

ecosystem (n.)

ecossistema

fill in (v.)

preencher

effort (n.)

esforço

filmmaker (n.)

cineasta

effortlessly (adv.)

sem esforço

finance (n.)

finanças

egalitarian (adj.)

igualitário(a)

fine (v.)

multar

election (n.)

eleição

finely (adv.)

finamente

eliminate (v.)

eliminar

fingerprint (n.)

impressão digital

embarrassing (adj.)

embaraçoso(a)

fireworks (n.)

fogos de artifício

emphasize (v.)

enfatizar, acentuar

first-class (adj.)

de primeira classe

employee (n.)

empregado(a), funcionário(a)

firsthand (adv.)

de primeira mão

enable (v.)

permitir, tornar possível

flat (adj.)

plano(a)

encounter (v.)

encontrar, topar com

flight (n.)

voo

encourage (v.)

encorajar, incentivar

float (v.)

flutuar, boiar

encyclopedia (n.)

enciclopédia

flu shot (n.)

vacina da gripe

engaging (adj.)

atrativo(a), cativante

fluid (n.)

líquido

engineer (n.)

engenheiro(a)

folder (n.)

folheto

entertain (v.)

entreter, divertir

follow (v.)

seguir, acompanhar

environmental issue (n.)

questão ambiental

font (n.)

fonte

envy (v.)

invejar

footprint (n.)

pegada

epidemic (n.)

epidemia

foreign (adj.)

estrangeiro(a)

equal (adj.)

igual

forest (n.)

floresta, mata, selva

eradication (n.)

erradicação

fortune (n.)

sorte

148

GLOSSARY

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forward (adv.)

para a frente

homeless (adj.)

sem-teto

freedom (n.)

liberdade

honor (v.)

honrar

fridge (n.)

refrigerador, geladeira

hope (n.)

esperança

friendship (n.)

amizade

huge (adj.)

enorme, imenso(a)

fringe benefits (n.)

benefícios adicionais

human resources (n.)

recursos humanos

fuel (n.)

combustível

humanist (n.)

humanista

full moon (n.)

lua cheia

humorous (adj.)

engraçado(a), espirituoso(a)

full-time (adj.)

de tempo integral

hurry (n.)

pressa

fully (adv.)

totalmente, plenamente

hygiene (n.)

higiene

furious (adj.)

furioso(a)

I G gambling (n.)

jogo (de azar)

I’m afraid I disagree. (phr.)

Sinto muito, mas eu discordo.

garbage (n.)

lixo, sobras, restos

illness (n.)

doença

gas station (n.)

posto de gasolina

immunity (n.)

imunidade

gathering (n.)

encontro, reunião

impairment (n.)

deficiência, debilitamento

gender (n.)

gênero

impediment (n.)

defeito, empecilho

generator (n.)

gerador

implementation (n.)

implementação

genetic counselor (n.)

conselheiro(a) genético(a)

improvement (n.)

melhora, melhoria

gesture (n.)

gesto

in advance (phr.)

antecipado, com antecedência

get stuck (phr.)

ficar preso(a)

income (n.)

renda, rendimentos

gift (n.)

dom

indoor (adj.)

interno(a), de dentro de casa

girlie (adj.)

de menina, de mocinha

inertness (n.)

inércia

infection (n.)

infecção

infectious (adj.)

contagioso(a) influência

give sth up / up sth (m. v.)

desistir, abandonar

glacier (n.)

geleira

influence (n.)

glasses (n.)

óculos

inland (adv.)

em direção ao interior

gorgeous (adj.)

deslumbrante, maravilhoso(a)

gradually (adv.)

gradualmente, aos poucos

in-laws (n.)

parentes por afinidade (ex. sogros)

graduate (n.; v.)

formando(a); graduar-se

insect repellent (n.)

repelente de inseto

graduation party (n.)

festa de formatura

inside (prep.)

dentro de

graffiti (n.)

grafite

insomnia (n.)

insônia

graph (n.)

gráfico

inspiring (adj.)

inspirador(a)

graphic design (n.)

design gráfico

internship (n.)

estágio

gratitude (n.)

gratidão

interrupt (v.)

interromper

grid (n.)

grade

intersection (n.)

cruzamento (de ruas)

grow up (m. v.)

crescer

interview (n.)

entrevista

guest (n.)

convidado(a)

interviewer (n.)

entrevistador(a)

intimately (adv.)

intimamente

invitation (n.)

convite

cabeleireiro(a)

involvement (n.)

envolvimento

hamlet (n.)

vila, aldeia, povoado

irrelevant (adj.)

irrelevante

hang (v.)

pendurar

harm (v.)

prejudicar, causar dano

headache (n.)

dor de cabeça

headline (n.)

manchete

health (n.)

H hairdresser (n.)

J jail (n.; v.)

cadeia, prisão; prender, aprisionar

saúde

janitor (n.)

zelador(a)

health care (n.)

assistência médica

job market (n.)

mercado de trabalho

heavy (adj.)

pesado(a)

join (v.)

associar-se, ingressar

herbs (n.)

ervas

joint (n.)

articulação, junta

hide (v.)

esconder

journalist (n.)

jornalista

high (adj.; adv.)

alto(a)

judgement (n.)

discernimento, julgamento

hold (v.)

conter, deter, reter

jump queues (phr.)

furar fila

GLOSSARY

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junk food (n.)

comida pronta de baixo valor nutritivo

K

matchmaking (n.)

promoção de encontros de par perfeito

means (n.)

meios

meanwhile (adv.)

enquanto isso, simultaneamente

keep (v.)

manter, ficar

key skill (n.)

habilidade essencial

measure (n.)

medida

kidnapper (n.)

sequestrador(a)

measurement (n.)

medida

knight (n.)

cavaleiro

medication (n.)

medicação

melt (v.)

derreter

men (n.)

homens

L lack (n.)

falta, carência

messenger (n.)

mensageiro(a)

lake (n.)

lago

Middle Ages (n.)

Idade Média

landscape (n.)

paisagem

minor (adj.)

pequeno(a), secundário(a)

lantern (n.)

lanterna, lampião

minstrel (n.)

menestrel

last (v.)

durar

miss (v.)

perder, sentir falta

lately (adv.)

recentemente, ultimamente

mission (n.)

missão

laugh (v.)

rir

law (n.)

lei

mobile application developer (n.)

criador de aplicativos móveis

lawyer (n.)

advogado(a)

monk (n.)

monge

lead (v.)

levar, conduzir, liderar

moon (n.)

lua

lecturer (n.)

conferencista, palestrante

motion (n.)

movimento

lend (v.)

emprestar

motivational (adj.)

motivacional

lentil (n.)

lentilha

mouth (n.)

boca

lethal (adj.)

letal

lie (n.; v.)

mentira; mentir

multitasking (n.)

habilidade de executar várias tarefas ao mesmo tempo

life expectancy (n.)

expectativa de vida

murder (v.)

assassinar

light bulb (n.)

lâmpada

muscle (n.)

músculo

like (prep.)

como, igual a

musician (n.)

músico(a), musicista

likelihood (n.)

probabilidade

mute (adj.)

mudo(a)

limo (limousine) (n.)

limusine

litter (n.)

lixo

N

livestock (n.)

gado

neighborhood (n.)

vizinhança

logging (n.)

corte e transporte de toras

long-term (adj.)

a longo prazo

network (n.)

rede de contatos, rede de computadores

low (adj.)

baixo(a)

northeast (adj.)

nordeste

lymph node (n.)

linfonodo

northern (adj.)

do norte

novel (n.)

romance

nurse (n.)

enfermeiro(a)

M macho (adj.)

macho, viril, corajoso

nurture (v.)

criar, cultivar

magma (n.)

magma

nutritionist (n.)

nutricionista

major (v.)

graduar-se em

male (adj.; n.)

masculino, do sexo masculino; macho, homem

O obligation (n.)

obrigação, dever

mammal (n.)

mamífero

occupation (n.)

ocupação, profissão

man (n.)

homem

offensive (adj.)

ofensivo(a), agressivo(a)

management (n.)

gerenciamento

official (n.)

autoridade, dirigente

manager (n.)

gerente

omit (v.)

omitir

manners (n.)

modos

on behalf of (prep.)

em nome de

marathon (n.)

maratona

on the left (adv.)

à esquerda

march (v.)

marchar, desfilar

opening (n.)

vaga, abertura, inauguração

mask (n.)

máscara

opportunity (n.)

oportunidade

master (n.; v.)

mestre, senhor; dominar

ordinary (adj.)

comum, usual

150

GLOSSARY

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organic food farmer (n.)

fazendeiro(a) de alimentos orgânicos

power (n.)

poder

praise (n.)

elogio

organization (n.)

organização

prediction (n.)

previsão

outdoors (adv.)

ao ar livre, do lado de fora

pregnant (adj.)

grávida

outlook (n.)

ponto de vista

prejudiced (adj.)

preconceituoso(a)

overcome (v.)

superar, vencer

press (v.)

pressionar, apertar

overpopulated (adj.)

superpovoado(a)

prevent (v.)

evitar, impedir, prevenir

owner (n.)

dono(a), proprietário(a)

prevention (n.)

prevenção

priceless (adj.)

inestimável, que não tem preço

principal (n.)

diretor(a) de escola

P pace (n.)

passo, ritmo

principle (n.)

princípio

package tour (n.)

pacote de viagem

priority (n.)

prioridade

pain (n.)

dor

privilege (n.)

privilégio

painting (n.)

pintura, quadro

privileged (adj.)

privilegiado(a)

panel (n.)

painel

proceed (v.)

prosseguir, continuar, dirigir-se

parade (n.)

parada, desfile

profile (n.)

perfil

parenthood (n.)

paternidade ou maternidade

promote (v.)

promover

parking (n.)

estacionamento, lugar para estacionar

proud (adj.)

orgulhoso(a)

provide (v.)

fornecer, prover

part-time (adj.)

de meio período, de meio expediente

province (n.)

província

passenger (n.)

passageiro(a)

public health system (n.)

sistema público de saúde

passerby (n.)

transeunte

passion (n.)

paixão

pull strings (phr.)

usar pistolões, mexer os pauzinhos

password (n.)

senha

punctual (adj.)

pontual

pasture (n.)

pasto

pupil (n.)

aluno(a), pupilo(a)

patrol (n.)

patrulha, ronda

purchase (n.)

aquisição, compra

pattern (n.)

padrão

purpose (n.)

objetivo, propósito

payment (n.)

pagamento

peace (n.)

paz

Q

peasant (n.)

camponês(esa)

qualification (n.)

certificado, diploma, requisito

performance (n.)

apresentação, atuação, desempenho

quality (n.)

qualidade

quarrel (v.)

brigar, discutir

persuasive (adj.)

persuasivo(a), convincente

quick (adj.)

rápido(a)

pharmaceuticals (n.)

medicamentos

quickly (adv.)

rapidamente

pick sb / sth up (m. v.)

pegar

pill (n.)

comprimido, pílula

R

place of birth (n.)

naturalidade, local de nascimento

race (n.)

raça

rainy (adj.)

chuvoso(a)

pleased (adj.)

contente, feliz, satisfeito(a)

pleasure (n.)

prazer

raise (v.)

criar (filhos, animais), aumentar, promover, incrementar

plug sth in / in sth (m. v.)

ligar (na tomada)

rash (adj.; n.)

precipitado(a); erupção cutânea, brotoeja

pocket (v.)

embolsar

rate (n.)

taxa, índice

police station (n.)

delegacia de polícia

reach (n.)

alcance

policy-making (n.)

formulação de políticas

realize (v.)

perceber, dar-se conta

polite (adj.)

educado(a), cortês

receive (v.)

receber

politician (n.)

político(a)

recession (n.)

recessão

poor (adj.)

pobre, fraco(a)

recover (v.)

recuperar-se

post office (n.)

correios

recreation (n.)

recreação

potted (adj.)

(planta) de vaso

redefine (v.)

redefinir

poverty (n.)

pobreza

rediscover (v.)

redescobrir

GLOSSARY

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rehearse (v.)

ensaiar

shaky (adj.)

instável, fraco(a)

reinforce (v.)

reforçar

share (n.; v.)

parte; dividir, repartir

release (v.)

libertar

shock (n.)

choque

relevant (adj.)

relevante, pertinente

short (adj.)

curto(a), baixo(a)

relief camp (n.)

campo de desabrigados

shout (v.)

gritar

remain (v.)

permanecer

side (n.)

lado, beira

remove (v.)

retirar, remover

sight (n.)

visão, vista

renowned (adj.)

renomado(a), famoso(a)

sightseeing (n.)

turismo, excursão

report (v.)

relatar, reportar

sign (v.)

assinar

reptile (n.)

réptil

signature (n.)

assinatura

request (v.)

pedir, solicitar

significant (adj.)

significativo(a), importante

requirement (n.)

exigência, requisito

similarity (n.)

semelhança

research (n.)

pesquisa

single room (n.)

quarto de solteiro

resent (v.)

ressentir-se de

skill (n.)

habilidade, destreza

resident (n.)

morador(a), residente

skilled (adj.)

qualificado(a)

resistance (n.)

resistência

skin (n.)

pele

résumé (n.)

currículo

skip (v.)

pular

retail (n.)

varejo

retirement (n.)

aposentadoria

slippery (adj.)

escorregadio(a), escorregadiço(a)

reverse (n.)

reverso, contrário

slow (adj.)

lento(a)

revolution (n.)

revolução

sneak a peek (phr.)

dar uma espiada

reward (v.)

recompensar

soaked (adj.)

encharcado(a)

rhyme (v.)

rimar

social issues (n.)

questões sociais

ride (n.)

passeio, carona

society (n.)

sociedade, associação

ring (v.)

tocar, repercutir, vibrar

sore throat (n.)

dor de garganta

rise (n.; v.)

ascensão; aumentar, ascender, subir

soul (n.)

alma

soy (n.)

soja

rise up (m. v.)

elevar-se, levantar-se

spare (v.)

dispensar

rob (v.)

roubar

speech (n.)

discurso

robot (n.)

robô

speed up (m. v.)

acelerar, andar mais depressa

role (n.)

papel, função

spelling (n.)

ortografia

root (n.)

raiz

spend (v.)

gastar (dinheiro), passar (tempo)

row (n.)

fila, fileira

spoil (v.)

estragar

rule (n.)

regra

spread (v.)

espalhar-se, alastrar-se

spring (n.)

primavera

staff (n.)

quadro de funcionários, equipe

S sailor (n.)

marinheiro(a)

standard (n.)

padrão, nível

salary (n.)

salário

standing (adj.)

em pé

sales (n.)

vendas

statesman (n.)

estadista

sales assistant (n.)

assistente de vendas

steal (v.)

roubar

sample (n.)

amostra

save (v.)

economizar, guardar, salvar

stem cell researcher (n.)

pesquisador(a) de células-tronco

scribe (n.)

escriba

step on sth (v.)

pisar em alguma coisa

sculpture (n.)

escultura

stigma (n.)

mácula, mancha

season (n.)

estação do ano

stimulate (v.)

estimular, incentivar

section (n.)

parte, seção, segmento

stirring (adj.)

empolgante, emocionante

security guard (n.)

segurança

stock (n.)

estoque

seek (v.)

procurar

stomachache (n.)

dor de estômago

seem (v.)

parecer

storage (n.)

armazenamento

self-determined (adj.)

autodeterminado(a)

stormy (adj.)

tempestuoso(a), turbulento(a)

set (v.)

estabelecer, determinar

stranger (n.)

estranho(a)

severe (adj.)

grave, intenso(a), sério(a)

street performer (n.)

artista de rua

sexism (n.)

sexismo

stretch (v.)

esticar, alongar

152

GLOSSARY

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strict (adj.)

severo(a), rígido(a)

strictly (adv.)

estritamente, rigorosamente

U

striking (adj.)

impressionante, atraente

uncomfortable (adj.)

incômodo(a), desconfortável

struggle (n.)

luta, contenda

underwear (n.)

roupa de baixo

subtropic (adj.)

subtropical

unemployment (n.)

desemprego

suffrage (n.)

sufrágio, direito de voto

unethical (adj.)

contrário a ética, antiético(a)

suitable (adj.)

apropriado(a), adequado(a)

unfair (adj.)

injusto(a)

summer (n.)

verão

unity (n.)

unidade

superstition (n.)

superstição

unstable (adj.)

instável

support (v.)

apoiar, sustentar

upset (adj.)

aborrecido(a), chateado(a)

surgeon (n.)

cirurgião(ã)

up-to-date (adj.)

atualizado(a)

survival (n.)

sobrevivência

urban sprawl (phr.)

expansão urbana

suspect (v.)

suspeitar

useful (adj.)

útil

sustainability officer (n.)

profissional de sustentabilidade

swollen (adj.)

inchado(a)

V

symptom (n.)

sintoma

vaccine (n.)

vacina

valuable (adj.)

valioso(a)

village (n.)

cidade pequena, aldeia

T table (n.)

tabela

virtue (n.)

virtude

taboo (adj.)

tabu, proibido

voice (n.)

voz, opinião

take a break (phr.)

fazer uma pausa

vulnerable (adj.)

vulnerável

take sth off (m. v.)

tirar, retirar

tap (n.)

torneira

W

target (n.)

meta

waitress (n.)

garçonete

target audience (n.)

público-alvo

walk (n.)

caminhada

task (n.)

atividade, tarefa

wall (n.)

muro, parede

taste (n.)

gosto, paladar

wallet (n.)

carteira

team (n.)

time, equipe

war (n.)

guerra

tear (n.)

lágrima

warrior (n.)

guerreiro(a)

technician (n.)

técnico(a)

wash (v.)

lavar

testify (v.)

depor, testemunhar

wave (n.)

onda

theft (n.)

roubo

weapon (n.)

arma

theme (n.)

tema, assunto

weight (n.)

peso

though (adv.)

embora, mas

well adjusted (adj.)

bem ajustado(a)

thread (n.)

fio

well-being (n.)

bem-estar

threat (n.)

ameaça

well-known (adj.)

conhecido(a)

throughout (prep.)

em todo

wild (adj.)

selvagem

throw (v.)

jogar, arremessar

wireless (adj.)

sem fio

thumbs up (n.)

gesto de polegar para cima que indica que está tudo bem

wisdom (n.)

sabedoria

wish (n.)

desejo, pedido

till (n.)

caixa registradora

woman (n.)

mulher

tiny (adj.)

minúsculo(a), muito pequeno(a)

womanizer (n.)

mulherengo

tool kit (n.)

jogo de ferramentas

women (n.)

mulheres

tough (adj.)

difícil, árduo(a)

wood (n.)

madeira

towards (prep.)

em direção a

wrap up (m.v.)

embrulhar, enrolar

transmission (n.)

transmissão

writer (n.)

escritor(a)

treat (v.)

tratar

treatment (n.)

tratamento

trek (n.)

jornada

trial (n.)

sofrimento, prova

tribulation (n.)

tribulação, aflição

trust (v.)

confiar em

tuxedo (n.)

traje a rigor, smoking

GLOSSARY

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FALSE COGNATES English – Portuguese

Portuguese – English

English – Portuguese

Portuguese – English

agenda (n.) – pauta de reunião ou encontro

agenda – diary

commodity (n.) – artigo, mercadoria

comodidade – convenience

amass (v.) – acumular, juntar

amassar – crush

compromise (n.) – fazer uma concessão, um acordo

compromisso – appointment

anticipate (v.) – prever

antecipar – bring forward

comprehensive (adj.) – amplo, abrangente

compreensivo – understanding

apology (n.) – pedido de desculpas

apologia – eulogy

confidence (n.) – confiança

confidência – secret

apontamento – note

convenient (adj.) – prático(a)

conveniente – appropriate

appreciation (n.) – gratidão

apreciação – judgement

convict (n.) – condenado(a)

convicto (a) – convinced

argument (n.) – bate-boca, briga

argumento – argument, point

costume (n.) – fantasia, traje

costume – habit

assist (v.) – ajudar, dar assistência

assistir – watch

curse (v.) – xingar, amaldiçoar

curso – course

assume (v.) – pressupor

assumir – take on, accept, admit

deception (n.) – fraude, trapaça

decepção – disappointment

attend (v.) – assistir, participar de

atender – serve (em uma loja), answer (o telefone)

defendant (n.) – réu, ré

defensor – advocate

audience (n.) – público, plateia

audiência – session

dent (v.) – amassar de leve

dente – tooth

balcony (n.) – sacada

balcão – counter

design (v.) – projetar, criar

designar – appoint

beef (n.) – carne de vaca

bife – steak

discussion (n.) – debate

discussão – argument

cafeteria (n.) – refeitório tipo universitário ou industrial

cafeteria – coffee shop, snack bar

estate (n.) – fazenda, propriedade

estado – state

camp (n.) – acampamento

campo – field

eventually (adv.) – finalmente

eventualmente – occasionally, now and then

cargo (n.) – carregamento, carga

cargo – post, position

exit (n., v.) – saída, sair

êxito – success

carton (n.) – caixa de leite ou suco

cartão – card

expert (adj.) – especialista

esperto – smart, clever

casualty (n.) – ferido, vítima

casualidade – fluke

exquisite (adj.) – refinado, belo

esquisito – strange, odd

cigar (n.) – charuto

cigarro – cigarette

fabric (n.) – tecido

fábrica – factory

collar (n.) – colarinho (de casaco, paletó), gola, coleira

colar – necklace

fate (n.) – destino

fato – event, fact

college (n.) – faculdade

colégio – school

figure (n.) – número, quantia

figura – picture

appointment (n.) – compromisso com hora marcada

154

FALSE COGNATES

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English – Portuguese

Portuguese – English

English – Portuguese

Portuguese – English

gem (n.) – pedra preciosa, joia

gema (de ovo) – yolk

policy (n.) – diretriz, política

polícia – police

grip (v.) – segurar firme

gripe – flu

pork (n.) – carne de porco

porco – pig

idiom (n.) – expressão idiomática

idioma – language

port (n.) – porto

porta – door

injury (n.) – ferimento, lesão

injúria – abuse, insult

prejudice (n.) – preconceito

prejudicar – damage

intoxication (n.) – embriaguez, entusiasmo

intoxicação – poisoning

prescribe (v.) – receitar

prescrever – expire

jar (n.) – pote

jarra – pitcher (para água), pot (para flores)

preservative (n.) – conservante

preservativo – condom

journal (n.) – diário, revista acadêmica

jornal – newspaper

propaganda (n.) – divulgação de uma ideia ou crença

propaganda – advertisement

lamp (n.) – abajur, luminária

lâmpada – light bulb

proper (adj.) – adequado, verdadeiro, correto

próprio – own

large (adj.) – grande

largo – wide

realize (v.) – dar-se conta, perceber

realizar – fullfill, make something come true

lecture (n.) – palestra, aula

leitura – reading

record (v.; n.) – gravar; registro, disco de música, recorde

recordar – review, recall

legend (n.) – lenda

legenda – subtitle (em filme), caption (em uma figura, foto)

resume (n.) – retomar, reiniciar

resumir – summarize

library (n.) – biblioteca

livraria – bookstore

résumé (n.) – currículo

resumo – summary

location (n.) – localização

locação – rental

senior (adj.) – idoso(a)

senhor – gentleman, sir

magazine (n.) – revista

magazine – department store

shoot (n.) – atirar, disparar

chutar – kick

mayor (n.) – prefeito

maior – bigger

stranger (n.) – desconhecido(a)

estrangeiro – foreigner

motto (n.) – lema

moto – motorcycle

support (v.) – dar apoio

suportar – bear, hold up, tolerate

notice (v.) – avisar, perceber

notícia – news

syllabus (n.) – conteúdo programático

sílaba – syllable

office (n.) – escritório

oficial – official

tax (n.) – imposto

taxa – fee, rate

particular (n.) – específico

particular – personal, private

tent (n.) – barraca, tenda

tentar – try

pasta (n.) – massa (comida)

pasta – folder

turn (n.; v.) – vez; virar

turno – shift

pipe (n.) – cano, cachimbo

pipa – kite

vegetables (n.) – legumes

vegetais – plants

FALSE COGNATES

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AUDIOSCRIPTS UNIT 1 TRACK 3, PAGE 19 Beth Hello.

Justifying Opinions Let me explain. You see,... Let me explain why I (dis)agree... Well, I agree because... The point is that... Well, I'm afraid I disagree because...

Vicky Hi, Beth. This is Vicky. Beth Hi, Vicky. How are you? Vicky Great. I'm calling because I'm worried about Carla, you know?

Beth What's the matter with her? Vicky S  he's got a new boyfriend, a guy named Steve. She said she's madly in love with him!

Beth Oh, good for her. She's been alone for too long. Vicky That's quite true! But, on the other hand, it seems the guy is unemployed!

Beth And what’s the problem with that? Vicky Let me explain. You see, Carla is such a successful engineer and I don’t think it's fair on her to date a guy who doesn't even have a job.

Beth Well, I’m afraid I disagree. The fact that Steve is between jobs doesn’t mean he’s a loser. And consider this: if they got married she could be the breadwinner. You know she’s a woman ahead of her time!

Vicky OK, Beth. Maybe I'm overreacting, but it's really difficult for me to accept some changes in society, you know?

Beth Listen, maybe we should talk to Carla about this situation.

Vicky Yeah, I agree. Beth OK. Bye, bye. Vicky Bye.

UNIT 2 TRACK 7, PAGE 32 David OK, you guys. Let's try to finish our science project now. What’s a good title for our campaign flyer?

Sheila It has to be short and simple, like "Kill dengue" or... Roberta Excuse me, Sheila, but I think it's important to say we need to eliminate the mosquito too. How about "Kill the dengue mosquito"?

David Yeah, I agree. Roberta OK. Good! David Now, we need to write about the symptoms and about prevention...

Sheila Well, common symptoms are headache, fever and muscle pain.

Roberta Now prevention. David Sorry for interrupting, but maybe we should also mention vomiting and rash.

Sheila Super. Now, as basic prevention tips, let's mention the most important ones: eradication of the mosquitoes and use of insect repellent.

Roberta How about including pictures and illustrations? I'm sure we can get them on the internet.

David Take a look at these. I got them last Sunday night and I...

TRACK 5, PAGE 20 Agreeing That's quite true! That's what I think too. Yeah, I agree. You're so right!

Disagreeing But, on the other hand,... I'm afraid I disagree. That's not the way I see it. Well, I don't think so.

156

UNIT 3 TRACK 10, PAGE 47 Entitled 'Alone', the painting depicts a seagull hovering over a bleak ocean, in the lee of a white chalk cliff. The cliff dominates the left-hand side of the painting. High up, a narrow line of brownish green defines the cliff top. [...] At the base of the cliff is a short stretch of pebbly beach, lapped by the sea.

AUDIOSCRIPTS

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The water is created by tiny brush strokes. Grey, blue, black and yellow combine in an impressionist technique. [...] In the centre of the painting, the seagull itself hangs effortlessly in the air. Another gull flies in the distance. More birds, reduced to specks of black, hover above the cliff. (Try audio describing a painting. RNIB. Available at: <http://www.rnib. org.uk/livingwithsightloss/leisureculture/artscrafts/painting/pages/ audio_description_painting.aspx>. Accessed on: May 4, 2012.)

TRACK 11, PAGE 47

Host What else should a boy do? Lara I think he should ask her in public to make her feel really special. He should look her in the eyes, with a beautiful smile and lots of confidence and say, "Will you go to the prom with me?" I'm sure it’ll be apples!

Host I’m not sure if I fully understand what you mean by it’ll be apples.

Lara

I mean, it’ll be all right.

Host Any final recommendation?

Entitled 'Alone', the painting depicts a seagull hovering over a bleak ocean, in the lee of a white chalk cliff. The cliff dominates the left-hand side of the painting. High up, a narrow line of brownish green defines the cliff top. [...] At the base of the cliff is a short stretch of pebbly beach, lapped by the sea.

Lara Yes. If the girl says no, the guy should remember

(Try audio describing a painting. RNIB. Available at: <http://www.rnib. org.uk/livingwithsightloss/leisureculture/artscrafts/painting/pages/ audio_description_painting.aspx.> Accessed on: May 4, 2012.)

Lara Thanks for inviting me.

UNIT 4 TRACK 15, PAGE 60 Host Good morning to all of you, listening to WLTL

Lara

UNIT 5 TRACK 18, PAGE 75 Interviewer Learn English Professionals is talking to John Woodrow, who works in the Human Resources department of a large UK-based company. John, tell us about your work...

G'day, Bob. It's very good to be here.

Interviewer What advice can you give us on writing a CV?

Host I’m not sure what you mean by Aussie. Oh, sorry. I'm Australian. I was born in Sydney.

Host OK. Lara, is there a right way to ask a girl to prom? Lara Well, a bloke should try to be witty in this situation.

Host Sorry, what do you mean by bloke?

person who reads the hundreds of CVs we get sent each year.

John Keep it short, keep it simple, keep it relevant. Anything longer than three pages will automatically go into the bin. Just tell us what we need to know. Make sure it’s clearly written and that there are no spelling mistakes on it. And no fancy fonts... or photographs. We don’t need to know what people look like, just what they’ve done, and what they’re capable of... (Advice on writing CVs. British Council. Available at: <http:// learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/professionals-podcasts/advicewriting-cvs>. Accessed on: June 14, 2012.)

I mean boy, guy.

Host Ah. So what you’re saying is that boys should be smart and funny.

Lara Absolutely! Sheilas love clever blokes with a sense of humor.

Host Sheilas? Do you mean girls? Lara

Host Next, we will...

John I work on recruitment especially, so I’m the

Lara I'm Aussie.

Lara

Host OK, Lara, thanks for being with us. Great advice!

91.2, High School Radio. Welcome to our show, The Art of Conversation. This is Bob Smith. Today we're going to talk about how to ask a girl to prom. And who better to tell us than a professional dating expert? Here with us is Lara Jones. Good morning, Lara.

Host Lara, where are you from?

Lara

that it’s not the worst thing that has ever happened to him. He should be strong and ask someone else.

Yeah, sheilas, girls...

TRACK 19, PAGE 75 Interviewer So we’re going to look at a couple of CVs now...

John Yes. These are a couple that arrived just this morning, so let’s take a look... OK, I can see straight away that we have a good one and a bad one here... AUDIOSCRIPTS

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Interviewer How can you tell so soon? John Well, as I just said, this one here is... how many... one, two, three, four pages long, it’s written in tiny type, I can hardly read it... and, wait, yes, there’s a photograph attached to the front.

TRACK 22, PAGE 88 Interview 2 Interviewer Excuse me, can you spare a moment or two?

Interviewer Too much information?

Passerby 2

John Yes... just leafing through it, I can see he’s

Interviewer I'm going to tell you a story and you

written about where he went to primary school. That’s just not relevant...

Interviewer What kind of educational background should be included?

tell me what you would do.

Passerby 2

All right!

Interviewer Imagine you are driving down a road on a stormy night, when you pass a bus stop and you see three people waiting for the bus: an old lady who looks very sick, an old friend who once saved your life and the perfect partner you have been dreaming about. Who would you pick up? You can choose only one person.

John Perhaps your high school, but it’s mostly further education we’re interested in, university or college, then any professional qualifications you may have, as well as work experience of course...

Interviewer That’s important? John Oh, yes. Placements or internships all count. […]

Sure. Go ahead.

Passerby 2 I'd pick up my friend. It'd be the perfect

Interviewer What about the other CV? John OK, again, I can see right away this looks more promising... […] (Advice on writing CVs. British Council. Available at: <http:// learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/professionals-podcasts/advicewriting-cvs>. Accessed on: June 14, 2012.)

time to pay him back.

Interviewer Thanks! Interview 3 Interviewer

Excuse me, are you in a hurry?

Passerby 3 Yes, I'm always in a hurry.

UNIT 6 TRACK 21, PAGE 88

Interviewer

Could I ask you a question?

Passerby 3

It depends on what it is.

Interviewer It's simple. Imagine you are driving down a road on a stormy night, when you pass a bus stop and you see three people waiting for the bus: an old lady who looks very sick, an old friend who once saved your life and the perfect partner you have been dreaming about. Who would you pick up? You can choose only one person.

Interview 1 Interviewer Excuse me, do you have a minute for a quick survey?

Passerby 1

Yes, I think so.

Interviewer Imagine you are driving down a road on a stormy night, when you pass a bus stop and you see three people waiting for the bus: an old lady who looks very sick, an old friend who once saved your life and the perfect partner you have been dreaming about. Who would you offer a ride to? You can choose only one person.

Passerby 3 Let me see… Hmm… I think I’d lend the car to my friend and let him take the lady to the hospital.

Interviewer

Passerby 3 Well, I’d stay behind and wait for the bus with the partner of my dreams, of course!

Passerby 1 I think I would pick up the old lady. After all, she looks very sick.

Interviewer Thank you very much.

158

What about you?

Interviewer

Thanks a lot!

AUDIOSCRIPTS

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UNIT 7 TRACK 25, PAGE 101 George What’s the total area of the Atlantic Forest? Alysha Well, this website says that today it's about 99,900 square kilometers. And it was 1.3 million square kilometers five hundred years ago!

George So the Atlantic Forest has declined by over 90 percent.

Alysha 19 percent? George No. 90 percent. Alysha What's the main cause of this deforestation? George Hm, let me see... the site says soy plantations are replacing the native vegetation.

Alysha What a shame! I bet that after all this destruction, there isn't much animal life left there.

George In fact, here on the internet it says that about 2,000 species of birds, mammals, reptiles and amphibians still live in the forest.

Alysha Cool! Yes, I can see here that there are around 23,000 species of plants.

George So there are about 26,000 plant species left. Right?

Alysha No. There are 23,000 species of plants. George I wish people protected the Atlantic Forest more.

fellow graduates, good evening! Thank you very much for being here tonight. It is a great honor and a privilege to speak at this ceremony on behalf of all the business and law graduates of the University of Newcastle. First of all, I would like to say thank you to our parents, families and friends. If it were not for their continuous support and encouragement, we would not have accomplished this much. I would also like to thank our professors, mentors and staff for sharing their knowledge with us. Not to mention their patience, dedication and priceless help. Thank you all from the bottom of our hearts for playing such an important role in shaping the people we are today. My fellow graduates, I have to admit I cannot find the words to describe my feelings on one of the biggest days in our lives. It is incredible to see how we have all grown up. I would like to congratulate each and every one of you. You have followed your dreams. You have met each challenge with eagerness and determination. You have overcome all the obstacles you found along the way. You have the right to be proud of yourselves for having achieved your goals. Graduation is a time to reflect on the past and look forward to the future, and I believe that with the skills we have learned and the confidence and faith we have in ourselves, we are ready to begin our professional lives. I wish you all the best in your future challenges. This is a remarkable occasion – let’s celebrate it! Congratulations! Thank you and have a good night.

Alysha Me too. George Look! I found something interesting here.

TRACK 33, PAGE 117

Alysha What? George Guess how many people live in the Atlantic Forest region?

Alysha Hm... 100 million? George Close. Approximately 120 million people.

UNIT 8 TRACK 31, PAGE 116 Chancellor, Vice Chancellor, faculty, staff, families, friends, distinguished guests and, most importantly,

Informal I appreciate it. Thanks.

Neutral Thank you. Thank you very much.

Formal I would like to say thank you to... I would like to thank... My sincere thanks to... I would like to say thank you from the bottom of my heart for...

AUDIOSCRIPTS

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BIBLIOGRAPHY AMOS, Eduardo; PRESCHER, Elisabeth. Simplified Grammar of English. São Paulo: Richmond Publishing, 2008. BAKHTIN, Mikhail Mikhailovich. Estética da criação verbal. São Paulo: Martins Fontes, 1992. BRASIL. Ministério da Educação. Secretaria de Educação Média e Tecnológica. Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (Ensino Médio). Brasília: MEC, 2000. BRASIL. Ministério da Educação. Secretaria de Educação Média e Tecnológica. Orientações Curriculares do Ensino Médio. Brasília: MEC/SEB, 2006. BROWN, H. Douglas. Teaching By Principles: an Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Regents, 1994. CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL DICTIONARY OF ENGLISH. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. COLLINS COBUILD ADVANCED DICTIONARY OF AMERICAN ENGLISH. Boston: Thomson Heinle, 2007. COSTA, Sérgio Roberto. Dicionário de gêneros textuais. 3. ed. Belo Horizonte: Autêntica, 2012. DELORS, Jacques; AL-MUFTI, In’am; AMAGI, Isao et al. Educação: um tesouro a descobrir. Relatório para a UNESCO da Comissão Internacional sobre Educação para o século XXI. São Paulo: Cortez, 1998. FREIRE, Paulo. Pedagogia da autonomia: saberes necessários à prática educativa. São Paulo: Paz e Terra, 1996. HARMER, Jeremy. The Practice of English Language Teaching. Essex: Pearson Longman, 2007. KRESS, Gunther. The linguistic expression of social meaning: discourse, genre and text. In: ______. Linguistic Processes in Sociocultural Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989. cap. 1. LONGMAN DICIONÁRIO ESCOLAR. 2. ed. Pearson Education, 2008. PARROT, Martin. Grammar for English Language Teachers. 2. ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. SANTOS, Denise. Como ler melhor em inglês. São Paulo: Disal, 2011. SCRIVENER, Jeremy. Learning Teaching: a Guidebook for English Language Teachers. Oxford: Macmillan, 2005. VYGOTSKY, Lev Semenovitch. A formação social da mente: o desenvolvimento dos processos psicológicos superiores. Versão organizada por COLE, Michael et al. Tradução de José Cipolla Neto et al. São Paulo: Martins Fontes, 1998. cap. 4 e 6. WILLIS, Dave; WRIGHT, Jon. Collins Cobuild Elementary English Grammar. 2. ed. Bath: HarperCollins Publishers, 2003. WILLIS, Dave. Collins Cobuild Intermediate English Grammar. London: HarperCollins Publishers, 2004.

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Roads 3  
Roads 3