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MANUAL DO PROFESSOR

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Organizadora: Editora FTD

MANUAL DO PROFESSOR

Open Roads

Obra coletiva concebida, desenvolvida e produzida pela Editora FTD

Editora responsável: Flávia Miguel

Open Roads

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ENSINO MÉDIO COMPONENTE CURRICULAR LÍNGUA ESTRANGEIRA MODERNA – INGLÊS

Organizadora: Editora FTD Obra coletiva concebida, desenvolvida e produzida pela Editora FTD | Editora responsável: Flávia Miguel

ISBN 978-85-96-00393-3

ENSINO MÉDIO

9

788596 003933

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COMPONENTE CURRICULAR LÍNGUA ESTRANGEIRA MODERNA – INGLÊS

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Open Roads ENSINO MÉDIO COMPONENTE CURRICULAR

LÍNGUA ESTRANGEIRA MODERNA – INGLÊS

Flávia da Cruz Miguel Mestre em Interdisciplinar de Linguística Aplicada pela Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Especialização em Literaturas de Língua Inglesa pela Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Bacharel em Letras (Português/Inglês) pela Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Professora de Inglês na rede estadual de educação há mais de 16 anos. Autora e editora de materiais didáticos.

2a edição São Paulo – 2016

MANUAL DO PROFESSOR

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Copyright © Editora FTD, 2016

Diretor editorial Lauri Cericato Diretora editorial técnica Maria Eugenia Sanson Editora responsável Flávia da Cruz Miguel Gerente editorial Cayube Galas Editora de conteúdo Carla Lima Montenegro Coordenadora editorial Ana Carolina Costa Lopes Assessora técnica pedagógica Cláudia Hilsdorf Rocha Assistentes editoriais Gislene Aparecida Benedito, Gladys Roberta Garcia Gerente de produção editorial Mariana Milani Coordenador de produção editorial Marcelo Henrique Ferreira Fontes Coordenadora de arte Daniela Máximo Projeto gráfico Estúdio Insólito Projeto de capa Bruno Attili Foto de capa Thais Falcão/Olho do Falcão Modelos da capa: Andrei Lopes, Angélica Souza, Beatriz Raielle, Bruna Soares, Bruno Guedes, Caio Freitas, Denis Wiltemburg, Eloá Souza, Jardo Gomes, Karina Farias, Karoline Vicente, Letícia Silva, Lilith Moreira, Maria Eduarda Ferreira, Rafael Souza, Tarik Abdo, Thaís Souza Supervisora de arte Patricia de Michelis Editor de arte Lucas Trevelin Diagramação Ponto Inicial Estúdio Gráfico Tratamento de imagens Ana Isabela Maraschin Coordenadora de ilustrações e cartografia Márcia Berne Ilustrações Renato Faccini Cartografia Allmaps Coordenadora de preparação e revisão Lilian Semenichin Supervisora de preparação e revisão Viviam Moreira Revisão Amanda di Santis, Enymilia Guimarães, Iraci Miyuki Kishi, Júlia Tomazini Coordenador de iconografia e licenciamento de textos Expedito Arantes Supervisora de licenciamento de textos Elaine Bueno Iconografia Marcia Trindade Diretor de operações e produção gráfica Reginaldo Soares Damasceno

Dados Internacionais de Catalogação na Publicação (CIP) (Câmara Brasileira do Livro, SP, Brasil) Open roads : ensino médio : 2o ano / organizadora Editora FTD, obra coletiva concebida, desenvolvida e produzida pela Editora FTD; editora responsável Flávia da Cruz Miguel. — 2. ed. — São Paulo : FTD, 2016. — (Coleção Open roads) "Componente curricular: Língua estrangeira moderna : Inglês" ISBN 978-85-96-00392-6 (aluno) ISBN 978-85-96-00393-3 (professor)

ELABORAÇÃO DOS ORIGINAIS Ana Lúcia Alouche Busso Licenciada em Letras (Português/Inglês) pela Universidade de São Paulo. Bacharel em Letras (Português/Inglês) pela Universidade de São Paulo. Professora de Inglês na rede particular de educação. Ana Paula Marques Pont Especialização em Psicopedagogia pela Universidade Cândido Mendes. Licenciada em Letras (Inglês/Literaturas) pela Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Bacharel em Letras (Inglês/Literaturas) pela Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Professora de Inglês em cursos de idiomas e na rede particular de educação. Angela Maria de Vasconcellos Licenciada em Letras (Português/Inglês) pela Universidade Católica de Petrópolis. Professora de Inglês em cursos de idiomas. Tradutora. Angela Maria Moreira Dias Licenciada em Letras (Inglês/Literaturas) pela Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Professora de Inglês na rede pública de educação e em cursos de idiomas. Carla Cristina de Souza Mestre em Linguística pela Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Especialização em Linguística Aplicada: Inglês como língua estrangeira pela Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Licenciada em Letras (Português/Inglês) pela Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Bacharel em Letras (Português/Inglês) pela Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Professora de Inglês na rede pública de educação e em cursos de idiomas. Fernanda Carneiro Donato Bacharel em Letras (Português/Inglês) pela Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Professora universitária. Professora de Inglês na rede pública de educação e em cursos de idiomas. Gladys Roberta Garcia Bacharel em Secretariado Executivo Bilíngue pela Faculdade Sumaré. Professora de Inglês em cursos de idiomas, na rede particular de educação e em empresas. Coordenadora pedagógica em curso de idiomas. Isadora Ferreira da Veiga Bacharel em Ciências Biológicas pela Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Professora de Inglês em cursos de idiomas. Tradutora. Mayara Alves Maia Mestre em Estudos da Linguagem pela Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro. Especialização em Linguística Aplicada: Inglês como língua estrangeira pela Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Bacharel em Letras (Português/Inglês) pela Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Professora de Inglês na rede pública de educação e em curso de idiomas.

1. Inglês (Ensino médio) I. Miguel, Flávia da Cruz. II. Série. 16-02873 CDD-420.7 Índices para catálogo sistemático: 1. Inglês : Ensino médio 420.7 Reprodução proibida: Art. 184 do Código Penal e Lei 9.610 de 19 de fevereiro de 1998. Todos os direitos reservados à

EDITORA FTD S.A. Rua Rui Barbosa, 156 – Bela Vista – São Paulo-SP CEP 01326-010 – Tel. (0-XX-11) 3598-6000 Caixa Postal 65149 – CEP da Caixa Postal 01390-970 www.ftd.com.br E-mail: central.atendimento@ftd.com.br

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Em respeito ao meio ambiente, as folhas deste livro foram produzidas com fibras obtidas de árvores de florestas plantadas, com origem certificada.

Impresso no Parque Gráfico da Editora FTD S.A. CNPJ 61.186.490/0016-33 Avenida Antonio Bardella, 300 Guarulhos-SP – CEP 07220-020 Tel. (11) 3545-8600 e Fax (11) 2412-5375

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APRESENTAÇÃO Caro(a) aluno(a), Estamos vivendo uma revolução do conhecimento, impulsionada pelo rápido avanço das tecnologias de informação e comunicação e da globalização. Tal revolução rompe paradigmas em todos os âmbitos da atuação humana: social, profissional e educacional. Nesse contexto contemporâneo surge a demanda por um novo perfil de cidadão, capaz de aprender a conhecer, aprender a fazer, aprender a viver juntos e aprender a ser (Unesco, 1998). O conhecimento da língua inglesa é importante, pois contribui para a sua inserção nesse cenário. A proposta didático-pedagógica desta coleção visa criar oportunidades para o seu crescimento intelectual, fornecendo condições para que você enfrente os desafios do mercado de trabalho e incremente seu desenvolvimento pessoal. Nesta obra, o trabalho com gêneros textuais e com a competência leitora o(a) ajudará a compreender e a interpretar textos das várias esferas sociais, contribuindo para o seu sucesso acadêmico e preparando-o(a) para a continuação dos seus estudos. As atividades interdisciplinares aqui propostas visam estimular sua curiosidade investigativa, sua colaboração e sua autonomia, características indispensáveis ao aprendiz do século XXI. A seleção de temas atuais e instigantes tem por objetivo estimular sua participação e, consequentemente, seu aprendizado. O trabalho com itens linguísticos, de forma contextualizada, permite a análise e a compreensão de seus significados e usos. A partir desse ponto, você será incentivado(a) a usar seus conhecimentos linguísticos por meio de atividades orais e escritas significativas. A integração sistemática das habilidades de ler, ouvir, falar e escrever permite que você experimente a língua inglesa em sua totalidade. A obra busca, ainda, contribuir para a sua formação como cidadão(ã) consciente e crítico(a), capaz de refletir sobre tópicos fundamentais na atualidade, como ética, saúde e meio ambiente, e de agir em prol de uma sociedade mais justa e igualitária. As discussões propostas têm por objetivo não somente dar voz às suas opiniões e reflexões, como também elevar a sua autoconfiança ao se comunicar com as pessoas ao seu redor. Esperamos que esta coleção conduza-o(a) à conquista de suas metas acadêmicas e contribua para o desenvolvimento de valores e competências essenciais à sua atuação responsável na sociedade em que vivemos. Bom aprendizado!

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CONHEÇA SEU LIVRO Página de abertura

CONCRETE DREAMS

Think about It

THINK ABOUT IT Focus on Genre 1. Look at the quiz and match the features below to the arrows. Write down the corresponding letters in the notebook. a. Key – the answers / result of the test. b. Instructions – commands and / or procedures to take the quiz.

Apresenta o tema da unidade por meio de uma imagem acompanhada de uma epígrafe.

Ativa seu conhecimento prévio sobre o tema e estimula a troca de ideias sobre o assunto.

c. Questions – the questions the reader should answer in order to check his / her personality or behavior.

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

2. Complete the quiz about your diet. iStockphoto/Thinkstock

Plato (427 BC–347 BC), Greek philosopher. (City Quotes. Brainy Quotes. Available at: <http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/ keywords/city.html#HOSOvpg1pjc42vvS.99>. Accessed on: Apr. 30, 2016.)

Estúdio Insólito

UNIT 8

"This city is what it is because our citizens are what they are."

Do you eat healthily? Do the quiz and find it out. 1 2

Thiago Moser

3 4

How many glasses of water do you drink a day? a. 1 to 3 b. 4 to 6 c. 7 to 10 How many meals do you have a day? a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 to 4 How much fast food do you eat? a. a lot b. not much c. none How many portions of fruit do you eat a day? a. none b. 1 to 2 c. 3 to 5

Result:

5 6 7 8

How much meat do you eat a week? a. a lot b. none c. not much How many portions of vegetables do you eat a day? a. 1 b. 2 to 3 c. 4 to 6 How much chocolate do you eat a week? a. a lot b. none c. a little How many eggs do you eat a week? a. 4 or more b. none c. 1 to 3

» If you have more As, it is time to pay more attention to your diet. » If you have more Bs, you are getting there, but you can improve your diet. » If you have more Cs, you are doing a good job! Keep going.

(Research sources: <http://news.bbc.co.uk/cbbcnews/hi/quiz/newsid_2646000/2646621.stm> and <http://www.bbc.co.uk/northernireland/schools/4_11/ uptoyou/healthy/quiz.shtml>. Accessed on: Apr. 9, 2016.)

VIEWPOINTS Converse com seu professor e colegas. Você concorda com o resultado do seu quiz? Por quê? Compare o seu com o de um colega. Que tipo de modificações você faria na sua dieta? Que sugestões você daria a ele(a)? De que forma ter hábitos saudáveis no seu dia a dia pode influenciar sua saúde na fase adulta? Como é possível prevenir doenças como osteoporose, anemia, pressão alta etc.?

TALK ABOUT IT 3. What do you usually have for breakfast / lunch / dinner? Talk to your teacher and classmates about your eating habits. You can use the words from the box or any other you need. meat

salad

fruit

bread

milk

eggs

fish

pasta

rice

beans

HEALTHY LIVING | UNIT 3

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Reading

READING GET READY TO READ

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Vocabulary

VOCABULARY WILD ANIMALS AND PETS 1. Read the quote and write, in the notebook, the correct option.

1. Take a look at the text below and complete the table in the notebook.

“Keeping wild animals as pets can be appealing, but it is important to remember that keeping a wild animal as a pet is associated with many potential problems, not to mention legal and ethical issues.”

Title of the text

Tense? Angry? Can't get online? Internet addiction is now a serious public health issue that should be officially recognised as a clinical disorder, according to a leading psychiatrist. Excessive gaming, […] e-mailing and text messaging have been identified as causes of a compulsiveimpulsive disorder by Dr Jerald Block, author of an editorial for the respected American Journal of Psychiatry. […] “Unfortunately internet addiction is resistant to treatment, entails significant risks and has high relapse rates.” He told The Observer that he did not believe specific websites were responsible. “The

relationship is with the computer,” he said. “First, it becomes a significant other to them. Second, they exhaust emotions that they could experience in the real world on the computer, through any number of mechanisms: e-mailing, gaming […]. Third, computer use occupies a tremendous amount of time in their life. Then if you try to cut the cord in a very abrupt fashion, they've lost essentially their best friend. That can take the form of depression or rage.” […] Robert Freedman, editor of the American Journal of Psychiatry, said expressions of the addiction could be diverse. […] To beat the addiction, he advised: “A self-help group might be a place to start. Maybe replace an online group with a real one.” […]

German Shepherd

Hemera/Thinkstock

sea turtle

cockatiel

bear

Ingram Publishing/Thinkstock

New evidence shows that heavy users suffer isolation, fatigue and withdrawal symptoms.

b. Keeping a wild animal as a pet can cause legal problems.

goldfish

(SMITH, David. Addiction to internet 'is an illness'. The Observer, Reino Unido, Mar. 2008. News, p. 11.)

hamster

jaguar

Comstock/Thinkstock

Addiction to internet 'is an illness' David Smith, technology correspondent The Observer, Sunday 23 March 2008

Apresenta itens lexicais em contexto e promove oportunidades para aprimorar seu vocabulário.

According to the quote, a. Keeping a wild animal as a pet brings no problem.

2. Look at the pictures and write down, in the notebook, W for wild animal or P for pet. Hemera/Thinkstock

Magazine article

Hemera/Thinkstock

Newspaper article

Medioimages/Photodisc/Thinkstock

Text genre

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

Source

Para localizar informações objetivas não é necessário ler todo o texto tentando compreender palavra por palavra. Experimente buscar subtítulos e palavras-chave que o ajudem a localizar as informações das quais necessita.

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

Prepara você para a leitura de textos de gêneros variados e propõe atividades que desenvolvem e estimulam a competência leitora e o letramento crítico.

Date of publication

TIP

(MCLEOD, Lianne. Wild animals as pets. About.com. Available at: <http://exoticpets.about.com/od/choosinganexoticpet/tp/wildanimalpets.htm>. Accessed on: Mar. 12, 2013.)

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

Name of the author

Estúdio Insólito

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tortoise

manatee

GLOSSARY Az rate – índice relapse – recaída replace – substituir, trocar significant other – companheiro(a), parceiro(a) withdrawal – abstinência, distanciamento

40

TRACK 19

PRONUNCIATION

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UNIT 3 | HEALTHY LIVING

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LANGUAGE DISCOVERY

LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE

P. 138 StockLite/Shutterstock.com

a. Why don’t you call a friend? b. I can’t believe you woke up in the middle of the night just to smoke a cigarette! c. The doctor told me to eat more vegetables. d. I love listening to music while doing housework. e. My brother left an hour ago. f. I usually read a book per month. g. I need some time to think about it. h. Would you lend me some money?

3. Complete the sentences in the notebook. nouns refer to things that cannot be

forms.

, often substances and abstract ideas. They are used

.

4. Read the extract from the quiz on page 39 and write in the notebook T (True) or F (False) for the following statements. How many eggs do you eat a week? a. 4 or more b. none

Editoria de arte

HOME

ARTICLES

POLITICS

Paul McGeiver

Apresenta o foco gramatical da unidade de maneira contextualizada e indutiva e oferece oportunidades para colocá-lo em prática.

a. Which of the words in bold refers to an abstract idea?

2. Pay attention to the words in bold in the sentences below and write down in the notebook if they are Countable or Uncountable.

only in the

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Integrated Skills

READING

These tennis shoes cost 150 dollars. How expensive!

b.

UNIT 5 | HUMAN-ANIMAL BONDING

1. Read the article and, in the notebook, write T for true or F for false. Correct the false sentences.

I’ll need some extra money to be part of this nutrition program.

nouns refer to something that can be counted. They have both singular and

/ / rabbit / rooster / raven

INTEGRATED SKILLS

1. Read the sentences below and answer the questions in the notebook.

a.

/ / habitat / hamster / horse

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Grammar

GRAMMAR

b. Which of them we can quantify?

/h/ and /r/

Listen and repeat.

SCIENCE

BUSINESS

ART

SPORTS

Favorece a integração das habilidades de compreensão e produção por meio do trabalho com diferentes gêneros textuais escritos e orais.

WORLD

AN ADVERTISING GENIUS In 2001, Australian advertising genius David Droga was listed as one of the most influential people in Europe under the age of 40 by Media Magazine. A year later, he was named "World's Top Creative Director" by Ad Age. Since then, he has received more awards than any other creative director. In a recent interview with CNN, Droga shared his views on the evolution of advertising. He believes that advertising is more than just persuading consumers to buy things. In fact, it can contribute to culture and even help solve social issues. He thinks that many of the world’s issues can’t be solved by governments. But they can be solved by brands, and brands certainly need advertising.

(Research sources: David Droga Profile. Berlin School of Creative Leadership. Berlim. Available at: <http://www.berlin-school.com/people/profile/ of/david_droga/> and VAZQUEZ, Paloma M. David Droga on the Positive Impact of Advertising. PSFK.com, Sep. 2010. Available at: <http://www.psfk. com/2010/09/david-droga-on-the-positive-impact-of-advertising.html>. Accessed on: Apr. 3, 2013.)

a. David Droga is a very influential scientist. b. He has received more awards than other creative directors. c. He has a positive view of advertising. d. He believes that only world governments can solve social problems.

VIEWPOINTS Kzenon/Shutterstock.com

addiction – vício, dependência cut the cord – cortar o vínculo entail – envolver, implicar exhaust – esgotar issue – questão

Converse com seu professor e colegas. Você concorda com David Droga que a propaganda pode ter um papel educativo? No Brasil, a propaganda em rádio, televisão, revistas e jornais é usada para contribuir com a cultura ou lidar com questões sociais? Caso a resposta seja afirmativa, cite alguns exemplos.

c. 1 to 3 How much fast food do you eat? a. a lot b. not much c. none a. Both questions refer to quantity. b. Only the first question is about quantity of a countable item. c. The second question is about quantity of an uncountable item.

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UNIT 3 | HEALTHY LIVING

TO BUY OR NOT TO BUY | UNIT 2

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ENDANGERED ANIMALS

VIEWPOINTS Converse com seu professor e colegas. A ação humana é a principal responsável pela ameaça de extinção dos peixes-boi e de vários outros animais. A devastação dos habitats é tão grande que alguns animais só são salvos da extinção graças ao trabalho de conservação nos zoológicos. O que você pensa sobre esse tipo de medida? O que você acha que pode ser feito para evitar a destruição dos habitats? Michael Patrick O'Neill / OceanwideImages.com

Focus on Genre 2. Look at the sign and analyze it. Then, in the notebook, write T (true) or F (false). a. Verbal and nonverbal components are used. b. Images are merely illustrative. c. The message is easily interpreted. d. Humor is used to convey the message.

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Cross-Curricular Link

CROSS-CURRICULAR CROSS-CURRICULAR LINK LINK

1. Look at the sign and choose the best sentence to describe it. Write down the answer in the notebook. a. Manatees are aquatic mammals. b. √ Manatees are killed by boats. c. Manatees migrate to warmer waters.

33

Apresenta atividades que promovem o diálogo com outras disciplinas e estimulam a sua atuação como cidadão crítico.

4. Making a sign for a conservation campaign. » Do some research on the endangered animals in Brazil. Draw the following chart in the notebook to organize the information you collect. > Endangered animal

> Habitat

> Greatest threat

Amazon manatee

–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– The Amazon manatee or South American manatee is an aquatic mammal that can be found in the rivers, swamps and wetlands of the Amazon River basin. The murky waters often make it hard to see the manatee and therefore accurate population numbers are unknown; however, they are believed to be in decline due to hunting and habitat loss.

© Wikimedia Commons

3. Read the text and answer the questions. » Choose one animal and list some actions for a campaign which aims at preserving the animal chosen. » Write an impressive sentence for a sign for the campaign. » Make the sign. Remember to illustrate it. » Show your sign to your teacher and classmates and make any necessary changes. » Hang your sign on the school bulletin board.

[...] Amazon manatees are exclusively vegetarian (herbivores), feeding on water lettuce and hyacinth. In the course of a day, they may eat up to 8% of their body weight. They feed mostly during the wet season, when there is plenty of new vegetation, storing the food in their fat reserves.

> be concise, but make sure all the necessary information is included. > do not use anything on the background that will make it difficult for the reader to focus on the main message.

Go to the following sites to research the endangered species. Instituto Chico Mendes: <http://ler.vc/x2cte7>. (Accessed on: May 8, 2016.) The IUCN Red List: <http://ler.vc/8bph4x>. (Accessed on: May 8, 2016.) Ibama: <http://ler.vc/sxwtyi>. (Accessed on: May 8, 2016.) Endangered Species Coalition: <http://ler.vc/syzstk>. (Accessed on: May 8, 2016.) Planeta Sustentável: <http://ler.vc/qc95q7>. (Accessed on: May 8, 2016.) Wildlife Conservation Society: <http://ler.vc/8o3e24>. (Accessed on: May 8, 2016.)

They live in groups of 4 to 8 individuals and are also found alone. Gestation takes approximately 13 months, after which a single calf is born. In captivity, manatees have lived more than 12 years. The Amazon manatee once had a range throughout the Amazon River Basin – but because of persistent hunting for its meat and oil, it has become a rare sight. This species belongs to the order Sirenia, of which only 4 species remain today. The other 3 species are the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), the West African manatee (Trichechus senegalensis), and the dugong (Dugong dugon), which inhabits coastal marine areas of the Indian and Pacific Ocean basins. (The range of the Amazon manatee is marked in red. The green area indicates the range of the West Indian manatee and the orange area is the range of the West African manatee. Amazon manatee. Available at: <http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/species/profiles/mammals/amazon_ manatee/>. Accessed on: May 8, 2016.)

SELF-EVALUATION

a. What kind of animal is a manatee? b. What kind of food do manatees eat? c. Why it's so hard to see manatees? d. What are the main threats to the survival of manatees?

Evaluate your sign. Compare it to the one on page 124. How similar or different are they? Is it visually clear? Did the message get across? Are there any improvements you can make to it?

CROSS-CURRICULAR LINK

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> choose a size that is appropriate for the distance you expect the reader to see it from.

WEB SEARCH

When the dry season returns, manatees return to the main rivers, where they congregate. During this fasting period, they rely on their stored fat reserves until food becomes available again.

124

Remember to

CROSS-CURRICULAR LINK

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125

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Ícones no Livro do Aluno Faixa de áudio

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Variedade linguística

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Autoavaliação

AUTOAVALIAÇÃO Responda às perguntas do quadro abaixo para avaliar seu aprendizado ao longo das unidades 7 e 8. = regular

= muito bom

e. Writer identification.

O objetivo desta seção é familiarizá-lo(a) com alguns tipos de questões utilizados como instrumento de avaliação para o ingresso no Ensino Superior.

Unidade

a. ler, ouvir e expressar opiniões sobre assuntos relacionados a entretenimento.

Exam Practice

EXAM PRACTICE

= fraco

Sou capaz de...

PARTE I

Avaliação

A cada duas unidades, apresenta a autoavaliação e oferece sugestões de aprimoramento visando desenvolver a sua autonomia.

7

b. identificar e nomear diferentes tipos de filme e música.

7

c. compreender o uso e os significados de palavras compostas e utilizá-las em contexto.

7

d. reconhecer e empregar a voz passiva.

7

e. ler e reconhecer as características do gênero textual ingresso.

7

f. ler e reconhecer as características do gênero textual resenha crítica e produzir um texto semelhante.

7

g. ler, ouvir e falar sobre temas relacionados às vantagens e desvantagens da vida em grandes metrópoles.

8

h. ler e reconhecer as características do gênero textual artigo online.

8

i. entender o uso de preposições de lugares e aplicá-las adequadamente.

8

j. compreender as diferenças de uso entre os pronomes indefinidos e usá-los em contexto.

8

k. identificar e empregar expressões que indicam quantidade.

8

l. ler e reconhecer as características do gênero oral relato pessoal.

8

m. observar as características de um relatório analítico e criar um semelhante.

8

SIMULADOS DO ENEM (EXAME NACIONAL DO ENSINO MÉDIO)

Visa familiarizá-lo(a) com alguns instrumentos de avaliação para o ingresso no ensino superior por meio de simulados e questões de exames oficiais.

Questão 1 Adventure Travel in the Age of the Online Connection Some of the most remote places in the world are starting to feel less isolated thanks to new technology. This may be good for people who live in them, but for travellers it's a mixed blessing. […] It may be a cliché but there is no doubt that technology makes the world feel a smaller – and less interesting – place. It has the habit of shrinking the distances between countries and merging cultures. For me, real adventure travel does not just come from the journey itself but from feeling cut off from one's normal way of life – a situation that forces you to accept what you find and become absorbed by it. And being isolated can also be exciting since it often brings a frisson of risk. Unfortunately, with the unseen umbilical cord of a mobile or internet connection, it is much more of a challenge to experience the unfamiliar and leave the familiar behind. In short, adventures are not quite so, well, adventurous. […] (CORDEY, Huw. Adventure travel in the age of the online connection. Disponível em: <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-17226643>. Acesso em: 4 maio 2016 (fragmento))

1. As inovações tecnológicas do século XXI trouxeram consigo uma profunda transformação no modo como as pessoas se comunicam e se relacionam umas com as outras. Muito se debate sobre os benefícios e malefícios de tal transformação. No texto acima, o autor, um apaixonado por viagens de aventura, expõe sua opinião sobre o assunto. De acordo com ele, ao atingir locais remotos do planeta, a tecnologia a. beneficia de maneira equivalente os habitantes e os visitantes de tais locais. b. diminui as distâncias entre os países e torna o mundo mais atraente. c. mistura culturas, na medida em que encurta as distâncias. d. faz o mundo parecer menor e facilita as viagens de aventura. e. facilita o entendimento entre diferentes culturas, transformando-as. 2. O autor é adepto das viagens de aventura. De acordo com o texto, esse tipo de viagem a. é uma maneira empolgante de se aproximar de culturas diferentes. b. promove um rompimento com o modo de vida do viajante. c. dificulta a aceitação da nova realidade, uma vez que o viajante se sente absorvido por ela. d. traz uma sensação de risco, que pode ser estimulada com a conexão à Internet.

Além desses conteúdos, o que mais você aprendeu?

e. tornou-se impossível, com o advento de novas tecnologias. 3. O texto apresenta um ponto de vista curioso sobre os efeitos da tecnologia nas viagens de aventura. Com base nas ideias defendidas no texto, pode-se inferir que o autor, com o advento dessas tecnologias, a. sentiu mais dificuldade em experimentar o “novo”, em suas viagens.

MELHORANDO SEU DESEMPENHO

b. não reconhece as vantagens da existência de novas tecnologias em locais remotos. c. passou a usufruir as novas tecnologias, melhorando a qualidade de suas viagens de aventura.

Refaça os exercícios das unidades 7 e 8. Esclareça suas dúvidas com o(a) professor(a). Ouça os áudios relativos aos textos e às atividades das unidades 7 e 8 novamente. Participe de um chat online em inglês.

d. utilizou o celular e a Internet como aliados na realização da viagem. e. rendeu-se ao uso das novas tecnologias, apesar de considerá-las extremamente maléficas.

AUTOAVALIAÇÃO

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EXAM PRACTICE

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Language Assistance

LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE UNIT 1 Usamos o Simple Past quando nos referimos a ações finalizadas em um tempo definido. “The other day, I sent a text message to a friend […]” (BABAJANIANS, Tina. Communication on 21st Century: Effective or Flawed? Asha Sphere, Los Angeles, Mar. 2011. Available at: <http://blog.asha.org/2011/03/03/communication-in-the-21st-century-effective-or-flawed/>. Accessed on: Apr. 24, 2013.)

“We stayed here last year and are going back.” (We stayed here last year and are going back. Trip advisor.ca, Sep. 2011. Available at: <http://www.tripadvisor.ca/ShowUserReviews-g155033d610370-r117605105-A_l_Augustine-Quebec_City_Quebec.html>. Accessed on: Apr. 24, 2013.)

Proporciona revisão e complementação de itens linguísticos relacionados aos conteúdos das unidades.

Simple Past – Review Affirmative Form

Negative Form

I

Interrogative Form

I

He

I

He

She

he

She studied for the test.

It

she

did not study for the test. Did

It

We

did not = didn’t

We

You

You

They

They

study for the test?

it we you they

Regular Verbs

Irregular Verbs

Acrescenta-se -ed ao infinitivo do verbo. work + -ed = worked

Cada verbo possui uma forma específica. do – did drink – drank eat – ate go – went have – had

Verbos terminados em e: like + -d = liked Verbos terminados em consoante + y: study – y + -ied = studied

1. In the notebook, complete the sentences and questions with the Simple Past form of the verbs in parentheses. a. I

my English homework yesterday. (do)

b. Mary

her family in Salvador last month. (visit)

c. They d.

to school this morning. They were sick. (not go) you

e. I

TV last night? (watch)

a present for my husband. (buy)

2. Complete the dialogue between two friends with verbs in the Simple Past form. buy (2x)

do (2x)

Richard: What Ana:

you

Ana:

I

Richard: Ana: Ana:

you

to the beach and you

I

Richard:

go (3x)

have

play

last weekend?

to Buzios.

I

Richard: That’s cool! What

there? beach volleyball.

any souvenirs?

some T-shirts. you

to Cabo Frio too?

No, I didn’t. I

time to.

Richard: Next time, please take me with you.

136

LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE – UNIT 1

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IRREGULAR VERBS Past

Past Participle

Translation

Infinitive

Past

Past Participle

Translation

was / were

been

ser, estar

eat

ate

eaten

comer

beat

beat

beaten

vencer, superar, bater

fall

fell

fallen

cair, baixar

become begin

became began

become begun

tornar-se, ficar começar

feed feel

fed felt

fed felt

Abbreviations adj. = adjective / adjective phrase adv. = adverb / adverbial phrase conj. = conjunction exclam. = exclamation m.v. = multi-word verb

A

arrest (v.)

prender

art gallery (n.)

galeria de arte

abroad (adv.)

no exterior

article (n.)

artigo

abrupt (adj.)

repentino(a), inesperado(a)

a bit (adv.)

bit

bitten

morder, picar

fight

fought

fought

brigar, lutar

bled

bled

sangrar

find

found

found

encontrar

blow

blew

blown

soprar

flee

fled

fled

fugir

break

broke

breed

bred brought

broken bred brought

quebrar, partir criar (animais), cultivar (plantas) trazer

fly forbid forget

flew forbade forgot

flown forbidden forgotten

voar proibir esquecer

broadcast

broadcast

broadcast

transmitir (por rádio ou TV)

forgive

forgave

forgiven

perdoar

build

built

built

construir

freeze

froze

frozen

congelar

burn

burnt / burned

burnt / burned

queimar

get

got

got / gotten

receber, obter, conseguir

buy

bought

bought

comprar

give

catch

caught

choose

chose

caught chosen

pegar, agarrar escolher

go grow

gave went grew

given gone grown

n. = noun / noun phrase phr. = phrase prep. = preposition /prepositional phrase pron. = pronoun v. = verb

dar ir crescer

come

came

come

vir, chegar

hang

hung

hung

pendurar

cost

cost

cost

custar

have

had

had

ter

cut

cut

cut

cortar

hear

heard

heard

ouvir

um pouco

account (n.)

conta

as far as sb/sth is concerned (phr.)

no que diz respeito a

across (prep.)

do outro lado, do lado oposto

as soon as (phr.)

assim que

action (n.)

ação

assertive (adj.)

autoconfiante, decidido(a)

actively (adv.)

ativamente

at least (phr.)

pelo menos

actually (adv.)

na verdade

at once (adv.)

de uma vez

adopted (adj.)

adotado(a)

atrocity (n.)

atrocidade

adventure (n.)

aventura

attend (v.)

comparecer, frequentar

advertising (n.)

publicidade

audience (n.)

público

advice (n.)

conselho

autobiography (n.)

autobiografia

age (n.)

idade

available (adj.)

disponível

agent (n.)

representante, agente

average (adj.)

médio(a), regular

aggressive (adj.)

agressivo(a)

avoid (v.)

evitar

agile (adj.)

ágil

awake (adj.)

acordado(a)

agree (v.)

concordar

award (n.)

prêmio

aim (n.; v.)

objetivo; almejar

aware (adj.)

consciente

air force (n.)

aeronáutica, força aérea

awareness (n.)

consciência

airline (n.)

companhia aérea

awful (adj.)

horrível

aisle (n.)

corredor

alone (adj.)

sozinho(a), solitário(a)

B

along the way (phr.)

durante este período

bag (n.)

bolsa, mala

amateur (adj.)

amador(a)

bakery (n.)

padaria

amazing (adj.)

fantástico(a), incrível

ban (v.)

proibir

among (prep.)

entre

barely (adv.)

mal

deal

dealt

dealt

tratar de, lidar

hide

hid

hid / hidden

esconder(-se)

amount (n.)

quantidade

bean (n.)

feijão

analysis (n.)

análise

bear (n.)

urso

dig

dug

dug

cavar, escavar

hit

hit

hit

bater

anger (n.)

raiva

beat (v.)

bater; vencer

do

did

done

fazer

hold

held

held

segurar

draw

drew

drawn

desenhar

hurt

dream drink drive

144

dreamed / dreamt drank drove

dreamed / dreamt drunk driven

sonhar beber dirigir

keep know lay

hurt kept knew laid

hurt kept known laid

As seções Irregular Verbs, Glossary, False Cognates, Audioscripts e Bibliography complementam o trabalho das unidades e incentivam o desenvolvimento da sua autonomia.

alimentar sentir

bite bleed

bring

Other Features

GLOSSARY

Infinitive be

machucar manter, continuar saber, conhecer colocar, pôr

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animação

beauty (n.)

beleza

antibiótico

beckon (v.)

chamar, atrair

antisocial (adj.)

antissocial

become (v.)

tornar-se

anyway (adv.)

assim mesmo, de qualquer jeito

behavior (n.)

comportamento

apologize (v.)

desculpar-se

belong (v.)

pertencer

appealing (adj.)

atraente

benefit (n.)

benefício

approach (n.)

abordagem, enfoque

between (prep.)

entre

architecture (n.)

arquitetura

beverage (n.)

bebida

archive (n.)

arquivo

biannual (adj.)

bienal

arrange (v.)

marcar, organizar

bill (n.)

conta, fatura

146

IRREGULAR VERBS

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animation (n.) antibiotic (n.)

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GLOSSARY

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CONTENTS UNIT 1 – A TECH-SAVVY GENERATION

8

Think about It

9

Reading

10

Vocabulary: Text Message Abbreviation; As and Like

12

Grammar: Past Continuous; Past Continuous and Simple Past

15

Integrated Skills

18

UNIT 2 – TO BUY OR NOT TO BUY

22

Think about It

23

Reading

24

Vocabulary: Advertising; Prefixes

26

Grammar: Modals of Deduction and Possibility; Permission and Request; Ability in the Past (could)

29

Integrated Skills

33

Autoavaliação – Units 1 & 2

37

UNIT 3 – HEALTHY LIVING

38

Think about It

39

Reading

40

Vocabulary: Healthy Habits; Multi-Word Verbs

42

Grammar: Countable and Uncountable Nouns; How many and How much; Quantifiers

44

Integrated Skills

48

UNIT 4 – GO VOLUNTEER

53

Think about It

53

Reading

54

Vocabulary: Discourse Markers; Charity Work

56

Grammar: Present Perfect Simple; Present Perfect Simple and Simple Past

58

Integrated Skills

61

Autoavaliação – Units 3 & 4

65

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UNIT 5 – HUMAN-ANIMAL BONDING

67

Think about It

67

Reading

68

Vocabulary: Wild Animals and Pets; Because, Because of and So

70

Grammar: Present Perfect Simple; Adverbs (already, yet, ever, never, lately, recently)

71

Integrated Skills

74

UNIT 6 – WE LIVE, WE LEARN

78

Think about It

79

Reading

80

Vocabulary: Educational System; Cognates and False Cognates

81

Grammar: Modals for Advice

84

Integrated Skills

87

Autoavaliação – Units 5 & 6

91

UNIT 7 – HEAR IT. WATCH IT. LIVE IT.

92

Think about It

93

Reading

94

Vocabulary: Types of Movies; Types of Music; Compound Words

96

Grammar: Passive Voice

99

Integrated Skills

102

UNIT 8 – CONCRETE DREAMS

106

Think about It

107

Reading

108

Vocabulary: Prepositions of Place; Indefinite Pronouns

110

Grammar: Quantifiers; Linking Words

113

Integrated Skills

115

Autoavaliação – Units 7 & 8

119

CROSS-CURRICULAR LINK

120

GLOSSARY

146

EXAM PRACTICE

128

FALSE COGNATES

154

LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE

136

AUDIOSCRIPTS

156

IRREGULAR VERBS

144

BIBLIOGRAPHY

160

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UNIT 1

iStockphoto.com/ Stuart Rayner Photographer Limited

A TECH-SAVVY GENERATION “We’re getting used to a new way of being alone together.” Sherry Turkle (1948–), Professor of the Social Studies of Science and Technology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (Sherry Turkle: Connected, but alone. TED. Ideas worth spreading. Available at: <http://www.ted.com/talks/sherry_turkle_alone_ together.html>. Accessed on: Apr. 4, 2016.)

LEIA NOTA CULTURAL E SAIBA MAIS NO MP

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LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

THINK ABOUT IT

Habilidade de leitura: HL21 – Articular conhecimentos prévios e informações textuais, inclusive as que dependem de pressuposições e inferências, para explicar opiniões e valores implícitos.

The Googly Gooeys (www.GooglyGooeys.com)

1. Read the cartoon and answer the questions in the notebook.

(Available at: <http://googlygooeys.com/2010/08/25/fact-of-the-day-30-the-paranoid-will-always-be/>. Accessed on: Apr. 4, 2016.)

a. Why is the character paranoid?

She / he is worried because she / he thinks her / his friend logged out because she / he went online.

b. What kind of behavior is being criticized? Sugestões de respostas: Internet overuse, online relationships, etc.

c. Do you agree the character is paranoid? Why? Respostas pessoais.

Habilidades de leitura: HL11 – Relacionar temas, assuntos ou recursos em diferentes textos, representados em diferentes linguagens; HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

2. Look at the word cloud and answer the questions in the notebook.

a. Which activity from the word cloud is illustrated in the cartoon? Online chat.

b. Do you and your friends use online chats to communicate? Respostas pessoais.

c. Which of the activities in the word cloud are part of your daily routine? Respostas pessoais.

A TECH-SAVVY GENERATION | UNIT 1

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3. Read the statements. Write in the notebook the ones you agree with. Respostas pessoais. a. Social networks are the best way to make friends. b. It’s difficult to maintain your privacy using social networks. c. People should have more real friends than virtual ones. d. The internet helps with communication but it also isolates people.

TALK ABOUT IT 4. Discuss the statements in exercise 3 with your teacher and classmates. Respostas pessoais. LEIA DICA NO MP

READING GET READY TO READ

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

Focus on Genre

1. The following text is a dictionary entry. Match the features to the corresponding arrows. Write the corresponding letters and numbers in the notebook. a. The definition(s) of a word. b. The pronunciation of a word. c. Examples clarifying word meanings and usage. d. The word class of a word.

1d

2b flash mob /ˈflæ∫ˌmɑb/ noun [countable] 1. a large group of people who organize themselves, using electronic media such as cell phones or the internet, to suddenly meet in a public place in order to perform an activity for a short time and then disperse. You can sign up to receive an e-mail or a text message one week before the flash mob takes place.

3a

4c

(Research sources: Flash mob. Dictionary.com. Available at: <http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/flashmob>; ROUSE, Margaret. Flash mob. Search Mobile Computing, Jan. 2009. Available at: <http://searchmobilecomputing.techtarget.com/definition/flash-mob> and Flash mob. MacMillan Dictionary. Available at: <http://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/american/flash-mob>. Accessed on: Apr. 4, 2016.)

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

2. Read the definition of flash mob in the dictionary entry and answer the questions in the notebook. a. Are flash mobs common in your city? Respostas pessoais. b. Would you like to take part in one? Why? Respostas pessoais.

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

b. You can find it on the... internet. c. It is about a... flash mob.

wj are k / Sh utt ers toc k.c

a. The text is an... article.

om

3. Look at the following text and complete the sentences in the notebook.

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

Flash mob in Main Square, Cracow, Poland.

10

UNIT 1 | A TECH-SAVVY GENERATION

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Editoria de arte

NEWS National

Business

Politics

Sci & Tech

Society

Flash mobs banned in Braunschweig

Sign up for the editor's weekly newsletter Sport Offbeat Opinion

Education

Published: 28 Jul 09 14:21 CET

Tired of flash mobs holding gatherings in Braunschweig’s Schlossplatz square, the city says it is forbidding the social networking phenomenon, according to a report published Tuesday by the news site Zeit Online. […] According to the newspaper, artist Dirk Schadt was organising a flash mob picnic at Braunschweig's central Schlossplatz when he was contacted by someone who claimed to be from the local Ordnungsamt, the office of public order, to tell him such gatherings were prohibited. […] The Ordnungsamt apparently caught wind of Schadt's upcoming event when an employee monitored a flash mob group on the social networking site StudiVZ. The bureaucrat requested Schadt’s e-mail address from the group moderator, and then got in touch with Schadt to tell him such events were not allowed. […] He warned readers that the event, planned for August 8, would not take place and that anyone on the square that day who, "spreads a blanket, brings food and drink, shoots the breeze with friends, sings or dances a tango will likely be prevented from doing so by police forces.” A city spokesman contacted by Zeit Online said Schadt would have been within the law had he contacted the city in advance and gotten a permit. (Flash mobs banned in Braunschweig. The Local, Braunschweig, Jul. 2009. Available at: <http://www.thelocal.de/society/20090728-20875.html>. Accessed on: Apr. 2, 2013.)

GLOSSARY

Az

allowed – permitido catch wind of – descobrir algo que alguém queria manter em segredo claim – alegar

READING COMPREHENSION

gatherings – reuniões, encontros shoot the breeze – bater um papo spokesman – porta-voz

Habilidade de leitura: HL16 – Inferir o sentido de palavras ou expressões desconhecidas do texto por meio de comparação com a língua materna, análise do contexto e uso de conhecimento morfológico.

1. Find these words in the article and match them to their meanings. Write the corresponding letters and numbers in the notebook. LEIA DICA NO MP a. Schlossplatz

c 1. jornal alemão em formato digital

b. Ordnungsamt

a 2. praça (em alemão)

c. Zeit Online

e 3. funcionário(a)

d. upcoming

b 4. unidade de ordem pública (em alemão)

e. employee

d 5. próximo(a)

2. Now, read the article and write the answers in the notebook.

Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

a. What kind of event is the article about? A (flash mob) picnic. b. How did the police tell Schadt that the event was not allowed? They sent him an e-mail. c. When was the event supposed to take place? On August 8.

Habilidade de leitura: HL17 – Fazer inferências a partir de informações implícitas em um texto.

3. Read the following extract and write the correct option in the notebook. “[...] anyone on the square that day who, ‘spreads a blanket, brings food and drink, shoots the breeze with friends, sings or dances a tango will likely be prevented from doing so by police forces’." The authorities were... the event. a. in favor of b. against A TECH-SAVVY GENERATION | UNIT 1

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Habilidade de leitura: HL7 – Identificar a tese principal ou o conflito central de um texto.

4. In the notebook, write the sentence which best summarizes the central idea of the article. a. Flash mobs are a disturbance and should be banned. b. German police will only tolerate public gatherings if the organizers have a permit. c. The authorities can’t emit a document allowing flash mobs.

TIP Durante a leitura, destaque palavras-chave e / ou trechos importantes de cada parágrafo para ajudá-lo(a) a entender a ideia central do texto.

VIEWPOINTS

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

Converse com seu professor e colegas. O flash mob tem se tornado popular no mundo inteiro por ser uma forma de mudar a rotina, modificar o meio urbano e até mesmo tratar de assuntos políticos. O que você pensa sobre esse tipo de mobilização? Que outras formas de crítica social você conhece? Como o direito à liberdade de expressão dos cidadãos pode ser garantido?

VOCABULARY TEXT MESSAGE ABBREVIATIONS 1. Read the cartoons below and answer the questions in the notebook. Cartoon 2

Sheila Holingworth

Aaron Bacall/CartoonStock.com

Cartoon 1

a. The cartoons are about • learning another language. √ • abbreviations used in text messages.

• mobile phones. b. Which cartoon expresses criticism on the subject? Cartoon 1.

(Available at: <https://cartoonsbysheila.wordpress.com/ category/computers-technology/page/2/>. Accessed on: May 3, 2016.)

c. Which cartoon expresses the idea that this kind of language is associated with young people? Cartoon 2. d. Complete the sentence the bird is saying: Would you

12

please

stop

using

text speaking? It's driving

people

crazy.

UNIT 1 | A TECH-SAVVY GENERATION

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2. Do you use abbreviations when texting? In pairs, make a list like the one in the cartoon 2 with text message abbreviations in Portuguese. Write it down in the notebook. Some more common text message abbreviations 2moro

Tomorrow

KFY

Kiss for You

2nte

Tonight

L8R

Later

B3

Blah, Blah, Blah

NC

No Comment

BFF

Best Friends Forever

NP

No Problem

BRB

Be right Back

NVM

Never Mind

C-P

Sleepy

OIC

Oh, I See

CTN

Cannot talk now

OTL

Out to Lunch

CUS

See You Soon

OTP

On the Phone

CYT

See You Tomorrow

QT

Cutie

EM?

Excuse Me?

RN

Right Now

F2F

Face to Face

RU

Are You

GR8

Great

UR

Your / You are

HAK

Hugs and Kisses

W8

Wait

IDK

I Don't Know

WB

Welcome Back

J/K

Just Kidding

XOXO

Hugs and kisses

TALK ABOUT IT 3. Do you text a lot? Do you know where you shouldn't use your phone? In pairs, talk about your texting habits.

AS AND LIKE 1. Read the sentences below and write the correct option in the notebook. Sam works as a manager of a tech store. a. Sam

the manager of a tech store.

√ is •

• isn't b. Sam

a machine.

• is √ isn't •

Hadrian/Shutterstock.com

Sam is really fast at what he does. He works like a machine!

2. Pay attention to this example and compare the words in bold to those in exercise 1. He works as a waiter, but he wants to be a singer. He sings like an angel.

Now, complete the sentences in the notebook. a. b. 

As

Like

can be used to express the role or the function of someone or something. can be used to tell that someone or something is similar to or resembles someone or something else. A TECH-SAVVY GENERATION | UNIT 1

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3. In the notebook, write the best option to complete the sentences. a. My brother is only eight, but he can handle all these gadgets as / like an adult. b. My friend Susan works as / like a doctor at the local hospital. c. The internet connection here is slow as / like a turtle. d. What a big house! It’s as / like a palace! e. My dream is to join the air force as / like a pilot. f. With this home theater system, his living room is as / like a movie theater. LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

Bradford Veley (www.CartoonStock.com)

4. Read the cartoon and answer the questions in the notebook.

Habilidade de leitura: HL18 – Selecionar um título ou legenda apropriada para um texto.

a. What’s the best title for the cartoon? √ • Cave man invents wheel, but uses it as a paper-weight. • Cave man invents wheel, but uses it like a paper-weight. b. The author’s intention is to show how men can... • use technology properly. √ • underuse technology. Habilidade de leitura: HL17 – Fazer inferências a partir de informações implícitas em um texto.

(Available at: <http://www.cartoonstock.com/cartoonview. asp?catref=bven847>. Accessed on: Jan. 4, 2013.)

5. In the notebook, complete the sentences using like or as followed by one of the expressions in the box. One of the expressions will not be used. a birthday present

a complete surprise

an elephant

the wind

a problem

a boss

children

a waiter

like children

a. The twins are 17 years old, but they behave

as a birthday present

b. My mother gave me this MP4 player

when playing video games.

.

as a problem

c. I couldn’t send the files yesterday, but I’m doing it now. Do you see that like an elephant

d. Your computer is very big and old. It is

like a boss

e. You should be more assertive and act

?

on your desk.

.

like the wind

f. I'm late for the meeting. I'll have to run as a waiter

g. My brother works

14

.

.

LEIA DICA NO MP

UNIT 1 | A TECH-SAVVY GENERATION

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GRAMMAR LANGUAGE DISCOVERY 1. Match the sentences to the corresponding descriptions. Write in the notebook the letters and numbers. 1. “The bureaucrat requested Schadt’s e-mail address […] and then got in touch with Schadt […]”. 2. Dirk Schadt was organizing a flash mob picnic at Braunschweig's central Schlossplatz when someone contacted him. 3. “The Ordnungsamt apparently caught wind of Schadt's upcoming event when an employee monitored a flash mob group on the social networking site StudiVZ.”

Descriptions

Verb forms

1

a. A sequence of activities in the past.

3

b. Two actions happening at the same time in the past.

2

c. One action was happening when another action interrupted it.

requested, got caught, monitored was organizing, contacted

2. Read the sentences again and, in the notebook, write down the corresponding verb forms. 3. Write the correct option in the notebook. The word "when" in sentence 2 has the function of: a. emphasizing the second action. b. introducing an action that interrupted the previous action. c. introducing an idea already known by the reader. The first part of the sentence brings new information. d. emphasize the first action. e. introducing a prediction.

a. At this time yesterday I was texting my wife a message and my children were studying. b. Last Saturday night I was reading a book while they were playing video games. c. When dad came home, my brother and I were having dinner. d. What were you doing last Friday night? e. Dad was cooking pasta for lunch when I got home from school. 1.  In sentence

d

the verb form in bold expresses an action

bikeriderlondon/Shutterstock.com

4. Read the following sentences and complete the statements in the notebook.

that was in course in a determined period in the past. In sentences 2. 

a and b

the verb forms in bold express actions that

were in course at the same time in a determined period in the past. In sentences 3. 

c and e

the verb forms in bold express one action

that was in course when another started. A TECH-SAVVY GENERATION | UNIT 1

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5. Read the sentences in exercise 1 again and complete the following statements in the notebook. in course

ing

a. We use the Past Continuous (to be in the past +main verb + determined period in the

past

Past Continuous

b.

) to express an action that was

or actions that were in course in a determined period in the past at

Past)

.

in the past

can also be used to express an action that was in course

started

in a

the same time

when another action (in the Simple

or interrupted the first action.

LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE

P. 136

TRACK 2

PRONUNCIATION /ŋ/ The / / sound usually occurs with the suffix -ing. Listen and repeat. singing – She was singing. dancing – I was dancing. reading – You were reading. sleeping – He was sleeping. playing – We were playing. studying – They were studying.

Estúdio Insólito

6. In the notebook, write the best options to complete the text.

Heme ra/Th inksto ck

On April 10, 1912 the British luxu ry passenger liner Titanic set sail on its first voy age from Southampton, England to New Yor k City, US. It was designed to be the mos t luxurious and comfortable ship. Since it had advanced safety features, as well as a conven ient wireless telegraph, everybody (a) it was unsinkable. On April 15, it (b) an iceberg while it (c) the Atlantic. As the ship (d) very fast, it couldn’t avoid the accident and (e) after the collision. Despite all the technology available in the ship, there weren’t enough lifeboats. From the 2,200 passeng ers the Titanic (f) , 1,513 died. It was one of the worst sea disasters of all time.

(Research sources: <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RMS_Titanic> and <http://www.britannica.com/titanic/article-302522>. Accessed on: Mar. 6, 2013.)

16

a. believed √

believes

didn’t believe

b. was hiing

hit √

didn’t hit

c. was sailing √

sailed

didn’t sail

d. moved

moving

was moving √

e. sink

sank √

was sinking

f. carried

carrying

was carrying √

UNIT 1 | A TECH-SAVVY GENERATION

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7. Last night the Smiths were at home when the lights went out. In the notebook, write sentences about what they were doing. Use the following ideas. paint

play the guitar

watch TV

BananaStock/Thinkstock

Roger Weber/Digital Vision/Thinkstock

talk on the phone

Stockbyte/Thinkstock

sleep

read a book

a. Paul

c. Claire

b. Jane

Paul was talking on the phone.

Claire was reading a book. iStockphoto/Thinkstock

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

Jane was watching TV.

d. Bob and Peter

e. Jordan

f. Fido

Jordan was playing the guitar.

Bob and Peter were painting.

Fido was sleeping.

8. In the notebook, complete the sentences with words from the box in the Past Continuous or Simple Past. break

go

listen

make

talk

wash

get

ďŹ nd

was making

a. The kids were watching TV while she

hot dogs for them.

were listening

b. They didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t hear the doorbell because they

to the radio.

c. My husband was playing with the children when he was talking

d. When I arrived Jane e. Last night he

went

to bed early.

was washing

g. My father was sleeping when I h. I

his glasses.

on the phone with her boyfriend.

f. When I saw Mike yesterday, he found

broke

got

his car in front of his house. home.

a ten-dollar bill in my pocket. A TECH-SAVVY GENERATION | UNIT 1

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INTEGRATED SKILLS LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

READING

Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

Editoria de arte

1. Read the headlines about cyberbullying and answer the questions in the notebook.

Your search:

Cyberbullying

GO

Sort by: Newest | Oldest | Relevance

1

2

3

4

5

1-5 Results

Cyberbullying leads to mobile phone ban http://www.eastlothiannews.co.uk/

College Cyberbullying: The Virtual Bathroom Wall http://studentaffairs.com/

(Research sources: Cyber-bullying leads to mobile phone ban. East Lothian News, Mar. 2012. Available at: <http://www. eastlothiannews.co.uk/news/local-headlines/ cyber-bullying-leads-to-mobile-phoneban-1-2172352>; MARTIN III, Quincy; OLSON, Doug. College Cyberbullying: The Virtual Bathroom Wall. The Journal of Technology in Student Affairs, Sep. 2011. Available at: <http://studentaffairs.com/ ejournal/Summer_2011/CollegeCyberbullying. html>; ROSSI, Maureen. Cyberbullying Leads to Brutality. Garden City Patch, Jun. 2011. Available at: <http://gardencity.patch.com/ articles/cyberbullying-leads-to-brutality>;

Cyberbullying Leads to Brutality http://gardencity.patch.com/

Cyberbullying worries arise for the start of school http://www.myfoxal.com/

Dozens of students suspended for [...] cyberbullying http://www.king5.com/

COLLINS, Alan. Cyberbullying worries arise for the start of school. Fox WBRC, Aug. 2011. Available at:<http://www.myfoxal.com/ story/15295829/cyberbullying-worries-arisefor-the-start-of-school>; HANH, Elisa. Dozens of students suspended for Facebook cyberbullying. King5.com, Jan. 2010. Available at: <http://www.king5.com/news/ More-than-20-students-suspended-for-FBcyberbullying-81629692.html>. Accessed on: Apr. 2, 2013.)

Which of the headline(s) is / are about… 1, 5 a. punishment for cyberbullying?

IN CONTEXT

3 b. violence caused by cyberbullying? 4 c. people’s concerns about cyberbullying before

the beginning of classes?

Cyberbullying is the use of the internet and other technologies to harass, humiliate, offend, or threaten someone.

2 d. cyberbullying among university students? LEIA DICA E NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

LISTENING 1. You are going to listen to an interview about cyberbullying. Before you listen, read the following tips and, in the notebook, write T (tips for teachers), P (tips for parents) or C (tips for children and teens). Let’s Stop Cyberbullying! P a. If your children are depressed and don’t want to go to school, investigate. T c. Tell your students not to read suspicious e-mails. P d. Monitor the time your kids spend online. T e. Advise your students not to pass on cruel text messages. C f. Talk to your parents if someone is cyberbullying you.

18

Estúdio Insólito

C b. Never answer or send offensive e-mails.

UNIT 1 | A TECH-SAVVY GENERATION

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TRACK 3 2. Listen to the interview with Dr. Wilson, an English psychologist, and write, in the notebook, the points he mentions. a. Using laptops, smartphones and tablets. b. Suspending cyberbullies from school. c. Posting on blogs and social networks. d. Not answering offensive e-mails and messages. LEIA SUGESTÃO INTERDISCIPLINAR NO MP

e. Banning cell phones.

TRACK 4 3. Listen to part of the interview again and number, in the notebook, the sentences in the order you hear them. 4 a. We found a solution to the problem together. 3 b. We decided to contact the bully’s parents immediately. 1 c. My daughter told me she was receiving offensive e-mails and text messages. 2 d. I talked to my wife about the problem.

4. Now that you have listened to some tips, write, in the notebook, the ones you use. You can write down any other tips you consider important. Compare your answers to a classmate’s.

Respostas pessoais.

a. Don’t read suspicious e-mails. b. Don’t pass on cruel messages. c. Never answer offensive e-mails and text messages. d. Talk to parents about offensive e-mails and text messages.

WEB SEARCH Go to the following site and choose two tips you consider to be the most helpful. Tell a friend about the tips you’ve chosen and explain why you chose them. <http://ler.vc/rh8q2p>. (Accessed on: Apr. 8, 2016)

SPEAKING Expressing Preferences 1. Read the sentences and, in the notebook, write the correct options. “Some teenagers prefer to create blogs, while others prefer to send e-mails […].” I have a meeting in half an hour, but I’d rather go home now. a. Segundo Dr. Wilson, alguns adolescentes 1. detestam b. A pessoa na segunda frase 1. prefere ir embora

blogs.

2. preferem criar

3. não conseguem criar

. 2. prefere ficar

3. precisa ficar

c. Podemos concluir que prefer to e would rather (’d rather) são usados para indicar 1. preferências

2. sugestões

.

3. conselhos A TECH-SAVVY GENERATION | UNIT 1

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TRACK 5 2. Here are some other examples. Listen and repeat. a. What would you prefer to do, go swimming or play volleyball? b. I don’t want to swim now. I’d rather play volleyball. c. I think tea’s OK, but I prefer to drink coffee. d. I usually drink tea in the mornings, but I don’t want to drink tea today. I’d rather drink coffee.

TIP Os verbos to prefer, to like, to love e to hate podem ser seguidos de verbos no infinitivo ou no gerúndio. I like to drink coffee. I like drinking coffee.

TALK ABOUT IT 3. These are some of the things you can do online. Match the images to the corresponding verbs. Some items will be used more than once. Write down in the notebook the corresponding letters and numbers.

a, b

b, c

d iStockphoto/Thinkstock

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

Hemera/ Thinksotck

a, b

d. use Creatas/Thinkstock

c. post on

Hemera/Thinksotck

b. write (on)

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

a. send

b, c, d

d

4. Your classmate found a very useful tip on the internet about cyberbullying. Help him / her share it with his / her friends. You can use the ideas in exercise 3 to express your preferences. 20

UNIT 1 | A TECH-SAVVY GENERATION

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WRITING

Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

Editoria de arte

1. Digital tools have changed the way people interact but communication in the 21st century may still not be effective. Read the extract from a blog and write in the notebook the correct options.

^ SUBSCRIBE

2011, March 3

Communication in the 21st Century: Effective or Flawed? by Tina Babajanians at 7:05AM

The other day, I sent a text message to a friend and it read, “Ok I’m done just sitting around if I can help out let me know.” After I sent the message, I re-read it and realized that I had sent the wrong message. What I meant to say was, “I’m done. Just sitting around. If I can help out, let me know.” There is a world of a difference between the first message and the second message. […]

s

SEARCH

%

/ / / 4

ABOUT THIS BLOG MOST POPULAR ABOUT THE AUTHOR ARCHIVE

Select a month

COMMENTS

/

/

BLOG ROLL

(BABAJANIANS, Tina. Communication in the 21st Century: Effective or Flawed? Asha Sphere, Mar. 2011. Availablet at: <http://blog.asha.org/2011/03/03/communication-in-the-21st-century-effective-or-flawed/>. Accessed on: Apr. 2, 2013.)

a. What kind of publication is the post about?

1. An e-mail.

2. A text message.

b. Which mistake did Tina commit?

1. Lack of punctuation.

2. Misspelling.

Focus on Genre

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

2. Look at Tina’s post again and write, in the notebook, T for true or F for false. T a. Blogs can be about personal experiences, jokes, news or other things. T b. Each post has a title, date and / or time of publication. T c. You can find text and / or photo archives and the profile of the

blogger in a blog. F d. The reader can’t establish any kind of interaction with the blogger.

3. Pretend you run a personal blog. Write an entry about an embarrassing situation that happened to you while you were using technology to communicate. If you run your own blog, share your experience with your followers. Resposta pessoal.

»

Plan your text. Remember to mention what happened, how you felt and what you did about it.

» » » » »

Write the first draft, read it and compare it to Tina’s blog. Show it to a classmate, take notes of his / her suggestions and rewrite it.

GO BEYOND Website article where you can learn more about the influence of internet on people’s lives: COSTA, Camila. Como a Internet está mudando a amizade. Super Interessante, Feb. 2011. (Available at: <http://ler.vc/ o8526s>. Accessed on: Apr. 2, 2016.) Book on how the internet is changing the world: PIOTET, Dominique; PISANI, Francis. Como a web transforma o mundo – A alquimia das multidões. São Paulo: Editora Senac, 2010.

Show it to your teacher. Make the necessary changes. Write the final version of your text and post it on your blog.

SELF-EVALUATION Evaluate your blog entry. Compare it to the one on this page. How similar or different are they? Does the text convey your message to the reader? Is the language appropriate? Are there any improvements you can make to your blog?

A TECH-SAVVY GENERATION | UNIT 1

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iStockphoto/Thinkstock

TO BUY OR NOT TO BUY UNIT 2

“There must be more to life than having everything!” Maurice Sendak (1928–2012), American writer and illustrator, author of Where the Wild Things Are. (Quotations about consumering. Quote Garden. Available at: <http://www. quotegarden.com/consumerism.html>. Accessed on: Apr. 8, 2016.)

LEIA NOTAS CULTURAIS E SAIBA MAIS NO MP

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Focus on Genre

Bloomberg Businessweek

THINK ABOUT IT Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

1. Look at the magazine cover and write, in the notebook, the correct sentences. a. It contains its name, place and date of the issue. b. It has catchy headlines, usually in large letters. c. It usually provides a subtitle to the main headline. d. It provides details of each section. e. It usually displays photos to attract the reader’s attention.

(Available at: <www.businessweek. com/1997/26/b35332.htm>. Accessed on: Jan. 9, 2013.)

2. Answer the questions based on the magazine cover.

Habilidade de leitura: HL14 – Estabelecer relações entre o texto e outros textos ou recursos de natureza suplementar que o acompanham (tabelas, desenhos, fotos, títulos ou subtítulos).

Sugestões de respostas:

a. Look at the expression on the girl’s face. How do you think she feels? She feels fascinated / frightened / interested / intimidated / shocked / surprised.

b. The words in “Hey kid, buy this!” are placed like a pile of objects. Why? They represent the items the person wants the kid to buy.

c. Why do you think the hand is so close to the girl? To influence / intimidate / persuade / push her to buy.

Habilidade de leitura: HL17 – Fazer inferências a partir de informações implícitas em um texto.

3. Read the quote and write T for true or F for false in the notebook. "They have ads of how you should dress and what you should look like and this and that, and then they say, 'but respect people for what they choose to be like.' Okay, so which do we do first?" Kelsey, 16, quoted in Girl Talk. (You’ve come a long way, baby? Media Smarts. Available at:<http://www.mediasmarts.ca/gender-representation/women-and-girls/media-and-girls>. Accessed on: Apr. 3, 2013.)

T a. Advertisements tell teenagers they are expected to look like the people in them. F b. Every ad shows the importance of respecting people’s choices. T c. According to Kelsey, the media is contradictory. Habilidade de leitura: HL11 – Relacionar temas, assuntos ou recursos em diferentes textos, representados em diferentes linguagens.

4. Write in the notebook the correct options.

The quote and the magazine cover represent the same genre / different genres but are about the same subject / different subjects.

TALK ABOUT IT 5. Talk to your teacher and classmates about things you buy because you are influenced by ads. You can talk about the following items or any other you can think of. Respostas pessoais. CDs

jewelry

clothes

make-up

DVDs

nail polish

games

perfume

gadgets

sneakers

TO BUY OR NOT TO BUY | UNIT 2

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READING

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

GET READY TO READ

1. Look at the text in exercise 2 and answer the questions in the notebook. a. What text genre is it? An article. b. Where was it taken from? A website. c. What is the text about? Sugestões de respostas: People between 8 and 12 years old, consumerism, advertising, marketing.

TIP Antecipar, prever fatos ou conteúdos do texto, utilizando o conhecimento que você já tem sobre o assunto, ou utilizar pistas tais como título, gravuras, fotos e outras ilustrações ajudam você a compreender melhor um texto. Habilidade de leitura: HL19 – Validar ou reformular hipóteses sobre o conteúdo do texto, com base em indicadores contidos no texto.

Editoria de arte

2. Read the text and check your predictions.

Home

Digital & Media Literacy

Research & Policy

Blog

About Us

Home > Digital & Media Literacy > Media Issues > Marketing and Consumerism > Special Issues for Tweens and Teens

The "Tween Market" One of the most important recent developments in advertising to kids has been the defining of a "tween" market (ages 8 to 12). No longer little children, and not yet teens, tweens are starting to develop their sense of identity and are anxious to cultivate a sophisticated self-image. And marketers are discovering there's lots of money to be made by treating tweens like teenagers. […] As they make the transition from childhood to the teenage years, tweens […] are continually bombarded with limiting media stereotypes on what it is to be a girl or a boy in today’s world.[…] Young girls in particular are targeted by marketers, and the focus of these ads – beauty, sexuality, relationships, and consumerism – is worrisome for parents. According to Sharon Lamb and Lyn Mikel Brown, authors of Packaging Girlhood, images of girls as “sexy, diva, boy-crazy, shoppers” can be quite harmful to their self-development. At an age when girls “could be developing skills, talents, and interests that will serve them well their whole life, they are being enticed into a dream of specialness through pop stardom and sexual objectivity.” Media stereotypes of boys are no less harmful: they are nearly always presented as "tough guys" and, as with girls, there is a consistent emphasis on their physical appearance. Ads and movies communicate a masculine ideal that is athletic and muscular. In fact, over the last twenty years action figures for properties such as Star Wars and G.I. Joe have gained more muscles than even the most dedicated body builders.[…] (Marketing and Consumerism – Special Issues for Tweens and Teens. Media Smarts. Available at: <http://mediasmarts.ca/marketing-consumerism/ marketing-and-consumerism-special-issues-tweens-and-teens>. Accessed on: May 5, 2016.)

GLOSSARY Az anxious – ansioso(a) boy-crazy – interessada em vários meninos entice into – atrair; seduzir harmful – prejudicial; nocivo self-image – autoimagem

stardom – estrelato stereotypes – estereótipos targeted – visado(a) treat – lidar com; tratar tween – pré-adolescente LEIA SUGESTÃO INTERDISCIPLINAR NO MP

24

UNIT 2 | TO BUY OR NOT TO BUY

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Habilidade de leitura: HL11 – Relacionar temas, assuntos ou recursos em diferentes textos, representados em diferentes linguagens.

READING COMPREHENSION

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

1. Which of the stereotypes described in the article on page 24 are represented in the following images? Write down in the notebook. Stockbyte/Thinkstock

a.

b.

Sugestão de resposta: Boys presented as "tough guys", worried about becoming athletic and muscular. Sugestão de resposta: Girls concerned about beauty.

2. Write in the notebook the statement that best describes the article’s main idea. a. Tweens want to be adults and buy more.

Habilidade de leitura: HL7 – Identificar a tese principal ou o conflito central de um texto.

b. Marketers target tweens and treat them as teens in order to improve sales. c. Tweens are the most important consumer group.

LEIA DICA NO MP

Habilidade de leitura: HL4 – Localizar informações relevantes no texto para completar uma tarefa ou solucionar um problema.

3. Copy in the notebook the sentence from the first paragraph which supports the answer to exercise 2. “And marketers are discovering there's lots of money to be made by treating tweens like teenagers.”

4. Draw the following table in the notebook and, based on the article, write the following items under Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar the correct heading. One of them will be used more than once. informações explícitas em um texto.

athletic

relationships

physical appearance

consumerism

beauty

muscles

Girls

beauty relationships

Boys

consumerism physical appearance

VIEWPOINTS

athletic muscles

physical appearance

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

Converse com seu professor e colegas. O artigo apresenta algumas ideias preconcebidas relacionadas a meninos e meninas. Você acredita que esses estereótipos podem motivar o preconceito e a discriminação? Você possui as características descritas no artigo? Adolescentes e pré-adolescentes têm sido alvo de várias campanhas de marketing. Você se sente influenciado(a) por comerciais de TV e anúncios em revistas e jornais? Que tipos de produtos você compra por influência da propaganda? De que modo você acha que as escolhas de adolescentes seriam feitas se não sofressem influência das campanhas de marketing? LEIA SUGESTÃO INTERDISCIPLINAR NO MP TO BUY OR NOT TO BUY | UNIT 2

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VOCABULARY ADVERTISING 1. Read the sentence below and write the correct option in the notebook. Flyers, billboards, magazines can make your brand stand out. As palavras flyers, billboards e magazines referem-se a ferramentas de • estudo

.

√ • publicidade

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

2. Read the dictionary entries and, in the notebook, complete them with the correct words.

Editoria de arte

billboard

flyer

jingle

pop-up

spam

trailer

trailer

flyer

/'treɪlər/ 1 reboque 2 (de filme) trailer, (de programa de TV) chamada 3 AmE (para turismo) trailer

/flaɪər/ s 1 panfleto, folheto 2 aviador -a

spam

jingle

/spæm/ s propaganda que se recebe por e-mail

/'dʒɪŋgəl/ verbo & substantivo | v [tr/ intr] tilintar | s 1 jingle 2 tilintar

pop-up

billboard

s janela que aparece na tela do monitor, em geral, contendo publicidade

/'bɪlbɔrd/ s outdoor

(Longman Dicionário Escolar: Inglês–Português, Português–Inglês. Inglaterra: Pearson Education Limited, 2009.) LEIA DICA NO MP

3. In the notebook, complete the sentences using the words from exercise 2. a. Daniel has a cousin who writes b. I want to keep

spam

jingles

for radio and television advertisements.

out of my regular e-mail inbox.

c. Would you teach me how to stop, block, and remove Flyers

d.

pop-up

ads from my computer?

advertising the event were handed out. billboard

e. Advertisers pay for

space based on how many people might see their ad.

f. I don’t think the success of a movie depends only on its

trailer

.

TIP Inglês americano: flyer

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Inglês britânico: flier

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PREFIXES 1. Read the sentences and write the correct option in the notebook. “[...] tweens are starting to develop their sense of identity and are anxious to cultivate a sophisticated self-image.” Some websites lose millions of impatient customers every week. Self and im in the words self-image and impatient are prefixes / suffixes / abbreviations and are used to form new words.

Prefixes are word elements placed at the beginning of the words to alter their meanings. Prefixes cannot alter the grammatical category of the word to which they are added. Look at some more examples:

Prefix

Meaning

Words

Adjective / Noun / Verb

anti-

contra

social, biotic

antisocial, antibiotic

auto-

relativo a si mesmo

biography

autobiography

bi-

dois, duas vezes

annual

biannual

dis-

o contrário de

order

disorder

ex-

ex, o anterior

wife, boss

ex-wife, ex-boss

im-

o contrário de

polite

impolite

mis-

mal ou errado

understand

misunderstand

over-

em excesso

sleep, eat

oversleep, overeat

re-

fazer novamente

write

rewrite

self-

de si mesmo

assessment

self-assessment

under-

abaixo, não suficiente

cooked, estimate

undercooked, underestimate

TIP Saber o significado dos prefixos pode facilitar o entendimento de palavras desconhecidas.

2. Read the sentences and, in the notebook, complete them using a word from the table above. a. The teacher asked me to

rewrite

the composition in order to correct some mistakes.

oversleep

b. I have to go to bed early tonight because I have an important test in the morning. I simply cannot undercooked

c. It’s dangerous to eat

.

meat.

autobiography

d. I’m looking for a good

to read. Do you have any suggestions? antisocial

e. It's hard to attract friends if you're

.

biannual

f. They have confirmed their participation in the underestimate

g. People say we should never h. It would be very

impolite

world championship.

the power of our actions.

to leave so early.

i. It's difficult to recognize the signs of an eating

disorder

. TO BUY OR NOT TO BUY | UNIT 2

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3. Look at the pictures. Then, in the notebook, complete the sentences using the words in parentheses with one of the prefixes in the box. re-

mis-

dis-

overiStockphoto/Thinkstock

im-

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

under-

a. The waves destroyed her sand castle rebuild

. Thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s no reason

overreacted

it. (build)

for all this anger. (reacted)

c. His mother told him to do his homework, but he is very

Thomas Northcut/Lifesize/Thinkstock

Jupiterimages/Comstock/Thinkstock

and now she has to

b. I think Tessa

d. It will be

to get the balloons.

impossible

. (obedient)

(possible)

e. Ray was embarrassed because he some words and everybody

mispronounced

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

Jupiterimages/Goodshoot/Thinkstock

disobedient

f. Please (line)

the words you donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know.

underline

laughed. (pronounced) LEIA DICA NO MP

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GRAMMAR LANGUAGE DISCOVERY 1. Read the sentences and write the correct answer in the notebook. “At an age when girls could be developing skills, talents, and interests […], they are being enticed into a dream of specialness [...]” “[…] images of girls as ‘sexy, diva, boy-crazy, shoppers’ can be quite harmful to their self-development.” The sentences express absolute truths / abilities / advice / speculations or deductions.

Degrees of certainty

» This guy just bought three cars.

» I don’t know why she doesn’t

» I’m not sure, but I think they

want to go shopping with us.

might not use all the things they

She may be broke.

bought for the party.

Regis Lagrange/EyeEm/Getty Images

Piotr Marcinski/Shutterstock.com

He must be rich.

Sutichak/Shutterstock.com

Anton Gvozdikov/Shutterstock.com

FXQuadro/Shutterstock.com

2. Read the following sentences and pay attention to the words in bold. Then, complete the statements in the notebook.

» She could be busy preparing dinner.

» A: Mom, there’s no money in your wallet.

That’s why she doesn’t answer the phone.

B: That can’t be possible, I just went to the bank.

a. M  odal verb will happen. b. M  odal verbs c. Modal verb d. Modal verb

must

is used to indicate there is a high possibility that something is true or that something may could can't

and

might

are used to indicate there is a possibility that something will happen.

is used to express remote possibility. is used to tell that something is impossible or unlikely to happen. TO BUY OR NOT TO BUY | UNIT 2

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3. Read the extract from the book Confessions of a Shopaholic and do the following activities. a. Look at the text and at the cover below and answer the questions in the notebook. 1. What text genre is it? An extract from a... novel 2. Who wrote it? Sophie Kinsella.

Habilidades de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto; HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros; HL17 – Fazer inferências a partir de informações implícitas em um texto.

3. Who did she write this book for? Random House

Women and young women.

[…] But when I eventually pull the bill out of the envelope […] my smile falters, then disappears. Something hot is blocking my throat. I think it can’t / could be panic. The page is black with type. A series of familiar names rushes past my eyes like a mini shopping mall. I try to take them in, but they’re moving too fast. Thorntons […]. Thorntons Chocolates? I’m supposed to be on a diet. This bill must / can’t be right. This might / can’t be me. I can’t possibly have spent all this money. […] Perhaps, if I carelessly let it drop down on the floor behind my computer, it will disappear. The cleaners will sweep it up and I must / can claim I never got it. They may / can’t charge me for a bill I never received, can they? […] (KINSELLA, Sophie. Confessions of a Shopaholic. New York: Dell, 2009. Chapter 1, p. 7-9.)

b. Now write, in the notebook, the correct options. c. Discuss with your classmates. Did you enjoy reading this extract? Would you like to read the whole book? Justify your answer.

IN CONTEXT Confessions of a Shopaholic, by Sophie Kinsella, tells the story of a journalist who is obsessed with shopping and gets into a huge debt. Ironically she gets a job as a columnist and writes about financial issues. LEIA NOTA CULTURAL E SAIBA MAIS NO MP

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4. In the notebook, write sentences about the pictures, using the words given and the suitable modal verb form to express the degree of certainty.

a. rain

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

Jupiterimages/Comstock/Thinkstock

Sugestões de respostas:

c. be nervous

b. be married

It might rain.

She must be nervous.

d. be late

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

iStock/Thinsktock

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

They must be married.

e. be hungry

He may be late.

f. be happy She can’t be happy.

They must be hungry.

LANGUAGE DISCOVERY 1. Read the dialog and write the correct option in the notebook. Susie:

Mom, can I borrow your credit card?

Mother:

What for?

Susie:

I need to buy a wonderful dress I saw this morning.

Mother: No, you can’t use my credit card to buy another dress. Did you forget you bought a new dress two days ago? a. Susie

the credit card.

√ • asked permission to use

• told her mother she would use

b. Susie's mother

buy the dress.

• gave her permission to √ • didn't give her permission to TO BUY OR NOT TO BUY | UNIT 2

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racorn/Shutterstock.com

Tyler Olson/Shutterstock.com

2. Read the following sentences and pay attention to the words in bold. Then, complete the statements in the notebook.

» Can I use your credit card?

» May I see your ID, please? You may pay cash or use your credit card. junpinzon/Shutterstock.com

pathdoc/Shutterstock.com

You can use my tablet to watch the video.

» Could you lend me some money?

» When I was younger, I could save much more

Could you do me a favor?

money.

can

a. Modal verb b. Modal verb c. Modal verb d. Modal verb

may could could

is used to ask for permission. is used to ask for permission in formal situations. is also used to ask for permission and to make requests. can also be used to express ability in the past. Revisão do verbo modal can.

TRACK 6

PRONUNCIATION

LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE

P. 137

Connected Speech: Could you? / Could I?

Listen and repeat. Could you bring me the bill? Could you come back later?

Could I have your attention, please? Could I use the safe?

3. Match the sentences. Write down in the notebook the corresponding letters and numbers. a. It’s so hot in here.

c 1. May I take her to a doctor?

b. Good evening, sir. I'll be your waiter for tonight.

d 2. Could you print this file for me?

c. Dana is not feeling well.

a 3. Can I open the window?

d. My printer has just stopped working.

e 4. May I talk to you before it starts?

e. Mr. Clarkson, I’m worried about the meeting.

b 5. May I take your order?

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INTEGRATED SKILLS LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

Habilidade de leitura: HL4 – Localizar informações relevantes no texto para completar uma tarefa ou solucionar um problema.

READING

Editoria de arte

1. Read the article and, in the notebook, write T for true or F for false. Correct the false sentences.

HOME

ARTICLES

POLITICS

SCIENCE

BUSINESS

ART

SPORTS

WORLD

Paul McGeiver

AN ADVERTISING GENIUS In 2001, Australian advertising genius David Droga was listed as one of the most influential people in Europe under the age of 40 by Media Magazine. A year later, he was named "World's Top Creative Director" by Ad Age. Since then, he has received more awards than any other creative director. In a recent interview with CNN, Droga shared his views on the evolution of advertising. He believes that advertising is more than just persuading consumers to buy things. In fact, it can contribute to culture and even help solve social issues. He thinks that many of the world’s issues can’t be solved by governments. But they can be solved by brands, and brands certainly need advertising.

(Research sources: David Droga Profile. Berlin School of Creative Leadership. Berlim. Available at: <http://www.berlin-school.com/people/profile/ of/david_droga/> and VAZQUEZ, Paloma M. David Droga on the Positive Impact of Advertising. PSFK.com, Sep. 2010. Available at: <http://www.psfk. com/2010/09/david-droga-on-the-positive-impact-of-advertising.html>. Accessed on: Apr. 3, 2013.)

F a. David Droga is a very influential scientist. He’s a very influential advertising genius / creative director. T b. He has received more awards than other creative directors. T c. He has a positive view of advertising. F d. He believes that only world governments can solve social problems. He believes that many of the world’s issues can’t be solved by governments. / He believes that social issues / problems can be solved by brands.

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal. Kzenon/Shutterstock.com

VIEWPOINTS

LEIA SAIBA MAIS NO MP

Converse com seu professor e colegas. Você concorda com David Droga que a propaganda pode ter um papel educativo? No Brasil, a propaganda em rádio, televisão, revistas e jornais é usada para contribuir com a cultura ou lidar com questões sociais? Caso a resposta seja afirmativa, cite alguns exemplos. LEIA DICA NO MP TO BUY OR NOT TO BUY | UNIT 2

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LISTENING 1. You are going to listen to a TV show about positive and negative characteristics of advertising. Before you listen, draw the table below in the notebook and complete it with the following items. helping solve social issues

promoting consumerism

giving useful information about products

promoting green products

giving improper information about products

encouraging young people to drink

Positive

Negative

giving useful information about products helping solve social issues TRACK 7 promoting green products

giving improper information about products encouraging young people to drink promoting consumerism

iStockphoto.com/PenelopeB

Creatas/Thinkstock

2. Listen to the beginning of the TV show and write the correct options in the notebook. a. The guests are 15 and 16 / 17 and 18 years old. b. They’re high school / university students. c. The topic of the week is drinking and driving / advertising.

TRACK 8 3. Now listen to the whole interview and write, in the notebook, L for Lisa or P for Paul. L a. ... thinks that advertising can have a negative influence on people. P b. ... believes advertising can help solve social issues. P c. ... agrees with David Droga that advertising can contribute to culture. L d. ... mentions alcohol ads.

TRACK 9 4. Listen to a passage from the discussion again and write, in the notebook, the social issues Paul mentions. a. violence

c. smoking

b. pollution

d. drugs

5. After you have listened to the discussion, write, in the notebook, the option you agree with. Compare your answer to a classmate’s. Respostas pessoais. Advertising can influence people’s behavior... • in a positive way. • in a negative way. • both in a positive and negative way.

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SPEAKING Asking for Repetition 1. Read the passages about the discussion below and write the correct options in the notebook. During the discussion about advertising, Lisa...

What Paul did then?

• disagreed with Paul.

He remained silent.

He asked Lisa a question.

√ • didn't hear or didn't understand what Paul said.

• apologized for disagree with Paul.

√ •

He repeated what he had said before.

We can conclude that the expressions "I'm sorry.", "I didn't catch that.", "Excuse me"? and "Could you repeat that?" are used to... • ask for permission. • apologize. √ • ask someone to repeat something.

TALK ABOUT IT 2. Are you influenced by advertising? Advertising can influence people to buy things they don't need? In pairs, you will talk about what you think about advertising. If you don't understand something or can't hear properly, ask your partner to repeat it.

WRITING Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

Focus on Genre

Cha Agung Cahyadi (www.artchastudio.com)

1. At the end of the TV show, Paul used his tablet to show Lisa an anti-drug campaign poster. Read the poster and answer the questions in the notebook. Sugestões de respostas:

(Available at: <http://chacahyadi.com/ portfolio/poster-design-for-no-drugcampaign/>. Accessed on: Feb. 29, 2012.)

a. What is the aim of the poster? Convince the reader that using drugs is harmful and should be avoided. It also tells the reader where to go for help.

b. Which elements are used to reach the goal? The title Say No to Drug, the words no and help in different colors, the image, etc.

TO BUY OR NOT TO BUY | UNIT 2

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2. Analyze the poster and write, in the notebook, the characteristics you find in it. a. It’s simple. b. It gets your aention.

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

c. It can be edited by the reader. d. The message is convincing. e. It uses color effectively / creatively.

»

Resposta pessoal.

Make a list of social issues that affect young people in your neighborhood and then choose one. Start a campaign.

»

Plan your poster. Remember to create a slogan, say where to find help and select an image or draw a picture.

»

Rawpixel.com/Shutterstock.com

3. In pairs, write a poster targeted at young people in your neighborhood.

Make the first dra and compare it to the poster given.

»

Show it to your classmates and take notes of their suggestions.

»

Incorporate feedback and show it to your teacher.

»

Make the necessary changes and write the final version of your poster.

»

Make some copies and hang them on bulletin boards in your school.

WEB SEARCH Visit the website below to see some examples of slogans. Analyze them with your classmate(s) and then create the slogan for your own poster. <http://ler.vc/khphm5>. (Accessed on: Apr. 9, 2016.)

SELF-EVALUATION Evaluate your poster. Is the language appropriate? Are colors, fonts and images being used effectively? Are there any improvements you can make to it?

GO BEYOND Movie about advertising and consumerism: THE JONESES (AMOR POR CONTRATO). Directed by: Derrick Borte. United States, 2009.

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AUTOAVALIAÇÃO Responda às perguntas do quadro abaixo para avaliar seu aprendizado ao longo das unidades 1 e 2. = muito bom

= regular

= fraco

Sou capaz de...

Unidade

a. ler, ouvir e falar sobre assuntos relacionados à tecnologia.

1

b. ler e reconhecer as características do gênero textual verbete de dicionário.

1

c. nomear dispositivos tecnológicos.

1

d. entender as diferenças de uso entre as e like e aplicá-las em contexto.

1

e. entender as diferenças entre Past Continuous e Simple Past e usá-los de maneira apropriada.

1

f. ler um texto em um blog, reconhecer suas características e produzir um texto semelhante.

1

g. ler, ouvir e falar a respeito da relação entre publicidade e hábitos de consumo.

2

h. ler e reconhecer as características do gênero textual capa de revista.

2

i. nomear diferentes tipos de peças publicitárias.

2

j. compreender o uso e o significado de prefixos e usá-los em contexto.

2

k. perceber as diferenças entre verbos modais que indicam dedução, possibilidade, permissão e pedido e usá-los adequadamente.

2

l. observar as características de um pôster e criar um semelhante.

2

Avaliação

Além desses conteúdos, o que mais você aprendeu? Escreva no caderno.

MELHORANDO SEU DESEMPENHO Refaça os exercícios das unidades 1 e 2. Esclareça suas dúvidas com o(a) professor(a). Releia os textos das unidades. Crie o hábito de consultar glossários, dicionários e gramáticas. Crie seu próprio glossário / dicionário.

AUTOAVALIAÇÃO

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HEALTHY LIVING

"Tell me what you eat, and I will tell you who you are." Brillat-Savarin (1755â&#x20AC;&#x201C;1826), a French lawyer and politician who gained fame as an epicure and gastronome.

Frame: iStockphoto/Thinkstock

UNIT 3

(ALBERS, Susan. Comfort cravings. Psychology Today, Jul. 2011. Available at: <http://www.psychologytoday. com/blog/comfort-cravings/201107/the-10-besthealthy-eating-quotes>. Accessed on: Apr. 9, 2016.)

Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Vertumnus, 1590. Oil on panel, 70.5 x 57.5 cm. Skoklosters Slott, Balsta, Sweden.

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THINK ABOUT IT

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

Focus on Genre

1. Look at the quiz and match the features below to the arrows. Write down the corresponding letters in the notebook. a. Key – the answers / result of the test. b. Instructions – commands and / or procedures to take the quiz. c. Questions – the questions the reader should answer in order to check his / her personality or behavior. Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

Respostas pessoais.

Estúdio Insólito

2. Complete the quiz about your diet.

Do you eat healthily? Do the quiz and find it out. 1 2 3 4

How many glasses of water do you drink a day? a. 1 to 3 b. 4 to 6 c. 7 to 10 How many meals do you have a day? a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 to 4 How much fast food do you eat? a. a lot b. not much c. none How many portions of fruit do you eat a day? a. none b. 1 to 2 c. 3 to 5

Result:

5 6 7 8

b

How much meat do you eat a week? a. a lot b. none c. not much How many portions of vegetables do you eat a day? a. 1 b. 2 to 3 c. 4 to 6 How much chocolate do you eat a week? a. a lot b. none c. a little How many eggs do you eat a week? a. 4 or more b. none c. 1 to 3

c

» If you have more As, it is time to pay more attention to your diet. » If you have more Bs, you are getting there, but you can improve your diet. » If you have more Cs, you are doing a good job! Keep going.

a

(Research sources: <http://news.bbc.co.uk/cbbcnews/hi/quiz/newsid_2646000/2646621.stm> and <http://www.bbc.co.uk/northernireland/schools/4_11/ uptoyou/healthy/quiz.shtml>. Accessed on: Apr. 9, 2016.) LEIA DICA NO MP

VIEWPOINTS

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

Converse com seu professor e colegas. Você concorda com o resultado do seu quiz? Por quê? Compare o seu com o de um colega. Que tipo de modificações você faria na sua dieta? Que sugestões você daria a ele(a)? De que forma ter hábitos saudáveis no seu dia a dia pode influenciar sua saúde na fase adulta? Como é possível prevenir doenças como osteoporose, anemia, pressão alta etc.?

TALK ABOUT IT 3. What do you usually have for breakfast / lunch / dinner? Talk to your teacher and classmates about your eating habits. You can use the words from the box or any other you need. Respostas pessoais. meat

salad

fruit

bread

milk

eggs

fish

pasta

rice

beans

LEIA DICA NO MP HEALTHY LIVING | UNIT 3

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READING

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

Habilidades de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto; HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

GET READY TO READ

1. Take a look at the text below and complete the table in the notebook. Title of the text

Addiction to internet ‘is an illness’

Name of the author

David Smith

Date of publication

Sunday 23 March 2008

Source

The Observer

Text genre

√ Newspaper article

Magazine article

TIP

Estúdio Insólito

Para localizar informações objetivas não é necessário ler todo o texto tentando compreender palavra por palavra. Experimente buscar subtítulos e palavras-chave que o ajudem a localizar as informações das quais necessita.

Addiction to internet 'is an illness' New evidence shows that heavy users suffer isolation, fatigue and withdrawal symptoms. David Smith, technology correspondent The Observer, Sunday 23 March 2008

Tense? Angry? Can't get online? Internet addiction is now a serious public health issue that should be officially recognised as a clinical disorder, according to a leading psychiatrist. Excessive gaming, […] e-mailing and text messaging have been identified as causes of a compulsiveimpulsive disorder by Dr Jerald Block, author of an editorial for the respected American Journal of Psychiatry. […] “Unfortunately internet addiction is resistant to treatment, entails significant risks and has high relapse rates.” He told The Observer that he did not believe specific websites were responsible. “The

relationship is with the computer,” he said. “First, it becomes a significant other to them. Second, they exhaust emotions that they could experience in the real world on the computer, through any number of mechanisms: e-mailing, gaming […]. Third, computer use occupies a tremendous amount of time in their life. Then if you try to cut the cord in a very abrupt fashion, they've lost essentially their best friend. That can take the form of depression or rage.” […] Robert Freedman, editor of the American Journal of Psychiatry, said expressions of the addiction could be diverse. […] To beat the addiction, he advised: “A self-help group might be a place to start. Maybe replace an online group with a real one.” […]

(SMITH, David. Addiction to internet 'is an illness'. The Observer, Reino Unido, Mar. 2008. News, p. 11.)

GLOSSARY Az addiction – vício, dependência cut the cord – cortar o vínculo entail – envolver, implicar exhaust – esgotar issue – questão

40

rate – índice relapse – recaída replace – substituir, trocar significant other – companheiro(a), parceiro(a) withdrawal – abstinência, distanciamento

UNIT 3 | HEALTHY LIVING

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Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

READING COMPREHENSION

1. We can use technology in different ways. Write in the notebook the ones mentioned in the text. Gajus/Shutterstock.com

a. blogging b. gaming c. online banking d. reading the news e. e-mailing f. messaging g. online shopping h. researching

2. In the notebook, answer the following questions according to the text.

Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

a. Who is the author of the editorial for the American Journal of Psychiatry? Dr Jerald Block. b. Who is the editor of the American Journal of Psychiatry? Robert Freedman.

3. Number the sentences in the order the facts are presented in the text. Write down the correct Habilidade de leitura: sequence in the notebook. HL5 – Localizar e organizar, em uma 3 a. Computer use occupies a great amount of time in people’s lives. 4 b. Computer users may get depressed if the use is abruptly interrupted.

ordem ou sequência, informações explícitas distribuídas ao longo do texto.

2 c. The emotions that could be experienced in the real world are exhausted through different mechanisms

on the computer.

Habilidade de leitura: HL13 – Estabelecer relações entre segmentos de um texto identificando recursos que contribuam para a sua continuidade (concordâncias nominal e gramatical, uso de elementos de coesão etc.).

1 d. The computer becomes a significant other.

4. Which words in the third paragraph indicate the sequence of the facts which can lead to internet addiction? Write down the answer in the notebook. First, second, third, then.

5. In the sentence “Maybe replace an online group with a real one,” what does the word one refer to? Habilidade de leitura: HL12 – Estabelecer relações Write down the answer in the notebook. lógico-discursivas presentes no texto, marcadas por It refers to the word group in the same sentence.

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

Converse com seu professor e colegas. Segundo David Smith, o uso excessivo da internet pode causar dependência e provocar danos sociais, emocionais e físicos. Na sua opinião, o que pode ser considerado uso excessivo da internet? Você acredita que usa essa ferramenta em excesso? Por que o mundo virtual pode parecer mais atraente que o mundo real? O que podemos fazer para usarmos a internet de forma saudável?

erwinova/Shutterstock.com

VIEWPOINTS

conjunções, advérbios etc.

LEIA SAIBA MAIS NO MP HEALTHY LIVING | UNIT 3

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VOCABULARY HEALTHY HABITS 1. Read the sentence below and write down, in the notebook, four habits related to a healthy lifestyle. “Varied diet, regular sleep and exercise routines, and a moderate approach to life's stressful moments will all lead you in the right direction to a healthy lifestyle.” (COVINGTON, Helen. What makes up a healthy lifestyle? Livestrong.com, Feb. 2011. Available at: <http://www.livestrong.com/article/386520what-makes-up-a-healthy-lifestyle/#ixzz20JvKcZMA>. Accessed on: Apr. 9, 2016.)

2. Use the words from the box to complete, in the notebook, the tips for a healthy life. fruit

vegetables

sleep

Eat

fruit

vegetables

and

to have a balanced diet.

Quit unhealthy habits such as Sleep

smoking

and drinking.

at least eight hours a night.

Drink plenty of

water

. Be sure to always keep a bottle around.

Exercise

more often. It makes you feel good and motivates you to get other things done.

Xavier Arnau/Getty Images

Have fun and enjoy life! Lite Productions/Thinkstock

KEEPING A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE IS ESSENTIAL FOR YOUR BODY, MIND AND SOUL.

smoking

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

water

Goodshoot/Thinkstock

Estúdio Insólito

exercise

(Research sources: G-K, Ursula. Top 10 Healthy Lifestyle Tips. Ezine articles. Available at: <http://ezinearticles.com/?Top-10-Healthy-Lifestyle-Tips&id= 2631818>; PARHAM, Evelyn. 10 Tips for a healthy lifestyle. Become a healthier you. Available at: <http://evelynparham.com/2010/11/29/10-tips-healthylifestyle/> and Healthy Lifestyle: 7 Tips for Wellness. Hubpages, Nov. 2010. Available at: <http://aetheria.hubpages.com/hub/Healthy-Lifestyle-7-Tips-ForWellness>. Accessed on: Apr. 10, 2016.)

TRACK 10

PRONUNCIATION Initial -s Listen and repeat. sleep smoke

42

stress

GO BEYOND You can learn more about healthy lifestyles at <http://ler.vc/7xbchf>. (Accessed on: Apr. 10, 2016.)

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MULTI-WORD VERBS

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

1. Read the cartoon and write the correct option in the notebook. Aaron Bacall (www.CartoonStock.com)

a. The whale

why she can't lose weight

even exercizing all day. • understand √ • doesn't understand b. The expression that indicates she can't understand the reason is

.

√ • “I can’t figure it out” • “I swim all day” (Available at: <http://www.cartoonstock.com/cartoonview. asp?catref=aban900>. Accessed on: Apr. 4, 2013.)

"To figure out" is a multi-word verb. Have a look at some more examples of this kind of expression.

Multi-word Verbs

Meaning

Examples

to figure out

entender

I can’t figure out what the doctor wrote on the prescription.

to give up

desistir

Losing weight isn’t easy but you shouldn’t give up!

to go on

continuar

Go on exercising and you'll get fit.

to hang out

sair

I love hanging out with my friends. It makes me feel so relaxed.

to keep on

continuar

How long will you keep on taking this medicine?

to put off

adiar

I can’t put off going to the doctor anymore.

to take care of

tomar conta, cuidar

Never forget to take care of your health.

to work out

fazer exercícios

It’s important to work out at least twice a week.

2. Match the sentence halves and find out some useful advice. Write down the complete sentence in the notebook. a. If you want to get healthier, go c 1. up your fitness program! b. Working a 2. on exercising regularly. c. Don’t give d 3. on drinking lots of water. It does wonders for your skin. d. Keep e 4. care of. e. Our minds also need to be taken b 5. out is a good way to lose weight.

3. Complete the sentences using Multi-word Verbs. Write down the answers in the notebook. figure out

a. I can’t

how to use the equipment!

take care of

b. Sorry, I can’t meet you after lunch. My sister asked me to hang out

c. Daniel called and said he’s going to

my niece.

with his friends after the test today.

d. I know your brother is nervous but he can’t

put off

the presentation any longer. work out

e. Daniel told me that if I want to lose weight, I need to

regularly. HEALTHY LIVING | UNIT 3

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GRAMMAR LANGUAGE DISCOVERY 1. Read the sentences below and answer the questions in the notebook. I’ll need some extra money to be part of this nutrition program. These tennis shoes cost 150 dollars. How expensive! a. Which of the words in bold refers to an abstract idea? b. Which of them we can quantify?

Money.

Dollars.

Revisão de Uncountable Nouns.

LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE

P. 138 StockLite/Shutterstock.com

2. Pay attention to the words in bold in the sentences below and write down in the notebook if they are Countable or Uncountable. C a. Why don’t you call a friend? C b. I can’t believe you woke up in the middle of the night just to

smoke a cigarette! C c.  The doctor told me to eat more vegetables. U d. I love listening to music while doing housework. C e. My brother left an hour ago. C f.  I usually read a book per month. U g. I need some time to think about it. U h. Would you lend me some money?

3. Complete the sentences in the notebook. Countable

a.

nouns refer to something that can be counted. They have both singular and

b. 

nouns refer to things that cannot be

Uncountable

only in the

singular

counted

plural

forms.

, often substances and abstract ideas. They are used

.

4. Read the extract from the quiz on page 39 and write in the notebook T (True) or F (False) for the following statements. How many eggs do you eat a week? a. 4 or more b. none c. 1 to 3 How much fast food do you eat? a. a lot b. not much c. none T a. Both questions refer to quantity. T b. Only the first question is about quantity of a countable item. T c. The second question is about quantity of an uncountable item.

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5. Complete the sentences below in the notebook.

countable

a. How many is used for questions about quantities of

nouns.

b. How much is used for questions about quantities of

nouns. Savvapanf Photo/Shutterstock.com

uncountable

6. Complete the sentences in the notebook. How many

a.

hours do you spend online a day?

b.

money do you spend on video games each month?

How much

How much

c.

water do you drink every day?

d.

exercise do you get in a week?

e.

books do you read in a month?

f.

meals do you eat a day?

How much How many

How many

7. Now, answer the questions in exercise 6 in the notebook. Sugestões de respostas:

LANGUAGE DISCOVERY

I spend two hours online. I spend a little money on video games. I drink six glasses of water every day. I exercise a lot.

I read two books per month. I eat five meals a day.

» The doctor told me to drink a

» I eat a lot of vegetables every

Syda Productions/Shutterstock.com

Dragon Images/Shutterstock.com

pathdoc/Shutterstock.com

as I should.

» She plays many sports.

lot of water every day.

day.

» I’m not getting as much sleep

goodluz/Shutterstock.com

margouillat photo/Shutterstock.com

[4008-ING-2-U03-F018] FOTO DE UM PRATO CHEIO DE LEGUMES. SUGESTÃO: SHUTTERSTOCK ID: 253936738

Kues/Shutterstock.com

1. Pay attention to the words in bold in the sentences below. Then, complete the following table in the notebook.

» I have this terrible headache. I need to take some

» I’m so tired. I think I need a few hours of sleep.

medicine. I need to get some pills. HEALTHY LIVING | UNIT 3

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» Did Gina eat any French fries

» I usually don’t buy any junk food. Hnatyk/Shutterstock.com

» I could find no information

calories.

on the leaflet.

[4008-ING-2-U03-F029] FOTO DE ALGUÉM CHEGANDO A ALGUM LUGAR (EM UMA REUNIÃO OU PIQUENIQUE) COM AS MÃOS VAZIAS. SUGESTÃO: SHUTTERSTOCK ID: 386036209

Iakov Filimonov/Shutterstock.com

last night? NAN SKYBLACK/Shutterstock.com

to plan my meals.

» This juice contains no

Peter Bernik/Shutterstock.com

Bon Appetit/Shutterstock.com

Flickr Open/Getty Images

» It only takes me a little time

» Lucy brought some sandwiches, but I brought none.

Quantifier

Meaning

Countable

Uncountable

A lot of

muito(a), muitos(as)

Many

muitos(as)

––

Much

muito(a)

––

Some

algum(a), alguns(algumas)

A few

poucos(as)

––

A little

pouco(a)

––

Any

algum(a), nenhum(a)

No

nenhum(a)

None

nenhum(a)

2. Write down, in the notebook, the best options to complete the sentences. a. I don’t drink much / many water. b. Everybody needs some / any time to rest. c. There is a lot of / many traffic in São Paulo. d. My niece only eats a little / a few vegetables at dinner time. e. There isn’t any / a few food in the refrigerator. f. They invited a few / a little friends for their party.

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UNIT 3 | HEALTHY LIVING

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Ken Bendor (www.StraightHealth.com)

3. Look at the nutrition label and do the following activities.

Nutrition Facts

Serving Size 1 ounce

Servings in bag 4

Amount Per Serving Calories 155

Calories from Fat 93 % Daily Value*

Total Fat 11g

16%

Saturated Fat 3g

15%

Trans Fat Cholesterol 0mg

0%

Sodium 148mg

6%

Total Carbohydrate 14g

5%

Dietary Fiber 1g

5%

Sugars 1g Protein 2g Vitamin A

0%

• Vitamin C

9%

Calcium

1%

• Iron

3%

* Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Your daily values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs. (Available at: <www.straighthealth.com/pages/dietitian/nutrition-label-overview.html>. Accessed on: Apr. 12, 2016.)

a. Write the correct option in the notebook. On a nutrition label you can find the • shelf life √ • nutritional value

of a product.

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

• price • weight

b. Write down, in the notebook, the best options to complete the following mini-dialogues. 1. A: How many / How much servings are there in a bag? B: Four. 2. A: How many / How much cholesterol is there per serving? B: A little / None. 3. A: Are there some / any calories? B: A lot / None. 4. A: How many / How much vitamin A is there in a bag?

GO BEYOND If you want to learn more about healthier eating habits, visit <http://ler.vc/eiakbt>. (Accessed on: Apr. 11, 2016.)

B: Some / None. HEALTHY LIVING | UNIT 3

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INTEGRATED SKILLS LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

READING

Habilidade de leitura: HL17 – Fazer inferências a partir de informações implícitas em um texto.

1. Read a passage from a Canadian girl's story about her eating disorder and write T (True) or F (False) for the following statements. Correct the false ones.

Life's Too Short to Obsess What is beauty? I mean really? By whose definition? And if real beauty is something on the inside of us, why are there so many women and girls despising their outsides? I have not always believed I was beautiful, in fact for more than twenty years I thought I was fat and ugly and a loser. 2006 is my landmark year because this year I have finally won my battle with anorexia.

Since the time I was 12 and started to develop curves I hated the way I looked. I would lie to my parents and find way to pretend to eat without eating. When I was at university I exercised all the time, ate almost nothing and drank about 20 cups of coffee a day – nutritionists everywhere are shuddering as they read that part. I was depressed and felt like a failure a lot, even though I pretended to be happ y.

(Available at: <http://nedic.ca/node/859>. Accessed on: Apr. 13, 2016.)

T a. The girl didn't accept her body. T b. The girl had a low self-esteem. F c. She believed she was pretty. She thought she was fat and ugly. T d. She had an eating disorder called anorexia. T e. She thinks there is a connection between body image obsession and anorexia. F f. The girl acted like a depressed person. She pretended to be happy.

2. Talk to a classmate about how you felt after reading the passage.

IN CONTEXT Anorexia and bulimia are eating disorders known as Ana and Mia, respectively. Anorexia is an uncontrollable fear of gaining weight and people with this disorder feel they have to go on very restrictive diets. People with bulimia have a similar fear, but they act differently. They eat a lot of food and then they try to get rid of the food by purging it (vomiting or taking laxatives). LEIA NOTA CULTURAL E SAIBA MAIS NO MP

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Converse com seu professor e colegas. Você acredita que a mídia exerce uma forte influência sobre a sociedade na busca pelo corpo perfeito? Essa busca por padrões estéticos ditados pela sociedade pode ser um fator causador de distúrbios alimentares como a bulimia e a anorexia? O que pode ser feito para conscientizar as pessoas de que o estilo de vida que levam é o principal responsável pela sua aparência e que hábitos saudáveis são grandes aliados da beleza?

Beatrice Favereau/Getty Images

VIEWPOINTS

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

LEIA SUGESTÃO INTERDISCIPLINAR NO MP

LISTENING Peter Bernik/Shutterstock.com

1. You are going to listen to a conversation between two friends about their habits. Before you listen, decide if the following habits are healthy (H) or unhealthy (U). You can add other habits to the list. Write down the answer in the notebook. H a. Drinking two liters of water every day. H b. Exercising at least three times a week. U c. Eating fast food like hamburgers and French fries. H d. Eating plenty of fish and vegetables. U e. Eating a lot of sugar and salt.

TALK ABOUT IT 2. Compare your answers to a classmate’s.

Respostas pessoais.

TRACK 11 3. Justin and his friend Tina, from New Zealand, are talking on the phone. Listen and write in the notebook the sentence that best summarizes the conversation. a. Justin has a health problem and Tina’s trying to help him. b. Tina’s asking Justin for advice about eating habits. c. Justin and Tina are talking about the food they like eating.

TRACK 12 4. Listen to part of the conversation again and match the columns. Write down the corresponding letters and numbers in the notebook. a. Justin was sick for some time, but he’s

d 1. high blood pressure.

b. He went to see

c 2. go on a diet.

c. Justin isn’t fat, but he’ll have to

a 3. well now.

d. He’s only 16, but he has

b 4. a doctor. HEALTHY LIVING | UNIT 3

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TRACK 13 5. Listen to another part of the conversation again. Write down in the notebook the words you hear. Fast food is a no-no because it has too much fat and salt / sugar. You should eat meat / fish and vegetables and drink a lot of juice / water. It’s very important to have healthy eating habits and you should run / exercise regularly too.

6. After you have listened to the conversation between Justin and Tina, answer the question in the notebook. Justify your answer. In your opinion, is Justin going to take Tina's advice or not? Respostas pessoais.

TIP A entonação do falante pode exprimir suas intenções e aspectos como afetividade, admiração, antipatia, impaciência, irritabilidade, desdém e ironia.

SPEAKING Giving Suggestions 1. Read the sentences below and write, in the notebook, the communicative function of the expressions in bold. Why don’t you eat more fish and vegetables? Have you tried eating salmon? […] what about seeing a nutritionist? a. Ask for advice. b. Make suggestions.

TRACK 14 2. Here are some other examples. Listen and repeat. a. Why don’t you stop smoking?

d. Why don’t you start exercising?

b. Have you tried drinking more water?

e. Have you tried sugar-free drinks?

c. What about going on a diet?

f. What about seeing a doctor?

TALK ABOUT IT

WEB SEARCH Go to this site <http://ler.vc/pknbto>. Choose three items you like having for breakfast (for example: bread, butter and milk) and look up how many calories they have. Compare your findings with two classmates and find out who consumes the most calories at breakfast.

nmedia/Shutterstock.com

3. In pairs, you will talk about your habits. Listen to your partner's problems and make suggestions about healthy habits.

LEIA DICA NO MP

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WRITING Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

Focus on Genre

TWEETS Be Rad/Shutterstock.com

Editoria de arte

1. Have a look at a microblog screen and write T (True) or F (False) for the following statements.

FOLLOWING

FOLLOWERS

LIKES

ANSWERS

#HealthTips #LifeTip retweet General Knowledge @Gknowledges1 - 29 de mar

Health Fitness Beauty Tips

# Health #Tips Lifetip @Expert_Health1

#Health Tips if u Want To Loss uR WeiGtht Then Mix HoNey in ONe Glass Water and Drink it In early MorninG. #Health_tip Follow @Expert_Health1 Follow @Expert_Health1 #HealthTips #Lifetip @Expert_Health1 - 12 de fev Health Fitness Beauty Tips

#Health Tips carrots aren't the only food that promote good eyesigth. Eggs, nuts, beans are a great source of #nutrients for #eyehealth #Tips

(Available at: <https://twitter.com/Expert_Health1>. Accessed on: Apr. 13, 2016.)

T a. You can find the username in each post. T b. The date and/or time of the post is always published. T c. Keywords or phrases preceded by the symbol # are called hashtags and can be used to categorize posts

and help them show more easily in search tools. T d. If you click on a word or phrase with a hashtag, all other posts marked with that keyword will be shown. F e. You can write as many characters as you wish in each post. T f. Not all of them are healthy tips.

2. In pairs, write your own health tips. Resposta pessoal.

» » » » » »

Plan your post. Make a list of healthy habits and then choose two. Remember to write the hashtag #HealthTips. Write the first draft and compare it to the posts given. Show it to a pair of students and take notes of their suggestions. Incorporate feedback and show it to your teacher. Make the necessary changes and write the final version of your post.

SELF-EVALUATION Evaluate your post. How similar is it to the ones on this page? Is the language appropriate? Are there any improvements you can make to it?

GO BEYOND Article on the importance of exercising: <http://ler.vc/pdjioh>. (Accessed on: Apr. 13, 2016.) Tips on how to have a healthy diet: <http://ler.vc/n27jf2>. (Accessed on: Apr. 13, 2016.) LEIA SUGESTÃO INTERDISCIPLINAR E O ALUNO NO MUNDO DO TRABALHO NO MP HEALTHY LIVING | UNIT 3

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Brand X Pictures/Thinkstock

GO VOLUNTEER UNIT 4

"Volunteers are not paid – not because they are worthless, but because they are priceless." Sherry Anderson (1964–), Canadian curler. (Volunteering Quotes. Finest quotes. Available at: <http://www.finestquotes.com/select_quotecategory-Volunteering-page-0.htm>. Accessed on: Apr. 14, 2016.) LEIA NOTA CULTURAL E SAIBA MAIS NO MP

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THINK ABOUT IT Editoria de arte

Denver Post via Getty Images

1. Read the text and write, in the notebook, the correct options.

Ana Dodson

<>v

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

Adopted at age three out of her native Peru, 17-year-old Ana Dodson grew up privileged in the U.S. However, her Peruvian roots always beckoned her, and at 11 her adopted parents took her back to visit the land she barely remembered. Devastated by the poverty she saw in Peruvian orphanages, Dodson founded Peruvian Hearts, an organization that provides much needed support and supplies to needy children in Peru. Dodson has spoken in front of the UN and her work has been featured on CNN.

(Adolescent Activists: 7 Young People Making a Difference. The Huffington Post, USA, Nov. 2012. Available at: <http://www.huffingtonpost. com/2009/10/20/adolescent-activists-5-yo_n_292411.html?slidenumber=1#slide_image>. Accessed on: Mar. 12, 2013.)

TIP US: United States

UN: United Nations

CNN: Cable News Network

IN CONTEXT UN (United Nations) is an international organization which aims at promoting world peace and economic development.

a. Ana was born in Peru / the USA. b. She was adopted at age eleven / three. c. Her work has been shown on UN / CNN. d. The Peruvian Hearts supports children in need / elderly people.

LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

TALK ABOUT IT 2. Talk to your teacher and classmates about the best way to do volunteer work. You can use the ideas LEIA DICA NO MP from the box. help the elderly in nursing homes collect items for charity

serve meals to homeless people

help children in need clean a park or beach

GO BEYOND You can learn more about volunteer work at <http://ler.vc/3jre6c/> and <http://ler.vc/u4zr2y>. (Accessed on: Apr. 14, 2016.)

VIEWPOINTS

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

Converse com seu professor e colegas. Você conhece alguma organização não governamental que realize trabalho voluntário em sua cidade ou em outras cidades? Quais são os impactos do trabalho realizado? Você acredita que o desempenho dessas organizações seja eficaz? Por quê?

GO VOLUNTEER | UNIT 4

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READING

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

Habilidades de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros; HL7 – Identificar a tese principal ou o conflito central de um texto.

GET READY TO READ

1. Look at the text below and write, in the notebook, the correct answers. b. The text is about...

Editoria de arte

a. This is... 1. an online article.

1. a typical day for teenagers.

2. a newspaper article.

2. activities that can help people, animals and the environment.

For Parents

For Kids

For Teens

School & Jobs | Jobs and Volunteering | Volunteering

Volunteering […] Volunteering gives you an opportunity to change lives, including your own. […] If you'd like to support a cause but can't afford to donate money, you can donate your time instead. […] Need some ideas to get you started? Here are just a few: Help kids learn and grow. Become a Big Brother or Big Sister, camp counselor, or volunteer for an after-school sports program. […] Play with pets at a local animal shelter. Most shelters depend on volunteers to keep the cats and dogs happy and well exercised. (And when you're walking rescued dogs, you get a workout too.) Help the environment. Join a conservation group and help out with river preservation. Take part in a local park cleanup day. […] Support a health-related cause. Lots of us are close to people who have a medical problem (like cancer, HIV, or diabetes, for example). It can feel good to donate your time to an organization that raises money for research, delivers meals, or offers other help to people with an illness. If you have more than one thing you love, find a way to combine the two. For example, if you love kids and are great at arts and crafts, visit your local children's hospital and offer to lead art activities for young patients.

© The Nemours Foundation/TeensHealth. Reprinted with permission.

GLOSSARY

Az

afford – arcar com as despesas arts and crafts – artesanato, trabalhos manuais cleanup – limpeza counselor – orientador, conselheiro raise – arrecadar

54

rescued – resgatados research – pesquisa shelter – abrigo support – apoiar workout – exercício físico

UNIT 4 | GO VOLUNTEER

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READING COMPREHENSION 1. Read the sentences and, in the notebook, write T for true or F for false. F a. Donating your time is the only way to help. F b. Sports programs don't accept volunteers. F c. Animal shelters do not allow contact with the animals.

Habilidade de leitura: HL4 – Localizar informações relevantes no texto para completar uma tarefa ou solucionar um problema.

T d. Helping people with medical problems can make you feel good. T e. A person can combine more than one thing he/she loves in some volunteer work.

2. Answer in the notebook: the word instead in “If you'd like to support a cause but can't afford to donate money, you can donate your time instead.” means... a. the same

b. as an alternative

c. too

Habilidade de leitura: HL16 – Inferir o sentido de palavras ou expressões desconhecidas do texto por meio de comparação com a língua materna, análise do contexto e uso de conhecimento morfológico.

TIP

Nem sempre é necessário usar um dicionário para descobrir o significado de uma palavra nova no texto. O conhecimento que você já tem sobre o assunto e a situação em que essa palavra é usada ajudarão a entender o seu significado.

3. What message does the author want to communicate? Write in the notebook. a. The most important volunteer work is related to kids and pets. b. If you want to be a volunteer, there is always a way to help.

Habilidade de leitura: HL7 – Identificar a tese principal ou o conflito central de um texto.

c. People with medical problems depend on donations to get beer. d. It is the govermnent's role to protect the environment.

4. Answer, in the notebook, the following questions according to the

Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto. text. Sugestões de respostas:

a. What kind of opportunities does volunteer work offer? It gives you the opportunity to change lives, including your own.

b. How can you help protect the environment?

You can join a conservation group, help out with river preservation or take part in a local park cleanup day.

c. What kind of volunteer work can you do if you like arts and cras? You can offer to lead art activities for young patients at a local hospital.

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

Converse com seu professor e colegas. Qual a importância do trabalho voluntário nos programas sociais? Como voluntários e governos juntos poderiam incrementar os trabalhos sociais? Você já fez algum tipo de trabalho voluntário? Qual? Se ainda não fez, que tipo de trabalho você gostaria de fazer?

michaeljung/Shutterstock.com

VIEWPOINTS

LEIA O ALUNO NO MUNDO DO TRABALHO E SUGESTÃO INTERDISCIPLINAR NO MP GO VOLUNTEER | UNIT 4

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VOCABULARY DISCOURSE MARKERS 1. Read the sentences, then draw the following table in the notebook and complete it with the words in bold. My school is receiving all kinds of donations. I mean, clothes, food and toys. We’ve started a campaign in order to raise funds for that charity project. To summarize, the fundraising event was a success! In general, finding blood donors is not an easy task. David wrote her a letter regarding his uncomfortable situation. According to statistics, more and more Brazilians are engaging in voluntary work. In summary, this book is a good introduction to Brazilian history. "Generally, we admire the thing we are not." Stephen Fry (Stephen Fry Quotes. BrainyQuote. Available at: <http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/s/stephenfry456930.html>. Accessed on: Apr. 15, 2016.)

"The modern artist... is working and expressing an inner world - in other words - expressing the energy, the motion, and other inner forces." Jackson Pollock (Jackson Pollock Quotes. BrainyQuote. Available at: <http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/j/jacksonpol332825.html>. Accessed on: Apr. 15, 2016.)

"To me, growing old is great. It's the very best thing - considering the alternative." Michael Caine (Michael Cane Quotes. BrainyQuote. Available at: <http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/m/michaelcai602601.html>. Accessed on: Apr. 15, 2016.)

Discourse markers generalizing

giving detail

making a reference

explaining a purpose

concluding

Generally In general

In other words I mean

Regarding According to Considering

In order to

In summary To summarize

2. Complete the sentences in the notebook. Look at the table in exercise 1. According to

company’s charity program.

the

the new

in order to

director, we have to start a campaign raise funds for the new project.

Helen: In fact, I have some ideas for the campaign. And I’m sure Susan also has some and so do George and Michael. Can we talk about them? I mean

wavebreakmedia/Shutterstock.com

regarding

Steven: We have just received a memo

, can any of us make suggestions?

Steven: Well, of course you can, the memo says all In summary

departments have a say.

, any employee

who has a suggestion should talk to his supervisor.

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CHARITY WORK Focus on Genre

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

1. Read the text and do the following activities. a. Write the correct options in the notebook. 1. The text is a wiki / poster. 2. It can be found on the internet / in a magazine. 3. The text was individually / collectively wrien.

Editoria de arte

4. It’s possible / impossible to edit the content aer publication.

Sign In | Sign Up p s ( ?

What can you do for______________? Answer: » volunteer at a soup kitchen » give money to a trusted organization » buy a holiday gift for the less fortunate » give blood [...] » read to the blind [...] » donate food and clothes r improve answer first answered by clairebear94894.

Answer History

(What can you do for charity? Wiki answers. Available at: <http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_can_you_do_for_charity#ixzz20u03JZb6>. Accessed on: Mar. 12, 2013.)

b. Read the wiki page again and write, in the notebook, the option that best completes the question. • pleasure

• fun

√ • charity

Give blood iStockphoto/Thinkstock

iStockphoto.com/JodiJacobson

Volunteer at a soup kitchen

Buy a holiday gi for the less fortunate LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

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Donate food and clothes iStockphoto/Thinkstock

Brand X Pictures/Thinkstock

Keith Brofsky/Digital Vision/Thinkstock

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

2. Label the pictures using the expressions from exercise 1. Write down the answers in the notebook.

Give money to a trusted organization

Read to the blind GO VOLUNTEER | UNIT 4

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GRAMMAR LANGUAGE DISCOVERY 1. The text below is about people from around the world who get together in a restaurant in Bristol (UK) to cook and share recipes. Read the text and write, in the notebook, the correct option. "We have heard stories of love, happiness, famiy, loss, war, conflict, health, what works in this city and what doesn’t. When people get together over food, they can talk about anything." Fiona Beckett The International Peace Cafe: 'When people get together over food, they can talk about anything'. The Guardian. Available at: <http://www. theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/wordofmouth/2015/nov/23/the-international-peace-cafe-bristol?CMP=fb_gu>. Accessed on May 9, 2016.)

a. The verb form in bold refers to an event in the... • Present.

√ • Past.

• Future.

b. When did the event happen? • Yesterday.

• Today.

√ • It is not possible to know.

2. Read the sentences in the Present Perfect Simple below and write, in the notebook, the correct option. Julia has helped her friends by raising money for their campaign. Kevin has brought some friends to help us organize the event. Jennifer has lost her wallet. (Now she can’t buy the ticket for the charity show.) Oh, please. Tell me you haven't lost the keys. a. We can use the Present Perfect Simple to refer to events which happened at an indefinite / a definite time in the past. b. We can also use Present Perfect Simple to refer to events in the past with /without a connection to the present.

3. In the notebook, write down the correct answer to complete the following statements. a. For affirmative sentences, we use √ • subject + have/has + past participle

• subject + have/has + main verb in the past b. For negative sentences, we use √ • subject + haven't/hasn't + past participle

• subject + haven't/hasn't + main verb in the basic form c. For interrogative sentences, we use • subject + have/has + main verb in the past √ • have/has + subject + past participle Revisão de verbos no Past Participle.

TIP

LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE

P. 139

Usamos been para indicar que alguém foi e voltou de algum lugar. I’ve been to Italy. (Estive na Itália e já retornei.) Usamos gone quando queremos dizer que alguém foi, mas ainda não voltou de algum lugar. Lucy has gone to Paris. (Lucy foi para Paris e não voltou.)

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TRACK 15

PRONUNCIATION Sentence Stress In spoken English, we usually stress content words such as main verbs, nouns and adjectives. Listen and repeat. Donna has bought a new car. They haven’t finished their homework. Have you seen the movie with David?

4. Read the sentences and write, in the notebook, the correct option. Present Perfect Simple

Indefinite Past Time

Result in the Present

a. Can you come back later? Lucy has gone out.

b. I think Josh has seen that play.

c. Your sister has called you.

d. I can’t believe you’ve broken the DVD player. Now I can’t watch the movie!

e. Kim can’t play tennis with you because she has hurt her right foot.

f. Jeff has been to the dentist.

5. Write the words in the correct order to make sentences or questions in the notebook. a. has / a new pair of jeans / bought / Daniel / . Daniel has bought a new pair of jeans.

b. you / the book / have / read / ?

TIP

Have you read the book?

c. all the cake / have / Emily and Owen / eaten / ? Have Emily and Owen eaten all the cake?

d. Ethan / my bedroom / painted / has / .

Consulte a lista de verbos irregulares nas páginas 144 e 145 de seu livro.

Ethan has painted my bedroom.

e. taken / to school / Fred / has / his lile sister / . Fred has taken his lile sister to school.

f. hasn’t / Tina / dinner / prepared / . Tina hasn’t prepared dinner.

LANGUAGE DISCOVERY 1. Read the sentences and write, in the notebook, the correct option. 1. “[…] and at 11, her adopted parents took her back to visit the land she barely remembered.” 2. “Dodson has spoken in front of the UN and her work has been featured on CNN.” a. When was Ana taken back to his homeland? √ • When she was eleven.

• It's not possible to say.

b. When has Ana spoken in front of UN? • When she was eleven.

√ • It's not possible to say.

c. We can conclude that in... we talk about events that happened at a specific time in Ana's past. √ • sentence 1

• sentence 2

d. In... we cannot determine exactly when the events happened. • sentence 1

√ • sentence 2 GO VOLUNTEER | UNIT 4

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2. Read the sentences and complete the statements below in the notebook. We watched a documentary on charity work last night. Richard has won an award for his work helping kids with leukemia. A big company sponsored the event in 2011. My family and I visited an animal shelter two months ago. Alex has been to Africa to do volunteer work. Lily has appeared on TV to talk about her new book. Simple Past

a. We use the

to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past.

Present Perfect Simple

b. We can use the

to refer to events which happened at an indefinite time in the past. LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

3. Read the text below and do the following activities.

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

a. Answer the questions in the notebook. 1. What text genre is it? An article. 2. Where was it published? On a website.

Editoria de arte

3. Who wrote it? John Browne.

Latest News | News | Sports | Arts-Life | Business | Opinion | Auto | Jobs Article

p s

d Print m Send to a friend b Comment

For Tobin, volunteering has been / was a vocation Published on December 18, 2009 | John Browne | The Telegram

For decades, he has worked / worked in the background; now he's out front as president of the SJJHL. […] A behind-the-scenes sort of guy, Tobin has begun / began volunteering – as most do – when his children began playing organized sports, and he has wanted / wanted to be involved in that part of their lives. [...] Now 68 and retired, Tobin shows no sign of slowing down when it comes to using his experience and expertise as someone who cares about amateur sports. […] A low-profile person, Tobin's contributions have, for the most part, gone under the radar as far as any publicity is concerned. Nonetheless, the people who know him have / has always valued his work and he's not the type to look for, or necessarily need, a pat on the back anyway. […] (BROWNE, John. For Tobin, volunteering has been a vacation. The weekend telegram, Dec. 2009. Available at: <http://www.thetelegram.com/ People/2009-12-18/article-1440920/For-Tobin-volunteering-has-been-a-vocation/1>. Accessed on: Mar. 12, 2013.)

b. Read the article again and write, in the notebook, the correct options to complete it.

4. In the notebook, write questions using the suitable verb form. a. Where / be?

Where have you been?

TIP

b. Where / go / last weekend?

Where did you go last weekend?

c. What / do / aer your last class yesterday? What did you do aer your last class yesterday?

d. When / finish / your homework?

When did you finish your homework?

e. See / any movies recently?

Have you seen any movies recently?

Em inglês, é comum o uso de hífen para a formação de adjetivos compostos. A behind-the-scenes sort of guy / Sugestões de A down-to-earth writer

5. In the notebook, answer the questions in exercise 4. respostas: 60

a. I’ve been to the movies. b. I went to the mall.

c. I visited my grandmother. d. I finished my homework at 10 p.m.

e. Yes, I have. / No, I haven't. LEIA DICA NO MP

UNIT 4 | GO VOLUNTEER

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INTEGRATED SKILLS

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

Habilidade de leitura: HL4 – Localizar informações relevantes no texto para completar uma tarefa ou solucionar um problema.

READING

1. Read the text and match the questions to the paragraphs where you can find the information to answer them. Write down the corresponding letters and numbers in the notebook. a. What types of projects do they offer? b. Who can participate in Project Favela? c. In what ways can people benefit from the Project Favela experience? b 1. Paragraph 1. a 2. Paragraph 2.

Editoria de arte

c 3. Paragraph 3.

Project Favela Home Volunteering in Rio Volunteer Program Contact Us Links and Partners

Volunteering in Rio We offer volunteer program opportunities in very established, structured, organized projects throughout Rio de Janeiro. […] We have opportunities for students, physicians, dentists, nurses, teachers, social workers, athletes, counselors, engineers, IT professionals, carpenters, musicians, artists, or anybody else that has a sincere desire to volunteer and make a difference. […] We work with so many NGO’s that we can provide placement in projects that deal with health promotion, medical clinics, pre-natal nursing, sporting programs, website development, dance, music, theater, teaching English, drug and alcohol recovery, nutrition, and everything in between. Also don't worry if you do not have any special training or experience […] Through the Project Favela volunteer program you will make a difference in the community you work in and the people you meet along the way. You will gain real work abroad experience and gain the personal benefits that can only come from international volunteering. […]

(Volunteering in Rio. Project Favela. Available at: <http://www.projectfavela.org/Volunteering_in_Rio.php>. Accessed on: Mar. 12, 2013.) LEIA SAIBA MAIS NO MP

TIP NGO: Non-governmental Organization

2. Write in the notebook the correct answer, according to the text. a. Project Favela works / doesn’t work with different NGOs. b. There are / aren’t projects for people who are good with computers. c. If you want to teach English, you can / can’t take part in Project Favela. d. You need / don’t need to have previous experience to be a volunteer.

LEIA SUGESTÃO INTERDISCIPLINAR NO MP

GO VOLUNTEER | UNIT 4

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LISTENING

Monkey Business Images/ Thinkstock/Getty Images

1. Zoe is a South African young woman who came to Brazil to do some volunteer work. Look at the picture she took while working and write, in the notebook, the project you think she decided to join.

Respostas pessoais.

a. website development b. a sporting program c. dance, music and theater d. teaching English e. drug and alcohol recovery

TRACK 16 2. Now listen to a conversation she had with a friend when she returned from Brazil and check the prediction you made for exercise 1. 3. Some expressions from the conversation Zoe had with her friend are typically South African. Match the expressions in bold to their meanings. Write down the corresponding letters and numbers in the notebook. a. Then I’d take a kombi and go to an NGO…

c 1. Oh dear!

b. On the weekends we would have a braai.

a 2. van

c. Eish! How awful!

b 3. barbecue

d. A: Would you do it again?

d 4. Sure!

B: Yebo!

TRACK 17 4. Listen again to what Zoe would do on a typical day and, in the notebook, put the sentences in order. 3 a. She would take a van to go to an NGO. 1 b. Zoe would get up early. 4 c. She would teach two English classes. 2 d. She would have breakfast. 5 e. She would help organize things and answer e-mails.

5. Now that you have listened to their conversation, how do you think Zoe’s friend felt after talking to her? Write in the notebook the best alternative or write your own. Respostas pessoais. a. Excited about doing volunteer work. b. Influenced not to try any kind of volunteer work. c. Discouraged to travel to a foreign country.

WEB SEARCH Go to the website <http://ler.vc/awv69s>. (Accessed on: Apr. 16, 2016.) Choose three charities you would like to help. Talk to two classmates and share your choices. Then choose the charity you three would like to help together and take action. LEIA SUGESTÃO INTERDISCIPLINAR NO MP

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SPEAKING Reacting to What a Person Says 1. Read the following sentences and write, in the notebook, the correct option. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil? Wow! mandritoiu/Shutterstock.com

a. We use Wow to express disapproval / surprise / doubt. Zoe: Yes, my experience as a volunteer was wonderful! Gavin: Really? Tell me more! b. The expression in bold indicates interest / boredom / annoyance. Zoe: […] I got lost in a deserted place and got pretty scared. Gavin: Eish! How awful! c. The expression in bold indicates approval / contempt / understanding and sympathy.

TRACK 18 2. Use the expressions from exercises 1 to complete the chart in the notebook. Surprise

Interest

Sympathy

a.

d. How interesting!

g. What a shame!

b. I can’t believe it!

e.

h. How awful / terrible!

c. My goodness!

f. Tell me / us more!

i.

Wow!

Really?

Eish!

TIP Para se tornar um bom ouvinte, é preciso estar atento à entonação usada pela pessoa com quem falamos. A expressão Really? (equivalente a “é mesmo?”) pode indicar surpresa, ironia, interesse ou solidariedade.

3. How would you like to make a difference in the world? Talk to a classmate about volunteering. Respostas pessoais.

Steve Debenport/Getty Images

TALK ABOUT IT

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WRITING Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

Focus on Genre

Editoria de arte

1. Gavin, Zoe’s friend, has checked the FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) section of a website that belongs to an organization which promotes volunteer work. Read the section and write the correct options in the notebook.

Volunteer FAQs

share

How do I sign up to volunteer? May we schedule as a group? How many people can you accommodate at once? Can students and children volunteer? How do volunteers help the Food Bank? Where is the Food Bank located? Is there parking available at the Food Bank? What should I wear? (San Francisco Food Bank. Marin Food Bank. Available at: <http://www.sffoodbank.org/volunteer-faqs>. Accessed on: Mar. 12, 2013.)

a. Its purpose is to provide a place where people can find the answers to commonly asked questions regarding the institution or the kind of work it offers. b. Questions are simple and clear. c. Its target audience is anyone who has questions or is looking for information about the institution or the kind of work it offers. d. All questions start with an interrogative pronoun.

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

2. The FAQ above is about a volunteer program in San Francisco that collects food and/or funds to help hungry people. Write in the notebook the volunteer program(s) that you think would be the most helpful in your neighborhood. Compare your answers in groups. Respostas pessoais.

» » »

» » »

Helping hungry children Ballet, drama and music classes First job programs

Helping disabled people Helping the homeless Sports coaching

3. Imagine you’re in charge of setting up a FAQ section page for this volunteer program. Prepare the questions for this section with the help of your classmates.

» » » »

Choose one of the volunteer programs in exercise 2. Create six questions about the program – three starting with a question word (what, how, where, who, when, why) and three yes/no questions. Provide answers to the questions. Show your FAQ section to the other groups and to your teacher. Incorporate feedback and write your final version.

SELF-EVALUATION Evaluate your FAQ section. Compare it to the one on this page. How similar or different are they? Is the language appropriate? Are there any improvements you can make to it?

64

GO BEYOND Website where you can learn more about volunteer work: <http://ler. vc/n6iqu2>. (Accessed on: Apr. 16, 2016.) Movie about being kind and helping other people: PAY IT FORWARD (A CORRENTE DO BEM). Directed by: Mimi Leder. United States: 2004.

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AUTOAVALIAÇÃO Responda às perguntas do quadro abaixo para avaliar seu aprendizado ao longo das unidades 3 e 4. = muito bom

= regular

= fraco

Sou capaz de...

Unidade

a. ler, ouvir e falar sobre hábitos de vida saudáveis.

3

b. ler e reconhecer as características do gênero textual teste.

3

c. entender locuções verbais e empregá-las adequadamente.

3

d. identificar substantivos contáveis e incontáveis e empregar as expressões que indicam quantidade.

3

e. ler posts em um microblog, reconhecer suas características e produzir um texto semelhante.

3

f. ler, ouvir e falar a respeito de caridade e trabalho voluntário.

4

g. ler e reconhecer as características do gênero textual wiki.

4

h. entender as diferenças de uso entre marcadores de discurso e empregá-los corretamente.

4

i. perceber as diferenças entre Simple Past e Present Perfect e usá-los de maneira apropriada.

4

j. observar as características de uma seção de perguntas frequentes (FAQ) e criar uma semelhante.

4

Avaliação

Além desses conteúdos, o que mais você aprendeu? Escreva no caderno.

MELHORANDO SEU DESEMPENHO Refaça os exercícios das unidades 3 e 4. Esclareça suas dúvidas com o(a) professor(a). Participe ativamente das atividades propostas durante as aulas. Crie grupos de estudo.

AUTOAVALIAÇÃO

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HUMANANIMAL BONDING UNIT 5

"I am in favor of animal rights as well as human rights. That is the way of a whole human being." Attributed to Abraham Lincoln (1809–1865), former president of the United States of America. (Quotes About Animals and Why They’re Important to Us. Dog Quotations. Available at: <http://www. dogquotations.com/quotes-about-animals.html>. Accessed on: Apr. 16, 2016.)

Guido Daniele

LEIA NOTAS CULTURAIS E SAIBA MAIS NO MP

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THINK ABOUT IT Focus on Genre

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

1. Look at the flyer and write in the notebook the correct sentences. a. It is meant to attract attention to a service, event or product. b. Texts are long. c. Images are used to illustrate information. d. Information is organized into topics.

WWF Armenia

e. It is intended for wide distribution.

(Available at: <http://wwf.panda.org/wwf_news/?unewsid=109201>. Accessed on: Apr. 18, 2016.)

2. Read the flyer and, in the notebook, write T for true or F for false.

Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

F a. The Caucasian leopard live in Africa. T b. WWF (World Wildlife Fund) is asking for donations to train and equip the rangers. F c. WWF is asking for donations to save the panda. T d. The campaign target are the hotel guests. T e. Donations can be made at the hotel reception.

TALK ABOUT IT 3. Talk to your teacher and classmates about the endangered animal species in Brazil. HUMAN-ANIMAL BONDING | UNIT 5

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READING GET READY TO READ

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

1. Look at the text below and, in the notebook, write down the right answer. a. The text was extracted from a newspaper / website. b. The text is about a person who won a prize / pet. c. The text was extracted from UNEP's / RENCTAS's website.

Habilidades de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto; HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

Editoria de arte

LEIA DICA NO MP

UNEP SASAKAWA PRIZE

HOME | HIGHLIGHTS | LAUREATES | MEDIA GALLERY

Dener Giovanini (arquivo pessoal)

Dener José Giovanini: Co-Winner 2003 The US$20 billion-a-year illegal trade in animals, plants and their products is the world’s third largest criminal activity, surpassed only by weapons and drug trafficking. Because of its immense biodiversity, Brazil has become a favorite target for wildlife traffickers. Every year, about 38 million Brazilian specimens are smuggled from their habitats and sold on the international market. This illegal trade is driving many species towards extinction. Nine out of ten animals never reach the final consumer. They die during capture and transport. In 1999, the environmentalist Dener Giovanini created RENCTAS – the Brazilian network to fight the trafficking of wild animals. RENCTAS has significantly changed attitudes among Brazilian society and the government about this problem. […] RENCTAS has developed a number of activities throughout Brazil, such as police training, animal ransom schemes, educational campaigns, scientific research and the publication of numerous books and reports. Since its creation, RENCTAS has trained more than 2,500 Brazilian environmental agents. […] Information published by RENCTAS has pushed the Brazilian government to create a federal investigation committee to analyze the problem and to introduce proposals to solve it. RENCTAS’ success has awakened interest across the globe, and the RENCTAS model is being emulated in several South American countries. […]

(Dener José Giovanini: Co-Winner 2003. UNEP Sasakawa Prize. Available at: <http://www.unep.org/french/sasakawa/winners/dener.asp>. Accessed on: Apr. 18, 2016.) LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

GLOSSARY

Az

awaken – despertar emulate – imitar, repetir ransom schemes – planos de resgate

68

smuggle – contrabandear surpass – ultrapassar, superar trade – comércio

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GO BEYOND You can learn more about RENCTAS at <http://ler.vc/u367ti>. (Accessed on: Apr. 18, 2016.)

READING COMPREHENSION 1. In the notebook, write the sentences that are true according to the text. a. Brazil is a favorite destination for traffickers. b. Illegal trade is causing species to disappear. c. The greatest cause of animal extinction is habitat destruction.

Habilidade de leitura: HL4 – Localizar informações relevantes no texto para completar uma tarefa ou solucionar um problema.

d. RENCTAS has trained more than 2,500 Brazilian environmental agents. e. RENCTAS has influenced the government to change the way it deals with wildlife trafficking.

2. In the notebook, complete the sentences using the numbers found in the text. a. Illegal trade makes b. Approximately c.

Nine

out of

38

10

20

billion dollars a year.

million Brazilian specimens are illegally traded every year. captured wild animals die before they can be sold.

d. RENCTAS was created by environmentalist Dener Giovanini in e.

2,500

Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

1999

.

Brazilian environmental agents have been trained by RENCTAS.

TIP Usamos a técnica de leitura rápida (scanning) para buscar informações específicas no texto. Para isso, não não é necessário parar em cada palavra desconhecida para entender o seu significado; basta percorrer o texto em busca da informação desejada. Habilidade de leitura: HL10 – Estabelecer relação causa / consequência entre partes e elementos de um texto.

3. According to the text, Brazil is a country of immense biodiversity. In the notebook, write the sentence that describes the consequence of this. a. "[…] RENCTAS’ success has awakened interest across the globe […]". b. "[…] Brazil has become a favorite target for wildlife traffickers. […]" c. "[…] the RENCTAS model is being emulated in several South American countries. […]"

4. In the notebook, write down two activities RENCTAS has developed in order to fight against animal trafficking. Sugestões de respostas: Police training, animal ransom schemes, educational campaigns, scientific research, publication of numerous books and reports.

VIEWPOINTS

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

Converse com seu professor e colegas. Você já viu animais silvestres sendo vendidos em feiras livres? Isso é comum no seu bairro? Você já comprou algum desses animais ou conhece alguém que tenha comprado? As campanhas educacionais são suficientes para minimizar o problema do tráfico de animais silvestres ou precisamos de leis mais severas, com punições mais expressivas?

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VOCABULARY WILD ANIMALS AND PETS 1. Read the quote and write, in the notebook, the correct option. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Keeping wild animals as pets can be appealing, but it is important to remember that keeping a wild animal as a pet is associated with many potential problems, not to mention legal and ethical issues.â&#x20AC;? (MCLEOD, Lianne. Wild animals as pets. About.com. Available at: <http://exoticpets.about.com/od/choosinganexoticpet/tp/wildanimalpets.htm>. Accessed on: Mar. 12, 2013.)

According to the quote, a. Keeping a wild animal as a pet brings no problem. b. Keeping a wild animal as a pet can cause legal problems.

P

bear

W

hamster

P

sea turtle

W

goldfish

P

tortoise

W

P

jaguar

W

manatee

W

Ingram Publishing/Thinkstock

cockatiel

Comstock/Thinkstock

Medioimages/Photodisc/Thinkstock

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

Hemera/Thinkstock

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

German Shepherd

Hemera/Thinkstock

Hemera/Thinkstock

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

2. Look at the pictures and write down, in the notebook, W for wild animal or P for pet.

TRACK 19

PRONUNCIATION Listen and repeat.

70

/h/ and /r/ / / habitat / hamster / horse

/ / rabbit / rooster / raven

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3. In the notebook, complete the sentences with the names of the animals from exercise 2. Two of them will not be used. a. I always have to help my little brother clean his manatee

b. A c.

Jaguars

bowl.

is a large animal that lives in warm waters and eats plants.

are members of the cat family, just like tigers and lions. tortoises

d. Turtles and

German Shepherd

e. A

goldfish

are reptiles who have a shell.

police dog named Justice cornered two suspects in the building. cockatiel

f. Regular free flying is important to a hamsters

g. Rodents such as mice and

. It needs time outside its cage.

are popular as pets.

GO BEYOND If you want to learn more about wild animals, visit: <http://ler.vc/dfnxuv> and <http://ler.vc/3wvw4x>. (Accessed on: Apr. 18, 2016.)

BECAUSE, BECAUSE OF AND SO 1. Read the sentences and complete the following statements in the notebook. “Because of its immense biodiversity, Brazil has become a favorite target for wildlife traffickers.” Many species disappear because their habitat is destroyed. The illegal selling of wild animals only exists because of those who buy them. Deforestation eliminates animals’ ecosystems and food sources so animals go extinct. Dogs are considered loyal, so people like having them as pets. Because

a. b.

So

Because of

and

are used to indicate the motive or reason.

is used to indicate the result or consequence.

2. In the notebook, complete the sentences so that they are true for you. a. My favorite pet is

a dog

because

it's loyal

b. Sometimes I get up late because of c.

Julia

.

my insomnia

she's always there for me

is a nice friend, so

.

.

Sugestões de respostas: I am really tired leave now

d. I am going to

because

read it now

e. I’m not going to

because of

.

I'll need some help to finish the report

f. I don’t have much time so

GRAMMAR

.

my headache

.

LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE

P. 140

Revisão de Why e Because.

LANGUAGE DISCOVERY 1. Read the sentence and write the correct options in the notebook. “Since its creation, RENCTAS has trained more than 2,500 Brazilian environmental agents.” a. The training conducted by RENCTAS ... • happened in a single moment. √ • happened many times since its creation until now.

b. We can say that ... √ • many agents were trained by RENCTAS until now.

• the agents were trained when RENCTAS was created. HUMAN-ANIMAL BONDING | UNIT 5

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2. Read the sentences in the Present Perfect Simple and, in the notebook, write T (true) or F (false) for the following statements. Brazil has invested a lot of money in the environmental cause since ECO-92. How long have you rescued wild animals? I have rescued animals since the creation of the organization. T a. Present Perfect Simple can be used to describe actions that started in the past and are still happening in

the present moment. T b. We use How long when we want to know the duration of an action. F c.  Present Perfect Simple is used to express an action that happened in a specific time in the past.

3. Read the sentences and match the prepositions to their meanings. Write down in the notebook the corresponding letters and numbers. Macaws have been in danger since the 90s. The agents have worked on this matter for five years. a. since

b 1. há / por

b. for

a 2. desde

4. Use the cues to make sentences. You'll need the prepositions since or for. c. I / not eat / anything / breakfast.

a. I / not see / Rachel / morning.

I haven’t eaten anything since breakfast.

I haven’t seen Rachel since morning.

d. Josh / not have / a haircut / eight months.

b. My brother / read / two books / last Monday.

Josh hasn’t had a haircut for eight months.

My brother has read two books since last Monday.

5. Answer the questions in the notebook. Sugestões de respostas: a. How long have you lived in your present house?

d. How long have you studied English?

b. How long have you studied in this school?

e. How long have you been awake?

c. How long have you known your best friend?

f. How long have you been in this room?

I have lived in my present house for five years. I have studied in this school since last year.

I have studied English for seven years. I have been awake since 6 o'clock.

I have known my best friend since I was a little kid.

I have been in this room for one hour.

LEIA DICA NO MP

LANGUAGE DISCOVERY 1. Certain time adverbs are commonly used with the Present Perfect Simple. Read the sentences below and match the adverbs to their meanings. Write down the corresponding letters and numbers in the notebook. a. Has the organization published any books recently? b. My little cousin Jimmy is getting really upset. Aunt Jude hasn’t adopted a pet yet. Have you called IBAMA yet? c. Have you ever heard about Projeto TAMAR? Ana has already finished her paper on wildlife. Have you finished the report already? d. I have never seen a snake. e. Daniel has visited some animal shelters lately. a. recently

72

d 1. nunca

b. yet

a 2. recentemente

c. ever / already

b 3. ainda não / já

d. never

e 4. ultimamente

e. lately

c 5. já

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TIP

ut te rst oc k.c

om

Usamos ever quando queremos saber se, alguma vez na vida, a pessoa já fez aquilo que está sendo perguntado. Have you ever touched a wild animal?

TP m 13 th x/ Sh

Usamos yet quando buscamos informação sobre algo mais imediato. Is dinner ready yet? Usamos already quando estamos esperando obter uma resposta afirmativa ou para expressarmos surpresa. Have you fed the dog already?

2. Unscramble the sentences and write them down in the notebook. a. a pet / I / had / never / have / . I have never had a pet. b. been / Suzanne / recently / hasn’t / doctor / to / the / . Suzanne hasn’t been to the doctor recently. c. adopted / a new pet / the kids / already / have / . The kids have already adopted a new pet. d. has / much / worked / so / lately / Jessie / . Jessie has worked so much lately. e. about / animal / cruelty / hasn’t / yet / Bob / the film / watched / . Bob hasn’t watched the film about animal cruelty yet. f. you / to / have / ever / a / zoo / been / ? Have you ever been to a zoo?

3. Write down the correct options in the notebook. 1. Daddy, I haven’t taken Rex for a walk a. lately

but I will do it soon.

b. yet

2. Many pets have been adopted a. never

c. never

. b. ever

3. This is so wrong, Alice. I have a. recently

c. lately

seen animals in such poor conditions. b. never

4. My mother hates animal cruelty. She has a. never 5. Have you

c. yet given up buying some make-up tested on animals.

b. already

c. ever

tried kiteboarding?

a. ever

b. never

6. Have you been to the movies a. recently

c. yet

? b. never

7. David has written five reports a. already

c. ever

our last meeting. b. lately

8. Rachel has been in this company a. for

c. since

quite a long time.

b. yet

c. since

4. Make true sentences about you. Write them down in the notebook. a. I have never b. I haven’t c. I have already

. yet. .

Respostas pessoais.

d. I have

recently.

e. I have

lately.

f.

. HUMAN-ANIMAL BONDING | UNIT 5

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INTEGRATED SKILLS

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

Habilidade de leitura: HL4 – Localizar informações relevantes no texto para completar uma tarefa ou solucionar um problema.

READING

Editoria de arte

1. Read the text and decide if the following situations are cases of active or passive cruelty. In the notebook, write AC ou PC.

ANIMAL CRUELTY [...] Animal cruelty is often broken down into two main categories: active and passive, also referred to as commission and omission, respectively. Passive Cruelty (Acts of Omission) Passive cruelty is typified by cases of neglect, where the crime is a lack of action rather than the action itself [...] Examples of neglect are starvation, dehydration, parasite infestations, allowing a collar to grow into an animal's skin, inadequate shelter in extreme weather conditions, and failure to seek veterinary care when an animal needs medical attention. [...] Active Cruelty (Acts of Commission) [...] Acts of intentional cruelty are often some of the most disturbing and should be considered signs of serious psychological problems. This type of behavior is often associated with sociopathic behavior and should be taken very seriously. Animal abuse in violent homes can take many forms and can occur for many reasons. Many times a parent or domestic partner who is abusive may kill, or threaten to kill, the household pets to intimidate family members […], to remain silent about previous or current abuse, or simply to psychologically torture the victims, flexing their "power".

(Animal cruelty. Pet-abuse.com. Available at: <http://www.pet-abuse.com/pages/animal_cruelty.php>. Accessed on: Apr. 20, 2016.)

PC a. A woman didn’t give her dog water for three days. AC b. A man killed the family pet to intimidate his partner. PC c. A couple left their dogs outside in the cold and rain. PC d. A family’s cat is hungry and full of parasites. AC e. A man hit a horse. PC f. A man didn’t take his sick dogs to a vet.

VIEWPOINTS

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

Converse com seu professor e colegas. Segundo Immanuel Kant, “Podemos julgar o coração de um homem pelo seu tratamento com os animais”. Você concorda que a maneira como o ser humano trata os animais determina o tipo de pessoa que é? Por quê? Como você definiria uma maneira apropriada de tratamento? Você acha que trata os animais de maneira adequada? (Crueldade com os animais. AMA. Disponível em: <http://www.amanatureza.org.br/site/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=29: crueldade&catid=1:contartigos&Itemid=2>. Acesso em: 20 abr. 2016.)

LEIA NOTA CULTURAL E SAIBA MAIS NO MP

IN CONTEXT Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) was a German philosopher who wrote important books during the Enlightenment in the 18th century. LEIA SUGESTÃO INTERDISCIPLINAR NO MP

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LISTENING

Comstock/Thinkstock

1. You are going to listen to a podcast about pet adoption. Before you listen, look at the picture of the dog and answer the questions in the notebook.

a. Is the animal an adult dog or a puppy? It’s an adult dog.

b. Is it in a dog shelter or somebody’s home? It’s in a dog shelter.

c. In your opinion, did the owner give the dog to a shelter because of bad behavior? Respostas pessoais.

TRACK 20 2. Listen to the first part of the podcast and write down, in the notebook, the three main reasons why adult dogs are usually surrendered to a shelter. √ • a divorce

• a death

√ • financial problems

• a natural disaster

√ • a move LEIA DICA NO MP

3. Before you listen to the second part of the podcast, in the notebook, match the columns to learn some new vocabulary. c 1. makes the kid fall down. a. If you benefit from something,

b. A rambunctious puppy is

f 2. free-time activities.

c. If a dog knocks over a kid, it

b 3. full of energy and difficult to control.

d. If a puppy is always chewing and nipping,

a 4. it’s good for you.

e. If a puppy’s wrecking your home,

e 5. it’s destroying it.

f. Hiking, boating, and traveling are

d 6. it’s always destroying things and hurting people with

its teeth.

TRACK 21 4. Now listen and, in the notebook, complete the sentences with the expressions from the box. families with kids

An adult dog is ideal for: families with kids

a. 

because a puppy is usually too out of

control, requiring as much supervision as the children.

young couples or single people

b. 

because they don’t have to wait for

young couples or single people

Westend61/Getty Images

older people

the dog to grow up to do activities like hiking, boating, and traveling.

older people

c. 

because the dog is calmer and won’t hurt

their delicate skin.

HUMAN-ANIMAL BONDING | UNIT 5

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5. Now that you’ve listened to the podcast, write, in the notebook, the sentence that’s true for you. Then talk to a classmate about it. Respostas pessoais. a. I prefer puppies because they play a lot. b. I like both puppies and adult dogs. I love animals! c. I prefer adult dogs because they are calmer. d. I don’t like pets.

VIEWPOINTS Converse com seu professor e colegas. Há alguma situação em que o abandono de um animal possa ser justificável? Você adotaria um cachorro ou gato adulto de um abrigo para cães / gatos abandonados? Por quê?

SPEAKING Giving and Justifying Opinions 1. Read the sentence below and write, in the notebook, the communicative function of the expression in bold. “I think pretty much anyone would be happy adopting an adult dog.” a. Give an opinion.

b. Deny a fact.

c. Conclude a story.

2. Read the sentences below and write down in the notebook the communicative function of the expressions in bold. “Probably the most important is, if you’re adopting an adult pet from a shelter, you’re literally saving a life.” “If they have small children, a rambunctious puppy might be too out of control.” “Also, puppies take an incredible amount of supervision.” “An older person would benefit from adopting an adult dog because the dog is calmer.” The expressions are used to disagree / justify and defend opinions / summarize arguments.

TALK ABOUT IT 3. Read the description of three people and decide which pet each of them should get. Then talk to a classmate and support your opinion. a. Mary is a 70-year-old woman who lives alone. She’s allergic to cats. b. Ted and Susan are teenagers who love playing around and have time to train a pet. c. John has to travel on business. Sometimes he’s away for one or two days at a time.

WEB SEARCH Go to the site <http://ler.vc/bwyq6c> (Accessed on: Apr. 20, 2016) and read more about dog adoption. Choose the two best reasons to adopt an adult dog and share them with three classmates. Together, decide on the best reason for adopting an adult dog instead of buying a puppy.

76

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WRITING Focus on Genre

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

1. In magazines and newspapers you can usually find a section with letters written to the editors by the readers. Read the following letter and match its features to the corresponding arrows. Write down the answers in the notebook. a. The reader’s opinion and comments on the article (it may include some personal experience). b. Name of the reader and place where she / he comes from. c. Title. d. Conclusion. Estúdio Insólito

e. Introduction mentioning the article the letter is about (subject, title, date of publication). c 1

In the company of dogs

e 2

Thanks for the lovely piece about how sheltered dogs can become cherished companions ("Play lots help sheltered dogs socialize; New outdoor areas at city kennel will keep strays healthy," News, April 12).

a 3

Our Bruce was a Pennsylvania puppy-mill dog who had never been out of a cage. When we adopted him, he didn't know what a treat was, or a toy, or a walk. […]

d4

People tell us how lucky Bruce is, but it is we who are grateful every day for his company.

b 5

Philip Tripp, Fort Erie, Ontario

(TRIPP, Philip. In the company of dogs. Chicago Tribune, Chicago, Apr. 21, 2012. News, Voice of the people, p. 11.)

TIP Inglês americano: socialize realize organize | Inglês britânico: socialise realise organise

2. Write a letter in response to either the article on page 68 or the article on page 74.

» »

First, choose the article and read it again. Underline two things you would like to comment on. Create a title and write the introduction, mentioning the subject and the title of the article. Start like this: Thanks for the interesting article about...

»

Write the second paragraph, making comments on the article. Use the expressions for giving and justifying opinions on page 76.

» » » » »

Write a conclusion, expressing your opinion. Don’t forget to write your full name and the place where you live. Read your letter and compare it to the letter given. Show your letter to your classmates and incorporate feedback. Show it to your teacher. Make any necessary changes, write your final version and send it to the editor of the website.

SELF-EVALUATION Evaluate your letter. Compare it to the one on this page. How similar or different are they? Does it convey your message to the reader? Is the language appropriate? Are there any improvements you can make to it?

GO BEYOND Book on animal rights: SINGER, Peter. Libertação Animal – o clássico definitivo sobre o movimento pelos direitos dos animais. São Paulo: Editora WMF Martins Fontes, 2010.

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WE LIVE, WE LEARN UNIT 6

"Education is our passport to the future, for tomorrow belongs to the people who prepare for it today." Malcolm X (1925â&#x20AC;&#x201C;1965), an African-American human rights activist. (Quotes About Future. Good reads. Available at: <http://www.goodreads.com/quotes/tag/future>. Accessed on: Apr. 21, 2016.)

Jupiterimages/Brand X Pictures/Thinkstock

LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

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THINK ABOUT IT

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

Focus on Genre

Estúdio Insólito (Specially created for this book.)

1. Look at the Venn diagram and write, in the notebook, T for true or F for false.

T a. Information is visually organized. T b. There are overlapping circles. F c. The size of each circle is proportional to the

quantity it represents. T d. The circles show relations between the items. F e. It is used to analyze the steps of a sequential

process.

Habilidade de leitura: HL16 – Inferir o sentido de palavras ou expressões desconhecidas do texto por meio de comparação com a língua materna, análise do contexto e uso de conhecimento morfológico.

2. In the notebook, complete the definitions using expressions from the diagram about the 21st century learner. a. An b. A c. A

information manager

is someone who can control and organize data and deal with technology.

problem solver

is someone who is able to find solutions for present situations to reach a certain goal.

lifelong learner

is someone who wants to learn, not only during childhood or in the classroom, but during all

his / her life. d. A

critical thinker

is someone who uses his knowledge and intelligence to analyze and evaluate facts, opinions and

alternatives before making reasonable decisions. e. A

global citizen

is someone who respects and values diversity and is aware of his responsibilities to others and to

the Earth.

TALK ABOUT IT 3. Are you creative or a problem solver? Are you innovative? Talk to your teacher and classmates about your learner characteristics. Respostas pessoais.

GO BEYOND You can find tips on how to be a successful learner in the 21st century at <http://ler.vc/4axf6a>. (Accessed on: Mar. 12, 2013.) LEIA NOTA CULTURAL E SAIBA MAIS NO MP WE LIVE, WE LEARN | UNIT 6

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READING

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

GET READY TO READ 1. Read the text below and answer the questions in the notebook.

Habilidades de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros; HL7 – Identificar a tese principal ou o conflito central de um texto.

a. What text genre is it? A wiki. b. Who has edited the text? Maluniu and six other people. c. What is the text about? It is about time management.

Editoria de arte

d. Who does the text aim at? Sugestões de respostas: High school students, students preparing for college.

Home > Categories > Youth > School Stuff > Surviving School > Surviving High School

HOW TO MANAGE YOUR TIME WISELY AS A HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT Edited by Maluniu and 6 others ARTICLE

 EDIT

b DISCUSS

This is the time of your life that you're preparing yourself for college and the real world. So how do you manage your time doing all of your current activities without being overly stressed? STEPS •

Prioritize your weekly schedule as a student. Any educational / academic studies must come first, then extra curriculum activities, and then social life. [...]

Set a time limit on how long you study for each class. Don't go overboard on one subject and forget that you have several others to catch up on before going to bed. [...]

Get at least 6-9 hours of sleep. If you have more or less sleep than you should have, you may start lacking in your coursework and become lazy because of the urge or want to sleep. [...]

Think of how non-educational activities are affecting your schedule. If you are babysitting, compromise with the mother on set days and times that goes around your academic life. If you cannot commit to your studies because of football practice, then you must take action. When something gets in the way, you need to drop it, even if it's temporarily.

Don't neglect your health. Just because you're short of time doesn't mean you should live on junk food. Try to get your fruits and vegetables every day. Remember to exercise at least 30 minutes a day. Doing these things will support mental, physical and emotional function. [...]

(How to manage your time wisely as a high school student. Wiki how to do anything. Available at: <http://www.wikihow.com/Manage-Your-TimeWisely-As-aHigh-School-Student>. Accessed on: Apr. 25, 2016.)

GLOSSARY

Az

commit – comprometer-se compromise – combinar, fazer acordos drop – desistir, abandonar junk food – comida com baixo ou nenhum valor nutricional lack – faltar

80

manage – administrar overly – demais, excessivamente set – marcar, arrumar urge – desejo, compulsão wisely – com sabedoria

UNIT 6 | WE LIVE, WE LEARN

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READING COMPREHENSION

Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

1. Read the wiki page again and answer the following questions in the notebook. a. When does someone prepare for college and the real world? During high school.

b. How can someone avoid being lazy and wanting to sleep all day? Geing at least 6-9 hours of sleep.

c. What should someone do in order not to neglect his or her health? Eat fruits and vegetables and exercise at least 30 minutes a day.

2. In the sentence "Don't go overboard on one subject and forget that you have several others to catch up on before going to bed," the underlined expressions can be substituted for down the answer in the notebook.

. Write

Habilidade de leitura: HL16 – Inferir o sentido de palavras ou expressões desconhecidas do texto por meio de comparação com a língua materna, análise do contexto e uso de conhecimento morfológico.

a. ignore and be involved with b. dedicate extremely to and give aention to

3. Write, in the notebook, the sentences which are NOT true according to the text and correct them. a. Your social life must come first. Sugestão de resposta: Your academic studies must come first.

Habilidade de leitura: HL4 – Localizar informações relevantes no texto para completar uma tarefa ou solucionar um problema.

b. If you don’t sleep well, you will find it difficult to concentrate on your studies.

c. If you cannot commit to your studies because of football practice, you need to drop it permanently.

Sugestão de resposta: If you cannot commit to your studies because of football practice, you need to drop it, even if it's temporarily.

d. You shouldn’t eat only junk food just because you are short of time.

4. Leisure should not be a priority when it comes to managing one’s time effectively. Find the sentence in the text which supports this idea and write it down in the notebook.

Habilidade de leitura: HL19 – Validar ou reformular hipóteses sobre o conteúdo do texto, com base em indicadores contidos no texto. Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

"Any educational / academic studies must come first, then extra curriculum activities, and then social life. [...]"

VIEWPOINTS

Converse com seu professor e colegas. Como você organiza seu tempo? Você acha que as dicas apresentadas no texto podem ser úteis na distribuição do seu tempo entre as atividades que você precisa realizar? Há outros aspectos ou habilidades importantes para obter sucesso na vida acadêmica que não foram mencionados no texto? Quais são as implicações do sucesso acadêmico na vida de uma pessoa?

VOCABULARY EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM 1. Read the sentences and write the correct option in the notebook. “I remember my very first day of kindergarten. On this day, my Mom walked me to the front door of a big building, the school that I could look down the road and see from my home.” (Explore November and December Classes and Activities. District 726 Community Education. Available at: <http://elkriver.registryinsight.com/ ittrium/visit/A1x241x1x82y1x249x1x7fy1x28fx1x68y1xba1x1x9ey1xba5x1x9f>. Accessed on: Mar. 12, 2013.)

“High school is basically mandatory, and in most cases, its main purpose has become preparing students for college.” (High School Action Plan. Scholarships.com. Available at: <http://www.scholarships.com/resources/college-prep/preparing-for-college/highschool-action-plan/>. Accessed on: Mar. 12, 2013.)

The expressions in bold are related to the a. education system of a country

. b. organizational systems

c. employee promotion system WE LIVE, WE LEARN | UNIT 6

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2. Look at the graph and choose the appropriate title. Write down the answer in the notebook. a. American Education System b. American and Brazilian Education Systems c. How to be a successful student in the USA

Professional

College

Ricardo Edmundo Schütz (www.SK.com.br)

School

Preschool

(Trecho do gráfico: Equivalência de níveis. Os sistemas brasileiro, norteamericano e britânico de educação. Available at: <http://www.sk.com.br/skedsys.html>. Accessed on: Apr. 26, 2016.)

TIP No sistema educacional estadunidense, os alunos recebem denominações de acordo com o período que estão cursando. 9th grader – freshman 10th grader – sophomore 11th grader – junior 12th grader – senior

TIP A indicação dos níveis de escolaridade é sempre feita por meio de números ordinais.

TIP Inglês americano: freshman Inglês britânico: fresher

TRACK 22

PRONUNCIATION /θ/ We have the / / sound at the end of most ordinal numbers. Listen and repeat. fourth grade fifth grade ninth grade

82

twelfth grade

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3. Look at the graph on page 82 and write in the notebook the correct options. a. If you were an American student you would be in • nursery school

• elementary school

. √ • high school

• college

• 10th grade

√ • 11th grade

• 12th grade

• sophomore

√ • junior

• senior

b. Which grade would you be attending? • 9th grade c. You would be a

.

anto niod iaz/S hutte rstoc k.com

• freshman

a. Name: Lisa Phoenix Age: 14 Level:

High school

c.

b. Name: Brian Lee Age: 4

9th grade

Level: Comstock/Thinkstock

Grade: George Doyle/Stockbyte/Thinkstock

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

Pixland/Thinkstock

4. In the notebook, complete the students’ profiles based on their ages.

Kindergarten / Preschool

d. Name: Peter Scott

Name: Dan Smith

Age: 17

Age: 22

Level:

Level:

University

High school

Grade:

12th grade

COGNATES AND FALSE COGNATES 1. Read the excerpt from the text on page 80 and write down in the notebook the words which are similar in Portuguese. “This is the time of your life that you're preparing yourself for college and the real world. So how do you manage your time doing all of your current activities without being overly stressed?” We call cognates the words that have form and meaning similar to Portuguese. People learn in different ways. (As pessoas aprendem de maneiras diferentes.) False cognates are the words that have a similar form in Portuguese but a different meaning. I prefer to study at the library. (Eu prefiro estudar na biblioteca.) WE LIVE, WE LEARN | UNIT 6

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False Cognates Inglês – Português

Português – Inglês

application (n.) – inscrição

aplicação (financeira) – investment

data (n.) – dados, fatos

data – date

educated (adj.) – instruído(a)

educado – polite

enroll (v.) – inscrever-se

enrolar – to roll

form (n.) – formulário

forma – way, means

graduate program (n.) – curso de pós-graduação

curso de graduação – undergraduate program

lecture (n.) – palestra, aula

leitura – reading

novel (n.) – romance

novela – soap opera

particular (adj.) – específico(a)

particular – private

professor (n.) – professor universitário

professor – teacher

2. Write down in the notebook the words that best complete the sentences. a. Man: The novel / soap opera final episode was delayed in favor of a soccer game. Woman: Let's watch the game, then. b. Woman: Oh, no! I’m late again. I think I’ll need to take some particular / private lessons. c. Man: Professor / Teacher Hughes’s lectures / reading are simply outstanding! Woman: Yes, absolutely! d. Man: I’d like to enroll / roll in this course. Woman: Please, fill in that way / form.

GRAMMAR LANGUAGE DISCOVERY 1. Read the sentences and write in the notebook the correct options. 1. “ If you have more or less sleep than you should have, you may start lacking in your coursework and become lazy because of the urge or want to sleep.” 2. “Just because you're short of time doesn't mean you should live on junk food.” a. According to sentence 1, you can start having problems if • you sleep more than is recommended

. • if you sleep less than is recommended

√ • you sleep more or less than is recommended

b. According to sentence 2, despite the lack of time it is not advisable • to eat larger portions

84

√ • to eat only junk food

. • to start a diet

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2. Read the sentences and write in the notebook the correct option. I think you should participate more in class. You ought to attend the morning classes. You had better improve your grades. The verb forms in bold express... a. possibility.

b. obligation.

c. advice and recommendation.

d. permission and ability.

3. Read the sentences and match the modal verbs in bold to their communicative functions. Write down in the notebook the corresponding letters and numbers. 1. Used to express advice and recommendation. 2. Used to express advice and recommendation, but can also indicate warning and threat. 1 a. I think you should study harder. 1 b. You shouldn’t eat junk food. 1 c. Students ought to take notes during the class. 1 d. You ought not to miss Mr. Martin’s classes. 2 e. You’d better get more sleep before the finals. Revisão de Imperatives.

2 f. She’d better not cheat on the test again.

LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE

P. 141

TIP Ao contrário dos outros verbos modais, ought é sempre seguido da partícula to com o verbo principal no infinitivo.

4. Read the sentences and write the correct options in the notebook. a. The airline company only allows two pieces of luggage. You • should

√ • had beer not

b. My sister’s room is really messy. She • shouldn’t

d. Come on! You • had beer not

clean it more oen. • ought

play music so loud! • had beer

• should

knock on the door before coming in my room. • shouldn't

e. Leo spends most of his time watching TV. He • shouldn't

• had beer

√ • should

c. It’s late. Our neighbors √ • ought not to

pack too much!

√ • should

get some exercise.

√ • had beer

• ought not to

5. Write down the correct options in the notebook. a. If you have the flu, you had better not / should rest and drink lots of liquids. b. Alice doesn’t look well. I think she ought / should to go to the doctor. c. The bus leaves in a few minutes. You ought / should go now. d. You had better / shouldn’t text while driving. It’s dangerous. e. When you travel abroad, you had better not / should carry some cash. f. If you want to get beer grades, you ought / had better to study hard. g. Anne is really upset. You ought not / had better not call her right now. WE LIVE, WE LEARN | UNIT 6

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6. Unscramble the words and write down sentences in the notebook. a. to / music / not / had / loud / better / I / listen / . I had better not listen to loud music.

b. ought / cat / to / you / the / your / to / vet / take / . You ought to take your cat to the vet.

c. should / we / I / the / party / don’t / to / think / go / . I don’t think we should go to the party.

d. time / spend / you / so / online / shouldn’t / much / . You shouldn’t spend so much time online.

e. eat / kids / too / much / shouldn’t / candy / . Kids shouldn’t eat too much candy.

f. mother / had / with / her / Laurie / better / the / housework / help / . Laurie had better help her mother with the housework.

g. call / you / to / return / arrive / the / as soon as / you / ought / . You ought to return the call as soon as you arrive.

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

Editoria de arte

7. Read the extract from an online article and complete the sentences in the notebook.

Home

Traveler's Toolkit

“To Go or not to Go?” Why Everyone Can and

Should

Study Abroad

SHOULD

“To Go or not to Go?” Why Everyone Can and

Study Abroad

by Megan Byrd […] This advice is for all of you skeptics out there who invent every reason in the world for why studying abroad shouldn’t

be packing your bags

just can’t happen for you. I’m here to tell you, scout’s honor, there’s no reason you today.

[…] Often the real reason behind many students’ apprehensions is the fear of homesickness, loneliness, shouldn’t

or simply not having fun. Often students are afraid to admit this, but they

be. Moving to a foreign

country for any length of time can be emotionally taxing. There’s culture shock, homesickness, and initial loneliness. […] You

should

have no real excuses left to keep your feet on the ground. The money can be managed, the

time is there, and you might be apprehensive, but you will make friends. People can always find ways to talk themselves out of doing great things. […]

(“To go or not to go?”: Why everyone can and should study abroad. Bootsnall. Available at: <http://toolkit.bootsnall.com/student-travel-guide/ study-abroad-guide/to-go-or-not-to-go-why-everyone-can-and-should-study-abroad.html>. Accessed on: Mar. 12, 2013.)

8. Match the situations to the corresponding recommendations. Write down the answers in the notebook. a. It’s raining.

c 1. You’d better go on a diet and exercise.

b. I don’t know where to go on vacation.

d 2. You shouldn’t go to bed so late.

c. I want to lose some weight.

f 3. You had better put on a sweater.

d. I’m tired.

e 4. You ought to go to the dentist.

e. I have a toothache.

b 5. You should go to Natal.

f. It’s getting cold.

a 6. You should take an umbrella.

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INTEGRATED SKILLS READING

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

Editoria de arte

1. Write down the corresponding letters and numbers in the notebook.

The Eight Types of Intelligence Howard Gardner has identified eight distinct types of intelligence, as follows: [...] Visual-spatial Intelligence - Strengths: Visual and Spatial Judgment. People who are strong in visual-spatial intelligence are good at visualizing things. These individuals are often good with directions as well as maps, charts, videos and pictures.[...] Linguistic-Verbal Intelligence - Strengths: Words, Language and Writing. People who are strong in linguistic-verbal intelligence are able to use words well, both when writing and speaking. These individuals are typically very good at writing stories, memorizing information and reading. [...] Logical-Mathematical Intelligence -Strengths: Analyzing Problems and Mathematical Operations. People who are strong in logical-mathematical intelligence are good at reasoning, recognizing patterns and logically analyze problems. These individuals tend to think conceptually about numbers, relationships, and patterns. [...] Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence - Strengths: Physical Movement, Motor Control. Those who have high bodily-kinesthetic intelligence are said to be good at body movement, performing actions and physical control. People who are strong in this area tend to have excellent hand-eye coordination and dexterity.[...] Musical Intelligence - Strengths: Rhythm and Music. People who have strong musical intelligence are good and thinking in patterns, rhythms and sounds. They have a strong appreciation for music and are often good at musical composition and performance. [...] Interpersonal Intelligence - Strengths: Understanding and Relating to Other People. Those who have strong interpersonal intelligence are good at understanding and interacting with other people. These individuals are skilled at assessing the emotions, motivations, desires and intentions of those around them. [...] Intrapersonal Intelligence - Strengths: Introspection and Self-Reflection. Individuals who are strong in intrapersonal intelligence are good at being aware of their own emotional states, feelings and motivations. They tend to enjoy self-reflection and analysis, including day-dreaming, exploring relationships with others and assessing their personal strengths. [...] Naturalistic Intelligence - Strengths: Finding Patterns and Relationships to Nature. [...]. Individuals who are high in this type of intelligence are more in tune with nature and are often interested in nurturing, exploring the environment and learning about other species. These individuals are said to be highly aware of even subtle changes to their environments. [...] (Gardner’s Theory About Multiple Intelligences. About.com. Available at: <http://psychology.about.com/od/educationalpsychology/ss/multipleintell.htm>. Accessed on: Apr. 25, 2016.)

Characteristics / Activities

Types of Intelligence

1. Doing sports and other physical activities.

2 a. Intrapersonal

2. Understanding your own feelings and goals.

1 b. Bodily-Kinesthetic

3. Understanding other people’s feelings and goals.

8 c. Visual-Spatial

4. Reading, writing and telling stories.

6 d. Musical

5. Solving problems and doing experiments.

4 e. Linguistic

6. Composing and reproducing songs.

7 f. Naturalistic

7. Loving nature and being interested in ecology.

3 g. Interpersonal

8. Reading maps, drawing and painting.

5 h. Logical-Mathematical

WE LIVE, WE LEARN | UNIT 6

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VIEWPOINTS

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

Converse com seu professor e colegas. Qual é a sua opinião sobre a medição de inteligência por meio de testes de QI? Você já realizou algum teste assim? De acordo com as descrições dos tipos de inteligência propostos por Gardner, qual(quais) tipo(s) de inteligência são mais evidentes em você? Por quê? Como você acha que pode desenvolver as inteligências menos presentes?

IN CONTEXT Howard Gardner (1943–) is an American psychologist who developed the theory of multiple intelligences. LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

LISTENING 1. You are going to listen to a podcast about confidence building. Before you listen, write down in the notebook the option that makes each sentence true for you.

Respostas pessoais.

a. I get / don’t get very nervous before tests. b. I have / don’t have a lot of confidence in myself. c. I'm / I'm not afraid of making mistakes. d. I criticize / don’t criticize myself when I get a bad grade. e. I always / never compare my grades and answers to other students’.

GO BEYOND Take a test at <http://ler.vc/b5st2v> to find out your most evident type(s) of intelligence. (Accessed on: Apr. 25, 2016.)

TALK ABOUT IT Respostas pessoais.

2. Do you get nervous before tests? In groups, talk about the sentences in exercise 1.

TIP Usamos as expressões Me too e Me neither para concordarmos com o que foi dito. • Me too é usado quando concordamos com uma frase afirmativa. A: I’m nervous. B: Me too. • Me neither é usado quando concordamos com uma frase negativa. A: I’m not nervous. B: Me neither.

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3. Now listen to the podcast and write in the notebook the sentence that summarizes its topic. a. The importance of getting good grades. b. The best way to study for a difficult test. c. Confidence building in relation to tests.

iStoc kpho to/Th inksto ck

TRACK 23

TRACK 23 4. Listen once more and write, in the notebook, T for true or F for false. T a. Taking tests makes people feel vulnerable and exposed. F b. You should criticize yourself when you don’t do well on a test. F c. Comparing your grades to your classmates’ is a good idea. T d. You may make mistakes even if you’ve studied a lot.

5. Now that you’ve listened to the podcast, decide which tips are useful for you. You can add any other tip you consider valuable. Compare your answer to a classmate’s. Respostas pessoais. a. Don’t put yourself down, that is, don’t criticize yourself. b. Remember to be open to making mistakes. You’re not perfect! c. Don’t compare grades or answers. It’s not helpful.

Heme ra/Th inksto ck

d. Focus on what you know, not on what you don’t know.

SPEAKING Enumerating Tips 1. Read the sentences below and, in the notebook, match the expressions in bold to the corresponding functions. a. “First, you need to remember that taking tests creates a sense of vulnerability.” b. “Second, remember to suspend your self-judgment.” c. “Next, remember to be open to mistakes.” d. “Last, remember to create realistic goals for yourself.” d • To conclude an enumeration. a • To begin an enumeration. b c • To add more items to an enumeration.

TALK ABOUT IT 2. Work in pairs. Give your classmate some useful tips for improving his / her English. You can use some of the following ideas or your own. Remember to use the discourse markers in exercise 1.

» » » »

Listen to songs in English and sing along. Play video games in English. Access websites about topics that you like. Write on a microblog.

» » » »

Remember to do your homework. Write letters, e-mails, etc. Study new vocabulary. Ask your teacher for help. WE LIVE, WE LEARN | UNIT 6

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WEB SEARCH Go to the website <http://ler.vc/rvyecg>. (Accessed on: Apr. 25, 2016.) Read the tips and choose the one you’d like to follow. Write it on a sticky note and give it to your teacher. Don’t forget to write your name and class. LEIA DICA NO MP

3. Now create your own podcast about useful tips for improving your English.

» » » » »

First, choose some tips from exercise 2 and / or from the Web Search. Second, write the script for your podcast using the discourse markers for enumeration (First, Second, Next, Last). Next, show your draft to a classmate and your teacher, incorporate feedback and write your final version. Rehearse it in order to prepare for the recording. Last, record it and play it for your classmates.

WRITING

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

Focus on Genre

1. Read the Dos and Don’ts list and answer the following questions in the notebook. a. Who was it written for?

Students who are preparing for exams.

b. What is the aim of the list? Editoria de arte

To advise students on what should or shouldn’t be done by them before and during an exam.

DOS AND DON’TS TIPS FOR TEST ANXIETY Regardless of whether or not you suffer from test anxiety, these tips will help you to become as confident as possible before your exam.

DOS √ √ √ √ √

Remind yourself that the test is only a test. Focus on integrating details into main ideas. Reward yourself after the test with food or a movie or some other treat. Do something relaxing the last hour before the test. Tell yourself that you will do your best on the test, and that will be enough!

DON’TS x x x x x x

Cram for an exam. The amount you learn won't be worth the stress. Think of yourself or the test in a negative sense. Stay up late studying the night before. You need the sleep. Begin studying a week in advance if possible. Spend time with classmates who generate stress for you on the test day. Take those last few moments before the test for last minute cramming. Try to relax and spend that time reading the newspaper or some other distraction. Arrive early for the exam if that causes additional stress!

(Dos and Don'ts Tips for Test Anxiety. Saint Louis University. Available at: <http://www.slu.edu/retention-and-academic-success/academic-coaching/ resources/test-anxiety/dos-and-donts-for-test-anxiety>. Accessed on: Apr. 26, 2016.)

2. Read the list again and write in the notebook the characteristics you can see. a. There is a greeting from the author at the beginning of the document. b. You can find titles and subtitles. c. A marker precedes each item.

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

d. Verbs are used in the imperative form. e. There is a signature at the end of the document.

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

3. Read the tips in the leaflet and write down in the notebook the ones that are relevant to you. Respostas pessoais.

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4. In pairs, prepare a leaflet to be distributed to your classmates with a DOs and DON'Ts list to get ready for your next test.

» »

SELF-EVALUATION

Create a title (Dos and Don’ts of…).

Evaluate your list. Compare it to the one on this page. How similar or different are they? Are there any improvements you can make to it?

Write your own tips. Remember to follow the characteristics listed in exercise 2.

» » » »

Read your list and compare it to the example given. Show your dra to your teacher and the other groups. Incorporate feedback and write your final version. Hand in your poster so that your teacher can hang it on the bulletin board.

GO BEYOND Website about the necessary skills to succeed in life and work in the 21st century: <http://ler.vc/gfgqka>. (Accessed on: Apr. 26, 2016.) Movie about a young teacher who inspires her class to learn tolerance and apply themselves to their studies: FREEDOM WRITERS (ESCRITORES DA LIBERDADE). Directed by: Richard LaGravenese. United States: 2007. LEIA SUGESTÃO INTERDISCIPLINAR E O ALUNO NO MUNDO DO TRABALHO NO MP

AUTOAVALIAÇÃO Responda às perguntas do quadro a seguir em seu caderno para avaliar seu desempenho ao longo das unidades 5 e 6. = muito bom

= regular

= fraco

Sou capaz de...

Unidade

a. ler, ouvir e falar a respeito de relacionamentos entre humanos e animais.

5

b. ler e reconhecer as características do gênero textual folheto.

5

c. nomear alguns animais selvagens e domésticos.

5

d. empregar expressões que indicam razões ou resultados.

5

e. empregar o Present Perfect e expressões como since, for, already, yet, never, ever, lately e recently em contexto.

5

f. ler e reconhecer as características do gênero textual carta do leitor e produzir um texto semelhante.

5

g. ler, ouvir e falar sobre temas relacionados a educação e aprendizagem.

6

h. ler e reconhecer as características do gênero textual diagrama.

6

i. identificar falsos cognatos e empregá-los adequadamente.

6

j. compreender o uso de verbos modais que expressam conselhos ou recomendações.

6

k. reconhecer características de diferentes tipos de inteligência.

6

l. observar as características de uma lista de dicas e criar uma semelhante.

6

Avaliação

Além desses conteúdos, o que mais você aprendeu? Escreva no caderno.

MELHORANDO SEU DESEMPENHO Refaça os exercícios das unidades 5 e 6. Esclareça suas dúvidas com o(a) professor(a). Ouça músicas em inglês. Assista a filmes em inglês.

AUTOAVALIAÇÃO

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Wavebreak Media/Thinkstock

HEAR IT. WATCH IT. LIVE IT. UNIT 7

"You can increase your brain power three to fivefold simply by laughing and having fun before working on a problem." Doug Hall (1944â&#x20AC;&#x201C;), American author and inventor. (Entertainment Quotes. Finestquotes.com. Available at: <http://www.finestquotes.com/ select_quote-category-Entertainment-page-0. htm#ixzz27VvOu7VB>. Accessed on: Apr. 26, 2016.) LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

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THINK ABOUT IT 1. Read the cartoon and answer the questions in the notebook.

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

Habilidade de leitura: HL21 – Articular conhecimentos prévios e informações textuais, inclusive as que dependem de pressuposições e inferências, para explicar opiniões e valores implícitos.

Piero Tonin (www.CartoonStock.com)

a. How do you think the boy feels? Why? Sugestão de resposta: He is happy / excited because he has just met his idol.

b. Do you think the artist feels the same Sugestão de resposta: No, he

way? Why? probably feels frustrated because he doesn’t get paid for his work when his fans download music illegally.

c. Does the boy seem to feel guilty about his actions? Sugestão de resposta: No, he

doesn’t seem to know he does something illegal.

d. What kind of crime is the cartoon about? Sugestão de resposta: It’s about online piracy.

e. Do you think the boy will get an autograph after having said that? Resposta pessoal.

(Available at: <http://www.cartoonstock.com/cartoonview.asp?catref=pton387>. Accessed on: Apr. 26, 2016.)

2. Read the statements about online piracy and write, in the notebook, the one(s) you agree with. You can add your own ideas to the list.

Respostas pessoais.

a. Internet pirates will always exist. b. Online piracy can be stopped. c. The government should develop a plan of action to prevent online piracy. d. New laws will just push people to find creative new ways of sharing content illegally.

TALK ABOUT IT 3. Do you think online piracy can be stopped? Discuss the statements in exercise 2 with your teacher and classmates.

Respostas pessoais.

VIEWPOINTS

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

Converse com seu professor e colegas. O que você pensa a respeito da pirataria? Quais direitos são violados por ela? Que tipos de conteúdo são mais frequentemente pirateados? Você conhece as leis brasileiras que inibem esse tipo de crime? Como você avalia o trabalho das autoridades e órgãos responsáveis pelo controle da pirataria? Como você acha que esse problema poderia ser minimizado? LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP HEAR IT. WATCH IT. LIVE IT. | UNIT 7

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READING

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

GET READY TO READ 1. Look at the text below and answer the questions in the notebook.

Habilidades de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros; HL7 – Identificar a tese principal ou o conflito central de um texto.

a. What text genre is it? An article. b. Where was it published? On a website. c. Who wrote it? Kenneth Rapoza. d. When was it written? On April 19, 2011.

Editoria de arte

e. What is it about? Resposta possível: The movie Rio and what it may represent to the Brazilian movie industry.

Kenneth Rapoza, Contributor - Covering Brazil, Russia, India & China. | 4/19/2011 @ 2:22PM | 3,151 views

What "Rio" Means to Brazil Movie Makers Photo12/Other Images

Brazilian movie director Carlos Saldanha may just have reintroduced the world to Rio de Janeiro. And without knowing it, his animated feature film “Rio” might go down as the equivalent of a Hollywood moon landing. This time, a Brazilian makes a movie about Brazilians (well, Brazilian animals, at least) set in Brazil with issues related to Brazil, like animal trafficking and Rio’s street children even making an appearance. Like Neil Armstrong’s one small step for man, Saldanha’s Hollywood release of what is actually a uniquely Brazilian story might very well get other studios and investors to do the same — make movies about Brazil. […]

The number of Brazilians heading to La La land to make US films is small, but rising as the industry takes notice of the talent based there. It will rise more when the market really looks at what Saldanha did with “Rio”. […] Here’s what that market looks like. In 2009, 112.7 million Brazilians went to the movies compared to 89.1 million in 2008 and 89.3 million in 2007, according to Rio de Janeiro based industry research company, Filme B. Revenue potential is greater than ever. […] Some investment firms in São Paulo like Grupo Lacan are setting up new investment products called Funcines, devised in response to a six-year-old federal, audiovisual law, that open up the possibilities of corporate and private investors acquiring stakes in Brazilian movies. BNY Mellon underwrote a $29 million cinema fund late last year. By the end of 2010, R$130 million ($76.5 million) was raised to invest in Brazil’s filmed entertainment business, 30% more than was raised in 2009. […] The possibilities are there, and Saldanha — and the US film industry — should take notice. (RAPOZA, Kenneth. What “Rio” Means to Brazil Movie Makers. Forbes. Apr. 2011. Available at: <http://www.forbes.com/sites/kenrapoza/2011/04/19/ what-rio-means-to-brazil-movie-makers/>. Accessed on: Apr. 26, 2016.)

GLOSSARY

Az

acquire – adquirir devise – planejar, desenvolver head – dirigir-se a moon landing – chegada à lua raise – levantar release – lançamento, exibição (de filme)

94

revenue – renda, rendimento rise – subir set up – organizar, estabelecer stake – ação take notice – ficar atento underwrite – garantir, conseguir

TIP La La land = Los Angeles

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READING COMPREHENSION

Habilidade de leitura: HL15 – Distinguir um fato da opinião relativa a esse fato.

1. Read the sentences and, in the notebook, write F for fact or O for opinion. Then write the words that provide evidence to your answers. O a. “Brazilian movie director Carlos Saldanha may just have reintroduced the world to Rio de Janeiro.” O b. “[…] his animated feature film “Rio” might go down as the equivalent of a Hollywood moon landing.” F c. “This time, a Brazilian makes a movie about Brazilians […].” O d. “[…] Saldanha’s Hollywood release of what is actually a uniquely Brazilian story might very well get other

studios and investors to do the same – make movies about Brazil.”

TIP Ao ler um artigo ou reportagem, é fundamental conseguir distinguir um fato de uma opinião. Lembre-se de que um fato é algo que pode ser comprovado e independe da opinião de quem escreve. Como a reportagem pode aprofundar as informações sobre um fato, é preciso estar atento às marcas presentes no texto que refletem o posicionamento do autor ou da instituição que o publicou.

2. Write down, in the notebook, the best options to complete the sentences.

Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

a. Carlos Saldanha / Neil Armstrong is a movie director. b. In 2009, fewer / more Brazilians went to the movies. c. Filme B / Lacan is a research company. d. Funcines / BNY Mellon are new investment products. e. The number of Brazilians going to the US to make films is falling / rising.

Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

3. Read the article again and, in the notebook, write down the numbers that complete the table. Number of Brazilians who went to the movies in 2007.

89.3 million

Number of Brazilians who went to the movies in 2008.

89.1 million

Number of Brazilians who went to the movies in 2009.

112.7 million

Amount of money raised to invest in Brazil’s filmed entertainment business in 2009.

R$ 100 million

Amount of money raised to invest in Brazil’s filmed entertainment business in 2010.

R$ 130 million

VIEWPOINTS

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

Converse com seu professor e colegas. Com que frequência você vai ao cinema para assistir a filmes nacionais? Você tem ideia de qual seja a representatividade do cinema brasileiro no mercado internacional? Você já assistiu a filmes brasileiros que foram indicados ou premiados internacionalmente? Você gostou dos filmes? Há relação entre o sucesso de público e a premiação?

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VOCABULARY TYPES OF MOVIES 1. Read the quote and write down in the notebook the film genres. “I like different kinds of movies. I love thriller, adventure and comedy movies. I also love animated films with cool plots.” (What kind of movie do you like and why? Mylot.com. Available at: <http://www.mylot.com/w/discussions/2292756.aspx>. Accessed on: Apr. 25, 2016.)

Photo12/Other Images

AFP/Other Images

f.

Getty Images

d.

Photo12/Other Images

Photo12/Other Images

i.

c.

Paramount Home Media Distribution (Brazil)

AFP/Other Images

e.

b.

g.

AFP/Other Images

Photo12/Other Images

a.

Photo12/Other Images

2. Match the movie posters to their genres. Write down the corresponding numbers and letters in the notebook.

h.

j.

b 1. romantic comedy

h 6. western

i 2. thriller

f 7. action movie

c 3. documentary

j

g 4. comedy

d 9. sci-fi movie

a 5. animation

e 10. horror movie

8. adventure movie

TIP sci-fi = science fiction

TALK ABOUT IT 3. What kinds of movies do you like watching? Talk to your teacher and classmates about the kinds of movies you like. Respostas pessoais. 96

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Getty Images

TYPES OF MUSIC 1. Read the quote below and write down in the notebook the correct options. “We love all kinds of music: we love and

music, we love

music, we love

[…]. At the end of the day, the music is what's gonna speak to you.”

Charles Kelley (Brainy Quotes. Available at: <http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/c/charles_kelley.html>. Accessed on: Oct. 3, 2012.)

• pop – fiction – comedy – hip hop

√ • pop – rock – R&B – country LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

TRACK 24 2. You are going to listen to some pieces of music. Match them to their corresponding types. Write down the answers in the notebook. g • electronic a • rock c • country b • hip hop e • classical h • samba d • pop f • reggae

BE-BOP-A-LULA GENE VINCENT

Well, be-bop-a-lula, she's my baby Be-bop-a-lula, I don't mean maybe […] Be-bop-a-lula, she's my baby love My baby love, my baby love […]

(GENE VINCENT, "Be-Bop-A-Lula". OldieLyrics. Available at: <http://www. oldielyrics.com/lyrics/gene_vincent/ be-bop-a-lula.html>. Accessed on: Apr. 27, 2016.)

Estúdio Insólito

Estúdio Insólito

3. Read the lyrics and answer the questions.

Chiclete com Banana Gilberto Gil (intérprete)

(CHICLETE COM BANANA (Gordurinha/ Almira Castilho) © Fermata do Brasil. Letras de músicas – Letras.mus.br. Available at: <http://letras.mus.br/gilberto-gil/478675/>. Accessed on: Apr. 27, 2016.)

Só ponho bebop no meu samba Quando o Tio Sam pegar no tamborim Quando ele pegar no pandeiro e no zabumba Quando ele entender que o samba não é rumba [...]

a. Which song is a samba? Chiclete com banana. b. What kind of music do you think “Be-bop-a-lula” is? Rock. HEAR IT. WATCH IT. LIVE IT. | UNIT 7

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VIEWPOINTS

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

Converse com seu professor e colegas. Existe algum elemento em comum entre as duas músicas? Com que objetivo Gilberto Gil faz referência à música de Gene Vincent? Você concorda com o ponto de vista dele? Você acredita que a aceitação de elementos da cultura estrangeira interfere na valorização da cultura nacional? Por quê?

LEIA NOTAS CULTURAIS E SUGESTÃO INTERDISCIPLINAR NO MP

COMPOUND WORDS 1. Read the sentence taken from the cartoon on page 93 and answer the question in the notebook. “[...] I've downloaded all your songs from the internet!” The word in bold is formed by two other words in English. What are they? "Down" and "load".

2. Read the sentences below and match the compound words in bold to their meanings. Write down the corresponding letters and numbers in the notebook. 9 a. You may not like it, but this movie

is a box office hit.

1. fones de ouvido

4 b. I am a romantic person so I really like love stories.

2. ficção científica

1 c. He always wears his headphones. He loves music.

3. tudo incluído

2 d. My favorite kind of movie is science fiction.

4. história de amor

6 e. If you visit the Louvre, you will see a lot of masterpieces.

5. reprodução sonora

8 f. Just because there are a lot of superstars in the movie,

6. obra-prima 7. baixar

it doesn’t mean it’s good. 10 g. This city is famous for its underground clubs.

8. superastro/superestrela

7 h. Don has downloaded my favorite songs.

9. sucesso de bilheteria

5 i. She can sing live and doesn't have to use playback all the time.

10. subterrâneo/alternativo

3 j. I can’t believe you bought an all-inclusive show and hotel package.

3. In the notebook, complete the sentences with a Compound Word from the exercise 2. downloading

a. Mary spends her weekends

music and movies. love stories / science fiction

b. I like lots of kinds of movies but I can’t stand

.

headphones

c. I need to buy new

to listen to my favorite songs on my cell phone. love stories / science fiction

d. My friends don’t usually like watching

.

underground

e. There isn’t a parking space here. Let’s try the

parking garage.

masterpieces

f. Machado de Assis’s books are considered superstars

g. How many

98

does a movie need to become a

all-inclusive

h. He is going to a

of Brazilian literature.

box office

hit?

resort in Punta Cana.

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massimofusaro/Shutterstock.com

TRACK 25

PRONUNCIATION Word Stress

photoiva/Shutterstock.com

Write, in the notebook, the stress of the Compound Words. Listen, check and repeat. download headphones masterpiece playback underground

TIP A palavra underground também pode significar metrô. Observe as diferenças a seguir. Inglês americano: subway Inglês britânico: underground

GRAMMAR LANGUAGE DISCOVERY 1. Read the sentence and write the correct options in the notebook. “By the end of 2010, R$130 million ($76.5 million) was raised to invest in Brazil’s filmed entertainment business […]” a. What does the number 130 million refer to? • The entertainment business revenue. √ • The investment in the entertainment business.

b. What information can not be found in the sentence? • The amount of money raised to invest in the brazil's filmed entertainment business. √ • Who has raised the money.

2. Read the sentences in the Passive Voice below, choose and write in the notebook the option that correctly complete the statement. The Lord of the Rings was filmed in New Zealand. Brazilian film industry should be taken more seriously. We can conclude that the Passive Voice is used when we want to focus attention in the subject of the action is

or when the

.

a. subject; unknown b. action; determined c. action; unknown, irrelevant or obvious d. subject; unknown, irrelevant or obvious

Revisão da conjugação do verbo to be no presente, passado e futuro. LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE

P. 142

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Alexandru Nika/Shutterstock.com

3. Write in the notebook the sentences in the Passive Voice. a. A famous writer has been charged with plagiarism. b. The movie will be released next month. c. The singer claims the song was wrien by his father. d. The authorities should deal with this problem. e. A dangerous criminal was arrested last night. f. The city will hold an election on Sunday.

TIP A voz passiva é muito usada em linguagem jornalística. E, especialmente em manchetes de revistas e jornais, muitas vezes o verbo to be é omitido. Male DNA found in female brains. (SANDERS, Laura. Male DNA found in female brains. Science News, Nov. 2012. Available at: <http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/ id/345443/title/Male_DNA_found_in_female_brains>. Accessed on: Mar. 12, 2013.)

A versão completa da frase seria: Male DNA was found in female brains.

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

4. Read the text and do the following activities. Editoria de arte

a. Answer the questions in the notebook.

The Mega Movie Making Guide for Kids […] Making a movie requires a few basic steps that must (a) to put a production together. […] Write the story of the movie down on paper, so the actors will know what parts to speak. Devise a background or scene where the movie will take place. […] Movies (b) using camera equipment. This can be from various sources such as home video recorders or features found on cameras. Sound effects may (c) with various objects around the home, and experimenting with items that make certain sounds can be fun. […] Editing a movie (d)

by taking out certain parts that do not fit, or changing a movie where mistakes (e)

Movie making is a fun, easy project that (f)

. […]

by anyone using a little imagination. […]

(The Mega Movie Making Guide for Kids. Coolspotters. Available at: <http://coolspotters.com/articles/the-mega-movie-making-guide-for-kids>. Accessed on: Mar. 12, 2013.)

1. What text genre is this? An article.

3. Who was it wrien for? Kids.

2. Where would you find it? On a website.

4. What's the purpose of the article? Teach kids how to make a movie.

b. Write down in the notebook the best options to complete the text. a. √ • be followed

• are followed

b. • is filmed

√ • are filmed

• filmed

c. • are made

√ • be made

• made

d. • be done

• are done

e.å have been made

• are made

f. • is done

100

• follow

• can’t be done

√ • is done

• has been made

LEIA DICA NO MP

TIP Caso seja necessário, consulte a lista de verbos irregulares nas páginas 144 e 145 de seu livro.

√ • can be done

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b. The government has increased

Sparrow.

bus ticket fares.

Jack Sparrow is played by Johnny Depp.

wristwatch.

Bus ticket fares have been increased (by the government).

d. They told me to wait in the office.

I was told to wait in the office.

The wristwatch was invented by Santos Dumont. luminaimages/Shutterstock.com

Jack.Q/Shutterstock.com

GBlend Images/Getty Images

c. Santos Dumont invented the

e. She is making dinner right now.

Dinner is being made right now (by her).

f. They will take the test tomorrow.

The test will be taken tomorrow (by them). Halfpoint/Shutterstock.com

a. Johnny Depp plays Jack

Joe_Potato/Getty Images

pathdoc/Shutterstock.com

Featureflash Photo Agency/Shutterstock.com

5. Rewrite in the notebook the sentences in the Passive Voice.

6. In the notebook, rewrite the sentences in the Active Voice. a.  No One is sung by Alicia Keys. Alicia Keys sings No One. b. Bob has been mugged by three men. Three men have mugged Bob. c. Joan shouldn’t be punished by her parents. Joan’s parents shouldn’t punish her. d. We have been introduced by Mrs. Rogers. Mrs. Rogers has introduced us. e. A speech is going to be made by the president. The president is going to make a speech.

f. This beautiful letter was written by Rita. Rita wrote this beautiful letter.

7. Read the sentences and decide if they are in the Active or the Passive Voice. Then complete, in the notebook, with the verbs in the correct form. is spoken

a. English

in many countries. (speak)

b. Laurie

English and French. (speak)

c. I

caught

speaks

a big fish at the lake last weekend. (catch)

was caught

d. The thief

by the police yesterday. (catch)

have been taken

e. The babies

to the doctor. (take)

will pack

f. Don’t worry, the train only leaves at noon. I has been recorded

g. This song

my bags in the morning. (pack)

by different singers. (record) HEAR IT. WATCH IT. LIVE IT. | UNIT 7

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INTEGRATED SKILLS READING

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

Focus on Genre

1. Emma, a Canadian girl who is passionate about theater, saw the play War Horse. Look at the ticket and match the pieces of IN CONTEXT information you can find in it to the corresponding sentences. War Horse was written by Michael Write down the corresponding numbers and letters in the Mopurgo and tells the story of a notebook.

relationship between a boy and his horse throughout World War II. The story has been made into a play by Nick Stafford and also into a movie directed by Steven Spielberg.

a. title of the play b. date and time of the play c. ticket price d. place where the play was performed

Rep rod uçã o

Estúdio Insólito

e. seat number

1

d

e

a

4

2

3

b

c

5

2. Read the information on the ticket and answer the questions in the notebook. a. When did Emma go to the theater? (She went to the theater) on July 24, 2012. b. What play did she see? (She saw) War Horse.

Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

c. Where did she see the play? (She saw it) at the Princess of Wales Theatre. d. How much did she pay for the ticket? (She paid) $29.00. e. What time did the play start? (It started) at 7:30 p.m. LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

LISTENING 1. Emma liked War Horse so much that she invited her friend Mason to watch its movie version with her. Before you listen to their conversation about the movie, match the underlined words to their definitions. Write down the correspondind letters and numbers in the notebook. a. The special effects are fantastic.

c 1. story

b. The cast is very talented.

d 2. movie photography

c. The plot is complicated.

a 3. visual and sound effects in a movie

d. The cinematography is beautiful.

e 4. sounds, especially the music, of a movie

e. The soundtrack is wonderful.

b 5. all the actors and actresses in a movie

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2. Now decide if the underlined words describe something positive or negative. Draw notebook.

or

in the

a. The soundtrack was great. It was really excellent. b. The plot was so boring that I fell asleep. c. The movie was too long. Three hours! d. The cinematography was amazing. Really good! e. The special effects were disappointing. I expected more. f. Some scenes were moving. They made me cry.

TRACK 26 3. Now listen to the conversation and write, in the notebook, the sentence that best summarizes it. a. Emma thinks War Horse is excellent, but her friend Mason doesn’t agree with her. b. Both Mason and Emma loved watching War Horse.

TRACK 26 4. Listen to the conversation again and write Mason or Emma in the notebook. a.

Emma

b. In c. d.

thought the movie was great.

Mason

Emma

Mason

’s opinion, the movie was a bit boring.

thinks War Horse has an original plot. didn’t like the special effects.

e. Some scenes were so moving that

Emma

cried.

5. Now that you’ve listened to the conversation, write down in the notebook the element(s) that you consider to be the most important in a movie. You can add any other aspect you consider important. Tell a classmate about your preferences. Respostas pessoais. • the plot

• the special effects

• the soundtrack

• the cast

6. Talk to a classmate about the movie War Horse. a. If you have seen the movie, share your impressions. Do you agree with Emma or Mason? b. If you haven’t seen it, do you feel like watching it after having listened to Emma’s and Mason’s opinions?

SPEAKING Giving more than a yes / no answer 1. Read the dialog and write in the notebook the communicative function of the words in bold. “Mason: Did you like the movie, Emma? Emma: Yes, I thought it was great! I particularly liked the cinematography.” a. Decline an invitation giving a reason. b. Answer a question affirmativelly giving details.

TRACK 27 2. Here are some other examples. Listen and repeat. a. Yes, I thought it was amazing.

c. No, I thought it was disappointing.

b. Yes, I particularly liked the plot.

d. No, I didn’t like the special effects. HEAR IT. WATCH IT. LIVE IT. | UNIT 7

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TALK ABOUT IT 3. Use the structures in exercise 2 to talk about a movie. Use the words in the boxes to help you. You can add any other movies to the list. excellent / great / amazing / terrific / funny / original / wonderful

AFP/Other Images

Photo12/Other Images AFP/Other Images

boring / too long / terrible / horrible / awful / disappointing

Photo12/Other Images

Photo12/Other Images

Photo12/Other Images

» the plot » the cast » the soundtrack » the cinematography » the special effects » the ending

WEB SEARCH Go to the site <http://ler.vc/ztnad4> (Accessed on: Apr. 28, 2016) and look at the list with the top 10 best special effects movies. Talk to a friend and say if you agree with the selection of the site. What other movies would you add to the list?

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WRITING Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

Focus on Genre

1. Read the online review of the movie War Horse and, in the notebook, number the elements in the order they are organized in the text. Editoria de arte

2 1. date of publication

Sarina S May 7, 2012

 iStockphoto/Thinkstock Photo12/Other Images

Wonderful, beautifully directed and captivating. A unique way of presenting the atrocities of a world war through the eyes of a horse. Magnificent, would have expected no less from Spielberg.

4 2. plot summary and reviewer’s opinion 3 3. graphic elements representing the

reviewer’s impression 1 4. name of the reviewer

(War Horse Review. Rotten Tomatoes. Available at: <http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/war_horse/ reviews/?type=user>. Accessed on: Apr. 28, 2016.)

2. Read the movie review again and write down in the notebook the sentence that summarizes the Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar plot of War Horse. A unique way of presenting the atrocities of a world war through the eyes of a horse.

informações explícitas em um texto.

3. Now write down in the notebook the words that show that Sarina liked the movie. Wonderful, beautifully directed, captivating, unique, magnificent.

4. In pairs, make a list of four movies that you enjoyed watching on TV or at the movie theater. Write the title and three words that express your opinion about each movie. 5. Work in pairs to write a short review of one of the movies you mentioned in exercise 4.

Resposta pessoal.

»

Write the first dra of your review. Remember to include your name, the date, the title of the movie and

»

Use two or three words or expressions to show your opinion, followed by a sentence that summarizes the

the number of stars you think the movie deserves. plot (e.g. A great movie about…).

» » » »

Show your dra to another pair of students. Take notes of their suggestions and make the necessary changes. Show it to your teacher and incorporate his / her feedback. Write the final version of your review and post it on a movie review website.

SELF-EVALUATION Evaluate your movie review. Compare it to the one in exercise 1. How similar or different are they? Does the text convey your message to the reader? Is the language appropriate? Are there any improvements you would make to your movie review?

GO BEYOND Movies: WAR HORSE (CAVALO DE GUERRA). Directed by: Steven Spielberg. United States, 2011. RIO. Directed by: Carlos Saldanha. United States, 2011. Book on entertainment and society: KING, Cynthia; SAYRE, Shay. Entertainment and Society: influences, impacts, and innovations. 2. ed. New York: Routledge, 2010. LEIA O ALUNO NO MUNDO DO TRABALHO NO MP HEAR IT. WATCH IT. LIVE IT. | UNIT 7

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CONCRETE DREAMS UNIT 8

"This city is what it is because our citizens are what they are." Plato (427 BCâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;347 BC), Greek philosopher. (City Quotes. Brainy Quotes. Available at: <http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/ keywords/city.html#HOSOvpg1pjc42vvS.99>. Accessed on: Apr. 30, 2016.)

Thiago Moser

LEIA NOTAS CULTURAIS NO MP

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Habilidades de leitura: HL11 – Relacionar temas, assuntos ou recursos em diferentes textos, representados em diferentes linguagens; HL17 – Fazer inferências a partir de informações implícitas em um texto; HL20 – Reconhecer posições distintas entre duas ou mais opiniões relativas ao mesmo fato ou mesmo tema.

THINK ABOUT IT LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

1. Read the lyrics, the quote and the cartoon and answer the questions in the notebook. 2.

1.

Empire State of Mind – JayZ

I come from New York, where if you fall down they pick you up by your wallet. - Al McGuire

down in TriBeCa Yea I'm out that Brooklyn, now I'm d forever right next to De Niro, but I'll be hoo made it here I'm the new Sinatra, and... since I love me everywhere I can make it anywhere, yea, they

(Just-one-liners.com. Available at: <http://www.just-oneliners.com/places/36567>. Accessed on: Apr. 30, 2016.)

3.

[…] New York, concrete jungle where There's nothin' you can't do

dreams are made of

Now you're in New York d new These streets will make you feel bran Big lights will inspire you , Let's hear it for New York, New York . Available at: <http://www.azlyrics. (Empire State of Mind. JayZ lyrics tml>. Accessed on: Apr. 30, 2016.) ind.h teofm iresta com/lyrics/jayz/emp

Nick Down es

New York […]

(Available at: <http://www.cartoon stock.com/cartoonview. asp?catref=ndw0164>. Accessed on: Apr. 30, 2016.)

LEIA SAIBA MAIS E NOTAS CULTURAIS NO MP

IN CONTEXT TriBeCa is a neighborhood in Manhattan, New York City, which is home to the Tribeca Film Festival. Its name is an acronym from Triangle Below Canal Street.

a. What do the three texts have in common? They are about New York City. b. Do all of them express the same opinion about the city? No. c. Which of them displays a positive view? Justify your answer. The song does. It’s about inspiration and success. d. What kind of crime does the quotation refer to? Theft, mugging. e. Which negative aspect of living in a big city is represented in the cartoon? Sugestões de respostas: People feel lonely. People don’t seem to care about each other.

2. Read the sentences and match them to the texts above. Write down the corresponding letters and numbers in the notebook. 2 a. A big city is a dangerous place. 1 b. You can live near famous people in a big city. 3 c. People will ignore you in a big city.

TALK ABOUT IT

1 d. A big city is a place where you can make your

dreams come true. 3 e. A big city is a lonely place. 2 3 f. People will not help you in a big city. Habilidade de leitura: HL20 – Reconhecer posições distintas entre duas ou mais opiniões relativas ao mesmo fato ou mesmo tema.

3. Talk to your teacher and classmates about the advantages and disadvantages of living in big cities. You can use the sentences from exercise 2. Respostas pessoais. CONCRETE DREAMS | UNIT 8

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READING GET READY TO READ

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

Focus on Genre

1. Look at the text and write down in the notebook the best words to complete the sentences. a. The text is an advertisement / article. b. It was published on a website / in a magazine. c. It contains facts / fictional stories.

Editoria de arte

d. It aims at entertaining / informing the reader.

Green Economy > Success Stories > Sustainable Urban Planning in Brazil

Sustainable urban planning in Brazil Raphael Piquet

[…] By turning areas vulnerable to flooding into parks planted with many trees, and creating artificial lakes to hold floodwaters, Curitiba has managed to address its potentially costly flooding problem, in terms of flood control and drainage. The cost of this strategy, including the relocation costs of slum dwellers, is estimated to be five times less than building concrete canals. Also, as a result, the property values of neighbouring areas appreciated, and tax revenues increased. The local government established the Curitiba Industrial City (CIC) on the city’s west side, taking into account wind direction to avoid polluting the central city. The CIC has strict environmental regulations and “polluting” industries are not allowed. […] Curitiba has also promoted waste management infrastructure and public awareness on waste separation and recycling. With 70 per cent of the city’s residents actively recycling, 13 per cent of solid waste is recycled in Curitiba, as compared to only 1 per cent in Sao Paulo. All in all, Curitiba presents a case study of how smart urban planning can avoid significant costs in the future and improve efficiency, productivity and quality of life for its inhabitants.

(Sustainable urban planning in Brazil. Green Economy, 2009. Available at: <http://www.unep.org/greeneconomy/SuccessStories/ SustainaibleUrbanPlanninginBrazil/tabid/29867/Default.aspx>. Accessed on: Apr. 30, 2016.)

GLOSSARY

Az

address – lidar com, tratar avoid – evitar drainage – drenagem, escoamento flooding – inundação, alagamento, enchente slum – bairro pobre, favela

smart – inteligente strict – rígido, severo tax revenues – impostos, arrecadação fiscal vulnerable – vulnerável wind – vento LEIA O ALUNO NO MUNDO DO TRABALHO NO MP

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Habilidade de leitura: HL7 – Identificar a tese principal ou o conflito central de um texto.

READING COMPREHENSION

1. Read the article and write, in the notebook, the option that summarizes what it is about. a. Controlled floods in Curitiba. b. Urban planning in Curitiba. c. Waste separation and recycling in Curitiba. Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

2. Answer, in the notebook, the questions based on the article. a. Which city does the author compare Curitiba to? São Paulo. b. What aspect of infrastructure is compared? Waste separation and recycling.

c. What is the difference between the two cities? 13% of solid waste is recycled in Curitiba while in São Paulo only 1% is.

Habilidade de leitura: HL16 – Inferir o sentido de palavras ou expressões desconhecidas do texto por meio de comparação com a língua materna, análise do contexto e uso de conhecimento morfológico.

3. Read the article again and write down, in the notebook, two words that have similar meanings to inhabitants. Dwellers and residents. Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

4. The author believes Curitiba is taking the right actions to guarantee a better quality of life for its citizens. Find two of these actions in the text and write they down in the notebook. Sugestões de respostas: 1. Areas vulnerable to flooding were turned into parks planted with many trees; 2. Artificial lakes were created to hold floodwaters; 3. The establishment of the CIC on the city’s west side, taking into account wind direction to avoid polluting the central city; 4. Promotion of waste management infrastructure and public awareness on waste separation and recycling.

5. Read the sentences extracted from the article and match the expressions in bold to their

communicative functions. Write down the corresponding letters and numbers in the notebook. a. “By turning areas vulnerable to flooding into parks planted with many trees […].”

Habilidade de leitura: HL13 – Estabelecer relações entre segmentos de um texto identificando recursos que contribuam para a sua continuidade (concordâncias nominal e gramatical, uso de elementos de coesão etc.).

drainage.” c. “All in all, Curitiba presents a case study of how smart urban planning can avoid significant costs in the future […].” d. “Also, as a result, the property values of neighbouring

Nik oN om ad/ Shu

costly flooding problem, in terms of flood control and

tte rsto ck. com

b. “[…] Curitiba has managed to address its potentially

areas appreciated, and tax revenues increased.” d 1. Express consequence. a 2. Show how something is done. b 3. Specify what is being considered. c 4. Present a conclusion.

VIEWPOINTS

Tingui Park in Curitiba, Paraná.

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

Converse com seu professor e colegas. Você vive em uma área urbana ou rural? Você gostaria de se mudar para outra região? Por quê? Sua cidade pode ser considerada sustentável? Em que setores você gostaria que os governantes investissem para melhorar a qualidade de vida dos habitantes da sua cidade? De que maneira cada cidadão pode contribuir para tornar sua cidade um lugar melhor? LEIA SUGESTÃO INTERDISCIPLINAR NO MP CONCRETE DREAMS | UNIT 8

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VOCABULARY PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE 1. Read the text extracted from a classified section and write down in the notebook the word that indicates the property's position in relation to the market. “Point Fortin, 2 storey commercial opposite the Market. $3.5M” (Classified Ads. Trinidad and Tobago Newsday. Available at: <http://www.newsday.co.tt/classifieds/>. Accessed on: Oct. 16, 2012.)

behind Renato Faccini

Renato Faccini

on

Renato Faccini

in

next to

between

opposite

There’s a school next to my house.

Renato Faccini

There’s a building behind the theater.

Renato Faccini

There’s a hospital on 23rd Street.

Renato Faccini

The children are playing in the park.

There’s a drugstore between the restaurant and the store.

There’s a pet shop opposite the store.

2. Read the sentences and write down in the notebook the correct options to complete them. a. I live

a nice neighborhood.

b. There’s a good restaurant

my house.

c. The nearest shopping mall is d. There’s a supermarket e. There’s a coffee shop

Apple Street. a school.

the movie theater and the bank.

√ • in

• between

• in

√ • opposite

√ • on

• between

√ • next to

• on

√ • between

• on

f. A: Do you know where the nearest drugstore is? B: There’s one

110

that pet shop.

• on

√ • behind

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Renato Faccini

3. Look at the image and, in the notebook, write T for true or F for false. Correct the false sentences.

F a. There is a movie theater behind the bank. There is a movie theater next to the bank. T b. There is a restaurant between the school and the bakery. F c. There is a hospital next to a drugstore. There is a hospital opposite a drugstore. F d. There is a very tall building opposite the supermarket. There is a very tall building behind the supermarket. T e. There is a park on Main Avenue. T f. There are children playing in the park.

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS 1. Read the verses of the Empire State of mind, by Jay Z, and write in the notebook the correct options. “[…] since I made it here I can make it anywhere, yea, they love me everywhere […] New York, concrete jungle where dreams are made of There's nothin' you can't do […]” a. De acordo com a música, a pessoa pode ser bem-sucedida √ • em qualquer lugar

.

TIP

• somente em Nova Iorque

Variações informais:

• em lugar nenhum

nothin' = nothing yea(h) = yes

b. Em Nova Iorque

ser realizado.

• nem tudo pode • nada pode √ • não há nada que não possa CONCRETE DREAMS | UNIT 8

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2. Read the sentences and match the words in bold to their meanings and uses. Write down the corresponding letters and numbers in the notebook. 1. There’s nothing to be done around here.

6 a. alguém – em frases afirmativas

2. I’m sure Alex lives somewhere near here.

7 b. ninguém ou alguém – em frases negativas ou

interrogativas

3. No one would say Fernando de Noronha is an

3 c. ninguém – em frases afirmativas com sentido

ugly place.

negativo

4. Nowhere is better than home. 5. Peter can’t think of anything interesting to do this weekend. Will the government do anything to improve that area of the town? 6. I know someone who lives in your neighborhood. 7. Mary doesn’t know anyone in her neighborhood. Did she visit anyone in Curitiba?

9 d. algo – em frases afirmativas 5 e. nada ou algo – em frases negativas ou

interrogativas 1 f. nada – em frases afirmativas com sentido negativo 2 g. algum lugar – em frases afirmativas 4 h. nenhum lugar – em frases afirmativas com

sentido negativo 8 i. nenhum lugar ou algum lugar – em frases

8. We couldn't go anywhere in the northeast. Is there anywhere we can go to enjoy the sunset? 9. I’m sure we can do something fun in this city.

negativas ou interrogativas 4 j. nenhum lugar – em frases afirmativas com

sentido negativo

3. Write down the correct options in the notebook. a. I don’t remember anything / nothing I told you.

TIP

b. Sue is really upset. She invited a lot of people to her party and nobody / everybody came. c. My parents bought a house somewhere / nowhere near the mountains. d. Is there someone / anyone at home now? e. Let’s do something / nothing fun tonight. I'm bored. f. I can’t find my keys nowhere / anywhere. g. Don’t worry, I’m fine. There’s nothing / anything wrong with me.

4. Complete the sentences using some, any, no or their compounds. Write down the answers in the notebook.

Any e seus compostos também podem ser usados em frases afirmativas quando significam qualquer. You can invite anybody / anyone to the open house. I can do anything you want after you go apartment hunting with me. I can’t stand being here. I could go anywhere right now.

something

a. Come here, Gil. I have

to tell you.

anybody / anyone

b. Bianca doesn’t know

here. Could you introduce her to your friends?

somewhere

c. Paul and I want to go d. A: Dad! There’s

nothing

exciting next weekend.

to eat in the fridge.

LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE

P. 143

Revisão de Quantifiers.

B: Let’s go to the supermarket then.

anywhere

e. I am tired. I don’t want to go

far from here.

nobody / no one

f. I arrived home so late last night that

was awake.

TRACK 28

PRONUNCIATION Word Stress In the notebook, write the stress of the words in bold. Listen, check and repeat. I found something interesting about the museum. / Has anybody been to the new nightclub? / I went nowhere last night.

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GRAMMAR LANGUAGE DISCOVERY 1. Read the sentences and write down in the notebook the correct option. “The city of Saratoga Springs has taken several measures to prevent further flooding. […]” (VAUGHN, Aaron. Saratoga Springs prepare for further flooding. FOX News, Salt Lake City, Sep. 2011. Available at: <http://fox13now. com/2012/09/10/saratoga-springs-prepares-for-further-flooding/>. Accessed on: Apr. 8, 2013.)

“[…] The City Manager is responsible for administering all City functions […]” (Introduction. City of Sweeny, Texas. Available at: <http://www.ci.sweeny.tx.us/city_council.htm>. Accessed on: Apr. 25, 2013.)

The words in bold indicate quantity / size.

Quantifiers Quantifiers

Meaning

Examples

all

todo(a), todos(as)

All my neighbors are really nice.

every

todos(as), cada

Every green action matters.

each

cada

Each city has its particular needs.

most

a maioria

Most people I know would like to change their lifestyles.

several

vários(as)

They are organizing several strikes to protest against the new policy.

both

ambos(as)

Both solutions are sustainable.

enough

suficiente

We don’t have enough budget to start the campaign.

neither

nenhum(a) dos(das) dois(duas)

A: Could you come see the apartment on Monday or Tuesday? B: Neither day is possible for me.

2. Write down in the notebook the best option to complete the dialogues. a. A: Have you heard about Ann's birthday party? B: Yes, I have. All / Every my friends told me about it. b. A: Alex and Peter have gone on a trip. B: Both / Neither of them? c. A: Enough / Most students got an A on the test. B: How wonderful! d. Each / Neither one of us should do something to help the environment. It’s our responsibility. e. A: Do you believe all / neither of us in the class will pass? B: I hope so! f. A: Several / Every passengers missed the flight last night. B: That’s too bad.

3. Unscramble the words to make sentences and write they down in the notebook. a. the employees / will be / all / the factory / from / promoted All the employees from the factory will be promoted.

b. us / the beach / weekend / went to / neither of / last Neither of us went to the beach last weekend.

c. time / doesn’t / to do / enough / he / have / his homework He doesn’t have enough time to do his homework.

d. the / solved / most / problems / students / both / of Most of the students solved both problems. / Both students solved most of the problems.

e. cities / a / public / several / have / transportation / bad / system Several cities have a bad public transportation system.

f. a new / day / is / something / opportunity / every / to learn / different Every day is a new opportunity to learn something different.

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LANGUAGE DISCOVERY 1. Read the sentences and answer the questions. 1. “[…] Both Rio and São Paulo have major international airports that receive flights from all over the world. […]” (Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo Travel Highlights. Canadian 360. Available at: <http://www.canadian360.com/destination/rio-de-janeiro-saopaulo>. Accessed on: Mar. 13, 2013.)

2. “[…] You can either travel by car carrier or by passenger train. […]” (Travel Information. The Official Travel Site of Finland. Available at: <http://www.visitfinland.com/about-finland/travel-information/>. Accessed on: Mar. 13, 2013.)

Sentence 2.

a. Which of the sentences presents alternatives for a travel?

Sentence 1.

b. Which of the sentences indicates that there are airports in two different places?

2. Read the sentences and match the linking words in bold to their meanings. Write down the corresponding letters and numbers in the notebook. a. Both the mayor and the governor have attended the meeting.

b 1. um ou outro

b. You can go downtown either by bus or by subway.

a 2. ambos

c. Neither Paul nor David have been elected.

d 3. não apenas, mas também

d. Not only did he move to the country but he also changed his lifestyle.

c 4. nem um nem outro

TIP Iniciar uma frase com uma expressão negativa exige uma inversão entre sujeito e verbo. Observe o exemplo: Not only does the city have beautiful scenery but it also has the best hotels in the world. (verbo auxiliar + sujeito + verbo principal)

3. In the notebook, complete the sentences with a suitable Linking Word. a. b.

Both

Neither

John and Kate like studying English. They get excellent grades. Bob

nor

Janet came to the meeting. I was very disappointed.

c. On your vacation, you can travel d. e.

Both

Helena

Not only

and

to the mountains

did Paula finish her course in Spain,

Neither

or

to the beach.

Marta have been to Salvador. They loved it.

husband there. f.

either

the black dress

nor

but

she

also

met her

the red one looked good on me. I bought the

green one.

4. In the notebook, rewrite the sentences using the words in parentheses. a. Bob doesn't like going to malls. Charles doesn't either. (neither... nor…) Neither Bob nor Charles like going to malls.

b. Fred has specialized in eco-friendly architecture. So has Claire. (both... and…) Both Fred and Claire have specialized in eco-friendly architecture.

c. I could just send him a card. Or I could buy him a gift. (either... or…) I could either send him a card or buy him a gift.

d. Linda drinks a glass of hot milk before going to bed. Miley does too. (both... and…) Both Linda and Miley drink a glass of hot milk before going to bed.

e. Glenda never answers her calls. She never returns them either. (neither... nor…)

Glenda neither answers her calls nor returns them. / Glenda neither answers nor returns her calls.

f. Rachel should apologize. Or maybe she should leave. (either... or…) Rachel should either apologize or leave.

g. He was late for the interview. He was poorly dressed too. (not only… but also…) Not only was he late for the interview, but he was also poorly dressed.

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INTEGRATED SKILLS

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

READING

Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

Editoria de arte

1. Read the article and, in the notebook, write T for true or F for false. Correct the false sentences.

Home

Business

Investing

Technology

Entrepreneurs

Op/Ed

Leadership

Lifestyle

Lists

Megacities of the Future Mark Lewis 06.11.07, 6:00 PM ET iStockphoto/Thinkstock

[…] In 1900, the world's largest city was London, which did not even qualify as a megacity. (The threshold for that dubious distinction is 10 million people; London had 6.5 million that year.) […] Today, Greater Tokyo is the world's largest city, with a population of 35.2 million. […] But Tokyo's growth rate is slowing. The demographic future belongs to cities like Mumbai, Shanghai and Dhaka. Even as the world's overall population eventually stabilizes somewhere between 9 and 10 billion, the megacities will continue their relentless expansion, as the rural poor move to town and become the urban poor. They will keep coming despite the daunting problems that await them in the cities: crime, pollution, crumbling infrastructure, lack of housing. […]

(LEWIS, Mark. Megacities of the Future. Forbes.com, Nov. 2007. Available at: <http://www.forbes.com/2007/06/11/megacities-populationurbanization-biz-cx_21cities_ml_0611megacities.html>. Accessed on: May 3, 2016.)

F a. Nowadays, the world’s largest town is London. London was the world’s largest town in 1900. Nowadays, Tokyo is the largest town. T b. A megacity is a city with more than 10 million inhabitants. T c. In the future, Mumbai, Shangai and Dhaka will be among the largest megacities. F d. As megacities continue to expand, the urban poor will become the rural poor. The rural poor will become the urban poor. T e. The main problems in megacities are crime, pollution, bad infrastructure and difficulty in finding

somewhere to live. LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

VIEWPOINTS

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

Converse com seu professor e colegas. O artigo apresenta a ideia de que, no futuro, os habitantes de cidades interioranas irão continuar migrando para os grandes centros urbanos. O que você pensa sobre essa previsão? De que forma podemos nos preparar para minimizar problemas relacionados à violência, poluição, habitação e infraestrutura? Você acredita que a migração para as grandes cidades é a solução para os problemas das classes rurais mais pobres?

CONCRETE DREAMS | UNIT 8

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LISTENING 1. You are going to listen to three people talking about interesting cities to live in or visit. Before you listen to them, in the notebook, classify the words below into two categories: or . SugestĂľes de respostas:

violence

exhibitions

museums

monuments

parks

shopping malls

historical buildings

noise

heavy traffic

pollution

homelessness

theaters

Exhibitions, museums, monuments, shopping malls, historical buildings, parks, theaters. Violence, homelessness, noise, heavy traffic, pollution.

TRACK 29

Medioimages/Photodisc/Thinkstock

- Eduardo Zappia/Pulsar Imagens

Peter Ptschelinzew/Getty Images

2. Now listen to the testimonials and write the missing information in the notebook.

Niagara-on-the-Lake

Urubici

Country:

Country:

Region:

Canada

Ontario

State:

Brazil Santa Catarina

Solvang Country: State:

United States California

TRACK 29 3. Listen again and, in the notebook, write N (for Niagara-on-the-Lake), U (for Urubici) and S (for Solvang). N S e. museums N a. historical buildings N b. monuments N S f. no heavy traffic N c. art galleries U S g. good restaurants N S d. parks S h. shopping malls

Focus on Genre 4. Now that you have listened to three testimonials, write, in the notebook, their main characteristics. a. They are about personal experiences. b. They rhyme. c. Some passages are descriptive. d. The stories are told in first person. e. Their purpose is to serve as a source of information.

TALK ABOUT IT 5. Talk to your friends about which of the three towns youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;d like to visit and why. 116

Respostas pessoais.

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SPEAKING Using Fillers and Hesitation Devices 1. Read the sentence and write, in the notebook, the communicative function of the words in bold. “Er… don’t confuse it with Niagara Falls, the one with the big waterfalls, you know.” a. To express certainty and disagree with someone. b. To hesitate and gain time to think and attract the listener's attention. c. To demonstrate embarrassment and lack of understanding.

TRACK 30 2. Listen to some other examples. a. Er… I’m afraid my city’s violent, you know.

c. There are like excellent restaurants here.

b. I’m kind of worried about living here.

d. Well, there are a lot of things I love about it.

Describing Places 3. Read the sentence and write, in the notebook, the communicative function of the words in bold. "There are a lot of things to see and do.” a. To describe what a city or town offers. b. To tell a story. c. To give instructions.

TRACK 31 4. Listen to some other examples. a. There are no historical buildings near my school. b. There are a lot of schools near my house. c. There are some good restaurants downtown. d. There is a lot of pollution downtown. e. There is no violence or homelessness in this place.

TIP Usamos there is quando nos referimos a substantivos incontáveis ou contáveis no singular. There is a good hospital next to the school. Quando nos referimos a substantivos no plural usamos there are. There are some nice parks in my city.

f. There is a big shopping mall in my neighborhood.

TALK ABOUT IT 5. Talk to a classmate about the good and bad aspects of your neighborhood. You can use some structures from exercise 4 and try some fillers from exercise 2. Respostas pessoais. 6. Now create your own podcast about your neighborhood.

» » »

Respostas pessoais.

While planning what you are going to say, remember to describe some important aspects of your neighborhood. Also, add some personal memories to enrich your testimonial. Last, record it and play it to your classmates.

GO BEYOND You can find some tips on how to create a podcast at <http://ler.vc/x2gdcj> and <http://ler.vc/q6agt8>. (Accessed on: May 3, 2016.)

CONCRETE DREAMS | UNIT 8

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WRITING Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

Focus on Genre

Editoria de arte

1. Read the report on problems which affect a community in Birmingham (UK) and the project the NGO Our Place presents to help people in need there. Then, in the notebook, write T for true or F for false.

Home

Land & Buildings

Shaping Local Services

Neighborhood Planning

Access to Finance

Home /Our Place / StoriesOur Place Smethwick – From a place of need to a place of resource

Our Place Smethwick – From a place of need to a place of resource Author: Locality

THE PROJECT

BACKGROUND Smethwick, four miles west of Birmingham City Centre, is a town with a long history of community unrest [...] The area has high levels of deprivation: 25% of 16 to 74 year olds in the ward have never worked (in comparison to 8% in England), 50.5% of 16 to 74 year olds have no qualifications (28.9% across England) and 2,773 people in the ward have long term health issues that limits their day to day activities. The area is incredibly diverse, with 81.4% of the population non-white, which is four times the average in England. This diversity is a product of both historical diversity and new communities across ethnic groups, creating a melting pot of historic and new multi-ethnic communities.

The plan had ambitious targets including increasing the quality of life of 100 residents, reducing social isolation for 450 people, helping 150 people actively engage in supporting vulnerable people and 500 people accessing support around employability and gaining new skills through hubs. There were also ambitious outcomes around reducing social exclusion and isolation for the most vulnerable people. [...] A key vehicle for achieving this was the development of community hubs to help residents begin new enterprises and/or increase their opportunities for employment. [...]

(Our Place Smethwick – From a place of need to a place of resource. Available at: <http://mycommunity.org.uk/stories/our-place-smethwick-froma-place-of-need-to-a-place-of-resource/>. Accessed on: May 4, 2016.)

F a. It is an informal text.

T c. It is logically organized.

T b. It is objective.

2. Write, in the notebook, the elements which are

T d. It provides information for follow-up actions. Habilidade de leitura: HL6 - Identificar as found in a report. características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

a. Title of the report.

c. Greeting.

b. Problem description.

d. Suggestions for improvement.

e. Writer identification.

3. In groups, make a list of the main problems in your neighborhood. Respostas pessoais. 4. Write a report on one of the problems you discussed in exercise 3.

»

Plan your report. Remember to include title, date, neighborhood, current situation, solution, your name and school.

» » » » »

Make the first draft and compare it to the report given. Show it to your classmates and incorporate feedback. Show it to your teacher. Make the necessary changes. Write the final version of your report and hand it in.

SELF-EVALUATION Evaluate your report. Compare it to the one on this page. How similar or different are they? Is the text logically organized? Is the language appropriate? Are there any improvements you can make to it?

GO BEYOND Website where you can find information about megacities: <http://ler.vc/27w8ud>. (Accessed on: May 4, 2016.) Book on the massive urbanization of the world's population: KOONINGS, Kees; KRUIJT, Dirk. Megacities: The Politics of Urban Exclusion and Violence in the Global South. New York: Zed Books, 2010. LEIA SUGESTÃO INTERDISCIPLINAR NO MP

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AUTOAVALIAÇÃO Responda às perguntas do quadro abaixo para avaliar seu aprendizado ao longo das unidades 7 e 8. = muito bom

= regular

= fraco

Sou capaz de...

Unidade

a. ler, ouvir e expressar opiniões sobre assuntos relacionados a entretenimento.

7

b. identificar e nomear diferentes tipos de filme e música.

7

c. compreender o uso e os significados de palavras compostas e utilizá-las em contexto.

7

d. reconhecer e empregar a voz passiva.

7

e. ler e reconhecer as características do gênero textual ingresso.

7

f. ler e reconhecer as características do gênero textual resenha crítica e produzir um texto semelhante.

7

g. ler, ouvir e falar sobre temas relacionados às vantagens e desvantagens da vida em grandes metrópoles.

8

h. ler e reconhecer as características do gênero textual artigo online.

8

i. entender o uso de preposições de lugares e aplicá-las adequadamente.

8

j. compreender as diferenças de uso entre os pronomes indefinidos e usá-los em contexto.

8

k. identificar e empregar expressões que indicam quantidade.

8

l. ler e reconhecer as características do gênero oral relato pessoal.

8

m. observar as características de um relatório analítico e criar um semelhante.

8

Avaliação

Além desses conteúdos, o que mais você aprendeu?

MELHORANDO SEU DESEMPENHO Refaça os exercícios das unidades 7 e 8. Esclareça suas dúvidas com o(a) professor(a). Ouça os áudios relativos aos textos e às atividades das unidades 7 e 8 novamente. Participe de um chat online em inglês.

AUTOAVALIAÇÃO

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CROSS-CURRICULAR LINK iStockphoto/Getty Images

THE WAY YOUR BRAIN WORKS Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

1. Look at the text and complete the sentences in the notebook.

Estúdio Insólito

a. The text is an

article

.

b. You can find it

.

in a website

Multitasking Splits the Brain by Gisela Telis on 15 April 2010, 3:18 PM / Permanent Link | 0 Comments

When the brain tries to do two things at once, it divides and conquers, dedicating one-half of our gray matter to each task, new research shows. But forget about adding another mentally taxing task: the work also reveals that the brain can't effectively handle more than two complex, related activities at once. […] Neuroscientists Etienne Koechlin and Sylvain Charron […] monitored 16 women and 16 men, aged 19 to 32, as they performed a complicated letter-matching task. […] The results suggest that the brain can’t efficiently juggle more than two tasks because it has only two hemispheres available for task management. […] “In terms of everyday behavior, you can cook and talk on the phone at the same time”, Koechlin explains. “The problem arises when you pursue three goals at the same time. Your prefrontal cortex will always discard one.” […]

(TELIS, Gisela. Multitasking Splits the Brain. Science AAAS, April 2010. Available at: <http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2010/04/ multitasking-splits-the-brain.html>. Accessed on: May 5, 2016.)

Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

2. Read the article and write, in the notebook, the correct answers. a. According to the text, the brain can handle

complex tasks at once.

√ • two

• more than two b. If you try to perform three activities at a time, your brain will

.

• work slowly √ • discard one

VIEWPOINTS

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

Converse com seu professor e colegas. O que você acha das descobertas descritas no artigo? Você concorda que esse tipo de comportamento pode prejudicar a qualidade da realização de atividades? Você se considera uma pessoa multitarefa? Que atividades você consegue realizar simultaneamente? LEIA NOTA CULTURAL E O ALUNO NO MUNDO DO TRABALHO NO MP

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Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar

Activities Americans do simultaneously while they are online: Listening to music

59%

Playing games

Talking on the telephone

59%

Doing housework

Watching TV

19%

Cooking

54%

Eating

20%

Reading a magazine

48%

17% 8%

Listening to the radio

32%

Reading the newspaper

8%

Talking to other people

32%

Reading a book

7%

Working out

7%

Paying bills Doing office work

28%

Renato Faccini

Estúdio Insólito

3. Study the graph and, in the notebook, write T for true or F for false. informações explícitas em um texto.

21%

(COSTA, Amanda. Acerto de Contas. Atenção Parcial Contínua – APC, Recife, May 2009. Available at: <http://acertodecontas.blog.br/artigos/ ateno-parcial-contnua-apc/>. Accessed on: May 9, 2016. Translated by the editors.)

a. T Most Americans listen to music or talk on the phone while they are online. Habilidade de leitura: HL11 – Relacionar temas, c. F Twenty-one percent of Americans do housework while they are online. assuntos ou recursos em diferentes textos, representados em 4. Compare the text to the graph and write, in the notebook, the correct sentence. diferentes linguagens.

b. F Working out is the most popular activity Americans do while they are online.

a. √ The data displayed in the graph validates the information presented in the text on page 120. b. The graph shows that Americans don’t usually multitask. 5. Preparing a graph. → Talk to students from a different class and take notes. Draw the following chart in the notebook to help you. Class number: Number of students:

REMEMBER TO → create a title to catch the reader’s attention. → present percentages. → write a short caption to go with the graph.

Number of multitasking people:

LEIA DICA NO MP

Total number of people who do these activities while they’re online: Listen to music:

:

Talk on the phone:

:

Watch TV:

:

→ Compare your notes to a classmate’s. → Create a graph to illustrate your findings.

SELF-EVALUATION Evaluate your graph. Compare it to the one on this page. How similar or different are they? Is there a title or a caption in your graph? Is it visually clear? Did you use different colors to represent each type of information? Are there any improvements you can make to your graph?

→ Hang your graph on the school’s bulletin board.

WEB SEARCH Visit the following websites to know more about multitasking. Scientific American: <http://ler.vc/bfdf94>. (Accessed on: Apr. 8, 2016.) YouTube: <http://ler.vc/z7x3cu>. (Accessed on: Apr. 8, 2016.)

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ABOUT STIS? WHAT DO YOU KNOW

1. What do these numbers refer to? Read the text below and match them to the answers. Write

Estúdio Insólito

down the corresponding letters and numbers in the notebook. a. 19,000,000

b 1.

b. 10,000

d 2. sexually active teen will contract an STI by age 25.

c. 1/3

c 3.

d. 1 in 2

a 4. infections are transmitted each year.

Facts about teens and

STIs

teens are infected by STIs every day. of sexually active teens say they have been tested for STIs.

Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

• Nineteen million new sexually transmitted infections (STIs) occur each year, almost half of them among young people ages 15 to 24.

• 10,000 teens are infected by STIs per day, one every eight seconds! • One out of every four sexually active teens has an STI, and one in two sexually active youth will contract an STI by age 25.

• In 2006, adolescents and young adults 13-29 years old accounted for the greatest percentage of new HIV infections (34%) than any other age group. […]

• Teenagers are more susceptible to human papilloma virus (HPV). • Teens are also more likely to develop precancerous growths as a result of HPV infection, and these growths more likely to develop into invasive cancer.

• 40% of older adolescents surveyed incorrectly believe that the contraceptive “pill” and “shot” protect against STIs and HIV.

• Only 1/3 of sexually active teens age 15 to 17, and 1/2 of sexually active young adults ages 18 to 24 say they have been tested for STIs.

(Research sources: <www.floridahealth.gov/diseases-and-conditions>; <http://prezi.com/cf6fcj6-fq_u/stis-vaccines-and-the-immune-system>; <www.cdc.gov/std/stats10/adol.htm>. Accessed on: Apr. 13, 2016.)

VIEWPOINTS

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto a sua experiência pessoal.

Converse com seu professor e colegas. Os dados sobre doenças sexualmente transmissíveis – DSTs (STIs, em inglês) apresentados no texto são referentes aos Estados Unidos. Você acha que o cenário no Brasil é parecido? Quais são as melhores formas de prevenção contra essas doenças? Como os órgãos governamentais podem contribuir para a prevenção?

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Habilidade de leitura: HL2 – Localizar e relacionar informações explícitas sobre um 2. Read the poster and answer the questions in the notebook. mesmo assunto ou tema em diferentes textos. Journal Gazette (http://www.journalgazette.net/news/local/Students-help-raise-awareness-6200759

a. Which of the facts from the text on page 122 is the poster about? One out of every four sexually active teens has an STI.

b. What suggestion does the poster give? Get yourself tested.

3. Making a poster.

research on the most common STIs and * Do choose one to be the topic of your poster. about transmission, symptoms and * Read ways to prevent the disease. the information and write the * Organize first draft of your text. your draft to your teacher and * Show classmates and take notes of their suggestions. the final version of the poster * Prepare and hang it on the school’s bulletin board.

REMEMBER TO:

Available at: <http://www.journalgazette.net/news/local/Students-helpraise-awareness-6200759> Accessed on Apr. 14, 2016.

a simple message in order * write to grab the reader’s attention. colors and images effectively * use and creatively.

WEB SEARCH Visit the following websites to learn more about STIs. SatherHealth: <http://ler.vc/mfvmwb>. (Accessed on: Apr. 14, 2016.) FamilyDoctor: <http://ler.vc/uzjr7s>. (Accessed on: Apr. 14, 2016.) Vimeo: <http://ler.vc/czfrn6>. (Accessed on: Apr. 14, 2016.)

SELF-EVALUATION Evaluate your poster. Compare it to the one on this page. How similar or different are they? Is it visually clear? Are there any improvements you can make to it?

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ENDANGERED ANIMALS

Habilidade de leitura: HL18 – Selecionar um título ou legenda apropriada para um texto.

1. Look at the sign and choose the best sentence to describe it. Write down the answer in the notebook. a. Manatees are aquatic mammals. b. √ Manatees are killed by boats. c. Manatees migrate to warmer waters.

Focus on Genre

eanwideimages.com

LEIA DICA NO MP

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

Michael Patrick O'Neill/oc

2. Look at the sign and analyze it. Then, in the notebook, write T (true) or F (false). a. Verbal and nonverbal components are used. T b. Images are merely illustrative. F

3. Read the text and answer the questions.

Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

Amazon manatee

–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– The Amazon manatee or South American manatee is an aquatic mammal that can be found in the rivers, swamps and wetlands of the Amazon River basin. The murky waters often make it hard to see the manatee and therefore accurate population numbers are unknown; however, they are believed to be in decline due to hunting and habitat loss.

© Wikimedia Commons

c. The message is easily interpreted. T d. Humor is used to convey the message. F

[...] Amazon manatees are exclusively vegetarian (herbivores), feeding on water lettuce and hyacinth. In the course of a day, they may eat up to 8% of their body weight. They feed mostly during the wet season, when there is plenty of new vegetation, storing the food in their fat reserves. When the dry season returns, manatees return to the main rivers, where they congregate. During this fasting period, they rely on their stored fat reserves until food becomes available again. They live in groups of 4 to 8 individuals and are also found alone. Gestation takes approximately 13 months, after which a single calf is born. In captivity, manatees have lived more than 12 years. The Amazon manatee once had a range throughout the Amazon River Basin – but because of persistent hunting for its meat and oil, it has become a rare sight. This species belongs to the order Sirenia, of which only 4 species remain today. The other 3 species are the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), the West African manatee (Trichechus senegalensis), and the dugong (Dugong dugon), which inhabits coastal marine areas of the Indian and Pacific Ocean basins. (The range of the Amazon manatee is marked in red. The green area indicates the range of the West Indian manatee and the orange area is the range of the West African manatee. Amazon manatee. Available at: <http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/species/profiles/mammals/amazon_ manatee/>. Accessed on: May 8, 2016.)

a. b. c. d. 124

What kind of animal is a manatee? It’s an aquatic mammal. What kind of food do manatees eat? They are herbivores, they only eat plants. Why it's so hard to see manatees? Due to the decline of the population and because they live in murky waters. What are the main threats to the survival of manatees? Hunting and habitat loss.

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VIEWPOINTS

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

Converse com seu professor e colegas. A ação humana é a principal responsável pela ameaça de extinção dos peixes-boi e de vários outros animais. A devastação dos habitats é tão grande que alguns animais só são salvos da extinção graças ao trabalho de conservação nos zoológicos. O que você pensa sobre esse tipo de medida? O que você acha que pode ser feito para evitar a destruição dos habitats? LEIA DICA NO MP

4. Making a sign for a conservation campaign. » Do some research on the endangered animals in Brazil. Draw the following chart in the notebook to organize the information you collect. > Endangered animal

> Habitat

» Choose one animal and list some actions for a campaign which aims at preserving the animal chosen. » Write an impressive sentence for a sign for the campaign. » Make the sign. Remember to illustrate it. » Show your sign to your teacher and classmates and make any necessary changes. » Hang your sign on the school bulletin board.

> Greatest threat

Remember to > choose a size that is appropriate for the distance you expect the reader to see it from. > be concise, but make sure all the necessary information is included. > do not use anything on the background that will make it difficult for the reader to focus on the main message.

WEB SEARCH Go to the following sites to research the endangered species. Instituto Chico Mendes: <http://ler.vc/x2cte7>. (Accessed on: May 8, 2016.) The IUCN Red List: <http://ler.vc/8bph4x>. (Accessed on: May 8, 2016.) Ibama: <http://ler.vc/sxwtyi>. (Accessed on: May 8, 2016.) Endangered Species Coalition: <http://ler.vc/syzstk>. (Accessed on: May 8, 2016.) Planeta Sustentável: <http://ler.vc/qc95q7>. (Accessed on: May 8, 2016.) Wildlife Conservation Society: <http://ler.vc/8o3e24>. (Accessed on: May 8, 2016.)

SELF-EVALUATION Evaluate your sign. Compare it to the one on page 124. How similar or different are they? Is it visually clear? Did the message get across? Are there any improvements you can make to it?

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t HISTORY o SHORT FILMS 1. Read the timeline and, in the notebook, write T for true or F for false.

T T

timeline of short films >

1890 Le Prince created the

1919 Charles Chaplin was

a film maker, comedian, screenplay writer, composer, editor and director and featured in the majority of his films. [...] When the silent era was ending, Chaplin refused to use dialogue still as he preferred silent films.

1997 Christopher Nolan's Doodlebug is a three-minute fi lm about a man chasing an insect with a shoe around a grotty flat, only to discover on killing it that it is a miniature of himself [...]

LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

1891 Thomas Edison created

fi rst moving picture on paper fi lm using a single lense camera.

the Kinetoscope, which enabled individual views of moving pictures.

WolfTracerArchive/Photo12

F

1925 The first inflight movie, a black & white, silent film called The Lost World, is shown in a WWI converted Handley-Page bomber during a 30-minute flight near London.

SSPL/Getty Images

Edison was able to project movies for large audiences. invented the Cinématographe. c. Voyage to the Moon was the first inflight movie. d. Charlie Chaplin starred in silent movies. e. François Truffaut was one of the founders of the French New Wave.

Topical Press Agency/ Getty Image

F a. Thomas

F b. Le Prince

Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

2005 The first video-sharing

website was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen and Jaw Karim.

(History of short films. Available at: <http://www.tiki-toki.com/timeline/entry/165021/History-of-short-films/#vars!panel=1581316!>. Accessed on: May 8, 2016.)

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VIEWPOINTS Converse com seu professor e colegas. Estamos em meio a uma revolução digital na qual milhões de usuários da internet produzem e veem filmes de curta metragem, sejam estes profissionais ou amadores. Você gosta de assistir a esse tipo de filme? Por quê? Você acredita que esses filmes são boas ferramentas para promover cultura, estilos e valores?

2. Creating a short movie

Gamma-Rapho/Getty Images

% In groups, decide the story you want to put on the screen. % Write the outline of your script. % Select a cast and production assistants. % Write the final version of your script including the details for each scene. % Use a camera or a cell phone to shoot the scenes. % Import your video into a computer, choose some editing software and start editing. % Invite your friends and have a movie session. Don’t forget the popcorn!

1895 Louis and Auguste [the French Lumière brothers] design a camera which serves as both a recording device and a projecting device. They call it the Cinématographe.

1929 Luis Buñuel [Spanish

director famous by his surrealist short fi lm Un Chien Andalou] He was known for his controversial short fi lms and his fi rst solo fi lm was L'Âge d'Or . [...]

1958 The "New Wave" is a term that covers a group of French fi lm makers in the late 50s to 60s. They were famous for their fragmented, discontinued editing and long takes. [French fi lmmaker François Truffaut was one of the founders of the New Wave.]

Remember to

 select background actors.  decide on the locations to

shoot the scenes.

 provide props, costumes

and make-up.

1895 The fi rst fi lm shot with the Cinématographe camera is La Sortie de l'usine Lumière à Lyon (Workers leaving the Lumière factory at Lyon). [...]

1902 Georges Méliès

1980 Music video clips

1962 Boy and Bicycle is the

led to a new type of short filmmaking in the eighties.

produces his magnificent "Voyage to the Moon", a fi fteen minute epic fantasy [...] The fi lm used innovative special effect techniques and introduced colour to the screen through handpainting and tinting.

first film made by Ridley Scott. The black and white short was made on 16mm film while Scott was a photography student at the Royal College of Art in London.

WEB SEARCH Visit the following websites to help you plan your movie. Videojug: <http://ler.vc/zbcrhd>. (Accessed on: May 8, 2016.) WikiHow: <http://ler.vc/kfduqz>. (Accessed on: May 8, 2016.) Film Connection Institute: <http://ler.vc/ocvm4q>. (Accessed on: May 8, 2016.)

SELF-EVALUATION Evaluate your short movie. Did the message get across? How did the audience react to it? Are there any improvements you can make to it?

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EXAM PRACTICE O objetivo desta seção é familiarizá-lo(a) com alguns tipos de questões utilizados como instrumento de avaliação para o ingresso no Ensino Superior.

PARTE I SIMULADOS DO ENEM (EXAME NACIONAL DO ENSINO MÉDIO) Questão 1 Adventure Travel in the Age of the Online Connection Some of the most remote places in the world are starting to feel less isolated thanks to new technology. This may be good for people who live in them, but for travellers it's a mixed blessing. […] It may be a cliché but there is no doubt that technology makes the world feel a smaller – and less interesting – place. It has the habit of shrinking the distances between countries and merging cultures. For me, real adventure travel does not just come from the journey itself but from feeling cut off from one's normal way of life – a situation that forces you to accept what you find and become absorbed by it. And being isolated can also be exciting since it often brings a frisson of risk. Unfortunately, with the unseen umbilical cord of a mobile or internet connection, it is much more of a challenge to experience the unfamiliar and leave the familiar behind. In short, adventures are not quite so, well, adventurous. […] (CORDEY, Huw. Adventure travel in the age of the online connection. Disponível em: <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-17226643>. Acesso em: 4 maio 2016 (fragmento).)

1. As inovações tecnológicas do século XXI trouxeram consigo uma profunda transformação no modo como as pessoas se comunicam e se relacionam umas com as outras. Muito se debate sobre os benefícios e malefícios de tal transformação. No texto acima, o autor, um apaixonado por viagens de aventura, expõe sua opinião sobre o assunto. De acordo com ele, ao atingir locais remotos do planeta, a tecnologia a. beneficia de maneira equivalente os habitantes e os visitantes de tais locais. b. diminui as distâncias entre os países e torna o mundo mais atraente. c. mistura culturas, na medida em que encurta as distâncias. d. faz o mundo parecer menor e facilita as viagens de aventura. e. facilita o entendimento entre diferentes culturas, transformando-as. 2. O autor é adepto das viagens de aventura. De acordo com o texto, esse tipo de viagem a. é uma maneira empolgante de se aproximar de culturas diferentes. b. promove um rompimento com o modo de vida do viajante. c. dificulta a aceitação da nova realidade, uma vez que o viajante se sente absorvido por ela. d. traz uma sensação de risco, que pode ser estimulada com a conexão à Internet. e. tornou-se impossível, com o advento de novas tecnologias. 3. O texto apresenta um ponto de vista curioso sobre os efeitos da tecnologia nas viagens de aventura. Com base nas ideias defendidas no texto, pode-se inferir que o autor, com o advento dessas tecnologias, a. sentiu mais dificuldade em experimentar o “novo”, em suas viagens. b. não reconhece as vantagens da existência de novas tecnologias em locais remotos. c. passou a usufruir as novas tecnologias, melhorando a qualidade de suas viagens de aventura. d. utilizou o celular e a Internet como aliados na realização da viagem. e. rendeu-se ao uso das novas tecnologias, apesar de considerá-las extremamente maléficas.

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Calvin Hobbes, Bill Watterson © 1992 Watterson/Dist. by Universal Uclick

Questão 2

Go Comics 15. Disponível em: <http://www.gocomics.com/calvinandhobbes/2012/03/15>. Acesso em: 4 maio 2016.

1. A tirinha apresenta uma situação bastante comum em crianças em idade escolar. Calvin, aos berros, diz que a. preferiria trabalhar a ir à escola. b. detesta a escola, onde não faz nada. c. não quer estudar nunca mais. d. não gosta de não fazer nada na escola. e. preferiria fazer qualquer coisa a ir à escola. 2. O pai de Calvin sugere que o filho trabalhe em seu lugar e revela como se sente com relação ao trabalho. Podemos inferir que o pai de Calvin a. ama trabalhar até tarde. b. sente-se recompensado pelo esforço que faz diariamente. c. enfrenta reclamações do filho, ao chegar em casa do trabalho. d. não ganha o suficiente para sustentar a família. e. gostaria de voltar aos tempos de escola. 3. Após o discurso do pai, Calvin sente-se a. chateado por ter que ir à escola. b. orgulhoso de seu pai. c. ansioso pelo dia em que trabalhará. d. desanimado com as perspectivas do futuro. e. bravo pela bronca que ouviu do pai.

Questão 3 Obesity in Teens […] According to statistics, nearly one in five 15-year-olds is obese and one in five 13 to 16-year-olds are overweight. Obesity seems to be a growing problem in today's society, with the main causes considered to be a poor diet, eating too many fatty, sugary and calorie-laden foods and a lack of exercise. […] To tackle obesity, teens should be helped to be aware of their diet and exercise habits. Eating healthily and making simple changes, such as eating grilled food instead of fried or cutting out cakes and biscuits, can make all the difference. Some useful tips for making dietary changes include: • Changing to healthier cooking oil, such as olive oil, which is packed with monounsaturates – a healthier form of fat. • Eating more fruit and vegetables each day. […] • Get to know food labels – check the fat, sugar and salt content before buying. • Use low fat margarine instead of butter. • Avoid snacking between meals, or change your snacks to healthy options such as carrot sticks, unsalted nuts or seeds. • Avoid eating processed food. • Eat meals as a family. • Have takeaways as an occasional treat. […] (NEWCOMB, Rachel. Obesity in Teens. Growing Kids, 17 nov. 2010. Disponível em: <http://www.growingkids.co.uk/ObesityInTeens.html>. Acesso em: 4 maio 2016 (fragmento).)

EXAM PRACTICE

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1. A obesidade é um problema que afeta muitas pessoas ao redor do mundo e não poupa crianças e adolescentes. Segundo o texto, a obesidade a. atinge mais adolescentes que crianças. b. é um problema sério, mas que tem diminuído nos últimos tempos. c. tem a dieta pobre como uma de suas principais causas. d. é causada por uma dieta rica em calorias, mesmo em adolescentes que praticam muito exercício físico. e. tem preocupado os pais de adolescentes. 2. O texto apresenta algumas dicas úteis para que mudanças sejam feitas na dieta de adolescentes. Com base na leitura de tais dicas, pode-se concluir que, para uma dieta saudável, é desaconselhável a. utilizar azeite de oliva, que é rico em gordura monossaturada. b. fazer refeições com a família. c. utilizar manteiga, ao invés de margarina. d. comer comida grelhada, ao invés de frita. e. comer frutas e verduras cruas. 3. No texto, há diversas dicas que podem auxiliar os adolescentes a modificar sua dieta. Dentre elas, inclui-se a. ler rótulos, antes de comprar o alimento, checando a quantidade de gordura, sal e açúcar. b. evitar comer entre as refeições, ainda que alimentos saudáveis. c. comer comida processada. d. levar comida do restaurante para comer em casa. e. comer bolos e biscoitos, com moderação.

Questão 4 Can Animals Sense Earthquakes and Tsunamis? Animals often seem to know things that people don't. […] We do know that animals in areas affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami most certainly did seem to sense that something disastrous and dangerous had happened. Witnesses report wild animals such as elephants and monkeys moving towards higher ground as well as anxiety and distress in cattle, dogs and other domestic animals. Given the destructiveness of that disaster, surprisingly few dead animals were recovered. While this might seem odd, if you think about the fact that many species naturally have senses that are far more acute than those possessed by humans, it seems less strange. Wild animals in particular need to have excellent senses of smell, sight, hearing and even the ability to sense minute vibrations, because those senses help them survive. Many species perceive and use electromagnetic fields that are imperceptible to humans to navigate or find prey. As odd as this seems, whether it's simply the acuteness of the five known senses or a sixth sense that we humans don't possess, there's nothing paranormal or unnatural about it. In fact, some researches are studying the abilities of animals to sense such disasters so they can be used as an early warning system. […] (Animal Planet. Disponível em: <http://blogs.discovery.com/animal_oddities/2011/03/can-animals-sense-earthquakes-and-tsunamis.html>. Acesso em: 29 abr. 2013 (fragmento).)

1. No tsunami de 2004, no Oceano Índico, o comportamento dos animais chamou atenção. Foi observado que a. animais como elefantes e macacos começaram a andar agitados, sem rumo. b. apenas animais domésticos conseguiram sobreviver ao desastre. c. muitos cachorros e gatos morreram em decorrência do estresse. d. poucos animais morreram, diante da seriedade do desastre. e. foi observada pouca ansiedade em gado e cachorros. 2. A aparente sensibilidade dos animais, na ocorrência de um desastre, causa, nos seres humanos a. aversão

c. receio

b. estranhamento

d. aflição

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e. pavor

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3. A sensibilidade dos animais, diante da ocorrência de desastres a. é um fenômeno paranormal. b. tem explicação no uso correto dos cinco sentidos pelos animais. c. certamente é explicada pela existência de um sexto sentido nos animais. d. pode ser explicada pela percepção dos campos eletromagnéticos pelos animais, o que também ocorre com os seres humanos. e. pode ser utilizada no futuro como sistema de alerta contra desastres.

PARTE II QUESTÕES DE VESTIBULAR Questão 5 / FUVEST (1ª FASE – 2011) ISSOUF SANOGO/AFP

The perils of counterfeit drugs go way beyond being ripped off by dubious online pill-pushers. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 50 per cent of all medicines sold online are worthless counterfeits. In developing nations fake pills may account for as much as 30 per cent of all drugs on the market. Even in the developed world, 1 per cent of medicines bought over the counter are fakes. Some key events illustrate the risk these pose. In Nigeria, 2500 children died in 1995 after receiving fake meningitis vaccines. In Haiti, Bangladesh and Nigeria, around 400 people died in 1998 after being given paracetamol that had been prepared with diethylene glycol – a solvent used in wallpaper stripper. The fakers are nothing if not market-aware: in the face of an outbreak of H5N1 bird flu in 2005, they began offering fake Tamiflu. What can be done? The WHO coordinates an umbrella body called the International Medical Products Anti-Counterfeiting Taskforce (IMPACT), an industry initiative that issues alerts when it finds anomalies in the medicine supply chain. Such events include sudden drops in wholesale prices, hinting at fakes coming onto the market, or the mimicking of anti-counterfeiting features on packaging, such as holograms or barcodes, says Nimo Ahmed, head of intelligence at the UK’s Medicine and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency. New Scientist, 10 July 2010, p. 18. Adaptado.

1. De acordo com o texto, medicamentos falsificados, em geral, a. são consumidos apenas em países pobres e de pouco acesso à internet. b. encontram dificuldade de comercialização com o aparecimento de novas doenças. c. são ineficazes e contêm elementos danosos à saúde em sua composição. d. possuem embalagens atraentes que ludibriam o consumidor. e. vêm sendo criteriosamente apreendidos pela Organização Mundial da Saúde. 2. O texto informa que os falsificadores a. atuam na venda de remédios no mercado atacadista. b. roubam o selo de qualidade da Organização Mundial da Saúde. c. utilizam placebo nos medicamentos. d. apresentam-se como representantes oficiais da indústria farmacêutica. e. estão sempre alertas à demanda do mercado.

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3. Segundo o texto, para conter a venda de medicamentos falsificados, a Organização Mundial da Saúde a. estimula a venda promocional de medicamentos importantes sempre que necessário. b. coordena o trabalho de uma organização que acompanha o fornecimento de remédios no mercado farmacêutico, alertando para possíveis irregularidades. c. exige que todos os medicamentos exibam o holograma da organização e o código de barras. d. controla o lançamento de novos medicamentos no mercado, a exemplo do Tamiflu. e. autoriza apenas a comercialização de medicamentos que passaram pelo crivo das agências sanitárias internacionais.

Questão 6 / UFT (2012) William's words – Confessions of a Latin teacher (part 2) By Justin Ratcliffe The UK government has ignored demands to offer Latin in all schools. But the ancient world still holds our imaginations, from law and politics through to films like Clash of Titans and Percy Jackson and the Lightning Thief. Politically, Roman laws passed through two houses. The UK copied this arrangement. The US went further, placing the Senate and House of Representatives on Capitol Hill. Money stamped with our leader's faces is inspired by Roman coins. The Romans gave us public and civil law, trial by jury and the principle "innocent till proven guilty". Today's politicians are still influenced by Cicero's oratory. We take rhetorical devices from classical: simile and metaphor, synecdoche and metonymy. Although we may prefer films to poetry, we use their literary genres: tragedy and comedy, epic and satire. Ever since Freud, psychology has used classical words and concepts. We are aware of our ego, id and superego. We recognise narcissism, mania and the Oedipus complex. Philosophy is built upon Plato and Aristotle, giving us arguments a priori and a posteriori, syllogism and reduction ad absurdum. Everybody knows Descartes' phrase: "Cogito ergo sum". Science is full of Latin from geometry's humble oval to paleontology's mighty Tirannosaurus rex. In meteorology, we have cumulo-nimbus clouds; in physics, the quantum. We named the planets after Roman gods. Neighbours Venus and Mars reflect the mythical entanglement of love and war. [...] In sport, Romans took Greek pursuits and turned them into big business, with stadiums and gambling. Watch today's racing, horses or Formula One, and you can't help thinking of chariot racing in the Circus Maximus. The celebrities and hysteria in boxing, wrestling, rugby and football recall Rome's gladiators. [...] Oxford classics professors recently urged the British government to give Latin the same status in schools as modern languages. The Department for Education replied: — Latin is an important subject, valuable for learning of modern languages and a useful basis for many disciplines. It is, however, not classified in curriculum as modern language as pupils cannot interact with native Latin speakers or visit parts of the world where Latin is spoken as native language. A diplomatic response! (Speak up. São Paulo: Editora Rickdan, n. 285, ano XXIII, maio de 2011, p. 40-41 (Adapted).)

1. According to the text, mark the CORRECT answer: a. In a diplomatic way, the British government accepted the proposal of the Oxford classics professors of offering Latin in every school in the United Kingdom. b. The influences of the Roman Empire in modern western societies are found in many fields, such as science, politics, entertainment, languages, sports, law, etc. c. The teaching of Latin in the UK schools will improve the interaction between the British and the native Latin speakers. d. The idea of the Oedipus complex is a Latin heritage that belongs only to the philosophical area. e. Nowadays the literary genres are only related to oratory ability. 2. In the sentence "innocent till proven guilty" the word — “till” can be replaced, without changing its meaning, by: a. Until

c. However

b. Still

d. After

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e. But

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Questão 7 / UEL (2010) Britain worst in Europe for electrical recycling 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Britain has picked up the wooden spoon in a recent survey looking into the electrical recycling habits of Europeans. According to the results of the new research, we are apparently the worst in Europe when it comes to recycling WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment). WEEE comprises such devices as mobile phones, PCs, laptops and games consoles, and the research carried out by Dell suggests that we are falling way behind the rest of the continent when it comes to recycling these products. The survey questioned 5,000 people across Europe regarding their recycling habits when it comes to old electronic products, and found that in Britain only half of consumers take appropriate recycling steps, compared to an impressive 80% of Germans. Indeed, Germany, Spain, France and Italy all out-perform us when it comes to having a greater awareness of recycling initiatives, which is the root of the problem. Greater awareness leads to a greater level of recycling, so we still have a long way to go. Within the UK, it was the Welsh who performed the worst, with 19% of people admitting that they had never recycled any of their technology products. This was followed closely by people living in the north of England. There was also confusion between standard recycling and the recycling of electronic products. In the north east of England, almost three quarters of people claim to do what they can to recycle, but less than 1% recycle their electronic products. There is also little knowledge across the country of exactly what the WEEE initiative is, which all paints a rather depressing picture of recycling in the UK.

(Disponível em: <http://tiny.cc/recyclingguide>. Acesso em: 18 nov. 2009.)

1. É correto afirmar que o autor do texto se considera a. alemão.

c. espanhol.

b. britânico.

d. francês.

e. italiano.

2. Com base no texto, é correto afirmar que fatores associados à pouca reciclagem estão ligados: I. Ao pouco discernimento sobre as diferentes formas de reciclagem. II. Ao conhecimento limitado sobre reciclagem de produtos eletroeletrônicos. III. À falta de consciência sobre procedimentos de reciclagem. IV. Ao pouco espaço para armazenar produtos para reciclagem. Assinale a alternativa correta.

c. Somente as afirmativas III e IV são corretas.

a. Somente as afirmativas I e IV são corretas.

d. Somente as afirmativas I, II e III são corretas.

b. Somente as afirmativas II e III são corretas.

e. Somente as afirmativas I, II e IV são corretas.

Brandon Laufenberg / Getty Images

Questão 8 / UFRN (2013) What is Mobile Learning? The term mobile learning (m-learning) refers to the use of mobile and handheld IT devices, such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), mobile telephones, laptops and tablet PC technologies, in teaching and learning. As computers and the internet become essential educational tools, the technologies become more portable, affordable, effective and easy to use. This provides many opportunities for widening participation and access to ICT, and in particular the internet. Mobile devices such as phones and PDAs are much more reasonably priced than desktop computers, and therefore represent a less expensive method of accessing the internet (though the cost of connection can be higher). The introduction of tablet PCs now allows mobile internet access with equal, if not more, functionality than desktop computers. (Disponível em: <http://archive.excellencegateway.org.uk/page.aspx?o=135556>. Acesso em: 31 maio 2012 (adaptado).)

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1. O significado conferido à expressão mobile learning a. menciona os efeitos da telefonia celular como recurso didático. b. atribui o sucesso da aprendizagem aos dispositivos portáteis. c. associa o uso da tecnologia da informação ao processo educativo. d. destaca os objetivos definidos para a educação online.

Questão 9 / UFG (2011) 1. The following sentences were taken from the site www.livingin-canada.com. Which one is intended to persuade the reader to go there? a. House prices are higher in Canada's big cities than they are in the surrounding towns. b. Despite relatively low unemployment rates in Canada, getting work can be difficult for migrants. c. The vast majority of Canada's population lives near the southern border with the USA. d. Canada offers support to every individual, trying to make sure that every citizen feels at home. e. If your English skills are not excellent, you may find it almost impossible to get a job in Canada.

Questão 10 / UEAM (2012) Maues – City of Guarana Maues is one of the most beautiful cities in the Amazon; known as the Guarana city, it has beautiful sandy beaches and holds two famous festivals – Maues Summer Festival and The Guarana Festival. Its early inhabitants, the Mundurucus and Maues Indians, used to grow the Guarana fruit, which is the basis for the well-known Brazilian soft drink. The word Maues means “talking parrots” and comes from one of the Indian tribes in the region. Maues has 22,000 inhabitants, with other 20,000 natives scattered over 140 villages along rivers in the region. Maues is located on the Maues-Açu River and it can be reached ______ Manaus – 267 km away – by regional boat in 18 hours, by fast boat in 7 hours or by plane in 1 hour. Maues is an ideal starting point for adventure, including a visit to the Amana Waterfall, or to old gold mines, caves, and the jungle – with local Indian guides. Tourists may also visit the Uraira reserve. (Disponível em: <http://amazonaslife.tripod.com> (adaptado).)

1. De acordo com o texto, a. o nome da cidade de Maués tem origem indígena. b. Maués produz diariamente milhares de garrafas do refrigerante Guaraná. c. há muitos papagaios nas praias de Maués. d. no Festival de Verão de Maués, o consumo de Guaraná é imenso. e. Maués é uma cidade litorânea, com belas praias. 2. O texto permite concluir que a. é possível ir de Manaus a Maués de carro ou ônibus. b. há diversos bairros indígenas em Maués. c. a Cachoeira Amaná faz parte da reserva de Uraira. d. alguns indígenas da região atuam como guias turísticos. e. a mineração de ouro é uma atividade importante em Maués. 3. No trecho do primeiro parágrafo – it has beautiful sandy beaches and holds two famous festivals – a palavra em destaque (it) refere-se a a. Maués.

c. Summer Festival.

b. Guaraná.

d. beaches.

e. Amazon.

4. A lacuna do texto pode ser corretamente preenchida por a. at.

c. in.

b. to.

d. from.

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e. over.

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SIGLAS FUVEST – Fundação Universitária para o Vestibular UFT – Universidade Federal do Tocantins UEL – Universidade Estadual de Londrina UFRN – Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte UFG – Universidade Federal de Goiás UEAM – Universidade do Estado do Amazonas

ANSWER KEY PARTE I / Simulados do Enem

PARTE II / Questões de Vestibular

Questão 1

Questão 5

1 - c

1 - c

2 - b

2 - e

3 - a

3 - b

Questão 2

Questão 6

1 - e

1 - b

2 - c

2 - a

3 - d Questão 7 Questão 3

1 - b

1 - c

2 - d

2 - c 3 - a

Questão 8 1 - c

Questão 4 1 - d

Questão 9

2 - b

1 - d

3 - e Questão 10 1 - a 2 - d 3 - a 4 - d

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LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE UNIT 1 Usamos o Simple Past quando nos referimos a ações finalizadas em um tempo definido. “The other day, I sent a text message to a friend […]” (BABAJANIANS, Tina. Communication on 21st Century: Effective or Flawed? Asha Sphere, Los Angeles, Mar. 2011. Available at: <http://blog.asha.org/2011/03/03/communication-in-the-21st-century-effective-or-flawed/>. Accessed on: Apr. 24, 2013.)

“We stayed here last year and are going back.” (We stayed here last year and are going back. Trip advisor.ca, Sep. 2011. Available at: <http://www.tripadvisor.ca/ShowUserReviews-g155033d610370-r117605105-A_l_Augustine-Quebec_City_Quebec.html>. Accessed on: Apr. 24, 2013.)

Simple Past – Review Affirmative Form

Negative Form

I

I

I

He

He

he

She

She studied for the test.

It

Interrogative Form

she

did not study for the test. Did

It did not = didn’t

it

We

We

You

You

you

They

They

they

study for the test?

we

Regular Verbs

Irregular Verbs

Acrescenta-se -ed ao infinitivo do verbo. work + -ed = worked

Cada verbo possui uma forma específica. do – did drink – drank eat – ate go – went have – had

Verbos terminados em e: like + -d = liked Verbos terminados em consoante + y: study – y + -ied = studied

1. In the notebook, complete the sentences and questions with the Simple Past form of the verbs in parentheses. a. I

my English homework yesterday. (do) did

b. Mary

her family in Salvador last month. (visit) visited

c. They

to school this morning. They were sick. (not go) didn’t go

d.

you

e. I

TV last night? (watch) Did

watch

a present for my husband. (buy) bought

2. Complete the dialogue between two friends with verbs in the Simple Past form. buy (2x)

do (2x)

Richard: What Ana:

I

you

last weekend? did

Richard: Richard: Ana:

you

to the beach and you

Ana: I

have

play

do

to Buzios. went

Richard: That’s cool! What Ana: I

go (3x)

there? did

do

beach volleyball. went played

any souvenirs? Did

buy

some T-shirts. bought you

to Cabo Frio too? Did

No, I didn’t. I

time to. didn’t

go have

Richard: Next time, please take me with you.

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LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE UNIT 2 Como já vimos anteriormente, um dos usos do verbo can é descrever habilidades. “[…] they can now decide which MP3 player they want to buy […]” (PAGANELLI, Maria Pia. What is Money For? First Principles. ISI Web Journal, Spring 2012. Available at: <http://www.firstprinciplesjournal.com/articles.aspx?article=1814>. Accessed on: Apr. 26, 2013.)

“A girl can’t live without shoes.” (CHEVONNE, Carmen. Pinterest. Available at: <http://pinterest.com/carmeenta/a-girl-can-t-live-without-shoes/>. Accessed on: Apr. 26, 2013.)

Can / Can’t Peter can swim very well.

Affirmative Form

I can dance samba. I can’t speak French.

Negative Form

They cannot play tennis.

1. Unscramble the words to make sentences. a. languages / can / many / speak / Paul Paul can speak many languages. b. can’t / friends / surf / Our Our friends can’t surf. c. mother / very / cook / My / can / well My mother can cook very well. d. play / Mary / the / can’t / piano Mary can’t play the piano. e. read and write / little / can / My / brother My little brother can read and write.

Goodshoot RF/Getty Images

Lammeyer/Getty Images

2. In the notebook, complete the sentences using can or can’t.

b. use a computer

chrishowey/Getty Images

Dirima/Getty Images

a. sing

d. roller skate

c. cook

a. Patty

. can sing

b. My grandparents

c. My husband . can use a computer

d. Maureen

. can’t cook . can’t roller skate LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE – UNIT 2

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LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE UNIT 3 Alguns substantivos contáveis em português são considerados incontáveis em inglês. “Eating any food sources of omega-3 fats may be beneficial for health.” (Eating any food sources of omega-3 fats may be beneficial for health. EUFIC. Available at: <http://www.eufic.org/page/pt/show/latest-science-news/ fftid/food-sources-omega-3-fats-beneficial-health/>. Accessed on: Apr. 24, 2013.)

“How many slices of bread can I eat a day?” (GRAHAM, Karen. How many slices of bread can I eat a day? Karen Graham, Sep. 2012. Available at: <http://karengraham.ca/blog/how-many-slicesof-bread-can-i-eat-a-day/>. Accessed on: Apr. 24, 2013.)

Uncountable Nouns Equipment

The lab needs a lot of equipment.

Information

She doesn’t have any information.

Advice

Please give me some advice.

Furniture

I will buy some furniture for my new office.

News

Tell them some good news.

Homework

Don’t you have any homework to do?

Air

This room is so crowded. I need some fresh air.

Music

I’d love to listen to some music now.

1. Write, in the notebook, the correct options to complete the sentences. a. The receptionist gave me • √ •

√ •

an

b. I don’t have

two pieces of

money.

much

c. Did the teacher assign √ •

information.

any

a

homework? •

three

d. Your brother is a great guitar player. He played •

a

√ •

some

e. I am going to the supermarket to buy •

a

√ •

lovely music at the party.

bread. some

2. Match the sentence halves and, in the notebook, write down the letters and numbers. a. Please bring some

1. new equipment? I think they are investing in technology. c

b. Jorge told me some

2. food to the party, especially something sweet. a

c. Did that company buy any

3. great news. I’m so excited. b

d. That’s some

4. furniture for your new house? e

e. Are you going to buy a lot of

5. good advice. Thanks for helping me. d

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LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE UNIT 4 Usamos os verbos no Past Participle para formar o Present Perfect Simple. “Volunteering at Recanto São Francisco has been a wonderful experience.” (I have been a volunteer. Recanto São Francisco. Available at: <http://www.recantosaofrancisco.org.br/english/index.php/youcanhelp/i-have-been-avolunteer/>. Accessed on: Apr. 29, 2013.)

“I have learned that international volunteering is vital to understanding other cultures […]” (Volunteer opportunities. Cross-Cultural Solutions. Available at: <http://www.crossculturalsolutions.org/volunteering-abroad/whats-in-it-for-you/ career-benefits/voices.aspx>. Accessed on: June 20, 2012.)

A terminação -ed é acrescentada aos verbos regulares. Os verbos irregulares sofrem mudanças diferentes no Past Participle.

Past Participle Regular Verbs

Irregular Verbs

ask

asked

be

been

arrive

arrived

buy

bought

cook

cooked

break

broken

enjoy

enjoyed

come

come

like

liked

do

done

move

moved

eat

eaten

play

played

get

gotten

stay

stayed

go

gone

start

started

have

had

study

studied

make

made

visit

visited

see

seen

want

wanted

write

written

1. Lucia is writing about her friend Sandra. Read the text and write down in the notebook the verbs in the Past Participle form. A good friend of mine won the lottery last month. She has moved to a bigger house and has bought a car and a boat. She has also eaten in very expensive restaurants. She has invited me to travel around the country, so we have been to many different places together.

2. Complete the sentences with the Past Participle of the verbs in the box. be

a. I have

buy

cook

do

eat

write

my opinion on the website. written

b. Frank hasn’t c. Marcy has d. The kids haven’t e. Joanna has f. My mom has

pizza. eaten a new car. bought their homework. done to Chile three times. been a wonderful meal. cooked LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE – UNIT 4

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LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE UNIT 5 Usamos why para perguntar a razão ou motivo de alguma coisa. Usamos because para responder e explicar as razões ou motivos. “Why Do People Like Animals? […] There are some of us who love animals because we look for some kind of unconditional affection and loyalty from someone.[…]” (SARMA, Daisy. Why do people like animals? Blurt it. Available at: <http://www.blurtit.com/q701874.html>. Accessed on: Apr. 25, 2013.)

Questions

Answers

Why do you study English?

Because I like it.

Why did you go to the supermarket?

I went there because I needed to buy some milk.

Why ainda pode ser usado na expressão that’s why (essa é a razão pela qual). She is so nice. That’s why I love her.

1. Write down in the notebook the correct word. a. A: Why / Because did you stay home? B: Why / Because I was tired. b. Spanish is very similar to Portuguese. That’s why / because I think it’s easy. c. A: Why / Because are you cooking? B: Why / Because my parents are coming for dinner. d. I have to pack now why / because I have to leave very early in the morning. e. A: Why / Because does she have to go home now? B: I don’t know. f. A: Why / Because are you cleaning the house now? B: That’s why / Because I am having a party tonight.

2. In the notebook, complete the sentences with why or because. a. His mother is taking dance classes

she wants to learn something new. because

b. A:

do you get to school so late every day? Why

B:

I always forget to set my alarm clock. Because

c. He’s so generous. That’s d. Patty needs to study

I love him. why she has a test tomorrow. because

e. A:

are you crying? Why

B:

my dog is sick. Because

f. A: I left home early. B:

did you do that? Why

A:

I didn't want to be late. Because

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LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE UNIT 6 Na forma afirmativa o imperativo é formado pelo verbo no infinitivo sem to. “Get at least 6-9 hours of sleep.” “Prioritize your weekly schedule as a student.” Na forma negativa é formado por don’t (ou do not) e verbo no infinitivo sem to. “Don't neglect your health.” “Don’t stress!” (How to manage your time wisely as a high school student. Wiki how to do anything. Available at: <http://www.wikihow.com/Manage-Your-TimeWisely-As-a-High-School-Student >. Accessed on: Apr. 25, 2013.)

Imperatives Usamos o imperativo em diversas situações: Dar ordens

Stand up. Sit down.

Dar instruções

Turn right. Go ahead.

Dar conselhos

Pay attention. Be careful!

Em placas, cartazes, sinalização em geral

Push. Don’t touch.

1. Write down in the notebook the correct option. a. You need to study. Stop / Don’t stop playing video games and do / don’t do your homework. b. A: How can I get to the bank? B: Go / Don’t go straight ahead. c. Hurry up! You have a test today. Be / Don’t be late for class. d. When you go into the caves, watch / don’t watch your head. e. It was not your fault. Cry. / Don’t cry. f. When you get on the subway, mind / don’t mind the gap.

2. In the notebook, complete the sentences with the verbs from the box. close

do

leave

open

raise

read

sit down

not talk

turn on

not use

Teacher: Good morning!

, please. Sit down

Students: Good morning, Mrs. Taylor. Teacher:  We have a test today. the whole test and have any questions,

only a pen and a pencil on your desk. all the exercises. your hand. Don’t talk

to a friend and don’t use

Leave Read

do

your cell phones. If you

raise

Student A: Mrs. Taylor, it’s too hot in the classroom. Teacher:

the windows, please. Open

Student B: Please, Teacher: OK,

the air conditioner. turn on the door and the windows, then. close LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE – UNIT 6

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LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE UNIT 7 Como já vimos anteriormente, o verbo to be pode significar ser ou estar dependendo do contexto em que se encontra. “I think the film is fantastic.” (Presente) (Reviews. Beyond the myth. Available at: <http://www.beyondthemythmovie.com/news-press/reviews/>. Accessed on: Apr. 25, 2013.)

“The characters were interesting…” (Passado) (VELEZ, Marilyn. Books. Smashwords. Available at: <http://www.smashwords.com/profile/view/calicocat901>. Accessed on: Apr. 25, 2013.)

“The book will not be available until late October.” (Futuro) (Preparation for Parenting Series. Leader’s place. Available at: <http://www.growingkids.org/leaders/preparation-for-parenting-series/>. Accessed on: Apr. 25, 2013.)

Verb to be – Present, Past, and Future Present Affirmative Form

Negative Form

I

am

You

are

He / She / It

is

We / You / They

are

happy.

Interrogative Form

I

am not

You

aren't

He / She / It

isn't

We / You / They

aren't

happy.

Am

I

Are

you

Is

he / she / it

Are

we / you / they

happy?

Past Affirmative Form

Negative Form

I

was

You

were

He / She / It

was

We / You / They

were

happy.

Interrogative Form

I

wasn’t

You

weren’t

He / She / It

wasn’t

We / You / They

weren’t

happy.

Was

I

Were

you

Was

he / she / it

Were

we / you / they

happy?

Future Affirmative Form I / You / He / She / It / We / You / They

Negative Form will be

happy.

I / You / He / She / It / We / You / They

Interrogative Form won’t be

happy.

Will

I / you / he / she / it / we / you / they

be

happy?

1. Write down in the notebook the right form of the verb to be. a. My mother is / was at home now.

d. They are / were sick yesterday.

b. She is / was very tired last night. She worked

e. My brother isn't / won’t be here next week. He was / will be in Florianopolis.

very hard. c. Are / Were you feeling better now?

f. Are / Were you at home last Saturday?

From: 2. In the notebook, complete the e-mail with the right form of the verb to be. To:

elisabeth@azmail.com

Subject:

Vacation

Hi, Beth, are How

am you? I

fine. I’m having the best vacation ever. I went to Porto Seguro with my parents last week. It

great. It so hot, but we at the beach all the time. was were wasn't Now my parents are planning a new trip. So next week we in Natal. will be Isn’t to me.

that great? It

is

like a dream

What about you? Tell me about your plans for your vacation. Love, Gus

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LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE UNIT 8 Como já vimos anteriormente, some, any e no podem ser usados para indicar quantidade. “[...] both countryside and city have some advantages and disadvantages. […]” “[…] There isn't any time pressure and the traffic conditions are better. […]” (Advantages and disadvantages of living in a city and in the countryside. BRYK. Available at: <http://www.bryk.pl/teksty/liceum/j%C4%99zyki/ angielski/16518-advantages_and_disadvantages_of_living_in_a_city_and_in_the_countryside.html>. Accessed on: Apr. 25, 2013.)

Quantifier

Meaning

Use

algum(a), alguns(algumas)

Usado em frases afirmativas. Também pode ser usado na interrogativa em pedidos ou ofertas.

any

algum(a), nenhum(a)

Usado em frases interrogativas ou negativas.

no

nenhum(a)

Usado em frases afirmativas com sentido negativo.

some

Examples

I have some English books. Would you like some coffee?

Do you have any brothers and sisters? I don’t play any musical instrument.

I have no idea. There is no milk in the fridge.

1. Write down in the notebook the best options to complete the sentences. a. Some / Any people believed the world would end in 2012. b. I don’t have no / any free time. c. She wants to eat some / any fruit. d. There are any / no e-mails in your inbox. e. They didn’t have any / no mistakes on their tests.

2. In the notebook, complete the sentences with some, any or no. a. She is going to buy b. Would you like c. I don’t need d. There is e. Do you have

water. She’s thirsty.

some

coffee? some help with my homework. any food in the kitchen. We need to go to the supermarket now. no friends in Salvador? any

3. In the notebook, write down the sentences into the required form. a. Do you have any money? (negative) You don’t have any money. b. There isn’t any juice in the refrigerator. (affirmative) There is some juice in the refrigerator. c. Juliet has brought some napkins. (interrogative) Has Juliet brought any napkins? d. Mark told me some good news. (negative) Mark hasn’t told me any good news. e. Did Daniel have any problems doing the exercise? (affirmative) Daniel had some problems doing the exercise. LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE – UNIT 8

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IRREGULAR VERBS Infinitive

Past

Past Participle

Translation

Infinitive

Past

Past Participle

Translation

be

was / were

been

ser, estar

eat

ate

eaten

comer

beat

beat

beaten

vencer, superar, bater

fall

fell

fallen

cair, baixar

become

became

become

tornar-se, ficar

feed

fed

fed

alimentar

begin

began

begun

começar

feel

felt

felt

sentir

bite

bit

bitten

morder, picar

fight

fought

fought

brigar, lutar

bleed

bled

bled

sangrar

find

found

found

encontrar

blow

blew

blown

soprar

flee

fled

fled

fugir

break

broke

broken

quebrar, partir

fly

flew

flown

voar

breed

bred

bred

criar (animais), cultivar (plantas)

forbid

forbade

forbidden

proibir

bring

brought

brought

trazer

forget

forgot

forgotten

esquecer

broadcast

broadcast

broadcast

transmitir (por rádio ou TV)

forgive

forgave

forgiven

perdoar

build

built

built

construir

freeze

froze

frozen

congelar

burn

burnt / burned

burnt / burned

queimar

get

got

got / gotten

receber, obter, conseguir

buy

bought

bought

comprar

give

gave

given

dar

catch

caught

caught

pegar, agarrar

go

went

gone

ir

choose

chose

chosen

escolher

grow

grew

grown

crescer

come

came

come

vir, chegar

hang

hung

hung

pendurar

cost

cost

cost

custar

have

had

had

ter

cut

cut

cut

cortar

hear

heard

heard

ouvir

deal

dealt

dealt

tratar de, lidar

hide

hid

hid / hidden

esconder(-se)

dig

dug

dug

cavar, escavar

hit

hit

hit

bater

do

did

done

fazer

hold

held

held

segurar

draw

drew

drawn

desenhar

hurt

hurt

hurt

machucar

dream

dreamed / dreamt

dreamed / dreamt

sonhar

keep

kept

kept

manter, continuar

drink

drank

drunk

beber

know

knew

known

saber, conhecer

drive

drove

driven

dirigir

lay

laid

laid

colocar, pôr

144

IRREGULAR VERBS

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Infinitive

Past

Past Participle

Translation

Infinitive

Past

Past Participle

Translation

lead

led

led

levar, conduzir

shine

shone

shone

brilhar

learn

learned / learnt

learned / learnt

aprender

shoot

shot

shot

disparar

leave

left

left

sair, deixar

show

showed

shown

mostrar

lend

lent

lent

emprestar

shut

shut

shut

fechar

let

let

let

deixar, permitir

sing

sang

sung

cantar

lie

lay

lain

deitar-se

sink

sank

sunk

afundar

lose

lost

lost

perder

sit

sat

sat

sentar-se

make

made

made

fazer

sleep

slept

slept

dormir

mean

meant

meant

significar, pretender

speak

spoke

spoken

falar

meet

met

met

encontrar

spend

spent

spent

gastar

overcome

overcame

overcome

superar

stand

stood

stood

ficar em pĂŠ

pay

paid

paid

pagar

steal

stole

stolen

roubar

put

put

put

colocar

strike

struck

struck

atingir, ficar impressionado

quit

quit

quit

largar, desistir

swear

swore

sworn

jurar

read

read

read

ler

swim

swam

swum

nadar

ride

rode

ridden

montar, cavalgar

take

took

taken

pegar, tomar, levar

ring

rang

rung

tocar, soar

teach

taught

taught

ensinar

rise

rose

risen

levantar-se, aumentar

tear

tore

torn

rasgar

run

ran

run

correr

tell

told

told

dizer

say

said

said

dizer

think

thought

thought

pensar

see

saw

seen

ver

throw

threw

thrown

jogar, arremessar

seek

sought

sought

procurar

understand

understood

understood

entender

sell

sold

sold

vender

wake

woke

woken

acordar, despertar

send

sent

sent

enviar

wear

wore

worn

vestir

set

set

set

pĂ´r, arrumar

win

won

won

vencer

shake

shook

shaken

sacudir, agitar

write

wrote

written

escrever

IRREGULAR VERBS

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GLOSSARY Abbreviations adj. = adjective / adjective phrase adv. = adverb / adverbial phrase conj. = conjunction exclam. = exclamation m.v. = multi-word verb

A

n. = noun / noun phrase phr. = phrase prep. = preposition /prepositional phrase pron. = pronoun v. = verb arrest (v.)

prender

a bit (adv.)

um pouco

art gallery (n.)

galeria de arte

abroad (adv.)

no exterior

article (n.)

artigo

abrupt (adj.)

repentino(a), inesperado(a)

account (n.)

conta

as far as sb/sth is concerned (phr.)

no que diz respeito a

across (prep.)

do outro lado, do lado oposto

as soon as (phr.)

assim que

action (n.)

ação

assertive (adj.)

autoconfiante, decidido(a)

actively (adv.)

ativamente

at least (phr.)

pelo menos

actually (adv.)

na verdade

at once (adv.)

de uma vez

adopted (adj.)

adotado(a)

atrocity (n.)

atrocidade

adventure (n.)

aventura

attend (v.)

comparecer, frequentar

advertising (n.)

publicidade

audience (n.)

público

advice (n.)

conselho

autobiography (n.)

autobiografia

age (n.)

idade

available (adj.)

disponível

agent (n.)

representante, agente

average (adj.)

médio(a), regular

aggressive (adj.)

agressivo(a)

avoid (v.)

evitar

agile (adj.)

ágil

awake (adj.)

acordado(a)

agree (v.)

concordar

award (n.)

prêmio

aim (n.; v.)

objetivo; almejar

aware (adj.)

consciente

air force (n.)

aeronáutica, força aérea

awareness (n.)

consciência

airline (n.)

companhia aérea

awful (adj.)

horrível

aisle (n.)

corredor

alone (adj.)

sozinho(a), solitário(a)

B

along the way (phr.)

durante este período

bag (n.)

bolsa, mala

amateur (adj.)

amador(a)

bakery (n.)

padaria

amazing (adj.)

fantástico(a), incrível

ban (v.)

proibir

among (prep.)

entre

barely (adv.)

mal

amount (n.)

quantidade

bean (n.)

feijão

analysis (n.)

análise

bear (n.)

urso

anger (n.)

raiva

beat (v.)

bater; vencer

animation (n.)

animação

beauty (n.)

beleza

antibiotic (n.)

antibiótico

beckon (v.)

chamar, atrair

antisocial (adj.)

antissocial

become (v.)

tornar-se

anyway (adv.)

assim mesmo, de qualquer jeito

behavior (n.)

comportamento

apologize (v.)

desculpar-se

belong (v.)

pertencer

appealing (adj.)

atraente

benefit (n.)

benefício

approach (n.)

abordagem, enfoque

between (prep.)

entre

architecture (n.)

arquitetura

beverage (n.)

bebida

archive (n.)

arquivo

biannual (adj.)

bienal

arrange (v.)

marcar, organizar

bill (n.)

conta, fatura

146

GLOSSARY

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biodiversity (n.)

biodiversidade

claim (v.)

alegar, afirmar

blanket (n.)

cobertor

clarify (v.)

esclarecer

blind (adj.)

cego(a)

classify (v.)

classificar

block (v.)

bloquear

classmate (n.)

colega de classe

blood pressure (n.)

pressão sanguínea

clear (tables) (v.)

limpar (mesas)

boarding pass (n.)

cartão de embarque

coaching (n.)

treinamento

bonding (n.)

laço, vínculo

cockatiel (n.)

calopsita

boring (adj.)

chato(a), entediante

collar (n.)

coleira

bottle (n.)

garrafa

collect (v.)

coletar

box (n.)

caixa

college (n.)

faculdade

brain (n.)

cérebro

colorful (adj.)

colorido(a)

brand (n.)

marca

comedy (n.)

comédia

brand new (adj.)

novinho(a) em folha

command (n.)

comando

bread (n.)

pão

complaint (n.)

reclamação

breakfast (n.)

café da manhã

concern (n.)

preocupação

briefcase (n.)

pasta

concrete (n.)

concreto

broke (adj.)

sem dinheiro

consumerism (n.)

consumismo

budget (n.)

orçamento

content (n.)

conteúdo

building (n.)

prédio, construção

contest (n.)

competição, disputa

bulletin board (n.)

quadro de avisos

contradictory (adj.)

contraditório(a)

busy (adj.)

ocupado(a), atarefado(a)

convey (v.)

transmitir

convincing (adj.)

convincente

C

cook (n.; v.)

cozinheiro(a); cozinhar

cage (n.)

jaula, gaiola

cool (adj.)

legal, bacana

caption (n.)

legenda

corner (v.)

encurralar

captivating (adj.)

cativante

corresponding (adj.)

correspondente

care (n.)

cuidado

cover (n.)

capa

carelessly (adv.)

descuidadamente, por descuido

criticize (v.)

criticar

carpenter (n.)

carpinteiro(a)

cruelty (n.)

crueldade

carrier (n.)

transportador(a)

crumbling (adj.)

em ruínas

carry-on (adj.)

(bagagem) de mão

cue (n.)

dica

cash (n.)

dinheiro (em espécie)

current (adj.)

atual

cast (n.)

elenco

customer (n.)

cliente

catch (v.)

pegar

catchy (adj.)

atraente, cativante

D

celebrity (n.)

celebridade

daily (adj.)

diário(a)

championship (n.)

campeonato

dangerous (adj.)

perigoso(a)

change (n.)

troco

data (n.)

dados

character (n.)

personagem

daunting (adj.)

assustador(a)

charge (v.)

cobrar

deal with (m.v.)

lidar com

charity (n.)

caridade

dealer (n.)

negociador(a)

chart (n.)

tabela

deduction (n.)

dedução

cheat (v.)

colar (em prova)

deforestation (n.)

desmatamento

check (n.; v.)

conta; verificar, checar

dehydration (n.)

desidratação

cherished (adj.)

querido(a)

deliver (v.)

entregar

chew (v.)

mastigar

describe (v.)

descrever

chips (n.)

batatas fritas

deserve (v.)

merecer

choice (n.)

escolha

desk (n.)

mesa

cinematography (n.)

cinematografia

despite (adv.)

apesar de

citizen (n.)

cidadão, cidadã

dessert (n.)

sobremesa

GLOSSARY

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destroy (v.)

destruir

ethical (adj.)

ético(a)

develop (v.)

desenvolver

even (adv.)

até mesmo

development (n.)

desenvolvimento

excavate (v.)

escavar

device (n.)

dispositivo, aparelho

excellent (adj.)

excelente

devise (v.)

criar, elaborar

exhibition (n.)

exposição

dinner (n.)

jantar

expect (v.)

esperar

disabled (adj.)

com necessidades especiais

expert (n.)

especialista

disagree (v.)

discordar

expertise (n.)

capacidade, competência

disappointing (adj.)

decepcionante

discovery (n.)

descoberta

F

disgraceful (adj.)

vergonhoso(a)

failure (n.)

fracasso

disgusting (adj.)

nojento(a), repugnante

fall (down) (v.)

cair

disobedient (adj.)

desobediente

falloff (n.)

queda

disorder (n.)

desordem

falter (v.)

esmorecer

disperse (v.)

dispersar

fame (n.)

fama

display (v.)

exibir, expor

FAQ (abbreviation)

perguntas frequentes

distasteful (adj.)

desagradável

fare (n.)

preço

disturbance (n.)

transtorno, tumulto

fashion (n.)

forma, maneira

disturbing (adj.)

perturbador(a)

fatigue (n.)

fadiga, cansaço

diverse (adj.)

variado(a)

fear (n.)

medo

documentary (n.)

documentário

feather (n.)

pena (de pássaro)

donate (v.)

doar

doorbell (n.)

campainha

feature (n.; v.)

característica, recurso; apresentar

down-to-earth (adj.)

prático(a), realista

feature film (n.)

filme de longa-metragem

dozen (n.)

vários

feed (v.)

alimentar(-se)

draft (n.)

rascunho

feedback (n.)

retorno, comentário

drama class (n.)

aula de teatro

feel (v.)

sentir(-se)

drop (v.)

cair, reduzir

female (n.)

feminino

drugstore (n.)

drogaria

field (n.)

campo, área

dubious (adj.)

duvidoso(a)

file (n.)

arquivo

finding (n.)

conclusão, descoberta

E

fit (adj.; v.)

em boa forma; caber

Earth (n.)

Terra

flawed (adj.)

falho(a)

edit (v.)

editar

flexible (adj.)

flexível

elderly (adj.)

idoso(a)

flight (n.)

voo

embarrassed (adj.)

constrangido(a)

flight attendant (n.)

comissário(a) de bordo

enable (v.)

habilitar, possibilitar

flu (n.)

gripe

encourage (v.)

encorajar, incentivar

fluffy (adj.)

fofo(a)

endangered (adj.)

em perigo

food server (n.)

garçom, garçonete

enemy (n.)

inimigo(a)

forbid (v.)

proibir

engage (v.)

envolver-se

forest (n.)

floresta

engineer (n.)

engenheiro(a)

former (adj.)

antigo(a), ex-

enjoy (v.)

gostar

fortunate (adj.)

afortunado(a)

enrich (v.)

enriquecer

found (v.)

fundar

entertainment (n.)

entretenimento

French fries (n.)

batatas fritas

environment (n.)

meio ambiente

fridge (n.)

geladeira

environmentalist (n.)

ambientalista

full (adj.)

cheio(a)

epicure (n.)

gastrônomo(a)

fun (n.)

diversão

establish (v.)

estabelecer, determinar

fundraising (n.)

arrecadação de fundos

established (adj.)

estabelecido(a), respeitado(a)

funds (n.)

fundos

148

GLOSSARY

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funny (adj.)

engraçado(a)

I

fur (n.)

pele (de animal)

illegally (adv.)

ilegalmente

furniture (n.)

móveis

illness (n.)

doença

illustrator (n.)

ilustrador(a)

impolite (adj.)

grosseiro(a), rude

G gadget (n.)

aparelho, dispositivo

improve (v.)

melhorar

gain (v.)

obter, ganhar

improvement (n.)

melhoria

generation (n.)

geração

genius (n.)

gênio

in charge of (phr.)

(ser) responsável por, encarregado

genre (n.)

gênero

in fact (phr.)

na verdade, na realidade

German Shepherd (n.)

pastor-alemão

get used to (m.v.)

acostumar-se a

in the background (prep.)

ao fundo

giant (adj.)

gigante

indestructible (adj.)

indestrutível

gift (n.)

presente

influential (adj.)

influente

goal (n.)

objetivo

inhabit (v.)

habitar

goldfish (n.)

peixe dourado

inhabitant (n.)

habitante

grade (n.)

série escolar, nota

innovative (adj.)

inovador(a)

grateful (adj.)

agradecido(a), grato(a)

inspired (adj.)

inspirado(a)

great (adj.)

ótimo(a)

instead (adv.)

em vez de

grilled (adj.)

grelhado(a)

interact (v.)

interagir

grow up (m.v.)

crescer

introduce (v.)

apresentar

growth (n.)

crescimento

issue (n.)

questão, edição

guarantee (v.)

garantir

IT professional (n.)

profissional de TI

guest (n.)

convidado(a)

guy (n.)

homem, rapaz

J

gym (n.)

academia

jaguar (n.)

onça-pintada

jealous (adj.)

ciumento(a)

jewelry (n.)

joias

H haircut (n.)

corte de cabelo

join (v.)

ingressar, alistar-se

hand out (m.v.)

distribuir

joke (n.)

piada

handle (v.)

pegar, manusear, lidar com

juice (n.)

suco

hang (v.)

pendurar

jungle (n.)

selva

have fun! (exclam.)

divirta-se!

headline (n.)

manchete

K

healthy (adj.)

saudável

kennel (n.)

canil

hilarious (adj.)

hilário(a)

key (n.)

chave

hold (v.)

convocar

kill (v.)

matar

hole (n.)

buraco

kind (n.)

tipo

hollow (n.)

cavidade

knock over (m.v.)

derrubar

homeless (adj.)

sem-teto

knowledge (n.)

sabedoria, conhecimento

homelessness (n.)

situação de desabrigo

homesick (adj.)

com saudade, sentindo falta (de casa)

homework (n.) hood (n.)

L lack (n.)

falta

dever de casa

lake (n.)

lago

(pertencente ao) gueto

laptop (n.)

computador portátil

horror (n.)

terror

laugh (v.)

rir

housework (n.)

trabalho doméstico

law (n.)

lei

how awful! (exclam.)

que horror!

lawyer (n.)

advogado(a)

human rights (n.)

direitos humanos

lay (v.)

pôr (ovos)

hurt (v.)

machucar, magoar

lazy (adj.)

preguiçoso(a)

GLOSSARY

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lead (v.)

levar, conduzir

monument (n.)

monumento

lead singer (n.)

cantor principal, vocalista

mouse (n.)

camundongo

leaf (n.)

folha

movie theater (n.)

cinema

leisure (n.)

lazer

moving (adj.)

emocionante

lend (v.)

emprestar

mug (v.)

assaltar

length (n.)

duração

muscle (n.)

músculo

leukemia (n.)

leucemia

musician (n.)

músico(a)

lifestyle (n.)

estilo de vida

log out (m.v.)

desconectar-se

my goodness! (exclam.)

nossa!

loneliness (n.)

solidão

lonely (adj.)

sozinho(a), solitário(a)

look for (v.)

procurar

lose (v.)

perder

loss (n.)

perda

lost (adj.)

perdido(a)

low-profile (adj.)

discreto(a)

loyal (adj.)

leal, fiel

luggage (n.)

bagagem

lunch (n.)

almoço

luxury (n.)

luxo

M

N nail polish (n.)

esmalte de unha

nap (n.)

cochilo

native (adj.)

nativo(a)

naughty (adj.)

levado(a), travesso(a)

near (adv.)

perto

nearly (adv.)

quase

needy (adj.)

necessitado(a)

neglect (n.)

negligência

neighborhood (n.)

vizinhança

nest (n.)

ninho

network (n.)

rede

newsstand (n.)

banca de jornal

NGO (abbreviation)

organização não governamental (ONG)

nip (v.)

morder de leve

noise (n.)

barulho

nonetheless (adv.)

contudo, todavia

noon (n.)

meio-dia

novel (n.)

romance

nowadays (adv.)

hoje em dia

nurse (n.)

enfermeiro(a)

nursing (n.)

enfermagem

nursing home (n.)

casa de repouso

macaw (n.)

arara

magnificent (adj.)

magnífico(a)

main (adj.)

principal

main course (n.)

prato principal

mainly (adv.)

principalmente

maintain (v.)

manter

make-up (n.)

maquiagem

male (n.)

masculino

mammal (n.)

mamífero

manage (v.)

administrar, gerenciar

management (n.)

administração, gerência

manatee (n.)

peixe-boi

mandatory (adj.)

obrigatório(a)

mashed potatoes (n.)

purê de batatas

massive (adj.)

gigantesco(a), enorme

O

match (v.)

relacionar, combinar

optimistic (adj.)

otimista

matter (v.)

importar, interessar

order (v.)

pedir (em um restaurante)

maybe (adv.)

talvez

ordinary (adj.)

comum, usual

meal (n.)

refeição

orphanage (n.)

orfanato

measure (n.)

medida

outstanding (adj.)

excepcional

meat (n.)

carne

overeat (v.)

comer demais

memo (n.)

memorando

overlapping (adj.)

sobreposto(a)

messy (adj.)

bagunçado(a)

overreact (v.)

reagir de maneira exagerada

mind (n.)

mente

oversleep (v.)

dormir demais, perder a hora

mispronounce (v.)

pronunciar errado

overtime (n.)

horas extras

miss (v.)

faltar, perder

overweight (adj.)

com excesso de peso

mistake (n.)

erro

own (adj.)

próprio(a)

misunderstand (v.)

entender mal, interpretar mal

owner (n.)

dono(a)

150

GLOSSARY

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P

punishment (n.)

punição

pack (v.)

arrumar (mala)

puppy (n.)

filhote de cão

paper (n.)

trabalho, ensaio

purpose (n.)

propósito, objetivo

paper-weight (n.)

peso de papel

push (v.)

pressionar

paperwork (n.)

papéis, documentos

paranoid (adj.)

paranoico(a)

parasite (n.)

parasita

parking (n.)

estacionamento

passenger (n.)

passageiro(a)

passionate (adj.)

apaixonado(a)

passport (n.)

passaporte

pasta (n.)

massa

pat (n.)

tapinha

R

perform (v.)

fazer, executar

rage (n.)

fúria

perhaps (adv.)

talvez

rambunctious (adj.)

barulhento(a)

permit (n.)

autorização

ransom (n.)

resgate

persuade (v.)

convencer

rate (n.)

ritmo, taxa, índice

pet (n.)

animal de estimação

raven (n.)

corvo

physician (n.)

médico(a)

reach (v.)

alcançar

pile (n.)

pilha

reader (n.)

leitor(a)

piracy (n.)

pirataria

realize (v.)

perceber

pirate (n.)

pirata

reasonable (adj.)

sensato(a)

place (v.)

colocar

rebuild (v.)

reconstruir

placement (n.)

vaga

recognize (v.)

reconhecer

plagiarism (n.)

plágio

record (v.)

gravar

play (n.; v.)

peça teatral; interpretar

recovery (n.)

recuperação

playful (adj.)

brincalhão

regarding (prep.)

no que diz respeito a

pleasure (n.)

prazer

relationship (n.)

relação, relacionamento

plenty (adv.)

muito(a), bastante

release (n.)

lançamento

plot (n.)

enredo

relentless (adj.)

implacável, incessante

polite (adj.)

educado(a)

remain (v.)

permanecer

politician (n.)

político(a)

replace (v.)

substituir

poor (adj.)

pobre, fraco(a)

report (n.)

relatório

portion (n.)

porção

reptile (n.)

réptil

poverty (n.)

pobreza

request (n.)

pedido

powerboat (n.)

lancha

require (v.)

exigir, requerer

predatory (adj.)

predatório(a)

research (n.)

pesquisa

prevent (v.)

evitar, impedir

researcher (n.)

pesquisador(a)

previous (adj.)

anterior, prévio(a)

retired (adj.)

aposentado(a)

priceless (adj.)

inestimável

return (v.)

devolver

printed (adj.)

impresso(a)

review (n.)

crítica

privacy (n.)

privacidade

reviewer (n.)

crítico(a)

prize (n.)

prêmio

rewrite (v.)

reescrever

procedure (n.)

procedimento

rice (n.)

arroz

promise (n.)

promessa

ride (n.)

carona

properly (adv.)

adequadamente

right (n.)

direito

proposal (n.)

proposta

rodent (n.)

roedor

provide (v.)

fornecer

rooster (n.)

galo

psychiatrist (n.)

psiquiatra

routine (n.)

rotina

publish (v.)

publicar

run (v.)

dirigir

Q qualification (n.)

qualificação

quit (v.)

abandonar, desistir

quiz (n.)

teste

quote (n.; v.)

citação; citar

GLOSSARY

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S

soundtrack (n.)

trilha sonora

sale (n.)

venda

source (n.)

fonte

sand (n.)

areia

specimen (n.)

espécime

sand castle (n.)

castelo de areia

speech (n.)

discurso

scale (n.)

balança

speed (n.)

velocidade

scared (adj.)

amedrontado(a), assustado(a)

spell (v.)

soletrar

scene (n.)

cena

spend (v.)

gastar

schedule (v.)

agendar, marcar

sponsor (v.)

patrocinar

scheme (n.)

esquema

spread (v.)

estender

sci-fi (n.)

ficção científica

square (n.)

praça

scout (n.)

escoteiro(a)

stabilize (v.)

estabilizar

sea turtle (n.)

tartaruga marinha

staff (n.)

(quadro de) funcionários

seat (n.)

assento

stand (v.)

suportar

section (n.)

seção

stand out (m.v.)

chamar a atenção, sobressair

seem (v.)

parecer

standing (adj.)

de pé

self-assessment (n.)

autoavaliação

starvation (n.)

inanição

set (tables) (v.)

arrumar (mesas)

statement (n.)

declaração, afirmação

set up (m.v.)

preparar

step (n.)

passo

share (v.)

compartilhar

sticky note (n.)

nota autoadesiva

shell (n.)

casco

stranger (n.)

estranho(a)

shift (n.)

turno

strategy (n.)

estratégia

shop (n.)

loja

stray (adj.)

perdido(a), errante

shot (n.)

injeção

strength (n.)

força

shy (adj.)

tímido(a)

stressful (adj.)

estressante

sign (n.)

sinal

strike (n.)

greve

sign up (m.v.)

inscrever-se

structured (adj.)

estruturado(a)

since (prep.)

desde

stuff (n.)

coisas

singer (n.)

cantor(a)

subject (n.)

matéria

single (adj.)

único(a)

submit (v.)

submeter, apresentar

size (n.)

tamanho

subtitle (n.)

subtítulo, legenda

skateboard (v.)

andar de skate

succeed (v.)

ter êxito

skater (n.)

esqueitista

successful (adj.)

bem-sucedido(a)

skeptic (n.)

cético(a)

suddenly (adv.)

de repente

skill (n.)

habilidade

suffer (v.)

sofrer

sleepy (adj.)

sonolento(a)

suitcase (n.)

mala

sloth (n.)

bicho-preguiça

summarize (v.)

resumir

slow (adj.)

lento(a)

summary (n.)

resumo

slow down (v.)

desacelerar

sunset (n.)

entardecer, pôr do sol

snake (n.)

cobra

supply (n.)

suprimento

sneakers (n.)

tênis

support (n.)

apoio

social worker (n.)

assistente social

surgery (n.)

cirurgia

solve (v.)

solucionar, resolver

survive (v.)

sobreviver

somehow (adv.)

de alguma forma

susceptible (adj.)

suscetível

song (n.)

canção

suspend (v.)

suspender

sort (n.)

tipo

sustainable (adj.)

sustentável

soul (n.)

alma

sweep (v.)

varrer

sound effects (n.)

efeitos sonoros

152

GLOSSARY

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T

upset (adj.)

chateado(a)

useful (adj.)

útil

target (n.)

alvo

teen (n.)

adolescente

teenager (n.)

adolescente

V

terrific (adj.)

excelente

varied (adj.)

variado(a)

testimonial (n.)

relato

vegan (n.)

vegano(a)

theater (n.)

teatro

view (n.)

opinião

thirsty (adj.)

com sede

violinist (n.)

violinista

though (conj.)

embora

volunteer (n.)

voluntário(a)

threaten (v.)

ameaçar

vulnerable (adj.)

vulnerável

threshold (n.)

limiar

thriller (n.)

filme de suspense

W

throat (n.)

garganta

waistline (n.)

cintura

through (prep.)

por meio de

wallet (n.)

carteira

throughout (prep.)

durante todo, em toda parte

waste (n.)

lixo

ticket (n.)

ingresso, passagem, bilhete

waterfall (n.)

cachoeira, cascata

tip (n.)

dica

wave (n.)

onda

tired (adj.)

cansado(a)

way (n.)

maneira, jeito

together (adv.)

junto(s)

weakness (n.)

fraqueza

tool (n.)

ferramenta

weapon (n.)

arma

tortoise (n.)

cágado

wedding (n.)

casamento

touch (v.)

tocar, encostar

weekly (adj.)

semanal

tough (adj.)

durão, durona

weight (n.)

peso

trade (n.)

comércio

welfare (n.)

bem-estar

traffic (n.)

tráfego, trânsito

western (adj.; n.)

oriental; filme de faroeste

trafficking (n.)

tráfico

trap (v.)

caçar, prender

what a shame! (exclam.)

que pena!

treat (n.)

presente, regalo

wheel (n.)

roda

trip (n.)

viagem

while (conj.)

enquanto

trusted (adj.)

confiável

wide (adj.)

largo(a)

try (v.)

tentar

wild (adj.)

selvagem

twin (n.)

gêmeo(a)

wonder (n.)

maravilha

wonderful (adj.)

maravilhoso(a)

U

woodpecker (n.)

pica-pau

ugly (adj.)

feio(a)

worrisome (adj.)

preocupante

undercooked (adj.)

malcozido(a)

worthless (adj.)

inútil

underestimate (v.)

subestimar

wreck (v.)

destruir

underline (v.)

sublinhar

wristwatch (n.)

relógio de pulso

unfortunately (adv.)

infelizmente

unique (adj.)

único(a)

Y

uniquely (adv.)

exclusivamente

youth (n.)

unscramble (v.)

ordenar

juventude

GLOSSARY

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FALSE COGNATES English – Portuguese

Portuguese – English

English – Portuguese

Portuguese – English

agenda (n.) – pauta de reunião ou encontro

agenda – diary

commodity (n.) – artigo, mercadoria

comodidade – convenience

amass (v.) – acumular, juntar

amassar – crush

comprehensive (adj.) – amplo, abrangente

compreensivo – understanding

anticipate (v.) – prever

antecipar – bring forward

compromise (n.) – fazer uma concessão, um acordo

compromisso – appointment

apology (n.) – pedido de desculpas

apologia – eulogy

confidence (n.) – confiança

confidência – secret

apontamento – note

convenient (adj.) – prático(a)

conveniente – appropriate

appreciation (n.) – gratidão

apreciação – judgement

convict (n.) – condenado(a)

convicto(a) – convinced

argument (n.) – bate-boca, briga

argumento – argument, point

costume (n.) – fantasia, traje

costume – habit

assist (v.) – ajudar, dar assistência

assistir – watch

curse (v.) – xingar, amaldiçoar

curso – course

assume (v.) – pressupor

assumir – take on, accept, admit

deception (n.) – fraude, trapaça

decepção – disappointment

attend (v.) – assistir, participar de

atender – serve (em uma loja), answer (o telefone)

defendant (n.) – réu, ré

defensor – advocate

audience (n.) – público, plateia

audiência – session

dent (v.) – amassar de leve

dente – tooth

balcony (n.) – sacada

balcão – counter

design (v.) – projetar, criar

designar – appoint

beef (n.) – carne de vaca

bife – steak

discussion (n.) – debate

discussão – argument

cafeteria (n.) – refeitório tipo universitário ou industrial

cafeteria – coffee shop, snack bar

estate (n.) – fazenda, propriedade

estado – state

camp (n.) – acampamento

campo – field

eventually (adv.) – finalmente

eventualmente – occasionally, now and then

cargo (n.) – carregamento, carga

cargo – post, position

exit (n., v.) – saída, sair

êxito – success

carton (n.) – caixa de leite ou suco

cartão – card

expert (adj.) – especialista

esperto – smart, clever

casualty (n.) – ferido, vítima

casualidade – fluke

exquisite (adj.) – refinado, belo

esquisito – strange, odd

cigar (n.) – charuto

cigarro – cigarette

fabric (n.) – tecido

fábrica – factory

collar (n.) – colarinho (de casaco, paletó), gola, coleira

colar – necklace

fate (n.) – destino

fato – event, fact

college (n.) – faculdade

colégio – school

figure (n.) – número, quantia

figura – picture

appointment (n.) – compromisso com hora marcada

154

FALSE COGNATES

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English – Portuguese

Portuguese – English

English – Portuguese

Portuguese – English

gem (n.) – pedra preciosa, joia

gema (de ovo) – yolk

policy (n.) – diretriz, política

polícia – police

grip (v.) – segurar firme

gripe – flu

pork (n.) – carne de porco

porco – pig

idiom (n.) – expressão idiomática

idioma – language

port (n.) – porto

porta – door

injury (n.) – ferimento, lesão

injúria – abuse, insult

prejudice (n.) – preconceito

prejudicar – damage

intoxication (n.) – embriaguez, entusiasmo

intoxicação – poisoning

prescribe (v.) – receitar

prescrever – expire

jar (n.) – pote

jarra – pitcher (para água), pot (para flores)

preservative (n.) – conservante

preservativo – condom

journal (n.) – diário, revista acadêmica

jornal – newspaper

propaganda (n.) – divulgação de uma ideia ou crença

propaganda – advertisement

lamp (n.) – abajur, luminária

lâmpada – light bulb

proper (adj.) – adequado, verdadeiro, correto

próprio – own

large (adj.) – grande

largo – wide

realize (v.) – dar-se conta, perceber

realizar – fullfill, make something come true

lecture (n.) – palestra, aula

leitura – reading

record (v.; n.) – gravar; registro, disco de música, recorde

recordar – review, recall

legend (n.) – lenda

legenda – subtitle (em filme), caption (em uma figura, foto)

resume (n.) – retomar, reiniciar

resumir – summarize

library (n.) – biblioteca

livraria – bookstore

résumé (n.) – currículo

resumo – summary

location (n.) – localização

locação – rental

senior (adj.) – idoso(a)

senhor – gentleman, sir

magazine (n.) – revista

magazine – department store

shoot (n.) – atirar, disparar

chutar – kick

mayor (n.) – prefeito

maior – bigger

stranger (n.) – desconhecido(a)

estrangeiro – foreigner

motto (n.) – lema

moto – motorcycle

support (v.) – dar apoio

suportar – bear, hold up, tolerate

notice (v.) – avisar, perceber

notícia – news

syllabus (n.) – conteúdo programático

sílaba – syllable

office (n.) – escritório

oficial – official

tax (n.) – imposto

taxa – fee, rate

particular (n.) – específico

particular – personal, private

tent (n.) – barraca, tenda

tentar – try

pasta (n.) – massa (comida)

pasta – folder

turn (n.; v.) – vez; virar

turno – shift

pipe (n.) – cano, cachimbo

pipa – kite

vegetables (n.) – legumes

vegetais – plants

FALSE COGNATES

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AUDIOSCRIPTS UNIT 1

offensive e-mails and text messages from a classmate. I talked to my wife about the problem and we decided to contact the bully’s parents immediately. Fortunately we found a solution to the problem together.”

TRACK 3, PAGE 19 Interviewer Good evening, Dr. Wilson. Dr. Wilson Good evening.

UNIT 2

Interviewer Thank you for being with us tonight. Dr. Wilson My pleasure.

TRACK 7, PAGE 34

Interviewer You’ve written a book called Stop Cyberbullying. Can you tell us what cyberbullying is exactly?

Host We have two guests on tonight's show. They’re 17 and 18 years old and they’re high school students. Hi, kids! How’re you doing?

 ell, cyberbullying is bullying with the use Dr. Wilson W of technology. And it happens in lots of ways. Some teenagers prefer to create blogs, while others prefer to send e-mails and text messages. They use laptops, smartphones, tablets and the like. They also make cruel and humiliating posts on social networks.

Lisa Hi.

Interviewer How terrible! Can you give our listeners some tips on how to stop cyberbullying? Dr. Wilson Certainly. Teachers should tell their students not to read suspicious e-mails and not to pass on cruel messages. By the way, children and teens can defend themselves too. Interviewer How? Dr. Wilson They should never answer offensive e-mails and text messages. What they must do is talk to their parents.

Paul Good. Host Well, as you know, the topic of the week is advertising. Yesterday…

TRACK 8, PAGE 34 Host We have two guests on tonight's show. They’re 17 and 18 years old and they’re high school students. Hi, kids! How are you doing? Lisa Hi. Paul Good. Host Well, as you know, the topic of the week is advertising. Yesterday we had a wonderful interview with David Droga, the advertising genius. Did you watch our show yesterday?

Interviewer But, very often, parents don’t know what to do…

Lisa Yes. The interview was very interesting, but…

Dr. Wilson But parents have to know what’s going on! The other day I received an e-mail from a parent thanking me for my suggestions. It said, “My daughter told me she was receiving offensive e-mails and text messages from a classmate. I talked to my wife about the problem and we decided to contact the bully’s parents immediately. Fortunately we found a solution to the problem together.”

Lisa Lisa. Lisa Brown. As I was saying, Droga’s interview was interesting. But he only talked about the positive side of advertising, didn’t he? Advertising has a negative side, too!

Interviewer Thank you very much, Dr. Wilson.

TRACK 4, PAGE 19 Dr. Wilson The other day I received an e-mail from a parent thanking me for my suggestions. It said, “My daughter told me she was receiving

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Host What’s your name?

Paul Can I make a point here? I’m Paul Harrison. I’m sorry, but I don’t agree with you, Lisa. Advertising can have a very positive impact. As Droga said, it can contribute to culture and even help solve social issues. Lisa I’m sorry. I didn’t catch that. Paul I was saying, Lisa, I think advertising can contribute to culture and help solve social issues. For example, it can help people reduce pollution by promoting green products. And there are campaigns against drugs organized by top advertising companies.

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Lisa But advertising can have a bad influence on young people. For example, ads for beer and vodka encourage teenagers to drink alcohol. I have friends who get drunk regularly and I think… Paul But that’s not the point…

TRACK 9, PAGE 34 Paul I was saying, Lisa, I think advertising can contribute to culture and help solve social issues. For example, it can help people reduce pollution by promoting green products. And there are campaigns against drugs organized by top advertising companies.

UNIT 3 TRACK 11, PAGE 49 Tina

Justin? It’s Tina here.

Justin Hi, Tina. Tina

Are you better? Have you seen a doctor?

Justin I’ll think about it. Tina Justin, you do need to change your habits. It’s very important to have healthy eating habits and you should exercise regularly, too! Justin I know, I know. You sound like my mother! I’ll talk to you later, OK? Tina

OK, but think about what I said.

TRACK 12, PAGE 49 Tina

Are you better? Have you seen a doctor?

Justin I’m OK now. But my mom made me see Dr. Stone. Tina

And what did he say? What’s wrong with you?

Justin Well, Dr. Stone told me to go on a diet. Can you believe it? Tina

But you aren’t overweight.

Justin That’s what I told him, but it seems I have high blood pressure.

Justin I’m OK now. But my mom made me see Dr. Stone.

Tina High blood pressure at 16? You must be kidding!

Tina

Tina

And what did he say? What’s wrong with you?

Justin Well, Dr. Stone told me to go on a diet. Can you believe it? Tina

Justin Sad but true. High blood pressure is serious.

UNIT 4

But you aren’t overweight.

Justin That’s what I told him, but it seems I have high blood pressure. Tina High blood pressure at 16? You must be kidding!

TRACK 16, PAGE 62 Gavin Hi, Zoe! Long time no see. Where have you been?

Justin Sad but true.

Zoe Haven’t you heard? I spent five weeks in Rio de Janeiro doing volunteer work.

Tina High blood pressure is serious. I heard certain foods help. Why don’t you eat more fish and vegetables?

Gavin Rio de Janeiro, Brazil? Wow! They say it’s an amazing city. Did you like it?

Justin I don’t like fish. Tina Oh, come on, Justin. Have you tried eating salmon? It’s delicious. You should eat it at least twice a week. Justin Well, I don’t know. I like French fries, hamburgers, that kind of thing. Tina Give me a break, Justin. Fast food is a no-no because it has too much fat and salt. You should eat fish and vegetables and drink a lot of water.

Zoe Yes, my experience as a volunteer was wonderful! Gavin Really? Tell me more! What exactly did you do? Zoe Well, on a typical day, I would get up early and have a big breakfast with the family I was staying with (Brazilian coffee is the best, by the way). Then I’d take a kombi and go to an NGO that works with Project Favela, where I’d teach two English classes. The first one was for younger kids aged 7-10, and the second one was for kids aged 1014.

Justin I’m feeling all right now, you know. No headache or anything. I only went to see a doctor because my mom made me go.

Gavin How interesting! Was it difficult to teach them?

Tina Listen, what about seeing a nutritionist? They say that the school nutritionist is excellent! Why not make an appointment with her?

Gavin So you worked only in the morning.

Zoe No, no. It was great fun! The children were very nice and intelligent.

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Zoe No, I worked in the afternoon too. I’d stay at the NGO until 3 o’clock. Then I'd help organize things and also answer e-mails. After 3 I usually went sightseeing with some of the other volunteers. We would visit the Corcovado, the Sugar Loaf (they say “Pão de Açúcar”), Copacabana… On the weekends we'd have a braai. Gavin It sounds great! So you didn’t have any problems… Zoe Well, to tell you the truth, I had a little problem. I got lost in a deserted place and was scared. Gavin Eish! How awful! Zoe But nothing bad happened! A boy helped me find my way back. Rio’s pretty safe now, you know. Gavin Would you do it again? Zoe Yebo! I learned a lot of things, made new friends, saw amazing places and felt I was able to make a difference. My stay in Brazil was certainly one of the best experiences in my life.

TRACK 17, PAGE 62 Gavin What exactly did you do? Zoe Well, on a typical day, I would get up early and have a big breakfast with the family I was staying with (Brazilian coffee is the best, by the way). Then I’d take a kombi and go to an NGO that works with Project Favela, where I’d teach two English classes. The first one was for younger kids aged 7-10, and the second one was for kids aged 10-14. Gavin How interesting! Was it difficult to teach them? Zoe No, no. It was great fun! The children were very nice and intelligent. Gavin So you worked only in the morning. Zoe No, I worked in the afternoon too. I’d stay at the NGO until 3 o'clock. Then I'd help organize things and also answer e-mails. After 3 I usually went sightseeing with some of the other volunteers. We would visit the Corcovado, the Sugar Loaf (they say “Pão de Açúcar”), Copacabana… On the weekends we'd have a braai. Gavin It sounds great!

UNIT 5 TRACK 20, PAGE 75 Interviewer So, Sarah, today we’re talking about adopting adult dogs and cats. Why should someone adopt an adult dog or cat?

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Sarah Probably the most important is, if you’re adopting an adult pet from a shelter, you’re literally saving a life. They’re the last to be adopted; they’re the first to be euthanized. People always want kittens and puppies first. You shouldn’t be afraid of an adult dog that’s in a shelter. Usually they’re surrendered because of changes in the owner’s life, like a divorce, or a move, or they financially can’t take care of the animal anymore. And in the cases where the dog has been surrendered for a behavior problem, it’s usually the case that the dog’s only acting like a dog that hasn’t been trained. So if you’re willing to put the time in to do some training, this dog won’t have any behavior problems. (Podcast Episode 104: Adopting an Adult Pet. Pet Project. Available at: <http://petprojectblog.com/archives/cats/podcast-episode-104adopting-an-adult-pet/>. Acessed on: Mar. 20, 2013.)

TRACK 21, PAGE 75 Interviewer Who’s the right ever person and what’s the right ever situation for someone to adopt an adult dog? Sarah I think pretty much anyone would be happy adopting an adult dog. A young family could benefit from adopting an adult dog because, if they have small children, a rambunctious puppy might be too out of control, could knock the kids over. They’re still chewing and nipping and, you know, children are much more easily injured. Also, puppies take an incredible amount of supervision. And if you’re already busy supervising your children, you may not have the time to do everything that you need to do to keep a puppy safe because they’re gonna get into everything, they’re gonna chew everything. They’re learning about their world. And you really have to watch them to keep them safe and keep them from wrecking your home. You know, a young couple or a single person would benefit from having an adult dog because that dog is ready to go. You don’t have to wait for it to grow up to go hiking or to go, you know, boating, traveling, anything like that. That dog is pretty much, you know, ready to go. An older person would benefit from adopting an adult dog because the dog will be calmer. Again, you know, you won’t have this puppy that’s running around, knocking people over, that sort of thing.

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Also, older people have more delicate skin and in nipping or anything like that, it’s likely to break the skin, whereas with a younger person, it’s not.

Emma But War Horse is different! The plot’s original because the story is told through the eyes of a horse. And what about the special effects? Amazing!

(Podcast Episode 104: Adopting an Adult Pet. Pet Project. Available at: <http://petprojectblog.com/archives/cats/podcast-episode-104adopting-an-adult-pet/>. Acessed on: Mar. 20, 2013.)

Mason Well, I thought they were a little disappointing. I expected more. The cast was pretty good though.

UNIT 6

Emma Oh yeah, the actors were excellent. I particularly like the last scenes. They were so moving that I cried.

TRACK 23, PAGE 89 Hi. This is Megan Gavin, a psychologist at the N.A.U. Counseling Center. Today I wanna talk with you about building your confidence around taking tests. Here are a few tips that can help you with confidence building in not only test-taking situations but in other areas as well. First, you need to remember that taking tests creates a sense of vulnerability. This is normal. Tests challenge us intellectually and expose us to our peers and instructors. It feels risky to take tests, for everyone. No matter how capable you are, you may always feel vulnerable when having to take any kind of test. Second, remember to suspend your self-judgment. In other words, watch your self-talk. There’s no need to criticize or put yourself down. Comparing your grades or answers to others’ is not helpful. Your self-talk should be supportive and encouraging. Next, remember to be open to mistakes. Remember you are human and, like all humans, you’re not perfect. Even if you have studied like crazy, you may not know all the answers, but that doesn’t mean you’re inadequate. (Counseling services. Nothern Arizona University. Available at: <http://www4.nau.edu/counseling/audio.htm>. Acessed on: Mar. 20, 2013.)

UNIT 7 TRACK 26, PAGE 103 Mason How about getting something to eat? Let’s go to the diner across the street. Emma Great! Let’s go. Mason Did you like the movie, Emma? Emma Yes, I thought it was great! I particularly liked the cinematography. What beautiful and intense colors! Mason Really? I thought the movie was too long. A bit boring, to be honest. Emma Boring? How can you say that? It was full of action and thrilling scenes. Mason Sorry to disagree but, to me, it was just like any old movie about animals.

Mason I know. I saw you crying… Maybe that’s why I didn’t like the movie. It’s too sentimental. Emma So you don’t like moving stories, tough guy! Mason Actually I do like them. But I just think it seems the director’s trying too hard to make the audience cry. Emma But, listen…

UNIT 8 TRACK 29, PAGE 116 1. Have you ever heard of Niagara-on-the-Lake, known as “the loveliest town in Canada”? Er… don’t confuse it with Niagara Falls, the one with the big waterfalls, you know, which is fantastic too, by the way. Niagaraon-the-Lake’s a small historic town on Lake Ontario, Canada, with lots of interesting things to do. There are not only historical buildings and monuments but also art galleries, museums, and big parks. This is the place where I spent the best days of my childhood. Every winter my friends and I used to have lots of fun making snowmen and throwing snowballs in the park. But the best thing about it is that there’s no pollution or heavy traffic, so you can really relax here. Well, I think you should come and visit lovely Niagara-on-the-Lake! 2. Look at the picture of the mountains covered in snow. The photo was probably taken in Canada or Austria, right? Wrong! It’s in Brazil! It’s Urubici, situated in Santa Catarina. It’s very cold in winter, and it snows sometimes, you see, which makes it looks like a town in Europe. The area around the town is extremely beautiful and it has excellent hotels and nice restaurants. But you just can’t visit the city without trying the delicious café colonial. The first time I had it I thought I was in heaven! I had never had such a wonderful meal… 3. The name of the town where I live is er… Solvang and it looks like a Danish town, but it’s not in Denmark. It’s in California, in the United States. There are a lot of wonderful bakeries and restaurants, you know, and two museums. I love going shopping in the charming malls downtown and having picnics in the parks with a lot of trees and flowers. Well, there are a lot of things to see and do, there’s no noise or heavy traffic and it’s never cold, so it’s a lovely place to live in or visit.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY AMOS, Eduardo; PRESCHER, Elisabeth. Simplified Grammar of English. São Paulo: Richmond Publishing, 2008. BAKHTIN, Mikhail Mikhailovich. Estética da criação verbal. São Paulo: Martins Fontes, 1992. BRASIL. Ministério da Educação. Secretaria de Educação Média e Tecnológica. Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (Ensino Médio). Brasília: MEC, 2000. BRASIL. Ministério da Educação. Secretaria de Educação Média e Tecnológica. Orientações Curriculares do Ensino Médio. Brasília: MEC/SEB, 2006. BROWN, H. Douglas. Teaching By Principles: an Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Regents, 1994. CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL DICTIONARY OF ENGLISH. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. COLLINS COBUILD ADVANCED DICTIONARY OF AMERICAN ENGLISH. Boston: Thomson Heinle, 2007. COSTA, Sérgio Roberto. Dicionário de gêneros textuais. 3. ed. Belo Horizonte: Autêntica, 2012. DELORS, Jacques; AL-MUFTI, In’am; AMAGI, Isao et al. Educação: um tesouro a descobrir. Relatório para a UNESCO da Comissão Internacional sobre Educação para o século XXI. São Paulo: Cortez, 1998. FREIRE, Paulo. Pedagogia da autonomia: saberes necessários à prática educativa. São Paulo: Paz e Terra, 1996. HARMER, Jeremy. The Practice of English Language Teaching. Essex: Pearson Longman, 2007. KRESS, Gunther. The linguistic expression of social meaning: discourse, genre and text. In: ______. Linguistic Processes in Sociocultural Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989. cap. 1. LONGMAN DICIONÁRIO ESCOLAR. 2. ed. Pearson Education, 2008. PARROT, Martin. Grammar for English Language Teachers. 2. ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. SANTOS, Denise. Como ler melhor em inglês. São Paulo: Disal, 2011. SCRIVENER, Jeremy. Learning Teaching: a Guidebook for English Language Teachers. Oxford: Macmillan, 2005. VYGOTSKY, Lev Semenovitch. A formação social da mente: o desenvolvimento dos processos psicológicos superiores. Versão organizada por COLE, Michael et al. Tradução de José Cipolla Neto et al. São Paulo: Martins Fontes, 1998. cap. 4 e 6. WILLIS, Dave; WRIGHT, Jon. Collins Cobuild Elementary English Grammar. 2. ed. Bath: HarperCollins Publishers, 2003. WILLIS, Dave. Collins Cobuild Intermediate English Grammar. London: HarperCollins Publishers, 2004.

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Roads 2  
Roads 2