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MANUAL DO PROFESSOR

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Organizadora: Editora FTD

MANUAL DO PROFESSOR

Open Roads

Obra coletiva concebida, desenvolvida e produzida pela Editora FTD

Editora responsável: Flávia Miguel

Open Roads

1

ENSINO MÉDIO COMPONENTE CURRICULAR LÍNGUA ESTRANGEIRA MODERNA – INGLÊS

Organizadora: Editora FTD Obra coletiva concebida, desenvolvida e produzida pela Editora FTD | Editora responsável: Flávia Miguel

ISBN 978-85-96-00391-9

ENSINO MÉDIO

9

788596 003919

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COMPONENTE CURRICULAR LÍNGUA ESTRANGEIRA MODERNA – INGLÊS

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Open Roads ENSINO MÉDIO COMPONENTE CURRICULAR

LÍNGUA ESTRANGEIRA MODERNA – INGLÊS

Flávia da Cruz Miguel Mestre em Interdisciplinar de Linguística Aplicada pela Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Especialização em Literaturas de Língua Inglesa pela Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Bacharel em Letras (Português/Inglês) pela Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Professora de Inglês na rede estadual de educação há mais de 16 anos. Autora e editora de materiais didáticos.

2a edição São Paulo – 2016

MANUAL DO PROFESSOR

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Copyright © Editora FTD, 2016

Diretor editorial Lauri Cericato Diretora editorial técnica Maria Eugenia Sanson Editora responsável Flávia da Cruz Miguel Gerente editorial Cayube Galas Editora de conteúdo Flávia da Cruz Miguel Coordenadora editorial Ana Carolina Costa Lopes Assessora técnica pedagógica Cláudia Hilsdorf Rocha Assistentes editoriais Gislene Aparecida Benedito, Gladys Roberta Garcia Gerente de produção editorial Mariana Milani Coordenador de produção editorial Marcelo Henrique Ferreira Fontes Coordenadora de arte Daniela Máximo Projeto gráfico Estúdio Insólito Projeto de capa Bruno Attili Foto de capa Thais Falcão/Olho do Falcão Modelos da capa: Andrei Lopes, Angélica Souza, Beatriz Raielle, Bruna Soares, Bruno Guedes, Caio Freitas, Denis Wiltemburg, Eloá Souza, Jardo Gomes, Karina Farias, Karoline Vicente, Letícia Silva, Lilith Moreira, Maria Eduarda Ferreira, Rafael Souza, Tarik Abdo, Thaís Souza Supervisora de arte Patricia de Michelis Editor de arte Lucas Trevelin Diagramação Ponto Inicial Estúdio Gráfico Tratamento de imagens Ana Isabela Maraschin Coordenadora de ilustrações e cartografia Márcia Berne Ilustrações Renato Faccini Cartografia Allmaps Coordenadora de preparação e revisão Lilian Semenichin Supervisora de preparação e revisão Viviam Moreira Revisão Amanda di Santis, Enymilia Guimarães, Iraci Miyuki Kishi, Júlia Tomazini Coordenador de iconografia e licenciamento de textos Expedito Arantes Supervisora de licenciamento de textos Elaine Bueno Iconografia Marcia Trindade Diretor de operações e produção gráfica Reginaldo Soares Damasceno

Dados Internacionais de Catalogação na Publicação (CIP) (Câmara Brasileira do Livro, SP, Brasil) Open roads : ensino médio : 1o ano / organizadora Editora FTD, obra coletiva concebida, desenvolvida e produzida pela Editora FTD; editora responsável Flávia da Cruz Miguel. — 2. ed. — São Paulo : FTD, 2016. — (Coleção Open roads) "Componente curricular: Língua estrangeira moderna : Inglês" ISBN 978-85-96-00390-2 (aluno) ISBN 978-85-96-00391-9 (professor) 1. Inglês (Ensino médio) I. Miguel, Flávia da Cruz. II. Série.

ELABORAÇÃO DOS ORIGINAIS Ana Lúcia Alouche Busso Licenciada em Letras (Português/Inglês) pela Universidade de São Paulo. Bacharel em Letras (Português/Inglês) pela Universidade de São Paulo. Professora de Inglês na rede particular de educação. Angela Maria de Vasconcellos Licenciada em Letras (Português/Inglês) pela Universidade Católica de Petrópolis. Professora de Inglês em cursos de idiomas. Tradutora. Carla Parrado Martinez Braga Licenciada em Letras (Português/Inglês) pela Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Bacharel em Letras (Português/Inglês) pela Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Professora de Inglês em cursos de idiomas. Elaine Lopes Dias da Silva Especialização em Inglês pela Fundação Educacional Unificada Campo-grandense. Licenciada em Letras (Português/Inglês) pela Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Professora de Inglês na rede pública de educação e em curso de idiomas. Gladys Roberta Garcia Bacharel em Secretariado Executivo Bilíngue pela Faculdade Sumaré. Professora de Inglês em cursos de idiomas, na rede particular de educação e em empresas. Coordenadora pedagógica em curso de idiomas. Isadora Ferreira da Veiga Bacharel em Ciências Biológicas pela Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Professora de Inglês em cursos de idiomas. Tradutora. José Carlos Aissa Doutor em Letras pela Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho. Professor Adjunto de Língua Inglesa e respectiva Literatura e do Programa de PósGraduação Stricto Sensu em Letras da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná. Tradutor público e intérprete comercial. Mariana Koury Bacharel em Letras (Português/Inglês) pela Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Professora de Inglês em curso de idiomas. Mayara Alves Maia Mestre em Estudos da Linguagem pela Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro. Especialização em Linguística Aplicada: Inglês como língua estrangeira pela Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Bacharel em Letras (Português/Inglês) pela Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Professora de Inglês na rede pública de educação e em curso de idiomas. Simone Rodrigues Portes Rezende dos Santos Licenciada em Letras (Português/Inglês) pela Universidade Católica de Petrópolis. Professora de Inglês em curso de idiomas e na rede particular de educação. Wallace Cândido Marinho Licenciado em Letras (Português/Inglês) pela Universidade Estácio de Sá. Professor de Inglês em cursos de idiomas.

16-02872 CDD-420.7 Índices para catálogo sistemático: 1. Inglês : Ensino médio 420.7 Reprodução proibida: Art. 184 do Código Penal e Lei 9.610 de 19 de fevereiro de 1998. Todos os direitos reservados à

EDITORA FTD S.A. Rua Rui Barbosa, 156 – Bela Vista – São Paulo-SP CEP 01326-010 – Tel. (0-XX-11) 3598-6000 Caixa Postal 65149 – CEP da Caixa Postal 01390-970 www.ftd.com.br E-mail: central.atendimento@ftd.com.br

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Em respeito ao meio ambiente, as folhas deste livro foram produzidas com fibras obtidas de árvores de florestas plantadas, com origem certificada.

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APRESENTAÇÃO Caro(a) aluno(a), Estamos vivendo uma revolução do conhecimento, impulsionada pelo rápido avanço das tecnologias de informação e comunicação e da globalização. Tal revolução rompe paradigmas em todos os âmbitos da atuação humana: social, profissional e educacional. Nesse contexto contemporâneo surge a demanda por um novo perfil de cidadão, capaz de aprender a conhecer, aprender a fazer, aprender a viver juntos e aprender a ser (Unesco, 1998). O conhecimento da língua inglesa é importante, pois contribui para a sua inserção nesse cenário. A proposta didático-pedagógica desta coleção visa criar oportunidades para o seu crescimento intelectual, fornecendo condições para que você enfrente os desafios do mercado de trabalho e incremente seu desenvolvimento pessoal. Nesta obra, o trabalho com gêneros textuais e com a competência leitora o(a) ajudará a compreender e a interpretar textos das várias esferas sociais, contribuindo para o seu sucesso acadêmico e preparando-o(a) para a continuação dos seus estudos. As atividades interdisciplinares aqui propostas visam estimular sua curiosidade investigativa, sua colaboração e sua autonomia, características indispensáveis ao aprendiz do século XXI. A seleção de temas atuais e instigantes tem por objetivo estimular sua participação e, consequentemente, seu aprendizado. O trabalho com itens linguísticos, de forma contextualizada, permite a análise e a compreensão de seus significados e usos. A partir desse ponto, você será incentivado(a) a usar seus conhecimentos linguísticos por meio de atividades orais e escritas significativas. A integração sistemática das habilidades de ler, ouvir, falar e escrever permite que você experimente a língua inglesa em sua totalidade. A obra busca, ainda, contribuir para a sua formação como cidadão(ã) consciente e crítico(a), capaz de refletir sobre tópicos fundamentais na atualidade, como ética, saúde e meio ambiente, e de agir em prol de uma sociedade mais justa e igualitária. As discussões propostas têm por objetivo não somente dar voz às suas opiniões e reflexões, como também elevar a sua autoconfiança ao se comunicar com as pessoas ao seu redor. Esperamos que esta coleção conduza-o(a) à conquista de suas metas acadêmicas e contribua para o desenvolvimento de valores e competências essenciais à sua atuação responsável na sociedade em que vivemos. Bom aprendizado!

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CONHEÇA SEU LIVRO IT RUNS IN THE FAMILY

Página de abertura

“In time of test, family is best.” Burmese proverb. (Available at: <http:// www.quotegarden.com/ family.html>. Accessed on: Jan. 10, 2016.)

1. Answer the quiz and find out what kind of reader you are.

WHAT KIND OF READER ARE YOU?

Now check your score.

1 If a friend recommends a book to you:

➼ Mostly (a): You are a niche reader. You read quite a bit, but you stick for what you know and love. You already have Enough to read.

a. You may read it if it’s the type of thing you like.

Apresenta o tema da unidade por meio de uma imagem acompanhada de uma epígrafe.

Monkey Business/Thinkstock

UNIT 1

Think about It

THINK ABOUT IT

b. You will at least check it out. c. You will read it for sure. d. You will wait to see if others recommend it too. 2 What is your book collection like? a. Lots of series and full collections of single authors. b. A huge assortment of books, including some rare and old books. c. High quality – and you have read almost all of it. d. Pretty small. You don’t own many books. 3 If you had to spend the afternoon at a library, you would: a. Seek out your favorite author’s sections. b. Browse like a Crazy, do some reading, be in heaven! c. Grab a few books and start reading. d. Get a few magazines and make the best of it. 4 How do you find out about new books? a. Through author’s websites and browsing your favorite section. b. Everywhere and anywhere. You just pay attention to books. c. Bookstores and book reviews. d. Some are Pretty hard to avoid. 5 If someone asked you about the last good book you read, you would: a. Probably name the last book you read, period. b. Have a few to recommend. c. Know at least one book the person would love. d. Not remember a single book you’ve read recently.

Ativa seu conhecimento prévio sobre o tema e estimula a troca de ideias sobre o assunto.

➼ Mostly (b): You are an eclectic reader. You will read almost everything, and you think the best gems and discovered randomly. You are curious about books. ➼ Mostly (c): You are a voracious reader. You read constantly – often many books at once, piled up next to your bed ou couch. You are addicted to reading. ➼ Mostly (d): You are an occasional reader. Honestly, you’re not in to reading, especially when it comes to long novels. You don’t have the patience. You will read a book if people absolutely can’t stop talking about it.

(Available at: <https://www.blogthings.com/whatkindofreaderareyouquiz/>. Accessed on: Jan. 29, 2016.)

TALK ABOUT IT 2. What do you think about your score to the quiz? A: Do you agree with it or not?

B: Why?

Talk to your teacher and your classmates about it.

VIEWPOINTS Converse com seu professor e colegas. “Segundo os últimos dados levantados pelo Instituto Pró-Livro, o brasileiro ainda está longe de ser um leitor assíduo.” Você concorda com essa afirmação? Por quê? Em caso afirmativo, de que forma os jovens e adultos brasileiros poderiam ser incentivados a ler mais? De que forma ler mais pode ajudar você com suas tarefas escolares e também no seu dia a dia? (MARTINS, Fábio C. Como está a leitura do brasileiro? Folhetim Online, maio de 2012. Disponível em: <http://www. folhetimonline.com.br/2012/05/03/informativo-como-esta-a-leitura-do-brasileiro>. Acesso em: 28 jan. 2016.

CAN’T PUT IT DOWN | UNIT 4

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Reading

READING GET READY TO READ

CLASSIFICATION

SPORTS

VIDEOS

ATHLETES

BELIEVE IN YOURSELF

NPCs

Kelly Cartwright […] What would be your advice to other people? To advance in life you need to believe in yourself and you need to set goals for yourself. Push yourself because you can achieve anything in life if you put your mind to it. Do you have a personal motto in life and in sport? Kelly Cartwright at the 2011 IPC Athletics World Championships in Christchurch, New Zealand.

My personal maxim is to always do my best and try my hardest at everything. I want to be the best at what I do, in sport and life.

e.

wheelchair fencing

Apresenta itens lexicais em contexto e promove oportunidades para aprimorar seu vocabulário.

wrestling Ryan McVay/Digital Vision/Thinkstock

c.

taekwondo

b.

d.

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

MEDIA CENTRE

Hannah Johnston/Getty Images

Editoria de arte

2. Read the extracts and check your prediction for question c, in exercise 1.

a.

f.

Hemera/Thinkstock

• Advice on being successful.

table tennis

Scott Heavey/Getty Images

• In a book.

• Women in sports.

goalball

Feng Li/Getty Images

Prepara para a leitura de textos de gêneros variados e propõe atividades que desenvolvem e estimulam a competência leitora e o letramento crítico.

• Graphs.

• On a website.

c. What do you think they are about?

cycling

Stockbyte/Thinkstock

• Extracts from interviews.

b. Where would you find them?

• The Olympic Games.

Vocabulary

SPORTS 1. In your notebook, match the pictures to the correct sports.

notebook. a. What kind of texts are these?

• In a magazine.

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VOCABULARY

1. Look at the pictures and the texts in exercise 2 quickly. Then write down the correct answers in the

• Headlines.

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Warren Little/Getty Images

Orla Barry […] What is your advice as a Paralympic athlete for other people doing sports? Enjoy the sport you take part in and be patient, it takes years of training to reach the top. What would be your advice as a Paralympic athlete for other people to advance in life?

IN CONTEXT

Be persistent, keep trying and work hard, it will be worth it in the end when you achieve your goal.

Goalball was created by Hanz Lorenzen and Sepp Reindle in 1946 to help rehabilitate former soldiers who became blind during Second World War. In this game athletes try to score a goal by rolling a ball with bells inside.

Orla Barry at the IPC Athletics World Championship, Doha, Qatar, 2015.

(Available at: <http://www.paralympic.org/BelieveInYourself/OurHeroes>. Accessed on: Jan. 17, 2016.)

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UNIT 3 | SOUND BODY, SOUND MIND

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Grammar

GRAMMAR LANGUAGE DISCOVERY

Editoria de arte

An Amish Family Reunion [Paperback]

i Add to cart

In Stock.

Editora: Harvest House Publishers

Apresenta o foco gramatical da unidade de maneira contextualizada e indutiva e oferece oportunidades para colocá-lo em prática.

Yes, I want FREE Two-Day Shipping

List Price: $15.00 Price: $12.45 You save: $ 2.45

Publication Date: February 1, 2012 […] Phoebe Miller meets Eli Riehl, a young man who charms her – and everyone else – with his exceptional storytelling ability. When Phoebe sketches scenes to illustrate one of his tales, Eli encourages her incredible talent, and together they embark on a lofty and unlikely business venture for two young Amish people – writing and illustrating a children’s book. […] But he is an only son with five sisters, and when his father suffers a heart attack, Eli gives up his / her writing […] Can their love for a good story develop into something that lasts forever, or will Phoebe’s deep-seated fear of desertion stand in their way?

(Available at: <http://www.amazon.com/Amish-Family-Reunion-Mary-Ellis/dp/0736944877/ref=sr_1_224?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1337111650& sr=1-224>. Accessed on: Jan. 11, 2016.)

a. The text presents

d. The words her, highlighted in bold, refers to

• the complete story of the book.

• show how amish families live.

“All this talk about global warming... pah! I mean, where's the evidence?”

Global warming refers to an increase in the average temperature of the atmosphere as a result of greenhouse gases emissions. Some experts say that the term global warming was first used in the scientific world in an article called Are We on the Brink of a Pronounced Global Warming? by Wallace S. Brocker in 1975.

(Available at: <https://www.cartoonstock.com/cartoonview. asp?catref=cbon88>. Accessed on: Feb. 26, 2016.)

2. Read the cartoon again. Then, write down the correct options to complete the sentences in the notebook. a. The man

in global warming.

• believes √ • doesn’t believe

b. The expression

suggests the man’s opinion about global warming.

√ • pah!

• I mean

√ • is happening now.

• Eli Riehl and Phoebe Miller.

• is something that doesn’t exist.

GO BEYOND

Possessive adjectives)

• Phoebe Miller.

IN CONTEXT

• the man’s clothes and the polar bear’s briefcase.

f. We use words like his, her and their (called

• Eli Riehl.

Favorece a integração das habilidades de compreensão e produção por meio do trabalho com diferentes gêneros textuais escritos e orais.

c. How do you know?

d. According to the cartoon, global warming

• Eli Riehl’s family.

• convince the readers to buy the book.

b. Where do you think they’re going?

√ • the man’s opinion and the presence of the polar bear next to him.

• Phoebe Miller. e. The words their, highlighted in bold, refers to

c. The words his, highlighted in bold, refers to

a. What are the man and the polar bear doing?

c. The cartoon is funny because of the contrast between

• Eli Riehl.

• a short description of the story of the book. b. The main purpose of this text is

Integrated Skills

READING 1. Read the cartoon and answer the following questions in the notebook.

Quantity:

Mary Ellis (Author)

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INTEGRATED SKILLS

1. Read the book text below, from an online bookstore, and do the following activities, writing the correct option to complete the sentences in your notebook.

LOOK INSIDE!

UNIT 3 | SOUND BODY, SOUND MIND

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Chris Booth (www.CartoonStock.com)

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• aer a noun.

You can take a quiz about global warming at <http://ler.vc/ernpnf>. (Accessed on: Feb. 26, 2016.)

• before a noun.

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UNIT 1 | IT RUNS IN THE FAMILY

THINK FORWARD | UNIT 6

FUN FRIEND HAPPY LOVE CS1-ING-EM-4008-V1-U1-LA-G18_NOVO.indd 14

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MAKE A DIFFERENCE

IN CONTEXT

2. Writing a positive message on your T-shirt.

c. T-shirts became more colorful and they were used to display messages of protest

II. in the 1950s

› Think about a positive statement you’d like to write on your T-shirt. Possible themes:

.

I. during World War II

.

because they were

Friends

√ II. in the 1960s

Sports

Your city

Environment

Love

Any other theme?

› Write a short, simple message to express your feelings about your theme. Check your spelling and if you have enough space on the T-shirt to write the message.

.

d. In the 70s and 80s T-shirts started being used

I. cut into top and bottom pieces

› Get a used plain white T-shirt. A light colored T-shirt is also a good option.

√ I. to advertise brand names and promote tourism

√ II. made of cotton and long-lasting

› Use a fabric pen or paint to write your message on the T-shirt. You can use a piece

II. to promote the hippie movement

of cardboard inside the T-shirt to prevent the ink or paint from staining it.

remember to › use large and colorful letters. › distribute letters evenly. › write short and simple sentences.

Apresenta atividades que promovem o diálogo com outras disciplinas e estimula a sua atuação como cidadão crítico.

Estúdio Insólito

.

√ I. from a one-piece underwear

b. During World War II, T-shirts became highly popular

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World War II (1939–1945) is considered one of the most destructive wars in history and it involved several nations in two military alliances: The Axis (Germany, Italy and Japan) and The Allies (the United States, Great Britain, France and the Soviet Union).

1. Read the timeline and write the correct options in the notebook. a. The T-shirt originated

87

Cross-Curricular Link

CROSS-CURRICULAR LINK Send a positive message,

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› Let it dry for one or two hours before wearing it.

PhotoObjects.net/ Thinkstock

19TH CENTURY

WORLD WAR II AND LATE 40s

1950s

1960s

1970s › 1980s

1990s › present day

The first T-shirt or tee originated from the one-piece Union suit underwear cut into top and bottom pieces.

T-shirts became popular as undershirts among US Navy and Army soldiers. They were made of cotton and were highly durable, ideal for work environments and high-temperature places. After World War II, war veterans started wearing their T-shirts together with their uniform pants in more informal gatherings.

White cotton T-shirts grew quickly in popularity as the American youth idols James Dean and Marlon Brando wore the garment in their movies. Because of Dean and Brando’s rebellious style, the T-shirt was soon associated with rebellion and non-conformity.

Casual clothes became more fashionable and T-shirts were more stylish and colorful than ever. Tie-dye, an ancient Asian and African art of dying cotton, influenced followers of the hippie movement in the USA. T-shirts started being used to display messages of protest.

From messages of protest to marketing tool, T-shirts were used as souvenirs to promote tourism and advertise famous brands.

Nowadays,T-shirts can come in all shapes and sizes, and in several countries around the world they are still a favorite item of clothing. Tees are considered a means of self-expression and they can reveal a lot about you!

(Research sources: The T-Shirt: From Men’s underwear to Casual Couture. We, The T-Shirt. Available at: <http://www.nardinesaad.com/ wethetshirt/the-t-shirt/>; A Short Story of the T-Shirt. Sunday morning. Available at: <http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=1786690n> and A Brief and Incomplete Timeline of T-Shirt. Neatorama. Available at: <http://www.neatorama.com/2011/03/17/a-brief-and-incomplete-timelineof-t-shirt-history/>. Accessed on: Mar. 18, 2013.)

VIEWPOINTS

Evaluate your message. Is it visually clear and appealing? Is it creative? Are there any improvements you can make to your next message?

CROSS-CURRICULAR CROSS-CURRICULAR LINK LINK

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WEB SEARCH

SELF-EVALUATION

Converse com seu professor e colegas. O texto mostra que ao longo do tempo as camisetas foram se modificando de acordo com "(...) movimentos sociais e históricos.(...)" Você acredita que nosso vestuário possa sofrer influências de tais momentos? Cite exemplos de como isso acontece no Brasil. De acordo com o texto que você acabou de ler, “Tees are considered a means of self-expression and they can reveal a lot about you!”. Você concorda com essa afirmação? Por quê?

124 124

iStockphoto/ Thinkstock

AbleStock.com/ Thinkstock

John Kobal Foundation/ Getty Images

National Archives and Records Administration

Bettmann/CORBIS

› Put your T-shirt on and express yourself!

Go to the sites listed below to get more ideas on how to customize your own T-shirts. <http://ler.vc/z4qvex>; <http://ler.vc/h6ug2e> (Accessed on: Mar. 18, 2013)

CROSS-CURRICULAR CROSS-CURRICULAR LINK LINK

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Ícones no Livro do Aluno Faixa de áudio

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Variedade linguística

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Autoavaliação

Autoavaliação Responda às perguntas do quadro a seguir em seu caderno para avaliar seu desempenho ao longo das unidades 7 e 8.

Sou capaz de...

Exam Practice

EXAM PRACTICE O objetivo desta seção é familiarizá-lo(a) com alguns tipos de questões utilizados como instrumento de avaliação para o ingresso no Ensino Superior.

= fraco

PARTE I Unidade

a. ler e ouvir assuntos relacionados a fontes de energia e atitudes ecologicamente corretas e falar sobre eles.

7

b. ler e reconhecer as características do gênero testual cartoon.

7

c. reconhecer e utilizar os sufixos para formação de adjetivos.

7

d. entender e usar os Comparative Adjectives em contexto.

7

e. reconhecer e usar expressões idiomáticas relacionadas a alimentos.

A cada duas unidades, apresenta a autoavaliação e oferece sugestões de aprimoramento visando desenvolver a sua autonomia.

Avaliação

7

f. entender e usar os Superlative Adjectives e usá-los de maneira apropriada.

7

g. ler um panfleto, reconhecer suas características e produzir um texto semelhante.

7

h. ler, ouvir e falar a respeito da moda e de sua influência entre os jovens.

8

i. ler e reconhecer as características do gênero textual letra de música.

8

j. nomear e descrever peças de vestuário.

8

k. reconhecer e usar verbos relacionados ao vestuário.

8

l. entender o uso do verbo used to e empregá-lo de maneira apropriada.

8

m. ler e reconhecer as características do gênero oral entrevista.

8

n. observar as características de posts e produzir um semelhante.

8

SIMULADOS DO ENEM (EXAME NACIONAL DO ENSINO MÉDIO)

Visa familiarizá-lo(a) com alguns instrumentos de avaliação para o ingresso no ensino superior por meio de simulados e questões de exames oficiais.

Questão 1 Calvin & Hobbes, Bill Watterson © 1986 Watterson / Dist. by Universal Uclick

= regular

= muito bom

(WATTERSON, Bill. Calvin and Hobbes. GoComics. Disponível em: <http://www.gocomics.com/calvinandhobbes/1986/06/15>. Acesso em: 8 maio 2013.)

1. A tirinha acima apresenta uma cena típica em famílias em que há crianças. Geralmente, elas acordam seus pais bastante cedo. Nesta tirinha, especificamente, podemos ter uma ideia da dinâmica familiar da família retratada. Na visão de Calvin, o seu pai a. é um pai carinhoso, que nunca discute com o filho. b. é bastante sábio e ensina coisas bastante úteis a seu filho. c. tem uma boca muito grande.

Além desses conteúdos, o que mais você aprendeu? Escreva no caderno.

d. adora acordar cedo. e. está geralmente bravo.

MELHORANDO SEU DESEMPENHO

2. No dia dos pais, Calvin resolve aplicar alguns princípios ensinados por seu pai. Um dos objetivos de Calvin, ao aplicar tais princípios, foi

Refaça os exercícios das unidades 7 e 8. Esclareça suas dúvidas com o(a) professor(a). Visite uma biblioteca e faça uma leitura de seu interesse. Crie seu próprio glossário / dicionário. Participe de um chat online em inglês.

a. mostrar ao pai o quanto ele é um filho obediente. b. mostrar ao pai o quanto admira sua sabedoria. c. iniciar um planejamento financeiro, economizando 6% do que recebe de mesada. d. justificar a falta de um presente no Dia dos Pais. e. mostrar ao pai que, a partir de agora, acordará cedo sem reclamar. AUTOAVALIAÇÃO

128

119

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EXAM PRACTICE

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Language Assistance

LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE UNIT 8 › Jeans are always a popular clothing option. › Boots are in fashion. › A pair of shorts is a fun way to recycle old jeans.

Proporciona revisão e complementação de itens linguísticos relacionados aos conteúdos das unidades.

Plural Nouns – Clothes Alguns substantivos que se referem a itens de vestuário e acessórios só podem ser usados no plural. Veja alguns exemplos: boots – pants – jeans – earrings – tights – socks – gloves – boxers These black pants are too big for me. My new boots are waterproof. Your sunglasses don’t suit you. They’re too big. No entanto, se usarmos a expressão pair of + item de vestuário, podemos usar o verbo ou pronome no singular. Veja alguns exemplos: My new pair of earrings was really cheap! I’d like to try on that pair of jeans, please.

1. In the notebook, write down the correct option to complete the sentences. a. Your shoes is / are under the bed. b. These green earrings matches / match the color of your eyes. c. This pair of pants is / are too small for me. d. Where is / are my sunglasses? Have you seen them? e. The gloves you bought doesn’t / don’t fit me.

2. Complete these dialogues between a sales clerk and customers in a store. Use the words in the box. is

iStockphoto/ Thinkstock

are

it

that

a. Customer: Excuse me. Can I try on

pair of boots over there, please?

iStockphoto/ Thinkstock

Sales clerk: Of course. Here you are.

b. Customer: How much

the white socks?

iStockphoto/ Thinkstock

Sales clerk $9,00.

c. Customer: How much

the blue dress, please?

Sales clerk: $60,00. Would you like to try

on?

Customer: No, thanks.

LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE – UNIT 8

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IRREGULAR VERBS Past

Past Participle

Translation

Infinitive

Past

Past Participle

Translation

was / were

been

ser, estar

eat

ate

eaten

comer

beat

beat

beaten

vencer, superar, bater

fall

fell

fallen

cair, baixar

become begin

became began

become begun

tornar-se, ficar começar

feed feel

fed felt

fed felt

bitten

morder, picar

fight

fought

fought

brigar, lutar

bled

sangrar

find

found

found

encontrar

blow

blew

blown

soprar

flee

fled

fled

fugir

break

broke bred brought

broken bred brought

quebrar, partir criar (animais), cultivar (plantas) trazer

fly forbid forget

flew forbade forgot

flown forbidden forgotten

voar

broadcast

transmitir (por rádio ou TV)

forgive

forgave

forgiven

perdoar

built

construir

freeze

froze

frozen

congelar

burn

burnt / burned

burnt / burned

queimar

get

got

got / gotten

receber, obter, conseguir

buy

bought

bought

comprar

give

catch

caught

choose

chose

caught chosen

pegar, agarrar escolher

go grow

went grew

gone grown

ability (n.)

aptidão, capacidade

abroad (adv.)

no exterior, estrangeiro, para o exterior

dar ir

n. = noun / noun phrase phr. = phrase prep.= preposition / prepositional phrase pron. = pronoun v. = verb attractive (adj.)

atraente

attribute (n.)

atributo, qualidade, característica

aunt (n.)

tia

absence (n.)

ausência

available (adj.)

disponível

accept (v.)

aceitar

average (adj.)

médio(a)

accessible (adj.)

acessível, fácil de obter

aviary (n.)

viveiro de aves

accessory (n.)

acessório (boné, bolsa, brincos etc.)

across (prep.)

aviator (n.)

aviador

avid (adj.)

ávido(a)

de um lado a outro, do outro lado

award (n.)

prêmio

active (adj.)

ativo(a)

B

activist (n.)

ativista, militante

background (n.)

proibir

broadcast built

given

A

esquecer

broadcast build

gave

adj. = adjective / adjective phrase adv. = adverb / adverbial phrase conj. = conjunction exclam.= exclamation m.v. = multi-word verb

alimentar

bit bled

breed

Abbreviations

sentir

bite bleed

bring

Other Features

GLOSSARY

Infinitive be

origem

ad (n.)

anúncio

bacteriologist (n.)

bacteriologista

adoptive (adj.)

adotivo(a)

balance (n., v.)

equilíbrio; equilibrar

advantage (n.)

vantagem

band (n.)

banda, grupo musical

advertise (v.)

anunciar

banquet (n.)

banquete

affairs (n.)

negócios

bar chart (n.)

gráfico de barras

against (prep.)

contra

barbecue (n.)

churrasco

agree (v.)

concordar

be able to (v.)

poder, conseguir, ser capaz de

crescer

aim (n., v.)

objetivo; almejar, ter como objetivo

because of (conj.)

pelo motivo de, por, por causa de

behaviour (n.)

comportamento

align (v.)

aderir, associar-se

believe (v.)

acreditar, crer

allergic (adj.)

alérgico(a)

believer (n.)

fiel, defensor de algo

come

came

come

vir, chegar

hang

hung

hung

pendurar

cost

cost

cost

custar

have

had

had

ter

cut

cut

cut

cortar

hear

heard

heard

ouvir

aluminum (n.)

alumínio

besides (adv., prep.)

além disso, além de

deal

dealt

dealt

tratar de, lidar

hide

hid

hid / hidden

esconder(-se)

amused (adj.)

divertido(a)

bet (v.)

apostar

amusing (adj.)

algo ou alguém que diverte

between (prep.)

entre

dig

dug

dug

cavar, escavar

hit

hit

hit

bater

ancient (adj.)

antigo(a)

bilingual (adj.)

bilíngue

do

did

done

fazer

hold

held

held

segurar

biomass (n.)

biomassa, matéria orgânica utilizada na geração de energia

draw

drew

drawn

desenhar

hurt

hurt

hurt

machucar

dream drink drive

144

dreamed / dreamt drank drove

dreamed / dreamt drunk driven

sonhar beber dirigir

keep know lay

kept knew laid

kept known laid

manter, continuar saber, conhecer colocar, pôr

CS1-ING-EM-4008-V1-INICIAIS-LA-G18.indd 5

ao longo de

below (prep.)

abaixo de

apesar de, embora

benefit (n., v.)

auxílio, benefício; beneficiar

animal testing (n.)

testes conduzidos em animais resposta

appealing (adj.)

atraente

birth certificate (n.)

certidão de nascimento

appearance (n.)

aparência

birthday (n.)

aniversário

apply for (v.)

candidatar-se a

blurb (n.)

sinopse

appreciate (v.)

valorizar

board (n.)

diretoria

arrive (v.)

chegar

body (n.)

corpo

asthma (n.)

asma

bookmark (n.)

marcador de páginas

athlete (n.)

atleta

bookstore (n.)

livraria

attention (n.)

atenção

bored (adj.)

entediado(a)

146

IRREGULAR VERBS

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along (prep.) although (conj.)

answer (n.)

5/20/16 20:28

As seções Irregular Verbs, Glossary, False Cognates, Audioscripts e Bibliography complementam o trabalho das unidades e incentivam o desenvolvimento da sua autonomia.

GLOSSARY

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CONTENTS UNIT 1 – IT RUNS IN THE FAMILY

8

Think about It

9

Reading

10

Vocabulary: Family

12

Grammar: Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns; Present Continuous

14

Integrated Skills

18

UNIT 2 – ENGLISH ALL AROUND

22

Think about It

23

Reading

24

Vocabulary: -ing or -ed Adjectives; Cognates

26

Grammar: Simple Present; Adverbs of Frequency

27

Integrated Skills

31

Autoavaliação – Units 1 & 2

35

UNIT 3 – SOUND BODY, SOUND MIND

36

Think about It

37

Reading

38

Vocabulary: Sports; Adverbs of Manner

40

Grammar: Can / To be able to; Imperatives

43

Integrated Skills

46

UNIT 4 – CAN’T PUT IT DOWN

50

Think about It

51

Reading

52

Vocabulary: Types of Novels; Adjectives to Describe Stories; Multi-word Verbs Related to Reading

53

Grammar: Wh-Questions; Interrogative Pronouns

56

Integrated Skills

59

Autoavaliação – Units 3 & 4

63

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UNIT 5 – MAKING HISTORY

64

Think about It

65

Reading

66

Vocabulary: Prepositions of Time; Adverbs of Time and Time Expressions

68

Grammar: Verb to be – Simple Past; Simple Past – Regular and Irregular Verbs

70

Integrated Skills

74

UNIT 6 – THINK FORWARD

78

Think about It

79

Reading

80

Vocabulary: Discourse Markers

82

Grammar: Simple Future; Future – to be going to

84

Integrated Skills

87

Autoavaliação – Units 5 & 6

91

UNIT 7 – A GREENER FUTURE

92

Think about It

93

Reading

94

Vocabulary: Idioms with Food; Common Adjective Suffixes

96

Grammar: Making Comparisons

99

Integrated Skills

102

UNIT 8 – FASHION CLOSE-UPS

106

Think about It

107

Reading

108

Vocabulary: Names of clothing items; Describing Clothes; Multi-Word Verbs Related to Clothes and accessories

110

Grammar: Used to

113

Integrated Skills

115

Autoavaliação – Units 7 & 8

119

CROSS-CURRICULAR LINK

120

GLOSSARY

146

EXAM PRACTICE

128

FALSE COGNATES

154

LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE

136

AUDIOSCRIPTS

156

IRREGULAR VERBS

144

BIBLIOGRAPHY

160

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UNIT 1

LEIA SUGESTÃO INTERDISCIPLINAR E SAIBA MAIS NO MP

CS1-ING-EM-4008-V1-U1-LA-G18_NOVO.indd 8

Burmese proverb. (Available at: <http:// www.quotegarden.com/ family.html>. Accessed on: Jan. 10, 2016.)

Monkey Business/Thinkstock

IT RUNS IN THE FAMILY

“In time of test, family is best.”

5/16/16 09:28


THINK ABOUT IT

Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

Editoria de arte

1. This bar chart was taken from the site of a Canadian government agency. It shows some changes in the organization of households in Canada. Read it and, then, write the correct option in your notebook.

Distribution of private households by household types 35

2001 2006

30

2011 25 Refers to one-family households with children aged 24 and under. 2 Refers to one-family households without children aged 24 and under. 3 Refers to or more people who share a private dwelling, but do not constitute a census family. 1

20 PERCENTAGE 15 10 5 0

Couple with children1

Couple without children2

One-person

Lone-parent family

Multiple-family

Other3

HOUSEHOLD TYPE

Available at: <https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2011/as-sa/98-312-x/2011003/fig/fig3_2-1-eng.cfm>. Accessed on: Jan. 10, 2016.

a. You can find this graph in a book / on the internet. b. The bar chart shows a comparison between different household types in Canada in the years of 2001, 2006 and 2011 / 2006 and 2011. c. According to the chart, the number of couples with children is / isn’t rising.

Focus on Genre

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

2. Read the bar chart again. What are its main characteristics? Write them down in your notebook. a. It contains a title.

d. It contains lines representing two pieces of information.

b. It uses colored bars.

e. It contains information organized in circles.

c. It presents percentages.

f. It uses a legend to explain the meaning of the colors used.

3. Read these definitions of family and write your favorite one in the notebook. a. My friends are my family.

Respostas pessoais.

b. Family is anyone who loves me and helps me.

c. Family is “a group of […] people […] related by birth, marriage, or adoption and residing together […]”. (UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU. Available at: <https://www.census.gov/cps/data/universedefinitions.html>. Accessed on: Jan. 10, 2016.)

TALK ABOUT IT 4. Share your answer to exercise 3 with your teacher and classmates. Why is this definition your favorite one? Explain it in your words. Respostas pessoais.

HINT

LEIA DICA NO MP

Defending ideas My favorite definition is the first one because I love my friends. My favorite definition is the second one because of the nice people in my life.

IT RUNS IN THE FAMILY | UNIT 1

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READING

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

GET READY TO READ

1. Take a look at the article in exercise 2 and answer the questions in the notebook. a. What is it about? Sugestão de resposta: It’s about single-father families / homes. b. What words do you expect to find in it? Write five words. Sugestões de respostas: father, kids, family, mother, couple. c. Where do you expect to find it? On the internet or in a leaflet? On the internet.

Editoria de arte

2. Now read the article and check the predictions you made.

Habilidade de leitura: HL19 – Validar ou reformular hipóteses sobre o conteúdo do texto, com base em indicadores contidos no texto.

Single-Father Homes on the Rise By Genaro C. Armas

More fathers are going solo in raising kids. […] The 2000 census found: In 2.2 million households, fathers raise their children without a mother. That's about one household in 45. [...]

Andresr/Shutterstock.com

WASHINGTON, May 18

The portion of households headed by fathers with children living there doubled in a decade, to 2 percent. Single fathers say the numbers help tear down a longstanding conception that single fathers tend to abandon their kids, or at least not take as good care of them as single moms, said Vince Regan, an Internet consultant from Grand Rapids, Mich., who is raising five kids on his own. "In time, it goes a long way to helping society think that single fathers do help their kids and want to be part of their lives," he said. [...] (ARMAS, Genaro C. Single-father homes on the rise. ABC News, Washington, May 18. Available at: <http://abcnews.go.com/US/ story?id=93279&page=1>. Accessed on: Apr. 2, 2013.)

GLOSSARY Az going solo – fazendo algo sozinho(a), sem ajuda long-standing – longa duração on his own – sozinho

10

on the rise – em ascensão raise – criar tear down – destruir

UNIT 1 | IT RUNS IN THE FAMILY

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READING COMPREHENSION

Habilidade de leitura: HL7 – Identificar a tese principal ou o conflito central de um texto.

1. Read the article again. What is the sentence that best summarizes it? Write the alternative in your notebook. a. Single fathers can take better care of their kids than mothers do.

Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

b. The number of single-father families is rising.

2. Based on the article, match the sentences halves, writing the corresponding numbers and letters in the notebook. a-3, b-2, c-1 a. Today more fathers

1. is raising his five kids on his own.

b. In 2000, fathers raised their children without a mother

2. in 2.2 million households.

c. Vince Regan

3. are raising their kids without any help.

3. According to the text, which statement below is true? Write the alternative in the notebook. a. The society still needs to understand that single fathers are willing to take part in their children’s life.

Habilidade de leitura: HL17 – Fazer inferências a partir de informações implícitas em um texto.

b. The society understands that single fathers are willing to take part of their children's life.

Single-father homes (USA) 4 3.6 2.2 1.1 1990

0

2000

b.

HOUSEHOLDS (MILLION)

a.

HOUSEHOLDS (MILLION)

Ilustrações: Editoria de arte

4. Look at the graphs below. Which of them is related to the article?

Habilidade de leitura: HL17 – Fazer inferências a partir de informações implícitas em um texto.

Single-father homes (USA) 4 3.6 2.2 1 0

1990

YEAR

c.

Single-father homes (USA)

d.

2.2 1.5 1 0.5 1990

2000 YEAR

HOUSEHOLDS (MILLION)

HOUSEHOLDS (MILLION)

2.5

0

2000 YEAR

Single-father homes (USA) 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.1

1990

2000 YEAR

LEIA SAIBA MAIS NO MP

VIEWPOINTS

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

Converse com seu professor e colegas. De acordo com o texto, a estrutura familiar está mudando nos EUA. Em sua opinião, isso está acontecendo no Brasil também? Dê exemplos para fundamentar sua opinião.

IT RUNS IN THE FAMILY | UNIT 1

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11

5/9/16 15:24


VOCABULARY FAMILY 1. Look at the sentence below and write the correct option in the notebook. “In 2.2 million households, fathers raise their children without a mother.” The words fathers, children, and mother refer to: a. coworkers.

LEIA SAIBA MAIS E DICAS NO MP

b. family members.

2. Look at the Olson family tree and, in your notebook, complete the sentences using words from the box. aunt

brother

daughter

father

grandfather

grandmother

mother

nephew

niece

sister

stepson

uncle

a. Dean is Pam’s

.

father

e. Oliver is Bob’s

grandfather

.

i. Pam is Mia’s

niece

.

brother

.

.

f. Pam is Beth’s

daughter

.

j. Bob is Pam’s

c. Rob is Beth’s

stepson

.

g. Bob is Mia’s

nephew

.

k. Susan is Ken’s

grandmother

.

d. Beth is Mia’s

sister

.

h. Beth is Ken’s

aunt

.

l. Dean is Ken’s

uncle

.

Kevin Peterson/ Photodisc/Thinkstock Jack Hollingsworth/ Photodisc/Thinkstock iStockphoto/Thinkstock

Jupiterimages/Comstock/ Thinkstock iStockphoto/Thinkstock

Ryan McVay/Lifesize/ Thinkstock

Monkey Business/Thinkstock

Jupiterimages/Comstock/ Thinkstock

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

Estúdio Insólito

b. Jill is Rob’s

mother

TRACK 2

PRONUNCIATION ð Listen and repeat.

12

mother

/

father

/

grandmother

/

grandfather

/

brother

UNIT 1 | IT RUNS IN THE FAMILY

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3. Look at the sentence below. What is the photo that best summarizes the type of family it describes? Write the alternative in the notebook.

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

a.

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

b.

Ryan McVay/Digital Vision/Thinkstock

c.

Jupiterimages/Pixland/Thinkstock

d.

Comstock/Thinkstock

e.

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

"The portion of households headed by fathers with children living there doubled in a decade, to 2 percent."

f.

4. Now match the other photos to their descriptions, writing in the notebook the corresponding letters and numbers. b-3, c-2, d-5, e-1, f-4 1. a nuclear family

4. a childless family

2. an extended family

5. an adoptive family

3. a single-mother family

5. What about you? In your notebook, answer the following questions: â&#x20AC;˘ Who are the people in your family? â&#x20AC;˘ What type of family best describes yours?

Next, share your answer with the teacher and classmates. IT RUNS IN THE FAMILY | UNIT 1

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13

5/16/16 09:33


GRAMMAR LANGUAGE DISCOVERY

Editoria de arte

1. Read the book text below, from an online bookstore, and do the following activities, writing the correct option to complete the sentences in your notebook.

LOOK INSIDE!

An Amish Family Reunion [Paperback] Mary Ellis (Author)

Yes, I want FREE Two-Day Shipping

List Price: $15.00 Price: $12.45 You save: $ 2.45

i Add to cart

In Stock.

Editora: Harvest House Publishers

Quantity:

Publication Date: February 1, 2012 […] Phoebe Miller meets Eli Riehl, a young man who charms her – and everyone else – with his exceptional storytelling ability. When Phoebe sketches scenes to illustrate one of his tales, Eli encourages her incredible talent, and together they embark on a lofty and unlikely business venture for two young Amish people – writing and illustrating a children’s book. […] But he is an only son with five sisters, and when his father suffers a heart attack, Eli gives up his / her writing […] Can their love for a good story develop into something that lasts forever, or will Phoebe’s deep-seated fear of desertion stand in their way?

(Available at: <http://www.amazon.com/Amish-Family-Reunion-Mary-Ellis/dp/0736944877/ref=sr_1_224?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1337111650& sr=1-224>. Accessed on: Jan. 11, 2016.)

a. The text presents

d. The words her, highlighted in bold, refers to

• the complete story of the book.

• Eli Riehl.

• a short description of the story of the book. X

• Phoebe Miller. X

b. The main purpose of this text is

e. The words their, highlighted in bold, refers to

• show how amish families live.

• Eli Riehl’s family.

• convince the readers to buy the book. X

• Eli Riehl and Phoebe Miller. X

c. The words his, highlighted in bold, refers to

f. We use words like his, her and their (called

• Eli Riehl. X

Possessive adjectives)

• Phoebe Miller.

• aer a noun. • before a noun. X

14

UNIT 1 | IT RUNS IN THE FAMILY

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Editoria de arte

2. Read the review for the book An Amish Family Reunion, written by a reader. Next, in your notebook, write the correct option to complete the sentence.

By Harriet Klausner on January 31, 2012 This […] romance stars two wonderful protagonists who belong together and a strong family support group. Ironically to achieve her two dreams of illustrating and finding a loving […] Phoebe must accept Eli’s nosy family as hers. Readers will appreciate Mary Ellis’ tale as the Amish lifestyle makes for an engaging contemporary.

(Available at: <http://www.amazon.com/Amish-Family-Reunion-Mary-Ellis-ebook/product-reviews/B006LOMUB6/ref=cm_cr_pr_btm_ link_1?pageNumber=1>. Accessed on: Jan. 10, 2016.)

a. The word hers could be replace for her family / her dreams. b. The word hers (called Possessive pronoun) replace an adjective / a noun.

3. In your notebook, draw and complete the table below. Hint: use the Possessive adjectives and Possessive pronoun that you have seen in exercises 1 and 2. Subject

Possessive adjectives

Possessive pronouns

I

My

Mine

You

Your

Yours

He

His

His

She

Her

Hers

It

Its

_

We

Our

Ours

You

Your

Yours

They

Their

Theirs

4. What do you know about the Amish people? In your notebook, complete the sentences below using the appropriate Possessive adjective or pronoun. a. The first Amish families arrived in America around 1730 and seled in Pennsylvania. Nowadays, they’re 150,000, and

their

number is growing.

VER NOTA CULTURAL NA P. 179 DO MP

Its

b. All aspects of Amish life are dictated by the Ordnung.

rules outline the basics of the Amish

faith as well as almost every aspect of the Amish lifestyle. c. A Amish man in general wear coats without collars, lapels or pockets.

His

pants never have

creases and are worn with suspenders. d. They have a calm life, in comparison to

ours

. Actually, the most of Amish families are averse to

technologies, such as electricity, television, and telephone. (Adapted from: <http://pittsburgh.about.com/cs/pennsylvania/a/amish.htm>. Accessed on: Jan. 10, 2016.)

GO BEYOND You can learn more about the Amish at <http://ler.vc/a7z92o>.

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LANGUAGE DISCOVERY 1. Look at the sentences below, extracted from the text on page 10, and write the correct option in your notebook. “More fathers are going solo in raising kids.” “Vince Regan [...] is raising five kids on his own.” a. The focus of the sentences is the • action. X • result. b. In the sentences, the action • happened in the past. • is happening at the moment. X c. In Present Continuous sentences, we can use adverbs such as • never, yesterday, tomorrow. • right now, now, at this moment. X d. In Present Continuous tense, the structure for affirmative sentences is • subject + main verb + verb be. • subject + verb be + main verb (-ing). X

2. The text below is the lyric of a song called “Fallin’ For You”. In the lyric, a woman is considering to

I don’t know but I think I may be Falling for you […]

Oh I just can’t take it My heart is racing Emotions keep spinning out […]

I am trying Not to tell you But I want to I’m scared of what you’d say So I’m hiding What I’m feeling But I’m tired of Holding this inside my head

I think I’m fallin’ for you I can’t stop thinking ’bout it […]

Revisão do verbo to be.

PopTika/Shutterstock.com

tell or not her feelings about someone. Read it and do the following activities.

[…] As I’m standing here And you hold my hand […]

(Colbie Caillat. Falling For You. 2009. Available at: <http://www.vagalume.com.br/colbie-caillat/fallin-for-you. html#ixzz454n6Qmo6>. Accessed on: Apr. 6, 2016.)

L ANGUAGE ASSISTANCE

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a. I n the song, look for three actions that are happening at the moment. Next, write down the actions in your notebook. Respostas possíveis: I am trying, So I’m hiding, What I’m feeling, As I’m standing here, My heart is racing, I think I’m fallin’ for you

 onsidering the woman of the song, answer the questions below in the notebook. Follow the examples. b. C Is she trying? Yes, she is. Is she racing? No, she isn’t. 1. Is she hiding what she’s feeling? Yes, she is. 2. Is her heart slowing down? No, it isn’t. 3. Is she falling in love? Yes, she is. 4. Is she walking? No, she isn’t.

3. Look at the scene below. What are the family members doing? Write three actions in your notebook, Respostas possíveis: The father and the mother are eating, The daughter is playing following the example. videogame, The son is reading, The grandmother is listen to music, The uncle and the aunt are eating and talking, The cousins are playing videogame. Wavebreakmedia/Shutterstock.com

The grandfather is dancing.

4. Draw the table below in your notebook and complete the column “Questions”, based on the scene above. Next, interview a classmate and write his / her answers in the column “Answers”. One is done for you. Questions

Answers

Are the father and the mother dancing?

No, they aren’t.

5. Now it’s your turn! What are you doing? Write your answer in the notebook and share it with your teacher and your classmates. IT RUNS IN THE FAMILY | UNIT 1

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INTEGRATED SKILLS READING

4008-ING-1-U01-F019 Edson Sato/Pulsar

Editoria de arte

1. Look at the text below. Which words do you expect to find in it? Write your suggestions in the notebook and share them with the class. Respostas pessoais.

BRAZILIAN INDIANS There are about 240 tribes living in Brazil today, totaling around 900,000 people, or 0.4% of Brazil’s population. The government has recognized 690 territories for its indigenous population, covering about 13% of Brazil’s land mass. Nearly all of this reserved land (98.5%) lies in the Amazon. [...] Most tribes live entirely off the forests, savannas and rivers by a mixture of hunting, gathering and fishing. They grow plants for food and medicine and use them to build A Zo’é family relaxes in a hammocks made from Brazil nuts fibres.

houses and make everyday objects. […]

A handful of peoples – the Awá, the Maku in the north-west and a few uncontacted tribes – are nomadic hunter-gatherers. They live in small extended family groups and keep few possessions, which allows them to move rapidly through the forest. They can erect shelters from tree saplings and palm leaves in just a few hours. [...] Many Brazilian Indian tribes like those of the Xingu Park, the Yanomami and the Enawene Nawe live in malocas – large communal houses – which shelter extended families, who string their hammocks from the rafters and share food around family hearths.

(Available at: <http://www.survivalinternational.org/tribes/brazilian>. Accessed on: Apr. 1, 2016.)

2. Read the text and check the predictions you made in exercise 1.

Respostas pessoais.

3. Considering the text, answer in your notebook: a. Why can nomadic Indians move rapidly through the forest? Because they keep few possessions. They cultivate plants for food and medicine and use them to build houses and

b. Why do Indians cultivate plants? make everyday objects.

4. Look at the sentences below and write the false ones in your notebook, correcting them. a. Some Brazilian Indians tribes are nomadic and live in small extended family groups. b. Many Brazilian Indian tribes live in malocas which shelter nuclear families.

Many Brazilian Indian tribes live in malocas which shelter extended families.

c. The most of tribes depend on the forests, savannas and rivers for living. d. Nowadays, more than 1% of Brazil’s population is composed by Indians. Nowadays, more than 1% of Brazil’s population

e. In malocas, Indian families hang their hammocks and share their foods. is composed by Indians.

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LISTENING TRACK 3 1. These are some adjectives to describe appearance or personality. Draw the table below in your notebook and write them in the correct column. Next, listen, check your answers and repeat. attractive

boring

cool

cute

fun

handsome

intelligent

quiet

short

tall

Appearance

Personality

attractive

boring cool/fun/intelligent/quiet

cute/handsome/short/tall

2. Alicia, Patrick, and Rick prepared a presentation about their families. Before you look at these pictures and answer the following question in your notebook.

a.

Grandfather, grandmother and granddaughter.

Creatas/Thinkstock

Jupiterimages/Pixland/Thinkstock

Hemera/Thinkstock

Which family members do you see in the pictures? Sugestões de respostas: b.

Son, brother and father.

c.

Mothers / partners and son.

TRACK 4 3. Now, listen to the presentations and match them to the pictures, writing the corresponding letter and number in the notebook. 1-b, 2-a, 3-c. TRACK 4 4. Listen to the presentations again. Next, write the false sentence(s) in your notebook, correcting the mistakes. a. Patrick's father is very boring. Patrick's father isn't very boring.

b. Alicia's grandfather is short.

c. Rick’s family is big.

Rick's family is very small.

TRACK 5 5. Listen to Alicia again. Next, write her presentation in your notebook, completing the gaps with words from the box. family

I’m Alicia and my

grandfather family

My grandmother Beth is a bit

quiet

is small. It's just my grandfather, my grandmother, and I. quiet

and really cool. My

grandfather

Roberto

is short and handsome. In this picture we’re sitting together in a park near my house. IT RUNS IN THE FAMILY | UNIT 1

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SPEAKING Describing Family and Family Members TRACK 6 1. See some examples in which people describe their family and family members. Listen and repeat. a. My family is small.

c. My father is cool.

b. She's quiet and very intelligent.

d. Our family is small.

LEIA DICA NO MP

2. Now it’s your turn to prepare an oral presentation and show it to your teacher and classmates. In this presentation, you have to describe your family and your family members in a clear and direct way. Some important hints: • As starting point, you can take your production in exercise 5, page 13. • Use the sentences in exercise 1 as examples for your description. • Use the Alicia’s presentation, on page 19, to base your production. Before doing the oral presentation, write your text in the notebook and show it to your teacher, doing any necessary changes. Aer that, read the text, describing your family to the class. Respostas pessoais.

WRITING 1. Amanda Bento lives alone in Campo Grande, Brazil. As she’s very talkative and lively, she decided to open the doors of her big house to foreign students. But there’s a problem: Amanda doesn’t speak studying English and filled in an online form of a school. Read it on page 21 and answer the questions in the notebook. a. What is Amanda’s nationality? She is Brazilian.

Diego Cervo/Shutterstock.com

English very well. So she decided to start

The name is study@

b. What is the name of the agency?english.com.

c. What is the Amanda’s username? The username is mandy16.

d. What is the word which means that you don’t have to pay to enroll? The word is free.

2. Look at the online form on page 21 and write the correct alternatives in your notebook. a. It has an introduction, development, and conclusion. b. It asks for the person’s username and e-mail address. X c. It asks for personal data, such as age, country of origin, name etc. X d. It’s used to enroll as a member of a club, course or any similar instructions. X e. It can show a random set of leers and numbers that serves as a security code. X

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Editoria de arte

study@english.com Enroll today and start studying English. It’s free!

E-mail: Login

Password:

Step 1 >> Enter your personal details Username:

mandy16

E-mail address:

mandy16@pointnet.com

Name:

Amanda

Confirm e-mail address:

mandy16@pointnet.com

Last name:

Bento

Country:

Brazil

Birthday:

5 / March / 1977

Native language:

Portuguese

Type the code:

6630

Register

(Available at: <http://www.english-portal.com/community-learning-english.php?mode=reg>. Accessed on: Jan. 14, 2016.)

TIP Ao fazer uma inscrição online, tenha cuidado ao fornecer suas informações pessoais, como números de telefone, endereço etc. Sempre verifique as configurações de segurança de seu computador e também leia as dicas de segurança fornecidas pelo seu navegador de internet.

3. Imagine you want to start studying English. Read the form and write the requested information in

Editoria de arte

your notebook.

study@english.com

Respostas pessoais.

Enroll today and start studying English. It’s free! Step 1 >> Enter your personal details

E-mail:

a. Username:

e. E-mail address:

b. Name:

f. Confirm e-mail address:

c. Last name:

g. Country:

d. Birthday:

/

/

Login

Password:

h. Native language:

e. Type the code:

Register

(Available at: <http://www.english-portal.com/community-learning-english.php?mode=reg>. Accessed on: Jan. 14, 2016.)

SELF-EVALUATION Evaluate your online form before you send it. Compare it to the one on this page. Did you type in your e-mail address correctly? Did you forget to type in any required information? Did you type in the security code correctly?

GO BEYOND An online journal about a family that travels together around the world. Available at: <http:// ler.vc/4k2yat>. (Accessed on: Jan. 14, 2016.)

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UNIT 2

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“Through learning language, we learn about culture. Through learning about culture, we learn respect for others. Through learning respect for others, we can hope for peace.” Anonymous author. (Available at: <http://passwithflyingcolours. blogspot.com.br/>. Accessed on: Dec. 19, 2015.)

Jupiterimages/Goodshoot/Thinkstock

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THINK ABOUT IT

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

1. Read the following texts and write the correct answers in your notebook. a. What text genres are these? • Song titles.

√ • Article headlines.

b. Where would you find the texts? • In a book.

√ • On the internet.

• In a leaflet.

c. What is the main topic of these texts?

Ilustrações: Editoria de arte

√ • The importance of the English language.

Cross-cultural management

• Countries which speak English.

History

• Studying English abroad.

Industry Insights

Global business speaks English

The English language is here to stay

English the lingua franca in China

By Tsedal Neeley

By Lee Kuan Yew Jun. 18, 2014

Daniel Bardsley August 22, 2011

May 2012 (Available at: <https://hbr.org/2012/05/globalbusiness-speaks-english>. Accessed on: Dec. 19, 2015.)

(Available at: <http://www.forbes.com/sites/ currentevents/2014/06/18/the-english-languageis-here-to-stay/>. Accessed on: Dec. 20, 2015.)

(Available at: <http://www.thenational.ae/ thenationalconversation/industry-insights/ economics/english-the-lingua-franca-inchina>. Accessed on: Dec. 19, 2015.)

Focus on Genre

LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

2. The texts in exercise 1 are examples of headlines. What are the main characteristics of a headline? Write the false statements below in your notebook, correcting them.

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

a. It is always very long. It is always short. b. It uses a large size font. c. It persuades the reader to read the article. d. It usually gives the reader a general idea about the content of the article. It contains the main idea of the content of the article.

TALK ABOUT IT 3. For you, in which situations is English important? Look at the situations below and share your opinion with your teacher and classmates.

Respostas pessoais.

surf the net

get a good job

play video games

study abroad

watch movies

travel abroad

sing English songs

read books in English

HINT

LEIA SUGESTÃO INTERDISCIPLINAR E DICA NO MP

Agreeing with the opinion Expressing opinion Me too. I think / I don't think speaking English is important to sing English songs. In my opinion, speak English is important to know new cultures.

Disagreeing with the opinion I don't think so.

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READING

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

Habilidade de leitura: HL7 – Identificar a tese principal ou o conflito central de um texto.

GET READY TO READ

1. Read the title and the first paragraph of the following article. What’s the idea defended by the author? Write the best option in your notebook. a. There are only professional reasons to learning English. b. There are only personal reasons to learning English. c. There are lots of reasons to learning English, including personal and professional points.

Editoria de arte

2. Read the rest of the article and check your answer to exercise 1.

Language study

Malta

Habilidade de leitura: HL19 – Validar ou reformular hipóteses sobre o conteúdo do texto, com base em indicadores contidos no texto.

ESL programs

More

Why is English important nowadays?

Communicate with people English is the most commonly used language among foreign language speakers. Throughout the world, when people from different nationalities want to communicate, they commonly use English language. That is why we like to call it “the language of communication”. Moreover, speaking English will enable you to contact people from all over the world and to travel more easily. Push your career forward All over the world, speaking English immediately opens up opportunities. Being able to communicate with foreign clients and business partners will provide you a more challenging position in your career. You will also have the option to apply for jobs requiring English like for instance a manager position. So get your dream job, start learning English!

Stephen Coburn/Shutterstock.com

There are many reasons to learning English, whether it is for personal, study or work-related reasons.

Get access to knowledge English is also internationally recognized as the language of science. Most of the knowledge related to computer or health by example is in English. Being able to use English in your researches – especially on the Web – will give you unlimited access to knowledge! Enjoy art like never before English lets you feel the culture of the world like no other language. Learning it will offer you the opportunity to do wonderful things. English is the language of the film industry. It means you will no longer have to rely on subtitles or dubbed versions. You will also be able to read books written by English-speaking authors in their original version. Last but not least, music is much better if you can understand the meaning. We are sure that you will be satisfied to enjoy Englishlanguage music more! (Why is English important nowadays? English Domain. Available at: <http://www.englishdomain.eu/English---why-is-english-important-nowadays. html?sect=menu3>. Accessed on: Dec. 21, 2015.)

GLOSSARY Az nowadays – hoje em dia

24

whether... or... – seja... ou...

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READING COMPREHENSION

Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

1. Chose the apropriate option according to the article. Next, write the correct statement in your notebook. a. If you learn English, you can • read books in their original version. • study everywhere in the world. dragon_fang/Shutterstock.com

b. People from different parts of the world • communicate using their own languages. • can use English to communicate with each other. c. There are lots of knowledge • wrien in English and available online. • wrien in English and available under some conditions. LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

d. In the business world, speaking English • is not necessary at all.

Habilidade de leitura: HL3 – Localizar e organizar várias informações explícitas no texto, sintetizadas em ideia geral, categoria ou conceito.

• is a fundamental ability.

2. The article is organized in paragraphs, representing four main ideas. Which paragraph corresponds to each idea below? Write in your notebook.

a. Push your career forward. b. Get access to knowledge. c. Enjoy art like never before. d. Communicate with people.

a. Speaking English can help you with your professional life. b. By learning English you can get a lot of information. c. Watch movies in their original voices. d. Talk to different people around the world.

3. One reason to learning English is missing from the article. Which one? Write the correct answer in your notebook.

Habilidade de leitura: HL21 – Articular conhecimentos prévios e informações textuais, inclusive as que dependem de pressuposições e inferências, para explicar opiniões e valores implícitos.

a. entertainment b. job opportunities c. personal satisfaction

4. What’s the main purpose of this article? Write the best answer in your notebook. a. To describe reasons to learn English abroad. b. To convince readers that learning English can be good for their lives.

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

c. To motivate readers to study English in a good school. LEIA O ALUNO NO MUNDO DO TRABALHO NO MP

VIEWPOINTS

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

Converse com seu professor e colegas. Você concorda com o texto quando ele diz que aprender inglês pode trazer benefícios para sua vida pessoal, estudantil e profissional? Por quê? Em sua opinião, existem outros aspectos importantes para se obter sucesso nessas áreas? Se sim, quais?

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VOCABULARY -ING OR -ED ADJECTIVES 1. Look at the following sentences. Which are their adjectives? Write them in your notebook. a. Being able to communicate with clients will provide you a challenging position in your carrer. b. You will be satisfied to enjoy English-language music more! c. My test scores in Spanish are very disappointing. d. Anne thinks learning language is boring.

2.

e. Amanda feels amused by French classes.

Adjectives that describe a person, a thing, or a situation challenging disappointing boring

f. Lynn is fascinated by Asian languages.

Adjectives that describe how a person feels about something or someone satisfied amused fascinated

2. In your notebook, draw and complete the table below considering the adjectives you have found in exercise 1. One is done for you. Adjectives that describe a person, a thing, or a situation

Adjectives that describe how a person feels about something or someone

challenging

3. Write the sentences below in your notebook, choosing the best option to make them correct. a. We use adjectives ending in -ing/-ed when we want to describe a person, a thing, or a situation. b. We use adjectives ending in -ing/-ed when we want to describe how a person feels about something or someone.

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

4. Look at the reviews below and do the activities. a. In your notebook, write the sentences about the reviews using the correct option. 1. They are about a book / a movie.

3. They were / weren’t written by users of the site. 4. They contain / don't contain adjectives describing viewers’ opinions.

2. They can be found on the internet / in a magazine.

Filme de Sofia Coppola. Lost In Translation. EUA, 2004.

All Critics

Top Critics

DVD

Audience

Aldo M. February 18, 2015

Editoria de arte

b. Now read the reviews and complete the adjectives with -ing or -ed.

Two bored / boring people, unhappy with their lifes, meet in a foreign city, Tokyo, that they do not like and do not understand, and spend 100 minutes in telling each other how much they are bored / boring and unhappy with their lifes. […] Definitely, the most bored / boring movie I have ever seen.

Colby Sanner February 22, 2015 […] Sofia Coppola directs an amazing / amazed and perfectly cast ensemble with brilliant direction, sharp dialogue and beautiful cinematography throughout the 101-minute film. […]

R, 1 hr. 42 min. / Drama, Romance, Comedy / Directed by: Sofia Coppola (Available at: <http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/lost_in_translation/reviews/?page=2&type=user>. Accessed on: Dec. 22, 2015.)

c. Do you like watching movies? In your notebook, write a review for a movie that you like, using adjectives with -ing and/or -ed. Next, share your text with you teacher and classmates.

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COGNATES 1. Look at the statement below, paying attention on the highlighted words. Next, answer the question in your notebook. “English is also internationally recognized as the language of science. Most of the knowledge related to computer or health by example is in English.” What is the translation for the words science, computer and example? LEIA DICA NO MP

Ciências, computador, exemplo.

2. Considering the previous exercise, which is the alternative that best completes the sentence below? Answer in your notebook. “Cognates are English words that are similar to Portuguese words in terms of a. spelling

b. meaning

.”

c. spelling and meaning

3. Write the statements below in your notebook, completing them with the cognates from the boxes. option

culture

important

language

important

a. It’s very

to know English to get a good job.

b. In the world, 1.5 billion people study English as a second culture

c. If you speak English, you can absorve the d. Geing married is a very important

language

.

of many countries.

. option

4. Go back to the text on page 24, find more examples of cognate words and write them in your notebook. Algumas das palavras cognatas que podemos encontrar no texto da página 24 são: access, author, clients, contact, different, film, industry, music, nationalities, opportunity, original, position, reasons, satisfied, unlimited, use, version.

TIP

Embora as palavras cognatas facilitem a leitura, é importante ter cuidado com os falsos cognatos – palavras que, apesar de terem grafia semelhante à da língua portuguesa, não possuem o mesmo significado. Confira a lista de falsos cognatos na página 154.

5. Choose a cognate you have found in the text. Next, in your notebook, write a statement using this cognate. Don’t forget to share your production with your teacher and classmates. Resposta pessoal. 6. Now it’s your turn! Do you know other cognates? In pairs, search in newspapers and magazines and find, at least, three more cognates words. Do you think your teacher and classmates know these words? Share them with the class and find it out. Resposta pessoal.

GRAMMAR LANGUAGE DISCOVERY 1. Read the sentence below and do the activities, writing the answer in the notebook. “English lets you feel the culture of the world like no other language.” a. The sentence presents a • prediction

. √ • fact

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b. The highlighted word is a verb that

.

√ • describe something that happens nowadays

• describe something that happened on past • describe something that will happen soon c. The verb tense used is • Simple Past

, as show us the highlighted word. • Simple Future

√ • Simple Present

2. Look at the following sentences in the box. Do you want to learn a second language? She studies Spanish because she wants to live in Spain. Does he know many words in English? I’m not sure about it. I study English on Saturdays because I work during the week. They don’t study English for fun. Actually, they plan to live abroad. He doesn’t need to study in his house. In which cases do we use Simple Present? See the options below and write the correct ones in your notebook. a. To describe plans in the future.

c. To describe facts and generalizations.

b. To describe habits and routines.

d. To describe an action that is happening right now.

3. Read the sentences in the box (exercise 2) again and, in your notebook, write their subject. The subjects are, respectively: you, she, he, I, they, he.

4. Look at the statements below and write the false ones in your notebook, correcting them. Hint: the sentences in exercise 2 can help you. a. When the subject is in the 3rd person singular, we use doesn’t in negative sentences. b. When the subject is in the 3rd person singular, we use do in the beginning of interrogative sentences. We use does in the beginning of interrogative sentences.

c. In “She studies Spanish because she wants to live in Spain,” we add s to the main verbs because the subject is in the 3rd person plural. We add s to the main verbs because the subject is in the 3rd person singular. d. When we use does and doesn’t in interrogative and negative sentences, respectively, we don’t add s to the main verbs, though the subject is in the 3rd person singular. Diferenças ortográficas na 3a pessoa do singular.

TRACK 7

L ANGUAGE ASSISTANCE

P. 137

PRONUNCIATION Connected speech Listen and repeat. /

/

Do you study in the morning? Where do you live?

/

/

Does she speak English? What does she do?

/

Does he work? Where does he study?

5. In your notebook, write the paragraph below completing it with the verbs in parentheses. Daniel is from Mexico, but is living in South Africa, where he is an exchange student. gets up

He always 7:15. Daniel

leaves

(get up) at 6:30. Then he has breakfast and takes

(take) the bus and

(go) to school, where he

different subjects, including English. When Daniel

28

(leave) home at

goes

arrives

learns

(learn)

iStoc kpho to/Th inksto ck

/

(arrive) home,

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listens

he

watches

(listen) to music or

helps

(watch) series on TV. But on Mondays and Wednesdays he

(help) his new best friend in his shop. On the weekends, he usually

relaxes

(relax) and

plays

(play) soccer

with his neighbors.

6. Complete the sentences below using the Simple Present. believe

a. I

(believe) English can change lives. thinks

b. Your sister

(think) that learn English can be funny. speak

c. The students from USA lives

d. Your brother

work

e. My parents

(speak) Spanish fluently.

(live) in Canada, in a very cold region. (work) for a multinational company.

7. In the notebook, create questions using the sentences from exercise 6. Then, talk to a classmate, asking the questions and writing down his/her answers. See the example below. Question i Do you believe English can change lives? Possible answers i Yes, I do. / No, I don’t.

Does your sister think that learn English can be funny? Do the students from USA speak Spanish fluently? Does your brother live in Canada, in a very cold region? Do your parents work for a multinational company?

8. Look at the text below and do the following activities.

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

a. Answer the questions in your notebook. 1. Where would you find these quotes? On an internet page. 2. Who wrote the information on the page? Theresa Dold. 3. Who are the potential readers of this page? Students, teachers, etc.

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b. Now read the text and choose the best options to complete the quotes, writing them in your notebook.

News

Teachers

Students

STUDENTS […] Theresa Dold on 04/15/11 Do you – or your students – need some extra motivation when it comes to language learning? […] The following quotes are a simple reminder that learning another language opens our minds and can lead to unforeseen opportunities. [...] “If you talk to a man in a language he understand / understands, that goes to his head. If you talk to him in his own language, that goes to his heart.” Nelson Mandela “One language sets / set you in a corridor for life. Two languages open / opens every door along the way.” Frank Smith “Those who know / knows nothing of foreign languages know / knows nothing of their own.”

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (DOLD, Theresa. 10 Inspirational Quotes for Language Learners. Voxy TM, April 2011. Available at: <http://voxy.com/blog/index.php/2011/04/ inspirational-quotes-for-language-learners/>. Accessed on: Dec. 19, 2015.)

c. What quote did you like best? Why? Write your reasons in your notebook and share it with your teacher and classmates. Don’t forget to use Simple Present. ENGLISH ALL AROUND | UNIT 2

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LANGUAGE DISCOVERY

LEIA DICA E NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

1. Read the sentences below, extracted from exercise 5 on page 28, and do the activities in the notebook. “He always gets up at 6:30.” “On the weekends, he usually relaxes and plays soccer with his neighbors.” a. I n the sentences, which words indicate the frequency of the actions? Always e usually. b. H  ow do we call the words that indicate the frequency of the actions? Adverbs of frequency or subjects.

2. Look at the sentences below and find out the adverbs of frequency. Next, write them in your notebook. a. T  ed often reads books in English. often b. I always listen to songs in English. always c. M  y parents hardly ever travel abroad. hardly d. M  y sister is sometimes late for school. sometimes e. M  y friend never uses a dictionary in her French classes. never f. T  he students usually have Spanish classes on Mondays. usually

3. In your notebook, draw and complete the table below using the adverbs of frequency from exercise 2. One is done for you. Word that express the frequency of the action

Degree of frequency of the action always

100%

usually

80%

often

60% sometimes

50%

hardly

10%

never

0%

Diferenças ortográficas na 3a pessoa do singular (Simple Present) e posição dos advérbios de frequência.

L ANGUAGE ASSISTANCE

P. 137

4. What is the best option to complete each sentence? Choose it and write the correct statements in your notebook. a. My friend loves music. He always / never buys new CDs. b. Elisa hates reality shows on TV. She sometimes / never watches them. c. Sue doesn’t like soccer, but she sometimes / never watches it with her husband. d. I think reading is really fun, so I often / never read books.

5. In your notebook, answer the questions about yourself using adverbs of frequency. a. How often do you watch movies in English, with or without subtitles? Resposta pessoal. b. How often do you listen to music in English? Resposta pessoal. c. How often do you consider to live in other country in order to improve your English? Resposta pessoal.

6. Interview a classmate, asking him / her the questions of exercise 1 and creating another one. Write his / her answers in your notebook. 30

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INTEGRATED SKILLS READING 1. In your opinion, what are the advantages of studying abroad? In your notebook, write the options you agree with and add one more reason, sharing it with the class. Respostas pessoais. a. Meeting interesting people. b. Becoming more independent. c. Making friends from other countries. d. Having more opportunities to practice the language.

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

e. Learning about the customs of the foreign country.

2. The text below is about Australia, a country where foreign students can go in order to improve their English. Read it and do the following activities in your notebook. Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar Editoria de arte

informações explícitas em um texto.

You’ve heard about it — that giant island with beautiful beaches, the Outback, tons of sunshine, surfing, and shrimp on the barbie. […] They [Australians] speak English. Can it be that different? Yer, mate! Aussies definitely have their own language. Differences in the way they speak extend far beyond the accent. Australians like to abbreviate, particularly with a y or an -ies on the end […]. Common terms in the U.S. mean something completely different in Australia. Biscuits are cookies, flip-flops are thongs, chips are fries, a bench is a countertop […]. […] The Aussies may be your favorite thing about studying abroad in Australia (I know it was mine). Strangers are often overwhelmingly welcoming, helpful, and non-judgmental. Navigating public transport in a different country can be intimidating at first, and in Australia, the locals were happy to offer assistance to international travelers. […] Australians believe in the concept of a healthy work/life balance. They live for spending quality time with friends and family, and they appreciate punctuality, sincerity, and honesty. Aussies are passionate about sports and […] they enjoy living active, adventurous lifestyles. (Available at: <http://www.goabroad.com/study-abroad/search/australia/study-abroad-1>. Accessed on: Jan. 9, 2016.)

a. Which of the statements below are false? Write them in your notebook, correcting them. • The Aussies love sports, and they have an active lifestyle.

According to the text, “strangers are oen overwhelmingly welcoming, helpful, and non-

• Australians hardly ever are kind to people from other countries. judgmental”.

According to the text, “Aussies definitely have their own language”. Also, “common • The Australian English is very similar to English spoken in U.S., for example. terms in the U.S. mean something completely different in Australia”.

• In Australia, people eat shrimp on the barbecue and enjoy nice beaches.

• For Australian people, the balance between personal and professional life is important.

b. In your opinion, is Australia a good option for an exchange program? Why? Write your reasons in the notebook, considering the information in the text. Next, share your opinion with your teacher and classmates. Resposta pessoal. ENGLISH ALL AROUND | UNIT 2

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LISTENING TRACK 8

a-4, b-5, c-1, d-2, e-3

Country

Nationality

a. Brazil b. Australia c. Scotland d. Portugal e. Ireland

1. Scoish 2. Portuguese 3. Irish 4. Brazilian 5. Australian

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

1. Match the countries and nationalities, writing the corresponding letters and numbers in your notebook. Then, listen and repeat.

TIP

2. David is an exchange student and he’s talking about his experiences studying in Scotland. Before you listen to the radio show, answer the question: what do you think David is going to talk about? See the options below and write your answer in the notebook. a. The advantages and disadvantages of studying abroad.

Creatas/Thinkstock

Em inglês, nomes de nacionalidades são sempre escritos com letra maiúscula: Irish, Portuguese, Scottish.

b. His Scoish family. c. Cities in Scotland.

TRACK 9 3. Listen and check your prediction. TRACK 9 4. Now listen to the radio show again and do the activities below, writing the correct options in the notebook. a. David’s... 1. Scoish 2. Brazilian 3. Australian

b. He’s... 1. 16 2. 19 3. 15

c. He’s studying in... 1. Glasgow 2. Perth 3. Edinburgh

LEIA DICA NO MP

TRACK 9 5. During the radio show, the presenter used some words that are very common in spoken Scottish English. Listen again and match these words to their meanings, writing the corresponding letters and numbers in the notebook. a-3, b-2, c-4, d-1 LEIA SAIBA MAIS NO MP a. Our first guest speaker is a lad, David Melo, from Brazil.

1. yes

b. Awrite, David!

2. hello

c. And what about our haggis with neeps and tatties?

3. boy, young man

d. Aye, we are!

4. turnips and potatoes

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6. After you’ve listened, write in your notebook the best option to complete the sentence below. David

GO BEYOND

enjoying his stay in Scotland.

a. is b. isn't • How did you get this conclusion? Talk to your teacher and classmates about it.

You can learn more about Scotland at <http://ler.vc/p3tt6n>. (Accessed on: Jan. 11, 2015.)

LEIA DICA NO MP

SPEAKING Giving Opinions TRACK 10 1. See some examples in which people give opinions. Listen and repeat. a. In my opinion, studying abroad is a good way to learn the language. b. I think we learn about cultural differences. c. I think studying abroad is expensive. d. I don’t think studying abroad has advantages.

LEIA DICA NO MP

2. Read the statement below. Based on the examples in exercise 2 and the hints on page 23, give your opinion about it. In order to get a good instruction, it's necessary to travel to other country and study abroad. Respostas pessoais.

WRITING

a. Greeting.

e. The sender of the message.

b. The message.

f. The recipiente of the

c. Saying goodbye.

michaeljung/Shutterstock.com

1. We use informal emails to keep in touch with relatives and friends, especially the ones who live far from us. The email below was written by Scott, a guy from U.S. who has just moved to a new city. Read it and, in your notebook, write the corresponding letters and numbers. a-4, b-5, c-6, d-3, e-1, f-2.

message.

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d. The topic of the message.

From:

1. scothambry@gmail.com

To:

2. sabrinabileski@gmail.com

Subject:

3. New life

4. Hi Sabrina! 5. Everyday when I wake up after dreaming about Brazil all night ;) I start my day by turning on some music and making a french press of coffee. I like to eat a light breakfast such as oatmeal or cereal. I leave my apartment at 7am. I have a 30 minute commute and I arrive to work at 7:30am. I work until 5pm and leave for home. In the evenings I spend my time drumming, playing music, watching tv's shows, and practicing Portuguese. During the weekends, I like to snowboard and watch football. What about you? I miss U a lot =) 6. All the best, Scott B

ENGLISH ALL AROUND | UNIT 2

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2. Read the email again and find examples of some of characteristics of an informal email. Write the answers in your notebook. a. Emoticons. ;) and =) b. Leer representing a word. U c. Absence of some capital leers. french, tv

TIP O uso de abreviações para representar palavras é bastante comum em e-mails informais, assim como em mensagens de texto e bate-papos em redes sociais. Além do U representando a palavra you, como vimos no e-mail, são comuns expressões como: R = are GR8 = great BTW = by the way BFN = by for now XOXO = kisses and hugs Justamente por caracterizarem a linguagem informal, essas abreviações devem ser evitadas em contextos mais formais, como em e-mails formais.

• Make notes of the information you’re going to include in your e-mail. • Write your first dra and compare it to Sco’s e-mail, answering these questions: - Does the message correspond to what you wanted to communicate? - Does it follow the characteristics of the genre “informal e-mail”?

George Doyle/Stockbyte/Thinkstock

3. Let’s suppose you are an exchange student, living in a foreign country for one year. In your notebook, write an email for an “old friend”, talking about your routine abroad. Follow these steps:

- Is the language appropriate for an old friend? - Are there any improvements I can make to my e-mail? - Write your revised version. • Show this revised version to your teacher and take notes of his/her suggestions, making any necessary changes. • Write the final version and share it with your classmates.

GO BEYOND An American comedy-drama about a Mexican family immigrating to the USA: SPANGLISH (ESPANGLÊS). Directed by: James L. Brooks. United States: 2004.

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AUTOAVALIAÇÃO Responda às perguntas do quadro a seguir em seu caderno para avaliar seu desempenho ao longo das unidades 1 e 2. = muito bom

= regular

= fraco

Sou capaz de...

Unidade

a. ler, ouvir e falar sobre assuntos relacionados à família.

1

b. ler e reconhecer as características do gênero textual gráfico de barras.

1

c. nomear membros da família e tipos de estruturas familiares.

1

d. entender e usar o Present Continuous em contexto.

1

e. entender as diferenças entre Possessive Adjectives e Possessive Pronouns e usá-los de maneira apropriada.

1

f. ler e reconhecer as características de uma descrição de um livro em um site.

1

g. observar as características de um formulário online e preencher um semelhante.

1

h. ler, ouvir e falar a respeito de estudar uma língua estrangeira.

2

i. ler e reconhecer as características do gênero textual manchete de artigo online.

2

j. entender a diferença entre adjetivos terminados em -ed e -ing e usá-los no contexto adequado.

2

k. reconhecer palavras cognatas.

2

l. entender os usos do Simple Present e usá-lo de maneira apropriada.

2

m. compreender o uso dos advérbios de frequência e usá-los em contexto.

2

n. ler um e-mail informal, reconhecer suas características e produzir um texto semelhante.

Avaliação

2

Além desses conteúdos, o que mais você aprendeu? Escreva no caderno.

MELHORANDO SEU DESEMPENHO Refaça os exercícios das unidades 1 e 2. Esclareça suas dúvidas com o(a) professor(a). Crie o hábito de consultar glossários, dicionários e gramáticas. Participe ativamente das atividades propostas durante as aulas. Crie grupos de estudo.

AUTOAVALIAÇÃO

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SOUND BODY, SOUND MIND

“You should pray for a sound mind in a sound body.” Roman poet Juvenal, believed to have lived between the late 1st and early 2nd century AD and author of the Satires. (Quotes. Available at: <http://www. quotationspage.com/quote/24451.html>. Accessed on: Jan. 17, 2016.)

LEIA NOTA CULTURAL E SAIBA MAIS NO MP

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Barry Austin/Digital Vision/Thinkstock

UNIT 3

5/16/16 10:13


Habilidades de leitura: HL2 – Localizar e relacionar informações explícitas sobre um mesmo assunto ou tema em diferentes textos; HL7 – Identificar a tese principal ou o conflito central de um texto.

THINK ABOUT IT

1. In your notebook, complete the sentence below using the ideas you agree with. Then write your own idea and share it with the class.

Respostas pessoais.

Doing sports: a. helps you keep fit.

d. helps you concentrate on your studies.

b. is fun.

e. gives you self-confidence.

c. prevents depression.

f. helps people with drug problems. LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO E DICA NO MP

2. Read these headlines and answer the questions in the notebook. a. What are they about? About sports / doing sports. b. Which benefits of doing sports listed in exercise 1 are mentioned in the headlines? Benefits c and f.

Ilustrações: Editoria de arte

c. Which of these texts would you like to read more about? Why? Respostas pessoais.

Home

Contact us

News categories

Sports

Less Exercise, More TV Hours Linked To Higher Depression Risk In Women

Politics

TOPICS

Health

Fewer meds, balance exercises can prevent elderly falls

Featured Article Academic Journal Main Category: Depression Article Date: 14 Nov. 2011 – 9:00 PST

(PADDOCK, Catharine. Less Exercise, More TV Hours Linked To Higher Depression Risk in Women. Medical News Today, Nov. 2011. Available at: <http://www.medicalnewstoday. com/articles/237616.php>. Accessed on: Jan. 17, 2016.)

(SALAMON, Maureen. Fewer meds, balance exercises can prevent elderly falls. NBCNews, Jan. 2011. Available at: <http://www.msnbc.msn.com/ id/41056136/ns/health-aging/t/fewer-medsbalance-exercises-can-prevent-elderly-falls/#. T2IRZMU7VPI>. Accessed on: Jan. 17, 2016.)

RESOURCES INFORMATION FOR…

Sports help prevent drug abuse (UNITED NATIONS OFFICE ON DRUGS AND CRIME. Sports help prevent drug abuse. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2012. Available at: <http://www.unodc.org/unodc/ en/frontpage/sports-help-prevent-drug-abuse. html>. Accessed on: Jan. 17, 2016.)

TALK ABOUT IT

Hemera/Thinkstock

go running David De Lossy/ Photodisc/Thinkstock

Barry Austin/Digital Vision/Thinkstock

Ismar Ingber/Pulsar Imagens

3. Do you play soccer or go running? Look at the pictures and talk to your classmates about the sports you do. Respostas pessoais. LEIA DICA NO MP

play soccer

play basketball

ride a bike

SOUND BODY, SOUND MIND | UNIT 3

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READING

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

Habilidade de leitura: HL9 – Identificar o tema de um texto a partir da associação de seus vocábulos e expressões.

GET READY TO READ

1. Look at the pictures and the texts in exercise 2 quickly. Then write down the correct answers in the notebook. a. What kind of texts are these? • Headlines.

√ • Extracts from interviews.

• Graphs.

√ • On a website.

• In a book.

b. Where would you find them? • In a magazine.

c. What do you think they are about? • The Olympic Games.

• Women in sports.

√ • Advice on being successful.

Editoria de arte

2. Read the extracts and check your prediction for question c, in exercise 1.

MEDIA CENTRE

CLASSIFICATION

SPORTS

VIDEOS

ATHLETES

Habilidade de leitura: HL19 – Validar ou reformular hipóteses sobre o conteúdo do texto, com base em indicadores contidos no texto.

BELIEVE IN YOURSELF

NPCs

Heroes Give the Answer Hannah Johnston/Getty Images

Kelly Cartwright […] What would be your advice to other people? To advance in life you need to believe in yourself and you need to set goals for yourself. Push yourself because you can achieve anything in life if you put your mind to it. Do you have a personal motto in life and in sport? Kelly Cartwright at the 2011 IPC Athletics World Championships in Christchurch, New Zealand.

My personal maxim is to always do my best and try my hardest at everything. I want to be the best at what I do, in sport and life.

Warren Little/Getty Images

Orla Barry […] What is your advice as a Paralympic athlete for other people doing sports? Enjoy the sport you take part in and be patient, it takes years of training to reach the top. What would be your advice as a Paralympic athlete for other people to advance in life? Be persistent, keep trying and work hard, it will be worth it in the end when you achieve your goal. Orla Barry at the IPC Athletics World Championship, Doha, Qatar, 2015.

(Available at: <http://www.paralympic.org/BelieveInYourself/OurHeroes>. Accessed on: Jan. 17, 2016.) LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

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GLOSSARY

Az

advice – conselho achieve – alcançar

enjoy – desfrutar reach – alcançar

READING COMPREHENSION 1. You can find the words below in the texts on page 38. Match these words to their translations, writing down the corresponding letters and numbers in the notebook.

a-3, b-4, c-1, d-2.

a. achieve (v.)

1. apreciar, desfrutar

b. advice (n.)

2. alcançar, atingir

c. enjoy (v.)

3. conseguir

d. reach (v.)

4. conselho

Habilidade de leitura: HL16 – Inferir o sentido de palavras ou expressões desconhecidas do texto por meio de comparação com a língua materna, análise do contexto e uso de conhecimento morfológico.

2. The title of the interviews on page 38 is missing. Look at the options below and write the correct one in your notebook. a. Enjoy all sports b. Men and women in sports c. Heroes give the answer d. Sports in America

Habilidade de leitura: HL18 – Selecionar um título ou legenda apropriada para um texto.

Habilidade de leitura: HL4 – Localizar informações relevantes no texto para completar uma tarefa ou solucionar um problema.

3. Look at the statements below. Who gave this advice? In your notebook, write K (for Kelly Cartwright) and O (for Orla Barry). a. She thinks that people who do sports have to enjoy the sport they practice and be patient. O

IN CONTEXT Kelly Cartwright (1989-) is an Australian runner who had her right leg amputated when she was 15 years old because of cancer. She started competing in 2007 and has represented Australia since 2008. Orla Barry (1989-) is an Irish discus thrower who had her both legs amputated when she was 11 months. She represented Ireland for the first time in 2006.

b. She believes that you can be successful if you set goals and dedicate yourself. K c. In her point of view, in order to advance in life, people should be persistent. O d. She wants to be the best at what she does, both in sport and life. K

4. Considering the texts on page 38, answer the questions below in your notebook. Respostas pessoais. a. In your opinion, what is the best advice? Why? b. Who gave this advice: Kelly Cartwright or Orla Barry? c. Write one question for the athlete who gave your favorite advice.

VIEWPOINTS

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

Converse com seu professor e colegas. Você acha que as pessoas portadoras de necessidades especiais, incluindo os paratletas, encontram dificuldades no seu dia a dia? Por quê? Em caso afirmativo, que tipos de dificuldades? De que forma o poder público e a sociedade podem contribuir para promover a inclusão social dessas pessoas?

LEIA DICA NO MP SOUND BODY, SOUND MIND | UNIT 3

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VOCABULARY SPORTS 1. In your notebook, match the pictures to the correct sports.

LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

wheelchair fencing

wrestling

c.

d.

e.

f.

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

b.

Hemera/Thinkstock

a.

Ryan McVay/Digital Vision/Thinkstock

taekwondo

Scott Heavey/Getty Images

table tennis

Feng Li/Getty Images

goalball

Stockbyte/Thinkstock

cycling

a - goalball, b - cycling, c - wheelchair fencing, d - taekwondo, e - wrestling, f - table tennis

IN CONTEXT

LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

Goalball was created by Hanz Lorenzen and Sepp Reindle in 1946 to help rehabilitate former soldiers who became blind during Second World War. In this game athletes try to score a goal by rolling a ball with bells inside.

40

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2. Based on the sports in exercise 1, answer the following questions in the notebook. a. Which sports are examples of Paralympic sports? Goalball and wheelchair fencing. b. Which sports are examples of individual sports? Wrestling, wheelchair fencing, taekwondo, cycling and table tennis. c. Which sport is example of team sports? Goalball.

3. Look at the following statements. Then do the activities in the notebook. “When you play basketball you feel much more confident [...].” (DANIEL, J. Basketball is my favorite sport. Teen Ink, 2010. Available at: <http://www.teenink.com/nonfiction/sports/article/74418/Basketball-ismy-Favorite-sport/>. Accessed on: Jan. 18, 2016.)

“Getting ready to go swimming takes just a few easy steps [...].” (WikiHow to do anything. Available at: <http://www.wikihow.com/Prepare-to-Go-swimming>. Accessed on: Jan. 18, 2016.)

“There are many people who begin to do Judo at a late age.” (Howick & St Heliers Judo Club. Available at: <http://howickjudo.com/classes/why-do-judo/>. Accessed on: Jan. 20, 2016.)

a. What are the sports mentioned in the sentences? Basketball, swimming, judo. b. What are the verbs used before these sports? Play, go, do. c. Words that go together, forming a fixed relationship, are called collocations / prepositions.

4. Solve the riddles below. Next, write the correct option in the notebook. Hint: it might be worth looking at the sentences of exercise 3 again. a. Generally, this verb is used for individual sports as well as fighting sports. • to play √ • to do b. Usually, this verb is used for team or collective sports. • to go √ • to play c. Normally, this verb is used for sports ending in -ing. √ • to go • to do

5. Draw the table below in the notebook and complete it with the sports we saw in exercise 1, page 40. Add one more sport that you know in each entrance. Verb

Sport

To do

taekwondo + resposta pessoal

To go

cycling, wheelchair fencing, wrestling + resposta pessoal

To play

goalball, rugby + resposta pessoal

6. What sport would you like to practice? Why? Write a sentence about it in the notebook, using the correct collocation, and share your answer with the class. Resposta pessoal.

SOUND BODY, SOUND MIND | UNIT 3

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ADVERBS OF MANNER 1. Look at the following statements. Then write in your notebook the correct option to complete the sentences. “Good teams play badly but still win.” (CAPOSTAGNO, Andy. Good teams play badly but still win. Mail & Guardian, Mar. 2011. Available at: <http://mg.co.za/article/2011-03-04-goodteams-play-badly-but-still-win>. Accessed on: Jan. 17, 2016.)

“Does your team start slowly or have pregame nerves?” (STAFFORD, Neil. Does your team start slowly or have pregame nerves? Junior Soccer Coach, Feb. 2006. Available at: <http://juniorsoccercoach. blogspot.com.br/>. Accessed on: Jan. 17, 2016.)

a. The words badly and slowly indicate • the moment that the actions occur. √ • the way that the actions occur. b. Badly and slowly are examples of √ • adverbs of manner. • nouns. c. Generally, these words come • before the action indicated by the verb. √ • after the action indicated by the verb.

2. What are the adverbs of manner in the sentences below? Write them down in your notebook. Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock.com

a. The fans of my soccer team are waiting nervously for the game on Sunday. b. My friend plays volleyball fantastically and he is a good student too. c. Everybody in the class has to train hard for the next school game. d. The Brazilian soccer players caught the opponent’s ball quickly. e. I always do very well on my Physical Education classes. f. My mother can swim, but very badly.

3. Look at the sentences in exercise 2. Which ones are true for you? In the notebook, rewrite the others to make them true, using the correct adverb of manner. Then, share your answers with the teacher and classmates. Respostas pessoais. Adjetivos e advérbios de modo. L A N G U A G E ASSISTANCE

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GRAMMAR LANGUAGE DISCOVERY 1. Look at the extract below and answer in the notebook. a. What text genre is it? An article. b. Where would you find it? On a website.

Editoria de arte

c. What is its main goal? To tell readers that children with asthma can play sports.

FOR PARENTS FOR KIDS FOR TEENS SEARCH HERE

CAN KIDS WITH ASTHMA PLAY SPORTS? You probably know that asthma can cause breathing problems. So can kids with asthma play sports? You bet they can! Being active and playing sports is an especially good idea if you have asthma. Why? Because it can help your lungs get stronger, so they work better. […] In some sports, you need to keep going for a long time. They include cycling, long-distance running, soccer, and basketball. Cold, dry air can also make symptoms worse, so cross-country skiing and ice hockey might be difficult for people with asthma. But that doesn't mean you can't play these sports if you really like them. In fact, many athletes with asthma have found that with the right training and medicine, they can do any sport they choose. […]

(BEN-JOSEPH, Elana Pearl. Can kids with asthma play sports? Kids health, Oct. 2010. Available at: <http://kidshealth.org/kid/asthma_basics/ schoolsports/asthma_sports.html>. Accessed on: Jan. 17, 2016.)

2. Now, read the text carefully and write the correct answers in your notebook. a. The words highlighted in bold on the text express √ • ability.

• obligation. b. In “Jordan can play tennis, but can’t ride a bike”, it’s possible replace the words in bold for √ • should / shouldn’t.

• is able to / isn’t able to. c. When we want to know if a person can swim, we say: √ • can you swim?

• you can swim? d. When I want to inform that I’m not able to play baseball, I say: • I mustn’t / I must not play baseball. √ • I can’t play / I cannot play baseball.

TRACK 11

PRONUNCIATION Weak and strong forms of can Listen and repeat. weak form

strong form

Can you?

/kǝnju/

Can you swim? Can you dance?

I can.

/

Yes, I can.

I can't.

/

/ /

No, I can’t.

SOUND BODY, SOUND MIND | UNIT 3

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3. Based on the pictures below, create sentences related to people’s abilities in your notebook. Take in account the sports and forms when indicated.

(soccer – negative form) Resposta possível: She can’t play soccer.

d.

Brenda Carson/Shutterstock.com

b.

(running – interrogative form) Resposta possível: Can they go running? joyfull/Shutterstock.com

(gymnastics – affirmative form) Resposta possível: He can do gymnastics. asife/Shutterstock.com

c.

tankist276/Shutterstock.com

a.

(surfing – affirmative form) Resposta possível: He can go surfing.

4. Draw the table below in your notebook and complete the first column with questions related to abilities and sports. Then, interview a classmate, writing down his / her answers. One is done for you, as example. Respostas pessoais. Questions

Answers Yes, I can. or No, I can’t.

Can you play basketball?

LANGUAGE DISCOVERY 1. Look at the poster. What is the option that best summarize it? Write it in the notebook. a. Don’t get nervous and always go ahead. b. Be serious and don’t give anything away.

Ezepov Dmitry/Shutterstock.com

5. What did you learn about your classmate? Write your findings in the notebook and share them with your class. Respostas pessoais.

(Available at: <https://br.pinterest.com/ pin/380976449698017235/>. Accessed on: Jan. 20, 2016.)

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2. In your opinion, can the sentence on the poster be related to sports? Write your ideas in the notebook, justifying your point of view, and share them with your class. Respostas pessoais. 3. Read the poster again and write in the notebook the options to complete the following sentences correctly. a. The verbs used express possibilities / advices. b. The first part of the sentence is affirmative / negative. c. The second part of the sentence is affirmative / negative. d. The subject of the sentence is they / the listener. e. This kind of sentence is called imperative / general.

om terstock.c

d.

Arcady/Shutterstock.com

b.

xtock/Shut

c.

Constantin Stanciu/Shutterstock.com

a.

Zsirosistvan/Shutterstock.com

4. We use the imperative to tell someone to do something. We also use it to tell people what to do or not to do. Considering it, see the posters below and write in the notebook the options in which the imperative is used.

TIP É preciso cuidado no uso de imperativos, especialmente em situações mais formais ou que exijam mais polidez. Observe como o uso da palavra please suaviza a ordem dada: Go fast. Go fast, please.

5. In this book, there is a lot of examples involving the use of imperative. Find out three of them and write them down in your notebook. Respostas possíveis: see the posters, write in the notebook, write your ideas. 6. Now it’s your turn! In pairs, create a poster that uses the imperative and brings some idea related to sports. Then, share it with the class. Respostas pessoais. SOUND BODY, SOUND MIND | UNIT 3

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INTEGRATED SKILLS READING 1. In your notebook, write the sentences you agree with.

Espera-se que os alunos só concordem com o item b.

a. Playing sports can help kids only keep fit. b. Playing sports can help kids keep fit and help them develop emotionally as well. c. Playing sports doesn’t help kids with their school life.

Habilidades de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto; HL17 – Fazer inferências a partir de informações implícitas em um texto.

2. Look at the text below and complete the following sentences in your notebook. an online article

a. This text is an example of b. It is available in the

local

.

section of the newspaper site.

3. Now read the text and answer the following questions in your notebook.

Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

a. Which idea(s) in exercise 1 is / are mentioned in the article? Justify your answer based on the text.

Editoria de arte

Option b. “Kids who play sports don’t just benefit physically. [...] they also do beer in school, develop personal discipline and learn how to get along with others.”

LOCAL

U.S.

WORLD

BUSINESS

SPORTS

ENTERTAINMENT

HEALTH

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

LIVING

TRAVEL

OPINION

WHY KIDS BENEFIT FROM PLAYING SPORTS September 22, 2010

Kids who play sports don't just benefit physically. Research shows they also do better in school, develop personal discipline and learn how to get along with others. "Sports are more than a game; they are a set of life lessons," says Paul Carccamo, head of Up2Us, a national coalition of community-based sports. What's even more interesting is that kids derive those benefits whether or not they excel at their chosen sport. […] – Mary Forgione / Los Angeles Times

(FORGIONE, Mary. Why kids benefit from playing sports. Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles, Sep. 2010. Available at: <http://articles.latimes.com/2010/ sep/22/news/la-heb-kidsports-20100922>. Accessed on: Jan. 17, 2016.)

b. Who or what do the words in bold refer to? • “Research shows they also do beer in school [...]” kids • “[...] they are a set of life lessons [...]” sports

Habilidade de leitura: HL13 – Estabelecer relações entre segmentos de um texto identificando recursos que contribuam para a sua continuidade (concordâncias nominal e gramatical, uso de elementos de coesão etc.).

• “[...] whether or not they excel at their chosen sport.” kids c. Which is the adverb of manner we can find in the text? Physically.

Habilidade de leitura: HL17 – Fazer inferências a partir de informações implícitas em um texto.

4. In the notebook, write T for true or F for false, considering the text above. F a. Only kids who are excellent players can benefit from playing sports. F b. Kids who play sports don't have physical benefit. V c. Kids who play sports know how to relate to others. V d. According to Paul Carccamo, sports are important for the life.

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LISTENING TRACK 12 1. Julie is a physical education student from Australia and she wants to do research on sports and social inclusion for a university project. She is interviewing Flavio, the person responsible for Esporte é Ação, a local community center. Which sports are offered at the community center? Listen to the conversation and write the correct options in the notebook. a. handball

b. capoeira

c. soccer

d. basketball

e. skateboarding

f. judo

g. volleyball

h. taekwondo

TRACK 12 2. Now listen again and write down the correct options in your notebook. a. When is the project start date? • 2016.

√ • 2006.

• 2003.

b. How many kids take part in the project? √ • More than 300.

• Less than 300.

• Exactly 300.

c. Who are the instructors or coaches? • High school students.

• School directors.

√ • Volunteers.

d. How does the project help the children? • It helps them improve their physical education

√ • It helps them do beer

at school.

• It encourages them to eat more fruits and

grades.

vegetables.

d.

Bárbara Lopes/ Agência O Globo

b.

Lambert/ullstein bild/ Getty Images

c.

Jenny Matthews/Alamy/ Glow Images

a.

Guilherme leporace/ Agência O Globo

3. In pairs, look at the pictures below and decide: which of them illustrates best the project Esporte é Ação? Write the alternative in the notebook and share it with the classmates and teacher, justifying your option.

VIEWPOINTS Converse com seu professor e colegas. Você conhece projetos como o Esporte é Ação que atuam no seu bairro ou cidade? Eles funcionam? Por quê? Que projeto você sugeriria em seu bairro para os adolescentes, os portadores de necessidades especiais e as pessoas da terceira idade?

SOUND BODY, SOUND MIND | UNIT 3

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SPEAKING Showing Interest 1. The sentences below were extracted from the conversation between Julie and Flavio about the project Esporte é Ação. Read them and, in the notebook, write the option that indicates the function of the highlighted expressions. “Wow, that's an impressive number." "Really? Who are the instructors or coaches?" “Are they?” "How interesting." a. Mostrar interesse no que está sendo dito na conversa. b. Demonstrar que a conversa chegou ao fim. c. Dar mais explicações sobre o assunto principal.

TRACK 13 2. See some examples in which people show interest. Listen and repeat. a. A: I’m really good at sports. B: Are you? b. A: Young people benefit a lot from sports. B: That's great. c. A: Playing sports can help kids at school. d. A: There are five sport projects in my community. B: Really?

Com stoc k/T hink stoc

k

B: How interesting!

3. Now it’s your turn to show interest in a conversation. For this, you will work with a classmate and follow the steps below: Respostas pessoais. 1. For the conversation, choose a topic related to sports that be interesting for both. 2. Select the expressions that will be used to show interest in the conversation. 3. In your notebook, create a conversation that be clear and objective. 4. Show the conversation to your teacher, doing any necessary changes. 5. Present the conversation to the class, considering the non-verbal communication cues. Don’t forget to get the feedback from your teacher and classmates. This way, you can improve your presentation next time.

GO BEYOND You can learn more about verbal and non-verbal communication and how to become a good listener at <http://ler.vc/n9isfx>. (Accessed on: Jan. 17, 2016.)

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Habilidades de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto; HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

1. Read the e-mail that a person who lives in Brazil received from the British university where he / she studies as a distance learner. Then, write down in your notebook the best options to complete the sentences below.

Subject:

a. The university wrote the e-mail to inform the student about √ • his / her examination.

• his / her fee payment. b. This e-mail is √ • formal.

• informal.

c. You can tell this because √ • the expression Dear and the polite

language used. • the subject of the message and the university address are given. Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

Focus on Genre

Editoria de arte

WRITING Overseas examination request

Dear Student I am writing to advise you that currently studying a course outside of the UK you will need to formally apply to take your examination at an overseas venue. I have attached a pdf copy of the Overseas Examination Request & Fee Payment Form for you complete and return by the deadline [...]. Please do not hesitate to contact either the Overseas Examinations Team [...] or Learner Support here at the Oxford Regional Centre [...] if you have an queries or wish to discuss this matter further. Regards J. Saxton Team Leader, Examinations Learner Support Learner Advisory Service The Open University in the South Foxcombe Hall, Boars Hill, Oxford, OX1 5HR Tel: 01865 736032 Fax: 01865 736288

2. Read the e-mail again and find examples of some of characteristics of an formal e-mail. Write the answers in your notebook.

www.open.ac.uk

a. No contractions. I am. b. Start and end appropriately. Dear / Regards.

Foxcombe Hall, Boars Hill, Oxford, OX1 5HR, Tel:

d. Contact. 01865 736032, Fax: 01865 736288. e. Polite language. Resposta possível: “Please do not

c. Identification. J. Saxton, Team Leader, Examinations

hesitate to contact [...]”.

Learner Support, Learner Advisory Service.

3. Let’s suppose you are the student who received the email from university. In your notebook, reply the email, thanking and asking for more information. Follow these steps: • Make notes of the information you’re going to include in your e-mail. • Write your first dra e compare it to university e-mail, answering these questions: – Does the message correspond to what you wanted to communicate? – Does it follow the characteristics of the genre “formal e-mail”? – Is the language appropriate for an institution? – Are there any improvements I can make to my e-mail? • Write your revised version. • Show this revised version to a classmate and take notes of his / her suggestions, making any necessary changes. • Write the final version and share it with your classmates.

SELF-EVALUATION Evaluate your e-mail before you send it. Compare it to the one on this page. How similar or different are they? Does the message correspond to what you wanted to communicate? Is the language appropriate? Are there any improvements you can make to your e-mail?

SOUND BODY, SOUND MIND | UNIT 3

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CAN’T PUT IT DOWN

“Today a reader, tomorrow a leader.” Margaret Fuller (1810-1850), literary critic, editor and journalist. (Reading Quotes. The Literacy Company. Available at: <http://www.readfaster.com/readingquotes.asp>. Accessed on: Jan. 27, 2016.)

UNIT 4

Creatas Images/Thinkstock

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THINK ABOUT IT

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

1. Answer the quiz and find out what kind of reader you are.

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

WHAT KIND OF READER ARE YOU? 1 If a friend recommends a book to you:

Now check your score.

➼ Mostly (a): You are a niche reader. You read quite a bit, but you stick for what you know and love. You already have Enough to read.

a. You may read it if it’s the type of thing you like. b. You will at least check it out. c. You will read it for sure. d. You will wait to see if others recommend it too. 2 What is your book collection like? a. Lots of series and full collections of single authors. b. A huge assortment of books, including some rare and old books. c. High quality – and you have read almost all of it. d. Pretty small. You don’t own many books. 3 If you had to spend the afternoon at a library, you would: a. Seek out your favorite author’s sections. b. Browse like a Crazy, do some reading, be in heaven! c. Grab a few books and start reading. d. Get a few magazines and make the best of it. 4 How do you find out about new books? a. Through author’s websites and browsing your favorite section. b. Everywhere and anywhere. You just pay attention to books. c. Bookstores and book reviews. d. Some are Pretty hard to avoid. 5 If someone asked you about the last good book you read, you would: a. Probably name the last book you read, period. b. Have a few to recommend. c. Know at least one book the person would love. d. Not remember a single book you’ve read recently.

➼ Mostly (b): You are an eclectic reader. You will read almost everything, and you think the best gems and discovered randomly. You are curious about books. ➼ Mostly (c): You are a voracious reader. You read constantly – often many books at once, piled up next to your bed ou couch. You are addicted to reading. ➼ Mostly (d): You are an occasional reader. Honestly, you’re not in to reading, especially when it comes to long novels. You don’t have the patience. You will read a book if people absolutely can’t stop talking about it.

(Available at: <https://www.blogthings.com/whatkindofreaderareyouquiz/>. Accessed on: Jan. 29, 2016.)

LEIA SAIBA MAIS NO MP

TALK ABOUT IT 2. What do you think about your score to the quiz? A: Do you agree with it or not?

B: Why? LEIA DICA NO MP

Talk to your teacher and your classmates about it.

VIEWPOINTS

LEIA SAIBA MAIS NO MP

Converse com seu professor e colegas. “Segundo os últimos dados levantados pelo Instituto Pró-Livro, o brasileiro ainda está longe de ser um leitor assíduo.” Você concorda com essa afirmação? Por quê? Em caso afirmativo, de que forma os jovens e adultos brasileiros poderiam ser incentivados a ler mais? De que forma ler mais pode ajudar você com suas tarefas escolares e também no seu dia a dia? (MARTINS, Fábio C. Como está a leitura do brasileiro? Folhetim Online, maio de 2012. Disponível em: <http://www. folhetimonline.com.br/2012/05/03/informativo-como-esta-a-leitura-do-brasileiro>. Acesso em: 28 jan. 2016.

CAN’T PUT IT DOWN | UNIT 4

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READING GET READY TO READ 1. Read these extracts. Which stories would you like to read more? Talk to your teacher and classmates. Respostas pessoais. 3. Biography

1. Fable

The Cat and the Birds A Cat heard that the Birds in an aviary were ailing. So he got himself up as a doctor, and, taking with him a set of the instruments proper to his profession, presented himself at the door, and inquired after the health of the Birds. "We shall do very well," they replied, without letting him in, "when we've seen the last of you." A villain may disguise himself, but he will not deceive the wise.

Chapter 1

African boyhood

Rolihlahla is Nelson Mandela's tribal name. He was born on July 18, 1918. [...] Nelson grew up in a valley surrounded by grasscovered hills. His village, Qunu, was located in the Transkei territory of South Africa. The youngest and only boy of four children, he and his father cared for the cattle and sheep, and Nelson helped when it was time to plow the fields [...]. 4. Novel

2. Play

The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark Act 3

Nelson Mandela: "No easy walk to freedom"

Dark Secrets

Scene 1 The same large room in the castle […] Hamlet [to himself]: To be or not to be? That’s the question. Is it better to suffer bad luck in silence? Or is it better to fight it? Neither of them matter. When we die, we sleep – nothing more. Sleep will end the heartache and the pain of life. It’s the best way to end our suffering.

Harry Potter and The Sorcerer’s Stone Chapter Seven […] "Welcome to Hogwarts," said Professor McGonagall. "The start-of-term banquet will begin shortly, but before you take your seats in the Great Hall, you will be sorted into your houses. The Sorting is a very important ceremony because, while you are here, your house will be something like your family within Hogwarts. […]

[…] [He notices Ophelia.] But here’s my fair Ophelia! […] Ophelia: My good Lord, how are you today? Ophelia: I have more letters from you. I’ve wanted to return them to you for a long time.

GLOSSARY

Az

ailing – doentes be sorted – ser separados, classificados cattle – gado deceive – enganar

Lord – Senhor plow – arar suffering – sofrimento surrounded – cercado

1. (The Project of Gutenberg EBook of Aesop’s Fables. Aesop’s Fables, 1912 Edition. Available at: <http://www.gutenberg.org/files/11339/11339h/11339-h.htm#THE_CAT_AND_THE_BIRDS>. Acessed on: Jan. 5 28, 2016.) 2. (RICE, Chris. Hamlet, William Shakespeare. London: Pearson Education ESL, 2006, p. 16.) 3. (DENENBERG, Barry. Nelson Mandela: "No easy walk to freedom". USA: Scholastic, 2014. p. 5.) LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP 4. (ROWLING, J. K. Harry Potter and The Sorcerer’s Stone. USA: Scholastic, 1999.)

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READING COMPREHENSION Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

Focus on Genre

1. Here are a few characteristics of the literary genres of the extracts you have seen on page 52. In your notebook, write down the name of each genre according to its characteristics. a. Some of its main elements are plot (sequence of events), seing (time and place of the story), characters and a theme (story’s main idea). novel b. The main characters are usually animals that possess the bad habit criticized in the story. fable c. It presents the facts about a person’s life by means of pictures, maps, photographs and any other type of historically relevant documentation. biography d. It is a story to be performed by actors on a stage. play

2. Read the extracts on page 52 again and answer the questions. In which story...

Habilidade de leitura: HL4 – Localizar informações relevantes no texto para completar uma tarefa ou solucionar um problema.

a. is somebody's life described? Nelson Mandela: "No easy walk to freedom". b. are there animals as characters? The Cat and the Birds. c. does a character welcome the other? Harry Poer and The Sorcerer's Stone. d. does the character reflect about life and death? The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark.

VOCABULARY TYPES OF NOVELS 1. Read the sentences and write down in your notebook the correct option. Do you like science fiction novels? Chris loves reading epic novels. Science fiction and epic are types of: a. fables.

b. poems.

.

c. novels.

TIP

LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

Novel: narração em prosa, de aventuras imaginárias ou reproduzidas a partir da realidade combinadas de modo a interessar o leitor. (Romance. Priberam. Available at: <http://www.priberam.pt/dlpo/romance>. Accessed on: Jan. 28, 2016.)

2. Match each type of novel to its correct definition, writing down the corresponding letters and numbers in the notebook. a-2, b-4, c-5, d-1, e-3 Types of novels a. an adventure novel

b. a detective novel

d. a regional novel

e. a science fiction novel

c. an epic novel

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1. A novel faithful to a particular geographic region and its people, including behavior, customs, speech, and history. 2. A novel where exciting events are more important than character development and sometimes theme. 3. A novel in which futuristic technology or otherwise altered scientific principles contribute in a significant way to the adventures. 4. A novel focusing on the solving of a crime, oen by a brilliant detective, and usually employing the elements of mystery and suspense. 5. An extended narrative poem recounting actions, travels, adventures, and heroic episodes and wrien in a high style [...]. (HARRIS, Robert A. A Glossary of Literary Terms. Virtual Salt, Feb. 2010. Available at: <http://www.virtualsalt.com/litterms.htm>. Accessed on: Jan. 28, 2016.)

3. In pairs, look at the cover of the books below. Then, write down in your notebook the types of novels they represent. If necessary, search more information about the titles in books, newspapers, magazines, or sites. c.

Editora Spectra

Editora Penguin Classics

b.

Editora Penguin Classics

a.

Epic novel.

e.

Adventure novel.

Detective novel.

f.

Editora Del Rey

Editora Nova Fronteira

Editora Simon Schuster

d.

Science fiction novel.

Regional novel.

Science fiction novel.

LEIA SAIBA MAIS E DICA NO MP

4. Have you ever read one or more books presented on previous activity? Which book would you like to read? Talk to your teacher and classmates about it. Respostas pessoais. 54

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ADJECTIVES TO DESCRIBE STORIES 1. Look at the following sentences and answer the questions in the notebook. 1. In my opinion, adventure novels are very exciting. 2. Bob doesn’t like predictable stories because they make him sleepy. a. In the sentence 1, which word describes adventure novels? Exciting. b. In the sentence 2, which type of story makes Bob feels sleepy? Predictable. c. Are these words adjectives or adverbs? Adjectives. Riccardo Mayer/Shutterstock.com

2. The sentences below bring some adjectives that can be used to describe books and other stories. Find out these adjectives and write them down in the notebook. Hint: the adjectives appear before a noun or after the verb to be. a. Predictable stories annoy me. b. Do you like romantic stories? c. What a dull story! I’m really bored. d. I think adventure novels are exciting. e. I like stories that are thought-provocative. f. Detective stories are so engaging I can’t put them down.

LEIA DICA NO MP

3. Now, read the sentences again and, considering the context, write down in your notebook: a. the adjectives that express a positive idea. engaging, exciting, thought-provocative b. the adjectives that express a negative ideia. dull, predictable c. the adjective that can be considered imparcial. romantic

4. Match the adjectives to their definition, writing in your notebook the corresponding letters and numbers. a-3, b-6, c-5, d-2, e-1, f-4 a. dull

1. relative to love

b. engaging

2. expected, unsurprising

c. exciting

3. tedious, uninteresting

d. predictable

4. lead to reflection

e. romantic

5. stimulating, moving

f. thought-provocative

6. atractive, pleasing

5. Now, it’s your turn! In your notebook, write a sentence describing the book or other story you have been reading. Then, share it with your class. Respostas pessoais.

MULTI-WORD VERBS RELATED TO READING 1. Look at the following sentences. Then, in the notebook, write the correct option. “You’re an avid reader. It’s hard for you to put any book down.” “I browse through the material looking for interesting information.” a. In the first sentence, what is the meaning of the expression put down? √ • Stop reading.

• Read in a slow way.

b. In the second sentence, what is the meaning of the expression browse through? • Read loudly and clearly.

√ • Read something, but selecting the most interesting parts. CAN’T PUT IT DOWN | UNIT 4

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c. In both sentences, the highlighted expressions are formed by √ • a verb + an adverb.

• a noun + an adverb.

• a verb + an adjective.

d. The name of this type of expression is √ • multi-word verbs.

• collocations.

• idioms.

2. Look at the sentences below, find the multi-word verbs and write them down in the notebook. a. Let’s browse through this magazine and decide if we want to buy it. b. Can you look up this word in the dictionary and tell us the meaning? c. This story is so exciting I can’t put it down! d. To prepare myself to the interview, I need to read up on Brazilian literature. e. You should read over the report before the meeting tomorrow.

3. Look at the scheme below, which brings the definition of some multi-word verbs related to reading. Then, in the notebook, match these definition to their meaning, considering the expressions from exercise 2. A: put down / B: read up on / C: browse through / D: read over / E: look up

A. Parar de ler.

E. Pesquisar o significado de uma palavra ou assunto.

B. Ler bastante sobre um assunto em diversos lugares. Multi-word verbs related to reading

C. Ler algo superficialmente, selecionando apenas alguns trechos.

D. Ler algo com bastante atenção.

GRAMMAR LANGUAGE DISCOVERY 1. Look at the text. Then, in the notebook, write down the correct answer for the questions. a. What text genre is it? • A biography.

• An interview.

√ • A FAQ section.

• On a flyer.

√ • On the internet.

b. Where can you find it? • In a book. c. What is it purpose? • To entertain readers.

• To collect information about someone’s life.

√ • To provide information for the users.

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LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Discover

Services

Visit

Education

Connect

About

Library of Congress > About the Library > Frequently Asked Questions

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS 1. Where are the books?

Books and other materials are shelved on some 838 miles of shelves in three buildings [...] and offsite storage facilities. 2. What is the Library of Congress?

The Library serves as the research arm of Congress and is recognized as the national library of the United States. [...] Open to those age 16 and older without charge or special permission, it is the world's largest library and a great resource to scholars and researchers. [...] 7. How does Congress use the Library?

Thousands of requests are received annually by the Congressional Research Service (CRS), one part of the Library that directly serves Congress. Staffed by specialists on a wide variety of topics, CRS supplies Congress with unbiased information on a wide variety of subjects. [...] [...] 10. When was the library built?

After its founding in 1800, the Library was housed in a boarding house and later in the Capitol. Its first permanent building – now called the Thomas Jefferson Building – was opened in 1897. [...]. 12. Who were the artists for the Jefferson Building?

More than 50 American sculptors, painters, and mosaic artists contributed their talents to the building. It was intended to be a showplace for the art and culture of the young Republic and remains one of the most admired buildings of the period. [...] (Frequently Asked Questions. Library of Congress. Available at: <hp://www.loc.gov/about/frequently-asked-questions/>. Accessed on: Jan. 30, 2016.)

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

GLOSSARY Az off-site storage – depósito externo

unbiased – precisa, exata

2. Now, read the text and write T (true) or F (false) for the sentences in your notebook. a. If you’re 16 years old or younger, you can visit the library without special permission. F b. The Library of Congress is located on the same address since its foundation, in 1897. F c. A lot of American artists contributed their talents to the Thomas Jefferson Building. T d. Experts in different areas work at library, providing information to Congress. T

GO BEYOND You can download classics of Brazilian literature for free at <http://ler.vc/9mucfo>. (Accessed on: Jan. 30, 2016.)

CAN’T PUT IT DOWN | UNIT 4

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3. Look at the text on page 57 again. The highlighted words are called interrogative pronouns and are used to formulate questions, known as Wh-Questions. Considering it, choose the best option to complete the sentence below and write it in your notebook. • We use interrogative pronouns when we want to a. ask and get information. b. know if one is able to do something.

4. Using the interrogative pronouns from the text on page 57, complete the sentences below in your notebook. a. We use b. We use

what

to ask about things.

where

to ask about place.

when

c. We use d. We use e. We use

to ask about time.

who

to ask about people.

when

to ask about methods.

5. Look at the mini dialogues below and answer the questions in your notebook.

b.

Brenda: Why do you read? Heather: Because I like to learn new things. • What is the interrogative pronoun of the sentence? Why • We use this interrogative pronoun to ask about motive / place. Anton Gvozdikov/Shutterstock.com

Gelner Tivadar/Shutterstock.com

a.

Caio: Which do you prefer, detective or historical novels? Mayra: I like both! • What is the interrogative pronoun of the sentence? Which • We use this interrogative pronoun to ask about methods / things.

TIP Quando queremos perguntar sobre “coisas”, podemos usar what ou which. A diferença é que, quando usamos which, geralmente estamos nos referindo a um número limitado de opções, ao passo que, quando utilizamos what, essa limitação não existe.

6. In your notebook, write questions for the answers using the prompts. a. A: (Where / buy / books) Where do you buy your books? B: I buy my books at a bookstore close to here. b. A: (Who / be / favorite writer) Who is your favorite writer? B: My favorite writer is Paul Auster. c. A: (What / be/ read) What are you reading? B: I’m reading Nelson Mandela’s biography. d. A: (When / usually / read) When do you usually read? B: I usually read on weekends.

Formação de perguntas.

LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE

P. 139

7. You’re going to interview a classmate in order to get more information about his / her reading habits. So, in your notebook, create five sentences, write down the answers and share your findings with the teacher and the class. Respostas pessoais. LEIA DICA NO MP

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INTEGRATED SKILLS READING

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

Habilidades de leitura: HL4 – Localizar informações relevantes no texto para completar uma tarefa ou solucionar um problema; HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

Focus on Genre

1. Read the dictionary entry and the blurb. Then, in your notebook, copy down the correct options to complete the sentences.

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Text 1

Blurb

Home

US

Tools

/blɜrb/ n [C]

Topic Areas

Definition

Our Mobile Dictionary Apps

a brief description of something, often intended to make it seem attractive when offered for sale:

Help

"The blurb on the back of the book says that ‘it will touch your heart’."

(Blurb. Cambridge Dictionaries Online. Available at: <http://dictionary.cambridge.org/pt/dicionario/ingles/blurb>. Accessed on: Jan. 26, 2016.)

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Editora Penguin Books

Text 2

A modern classic by Nobel Laureate J. M. Coetzee Waiting for the Barbarians centers on the crisis of the conscience of the Magistrate – a loyal servant of the Empire working in a tiny frontier town, doing his best to ignore an inevitable war with the “barbarians”. Aer he witnesses the cruel and unjust treatment of prisoners of war, he reconsiders his role in the regime and carries out a quixotic act of rebellion.

(Available at: <http://www.amazon.com/Waiting-Barbarians-Novel-Penguin-Ink/dp/0143116924/ref=sr_1_5?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1454856272& sr=1-5&keywords=j.+m+coetzee>. Accessed on: Jan. 28, 2016.)

a. The main purposes of book blurbs are / aren’t to get readers interested in the story and convince them to buy the book. b. Book blurbs usually present a short / long description of the plot and its main characters. c. Book blurbs don’t tend to use / tend to use aention-grabbing words and phrases. d. Text 2 is an example of a book blurb about Waiting for the Barbarians, a science fiction / an adventure novel by J. M. Coetzee.

IN CONTEXT J. M. Coetzee (1940-) was born in Cape Town, South Africa. His first novel, Dusklands, was published in 1974 and talks about the effects of colonization, as many others of his titles. In 2003, he won the Nobel Prize for Literature. LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP CAN’T PUT IT DOWN | UNIT 4

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LISTENING 1. How do you choose a book to read? In your notebook, write the options that are true for you and suggest another item. Then share your answers with your teacher and classmates.

Respostas pessoais.

a. the front cover

d. the blurb

b. the title

e. friends’ recommendations

c. the author

f. the kind of story Yuri/T hinks tock/ Getty Imag es

I usually choose a book by:

TRACK 14 2. Now listen to Eric and Grace, two university students in the USA talking while they wait for their class to start. What are they talking about? Write the correct option in your notebook. a. Their literature test on Friday. b. The kinds of stories they enjoy reading. c. Their new literature professor.

TRACK 14 3. Listen to the conversation again. Then, read the sentences below and, in your notebook, write G (Grace) or E (Eric).

IN CONTEXT

G a. is reading a novel by Jane Austen. E b. is reading The Black Cat. G c.

likes reading novels.

E d. prefers short stories.

4. Eric says: "I love reading short stories. I'm a read-it-all-atonce kind of person...". What kind of reader is he? Write the correct option in your notebook. a. A serious reader.

b. A selective reader.

c. An avid reader.

LEIA SAIBA MAIS NO MP

The Black Cat (1843) is a classical short story by the American poet, editor and literary critic Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849). It tells the enigmatic story of a man and his black cat, Pluto. Sense and Sensibility (1811) was the first published book by Jane Austen (1775-1817). It tells the life and loves of two sisters, Elinor and Marianne Dashwood.

VIEWPOINTS Converse com seu professor e colegas. Você se identificou mais com Grace ou Eric? Por quê?

SPEAKING TRACK 15 1. See some examples in which people express likes and dislikes. Listen and repeat. a. I’d rather read short stories than novels. b. She prefers reading to watching TV. c. I enjoy listening to music. d. We love romantic novels. e. I hate science fiction. f. I don't really like to read detective novels.

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George Doyle/Thinkstock/Getty Images

2. Look at sentences from activity 1 and answer the questions in the notebook. a. Which sentences express a positive feeling? c, d b. Which sentences express a negative feeling? e, f c. Which sentences express preference? a, b

3. Which of the sentences from activity 1 are true for you? And which of them are false? Write the answer in your notebook. Then, correct the false ones in a way they become true. Share your correction with the teacher and the class. Respostas pessoais.

4. Now it’s your turn to express likes and dislikes in a seminar about a book. For this, you will work in group and follow the steps below: 1. For the seminar, choose a book that everybody has read. 2. List the positive and negative points of the book according to the all members’ opinion. Remember: different opinions are welcome, because it can open our minds for new perspectives. So, it’s necessary to listen to the others and be respectful. 3. Create a seminar, expressing likes and dislikes according to the list forged by the group. Some important hints: • Express at least five likes and/or dislikes, using the words and expressions that we saw in activity 1. • Support your opinion, explaining the reason for like or dislike something. • Use illustrations and images. It will draw the audience’s aention. • The content must be clear and objective. 4. Show the seminar to your teacher, doing any necessary changes. 5. Present the seminar to the class. Remember: all the members should participate. Don’t forget to get the feedback from your teacher and classmates. This way, you can improve your seminar next time. Respostas pessoais.

GO BEYOND If you’re an avid reader, go to the site below and collect information on how to join a club book. eHow: <http://ler.vc/fkzc6x>. (Accessed on: Jan. 30, 2016.)

WRITING Focus on Genre

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

1. In the customer reviews below, two readers have given their opinion about the book Americanah, by the Nigerian Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie. They were published in an online bookstore. Read these opinions and write the true sentences in your notebook. a. Customer reviews usually contain readers’ questions and answers about the book. b. They usually show the date the reviewer’s opinion was published. c. They usually contain the reviewer’s rating. d. They usually give a brief description of the plot and its characters. e. They usually contain a title that summarizes the reviewer’s opinion of the story. CAN’T PUT IT DOWN | UNIT 4

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Editora Large Print Press

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“AMERICANAH WAS AN EXCELLENT READ!”

February 2, 2016

Americanah was an excellent read! I would recommend it for anyone who likes different perspectives or different ways of looking at life. Also an illuminating look at certain towns and cities in Africa for those of us who haven’t been there. Enjoy the story. [...] Hope to read more from Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie!

“COMPLEX”

December 7, 2015

Perhaps more complex than was needed. Too many characters to keep sorted out at times. Yet the story offers so many insights into the terrifying life of illegal immigration and the confusion and misunderstandings of cross-cultural life. That is the redeeming value. [...]

1. (Available at: <http://www.amazon.com/Americanah-Chimamanda-Ngozi-Adichie/product-reviews/0307455920/ref=cm_cr_pr_btm_link_2?ie=UT F8&showViewpoints=1&sortBy=recent&filterByStar=five_star&pageNumber=2>. Accessed on: Feb. 5, 2016.) 2. (Available at: <http://www.amazon.com/Americanah-Chimamanda-Ngozi-Adichie/product-reviews/0307455920/ref=cm_cr_pr_hist_3?ie=UTF8&s howViewpoints=1&sortBy=recent&filterByStar=three_star&pageNumber=1>. Accessed on: Feb. 5, 2016.)

2. Now it's your turn to write a customer review. In your notebook, write about a book you’ve read recently. Follow these steps: Respostas pessoais.

» Choose a book you’ve read. » Make notes of the information you’re going to include in your review. » Write your first dra and compare it to the online reviews, answering these questions: • Does the message correspond to what you wanted to communicate? • Does it follow the characteristics of the genre "customer review"? • Is the language apropriate for this type of genre? • Are there any improvements I can make to my review?

» Write your revised version. » Show it to your classmates. Take notes of their suggestions. » Show this revised version to your teacher and take notes of his / her suggestions. » Make any necessary changes. » Share your review with the class and, if possible, post it in an online bookstore.

GO BEYOND A movie about an English teacher who inspires his pupils through his poetry lessons: DEAD POETS SOCIETY (SOCIEDADE DOS POETAS MORTOS). Directed by: Peter Weir. USA: 1989.

SELF-EVALUATION Evaluate your review before you share and, possibly, publish it. Compare it to the one in activity 1. Did you write a title? Did you remember to use adjectives to describe the story and the characters?

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Autoavaliação Responda às perguntas do quadro a seguir em seu caderno para avaliar seu desempenho ao longo das unidades 3 e 4. = muito bom

= regular

= fraco

Sou capaz de...

Unidade

a. ler, ouvir e falar sobre assuntos relacionados a esportes olímpicos, paralímpicos e esportes em geral.

3

b. nomear esportes olímpicos e paralímpicos.

3

c. entender e usar Adverbs of Manner em contexto.

3

d. compreender e usar Collocations com do, play e go para falar de esportes.

3

e. entender o uso de can para falar sobre habilidades e usá-lo em contexto.

3

f. compreender e utilizar o modo imperativo para fazer pedidos, dar ordens e instruções.

3

g. ler e observar as características de um e-mail formal e escrever um e-mail semelhante.

3

h. ler, ouvir e falar sobre hábitos e gostos em geral.

4

i. ler e reconhecer as características dos gêneros biografia, fábula, romance e peça teatral.

4

j. nomear tipos de romance.

4

k. entender e usar adjetivos para dar opinião sobre histórias.

4

l. compreender e utilizar Multi-word Verbs relacionados à leitura.

4

m. compreender e usar Wh-Questions em contexto.

4

n. observar as características de uma resenha do leitor e escrever um texto semelhante.

4

Avaliação

Além desses conteúdos, o que mais você aprendeu? Escreva no caderno.

MELHORANDO SEU DESEMPENHO Refaça os exercícios das unidades 3 e 4. Esclareça suas dúvidas com o(a) professor(a). Ouça os áudios novamente. Ouça músicas em inglês. Releia os textos das unidades.

AUTOAVALIAÇÃO

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iStockphoto/Thinkstock

MAKING HISTORY UNIT 5

“No great man lives in vain. The history of the world is but the biography of great men.” Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881), a Scottish satirical writer, historian and teacher during the Victorian era. (Motivacional and Inspirational Quotes. Power Perfomance. Available at: <http://www. motivational-inspirational-corner.com/getquote. html?startrow=11&categoryid=151>. Accessed on: Feb. 9, 2016.) LEIA SAIBA MAIS NO MP

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THINK ABOUT IT

a. Mother Teresa of Calcutta

Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images

Pool/Getty Images

Richard Stonehouse/Getty Images

Tim Graham/Getty Images

1. Test your knowledge about these important historic figures. Match their pictures to the descriptions, writing down the corresponding letters and numbers in your notebook.

b. Malala Yousafzai

c. Barack Obama

d. Mahatma Gandhi

1. A Pakistani who became the youngest person to receive the Nobel Peace Prize. 2. A religious figure devoted to helping poor and sick people. 3. A pacifist Indian leader in the 1900s. 4. The first African-American president of the USA. a-2, b-1, c-4, d-3

LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

Habilidade de leitura: HL17 – Fazer inferências a partir de informações implícitas em um texto.

2. Now read their quotes. Then, in the notebook, write the name of the correct person and answer the questions. 1. “I want you to be concerned about your next door neighbor. Do you know your next door neighbor?” Mother Teresa. 2. “Let us remember: one book, one pen, one child, and one teacher can change the world.” Malala Yousafzai. 3. “Change will not come if we wait for some other person or some other time. We are the ones we've been waiting for. We are the change that we seek.” Barack Obama. 4. “The weak can never forgive. Forgiveness is the attribute of the strong.” Gandhi.

(Extracted from Search Quotes. Available at: <http://www.searchquotes.com/quotation/I_want_you_to_be_concerned_about_your_next_ door_neighbor._Do_you_know_your_next_door_neighbor%3F/180628>; Malala Yousafzai. Brainy Quote. Available at: <http://www.brainyquote. com/quotes/authors/m/malala_yousafzai.html>; Barack Obama Quotes. Notable Quotes. Available at: <http://www.notable-quotes.com/o/ obama_barack.html> and Mahatma Gandhi Quotes. Thinkexist.com. Available at: <http://thinkexist.com/quotation/the_weak_can_never_forgiveforgiveness_is_the/215848.html>. Accessed on: Feb. 9, 2016.)

a. Who mentions the importance of solidarity? Mother Teresa b. Who talks about forgiving other people’s mistakes? Mahatma Ghandi c. Who says we need to act to change things? Barack Obama d. Who says that education can change everything? Malala Yousafzai

TALK ABOUT IT 3. Consider the following questions: • Do you agree with these ideas or not? • Which idea will you carry with you throughout your life? Talk to your teacher and your classmates about them. MAKING HISTORY | UNIT 5

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READING

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

Habilidades de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto; HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

GET READY TO READ

1. Look at the pictures and the texts in exercise 2. Then, discuss the questions below with a classmate and write down your conclusions in the notebook. a. What texts genres are they? Articles. b. Where would you find them? On a website. c. In your opinion, who were these texts wrien for? Students doing a research project, researchers, etc. d. What are they about? Young people who have won a prize. LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

KidsRights (www.KidsRights.org)

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2. Read the texts more carefully and check your answer to letter d.

Habilidade de leitura: HL19 – Validar ou reformular hipóteses sobre o conteúdo do texto com base em indicadores contidos no texto.

2006 » Om Prakash Gurjar Winner of the International Children’s Peace Prize 2006 In 2006, Om Prakash Gurjar from India won the International Children’s Peace Prize. He received the prize at the age of 14 [...]. He was awarded the prize for his unceasing work to combat child labor and liberate child slaves in India. Om Prakash was liberated from slavery after having worked from his 5th until his 8th year under grueling circumstances. After his liberation Om Prakash started advocating and fighting for children’s rights to freedom and education. So far, he has helped 500 children to get a birth certificate, which in India entitled a child to free education.

Rajesh Jantilal/AFP/Getty Images

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(The International Children’s Peace Prize. Available at: <http://childrenspeaceprize.org/Winners/2006>. Accessed on: Feb. 10, 2016.)

2005 » Nkosi Johnson Winner of the International Children’s Peace Prize 2005 The first Children’s Peace Prize in 2005 was dedicated posthumously to Nkosi Johnson for his work and dedication to offer a more dignified existence to South African children and their mothers with HIV and Aids. [...] In his famous speech during the 13th International Aids Conference in Durban in 2001, he asked the world to accept and love children and adults with HIV/Aids just like any other human being, because as he said: “We can walk, we can talk, we have needs just like everyone else – don't be afraid of us – we are all the same”.

(The International Children’s Peace Prize. Available at: <http://childrenspeaceprize.org/Winners/2005>. Accessed on: Feb. 10, 2016.)

GLOSSARY Az child labor – trabalho infantil entitled – autoriza, dá o direito grueling – penoso, extenuante prize – prêmio posthumously – postumamente, após a morte slavery – escravidão speeches – discursos unceasing – incessante

TIP O inglês americano e o inglês britânico usam grafias diferentes para algumas palavras, tais como trabalho e vizinho. Inglês americano: Inglês britânico: labor labour neighbor neighbour LEIA SAIBA MAIS NO MP

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Habilidade de leitura: HL7 – Identificar a tese principal ou o conflito central de um texto.

READING COMPREHENSION

1. Read the extracts again. Then write down in the notebook the alternative that best summarizes their main idea. The extracts are about young people: a. overcame a serious illness

c. fought against child labor

b. fought for social causes

d. died of AIDS

Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

2. Read the texts again and, in your notebook, write OPG (Om Prakash Gurjar) or NJ (Nkosi Johnson). etty Ima ges Raje sh Jan tilal /AF P/G

a. Gave a speech at a conference in Durban. NJ b. Thinks education is a basic right for every child. OPG

d. Fought against AIDS. OPG e. Won a prize in 2005. NJ

TIP Para localizar informações objetivas, não é necessário ler o texto tentando compreender palavra por palavra. Experimente buscar palavras-chave que o ajudem a localizar as informações das quais necessita.

KidsR ights (www .KidsR ights .org)

c. Won a prize in 2006. OPG

nkosi johnson om pr ak as h gu rj ar

Sugestões de respostas: Text 1: international, combat, education, circumstances. Text 2: dedicated, conference, human, famous.

Habilidade de leitura: HL16 – Inferir o sentido de palavras ou expressões desconhecidas do texto por meio de comparação com a língua materna, análise do contexto e uso de conhecimento morfológico.

3. Write in the notebook examples of cognate words from each one of the extracts on page 66. 4. In the notebook, write down the alternative that best explains Nkosi’s opinion about children and adults with HIV / AIDS: "Don't be afraid of us – we are all the same". a. They deserve aention just like other people.

Habilidade de leitura: HL17 – Fazer inferências a partir de informações implícitas em um texto.

b. They are different from other people. c. With HIV / AIDS don’t get medical treatment.

VIEWPOINTS

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

Converse com seu professor e colegas. Os textos que você leu falam sobre pessoas que chamaram a atenção do mundo para questões como o direito à educação e à saúde, assim como o combate ao trabalho escravo. Você acha que elas fizeram história? Por quê? Em sua opinião, questões como essas são problemas no Brasil? Se sim, de que forma esses problemas afetam o seu dia a dia? Como instituições públicas, instituições privadas e a sociedade em geral poderiam contribuir para solucionar esses problemas?

MAKING HISTORY | UNIT 5

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VOCABULARY PREPOSITIONS OF TIME 1. Look at these sentences. Then, in the notebook, write the correct option. The opening ceremony started at 10 a.m. New Zealand time. The Brazilian inventor Santos Dumont was born on July 20, 1873. “In 2006, Om Prakash Gurjar from India won the International Children’s Peace Prize.” a. At, on, in come respectively before: • a specific day, a year, an hour.

√ • an hour, a specific day, a year.

b. At, on, in are preposition of: √ • time.

• place.

2. Look at these sentences and, in the notebook, note down the prepositions of time. a. At 13, Anne Frank went into hiding with her family. b. The revolution began in March, 1899. c. The country became independent on New Year’s Day. d. I always go skiing in winter. e. The famous scientist was born in the 18th century. f. My friends and I usually go to the movies on Saturday. g. They usually have a quick breakfast in the morning. h. My birthday is on May, 16.

TIP Inglês americano: on the weekend

Inglês britânico: at the weekend

3. In the notebook, write T (true) or F (false) for the statements below. Hint: look again at the sentences in activities 1 and 2. F a. We use the preposition at only to indicate hour. T b. We use the preposition in to indicate the season. F c. We use the preposition on only to indicate specific datas. T d. We use the preposition on to indicate specific datas and days of week/month. T e. We use the preposition in to indicate months, years, periods of the day, and centuries.

c.

d.

Romiana Lee/Shutterstock.com

b.

Jaroslaw Pawlak/Shutterstock.com

Brian A Jackson/Shutterstock.com

a.

Bohbeh/Shutterstock.com

4. Using the prepositions of time and the pictures below, create sentences in your notebook. Then, share these sentences with your teacher and classmates. Respostas pessoais.

LEIA DICA NO MP

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ADVERBS OF TIME AND TIME EXPRESSIONS 1. Look at the sentences below and answer the questions in the notebook. Thomas Jefferson was the third president of the United States, serving from 1801 to 1809. Leonardo da Vinci was born more than 500 years ago in a town called Vinci, in Italy. a. In which period did Thomas Jefferson serve as president of the USA? From 1801 to 1809. b. How long was Leonardo da Vinci born? More than 500 years ago. c. In the sentences, which expressions are used to talk about the time? From... to / Ago

2. Read the following sentences. Then, match the highlighted time expressions to their meaning, writing down in the notebook the corresponding letters and numbers. a. Today is the 6th. Yesterday was the 5th.

1. Há pouco tempo

b. Today is Friday. The day before yesterday was Wednesday.

2. Ontem

c. The plane trip lasted 60 minutes, from 8pm to 9pm.

3. Anteontem

d. My grandfather was born a long time ago, in 1932.

4. Semana passada

e. The movie started not long ago. Only 3 minutes ago.

5. Há muito tempo

f. Our city celebrate its 100th birthday last week.

6. De... Até

a-2, b-3, c-6, d-5, e-1, f-4

3. Read the sentences in activity 2 again. Next, answer the questions below in the notebook. a. Which word or expression talks about the duration of a event in the past? From... to b. Which words or expressions talk that something happened in the past? Yesterday / The day before yesterday / A long time ago / Not long ago / Last

4. In the notebook, complete the following sentences in a way they become true for you. Use the words or expressions of time from activitiy 2. a. I went to the movies b. I went to the beach

Respostas pessoais.

. .

c. I went to my favorite restaurant

.

d. I went to my best friend’s house

.

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

Jonny Hawkins (www.CartoonStock.com)

5. Read the cartoon and write down the correct options in the notebook.

a. How does Man 2 feel? • Happy. √ • Annoyed.

Habilidades de leitura: HL17 – Fazer inferências a partir de informações implícitas em um texto; HL22 – Identificar efeitos de ironia ou humor em textos variados.

b. He feels this way because the Man 1 √ • asked him the same question yesterday.

Man 1

Man 2

• is reading the newspaper. c. In Man 2’s opinion, • history is repeating itself. √ • Man 1 is repeating himself.

d. This is funny because Man 2 thinks • Man 1 is impatient. √ • history isn’t repetitive, but Man 1 is. (Available at: <http://www.cartoonstock.com/cartoonview. asp?catref=jhan1062>. Accessed on: Apr. 4, 2013.)

MAKING HISTORY | UNIT 5

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GRAMMAR LANGUAGE DISCOVERY

/G et ty Sa nt i Vi sa lli

Im ag es

1. Look at the sentences below. Then, in your notebook, write down the correct options to complete them.

I. “Martin Luther King Jr. was a Baptist minister and social activist, who led the Civil Rights Movement in the United States [...].”

II. “The Beatles were a legendary rock group [...] formed in Liverpool, England, in 1960.”

To m Wa rga ck i/G ett y

Im ag es

(Martin Luther King Jr. Bio. Available at: <http://www.biography.com/ people/groups/the-beatles>. Accessed on: Feb. 15, 2016.)

Mi ch ae l We bb /G ett y Im ag es

(Martin Luther King Jr. Bio. Available at: <http://www.biography.com/people/ martin-luther-king-jr-9365086>. Accessed on: Feb. 15, 2016.)

III. “She [Diana, Princess of Wales] wasn’t a teacher, but a part-time assistant at a kindergarten and she also looked after an American baby boy.” (Princess of Wales – Diana. Encyclopedia of World Biography. Available at: <http://www.notablebiographies.com/De-Du/Diana-Princess-of-Wales.html>. Accessed on: Feb. 15, 2016.)

a. The verbs highlighted in bold refer to events or people in the past / present. This type of structure is called Simple Present / Simple Past with verb to be. b. In the sentence I, the subject Martin Luther King Jr. can be replaced by the pronoun he / they and the highlighted verb is in singular / plural. c. In the sentence II, the subject The Beatles can be replaced by the pronoun he / they and the highlighted verb is in singular / plural. d. The present form of the verb was is are / is, and the present form of verb were is are / is. e. To create the negative sentence III in the Simple Past with verb to be, we use the word not (usually in an abbreviated form) before / after the verb.

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2. How much information about people who made history do you have? In the notebook, write down the correct options to complete the sentences. Then, share your answers with the class. es Ge tty Im ag

a. Albert Einstein was / wasn’t an American physicist. b. Renato Russo was / wasn’t the lead singer of Legião Urbana. c. Michael Jackson and Elvis Presley were / weren’t international pop stars. d. Ayrton Senna were / wasn’t a politician. He was / weren’t a race car driver. e. Juscelino Kubitschek was / were the president

Elvis Presley Im ag es

of Brazil from 1956 to 1961. f. The Mamonas Assassinas weren’t / wasn’t

Sa nt i Vi sa lli /G et ty

actors. They were / was a pop band. LEIA DICA NO MP

Michael Jackson

TIP

Muitas vezes, o verbo to be no Simple Past vem acompanhado de um advérbio ou uma expressão de tempo, como nas frases: “Thomas Jefferson was the third president of the United States, serving from 1801 to 1809” e “Leonardo da Vinci was born more than 500 years ago”, que vimos anteriormente.

3. Put the words in order to form questions. Then, ask the questions to a classmate, writing down his / her answers, as in the example. Use the notebook. a. at home / were / you / last night / ? Were you at home last night?  question Yes, he/she was. OR No, he/she wasn’t.  answer b. at school / were / you / yesterday / ? Were you at school yesterday?

c. your parents / at the mall / last weekend / were / ? Were your parentes at the mall last weekend?

d. was / your best friend / the day before yesterday / at cinema / ? Was your best friend at cinema the day before yesterday?

LANGUAGE DISCOVERY Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

Focus on Genre

1. Look at the image and the extract in the following page. Then, write down in the notebook the answer for the questions. a. This extract is an example of √ • a diary.

b. It was published in √ • a book.

• a poem.

• a newspaper.

• an article.

• an online site. MAKING HISTORY | UNIT 5

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2. What are the characteristics of a diary? In the notebook, write the options that, in your opinion, are correct. a. They have a moral. b. They are narrated in the first person. c. They used to be wrien in past tense. d. They contain information organized by date. e. They narrate routine events in the author’s life.

Editora Doubleday

3. Now, read carefully the following extract from Anne Frank: the Diary of a Young Girl and check your answer in activity 2. […] SUNDAY, 14 JUNE 1942 I’ll begin from the moment I got you, the moment I saw you lying on the table among my other birthday presents. (I went along when you were bought, but that doesn’t count.) On Friday, 12 June, I was awake at six o’ clock, which isn’t surprising, since it was my birthday. But I’m not allowed to get up at that hour, so I had to control my curiosity until a quarter to seven. When I couldn’t wait any longer, I went to the dining-room, where Moortje (the cat) welcomed me by rubbing against my legs.

MONDAY, 15 JUNE 1942 I had my birthday party on Sunday afternoon. The Rin Tin Tin film was a big hit with my classmates. I got two brooches, a bookmark and two books. I’ll start by saying a few things about my school and my class, beginning with the other children. […] (FRANK, Anne. Anne Frank: the Diary of a Young Girl. The Definitive Edition. Penguin Books, 2011, p. 1-2.)

IN CONTEXT Annelies Marie Frank (1929-1945) was the most famous Jewish victim of the Holocaust because of the diary she wrote while her family was hidden trying to escape from the Nazis.

4. In the extract above, there are some verbs highlighted in bold. Write in your notebook: these verbs are in... • Simple Future.

√ • Simple Past.

• Simple Present.

5. We use Simple Past to describe situations or actions that started and ended in the past, in a determined period of time. Considering it, look at the timeline below and write in the notebook the option that best represents this verb tense. a.

X Past

Present

Future

Past

Present

Future

b.

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6. In the extract on previous page, the verbs highlighted in bold are in Simple Past tense. Considering this, draw the table below in the notebook and complete it, classifying the verbs. Verb ending in -ed (regular verb)

Verb to be

were, was

Other verbs (irregular verbs) got, saw, went, had, couldn’t

welcomed

7. Look at the sentences below and your previous findings regarding Simple Past. Then, write T (true) or F (false) for the following statements in your notebook. • Albert Einstein developed the theory of Relativity in the 1900s. • For Americans, Santos Dumont didn’t build the first airplane. • Mario Vargas Llosa won the Nobel Literature Prize in 2010. • Did Guglielmo Marconi invent the radio? a. The regular verbs are formed by adding -ed to the base form of the verbs. T b. For negative sentences, we use subject + did + not + verb ending in -ed. F c. For interrogative sentences, we did + subject + verb in the basic form. T d. The irregular verbs assume different forms, such as win  won. T

TIP Observe estas regras ortográficas para os verbos regulares: • terminados em e  love – loved. • terminados em uma consoante + y  cry – cried. • terminados em consoante + vogal + consoante  stop – stopped.

TIP Para exemplos de verbos irregulares, consulte a lista nas páginas 144 e 145 de seu livro.

8. In the notebook, write sentences in the affirmative (+), negative (-) or interrogative (?) form of Simple Past. Follow the example. a. Oscar Niemeyer / design / Brasília. (+) Oscar Niemeyer designed Brasília. b. My grandfather / fight / in World War II. (-) My grandfather didn’t fight in World War II. c. Martin Cooper / create / cell phone. (?) Did Martin Cooper create the cell phone? d. Alexander Fleming / discover / penicillin in 1928. (+) Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin in 1928. e. Mark Zuckerberg / found / Facebook. (?) Did Mark Zuckerberg found Facebook? f. Steve Jobs / invent / the computer. (-) Steve Jobs didn’t invent the computer.

TRACK 16

PRONUNCIATION -ed in past tense ending Listen and repeat. // stopped, liked, danced

/ / stayed, moved, played

/ / wanted, visited, decided

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INTEGRATED SKILLS READING

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

1. Look at the pictures and text. Then, in the notebook, write the alternatives which are true. Habilidades de leitura: HL4 – Localizar informações relevantes no texto para completar uma tarefa ou solucionar um problema; HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

a. The texts are about important Brazilian people. b. They are taken from a book. c. They are about Nobel Prize winners.

Editoria de arte

d. They give a brief description of two important historic figures.

HISTORY Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images

HISTORIC FIGURES

ON THIS DAY

ANCIENT HISTORY

WORLD HISTORY

ABOUT US

Marie Curie November Born: 7, 1867 Warsaw, Poland 1934 Died: July 4, Sancellemoz, France The Polish-born French physicist Marie Curie invented the term “radioactivity” and discovered two elements, radium and polonium. Curie was not only the first woman to win the Nobel Prize in Physics, but, when she won the Nobel Prize in chemistry, she became the first person ever to win the Nobel Prize twice.

Andrew Burton/Getty Images

Kofi Atta Annan Born: April 8, 1938 Ghana Kumasi,

seventh

International diplomat Kofi Annan of Ghana is the secretary-general of the United Nations (UN), the multinational organization created to, among other things, maintain world peace. He is the first black African to head that organization and was awarded the Nobel [Peace] Prize.

Marie Curie. Encyclopedia of World Biography. Available at: <http://www.notablebiographies.com/Co-Da/Curie-Marie.html> and Kofi Annan. Encyclopedia of World Biography. Available at: <http://www.notablebiographies.com/An-Ba/Annan-Kofi.html>. Accessed on: Feb. 22, 2016.

2. Read the texts again and answer the questions in your notebook. a. Where was Marie Curie born? In Poland.

Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

b. When was Kofi Annan born? On April 8, 1938. c. What do Marie Curie and Kofi Annan have in common? Both of them won Nobel Prizes for their outstanding achievements.

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LISTENING TRACK 17 1. You’re going to listen to a radio show. What kind of radio show is it? Listen to the first part and write the correct option in the notebook. a. An interview show

b. A news program

c. A quiz show

TRACK 17 2. Matthew is a South African student taking part in a radio program and he has to answer questions about important people in history. Listen to the first part again and write down the correct options in your notebook. √ • Four.

• Five. • Three. b. What's the prize for the winner? • A trip abroad.

iStoc kpho to/Th inksto ck

a. How many questions are there on the show?

√ • A university scholarship.

• A notebook. c. What happens if Matthew gives one wrong answer? √ • He'll be out of the game.

• He'll have one more chance to continue playing. • He'll go back to the first part of the game.

TRACK 18 3. Now, listen to the whole radio show. Then, in the notebook, write down the information to complete Marie Curie and Kofi Annan's texts on page 74. 4. The show hostess asked Matthew one last question about one of the historic figures we saw on page 74. What question do you think she asked him? Write it in your notebook. Sugestões de resposta: 1. When was Kofi Annan born? / 2. Why was he awarded a Nobel Peace Prize? / 3. Where is Marie Curie from?

VIEWPOINTS Converse com seu professor e colegas. Sobre qual dessas personalidades históricas você já havia lido ou ouvido falar? Pelas informações que você leu, acha que elas realmente ficarão na história? Por quê? Que personalidades, em sua opinião, contribuíram para fazer a história do país e/ou do mundo? Você conhece alguém que tenha ajudado a construir a história de sua escola ou de sua comunidade? De que forma essa pessoa contribuiu?

GO BEYOND You can learn more about the Nobel Prize at <http://ler.vc/a3246v>. (Accessed on: Feb. 20, 2016.)

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SPEAKING Saying Years and Dates Have a look at the way we say years and dates in English:

TIP

Years We normally say full years like this: 1800 (eighteen hundred) 1900 (nineteen hundred) 2000 (two thousand)

Em inglês britânico, costuma-se falar datas da seguinte maneira:

In the case of other dates we usually separate the number in two parts: 1803 (eighteen hundred and three / eighteen oh three) 1972 (nineteen seventy-two) 2009 (two thousand nine) 2012 (two thousand twelve / twenty twelve)

3rd March, 2011 (the third of March, two thousand eleven) 20th January, 1968 (the twentieth of January, nineteen sixty-eight)

Dates March 15, 2011 (March fifteenth, two thousand eleven) January 25, 1968 (January twenty-fifth, nineteen sixty-eight)

LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE

P. 140

Numerais ordinais e cardinais.

TRACK 19 1. Listen and repeat the years and dates in the box. 2. Which year brings you good memories? Why? Share your experience with your teacher and classmates. TRACK 20 3. See some examples in which people say years and dates. Listen and repeat. a. Obama won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2009.

b. Avatar won three Oscars in March 2009.

c. Mahew was born on May 4, 1997.

LEIA DICA NO MP

4. Now it’s your turn to say years and dates in a class quiz. For this, you will work in group and follow the steps below: Respostas pessoais. 1. As you have to prepare four questions, choose four different historic figures. • You can use information about important people in this unity or any other famous people you know. 2. Create the questions considering that the answers must be related to years and dates. See some examples: • When did Om Prakash Gurjar win the Children’s Peace Prize? In 2006. • When did Alexander Fleming discover the penicillin? In 1928. • When was Santos Dumont born? In 1873. 3. Check the accuracy of the information in one more source at least. Remember: it’s important to use reliable newspapers, magazines, books, and sites as source. 4. Show the questions to your teacher, doing any necessary changes. 5. Play the game following your teacher’s instruction. Remember: all the members of the group should participate.

HINT Playing a game It’s my turn / It’s your turn. That’s correct. Sorry, try again. Sorry, you lost! Congrats, you won! LEIA DICA NO MP

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WRITING

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

Focus on Genre

1. Read the following extract and answer the questions in your notebook. a. What text genre is it? A biography. b. Where would it be found? On a website. c. What is its main purpose? To tell readers about Carlos Chagas’ life. d. Who are its potential readers? Students doing research on famous scientists and researchers. e. Where can the user find more details about Carlos Chagas’ research on malaria? He / She can click on the “Fighting malaria – read more” buon.

LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

Biography Online Home

»

Names A - Z

»

Illustrated timelines

Carlos Chagas

»

Videos

»

Podcasts

»

About us Acervo da Casa de Oswaldo Cruz

Editoria de arte

2. Look at the extract. Then, in the notebook, number the pieces of information based on the order Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto. they are presented in the biography.

Carlos Chagas Carlos Chagas was born on 9 July 1878 [...] close to the City of Oliveira in the interior of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. [...] In 1907, he was requested to investigate and control a Malaria outbreak in Lassance, Minas Gerais. [...] Chagas was, at the age of 28, a Research Assistant at the Institute of Manguinhos and was studying a new flagellate parasite isolated from triatomine insects captured in the State of Minas Gerais. [...] At the age of 33 Chagas had completed his discoveries and published the scientific articles that gave him world recognition and a deserved high place in medical history. [...] Carlos Chagas was a laboratory researcher, a clinician and a health administrator. [He died in 1934, in Rio de Janeiro]. Early life read more » | Fighting malaria read more » | Late career read more » (Carlos Chagas. Pubmed. Available at: <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19895782>. Accessed on: Feb. 22, 2016.)

• Where and when he was born. 1

• How he changed history. 2

• Where and when he died. 3

3. Now it's your turn to write a short biography about an important person in your city or country. In the notebook, write a short paragraph about this person.

» » » » » » »

Collect information about him / her. Write the first dra of your text and compare it to Chagas’ biography extract. Show it to your classmates. Take notes of their suggestions. Show the revised version to your teacher and take notes of her / his suggestions. Make any necessary changes, copying down the revisited text in a sheet of paper. If possible, add a picture of the person. Set up a classroom exhibition of your biography.

SELF-EVALUATION Evaluate your biography before you share it in your class. Compare it to the one in activity 2. Did you include relevant information? Is the information clear and well organized?

LEIA SUGESTÃO INTERDISCIPLINAR NO MP

GO BEYOND A site where you can find information about important people in the 20th century: <http:// ler.vc/zgjv7g>. (Accessed on: Feb. 22, 2016.).

MAKING HISTORY | UNIT 5

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iStockphoto/Thinkstock

THINK FORWARD UNIT 6

“The future depends on what you do today.” Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948), pacifist Indian leader who played a major role in the independence of India. (Quotes About Future. Good reads. Available at: <http://www.goodreads.com/quotes/tag/ future?page=1>. Accessed on: Feb. 22, 2016.)

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LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

THINK ABOUT IT

Habilidades de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto; HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros; HL7 – Identificar a tese principal ou o conflito central de um texto; HL17– Fazer inferências a partir de informações implícitas em um texto.

Editoria de arte

1. Read the text. Then in the notebook, write T (true) or F (false) correcting the wrong statements.

Now is forever

just building up our day,

[...]

now and forever.

the past is all that’s gone,

[...]

the future is yet to come.

keep your mind on that’s here today.

this moment is all our own.

now and forever,

we should live this way,

build the future now. Rachell Dear

(DEAR, Rachell. Now is Forever. Available at: <http://www.poemhunter.com/poems/future/page-1/2008960/>. Accessed on: Apr. 9, 2016.)

a. This text is an example of a fable. F It’s an example of a poem. b. It has been published on a newspaper. F It has been published on a site. c. It is about the future. T d. The author is unknown. F The author is Rachell Dear. e. The poem doesn't have rhymes. T

Habilidade de leitura: HL16 – Inferir o sentido de palavras ou expressões desconhecidas do texto por meio de comparação com a língua materna, análise do contexto e uso de conhecimento morfológico.

2. Read the highlighted words in the poem and match them to their translations, writing down in the notebook the corresponding letters and numbers. a-4, b-3, c-2, d-1 a. build (v.)

1. nós

b. mind (n.)

2. agora

c. now (adv.)

3. mente

d. we (pron.)

4. construir

Habilidade de leitura: HL7 – Identificar a tese principal ou o conflito central de um texto.

3. Read the quote on page 78 again and compare it to the poem. Write the correct option in the notebook. √ a. The quote and the poem say we’re responsible for our future.

b. The poem and the quote say that the future doesn't belong to us.

4. Did you enjoy reading this poem? Talk to your teacher and classmates.

VIEWPOINTS

Respostas pessoais.

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

Converse com seu professor e colegas. Você concorda com a opinião do eu lírico do poema? Assim como ele, você acredita que as atitudes que tomamos hoje podem, de alguma maneira, influenciar nosso futuro? Justifique seu ponto de vista dando exemplos relacionados ao seu dia a dia, tais como sua convivência com familiares e amigos, seus afazeres escolares e sua futura escolha profissional. LEIA DICA NO MP THINK FORWARD | UNIT 6

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READING GET READY TO READ 1. Read the online forum and write the correct option in the notebook.

Habilidade de leitura: HL18 – Selecionar um título ou legenda apropriada para um texto.

Which question did the online forum ask? a. What are your plans for the future?

b. What will life be like in the future?

2. Look at the topics below. Which of them do you expect to find in a discussion about the future? Write your options in the notebook. a. Robots.

c. Job.

e. Cars.

g. Environment.

b. Cell phones.

d. Technology.

f. Space travels.

h. Energy.

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3. Now, read the text and check your answers for activity 2.

HOME

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REGISTER

FORUM RULES

FAQ

Teen Forums – Teen Chat, Teen Advice >> World issues Forums >> The Future Discussion *Prediction* Page 1 of 10

POST REPLY Jonny_Anonymous Date joined: Aug. 2010 Status: online

1

2

3

4

>

Last >>

What do you think life will be like in the year 2050/60? Make some predictions. Here are mine: • Humans will have landed on Mars and will be preparing to colonize the upper atmosphere of Venus. [...] • Every house will have a personal 3D printer.

QUOTE

Jupiterimages/Thinkstock Mortein Date joined: Oct. 2009 Status: offline

• Most jobs will be performed by robots and AI, and there will not enough new jobs for everyone, so most countries will have some form of basic income for every citizen. [...] • Energy will come mostly from clean sources [...]. • Nanobots will keep us healthy from the inside of our body.

QUOTE

iStockphoto/Thinkstock JugJugBanks Date joined: Dec. 2014 Status: offline

• 50% of the species we have now will be extinct. [...] • 90% of the Great Barrier Reef will be dead. QUOTE

iStockphoto/Thinkstock Cable_Extreme Date joined: Oct. 2012 Status: online

Not much will change: better phones, better cars, useless gizmos etc. [...] QUOTE

Jupiterimages/Thinkstock

(Comic Vine. Available at: <http://comicvine.gamespot.com/forums/off-topic-5/what-will-life-be-like-in-the-future-predictions-1635043/?messageId =13692945&page=2>. Accessed on: Feb. 24, 2016.)

GLOSSARY Az AI (artificial intelligence) – IA (inteligência artificial) gizmo – dispositivo eletrônico moderno Great Barrier Reef – Grande Barreira de Corais (Austrália)

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income – renda landed – aterrissado useless – inútil

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Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

READING COMPREHENSION

1. Read the online forum again. Who defends the ideas below? Write their nicknames in the notebook. a. Very small robots will keep us healthy. Mortein b. The technology will change the job market. Mortein c. The environment will be seriously damaged. JugJugBanks d. The humanity will have conquered the space. Jonny_Anonymous e. The energy will be provided from clean sources. Mortein f. The future will not be different from the present. Cable_Extreme

2. Read the online forum one more time and write the answers in the notebook.

Habilidade de leitura: HL17 – Fazer inferências a partir de informações implícitas em um texto.

a. Which participants are available for a chat? Jonny_Anonymous e Cable_Extreme. b. Which participants have a positive perspective about the future? Possíveis respostas: Jonny_Anonymous e Mortein. c. Which participants have a negative perspective about the future? Possíveis respostas: JugJugBanks e Cable_Extreme.

3. In your opinion, what will life be like in 2050? Write down two predictions in the notebook and share them with your teacher and classmates. Respostas pessoais. Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

Focus on Genre

4. Here are some characteristics of online forums. Which one(s) can you find in the online forum on page 80? Write the correct option in the notebook. In this online forum it’s possible to: a. check the date each participant became a member b. read other participants’ messages c. click on a link to read the rules for participation on the site d. use only the real name e. leave a message if you’re not a member of the forum f. use an avatar as your graphic representation online

5. Look at this sentence:

TIP Em um fórum de discussão online, assim como em outros tipos de ambientes online, é comum os participantes usarem apelidos e/ou avatares para se apresentarem. Antes de se cadastrar, é importante consultar as regras para o uso de assinaturas e imagens, por exemplo.

Habilidade de leitura: HL13 – Estabelecer relações entre segmentos de um texto identificando recursos que contribuam para a sua continuidade (concordâncias nominal e gramatical, uso de elementos de coesão etc.).

"[...] and there will not enough new jobs for everyone, so most countries will have some form of basic income for every citizen".

What does the word "so” express? Check the following alternatives and note down the correct one in the notebook. a. Extra ideas, information.

c. Condition.

b. Result, consequence.

d. Example.

VIEWPOINTS Discuta com seu professor e colegas. Você acha que fóruns como o mostrado na página 80 são úteis para debater ideias e discutir soluções para problemas? Por quê? Em caso afirmativo, que tópicos relacionados ao seu bairro e à sua escola, por exemplo, você gostaria de discutir em um fórum online?

GO BEYOND If you want to share your views with other teenagers around the world about different topics such as education, health and environment, go to Voices of Youth at <http://ler.vc/ c2eyox>. (Accessed on: Feb. 28, 2016.)

THINK FORWARD | UNIT 6

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VOCABULARY DISCOURSE MARKERS 1. Look at the sentences below. Then, draw the following table in the notebook and complete it, classifying the words in bold according to their meanings. a. They’ll get good grades provided that they study hard. b. He’s doing his best. However, it isn’t good enough for his boss. c. Unless we study hard, we won’t to get a good job in the future. d. The Smiths won’t go to the country this weekend because of the heavy rain. e. Air pollution causes respiratory problems. Besides that, it causes heart diseases. f. When you go to London, you’ll be able to visit famous places such as Science Museum. g. Although the meeting started on time, we weren’t able to discuss the topics we wanted to. h. If we don’t create a new regulation to protect endangered species, many animals will disappear in a few years. i. Before anything else, these are the things we need to consider. First: objectives, second: time, and finally: financial support.

Add ideas

Contrast ideas

Give examples

Express causes

Express conditions

Enumerate ideas

e

b, g

f

d

a, c, h

i

2. Look at the sentences in exercise 1 again. Then, in the notebook, write down the correct option to complete the statement below. The words in bold on exercise 1 are called pronouns / discourse markers. The main objective of these words is link clauses / emphasize ideas, indicating how they relate to each other. 3. Look at the words in bold in the sentences below. Then, match them to their synonyms, writing down the corresponding letters and numbers in the notebook. 5 a. Even though Jessica studies hard, she doesn’t get good grades. 1 b. I won’t lend you any money unless you tell me why you need it. 6 c. In that supermarket, you can find exotic fruits, for example batuan and feijoa. 4 d. In addition to study English and Spanish, Paula would like to learn other languages. 2 e. Owing to the recent scandals involving the candidates, the elections will be canceled. 3 f. Participants need to follow the procedures. Firstly, they need to fill an application form.

1. Except if 2. Because of

3. First 4. Besides

5. Although 6. Such as

Revisão de marca- LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE dores do discurso.

P. 141

TIP Discourse Markers podem ser encontrados na linguagem tanto escrita como oral. Conhecê-los pode ajudar você a se comunicar melhor.

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4. In the notebook, write down the correct option to complete the sentences. a. Although / Besides many people know it’s important to protect our planet, they continue destroying the forests and polluting the rivers. b. Owing to / If we don’t save water, we will run out of this natural resource really soon. c. Unless / If we study hard, we won’t get a good job in the future. d. Many technological gadgets, if / such as smartphones and tablets, will get even more sophisticated in the near future. e. In addition to / Although deforestation, there are many other problems governments need to address. f. Provided that / Because of the heavy traffic, they decided to leave the office later than usual. g. The commiee opened the debate talking about air pollution. Then they moved from air pollution to deforestation and finally / such as to the impact of climate change.

5. In the notebook, use the discourse markers that we saw to link the statements below. Resposta possível: Carlos has a good job. However, he's always in the red, asking money for his friends. b. The city was destroyed by a hurricane. The events were canceled. Resposta possível: Because of the hurricane that destroyed the city, the events were canceled.

a. Carlos has a good job. He's always in the red, asking money for his friends. c. You have to save water. You have to save energy.

Resposta possível: In addition to save water, you have to save energy.

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

6. Do the following activities in the notebook. a. Look at the cover and the text and answer the questions. • What text genre is it? Is it an extract from a novel or an article? A novel. • What’s the title of the book? A Tale of Two Cities. • Who wrote it? Charles Dickens. • Who published it? Penguin Classics.

Editora: Penguin Books Ltda.

b. Now write down the correct options to complete the extract. [...] On this certain fine Sunday, Mr. Lorry walked towards Soho, early in the afternoon, for three reasons of habit. Firstly / If, because, on fine Sundays, he often walked out, before dinner, with the Doctor and Lucie; finally / secondly, because, on unfavourable Sundays, he was accustomed to be with them as the family friend, talking, reading, looking out of window, and generally getting through the day; thirdly / unless, because he happened to have his own little shrewd doubts to solve, and knew how the ways of the Doctor's household pointed to that time as a likely time for solving them. [...] (DICKENS, Charles. A Tale of Two Cities, 1859. Chapter VI. Available at: <http://dickens. thefreelibrary.com/Tale-Of-Two-Cities/2-6#firstly>. Accessed on: Feb. 26, 2016.)

IN CONTEXT A Tale of Two Cities was first published in 1859. It describes several characters from different social classes during the French Revolution in Paris and London. LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP THINK FORWARD | UNIT 6

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GRAMMAR LANGUAGE DISCOVERY 1. Look at the following sentences and answer the questions in the notebook. 1. “In future, everything will be a computer.” (In future, everything will be a computer. National Post. Available at: <http://www.nationalpost.com/story.html?id=42620fdf-6339-40c6-9775dcad5d623f51&k=8721>. Accessed on: Feb. 26, 2016.)

2. “Within 20 years, not as many people will own cars. In fact, they will share them [...]” (SWARTZ, Jon. Cars of the future will be computers on wheels. USA Today, Hanover. Available at: <http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/ tory/2012-05-28/future-cars/54890066/1>. Accessed on: Feb. 26, 2016.)

a. What is the verb tense of these sentences? Future. b. In both sentences, which word indicates this verb tense? Will. c. In the sentence 1, what is the expression that reforce this verb tense? In future. d. And in the sentence 2? What is the expression that reforce this verb tense? Within 20 years.

2. Look at these sentences in the Simple Future. Then, in the notebook, write T (true) of F (false) for the following statements, correcting the wrong one(s). • I think technology will be everywhere. • Wait for me, please. I won’t be late. • Will you buy a new smartphone? a. For affirmative sentences, we use subject + will + to + verb in the basic form. F, we use will + verb in the basic form, without to.

b. For negative sentences, we use subject + won’t (will + not) + verb in the basic form. T c. For interrogative sentences, we use will + subject + verb in the basic form. T

3. We use Simple Future to talk about prediction, promise and decision. Considering this, read these sentences and, in the notebook, classify them according to their uses. See the example. a. I imagine Sarah will be at the party next week. Prediction. b. Don’t worry. I won’t forget to bring your notebook tomorrow. Promise. c. There’s someone knocking at the door. I’ll answer it. Decision. d. I don’t think my team will win the next game. They’re playing really badly. Prediction. e. Dan promises he will call his parents when he arrives in Recife. Promise. f. Waiter: Are you ready to order, sir? Customer: Yes, I’ll have the salmon, please. Decision.

TRACK 21

PRONUNCIATION Contracted form of will Listen and repeat. I think I’ll get a good job. I’m sure he’ll pass his tests. We’ll travel together. They’ll get married.

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4. Complete the sentences using will or won’t and a verb from the box below. Write in the notebook. pass

get

get

get

take

find

won’t take

I’m sure Ronald

a trip

next vacation. He doesn’t have enough money.

I think they

I don’t think they

will find

life on other planets.

e.

PEPPERSMINT/Shutterstock.com

A and N photography/ Shutterstock.com

b.

married soon. will get

Carol is hopeful. She believes the world Lucky Business/Shutterstock.com

c.

Paula doesn’t think she

will pass

won’t get

more polluted. f.

Maxim Safronov/Shutterstock.com

milias1987/Shutterstock.com

Vadim Sadovski/Shutterstock.com

d.

a.

her

university entrance exams.

Daniel doesn’t think he

will get

a very good job.

5. In the notebook, make predictions about the topics below. You can use I think, I don’t believe, I’m sure or I’m not sure. See the example. Sugestões de respostas:

a. Scientists / clone a man / five years from now I think scientists will clone a man five years from now. I’m not sure scientists will clone a man five years from now. / I’m sure scientists won’t clone a man five years from now.

b. People / live in space stations in 50 years’ time I don’t think people will live in space stations in 50 years’ time. / I’m sure people will live in space stations in 50 years’ time. / I’m not sure people will live in space stations in 50 years’ time.

c. Forests / disappear in 100 years’ time I don’t believe forests will disappear in 100 years’ time. / I’m sure forests will disappear in 100 years’ time. / I’m not sure forests will disappear in 100 years’ time.

d. Robots / live at our home, as a member of family, in 10 years. I don't believe robots will live at our home [...] in 10 years. / I'm sure robots will live at our home [...] in 10 years. / I'm not sure robots will live at our home [...] in 10 years.

e. Hovercars / be availabe in 5 years.

I don't believe hovercars will be available in 5 years. / I'm sure hovercars will be available in 5 years. / I'm not sure hovercars will be available in 5 years.

6. In the notebook, write these words in order to make questions. Then answer them. See the example. a. tomorrow / study / you / will / ? Will you study tomorrow? Yes, I will. / No, I won’t. b. your parents / next weekend / will / travel / ? Sugestões de respostas: Will your parents travel next weekend? Yes, they will. / No, they won't.

c. for help / will / a friend / call / you / ?

Will you call a friend for help? or Will a friend call you for help? Yes, I will. / No I won't. or Yes, she / he will. / No, she / he won't.

d. a present / buy / you / for / will / your best friend / ? Will you buy a present for your best friend?

or Will your best friend buy a present for you? Yes, I will. / No, I won't. or Yes, she / he will. / No, she / he won't.

e. your teacher / a test / give / will / next class / you / ?

Will your teacher give you a test next class? Yes, she / he will. / No, she / he won't. THINK FORWARD | UNIT 6

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LANGUAGE DISCOVERY 1. Look at the sentences below. Then, write down the correct option in the notebook. 1. Rob and Kate are saving money for their next vacation. They’re going to travel abroad. 2. Jim is really good at writing. I think he’s going to be a writer when he gets older. a. These statements refer to actions that

c. The sentence 2 refers to a prediction that

√ • will happen.

√ • is based on an evidence.

• are happening now.

• isn’t based on an evidence.

b. The sentence 1 refers to a action that

d. We use Future – to be going to in order to talk about

√ • is planned.

• predictions, promises, and decisions.

• isn’t planned.

√ • future plans and predictions based on evidences.

2. Look at these sentences in the Future – to be going to. Then, in the notebook, write down the correct answer to complete the following statements. • I’m going to visit my relatives outside the city. • He isn’t going to make the birthday cake.

TIP

• Are you going to travel abroad next vacation? a. For affirmative sentences, we use √ • subject + verb to be + going to + verb in the basic form.

• subject + verb in the basic form + going to + verb to be. b. For negative sentences, we use √ • subject + verb to be with not + going to + verb in the basic form.

• subject + going to + verb in the basic form + verb to be with not. c. For interrogative sentences, we use • subject + verb to be + going to + verb in the basic form.

A forma gonna é utilizada em inglês coloquial, especialmente no inglês americano, em lugar da forma going to. Observe: We’re gonna do it. (= We’re going to do it.) / What we gonna do now? (= What are we going to do now?)

√ • verb to be + subject + going to + verb in the basic form.

3. Match the situations in column 1 to the predictions in column 2, noting down in the notebook the corresponding letters and numbers. Column 1

Column 2

4 a. There are black clouds in the sky.

1. He’s going to the bank.

3 b. My team is playing really badly.

2. I’m going to get some rest.

2 c. I’m exhausted.

3. They’re going to lose the match.

1 d. Taylor needs some money.

4. It’s going to rain soon.

4. In the notebook, complete the sentences putting the verbs into the correct form of Future – to be going to. For this, use the verbs from the box. travel

fall

visit

have

are going to fall

a. Be careful! You Are

b.

going to have

they

lunch in the office?

isn’t going to visit

c. Monica is sick. She is going to travel

d. Tina

86

!

her parents tonight.

on her next vacation. She bought the tickets yesterday.

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INTEGRATED SKILLS

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

READING

1. Read the cartoon and answer the following questions in the notebook.

Sugestões de respostas:

Chris Booth (www.CartoonStock.com)

a. What are the man and the polar bear doing? They are waiting for the bus.

b. Where do you think they’re going? They are probably going to work.

c. How do you know?

They are both carrying a briefcase and the man is wearing a tie.

IN CONTEXT Global warming refers to an increase in the average temperature of the atmosphere as a result of greenhouse gases emissions. Some experts say that the term global warming was first used in the scientific world in an article called Are We on the Brink of a Pronounced Global Warming? by Wallace S. Brocker in 1975.

“All this talk about global warming... pah! I mean, where's the evidence?” (Available at: <https://www.cartoonstock.com/cartoonview. asp?catref=cbon88>. Accessed on: Feb. 26, 2016.)

2. Read the cartoon again. Then, write down the correct options to complete the sentences in Habilidades de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em the notebook. a. The man

in global warming.

• believes √ • doesn’t believe

b. The expression

um texto; HL14 – Estabelecer relações entre o texto e outros textos ou recursos de natureza suplementar que o acompanham (tabelas, desenhos, fotos, títulos ou subtítulos); HL22 – Identificar efeitos de ironia ou humor em textos variados.

suggests the man’s opinion about global warming.

√ • pah!

• I mean c. The cartoon is funny because of the contrast between √ • the man’s opinion and the presence of the polar bear next to him.

• the man’s clothes and the polar bear’s briefcase. d. According to the cartoon, global warming √ • is happening now.

• is something that doesn’t exist.

GO BEYOND You can take a quiz about global warming at <http://ler.vc/ernpnf>. (Accessed on: Feb. 26, 2016.) LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP THINK FORWARD | UNIT 6

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LISTENING 1. You’re going to listen to a talk show between two Canadian professors about global warming. Write in the notebook the alternatives that bring words you expect to hear. a. planet

c. climate change

e. CO2

b. weather conditions

d. wars

f. robots

TRACK 22 2. Listen and check your predictions for activity 1. TRACK 23 3. Now listen to the first part of the talk show again and write in your notebook the correct alternative to complete the sentence below. According to the hostess of the show, global warming is a controversial issue because a. society still doesn’t know what it is. b. some people still don’t believe it is real.

TRACK 24 4. Listen to the second part of the talk show and, in the notebook, write T (true) or F (false) for the sentences below. Correct the wrong one(s). F a. Professor Ellie Parker doesn’t think there’s scientific evidence that climate change is happening. She thinks there’s plenty of scientific evidence that it’s happening. T b. Professor Peter Miller says that global warming may be caused by natural factors.

TRACK 25 5. Listen to Professor Ellie Parker and, in your notebook, write down the words to complete Professor Ellie Parker's speech. a. “But unfortunately we can’t deny that are also greatly responsible for climate change. We all know b. c. that dioxide, CO2 , is the most important contributor to climate and that the levels of this e. d. greenhouse gas are increasing of human activities like the burning of fossil fuels: oil, gas,

LEIA DICA E SAIBA MAIS NO MP Tatiana Grozetskaya/Shutterstock.com

gasoline and so on.” a-humans, b-carbon, c-changes, d-because, e-natural

VIEWPOINTS Converse com seu professor e colegas. Você concorda que devemos nos preocupar com o aquecimento global? Por quê? Você acredita que a população está mais ou menos consciente da importância dessa questão? O que você sabe sobre eventos como a Conferência de Toronto (1988), a ECO-92 e a Rio+20? Você acredita que eventos como esses são realmente eficazes para discutir soluções para as questões ambientais? Por quê? Em sua opinião, de que maneira governos e instituições privadas poderiam contribuir para a questão ambiental?

The emission of greenhouse gases is responsible for global warming.

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SPEAKING Agreeing and Disagreeing Politely 1. The sentences below were extracted from the listening. Read them and, in your notebook, write down the correct options to complete the following sentences. Professor Miller: “I see your point, Professor Parker, but we can’t forget these changes in climate have been happening over the centuries [...] and that most of them may be caused by natural processes [...]” Professor Parker: “Absolutely. Some changes can occur naturally and this is part of the process". a. During the conversation, Professor Miller agreed / disagreed politely with Professor Parker's point of view. b. When Professor Miller said that the global warming can occur naturally, Professor Parker agreed / disagreed with him. Have a look at some expressions we use to agree or disagree politely.

Agreeing

Disagreeing politely

I (totally) agree with you.

I see your point, but...

Absolutely.

I’m afraid I don’t agree with that.

Definitely.

I really don’t think so.

TRACK 26 2. Here are some other examples. Listen and repeat. a. b. c. d. e.

I see your point, but climate change is a serious issue. I totally agree with you. Governments need to take action now. Absolutely. Society knows what climate change is. I’m afraid I disagree with you. I really don’t think so. There are lots of things we can do.

TIP Em contextos mais informais, podemos concordar com alguém dizendo Sure, Yeah, I agree ou You’re right. Ao discordar é importante fazê-lo com polidez. Mas, se estiver em uma situação mais informal, é possível discordar usando You must be joking ou You can’t be serious!

3. Now it’s your turn to agree or disagree politely. For this, you will follow the steps below: Respostas pessoais. 1. Read again the online forum on page 80. This time, however, check carefully if you agree or disagree with the predictions. 2. After getting a conclusion, write in your notebook the reasons that make you agree or disagree with each prediction. 3. The next step consists in transforming these reasons into polite argues. For this, you should use the expressions that we have just seen. 4. Show the argues to your teacher, doing any necessary changes. 5. Follow your teacher’s instruction in order to discuss about the future with your classmates. Remember: in an argue, the non-verbal communication is very important and must be considered. THINK FORWARD | UNIT 6

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WRITING Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

Focus on Genre

1. Read the diamante poem below. Then, write in your notebook the true alternatives. a. Diamante poems contain seven lines shaped like a diamond. b. They can be used to compare and / or contrast two opposing ideas, objects or people. c. They start with one idea and end with a completely different one. d. They have rhymes.

Editoria de arte

e. They contain a fixed number of syllables.

Home

About

Conventions

Samples

Connect

Diamante poem

yesterday old ancient disappearing ending finishing memories lessons guesses mysteries reaching going thinking hopeful unknown tomorrow

Line 1: a noun Line 2: 2 adjectives describing the noun in line 1 Line 3: 3 -ing verbs describing the noun in line 1 Line 4: 2 nouns about line 1 and 2 nouns about line 7 Line 5: 3 -ing verbs about the noun in line 7 Line 6: 2 adjectives about the noun in line 7 Line 7: a noun

2. Now it's your turn to write a diamante poem. Read the characteristics of diamante poems again and produce your own in the notebook.

Resposta pessoal.

» Think about two ideas, objects or people you’d like to write about. » Take notes of adjectives and -ing verbs to describe these two topics. » Write the first draft and compare it to the poem in exercise 1. » Show it to your classmates and take notes of their suggestions. » Incorporate feedback and show it to your teacher. » Make the necessary changes and write the final version of your poem. » Present your poem in the literature fair of your school or post it on your blog, if you have one. SELF-EVALUATION Evaluate your poem. How similar is it to the one on this page? Did you use opposing adjectives that show contrasting ideas? Is it creative? Are there any improvements you could make to it?

GO BEYOND A site that helps you write your own online diamante poem: <http://ler.vc/y45ja8>. (Accessed on: Feb. 26, 2016.) LEIA SUGESTÃO INTERDISCIPLINAR NO MP

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Autoavaliação Responda às perguntas do quadro a seguir em seu caderno para avaliar seu desempenho ao longo das unidades 5 e 6. = muito bom

= regular

= fraco

Sou capaz de...

Unidade

a. ler, ouvir e falar sobre personalidades históricas nacionais e internacionais.

5

b. entender o significado das preposições de tempo e usá-las em contexto.

5

c. compreender o uso de expressões de tempo e de advérbios de tempo e usá-los corretamente.

5

d. entender o uso do verbo to be no passado e usá-lo de maneira apropriada.

5

e. entender e usar o Simple Past em contexto.

5

f. ler e reconhecer as características do gênero textual diário pessoal.

5

g. ler uma biografia online, reconhecer suas características e produzir um texto semelhante.

Avaliação

5

h. ler, ouvir e falar sobre o futuro do planeta e planos pessoais para o futuro.

6

i. entender e usar Discourse Markers em contexto.

6

j. compreender os usos do Simple Future e utilizá-lo de forma apropriada.

6

k. entender e usar to be going to em contexto.

6

l. observar e reconhecer as características do gênero textual poema diamante e criar um poema semelhante.

6

Além desses conteúdos, o que mais você aprendeu? Escreva no caderno.

MELHORANDO SEU DESEMPENHO Refaça os exercícios das unidades 5 e 6. Esclareça suas dúvidas com o(a) professor(a). Visite uma biblioteca e faça uma leitura de seu interesse. Participe de um chat online em inglês. Crie grupos de estudo.

AUTOAVALIAÇÃO

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A GREENER FUTURE UNIT 7

“The first rule of sustainability is to align with natural forces, or at least not try to defy them.” Paul Hawken (1946-), entrepreneur, environmental activist and author.

Digital Vision/Thinkstock

(Quotes corner. Philharding.net. Available at: <http://www.philharding.net/ quotes-corner/quotes-corner-1sd.htm>. Accessed on: Feb. 29, 2016.)

LEIA NOTA CULTURAL, SUGESTÃO INTERDISCIPLINAR E SAIBA MAIS NO MP

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THINK ABOUT IT

LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

They are sources of energy./They depict forms of energy production.

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

1. Look at the pictures below. What do they have in common?

2. solar energy iStockphoto/Thinkstock

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

1. coal energy

4. hydroelectric energy

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

3. oil and gas

5. nuclear energy

6. wind energy

2. Read these statements about advantages and disadvantages of the use of technology. In the notebook, write the ones you agree with. Respostas pessoais. a. I t can make life easier.

c. It can make people lose their jobs.

b. I t can contribute to the destruction of nature.

d. It can make life more interesting.

TALK ABOUT IT LEIA DICA NO MP

3. Let's talk about energy and technology?

•  Ask to a classmate his / her opinion about the advantages and disadvantages of the use of technology listed in exercise 2. •  Write down his / her answers in the notebook, comparing them to your point of view. •  Report your findings to the class, emphasizing the points in which you agree and disagree. A GREENER FUTURE | UNIT 7

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READING LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

GET READY TO READ 1. Look at the text and write the correct alternatives in the notebook. a. The text is an article.

Habilidades de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto; HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

b. It was published in the Science Daily. c. You can find it on a website. d. It was wrien on May 28, 2012.

Editoria de arte

e. People who like reading about science and technology might enjoy reading it.

Science News

... from universities, journals, and other research organizations

ScienceDaily (Mar. 28, 2011) – Your next new car hopefully won't be a lemon. But it could be a pineapple or a banana. That's because scientists in Brazil have developed a more effective way to use fibers from these and other plants in a new generation of automotive plastics that are stronger, lighter, and more eco-friendly than plastics now in use. [...]

Study leader Alcides Leão, Ph.D., said the fibers used to reinforce the new plastics may come from delicate fruits like bananas and pineapples, but they are super strong. Some of these so-called nanocellulose fibers are almost as stiff as Kevlar, the renowned super-strong material used in armor and bulletproof vests. Unlike Kevlar and other traditional plastics, [...] nano-cellulose fibers are completely renewable. "The properties of these plastics are incredible," Leão said, "They are [...] 30 per cent lighter and 3 to 4 times stronger. We believe that a lot of car parts, [...] will be made of nano-sized fruit fibers in the future [...]." Besides weight reduction, nano-cellulose reinforced plastics have mechanical advantages over conventional automotive plastics, Leão added. These include greater resistance to damage from heat, spilled gasoline, water, and oxygen. [...] "So far, we're focusing on replacing automotive plastics," said Leão. "But in the future, we may be able to replace steel and aluminum automotive parts using these plant-based nano-cellulose materials." [...] (Science Daily, Mar. 2011. Available at: <http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/03/110328092459.htm>. Accessed on: Feb. 29, 2016.)

GLOSSARY Az armor – blindagem bulletproof vest – colete à prova de balas eco-friendly – ecologicamente correto damage – dano, estrago

94

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Habilidade de leitura: HL18 – Selecionar um título ou legenda apropriada para um texto.

READING COMPREHENSION

1. The title of the text on page 94 is missing. Write the best option in the notebook.

TIP

a. Natural fibers are stronger than artificial ones.

Inglês americano: fiber Inglês britânico: fibre

b. Replacing automotive plastics is the solution to pollution. c. 'Green' cars could be made from pineapples and bananas.

Habilidades de leitura: HL4 – Localizar informações relevantes no texto para completar uma tarefa ou solucionar um problema; HL17 – Fazer inferências a partir de informações implícitas em um texto.

2. In the notebook, write T (true) or F (false) for the statements below, correcting the wrong one(s). T a. The new fibers come from fruits such as pineapples and bananas, among others. F b. These natural fibers are very delicate. The fruits are delicate, but their fibers are very strong. T c. Mr. Leão believes that many car parts will be made of fruit fibers in the future. F d. Mr. Leão is against using natural fiber technology. Mr. Leão is in favor of using natural fiber technology.

TIP Nem sempre é necessário usar um dicionário para descobrir o significado de uma palavra nova no texto. O conhecimento que você já tem sobre o assunto e o contexto em que essa palavra é usada o(a) ajudarão a descobrir seu significado. Habilidade de leitura: HL16 – Inferir o sentido de palavras ou expressões desconhecidas do texto por meio de comparação com a língua materna, análise do contexto e uso de conhecimento morfológico.

3. What do the underlined words mean in Portuguese? Write down the best option in the notebook. a. “[...] Unlike Kevlar and other traditional plastics, […] nano-cellulose fibers are completely renewable.” √ • ao contrário de

• tal como • semelhante a b. “But in the future, we may be able to replace steel and aluminum automotive parts using these plantbased nano-cellulose materials.” • conservar

Habilidade de leitura: HL13 – Estabelecer relações entre segmentos de um texto identificando recursos que contribuam para a sua continuidade (concordância nominal e gramatical, uso de elementos de coesão etc.).

• manter √ • substituir

4. Read paragraph 4. In the sentence “These include greater resistance to damage from heat, spilled gasoline, water, and oxygen”, what does the word these refer to? Write in the notebook the correct alternative. a. natural fibers

b. plastic fibers

c. mechanical advantages LEIA SAIBA MAIS NO MP

VIEWPOINTS

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

Converse com seu professor e colegas. De acordo com o artigo que você leu, carros fabricados a partir de fibras naturais são ecologicamente corretos e também são mais econômicos. Porém, podem ser mais caros. Em sua opinião, vale a pena pagar mais caro, mas proteger o planeta? Por quê? Você acha que a maioria da população poderia comprar ou se interessaria em comprar um carro desse tipo? Por quê? Quais seriam as possibilidades de torná-los mais baratos?

A GREENER FUTURE | UNIT 7

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VOCABULARY IDIOMS WITH FOOD 1. Look at these sentences and expressions in bold. Then, write down the correct answers in the notebook. I. “Your next new car hopefully won't be a lemon.” II. Bob thinks this exercise is a piece of cake. a. In the sentence I, one hopes that the car doesn’t √ • have defects.

• be sour as a lemon.

b. In the sentence II, Bob thinks the exercise is • sweet.

√ • very easy.

c. We call the expressions in bold of √ • idioms.

• metaphors.

2. In English, we have a lot of idioms with foods. The diagram below shows some of them. Based on the context, match them to their meanings, writing down the corresponding letters and numbers in the notebook. A-2, B-3, C-4, D-1, E-5 A. Ricky is the apple of his father’s eyes.

1. Sentir-se cheio(a) de energia. 2. Ser a pessoa favorita de

E. Being a couch potato is not a healthy habit.

Idioms with food

B. Please, let's not talk about this issue during the meeting. It's a hot potato.

alguém. 3. Um assunto polêmico ou difícil de resolver. 4. Vender rapidamente e em grande quantidade. 5. Ser uma pessoa que passa o tempo todo em

D. My grandmother is full of beans. She's never tired!

C. This bakery is amazing, its products sell like hot cakes.

frente à TV, em uma vida sedentária.

3. Let's see if you're an expert in idioms with foods. Look at these sentences and write down the correct option in the notebook. a. My brother is the apple of my mom’s eye / full of beans. She thinks he is perfect. b. A couch potato / piece of cake is a person who stays in front of the TV all day long. c. I am always a lemon / full of beans in the morning. I get up early, have a quick breakfast and go to work. d. Math is a hot potato / a piece of cake for Kim. She always gets the best grades in her class. e. Don’t talk to them about politics. It’s always a hot potato / couch potato for them. f. The restaurant near my house is very expensive, but its meals are full of beans / sell like hot cakes.

4. Do you know other idioms with food? Search in magazines, newspapers, book, or sites and find out two more idioms with food. Share your findings with your teacher and classmates. 96

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COMMON ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES 1. Look at these sentences. Then, in the notebook, write down the correct options to complete the statement below. “Unlike Kevlar and other traditional plastics […] nano-cellulose fibers are completely renewable.” “[…] nano-cellulose reinforced plastics have mechanical advantages over conventional automotive plastics […]” Traditional, mechanical, and conventional are adjectives / nouns / verbs. These words are formed by adding the suffix -al to adjectives / nouns / verbs tradition, mechanic, and convention.

2. Read these sentences and write down the adjectives in the notebook. a. I love Diana’s hair. It is always so shiny. shiny

3.

b. You can find helpful tutorials on this website. helpful c. My sister designs clothes. She’s very creative. creative d. Yesterday I had a class on the benefits of renewable energy. renewable

Adjective shiny helpful creative renewable mechanical homeless

Suffix y ful ive able al less

Noun / verb shine help create renew mechanic home

e. I’m planning to study mechanical engineering at the college. mechanical f. The authorities should do something to help the homeless people in this country. homeless

3. The adjectives from activity 2 are formed by suffixes – elements added at the end of a word (noun or verb) to make a new word. Considering this, draw the table below in the notebook and complete it based on the adjectives from exercise 2. See the example. Adjective

Suffix

Noun / verb

shiny

y

shine

TIP Conhecer os sufixos pode ajudar você a reconhecer a classe gramatical de uma palavra desconhecida e ajudá-lo(a) a descobrir o seu significado.

4. The suffixes have different meanings. Considering this and based on the previous activities, match these suffixes to their meanings, writing the corresponding letters and number in the notebook. See the example. b-1, c-4, d-3, e-6, f-2 Example: a-5 a. Dirty

1. sem, que não possui

b. Endless

2. que tem capacidade de

c. Emotive

3. que é reconhecido por, é cheio de

d. Careful

4. que tem essa característica 5. que é caracterizado por

e. Regional

6. que é pertencente a

f. Accessible

5. Let’s check your learning. Add a suffix to the words in parentheses to complete the sentences below. Use your notebook. accessible

a. There are

(access) restrooms for wheelchair users in the new mall.

b. Candidates for this job need to be c. Your T-shirt looks really d. The e. Be

regional

careful

dirty

creative

(create) and hard-working.

(dirt). Where have you been?

(region) conference will take place next Friday.

(care) with these boxes or you’ll fail. A GREENER FUTURE | UNIT 7

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Focus on Genre

Jim Barker (www.CartoonStock.com)

6. Read the text and do the following activities in the notebook.

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

TIP Paperless office é um escritório sem papel. Nesse tipo de ambiente, o gasto com papel é diminuído por meio do uso de documentos em formato eletrônico.

(Available at: <http://www.cartoonstock.com/cartoonview. asp?catref=jban41>. Accessed on: Feb. 29, 2016.)

a. Answer the questions. 1. What text genre is it? A cartoon. 2. Where do you think you would find it? On a website, in a newspaper, in a book etc. 3. Who are its potential readers? People who access the site, people who read the newspaper or book where the cartoon was published.

b. What are the characteristics of cartoons? Write T for true or F for false. F 1. They have personal data such as age, country of origin, name, last name etc. F 2. They have a moral. T 3. They may mix verbal with non-verbal language. F 4. They contain information organized into date entries. T 5. They use humor to criticize everyday life issues.

Habilidades de leitura: HL17 – Fazer inferências a partir de informações implícitas em um texto; HL22 – Identificar efeitos de ironia ou humor em textos variados.

7. Look at the cartoon again and write down the correct options in the notebook. a. The woman in the restroom

with the idea of reducing the use of paper in the office.

√ • agrees

• disagrees b. The woman in the restroom is

reducing the use of toilet paper.

• in favor of √ • against

c. The author makes a joke about

.

√ • exaggerated ideas some companies adopt to reduce their costs

• people who use a lot of toilet paper in the restroom d. The humorous effect is achieved by the author’s use of the expressions

.

• “I’m all for...” – “I draw the line...” √ • paperless office – paperless toilet

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GRAMMAR LANGUAGE DISCOVERY 1. Look at the sentences below and write the correct option in the notebook. I. Brazil is the largest country in South America. II. Fibers from plants are stronger and lighter than plastics now in use. III. Scientists in Brazil have developed a more effective way to use fibers. IV. According to studies, wind and solar energy generates the most expensive electricity.

The words and expression in bold are used to a. compare different things (material, energy, country). b. express preference about something (material, energy, country).

2. Read the table below. Which sentences from activity 1 have examples of comparative and superlative adjectives? Write down the answers in the notebook. Making comparison

Definition

Examples (activity 1)

a.

Comparative

Compare things or people with other things or people.

I, IV

b.

Superlative

Compare things or people with all elements of the group that they belong to.

II, III

3. In the notebook, write down the correct options. a. We add -er at the end of the word or use more √ I. for comparative.

II. for superlative. b. We use more and the most I. to short adjectives (until two syllables). √ II. before long adjectives (three or more syllables).

TIP

Revisão das regras ortográficas para os adjetivos nas formas do comparativo e do superlativo.

L ANGUAGE ASSISTANCE

P. 142

Adjetivos terminados em -y têm as seguintes formas para o comparativo e o superlativo: happy – happier – the happiest hungry – hungrier – the hungriest

4. The sentences below bring exemples of comparative adjectives. Read them and answer the questions in the notebook. I. Cold air is lighter than hot air. II. Glass is more expensive than plastic. III. This car isn’t as expensive as that car. IV. Wind energy is as good as hydroelectric energy. V. Conventional cars are less economical than eco-friendly cars. a. Which sentences express the idea of superiority? I, II b. Which sentence expresses the idea of inferiority? V c. Which sentences express the idea of equality? III, IV A GREENER FUTURE | UNIT 7

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5. Read these sentences. Then, in the notebook, write the correct option to complete them. a. To express the idea of equality, we use as + adjective + as / adjective + than. b. To express the idea of inferiority, we use as + adjective + as / less + adjective + than. c. To express the idea of superiority, we can use adjective + -er + than / most + adjective + than.

TIP Para dar mais ou menos ênfase a uma comparação, é possível acrescentar advérbios de intensidade, tais como: much, a bit e almost: These fibers are much / a bit more expensive than those ones. “[...] nano-cellulose fibers are almost as stiff as Kevlar [...]”

TRACK 27

PRONUNCIATION Sentence stress (not) as... as Listen and repeat: This car’s as economical as that car. Jim’s as tall as Amanda.

Plastic isn’t as light as paper. These fibers aren’t as cheap as those.

6. Let's check your learning? In the notebook, complete the sentences using the Comparative form and the words in parentheses. Follow the example. a. My brother is 30 and I am 35. He is younger than I am. (young) bigger than

b. A plane is c. Joanna is

as old as

a car. (big)

Anita. They’re both eighteen. (old)

longer than

d. Tortoises live

cats. (long)

more expensive than

e. The blue pen costs $ 1.00 and the red one costs $ 2.00. The red pen is

the blue one. (expensive)

7. Now, in the notebook, complete the sentences using the Superlative form. Also, use the words in parentheses, as in the example. a. In my opinion, Portuguese is the easiest school subject. I always get good grades on my tests. (easy) the smartest

b. Joan is

student in my class. (smart)

the fastest

c. Planes are

the cheapest

d. Which is

means of mass transportation. (fast)

alternative source of energy? (cheap) the most popular

e. In my opinion, samba is

kind of Brazilian music. (popular)

8. Read the text and do the following activities. a. Answer the questions in the notebook.

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

1. What text genre is it? An article. 2. Where do you think you would find it? On a website. 3. In which section would you find it? In the science section. 4. What is its main purpose? To inform readers about global warming and climate change. 5. Who are its potential readers? Readers who access this website; readers interested in reading more about this topic. b. Read it again and write down the correct options to fill in the blanks. Use the notebook.

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Editoria de arte

WORLD

U.S.

TECHNOLOGY

SCIENCE

HEALTH

SPORTS

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

Global Warming & Climate Change 1.

Global warming has become perhaps

issue facing world leaders. […] Warnings from 2. the scientific community are becoming , as an increasing body of science points to rising dangers from the ongoing buildup of greenhouse gases — mainly those produced by the burning of fossil fuels and forests. […] The technological, economic and political issues that have to be resolved before a concerted worldwide effort to reduce emissions 3. […] have gotten no , particularly in the face of a global economic slowdown.

(The New York Times, New York, Nov. 2009. Available at: <http://dotearth.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/11/23/global-warming-basics/?_r=0>. Accessed on: Feb. 29, 2016.)

1. most complicated more complicated the most complicated √ 2. the loudest louder √ louder than 3. simpler √ simpler than the simplest

9. In the notebook, complete complete the sentences with words from the boxes. Use the Comparative or Superlative forms. expensive

easy

strong

cold

tall

beautiful

a. Sam is taller than his sister. He’s 1.72 m. and she’s 1.60 m. as easy as

b. This exercise isn’t c. Aluminum is

the previous one. This one is more difficult.

stronger

than plastic.

more expensive than

d. Gold is much

iron. Gold is considered a precious metal.

the coldest

e. Last night was

night of the year. Thermometers registered minus 10 ºC.

the most beautiful

f. Rio de Janeiro is one of

cities I know. A GREENER FUTURE | UNIT 7

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10. In the notebook, write sentences that are true for you. Look at the example. Sugestões de respostas: a. geography – chemistry – math / interesting Chemistry is more interesting than geography. Chemistry is the most interesting subject. b. traveling by car – traveling by plane – traveling by train / safe Traveling by car is safer than traveling by train. Traveling by plane is the fastest way of traveling.

c. movies – TV shows – concerts / popular Movies are more popular than concerts. TV shows are the most popular form of entertainment.

d. English – Spanish – Chinese / difficult English is more difficult than Spanish. Chinese is the most difficult language to learn.

e. playing video game – listening to music – traveling / funny Playing video game is funnier than listening to music. Travelling is the funniest way to relax.

f. swimming – dancing – running / easy Swimming is easier than dancing. Running is the easiest activity.

INTEGRATED SKILLS

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

Habilidade de leitura: HL2 – Localizar e relacionar informações explícitas sobre um mesmo assunto ou tema em diferentes textos.

READING

Editoria de arte

1. Look at the internet page and answer the questions in the notebook.

What is Earth Day?

Hemera/Thinkstock

Estúdio Insólito

Earth Day is an event celebrated every year on the 22nd of April […] to celebrate support for protection of the environment […]. Earth Day brings attention to a large number of issues in requirement of attention, such as pollution of the ocean, […] climate change, […] energy conservation, […] and the deforestation of rain forests. Earth Day was founded by United States Senator Gaylord Nelson on April 22, 1970 to focus on issues related to environment. April 22nd was chosen because it did not conflict with any religious holidays, and was on a week where students were free from exams and were more likely to be in class. […] It is absolutely critical that we take care of the Earth and its natural resources, and not only is Earth Day a time to celebrate that, it is a time to make a difference as well.

(What is Earth Day? CEF. Available at: <http://www.conserve-energy-future.com/What-is-earth-dayand-earth-day-activities.php>. Accessed on: Mar. 6, 2016.)

Sugestão de resposta:

a. What do the pin and the website encourage readers to do? They encourage people to take some action to save the b. What special date is the website about? Earth Day.

planet, make a difference.

c. When and why is it celebrated? It’s celebrated on April 22 to celebrate support for protection of the environment. LEIA NOTA CULTURAL E SAIBA MAIS NO MP

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LISTENING 1. You are going to listen to John, Ray and James giving tips on how to go green. Write in the notebook the words you expect to hear. a. air pollution

c. public transportation

e. greenhouse gases

b. overpopulation

d. reusable bags

f. violence

TRACK 28 2. Now listen to three podcasts by John, Ray and James and check your answers.

TRACK 28 3. Listen to the podcasts again. In the notebook, write John, Ray or James for each idea. a. Says that green power sources produce less carbon emissions. John b. Recommends using reusable bags when you shop. James c. Suggests carpooling or using public transportation to reduce pollution and fuel costs. Ray d. Suggests checking price differences before buying green power sources. John e. Recommends keeping shopping receipts. James LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

TRACK 29 4. Listen to podcast 3 again. Then, in the notebook, write down the correct options. Hi, my name is James Way and Cash and I'm here do give you environmental / ecological tips. The tip today is: just bag it! Help protect the environment when you travel / shop. Keep reusable bags on your car seat or near your door. And you can even combine different / shopping bags – just tell the cashier that you don't need / want a bag, then put all your purchases together in one bag. Just be sure to hang on to your receipts! Help protect environment!

TALK ABOUT IT 5. Now that you listened to the podcasts, let's talk about them? • Which tip you consider the most helpful? • Which tip(s) are you already doing? • Which tip(s) are you going to try?

Share your ideas with your teacher and classmates.

VIEWPOINTS Converse com seu professor e colegas. O governo brasileiro – seja na esfera municipal, estadual ou nacional – está constantemente fazendo campanhas em que oferece dicas sobre como economizar energia e água, entre outras. Em sua opinião, essas campanhas são eficazes? Você se recorda de alguma delas? Qual? / Quais? Você se lembra de ter tido alguma mudança de hábito em sua família graças a uma dessas campanhas? Qual? / Quais?

A GREENER FUTURE | UNIT 7

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SPEAKING Giving Tips 1. Look at this sentence. Then, in the notebook, write the alternative that explicits the function of the word and the expression in bold. “You can check how much of your electricity comes from renewable green power sources.” “[…] then put all your purchases together in one bag. Just, just be sure to hang on to your receipts!” a. Give tips.

b. Give instructions.

c. Offer advices.

TRACK 30 2. See some examples in which people give tips. Listen and repeat. a. If you can, use your bike more oen. b. You can use public transportation. c. Don’t forget to turn off the lights. d. Be sure to take your reusable bags to the supermarket. e. Use green power sources if you can.

TALK ABOUT IT 3. Now it's your turn to give tips. For this, you will work in pairs, following the steps below: 1. Decide who will be the Student A and the Student B. (Remember that the roles will be changed.) 2. The Student A should read the topics in Card A, adding two more ideas in the notebook. 3. The Student B should read the topics in Card B, adding two more tips in the notebook. 4. Write the dialogue in the notebook and show it to your teacher, doing any necessary changes. 5. Change the roles and follow the same steps. 6. Decide which dialogue is more interesting and present it to your teacher and classmates.

Student A Ask Student B for an environmental tip. You can ask about tips on how to: » save energy » save water » help reduce air pollution

Card B

k

Resposta pessoal. inks toc Mon key Bus ines s/Th

Card A

Resposta pessoal.

Student B Give Student A an environmental tip. A few tips you can give: » use a bike to go to school » buy compact fluorescent lightbulbs » iron all your clothes at the same time

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WRITING Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

Focus on Genre

1. The flyer below was handed out by the City of Milwaukee. Read it and answer the questions in the notebook. Sugestões de respostas: a. What is its aim? Persuade the readers to take action to go green. b. Which elements are used to achieve this aim? The eye-catching image, the title, the text [...] you can do at home to save energy and money, verbs in the imperative form etc.

Editoria de arte

c. Where would you find it? At an environmental event, on the streets, on the walls of a public building.

Going Green

Title in bold explaining the purpose of the flyer.

Here are some simple things that you can do at home to save energy and money

Say why you need to take action.

Water usage  […] Only wash full loads of laundry.

Electricity  Shut off lights behind you. […]

Clear and objective information for the readers.

Eye-catching image

Reuse  […] Donate used items for resale.

Recycle  Take advantage of recycling centers for aluminum cans. […] (City of Milwaukee. Health Department. Available at: <http://www.milwaukee.gov/ImageLibrary/Groups/healthAuthors/ ADMIN/PDFs/going_green_english.pdf>. Accessed on: Mar. 6, 2016.)

2. Read the tips in the flyer and write in the notebook the ones that are relevant to your family. 3. Imagine your class decided to organize an environmental campaign in your school. In groups, write your flyers. Resposta pessoal.

» » » » » » » »

GO BEYOND A website where you can find more about the energy challenge: <http://ler.vc/7ifurp>. (Accessed on: Mar. 6, 2016.)

Think about relevant tips for your neighborhood. Choose a meaningful picture. Write your first dra and compare it to City of Milwaukee's flyer.

A website where you can find information about sources of energy: <http://ler.vc/ s268ph>. (Accessed on: Mar. 6, 2016.)

Show it to the other groups. Take notes of their suggestions. Show this revised version to your teacher and take notes of his / her feedback. Make any necessary changes. Write your final version. Distribute your flyers to other students in

SELF-EVALUATION Evaluate your flyer before you distribute it. Compare it to the one in activity 1. Did you write an appealing title? Did you use relevant tips for your neighborhood? Did you remember to use an eye-catching image?

your school. A GREENER FUTURE | UNIT 7

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iStockphoto/Thinkstock Hemera/Thinkstock

FASHION CLOSE-UPS UNIT 8

“A fashion is nothing but an induced epidemic.” George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950), an Irish playwright, novelist, and short story writer. (Quotation Detail. The quotations page. Available at: <http://www.quotationspage. com/quote/26995.html>. Accessed on: Mar. 1, 2016.) LEIA SAIBA MAIS NO MP

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THINK ABOUT IT

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

Editoria de arte

1. Read this extract and answer the questions in the notebook.

Song lyrics by: song

Send “It’s High Fashion” Ringtone to your cell

It’s High Fashion After the Fire [...] It's high fashion, but it's all back to front They've got us just where they want, that's why we pay their prices It's high fashion – they know if it was gone We would all suffer from an identity crisis

(It’s High Fashion Lyrics. Lyric Advisor. Available at: <http:// www.streetdirectory. com/lyricadvisor/ song/uowc/its_high_ fashion/>. Accessed on: Mar. 1, 2016.)

And when I told them that I thought it a shame To have to pay so much for looking the same They laughed and said it's really only a game – Ho Ho Ho! [...]

a. What text genre is it? Song lyrics.

c. What is it called? It’s High Fashion.

b. Where would you find it? On a website.

d. Who sings it? Aer the Fire.

2. Which ideas are present in the song? Write the correct option(s) in the notebook. a. People can’t live without fashion. b. Teenagers love fashion. c. People spend all their money trying to follow fashion.

Habilidade de leitura: HL17 – Fazer inferências com base em informações implícitas em um texto.

d. Fashion never changes.

LEIA DICA NO MP

e. People pay a lot of money to look the same as others.

Focus on Genre

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

3. The extract in exercise 1 is an example of song lyrics. What are their main characteristics? Write T for true or F for false in the notebook. T a. They are usually organized into lines forming stanzas. F b. They use formal language. T c. They may be about people’s feelings, emotions and experiences. T d. They may contain rhyming words. T e. They may have a chorus.

VIEWPOINTS Converse com seu professor e colegas. De acordo com a letra da música, as pessoas teriam uma crise de identidade se a moda não existisse. Você concorda com essa opinião? Justifique sua resposta. Você acha que seguir a moda é uma questão de escolha pessoal ou falta de opinião própria? Quem são os responsáveis por estabelecer as regras da moda? De que forma as pessoas são influenciadas por essas regras? O seu grupo de amigos segue alguma regra em relação à moda? Qual / Quais? Por quê?

LEIA DICA NO MP

GO BEYOND Do you know what teenage tribes are? Find out more about them at <http://ler.vc/3j6yzg>. (Accessed on: Mar. 1, 2016.)

LEIA SAIBA MAIS E SUGESTÃO INTERDISCIPLINAR NO MP FASHION CLOSE-UPS | UNIT 8

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READING

LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

GET READY TO READ

1. Look at the text below and answer the following questions in the notebook. a. What text genre is it? An online forum. b. What are the participants talking about? Fashion. c. List two characteristics of this genre. Sugestões de respostas: Editoria de arte

Participants need to register to take part in the forum; it’s possible to read other participants’ messages; it's possible to check the date each person became member; participants can use nicknames.

Teen Forums >> Teen Lifestyles >> Fashion | Your opinion on Fashion

iStockphoto/ Thinkstock

REGISTER

FAQ

Password

BLOGS

LOG IN

PAGE 1 OF 2 

Really, how much do you care about fashion and dressing to impress? [...] In all honesty, I do not care [...] about what others think of my wardrobe. [...] I care much about personal comfort than looks, and I’m extremely frugal, so I dress accordingly. [...] I wear a plain T-shirt and sweat pants every single day [...].

omnimoney/ lingdamphotothailand/ Shutterstock.com Shutterstock.com

Yayayoyo/ Anton Merzlyakov/ Shutterstock.com Shutterstock.com

A Join date: January 17, 2010

User Name

B Join date: February 6, 2009 Gender:

I like to wear clothes that make me feel confident. I usually find my clothes at the mall [...]. I always find stuff that is the same brands that most people wear, but a different style of it.

C Join date: October 2, 2008 Age: 22 Gender:

I don’t see how wearing brand name clothes has anything to do with being a good friend. We set our own trends.I try to look nice, but I don’t take the opinions of other people into consideration when I’m choosing how I want to dress. I don’t like looking like a clone [...]. I rarely pay attention to what’s “in fashion” tbh.

D Location: Mumbai, India Age: 23 Gender:

I think your fashion statement is equally important as your character.

E Join date: May 23, 2007 Location: Dublin, Ireland Gender:

I try to look my best at all times, [...] I can spend 2 or 3 hours finding something that will work for me to wear to work. [...].

(Virtual Teen. Available at: <http://www.virtualteen.org/forums/showthread.php?t=66136>. Accessed on: Mar. 1, 2016.)

GLOSSARY

Az

brands – marcas care – importar-se, preocupar-se confident – confiante

108

tbh – abreviatura para "to be honest" wardrobe – guarda-roupas wear – vestir

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READING COMPREHENSION

Habilidades de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto; HL17 – Fazer inferências a partir de informações implícitas em um texto.

1. In the notebook, write T for true or F for false according to the posts in the forum. T a. A thinks fashion is less important than being comfortable.

Habilidade de leitura: HL13 – Estabelecer relações entre segmentos de um texto identificando recursos que contribuam para a sua continuidade (concordâncias nominal e gramatical, uso de elementos de coesão etc.).

T b. B believes that clothes can help him feel good about himself. F c. C cares a lot about the opinion of other people regarding her clothes. F d. D doesn't care about fashion. T e. E can spend hours to find the perfect clothes.

2. Read the forum again. Then, in the notebook, write down what the words in bold refer to. a. B: "I like to wear clothes that make me feel confident". Clothes. b. B: "I always find stuff that is the same brands that most people wear [...]". Stuff. / Same brands. c. E: "I can spend 2 or 3 hours finding something that will work [...]". Something.

3. Read A and E opinion again. Then, write the correct option in the notebook. A and E: a. share the same opinion about fashion. b. have different opinions about fashion.

Habilidade de leitura: HL20 – Reconhecer posições distintas entre duas ou mais opiniões relativas ao mesmo fato ou tema.

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

TALK ABOUT IT

4. According to A, comfort is more important than fashion. Considering this, answer: • Do you agree with A? • Why do you support this idea?

oneinchpunch/Shutterstock.com

Talk to your teacher and your classmates about it.

IN CONTEXT A fashion victim is someone who buys a lot of designer clothes and only wears the latest trends without considering whether those clothes are suitable for them or not. This term is believed to have been coined by Oscar de La Renta, a famous fashion designer.

VIEWPOINTS

LEIA DICA NO MP

Converse com seu professor e colegas. Em sua opinião, o que é moda? De acordo com alguns especialistas, os jovens consideram a moda uma maneira de expressar sua identidade. Você concorda com isso? Por quê? Algumas pessoas só se vestem com o que está na moda e, por isso, são consideradas vítimas dela. Você concorda com isso? Por quê? Você concorda que a moda estimula o consumo desenfreado? LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP FASHION CLOSE-UPS | UNIT 8

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VOCABULARY NAMES OF CLOTHING ITEMS 1. Look at this sentence. Then, in the notebook, mark the correct option to complete the statement below. “I wear a plain T-shirt and sweat pants every single day."

The words in bold (T-shirt and sweat pants) refer to: a. types of clothes.

b. brand name clothes.

b. skirt

c. shorts

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

a. jacket

Monkey Business/Thinkstock

2. Look at the photos. Next, match the clothes with its pictures, writing down the corresponding letters and numbers in the notebook. a-5, b-7, c-10, d-1, e-9, f-2, g-8, h-3, i-11, j-4, k-6 I.

1

II.

4

5

2

d. T-shirt

e. tank top 3

h. sneakers

III.

6

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

g. high heels

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

f. jeans IV.

9

i. flip-flops 7

10

j. cap

k. blouse

8

11 Apresentação e/ou revisão de roupas e acessórios que precisam LANGUAGE ser acompanhados de um verbo / pronome no plural. ASSISTANCE

TIP Inglês americano: sneakers pants

P. 143

Inglês britânico: trainers trousers LEIA DICA E SAIBA MAIS NO MP

110

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TALK ABOUT IT 3. In pairs, follow the steps below:

IN CONTEXT

a. Choose one of the people in the pictures on page 110 (exercise 2)

In English, we say "She is wearing a dress", "He is wearing sunglasses". In these situations, we don't employ the verb use.

and describe him or her to your classmate. b. Your classmate has to guess which person is being described. c. Aer the round, change the roles.

DESCRIBING CLOTHES 1. Match the sentences to the pictures. For that, write down the corresponding numbers and letters in the notebook. 1-b, 2-a. 1. I wear plain T-shirts all the time. iStockphoto/Thinkstock

Hemera/Thinkstock

2. I usually wear dark green shorts in my physical education classes. a.

b.

2. Based on the previous exercise, write down in the notebook the correct option to complete the sentence. We can conclude that the words plain and dark green can be used to compare / describe types of clothes.

3. Look at the pictures below and, in the notebook, write the words that complete the gaps. Choose the words from the box. loose

striped

b. a Hemera/Thinkstock

e. a

loose dress

c.

T-shirt

f. a

mini skirt

striped

v-neck

cargo

black

d.

sneakers

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

blouse

polo

pants

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

v-neck

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

a. a

mini

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

Hemera/Thinkstock

cotton

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

cargo

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

black

g. a

polo

coon tank top

h. a

shirt

FASHION CLOSE-UPS | UNIT 8

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MULTI-WORD VERBS RELATED TO CLOTHES AND ACCESSORIES 1. Read the sentence and write down the correct option in the notebook. Joanna really likes dressing up for parties because she wears jeans every day. b. We call this type of expression

a. In the sentence, the expression in bold means

√ • multi-word verb.

√ • dress in an elegant way.

• idioms with clothes.

• dress in a comfortable way.

2. The diagram below shows some multi-word verbs related to clothes and accessories. Based on the context, match them to their meanings, writing down the corresponding letters and numbers in the notebook. A-2, B-4, C-1, D-3, E-5 A. The pop star dresses down in loose jeans and the T-shirts to being recognized. E. I need to buy Dave and Gus some new clothes. They wear them out quickly.

1. Vestir algo, calçar os sapatos etc. 2. Vestir-se de maneira

Multi-word verbs Clothes and accessories

B. I always try on clothes before I buy them.

mais informal. 3. Tirar algo (a roupa, a maquiagem etc.). 4. Experimentar algo (roupas, sapatos etc.). 5. Usar algo até gastar (uma

C. Why don't you put on something you like and go to the mall with us?

D. You should take off your earings before you go to bed.

roupa, sapatos etc.).

3. In the notebook, write down the correct options to complete the sentences. a. George wears a suit to go to the office every day. This is the reason why he likes to dress down / take off on weekends. b. In Japanese restaurants that have tatami rooms clients are asked to dress up / take off their shoes. c. Sandy usually dresses down / wears out her sneakers in a very short period of time. d. I don’t know what to wear for my job interview. Should I dress up / wear out? e. Marcus, you should dress down / put on your reading glasses. This is what the eye doctor recommended.

4. In the notebook, write sentences to the pictures below using the multi-word verbs indicated. Then, share your production with the class. Respostas pessoais. b.

Wavebreakmedia/Shutterstock.com

Subbotina Anna/Shutterstock.com

a.

take off

112

dress down

michaeljung/Shutterstock.com

f. This shirt looks too small. You’d beer try it on / wear it out before buying it. c.

dress up

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GRAMMAR LANGUAGE DISCOVERY 1. Read the sentences below paying attention to the expressions in bold. Then, in the notebook, write down the correct option. a. When I was fieen I used to wear brand name clothes. √ • The verb is in the past, in the affirmative form.

• The verb is in the present, in the negative form. b. When I was younger I didn’t use to care about fashion, but nowadays it’s essential. √ • The verb is in the past, in the negative form.

• The verb is in the present, in the interrogative form. c. Did you used to read comic books when you were a child? • The verb is in the present, in the negative form. √ • The verb is in the past, in the interrogative form.

2. Look at the sentences in exercise 1 again. Next, write in the notebook the correct option to complete the following sentence. The verbs in bold refer to situations and habits that: a. happen in the present frequently. b. happened in the past frequently and still happen. c. happened in the past frequently, but don’t happen anymore.

TRACK 31

PRONUNCIATION Connected speech /

/

Listen and repeat. You used to wear high heels. I didn’t use to have long hair.

3. In the notebook, complete the sentences with the correct form of used to. used to drive

a. Neil

to work, but nowadays he goes to work by bike. (drive)

didn’t use to wake up

b. I

early to go to school. (not wake up) used to work

c. My mother

as a nurse, but now she’s retired. (work)

didn’t use to go

d. Ben and Simon

to school by bus. Their mother gave them a ride on her way to work. (not go) FASHION CLOSE-UPS | UNIT 8

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4. In the notebook, write true sentences using used to or didn’t use to. Use the verbs from the box. be Sugestões de respostas:

have

a. When I was ten years old I

didn’t use to live in a house

b. My parents

live

.

when they were young.

c. Two years ago my friends and I used to be really thin

d. My best friend

enjoy

used to have a red bike

. used to enjoy watching soccer games on TV

five years ago.

5. In the notebook, create sentences using the words given. Then, interview an older person and write down his / her answers. Follow the example and share your findings with the class. iStockphoto/Thinkstock

Example: you / have / lots of friends? Did you use to have lots of friends? Yes, I did. / No, I didn't. a. Where / you / live / ?

Where did you use to live?

b. you / have / lots of toys / ?

Did you use to have lots of toys?

c. How / you / get to school / ?

How did you use to get to school?

d. your parents / be strict / ?

Did your parents use to be strict?

e. What / you / wear / ?

What did you use to wear?

6. Look at the text from Oxfam (a non-profit organization) and do the activities in the notebook. a. In the notebook, write down the best options to complete the sentences. • This text is an example of poster campaign / cartoon. • It incentives people to buy / donate clothes. • Its aim is to entertain / persuade people. • It can interest a few / many people. b. In the notebook, list three places where you can find this type of poster. Respostas possíveis: schools, hospitals,

nurseries, bus stops, libraries, companies.

c. Write T for true and F for false in the notebook. F • You should donate only new clothes. T • When donate clothes, you combat the poverty. (Available at: <https://br.pinterest.com/ pin/494270127826615902/>. Accessed on: Mar. 13, 2016.)

d. In the notebook, list three types of clothes that could be donate. Respostas possíveis: T-shirts, pants, blouses, jackets, jeans, shoes.

VIEWPOINTS Converse com seu professor e colegas. Você costuma doar as roupas que não usa mais? Se sim, para quem? Se não, o que faz com elas? Você se lembra de alguma campanha realizada em seu município ou comunidade para arrecadar roupas? Se sim, qual(is)? Em sua opinião, esse tipo de campanha é eficaz?

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INTEGRATED SKILLS LEIA DESCOBRINDO O GÊNERO NO MP

READING

Editoria de arte

1. Read the text and answer the following questions in the notebook.

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

a. What text genre is it? Is it a sign or an ad? Sugestão de resposta: A sign.

b. Where do you think it could be found? On a school, a club, a hospital.

c. What is its main purpose? To inform people they can’t wear the

clothes and accessories listed on the sign.

d. In your opinion, why was it written? Sugestão de resposta:

To tell the people the rules about what they aren’t allowed to wear.

(Available at: <http://www.crestock.com/image/10887Dress-Code.aspx>. Accessed on: Mar. 13, 2016.)

TIP Um dress code é um conjunto de regras que determinam os tipos de roupa que as pessoas podem ou não usar em um determinado ambiente, tais como escolas, clubes etc.

2. Read the sign in activity 1 again. Then, in the notebook, write the dress code rule each person is breaking. c. No hats.

d. No athletic wear. iStockphoto/Thinkstock

Blend Images/Thinkstock

b. No baggy pants. Creatas/Thinkstock

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

a. No bandanas.

VIEWPOINTS Converse com seu professor e colegas. Em sua opinião, um código de vestimenta é necessário? Por quê? Quais são as vantagens e desvantagens de se ter um código desse tipo? Em que lugares há códigos de vestimenta? Que roupas são consideradas apropriadas para esses lugares? Esses códigos são diferentes para homens e mulheres? Por quê?

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LISTENING TRACK 32

The speakers are talking about: a. fashion b. the dress code at a school c. teenagers and their favorite clothes

Focus on Genre

iStockphoto.com/Sportstock

1. You are going to hear the first part of an interview between Christina, an exchange student from New Zealand, and Mr. Matt Owens, from the U.S.A. Listen and mark the correct option in the notebook.

TRACK 33 2. Listen to the whole interview and mark some of its main characteristics based on what you hear. Use the notebook. a. Slang and informal language are not used. b. It contains verses arranged in stanzas. c. Open-ended and closed questions are used. d. The interviewer shows interest in what is being said. e. The interviewer finishes the interview by thanking the guest speaker. f. Its main purpose is to inform people about someone’s opinion on a subject. g. The guest speaker is briefly introduced at the beginning of the interview. h. It contains facts organized in chronological order. i. The interviewer asks questions for more details.

TRACK 33 3. Listen to the interview again and write down the correct options in the notebook. a. Mr. Owens is the school principal / teacher / counselor. b. According to Mr. Owens, skirts / baggy pants / white sneakers are not allowed. c. Mr. Owens says the purpose of the dress code is to keep students quiet / calm and focused / safe and focused. d. The parents / The school community / The teachers discuss(es) the school dress code.

TALK ABOUT IT 4. During the interview, Mr. Owens says: “In order to be accepted, a dress code should be openly discussed with the parents’ committee, the teaching staff, the school board and, of course, the students themselves [...]. Everybody should be involved in this discussion". • Do you agree with Mr. Owens? • Why do you support this opinion? Talk to your teacher and your classmates about it.

VIEWPOINTS Converse com seu professor e colegas. A entrevista que você ouviu fala sobre o código de vestimenta em uma escola. Você gostaria de estudar nela? Por quê? Qual é a diferença entre uniforme e código de vestimenta? Em sua escola quem decide o que pode ou não ser usado? Essas regras são eficazes? Por quê? Você gostaria de sugerir alguma mudança no seu vestuário escolar? Em caso afirmativo, que sugestões você faria? Por quê? LEIA SUGESTÃO INTERDISCIPLINAR NO MP

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SPEAKING Asking for More Details 1. Read two parts extracted from the interview between Christina and Mr. Owens. Then, in the notebook, write down the correct option to complete the sentence below. Christina: [...] So, Mr. Owens, can you give us more information about the dress code? Mr. Owens: [...] To begin with, in a school, a dress code is a set of rules that determines the type of clothing and accessories students must wear and mustn’t wear when they come to classes. Christina: Can you tell us more about it? Mr. Owens: Yes, sure. One of the problems with these clothes and accessories is that they are inappropriate for the school environment because [...] In the interview, Christina asked for / gave more details about the topic in discussion.

TRACK 34 2. See some examples in which people ask for more information. Listen and repeat. a. What can you tell me about dress codes at this school? b. Can you give me more details about this site? c. Could you tell us more about your work experience?

TALK ABOUT IT 3. Now it’s your turn to ask for more information. For this, you will work in pairs and follow the steps below: Respostas pessoais. 1. Choose a topic for your conversation. Some suggestions are: • I have a big family • I love sports • My weekend was great • At my school students wear a uniform notebook to write the conversation. Some observations: • In this conversation, both students should ask for more information and give details. So, choose a topic that be interesting for you. • For the conversation, you can use the structures showed in exercises 1 and 2. Also,

Monkey Business/Thinkstock

2. Aer this, create a conversation in which you ask more information about the topic chosen. Use the

you can search other ways to ask more information in books and sites. 3. Show the conversation to your teacher, doing any necessary changes. 4. Present your conversation to the teacher and the classmates. And be prepared to offer more details: the other students can ask them for you. LEIA DICA NO MP FASHION CLOSE-UPS | UNIT 8

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Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

WRITING

1. Some women posted their opinions on a question and answers online forum. Read them and answer the questions in the notebook. a. What are they about? They’re about the way to dress at work. b. Where can you find them? On a website. Editoria de arte

c. What is their main purpose? To share people’s opinion on clothes-related issues.

Home

Browse categories

My Activity

About continue

ASK

F

ANSWER

DISCOVER

Resolved Question How do you dress at work? I work for a big corporation in NYC. Sometimes I feel more confident when I’m dressep up at work, of course, with nice makeup. […] Do you girls dress up at work?

G

Well, yes and no. While you can tell a lot about a person by the way she / he dresses, clothes don't tell the whole story of who you are. [...] Hi, I’m student. Actually, I’ll be in college next October. But I do agree with you. Dressing up is necessary for a job like yours, so keep it the way you like just make sure you’re happy with it.

H

We wear red T-shirts and khaki jeans or skirts. I don’t wear a skirt because I have to climb a ladder at times.

(How do you dress at work? Girls Forum. Available at: <http://www.girlsforum.com/threads/how-do-you-dress-at-work.12274/>. Accessed on: Mar. 13, 2016.)

Focus on Genre

Habilidade de leitura: HL6 – Identificar as características principais e a finalidade de textos de diferentes gêneros.

2. Read the forum again. Then, in the notebook, write the alternatives that are true about it. a. People give their opinion about a topic on a forum. b. It contains formal language. c. The posts are usually wrien in the 1st person singular or 3rd person singular.

SELF-EVALUATION Evaluate your post. How similar is it to the one on this page? Is it interesting enough to get other readers to respond? Are there any improvements you can make to it?

d. The posts are always very long.

3. Now, it's your turn to post your opinion about a topic of your interest on an online forum.

» Choose an online forum in which you would like to take part. » Choose a topic about which you would like to write. Read what other participants have wrien about it.

» In the notebook, write your first dra and show it to your teacher and classmates.

GO BEYOND A movie about a young journalist who starts working for the fashion industry in New York: THE DEVIL WEARS PRADA (O DIABO VESTE PRADA). Directed by: David Frankel. USA: 2006.

» Incorporate your classmates’ suggestions and your teacher’s feedback.

» Make the necessary changes and write the final version of your post.

» Publish it in an online forum. 118

A site where you can find information about the history of costumes: <http://ler.vc/kquzsc>. (Accessed on: Mar. 13, 2016.)

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Autoavaliação Responda às perguntas do quadro a seguir em seu caderno para avaliar seu desempenho ao longo das unidades 7 e 8. = muito bom

= regular

= fraco

Sou capaz de...

Unidade

a. ler e ouvir assuntos relacionados a fontes de energia e atitudes ecologicamente corretas e falar sobre eles.

7

b. ler e reconhecer as características do gênero testual cartoon.

7

c. reconhecer e utilizar os sufixos para formação de adjetivos.

7

d. entender e usar os Comparative Adjectives em contexto.

7

e. reconhecer e usar expressões idiomáticas relacionadas a alimentos.

7

f. entender e usar os Superlative Adjectives e usá-los de maneira apropriada.

7

g. ler um panfleto, reconhecer suas características e produzir um texto semelhante.

7

h. ler, ouvir e falar a respeito da moda e de sua influência entre os jovens.

8

i. ler e reconhecer as características do gênero textual letra de música.

8

j. nomear e descrever peças de vestuário.

8

k. reconhecer e usar verbos relacionados ao vestuário.

8

l. entender o uso do verbo used to e empregá-lo de maneira apropriada.

8

m. ler e reconhecer as características do gênero oral entrevista.

8

n. observar as características de posts e produzir um semelhante.

8

Avaliação

Além desses conteúdos, o que mais você aprendeu? Escreva no caderno.

MELHORANDO SEU DESEMPENHO Refaça os exercícios das unidades 7 e 8. Esclareça suas dúvidas com o(a) professor(a). Visite uma biblioteca e faça uma leitura de seu interesse. Crie seu próprio glossário / dicionário. Participe de um chat online em inglês.

AUTOAVALIAÇÃO

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Household Sizes 1. Answer these questions in the notebook.

Respostas pessoais.

a. Do you have a big or a small family? b. Who lives with you in your house? Your parents, grandparents, brothers, sisters, other relatives? c. Do you like to live with them? Why ?

2. Read the texts and down write the false statement below in the notebook, Habilidades de leitura: HL1 – correcting it. Localizar informações explícitas

Average size of Singapore household shrinks

Editoria de arte

Estúdio Insólito

F a. Families in Singapore are getting bigger. Families in Singapore are geing smaller. em um texto; HL11 – Relacionar temas, assuntos ou recursos em T b. Most people in Nevada live in small households. diferentes textos, representados em diferentes linguagens. T c. Households in Singapore are bigger than households in Southern Nevada.

Southern Nevada household numbers

SINGAPORE: The Department of Statistics (DOS) said 3.5 persons made up the average household in 2010, down from 3.7 persons in 2000. The average household size in Southern Nevada is 2.73 persons. (SHAFAWI, Mustafa; CHAN, Wayne. Average size of Singapore household shrinks. Channel News Asia, Feb. 2011. Available at: <http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/singaporelocalnews/ view/1110840/1/.html>. Accessed on: Apr. 16, 2016.)

(THE NEVADA STATEHEALTH DIVISION. Southern Nevada Market Overview. Vegas PBS, Las Vegas, 2010. Available at: <http://www.klvx. org/index.aspx?NID=87>. Accessed on: Mar. 22, 2012.) LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

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3. Making a pie chart • Ask the people in your neighborhood about the number of people in their household. Draw the table below in the notebook and use it to write down the information you collect.

Name of street: House / apartment number

Number of people living in the household

• Make calculations to find out the average size of households in your neighborhood. • Create a pie chart using your calculations. Use the pie chart in exercise 2 for ideas. • Put up your pie chart on the classroom or school wall.

Remember to

LEIA DICA NO MP

* use large and colorful fonts and clear images. * distribute images evenly. * write an appealing title. * use different colors to represent each percentage. * use a caption to explain the use of colors.

WEB SEARCH Go to the site below to get more information on how to make pie charts: Kids’ Zone: <http://ler.vc/2h54qm>. (Accessed on: Mar. 14, 2016.)

SELF-EVALUATION Evaluate your pie chart. Compare it to the one on page 120. How similar or different are they? Is there a title and a caption in your pie chart? Is it visually clear? Did you use different colors to represent each type of information? Are there any improvements you can make to your next pie chart?

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1. Read text 1 and text 2. Then, in the notebook, write T for true or F for false.

Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

T a.

Korfball originated in Holland.

T d.

It’s a mixed gender sport.

F b.

It combines basketball and tennis.

T e.

Each match lasts one hour.

T c.

People of all ages can play it.

F f.

It’s a full contact kind of sport.

HOME

EVENTS

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1 NEWS

VIDEOS

THE SPORT

CONTACT

ABOUT US

KORFBALL Márcio dos Santos

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Korfball (Korf: Dutch for basket) was developed by Physical Education (PE) teacher Nico Broekhuysen in Holland in 1902. The International Korfball Federation (IKF) was created in 1933, with its headquarters in Holland. Korfball is recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and it was first demonstrated in the Olympic Games in 1920 and 1928.

KORFBALL AROUND THE WORLD

Korfball is a combination of basketball and netball (a sport similar to basketball) and it is Holland’s 4th most popular sport. Nowadays it is played in over 40 countries such as Japan, India and Russia. In Brazil there are seven teams in Rio de Janeiro only.

KORFBALL AND ITS BENEFITS

With very simple rules, it is the sport of inclusion as it can be played by children, teenagers and adults, men and women together, indoors or outdoors. It also promotes peace, respect, equal rights, teamwork and logical reasoning. It can bring back the motivation for those people who don’t like PE classes because no special skills are needed to play it. It is very successful in schools as it minimizes gender and age conflicts. (Research sources: South West Korfball Association. About Korfball. Available at: <http://swka.org/about-korfball/> and CORFEBOL. Multidisciplinaridade como aliada, June 2007. Available at: <http://www.confef.org.br/revistasWeb/n24/16_CORFEBOL.pdf>. Accessed on: Mar. 15, 2016.)

2

BASIC RULES * *

* *

% DOS

* Defenders can only defend attackers of the same gender. Teams: 8 players (4 males and 4 females). * Defenders and attackers change positions after two goals. Duration of match: two periods of 30 minutes * Goals can only be scored when a player breaks free from his / her opponent. with a 10-minute break in between. X DON’TS Basic equipment: two baskets and one ball. * No dribbling or running with the ball. Objective: score a goal by throwing the ball * No blocking, punching or kicking. into the opponent’s basket. * No deliberate physical contact.

(Research sources: South West Korfball Association. About Korfball. Available at: <http://swka.org/about-korfball/> and Introduction to Korfball. Available at: <http://www.korfball.com/tournament/download/introduction.pdf>. Accessed on: Mar. 15, 2016.)

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GO BEYOND You can learn more about korfball at <http://ler.vc/xdz8fm>. (Accessed on: Mar. 15, 2016.)

VIEWPOINTS

Habilidade de leitura: HL23 – Relacionar o texto à sua experiência pessoal.

Converse com seu professor e colegas. Você já conhecia o korfball? Gostaria de praticá-lo? Por quê? Você acredita que as regras desse esporte contribuem para a cooperação e a integração de seus jogadores? Em sua opinião, os esportes podem contribuir para o bem-estar físico e social das pessoas? De que maneira? Em sua escola há algum projeto esportivo? Que esportes são oferecidos? Em caso negativo, você gostaria de sugerir algum projeto para sua escola?

2. Start a school sports club together with your classmates. Follow the steps below.

STEP 1 • Check if there is a sports club in your school. If not, check if your principal can give you the permission to start one.

STEP 2 • Find out what sports the students in your school would like to do. Prepare a simple questionnaire to collect information about their preferences. Use the one below as a starting point, following the example. Ask as many students in your school as you can!

SPORTS CLUB PROJECT 1. SPORT: What sport would you like to play? 2. FREQUENCY: How often would you like to play it? 3. TIME (morning / afternoon / evening): When would you like to play it?

STUDENT 1

STUDENT 2

STUDENT 3

soccer

once a week

aernoon

STEP 3 • Check the results. Which sport had the highest number of votes? When / how often should it be offered? • Report back to your principal so that he / she can help you set up a sports club in your school. Good luck with your sports club!

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FUN FR HAP LO CROSS-CURRICULAR LINK Send a positive message,

MAKE A DIFFERENCE

1. Read the timeline and write the correct options in the notebook. a. The T-shirt originated

.

Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

c. T-shirts became more colorful and they were used to

√ I. from a one-piece underwear

display messages of protest

II. in the 1950s

.

I. during World War II

b. During World War II, T-shirts became highly popular .

because they were

√ II. in the 1960s

.

d. In the 70s and 80s T-shirts started being used

I. cut into top and bottom pieces

√ I. to advertise brand names and promote tourism

√ II. made of cotton and long-lasting

II. to promote the hippie movement

John Kobal Foundation/ Getty Images

National Archives and Records Administration

Bettmann/CORBIS

LEIA NOTA CULTURAL NO MP

19TH CENTURY

WORLD WAR II AND LATE 40s

1950s

The first T-shirt or tee originated from the one-piece Union suit underwear cut into top and bottom pieces.

T-shirts became popular as undershirts among US Navy and Army soldiers. They were made of cotton and were highly durable, ideal for work environments and high-temperature places. After World War II, war veterans started wearing their T-shirts together with their uniform pants in more informal gatherings.

White cotton T-shirts grew quickly in popularity as the American youth idols James Dean and Marlon Brando wore the garment in their movies. Because of Dean and Brando’s rebellious style, the T-shirt was soon associated with rebellion and non-conformity.

VIEWPOINTS

Converse com seu professor e colegas. O texto mostra que ao longo do tempo as camisetas foram se modificando de acordo com "(...) movimentos sociais e históricos.(...)" Você acredita que nosso vestuário possa sofrer influências de tais momentos? Cite exemplos de como isso acontece no Brasil. De acordo com o texto que você acabou de ler, “Tees are considered a means of self-expression and they can reveal a lot about you!”. Você concorda com essa afirmação? Por quê?

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N RIEN PPY OVE IN CONTEXT

2. Writing a positive message on your T-shirt.

› Think about a positive statement you’d like to write on your T-shirt. Possible themes: Friends

Sports

Your city

Environment

Love

Any other theme?

› Write a short, simple message to express your feelings about your theme. Check your spelling and if you have enough space on the T-shirt to write the message.

› Get a used plain white T-shirt. A light colored T-shirt is also a good option.

› Use a fabric pen or paint to write your message on the T-shirt. You can use a piece of cardboard inside the T-shirt to prevent the ink or paint from staining it.

remember to › use large and colorful letters. › distribute letters evenly. › write short and simple sentences.

Estúdio Insólito

World War II (1939–1945) is considered one of the most destructive wars in history and it involved several nations in two military alliances: The Axis (Germany, Italy and Japan) and The Allies (the United States, Great Britain, France and the Soviet Union).

› Let it dry for one or two hours before wearing it.

PhotoObjects.net/ Thinkstock

iStockphoto/ Thinkstock

AbleStock.com/ Thinkstock

› Put your T-shirt on and express yourself!

1960s

1970s › 1980s

1990s › present day

Casual clothes became more fashionable and T-shirts were more stylish and colorful than ever. Tie-dye, an ancient Asian and African art of dying cotton, influenced followers of the hippie movement in the USA. T-shirts started being used to display messages of protest.

From messages of protest to marketing tool, T-shirts were used as souvenirs to promote tourism and advertise famous brands.

Nowadays,T-shirts can come in all shapes and sizes, and in several countries around the world they are still a favorite item of clothing. Tees are considered a means of self-expression and they can reveal a lot about you!

(Research sources: The T-Shirt: From Men’s underwear to Casual Couture. We, The T-Shirt. Available at: <http://www.nardinesaad.com/ wethetshirt/the-t-shirt/>; A Short Story of the T-Shirt. Sunday morning. Available at: <http://www.cbsnews.com/video/watch/?id=1786690n> and A Brief and Incomplete Timeline of T-Shirt. Neatorama. Available at: <http://www.neatorama.com/2011/03/17/a-brief-and-incomplete-timelineof-t-shirt-history/>. Accessed on: Mar. 18, 2013.)

SELF-EVALUATION

Evaluate your message. Is it visually clear and appealing? Is it creative? Are there any improvements you can make to your next message?

WEB SEARCH

Go to the sites listed below to get more ideas on how to customize your own T-shirts. <http://ler.vc/z4qvex>; <http://ler.vc/h6ug2e> (Accessed on: Mar. 18, 2013)

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Energy Sources 1.

Read the text and answer the questions in the notebook. a. What’s the most common source of energy used nowadays? The most common source of energy used are fossil fuels.

Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações explícitas em um texto.

b. How were they formed? Fossil fuels were formed when ancient plants and animals died hundreds of millions of

years ago. As their bodies decayed, they were mixed with the sand and mud and buried deep in the earth. Compression and heat over thousands and thousands We can obtain renewable energy from the sun (solar energy), from the water of years changed them into fossil fuels. (hydropower), from the wind (windmills), hot water springs (geothermal) and even from firewood, animal manure, crop residues and waste (biomass).

Editoria de arte

c. Where can we get renewable energy from?

POWER SOURCES There are many types of power sources. The most popular power source are fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas). Fossil fuels were formed when ancient plants and animals died hundreds of millions of years ago. As their bodies decayed, they were mixed with the sand and mud and buried deep in the earth. Compression and heat over thousands and thousands of years changed them into fossil fuels.

Oil and gas are used to produce electrical energy, mechanical energy, and heat energy. [...]

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

iStockphoto/Thinkstock

Although fossil fuel is the most common power source, it is not the only one. Here are some other power sources that we use today:

Wood and coal are used to produce mechanical, electrical, and heat energy. [...]

Nuclear power is used to make electricity. [...]

[...]

Renewable Power Sources

Renewable energy is a source of energy that can never be exhausted. We can obtain renewable energy from the sun (solar energy), from the water (hydropower), from the wind (windmills), hot water springs (geothermal) and even from firewood, animal manure, crop residues and waste (biomass). [...] (Power Sources. Kids Zone. Available at: <http://www.enwin.com/kids/electricity/power_sources.cfm>. Accessed on: Mar. 15, 2016.)

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Habilidade de leitura: HL1 – Localizar informações 2. Study the graph and answer the questions in the notebook. explícitas em um texto. a. Which was the most available energy source in Brazil in 2007? Oil / petroleum.

b. Which type of energy was most available in Brazil in 2007: renewable or non-renewable Estúdio Insólito

sources? Non-renewable sources: 54.1% altogether. ENERGY MATRIX IN 2007 Renewable sources 27.8% < Biomass 14.9% < Hydroelectricity 3.2% < Other sources

Non-renewable sources Oil / petroleum > 37.4% Gas > 9.3% Coal > 6% Nuclear > 1.4%

BRAZIL

(Research source: GIANSANTI, Roberto. Série sobre energia. Plano de aula 1 – Energia no mundo. Nova escola. Available at: <http://revistaescola. abril.com.br/geografia/pratica-pedagogica/questao-energia-brasil-mundo-507241.shtml?page=all>. Accessed on: Mar. 15, 2016.)

3. Make a poster following the steps below. 1. Choose one of the energy sources shown in the graph. 2. Use the web (see WEB SEARCH box), books and magazines to research the energy source you choose. Find out: › where it comes from › its weaknesses › its strengths › its future prospects in Brazil or in the world 3. Organize the information and write the first draft of your text. 4. Show your draft to your teacher and classmates and take notes of their suggestions. 5. Prepare your poster (see the WEB SEARCH box for tips on how to make a poster). 6. Present your work in an environmental event at your school or hang it on the school’s bulletin board.

REMEMBER TO: > use large and colorful fonts and clear images. > distribute images evenly. > write an appealing title.

SELF-EVALUATION Evaluate your poster. Is it visually clear and appealing? Is it informative and interesting? Are there any improvements you can make to it?

WEB SEARCH Go to the sites listed below to know more about energy sources and energy alternatives and also to read some tips on how to prepare a poster. National Geographic: <http://ler.vc/rj9agm> Pennsylvania Historical & Museum Commission: <http://ler.vc/ur3es8> eHow: <http://ler.vc/vcbcqi> (Accessed on: Mar. 15, 2016.)

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EXAM PRACTICE O objetivo desta seção é familiarizá-lo(a) com alguns tipos de questões utilizados como instrumento de avaliação para o ingresso no Ensino Superior.

PARTE I SIMULADOS DO ENEM (EXAME NACIONAL DO ENSINO MÉDIO) Calvin & Hobbes, Bill Watterson © 1986 Watterson / Dist. by Universal Uclick

Questão 1

(WATTERSON, Bill. Calvin and Hobbes. GoComics. Disponível em: <http://www.gocomics.com/calvinandhobbes/1986/06/15>. Acesso em: 8 maio 2013.)

1. A tirinha acima apresenta uma cena típica em famílias em que há crianças. Geralmente, elas acordam seus pais bastante cedo. Nesta tirinha, especificamente, podemos ter uma ideia da dinâmica familiar da família retratada. Na visão de Calvin, o seu pai a. é um pai carinhoso, que nunca discute com o filho. b. é bastante sábio e ensina coisas bastante úteis a seu filho. c. tem uma boca muito grande. d. adora acordar cedo. e. está geralmente bravo. 2. No dia dos pais, Calvin resolve aplicar alguns princípios ensinados por seu pai. Um dos objetivos de Calvin, ao aplicar tais princípios, foi a. mostrar ao pai o quanto ele é um filho obediente. b. mostrar ao pai o quanto admira sua sabedoria. c. iniciar um planejamento financeiro, economizando 6% do que recebe de mesada. d. justificar a falta de um presente no Dia dos Pais. e. mostrar ao pai que, a partir de agora, acordará cedo sem reclamar.

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3. Com base na tirinha, pode-se inferir que um dos traços da personalidade de Calvin é a. a espontaneidade.

d. a sinceridade.

b. a esperteza.

e. a generosidade.

c. o desrespeito.

Questão 2 What is Friday Night Skate? Friday Night Skate is a Copenhagen roller-skate event. On selected Friday evenings you are able to skate through Copenhagen in the middle of the street with a large group of people. The participants are protected from other road users, so you can enjoy safe and undisturbed skating in the middle of traffic. Friday Night Skate has from 500 to 1500 participants per event, depending on the weather condition.

12 times during the summer Friday Night Skate will take place every second Friday during the period from April – September. Everyone can participate, the event is free of charge and there is no signing up for participation.

Not a competition skate Every skate event has a different 18-21 km route through the streets of Copenhagen. Friday Night Skate is a cool way to experience the city with a lot of other people. You start, run and finish the skate as a group. […]

The organization of the skate The organizers and volunteers do their best to make every Friday Night Skate a safe journey through the city. Therefore the field of participants is escorted by Blockers, Flying Nurses and a couple of MC-officers. • Blockers are overlooking the skaters and the traffic, and they set the pace of the skate. • Flying Nurses are capable of giving first-aid, if accidents should happen along the way. • In front of and behind the field a couple of MC-officers keep other road users at a distance. Learn more about Blockers and Flying Nurses (What is Friday Night Skate? Friday night skate, Copenhagen. Disponível em: <http://www.fns-cph.dk/en/about/what-is-fns.html>. Acesso em: 15 mar. 2016.)

1. Após a leitura do texto, é correto afirmar que a. os patinadores correm sérios riscos durante os passeios. b. os engarrafamentos de trânsito atrapalham os patinadores. c. os eventos de patinação permitem aos participantes conhecerem a cidade. d. não é somente um passeio, mas também uma competição. e. há um trajeto fixo de 18-21km sempre utilizado pelos patinadores. 2. O Friday Night Skate em Copenhagen pode ser considerado um evento democrático. O fragmento que dá suporte a esta afirmação é a. ...you can enjoy safe and undisturbed skating in the middle of the traffic... b. ...Everyone can participate, the event is free of charge... c. ...On selected Friday nights you are able to skate through Copenhagen... d. ...You start, run and finish the skate as a group. e. ...The participants are protected from other road users... 3. Em relação à periodicidade do evento, é correto afirmar que ele acontece a. todas as sextas-feiras do mês do meio de abril ao final de setembro. b. às sextas-feiras alternadas. c. todas as sextas-feiras durante todo o ano. d. toda segunda sexta-feira, entre os meses de abril e setembro. e. toda segunda-feira do início de abril ao meio de setembro. EXAM PRACTICE

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Questão 3 1. “Reading a book is like re-writing it for yourself. You bring to a novel, anything you read, all your experience of the world. You bring your history and you read it in your own terms.” – Angela Carter

2. “A writer only begins a book. A reader finishes it.” – Samuel Johnson 3. “I love books, by the way, way more than movies. Movies tell you what to think. A good book lets you choose a few thoughts for yourself. Movies show you the pink house. A good book tells you there's a pink house and lets you paint some of the finishing touches, maybe choose the roof style, park your own car out front. […]” – Karen Marie Moning, Darkfever (Disponível em: Quotations book. Disponível em: <http://quotationsbook.com/quote/4548/>; Quotes by Samuel Johnson. Good reads. Disponível em: <http://www.goodreads.com/quotes/84912-a-writer-only-begins-a-book-a-reader-finishes-it> e Karen Marie Moning. Good reads. Disponível em: <http://www.goodreads.com/quotes/178237-i-love-books-by-the-way-way-more-than-movies>. Acesso em: 15 mar. 2016.)

1. As três citações anteriores expõem opiniões sobre a leitura. De acordo com a citação 1: a. um bom livro é aquele que é entendido da mesma maneira por pessoas diferentes. b. um livro pode ensinar ao leitor muito mais do que ele aprendeu com suas experiências de vida. c. a leitura é atividade passiva, através da qual o leitor absorve aquilo que o autor quis contar. d. ler um livro é tão prazeroso quanto reescrevê-lo. e. a mesma história pode ser interpretada de diversas maneiras, conforme o conhecimento anterior do leitor. 2. A segunda citação: a. contradiz a primeira, na medida em que reduz o papel do autor do livro. b. opõe-se à primeira, conferindo ao leitor papel primordial na leitura de um livro. c. não se relaciona com a primeira, na medida em que trata do modo como o livro é feito. d. confirma a ideia exposta na primeira, na medida em que confere ao leitor um papel determinante na história de um livro. e. complementa a primeira, tornando o leitor um agente passivo na leitura de um livro. 3. De acordo com a citação 3: a. os livros são mais complexos que os filmes e muito menos interessantes. b. as adaptações de livros para o cinema geralmente reduzem a história original. c. os livros não permitem a visualização completa do cenário, visto que não possuem muitas imagens. d. o leitor de um livro participa muito mais ativamente na construção da história que o expectador de um filme. e. os livros são menos divertidos que os filmes.

Questão 4 What is eco-fashion? Eco-fashion is about making clothes that take into account the environment, the health of consumers and the working conditions of people in the fashion industry. Eco-fashion clothes: • are made using organic raw materials, such as cotton grown without pesticides and silk made by worms fed on organic trees • don't involve the use of harmful chemicals and bleaches to colour fabrics • are often made from recycled and reused textiles. High-quality garments can be made from second-hand clothes and even recycled plastic bottles • are made to last, so that people keep them for longer • come from fair trade – the people who make them are paid a fair price and have decent working conditions. With the eco-fashion industry still in its infancy, the main responsibility at the moment lies with clothes manufacturers and fashion designers, who need to start using sustainable materials and processes. (Eco-friendly fashion. STEP. Disponível em: <http://www.stepin.org/casestudye4c3.html?id=ecofashion&page=2>. Acesso em: 15 mar. 2016.)

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1. De acordo com o texto, o termo eco-fashion envolve a confecção de roupas que a. protegem a saúde dos consumidores e dos trabalhadores. b. serão vendidas para melhorar a condição de trabalho de quem as produz. c. divulgam formas de melhorar a saúde das pessoas. d. levam em consideração o meio ambiente. e. buscam tornar a vida dos trabalhadores mais digna. 2. Segundo o texto, as roupas produzidas pela indústria eco-fashion a. são feitas de tecidos tratados com produtos químicos específicos. b. não duram muito, mas podem ser recicladas. c. são frequentemente feitas de tecidos reciclados e reutilizados. d. têm uma qualidade inferior às produzidas de maneira tradicional. e. são produzidas com menor custo que as tradicionais. 3. De acordo com o texto, é correto afirMar. que a. processos e materiais sustentáveis são importantes para a confecção de roupas eco-fashion. b. a indústria eco-fashion está consolidada há anos no mercado. c. o uso de materiais sustentáveis não deve ser uma preocupação da indústria da moda. d. os estilistas não têm responsabilidade em produzir roupas sustentáveis. e. os produtores de roupas devem se preocupar com as orientações dadas pelos estilistas.

PARTE II QUESTÕES DE VESTIBULAR Questão 5 / FUVEST (1ª FASE – 2010) As everybody knows, if you do not work out, your muscles get flaccid. What most people don’t realize, however, is that your brain also stays in better shape when you exercise. Surprised? Although the idea of exercising cognitive machinery by performing mentally demanding activities – popularly termed the “use it or lose it” hypothesis – is better known, a review of dozens of studies shows that maintaining a mental edge requires more than that. Other things you do – including participating in activities that make you think, getting regular exercise, staying socially engaged and even having a positive attitude – have a meaningful influence on how effective your cognitive functioning will be in old age. www.scientificamerican.com/article. Acesso em: 06 Jul. 2009. Adaptado 1. O texto informa que a. exercícios físicos são benéficos para o corpo e para a saúde mental. b. as pessoas não se dão conta da importância de músculos fortes. c. o cérebro é muito pouco exercitado por pessoas que não trabalham. d. todo mundo deveria exercitar-se diariamente. e. grande parte das pessoas preocupa-se apenas com a aparência física. 2. Segundo o texto, o bom funcionamento de nosso cérebro na velhice depende, entre outros fatores, a. das perdas e ganhos que vivenciamos ao longo da vida. b. da herança genética que trazemos conosco. c. das modalidades de exercícios físicos que realizamos. d. da complexidade de exercícios intelectuais a que somos expostos. e. de nosso engajamento em atividades intelectuais e sociais.

EXAM PRACTICE

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Questão 6 / UFSC (2009) Aliança Francesa de Nova Friburgo

Have you always dreamed of traveling to cool places, meeting lots of different people and maybe picking up a language or two? No matter what country you live in, you can fly over the world's highest waterfalls in Venezuela, learn world trade in Japan, study art in France, or take dancing lessons in Ghana. How? Join a study abroad program, where high school and university students live with a host family in a foreign country. Semester, summer, and year-long programs allow you to attend school, take intensive language courses, or perform community service in another country.

http://www.netflash.com.br/alliance/ Intercambios/anteriores/03intercambio01b.jpg

Besides the excitement of travel, one reason to study abroad is that you will experience new customs, holidays, foods, art, music, and politics firsthand. “Obviously, I learned the language and am now fluent, but perhaps more important was how much I learned about cultures, people, and myself. I learned this from the viewpoint of an active member of the community and my host family, not from the tourist's point of view,” says Andrew, who studied in Poitiers, France. Aliança Francesa de Nova Friburgo

Another reason for studying abroad is that you'll gain self-confidence. You’ll have the opportunity to learn how to better stand up for yourself and your beliefs and to express yourself in another language. “What could make you more confident than that?” says Christina, who studied in Caracas, Venezuela. Living away from home can also help you adjust in the transition to university and adulthood. Matthew says he returned from studying in Australia with http://www.netflash.com.br/alliance/ Intercambios/anteriores/03intercambio03b.jpg

confidence, social ability, and a genuine interest in international affairs that made a difference. “After having gone abroad in high school, I found the transition to university to be a breeze.”

And speaking of university, improving your language skills might help you get into prestigious universities and even find future jobs. Universities and employers know that studying abroad provides leadership skills in a world that is increasingly globally interconnected. Most of all, it's fun! You're not likely to suffer from general monotony while you're studying in a different learning environment. (Studying abroad. Teens Health. Disponível em: <http://www.kidshealth.org/teen/school_jobs/school/abroad.html>. Acesso em: 15 ago. 2008.) (Adaptado)

1. Select the appropriate title(s) for the text. a. Traveling around the world b. The most famous study abroad programs c. Why study abroad? d. Learning a foreign language e. Living and studying in a foreign country 2. Select the CORRECT statement(s) according to the text. a. People dream of traveling to cold places. b. The world is becoming more and more integrated. c. In foreign countries you can study at very good universities. d. By studying in a foreign country people learn to defend their convictions. e. Studying abroad is a requisite of good universities.

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3. Choose the CORRECT proposition(s) to complete the first part of the statement, according to the text. You can study abroad, a. depending on the country you live in. b. because of the country you live in. c. no matter what country you live in. d. whatever country you live in. e. although the country you live in. 4. Select the proposition(s) in which the question is answered according to the text. a. What are some benefits from studying abroad? People have fun, gain experience and learn foreign languages. b. Are foreign students allowed to join community service in a host country? Yes, but only if they live with host families. c. How long do study abroad programs last? They can last up to 12 months. d. How did Matthew face the move from high school to university? It was very easy for him. e. What kinds of experiences can students have abroad? They can learn to adjust to foreign universities. f. How does Christina feel about her experience in Venezuela? She thinks she could be more confident. 5. Select the CORRECT proposition(s). From the text you can conclude that a. people who study abroad go to the best schools. b. employers value employees who are likely to be leaders. c. the best academic opportunities are just for people who study abroad. d. if you study abroad, you’ll get good jobs. e. France is a good country to go if you are interested in arts. f. Andrew engaged in community life in France. g. people do not like familiar learning contexts.

Questão 7 / UFG (2011–2) Haiku is a very important form of traditional Japanese poetry designed to convey the essence of an experience in a short format. Read the haiku below: one degree turning up the heater one degree just before you come home by englishhaiku (Disponível em: <http://englishhai.exblog.jp/>. Acesso em: 21 mar. 2011.)

1. What inference can be made? a. The weather is cold. b. The music is low. c. The house is messy. d. The TV set is broken. e. The food is ready. EXAM PRACTICE

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Questão 8 / UERJ (1º

Exame de Qualificação – 2011)

www.Clipart.com

Book reading experience and the ultimate technology

The computer is just a feeble attempt of humankind to replicate the workings of a unique invention, while science is an attempt to understand the craftsmanship of the greatest masterpiece – Nature. As we all know, scientists can only replicate carbon-based life forms. They cannot literally make from out of thin air any genetic material. They rely on raw materials from resources provided by nature. It 05

is just like trying to simulate the functions of the human brain by inventing the computer. The brain is the fastest and most powerful multimedia computer that exists in the present. It is organic, self upgrading and has high articulation. The computer, on the other hand, cannot help itself without the intervention of humans. A computer hooked to the internet provides access to all the knowledge of humanity. However, there

10

is a downside about this convenience. It deprives the human brain the necessary thinking skills and training for data hunting and information processing. A student today only needs to access the internet to do research homework. However, the learning experience is defeated since it is not the student who researches the data needed for the school homework but the web browser. So where is the selective learning process?

15

If carrying books is so tiresome, mobile devices like smartphones will do the trick. All a student has to do is search in a web browser for the Intext free eBook reader, for example, and then hit enter. While there are lots of commercially available eBooks being offered out there, education must not be so costly. That’s why there are millions of electronic books downloadable all over the world for free. Reading books, either printed or the electronic version, provides the learner the essential mental

20

training for data hunting, logical reasoning for information processing and the uncanny ability to differentiate truth from lies, right from wrong, facts from fallacy, real from a hoax and the appropriate from the inappropriate. In the process of reading a book, a learner elevates the capacity of the human brain for stimulation of the senses by indexing information for instant recall and further developing comprehension through

25

mental processing of data. Nature is the “Ultimate Technology” and the human brain is one of its most powerful inventions. We are zillions of years more advanced as compared to our technology. However, digital media such as e-texts can surely serve as invaluable and easy to access reading material. Thus, let’s take advantage of this technology to the fullest by engaging in reading extensively in order to enhance our natural skills and talents.

JOEFEL CAGAMPANG – http://www.goarticles.com

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1. The general theme of the text is the impact of the digital era on the process of knowledge acquisition. In order to express his point of view, the author bases his argument on the following factor: a. improvement of brain activities

c. superiority of human intelligence

b. advancement of genetic research

d. development of concentration skills

2. The use of computers for learning purposes is discussed in the text. According to the author, the use of computers without any guidance constitutes an obstacle to: a. data collecting

c. knowledge sharing

b. logical thinking

d. quantitative browsing

3. Paragraph 5 lists positive results from reading books. The exemplification offered by the author emphasizes the capacity of: a. synthesis

c. identification

b. distinction

d. memorization

4. The strategy of asking questions is often used for rhetorical purposes. So where is the selective learning process? (l. 13-14) The question is intended to: a. express a doubt

c. confirm a viewpoint

b. start a discussion

d. anticipate an objection

SIGLAS FUVEST – Fundação Universitária para o Vestibular UFSC – Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina UFG – Universidade Federal de Goiás UERJ – Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

ANSWER KEYS PARTE I / Simulados do ENEM

PARTE II / Questões de vestibular

Questão 1

Questão 5

1 - e

1 - a

2 - d

2 - e

3 - b Questão 6 Questão 2

1 - c, e

1 - c

2 - b, d

2 - b

3 - c, d

3 - d

4 - a, c, d 5 - b, e, f

Questão 3 1 - e

Questão 7

2 - d

1 - a

3 - d Questão 8 Questão 4

1 - c

1 - d

2 - b

2 - c

3 - b

3 - a

4 - c

EXAM PRACTICE

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LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE UNIT 1 O verbo to be pode significar ser ou estar, dependendo do contexto da frase:

› My name is Sarah and I am from San Bernardino, California. ›4 Thomas is 15 years old and Jefferson is 10 years old. Verb to be – Present Affirmative Form

Negative Form

am

I

Am

’m not

I

He

Interrogative Form

He at school.

is

She

he isn’t

She

It

at home.

Is

It

We are

You

we

Brazilian. aren’t

You

They

she

a good friend?

it

We

American.

I

They

Are

Italian?

you they

Atenção para o uso do verbo to be para falar sobre idade. Kim’s twelve years old. Kim tem doze anos. Short Forms am – ’m am not – ’m not is not – isn’t is – ’s are not – aren’t are – ‘re

1. In the notebook, write down the correct form of the verb to complete the sentences. a. This is my friend Rick. He are

b. Maria and George

is

Jorge and this is Bia. She is

d. Where e. Karl and I f. How old

Australian.

teachers at an elementary school.

am

c. I

is

my wife.

the train station, please?

are

twins.

are

you?

2. All the sentences contain mistakes. Correct them in the notebook. a. Rio de Janeiro is in Argentina. (Brazil) Rio de Janeiro isn’t in Argentina. It’s in Brazil. b. NeyMar. is a Brazilian actor. (soccer player)

NeyMar. isn’t a Brazilian actor. He’s a Brazilian soccer player.

c. “Asa Branca” and “Garota de Ipanema” are books. (songs)

"Asa Branca" and "Garota de Ipanema" aren’t books. They’re songs.

d. The capital of Australia is Sydney. (Canberra) The capital of Australia isn’t Sydney. It’s Canberra.

e. Lupita Nyong'o is a Mexican singer. (actress)

Lupita Nyong'o isn't a Mexican singer. She's a Mexican actress.

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LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE UNIT 2 Usamos o Simple Present para, entre outras coisas, falar sobre rotina diária, hábitos e verdades universais. “The University encourages students to study abroad as part of their undergraduate studies.” (Available at: <http://www.princeton.edu/~oktour/virtualtour/korean/Info04-StudyAbroad.htm>. Accessed on: Apr. 3, 2013.)

Em frases afirmativas, a forma verbal sofre mudanças na terceira pessoa do singular:

Simple Present Affirmative – 3rd person singular Na maioria dos casos, acrescentamos -s ao verbo.

Sam works for a multinational company. It usually rains in the summer.

Com verbos terminados em -ch, -sh, -ss, -x, -z ou -o, adicionamos -es.

Antônio watches TV every day.

Com verbos terminados em -y precedidos por consoante trocamos o y pelo i e acrescentamos -es.

Taylor studies music on Fridays.

Eric always goes to school by bus.

Atenção ao verbo have, que na 3ª pessoa do singular tem uma forma diferente: Tim has two stepbrothers.

1. In the notebook, complete the sentences with the correct form of the given verbs. reads

a. Marianne b. Peter

loves

chocolate. (love)

c. Alan’s sister d. Phil

washes

a new book every month. (read)

goes

to the pool every weekend. (go)

the dishes in the evening. (wash)

e. The senator f. My cat never

flies

drinks

back to Brasília every Monday. (fly) milk. (drink)

POSITION OF ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY Os Adverbs of Frequency são usados para expressar a frequência com a qual ações ocorrem: Students who study abroad always have a story to tell. São usados após o verbo to be. Anna is always late for school.

São usados antes dos demais verbos. “I never think of the future – it comes soon enough.” Albert Einstein (Available at: <www.brainyquotes.com/quotes/quotes/a/ alberteins/06492.html>. Accessed on: Apr. 3, 2013.)

2. In the notebook, rewrite these sentences using the Adverbs of Frequency given. a. I study English in the mornings. (never) I never study English in the mornings. b. Sam is happy. (always) Sam is always happy. c. Dan cooks his own meals. (sometimes) Dan sometimes cooks his own meals. d. The team plays on Sundays. (usually) The team usually plays on Sundays. e. Mike is tired. (often) Mike is often tired. f. We are late for work. (never) We are never late for work. LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE – UNIT 2

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LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE UNIT 3 Adjectives modificam substantivos. Eles podem vir como parte do predicado da frase ou antes de um substantivo.

› We learn to see the positive side of life. › Sport is important to improve the life quality. Adverbs of Manner são geralmente terminados em -ly e modificam verbos, adjetivos ou advérbios. “When I arrive each day he's playing happily with other kids.” (Available at: <http://www.autism-pdd.net/testdump/test28826.htm>. Accessed on: Mar. 15, 2016.)

Adjectives and Adverbs of Manner Adjetivos terminados em -ly não devem ser confundidos com advérbios. Rebecca is a lovely girl. There are special seats for elderly people. They are friendly guests.

1. In the notebook, write down the correct option to complete the sentences. a. Fred is an interesting / interestingly person. b. Daniela constant / constantly worries about her school grades. c. Can you speak more slow / slowly, please? d. Sarah is always very silent / silently. e. The exercises are really easy / easily. f. I’m not so good / well at math. g. They are very careful / carefully drivers. h. Please, talk to him gentle / gently. i. We’re happy / happily because of our final grades.

2. Use an Adjective or an Adverb from the box to complete the sentences in the notebook. careful(ly)

fast

a. Car accidents usually happen because people don’t drive b. Why are you talking so c. Mr. Wright eats so careful

d. Be

slowly

.

that his lunchtime takes hours!

, John. You’ll hurt yourself. fast

animals. They can go from 0 to 96 km/h in three seconds!

waited for her university results. slow

g. Your internet connection is too nervous

138

slow(ly)

? It’s impossible to understand you.

nervously

h. You look

carefully

fast

e. Cheetahs are considered really f. Tina

nervous(ly)

. Use my modem instead.

today. What’s the matter?

LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE – UNIT 3

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LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE UNIT 4 Podemos utilizar Yes / No Questions ou Wh- Questions para formular perguntas.

› Do you read just e-books or a combination of e-books and printed books? A combination. › When do you read? On my lunch hour, at night before sleep, and any quiet time in my house. Observe a ordem de cada elemento em Yes / No Questions e Wh- Questions:

Question Formation Q Question Word

A Auxiliary Verb

S Subject

V Main Verb

Complement

What

are

you

doing?

-----

Who

is

Rick

calling?

-----

Where

do

you

go

after school?

When

does

the course

start?

-----

-----

Do

they

offer

a scholarship?

-----

Can

you

dance

the samba?

How

can

I

get

to your house?

A ordem QASV pode ser utilizada em outros tempos verbais. Observe: Simple Future – Will Tim win the next elections? Past Simple – Where did you go?

1. Write the words in the correct order to form questions. Use the notebook. a. is / where / the Sahara Desert / ? Where is the Sahara Desert? In Africa. b. are / where / working / you / now / ?

Where are you working now?

Downtown.

c. do / you / to school / go / how / ?

How do you go to school?

By bike.

d. Sarah / dance / the tango / can / ?

Can Sarah dance the tango?

No, she can’t.

e. doing / Sam / is / his homework / ?

Is Sam doing his homework?

Yes, he is.

2. In your notebook, write questions using these prompts. a. Who / your / best friend / is / ? Who is your best friend? b. What / name / is / your / English teacher’s / ? What is your English teacher’s name? c. good / you / are / at English / ? Are you good at English? d. like / you / do / our school / ? Do you like our school?

3. Now choose a classmate you don’t know very well and ask him / her these questions, writing down his / her answers in the notebook. Respostas pessoais. LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE – UNIT 4

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LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE UNIT 5 Ordinal Numbers indicam ordem ou sequência e Cardinal Numbers se referem a uma determinada quantidade de pessoas, objetos, lugares etc.

› John F. Kennedy, the 35th president of the USA, had two children, Caroline and John F. Kennedy Jr. (Research sources: KELLY, Martin. John F. Kennedy–35th President of the United States. About.com. Available at: <http://americanhistory.about. com/od/johnfkennedy/p/pkennedy.htm> and John F. Kennedy. The White House. Available at: <http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/ johnfkennedy>. Accessed on: Mar. 15, 2016.)

Cardinal Numbers – from 1 to 1,000,000 1 – one

11 – eleven

21 – twenty-one

2 – two

12 – twelve

22 – twenty-two

3 – three

13 – thirteen

23 – twenty-three

4 – four

14 – fourteen

30 – thirty

5 – five

15 – fifteen

40 – forty

6 – six

16 – sixteen

50 – fifty

7 – seven

17 – seventeen

60 – sixty

8 – eight

18 – eighteen

70 – seventy

9 – nine

19 – nineteen

80 – eighty

10 – ten

20 – twenty

90 – ninety

100 – a / one hundred 1,000 – a / one thousand 1,000,000 – a / one million

Ordinal Numbers – from 1st to 1,000,000th 1st – first

11th – eleventh

21st – twenty-first

2nd – second

12th – twelfth

22nd – twenty-second

3rd – third

13th – thirteenth

23rd – twenty-third

4th – fourth

14th – fourteenth

30th – thirtieth

5th – fifth

15th – fifteenth

40th – fortieth

6th – sixth

16th – sixteenth

50th – fiftieth

7th – seventh

17th – seventeenth

60th – sixtieth

8th – eighth

18th – eighteenth

70th – seventieth

9th – ninth

19th – nineteenth

80th – eightieth

10th – tenth

20th – twentieth

90th – ninetieth

100th – a / one hundredth 1,000th – a / one thousandth 1,000,000th – a / one millionth

1. Do the calculations and, in the notebook, write the results in full. a. 2 + 10 = twelve

c. 100 – 20 = eighty

e. 14 + 37 + 8 = fifty-nine

b. 55 + 13 = sixty-eight

d. 576 – 76 = five hundred

f. 234 – 76 + 28 =

one / a hundred (and) eighty-six

2. Match the numbers on the right to the items on the left. For that, write down the corresponding letters and numbers in the notebook. a. 8th

g 1. eighteenth

b. 15

f 2. twentieth

c. 50th

d 3. twelfth

d. 12th

e 4. eighth

th

e. 80

c 5. fiftieth

th

f. 20

a 6. eightieth

g. 18

b 7. fifteenth

th

th

140

TIP Em inglês americano, and pode ser omitido. 245 – two hundred (and) forty-five Em inglês britânico and é usado. 245 – two hundred and forty-five

LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE – UNIT 5

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LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE UNIT 6 Discourse Markers determinam diversos tipos de relação entre ideias em um texto. “I think everything will be electronic and there will be loads of robots!” Eleanor, 11, Ireland “I really hate the things that are happening to rainforests. Litter is everywhere too!” Megan, 12, Lancashire (What will life be like for you in the future? BBC Home, United Kingdom, Jun. 2007. Available at: <http://news.bbc.co.uk/cbbcnews/hi/ newsid_6190000/newsid_6198700/6198778.stm>. Accessed on: Mar. 15, 2016.)

Discourse Markers and (e)

Beth can play volleyball and basketball. The boys do their homework and watch TV.

also (também)

Also pode aparecer em posições diferentes na frase. • Antes do verbo principal: Tim went to Bahia last week. He also visited Fortaleza. • Depois do verbo to be: I’m a teacher. I’m also a tour guide.

too (também)

Aparece ao final da frase. I like Geography and Jane likes it too.

Contrasting Ideas

but (mas, porém)

The test is a bit difficult, but I can do it.

Giving Alternatives

or (ou)

We can go to the movies or play cards. Which do you prefer?

Adding Ideas

1. In the notebook, write down the correct word to complete the sentences. a. I watch a lot of TV, or / but there aren’t any good programs on TV nowadays. b. Bob wants sugar and / but cream in his coffee. c. Kids need to eat fruits and vegetables also / too. d. We went to the park on Sunday morning. We also / too had pizza in the afternoon. e. Mary wanted to buy a car, and / but she didn’t have enough money. f. I could cook and / or we could order a pizza. Which do you prefer?

2. In the notebook, rewrite the sentences using the words in parentheses. a. Julie likes horror movies. I like horror movies. (too) Julie likes horror movies and I like them too. b. I can speak German. I can speak Italian. (and) I can speak German and Italian. c. The boys enjoy thrillers. The boys enjoy comedies. (also) The boys enjoy thrillers. They also enjoy comedies. d. The weather was great. We stayed home all day. (but) The weather was great, but we stayed home all day. e. Would you like some coffee? Would you like some tea? (or) Would you like some coffee or tea? LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE – UNIT 6

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LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE UNIT 7 Usamos Comparative Adjectives para comparar duas pessoas, coisas ou lugares, ao passo que usamos Superlative Adjectives quando queremos comparar mais de duas pessoas, coisas ou lugares. “The future of Antarctica is greener, cheaper and it will probably involve more sharing.” “The biggest question facing scientists now is figuring out how Antarctica is reacting to climate change [...].” (Available at: <http://news.discovery.com/tech/robotics/antarctica-future-robots-120422.htm>. Accessed on: Mar. 15, 2016.)

Observe essas regras ortográficas para Comparative e Superlative Adjectives.

Rules

Comparatives

Superlatives

Adjetivos que terminam em e

acrescentamos somente -r large – larger safe – safer

acrescentamos somente -st large – the largest safe – the safest

Adjetivos de duas sílabas que terminam em y

mudamos o y por i e acrescentamos -er happy – happier pretty – prettier

mudamos o y por i e acrescentamos -iest happy – the happiest pretty – the prettiest

Adjetivos que terminam em consoante + vogal + consoante

dobramos a última consoante e acrescentamos -er big – bigger hot – hotter

dobramos a última consoante e acrescentamos -est the biggest the hottest

Os adjetivos good e bad têm formas irregulares.

good – better bad – worse

good – the best bad – the worst

1. Find four examples of Comparative or Superlative Adjectives in the puzzle. Then write them down in the notebook.

SD

ET

FU HE

Adjective 1. busy 2. boring 3. funny 4. safe 5. good

NDGGHBETTE Comparative busier more boring funnier safer better

RG

AT

Superlative the busiest the most boring the funniest the safest the best

HE

FU

NN

IES

TMM

ORHO

RH TTE

FT

G

2. Draw the table below in the notebook and complete it. Adjective

Comparative

Superlative

Adjective

1. busy

6. hot

2. boring

7. dangerous

3. funny

8. high

4. safe

9. bad

5. good

10. simple

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H ER

ET

T

H HE

IGHESTSTHERD

Adjective 6. hot

Comparative hotter more 7. dangerous dangerous 8. high higher worse 9. bad 10. simple simpler

Comparative

FT

YH

Superlative the hottest the most dangerous the highest the worst the simplest

GF

Superlative

LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE – UNIT 7

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LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE UNIT 8 › Jeans are always a popular clothing option. › Boots are in fashion. › A pair of shorts is a fun way to recycle old jeans. Plural Nouns – Clothes Alguns substantivos que se referem a itens de vestuário e acessórios só podem ser usados no plural. Veja alguns exemplos: boots – pants – jeans – earrings – tights – socks – gloves – boxers These black pants are too big for me. My new boots are waterproof. Your sunglasses don’t suit you. They’re too big. No entanto, se usarmos a expressão pair of + item de vestuário, podemos usar o verbo ou pronome no singular. Veja alguns exemplos: My new pair of earrings was really cheap! I’d like to try on that pair of jeans, please.

1. In the notebook, write down the correct option to complete the sentences. a. Your shoes is / are under the bed. b. These green earrings matches / match the color of your eyes. c. This pair of pants is / are too small for me. d. Where is / are my sunglasses? Have you seen them? e. The gloves you bought doesn’t / don’t fit me.

2. Complete these dialogues between a sales clerk and customers in a store. Use the words in the box.

iStockphoto/ Thinkstock

are

is

it

a.

that

that

Customer: Excuse me. Can I try on

pair of boots over there, please?

iStockphoto/ Thinkstock

Sales clerk: Of course. Here you are.

b.

are

Customer: How much

the white socks?

iStockphoto/ Thinkstock

Sales clerk $9,00.

c. Customer: How much

is

the blue dress, please?

Sales clerk: $60,00. Would you like to try

it

on?

Customer: No, thanks.

LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE – UNIT 8

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IRREGULAR VERBS Infinitive

Past

Past Participle

Translation

Infinitive

Past

Past Participle

Translation

be

was / were

been

ser, estar

eat

ate

eaten

comer

beat

beat

beaten

vencer, superar, bater

fall

fell

fallen

cair, baixar

become

became

become

tornar-se, ficar

feed

fed

fed

alimentar

begin

began

begun

começar

feel

felt

felt

sentir

bite

bit

bitten

morder, picar

fight

fought

fought

brigar, lutar

bleed

bled

bled

sangrar

find

found

found

encontrar

blow

blew

blown

soprar

flee

fled

fled

fugir

break

broke

broken

quebrar, partir

fly

flew

flown

voar

breed

bred

bred

criar (animais), cultivar (plantas)

forbid

forbade

forbidden

proibir

bring

brought

brought

trazer

forget

forgot

forgotten

esquecer

broadcast

broadcast

broadcast

transmitir (por rádio ou TV)

forgive

forgave

forgiven

perdoar

build

built

built

construir

freeze

froze

frozen

congelar

burn

burnt / burned

burnt / burned

queimar

get

got

got / gotten

receber, obter, conseguir

buy

bought

bought

comprar

give

gave

given

dar

catch

caught

caught

pegar, agarrar

go

went

gone

ir

choose

chose

chosen

escolher

grow

grew

grown

crescer

come

came

come

vir, chegar

hang

hung

hung

pendurar

cost

cost

cost

custar

have

had

had

ter

cut

cut

cut

cortar

hear

heard

heard

ouvir

deal

dealt

dealt

tratar de, lidar

hide

hid

hid / hidden

esconder(-se)

dig

dug

dug

cavar, escavar

hit

hit

hit

bater

do

did

done

fazer

hold

held

held

segurar

draw

drew

drawn

desenhar

hurt

hurt

hurt

machucar

dream

dreamed / dreamt

dreamed / dreamt

sonhar

keep

kept

kept

manter, continuar

drink

drank

drunk

beber

know

knew

known

saber, conhecer

drive

drove

driven

dirigir

lay

laid

laid

colocar, pôr

144

IRREGULAR VERBS

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Infinitive

Past

Past Participle

Translation

Infinitive

Past

Past Participle

Translation

lead

led

led

levar, conduzir

shine

shone

shone

brilhar

learn

learned / learnt

learned / learnt

aprender

shoot

shot

shot

disparar

leave

left

left

sair, deixar

show

showed

shown

mostrar

lend

lent

lent

emprestar

shut

shut

shut

fechar

let

let

let

deixar, permitir

sing

sang

sung

cantar

lie

lay

lain

deitar-se

sink

sank

sunk

afundar

lose

lost

lost

perder

sit

sat

sat

sentar-se

make

made

made

fazer

sleep

slept

slept

dormir

mean

meant

meant

significar, pretender

speak

spoke

spoken

falar

meet

met

met

encontrar

spend

spent

spent

gastar

overcome

overcame

overcome

superar

stand

stood

stood

ficar em pĂŠ

pay

paid

paid

pagar

steal

stole

stolen

roubar

put

put

put

colocar

strike

struck

struck

atingir, ficar impressionado

quit

quit

quit

largar, desistir

swear

swore

sworn

jurar

read

read

read

ler

swim

swam

swum

nadar

ride

rode

ridden

montar, cavalgar

take

took

taken

pegar, tomar, levar

ring

rang

rung

tocar, soar

teach

taught

taught

ensinar

rise

rose

risen

levantar-se, aumentar

tear

tore

torn

rasgar

run

ran

run

correr

tell

told

told

dizer

say

said

said

dizer

think

thought

thought

pensar

see

saw

seen

ver

throw

threw

thrown

jogar, arremessar

seek

sought

sought

procurar

understand

understood

understood

entender

sell

sold

sold

vender

wake

woke

woken

acordar, despertar

send

sent

sent

enviar

wear

wore

worn

vestir

set

set

set

pĂ´r, arrumar

win

won

won

vencer

shake

shook

shaken

sacudir, agitar

write

wrote

written

escrever

IRREGULAR VERBS

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GLOSSARY Abbreviations adj. = adjective / adjective phrase adv. = adverb / adverbial phrase conj. = conjunction exclam.= exclamation m.v. = multi-word verb

A

n. = noun / noun phrase phr. = phrase prep.= preposition / prepositional phrase pron. = pronoun v. = verb attractive (adj.)

atraente

attribute (n.)

atributo, qualidade, característica

aunt (n.)

tia

available (adj.)

disponível

aceitar

average (adj.)

médio(a)

acessível, fácil de obter

aviary (n.)

viveiro de aves

acessório (boné, bolsa, brincos etc.)

aviator (n.)

aviador

avid (adj.)

ávido(a)

across (prep.)

de um lado a outro, do outro lado

award (n.)

prêmio

active (adj.)

ativo(a)

B

activist (n.)

ativista, militante

background (n.)

origem

ad (n.)

anúncio

bacteriologist (n.)

bacteriologista

adoptive (adj.)

adotivo(a)

balance (n., v.)

equilíbrio; equilibrar

advantage (n.)

vantagem

band (n.)

banda, grupo musical

advertise (v.)

anunciar

banquet (n.)

banquete

affairs (n.)

negócios

bar chart (n.)

gráfico de barras

against (prep.)

contra

barbecue (n.)

churrasco

agree (v.)

concordar

be able to (v.)

poder, conseguir, ser capaz de

aim (n., v.)

objetivo; almejar, ter como objetivo

because of (conj.)

pelo motivo de, por, por causa de

behaviour (n.)

comportamento

align (v.)

aderir, associar-se

believe (v.)

acreditar, crer

allergic (adj.)

alérgico(a)

believer (n.)

fiel, defensor de algo

along (prep.)

ao longo de

below (prep.)

abaixo de

although (conj.)

apesar de, embora

benefit (n., v.)

auxílio, benefício; beneficiar

aluminum (n.)

alumínio

besides (adv., prep.)

além disso, além de

amused (adj.)

divertido(a)

bet (v.)

apostar

amusing (adj.)

algo ou alguém que diverte

between (prep.)

entre

ancient (adj.)

antigo(a)

bilingual (adj.)

bilíngue

animal testing (n.)

testes conduzidos em animais

answer (n.)

resposta

biomass (n.)

biomassa, matéria orgânica utilizada na geração de energia

appealing (adj.)

atraente

birth certificate (n.)

certidão de nascimento

appearance (n.)

aparência

birthday (n.)

aniversário

apply for (v.)

candidatar-se a

blurb (n.)

sinopse

appreciate (v.)

valorizar

board (n.)

diretoria

arrive (v.)

chegar

body (n.)

corpo

asthma (n.)

asma

bookmark (n.)

marcador de páginas

athlete (n.)

atleta

bookstore (n.)

livraria

attention (n.)

atenção

bored (adj.)

entediado(a)

ability (n.)

aptidão, capacidade

abroad (adv.)

no exterior, estrangeiro, para o exterior

absence (n.)

ausência

accept (v.) accessible (adj.) accessory (n.)

146

GLOSSARY

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boring (adj.)

chato(a), entediante

command (v.)

comandar, controlar, ordenar

borrow (v.)

pegar emprestado

committee (n.)

comitê

break (n.)

intervalo, pausa

community center (n.)

centro comunitário

breakfast (n.)

café da manhã

compare (v.)

comparar

breathing (n.)

respiração

comparison (n.)

comparação

brief (adj.)

curto(a), breve

conceal (v.)

ocultar, esconder

briefcase (n.)

pasta

conception (n.)

concepção

briefly (adv.)

rapidamente

concerned (adj.)

preocupado(a), interessado(a)

bright (adj.)

brilhante, favorável

concert (n.)

concerto, show

bring back (m.v.)

devolver, trazer de volta

consciously (adv.)

conscientemente

broadcast (v.)

transmitir

consequence (n.)

consequência

brooch (n.)

broche

constituted (adj.)

constituído(a)

burning (n.)

queima, combustão

content (n.)

conteúdo

button (n.)

botão

conventional (adj.)

convencional, comum

convince (v.)

convencer

C

convincing (adj.)

convincente

cab driver (n.)

motorista de táxi

cool (adj.)

legal, fashion (informal)

campaign (n.)

campanha

corner (n.)

canto, esquina

candidate (n.)

candidato(a)

capable (adj.)

capaz

corridor (n.)

corredor (em um prédio, em uma casa)

capital letter (n.)

letra maiúscula

corrosive (adj.)

corrosivo(a)

carbon (n.)

carbono

costume (n.)

roupa, traje

cardboard (n.)

papelão

cotton (n.)

algodão

care for (v.)

cuidar de

counselor (n.)

psicoterapeuta

career (n.)

carreira

counter (n.)

balcão

careful (adj.)

cuidadoso(a), cauteloso(a)

couple (n.)

casal

celebrate (v.)

celebrar, comemorar

course (n.)

curso

century (n.)

século

cousin (n.)

primo(a)

ceremony (n.)

cerimônia

cover (n.)

capa

challenge (n.)

desafio

creative (adj.)

criativo(a)

champion (n.)

campeão, campeã

criticize (v.)

criticar

change (n., v.)

mudança, mudar

crop residues (n.)

resíduos, sobras da colheita

chapter (n.)

capítulo

cure (n.)

cura

character (n.)

personagem

custom (n.)

costume, hábito

chemist (n.)

químico(a)

customer (n.)

cliente

choose (v.)

escolher

cute (adj.)

bonitinho(a), atraente

chronological (adj.)

cronológico(a)

classmate (n.)

colega de classe

D

enquadramento fechado, mostrando apenas uma parte do objeto ou assunto filmado

damage (n.)

dano, prejuízo

close-up (n.)

danger (n.)

perigo

dashing (adj.)

galante, elegante, atraente

cloud (n.)

nuvem

deal with (v.)

resolver, tratar de

coach (n.)

técnico(a)

decade (n.)

década

coal (n.)

carvão

coalition (n.)

coalizão

decay (v.)

decompor, deteriorar-se, apodrecer

cold

frio

deceive (v.)

enganar, iludir

collect (v.)

recolher, juntar

deep-seated (adj.)

profundo(a)

collection (n.)

coleção, coletânea

define (v.)

definir

colorful (adj.)

colorido (a)

deforestation (n.)

desmatamento

column (n.)

coluna

defy (v.)

desafiar

GLOSSARY

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deny (v.)

negar

entertain (v.)

divertir, distrair

derive (v.)

derivar, obter

entertainment (n.)

diversão, entretenimento

description (n.)

descrição

environmental (adj.)

ambiental

desertion (n.)

deserção, abandono

epic (adj.)

épico(a)

deserve (v.)

merecer

epidemic (n.)

epidemia

desire (n., v.)

desejo; desejar

equally (adv.)

igualmente

destination (n.)

destino

even though (phr.)

embora

destructive (adj.)

destrutivo(a)

evidence (n.)

evidência, prova

develop (v.)

desenvolver

exaggerated (adj.)

exagerado(a)

development (n.)

desenvolvimento

excel (v.)

destacar-se

diamond (n.)

diamante, losango

exceptional (adj.)

excepcional

disabled (adj.)

portador(a) de necessidades especiais

exchange (n., v.)

intercâmbio; trocar

excited (adj.)

empolgado(a)

disadvantage (n.)

desvantagem

exciting (adj.)

algo ou alguém empolgante

disagree (v.)

discordar

exhaust (v.)

esgotar, acabar

disappear (v.)

sumir, desaparecer

exhausted (adj.)

exausto(a)

disappointed (adj.)

estar decepcionado(a), desapontado(a)

extract (n.)

trecho

eye doctor (n.)

oftalmologista

disappointing (adj.)

decepcionante

eye-catching (adj.)

chamativo(a)

disappointment (n.)

decepção, desapontamento

disease (n.)

doença

F

display (v.)

exibir, expor

fabric pen (n.)

caneta para tecido

distribute (v.)

distribuir

fact file (n.)

ficha biográfica

disturbed (adj.)

desequilibrado(a) mentalmente

fall (n.)

queda

dominate (v.)

dominar

fall in love with (phr.)

apaixonar-se por

doubt (n.)

dúvida

fashionable (adj.)

que segue a moda, na moda

downtown (adv.)

no centro da cidade

fear (n.)

medo

draft (n.)

rascunho

feelings (n.)

sentimentos

dribble (v.)

driblar

fencing (n.)

esgrima

dry (adj.)

seco(a)

fiber (n.)

fibra

dye (v.)

tingir

fight for, against (v.)

lutar a favor, contra

fill in (m.v.)

preencher

E

finally (adv.)

finalmente

effective (adj.)

eficaz, útil

find (v.)

encontrar, achar

effectively (adv.)

eficazmente, efetivamente

find out (m.v.)

descobrir

effort (n.)

esforço

firewood (n.)

lenha

elderly (adj.)

idoso(a)

firstly (adv.)

em primeiro lugar, primeiro

election (n.)

eleição

fit (adj.)

estar em boa forma

electricity (n.)

eletricidade

five-a-side football (n.)

futebol de cinco jogadores

embark (v.)

embarcar

fixed (adj.)

fixo(a), estabelecido(a)

emerge (v.)

emergir, surgir

flexible (adj.)

flexível

emission (n.)

emissão, descarga

floor (n.)

andar (em um prédio)

employee (n.)

empregado(a), funcionário(a)

fluorescent (adj.)

fluorescente

enable (v.)

possibilitar a alguém fazer algo

focus (n.)

foco

encourage (v.)

encorajar, incentivar

for instance (phr.)

por exemplo

encyclopedia (n.)

enciclopédia

forest (n.)

floresta

endless (adj.)

interminável, contínuo

forever (adv.)

para sempre

enjoyment (n.)

prazer, satisfação

forgive (v.)

perdoar

enough (adv.)

bastante, suficiente

forgiveness (n.)

perdão

enroll (v.)

matricular-se, inscrever-se

form (n.)

formulário

148

GLOSSARY

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forward (adv.)

adiante, avante

hope (n., v.)

esperança, esperar

fossil fuel (n.)

combustível fóssil

hopefully (adv.)

com esperança, com sorte

free (adj.)

de graça, grátis

housework (n.)

tarefas domésticas

full (adj.)

completo(a)

however (conj.)

mas, porém

fun (adj.)

divertido(a)

human being (n.)

ser humano

further (adv., adj.)

(ainda) mais, mais longe, mais adiante, mais

hydroelectric (adj.)

hidrelétrico(a)

I G

ice cap (n.)

calota polar

gadget (n.)

dispositivo eletrônico

identify (v.)

identificar

garment (n.)

peça de roupa

identity crisis (n.)

crise de identidade

gas (n.)

gasolina

if (conj.)

caso, se

gathering (n.)

reunião

illness (n.)

doença

gender (n.)

gênero, sexo

impressive (adj.)

impressionante

general (adj.)

geral

improve (v.)

melhorar

geothermal (adj.)

geotérmico

in addition (phr.)

além disso

get along with (m.v.)

ter um bom relacionamento, dar-se bem

in common (phr.)

em comum

in vain (phr.)

em vão

get married (v.)

casar

inappropriate (adj.)

inadequado(a), impróprio(a)

get yourself up (m.v.)

disfarçar-se

increase (v.)

aumentar

global warming (n.)

aquecimento global

incredible (adj.)

fantástico(a), incrível

goal (n.)

gol, meta

gossip (n.)

fofoca

indistinguishable (adj.)

indistinguível, que não se avista bem

grade (n.)

conceito, nota escolar

induced (adj.)

provocado(a), induzido(a)

graph (n.)

gráfico

infection (n.)

infecção

greenhouse (n.)

estufa

initiative (n.)

iniciativa

guest (n.)

convidado(a), hóspede

injustice (n.)

injustiça

ink (n.)

tinta

H

innovative (adj.)

inovador(a)

habit (n.)

hábito, costume

innuendo (n.)

insinuação

handle (v.)

lidar com, manusear

insecticide (n.)

inseticida

handsome (adj.)

bonito

inside (adv.)

no interior

hang on (m.v.)

segurar firme

instantly (adv.)

na hora, instantaneamente

hard (adv.)

muito

interview (n.)

entrevista

hate (v.)

detestar, odiar

intimate (adj.)

íntimo(a)

headline (n.)

manchete

invite (v.)

convidar

sede (de uma empresa ou de

issues (n.)

questões

headquarters (n.)

uma instituição) health (n.)

saúde

J

heart (n.)

coração

join (v.)

associar-se, juntar-se

heart attack (n.)

ataque cardíaco, enfarte

journalist (n.)

jornalista

heavy (adj.)

forte, pesado(a)

journey (n.)

viagem

helpful (adj.)

prestativo(a), útil

judge (v.)

julgar

hesitate (v.)

hesitar, ficar indeciso(a)

hidden (adj.)

escondido(a), oculto(a)

K

ensino secundário nos Estados Unidos, para alunos de 14 a 18 anos

keen on (adj.)

gostar de algo / alguém

high school (n.)

keep (v.)

ficar, manter-se

key (n.)

chave

hit (n.)

sucesso

key pal (n.)

amigo(a) virtual

homeless (adj.)

sem-teto, desabrigado(a)

kick (v.)

chutar

GLOSSARY

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knock (v.)

bater

knowledge (n.)

conhecimento

mud (n.)

lama

N L

nano-sized (adj.)

nanométrico(a)

last name (n.)

sobrenome

neighbor (n.)

vizinho(a)

late (adj.)

atrasado(a)

neighborhood (n.)

bairro, vizinhança

later on (phr.)

mais tarde

nephew (n.)

sobrinho

latest (adj.)

último(a)

nerves (n.)

nervosismo

laugh (v.)

rir, dar gargalhada

newspaper (n.)

jornal

leader (adj.)

chefe, dirigente, líder

niece (n.)

sobrinha

leaflet (n.)

folheto

non-renewable (adj.)

não renovável

leave (v.)

ir embora, sair

notebook (n.)

caderno

lend (v.)

emprestar

novel (n.)

romance

library (n.)

biblioteca

nurse (n.)

enfermeiro(a)

license (n.)

autorização, licença, permissão

light (adj.)

leve

O

lines (n.)

roteiro, falas

obligation (n.)

obrigação

link (n.)

conexão

obtain (v.)

obter, conseguir, adquirir

listener (n.)

ouvinte

occur (v.)

acontecer, ocorrer

lively (adj.)

alegre, animado(a)

oil (n.)

óleo, petróleo

lofty (adj.)

elevado(a), sublime

omit (v.)

omitir

long-lasting (adj.)

durável

on sale (n.)

à venda

look forward to (m.v.)

aguardar ansiosamente

operator (n.)

operador

loose (adj.)

amplo(a), folgado(a)

opposing (adj.)

oposto(a)

luggage (n.)

bagagem

optimistic (adj.)

otimista

lung (n.)

pulmão

order (v.)

pedir (em um restaurante)

lyrics (n.)

letra (de uma música)

others (adj., pron.)

outros(as)

outfit (n.)

roupa

M

overcome (v.)

superar

magazine (n.)

revista

owing to (prep.)

devido a

main (adj.)

principal

own (adj., v.)

próprio(a); ser dono(a) de

mainly (adv.)

principalmente, essencialmente

maintenance (n.)

manutenção

P

makeup (n.)

maquiagem

pacifist (n.)

pacifista

manifestation (n.)

manifestação

painter (n.)

pintor(a)

manure (n.)

esterco

paragraph (n.)

parágrafo

mass transportation (n.)

transporte de massa

parasite (n.)

parasita

match (v.)

combinar

parenthood (n.)

paternidade, maternidade

matter (n.)

assunto, questão

parents (n.)

pais

mean (v.)

querer dizer, significar

particularly (adv.)

particularmente

meaningful (adj.)

significativo(a)

pay (v.)

pagar

medicine (n.)

remédio

peace (n.)

paz

melt (v.)

derreter

penicillin (n.)

penicilina

member (n.)

membro, sócio(a)

percentage (n.)

porcentagem

midnight (n.)

meia-noite

perform (v.)

apresentar, executar

mind (n.)

mente, cabeça

persuade (v.)

convencer, persuadir

missing (adj.)

estar perdido(a), desaparecido(a)

physician (n.)

médico(a)

mistake (n.)

erro

physicist

físico(a)

mixed (adj.)

misto(a)

piece (n.)

pedaço, parte, peça

mobility (n.)

mobilidade

pineapple (n.)

abacaxi

150

GLOSSARY

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pioneer (n.)

pioneiro(a), precursor(a)

rate (n., v.)

ritmo, taxa, índice; classificar

plain (adj.)

básico(a), simples

rating (n.)

avaliação, opinião

playwright (n.)

dramaturgo(a)

reach (v.)

alcançar

pleasure (n.)

prazer

reader (n.)

leitor(a)

plot (n.)

trama, enredo

readily (adv.)

facilmente, prontamente

polar bear (n.)

urso-polar

reading glasses (n.)

óculos de leitura

polite (adj.)

educado(a)

reasoning (n.)

argumentação, raciocínio

pollute (v.)

poluir

receipt (n.)

recibo

polluted (adj.)

poluído(a)

recognize (v.)

reconhecer

polonium (n.)

polônio (elemento químico radioativo)

recommend (v.)

recomendar, sugerir

reduce (v.)

reduzir

poor (adj.)

pobre

reduction (n.)

redução

portion (n.)

parte, porção

refund (n.)

devolução de dinheiro pago

possess (v.)

possuir

relatives (n.)

parentes

potential (n.)

potencial

reminder (n.)

lembrete

pour (v.)

derramar, despejar, servir

remote control (n.)

controle remoto

powerful (adj.)

poderoso(a)

renewable (adj.)

renovável

pray (v.)

rezar

replace (v.)

substituir

precious (adj.)

precioso(a), valioso(a)

research (n.)

pesquisa, investigação

prediction (n.)

previsão

researcher (n.)

pesquisador(a)

presentation (n.)

apresentação

resource (n.)

recurso

press (n.)

máquina de impressão

rest (n.)

descanso

prevent (v.)

prevenir, evitar

reusable (adj.)

reutilizável

prevention (n.)

prevenção

review (n.)

crítica, resenha

principal (n.)

diretor(a) de escola

revised (adj.)

revisado(a)

prize (n.)

prêmio

reward (n., v.)

recompensa; recompensar

procedure (n.)

procedimento

rhyme (n.)

rima

promote (v.)

promover

ridiculous (adj.)

ridículo(a)

prospect (n.)

perspectiva

rights (n.)

direitos

provided that (conj.)

contanto que, desde que

river (n.)

rio

publish (v.)

publicar, divulgar

rub (v.)

esfregar

publisher (n.)

editor(a)

rules (n.)

regras

punch (v.)

socar

run (v.)

correr

pupil (n.)

aluno(a)

run out (m.v.)

acabar, ficar sem

purchase (n.)

compra

running shoes (n.)

tênis de corrida

purpose (n.)

propósito, objetivo

push yourself (phr.)

esforçar-se

safety (n.)

segurança

sales clerk (n.)

vendedor(a), balconista

jogo ou competição em que se fazem perguntas para testar o conhecimento

salmon (n.)

salmão

same (adj.)

mesmo(a)

sand (n.)

areia

citação; citar alguém

sanitary (adj.)

sanitário(a)

satirical (adj.)

satírico(a)

scandal (n.)

escândalo

Q quiz (n.)

quote (n., v.)

S

R race car driver (n.)

piloto de corrida

scholarship (n.)

bolsa de estudos

radioactive (adj.)

radioativo(a)

scientist (n.)

cientista

radium (n.)

rádio (elemento químico)

search (n.)

busca

rain (v.)

chover

secondly (adv.)

em segundo lugar

random (adj.)

aleatório(a)

secretly (adv.)

em segredo, secretamente

GLOSSARY

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151

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seek (v.)

procurar

stain (n., v.)

mancha, manchar

selective (adj.)

seletivo(a)

stand (v.)

ficar em pé, aguentar

self-confidence (n.)

autoconfiança

stanza (n.)

estrofe

sell (v.)

vender

start-of-term (adj.)

início de semestre

semi-arid (adj.)

semiárido

statement (n.)

declaração

seriously (adv.)

seriamente

stay (n., v.)

estada; ficar, permanecer

set (n., v.)

conjunto; marcar, estabelecer, fazer

steak (n.)

bife, fatia de carne

steel (n.)

aço

set up (m.v.)

criar, fundar

step (n.)

passo

setting (n.)

cenário, local

stepbrother (n.)

meio-irmão

shame (n.)

vergonha

stepfather (n.)

padrasto

shape (n.)

formato, forma

stepmother (n.)

madrasta

share (v.)

compartilhar, dividir

stepson (n.)

enteado

sharp (adj.)

afiado(a)

storytelling (n.)

contação de histórias

shiny (adj.)

brilhante, lustroso(a)

strength (n.)

ponto forte

shipwreck (n.)

naufrágio

strict (adj.)

severo(a), rígido(a)

short (adj.)

curto(a), baixo(a)

striped (adj.)

listrado(a)

short story (n.)

conto

strong (adj.)

forte

shout (v.)

gritar

stuff (n.)

coisa(s)

show hostess (n.)

apresentadora de um programa de rádio / televisão

subtitle (n.)

legenda

such as (adj.)

tal como

shrewd (adj.)

inteligente, perspicaz

suffer (v.)

sofrer

sick (adj.)

doente

suitcase (n.)

mala

sign (n.)

aviso, tabuleta

summarize (v.)

resumir

sign up (m.v.)

inscrever-se

sun (n.)

sol

silly (adj.)

bobo(a)

sunny (adj.)

ensolarado(a)

sing (v.)

cantar

support (v.)

apoiar, defender

single (adj.)

solteiro(a)

sustainability (n.)

sustentabilidade

size (n.)

tamanho

syllable (n.)

sílaba

sketch (n.)

esboço

symptom (n.)

sintoma

skill (n.)

habilidade

sky (n.)

céu

T

slang (n.)

gíria

take part in (m.v.)

participar de, tomar parte

slavery (n.)

escravidão

tall (adj.)

alto(a)

slowdown (n.)

redução de atividade

teamwork (n.)

trabalho em equipe

small (adj.)

pequeno(a)

technique

técnica

so-called (adj.)

suposto(a)

teenage tribe (n.)

tribo adolescente

society (n.)

sociedade

terrorism (n.)

terrorismo

soft drink (n.)

refrigerante, refresco

theme (n.)

tema

solidarity (n.)

solidariedade

thermometer (n.)

termômetro

solve (v.)

resolver, solucionar

though (conj.)

ainda que, entretanto

song (n.)

canção, música

through (prep.)

por, entre, através de

sophisticated (adj.)

sofisticado(a)

sorcerer (n.)

feiticeiro(a)

title (n.)

título

sound (adj.)

seguro(a), em boas condições

to-do-list (n.)

lista de coisas a fazer

source (n.)

fonte

tomorrow (adv.)

amanhã

spelling (n.)

grafia

tool (n.)

ferramenta

spill (v.)

derramar

topic (s.)

tópico, assunto

spring (n.)

nascente

tour guide (n.)

guia turístico

stage (n.)

palco

tourist (n.)

turista

152

GLOSSARY

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towards (prep.)

em direção a, para

v-neck (n.)

gola com decote V

traffic (n.)

tráfego, trânsito

volunteer (n.)

voluntário(a)

traffic laws (n.)

leis de trânsito

translation (n.)

tradução

W

transmitter (n.)

transmissor

war (n.)

guerra

travel (v.)

viajar

warning (n.)

aviso, advertência

treasure (n.)

tesouro

waste (n.)

resíduo, sobra

treatment (n.)

tratamento

trend (n.)

tendência, moda

watch (n., v.)

relógio de pulso; observar, olhar, assistir

trim (v.)

aparar

way (n.)

forma, maneira

trip (n.)

viagem

weak (adj.)

fraco(a)

truly (adv.)

realmente, sinceramente

weakness (n.)

ponto fraco

try (v.)

tentar

wear (v.)

usar, vestir

turn off (m.v.)

desligar, apagar

twice (adv.)

duas vezes

wear her heart on her sleeve (phr.)

demonstrar emoções abertamente

type (n., v.)

tipo; digitar

weather (n.)

tempo (estado atmosférico)

welcome (adj.)

bem-vindo(a)

U

well-known (adj.)

conhecido(a)

unbeatable (adj.)

imbatível

wheelchair (n.)

cadeira de rodas

uncle (n.)

tio

whether (conj.)

se

understand (v.)

entender

willing to (adj.)

estar disposto a

underwear (n.)

roupa de baixo

wind (n.)

vento

unfavourable (adj.)

desfavorável

windmill (n.)

moinho de vento

unforeseen (adj.)

imprevisto

winner (n.)

vencedor(a)

unknown (adj.)

desconhecido(a)

winter (n.)

inverno

unless (conj.)

a menos que, senão

unlike (prep.)

ao contrário de

woman (n.), women (plural)

mulher, mulheres

unsuitable (adj.)

inadequado(a), inapropriado(a)

wood (n.)

lenha, madeira

world (n.)

mundo

wrestling (n.)

luta romana, luta livre

writer (n.)

escritor(a)

V vacation (n.)

férias

venture (n.)

empreendimento

version (n.)

versão

Y

victim (n.)

vítima

youth (n.)

victory (n.)

vitória

village (n.)

aldeia, cidade pequena

juventude

GLOSSARY

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FALSE COGNATES English – Portuguese

Portuguese – English

English – Portuguese

Portuguese – English

agenda (n.) – pauta de reunião ou encontro

agenda – diary

commodity (n.) – artigo, mercadoria

comodidade – convenience

amass (v.) – acumular, juntar

amassar – crush

compromise (n.) – fazer uma concessão, um acordo

compromisso – appointment

anticipate (v.) – prever

antecipar – bring forward

comprehensive (adj.) – amplo, abrangente

compreensivo – understanding

apology (n.) – pedido de desculpas

apologia – eulogy

confidence (n.) – confiança

confidência – secret

appointment (n.) – compromisso com hora marcada

apontamento – note

convenient (adj.) – prático(a)

conveniente – appropriate

appreciation (n.) – gratidão

apreciação – judgement

convict (n.) – condenado(a)

convicto (a) – convinced

argument (n.) – bate-boca, briga

argumento – argument, point

costume (n.) – fantasia, traje

costume – habit

assist (v.) – ajudar, dar assistência

assistir – watch

curse (v.) – xingar, amaldiçoar

curso – course

assume (v.) – pressupor

assumir – take on, accept, admit

deception (n.) – fraude, trapaça

decepção – disappointment

attend (v.) – assistir, participar de

atender – serve (em uma loja), answer (o telefone)

defendant (n.) – réu, ré

defensor – advocate

audience (n.) – público, plateia

audiência – session

dent (v.) – amassar de leve

dente – tooth

balcony (n.) – sacada

balcão – counter

design (v.) – projetar, criar

designar – appoint

beef (n.) – carne de vaca

bife – steak

discussion (n.) – debate

discussão – argument

cafeteria (n.) – refeitório tipo universitário ou industrial

cafeteria – coffee shop, snack bar

estate (n.) – fazenda, propriedade

estado – state

camp (n.) – acampamento

campo – field

eventually (adv.) – finalmente

eventualmente – occasionally, now and then

cargo (n.) – carregamento, carga

cargo – post, position

exit (n., v.) – saída, sair

êxito – success

carton (n.) – caixa de leite ou suco

cartão – card

expert (adj.) – especialista

esperto – smart, clever

casualty (n.) – ferido, vítima

casualidade – fluke

exquisite (adj.) – refinado, belo

esquisito – strange, odd

cigar (n.) – charuto

cigarro – cigarette

fabric (n.) – tecido

fábrica – factory

collar (n.) – colarinho (de casaco, paletó), gola, coleira

colar – necklace

fate (n.) – destino

fato – event, fact

college (n.) – faculdade

colégio – school

figure (n.) – número, quantia

figura – picture

154

FALSE COGNATES

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English – Portuguese

Portuguese – English

English – Portuguese

Portuguese – English

gem (n.) – pedra preciosa, joia

gema (de ovo) – yolk

policy (n.) – diretriz, política

polícia – police

grip (v.) – segurar firme

gripe – flu

pork (n.) – carne de porco

porco – pig

idiom (n.) – expressão idiomática

idioma – language

port (n.) – porto

porta – door

injury (n.) – ferimento, lesão

injúria – abuse, insult

prejudice (n.) – preconceito

prejudicar – damage

intoxication (n.) – embriaguez, entusiasmo

intoxicação – poisoning

prescribe (v.) – receitar

prescrever – expire

jar (n.) – pote

jarra – pitcher (para água), pot (para flores)

preservative (n.) – conservante

preservativo – condom

journal (n.) – diário, revista acadêmica

jornal – newspaper

propaganda (n.) – divulgação de uma ideia ou crença

propaganda – advertisement

lamp (n.) – abajur, luminária

lâmpada – light bulb

proper (adj.) – adequado, verdadeiro, correto

próprio – own

large (adj.) – grande

largo – wide

realize (v.) – dar-se conta, perceber

realizar – fullfill, make something come true

lecture (n.) – palestra, aula

leitura – reading

record (v.; n.) – gravar; registro, disco de música, recorde

recordar – review, recall

legend (n.) – lenda

legenda – subtitle (em filme), caption (em uma figura, foto)

resume (n.) – retomar, reiniciar

resumir – summarize

library (n.) – biblioteca

livraria – bookstore

résumé (n.) – currículo

resumo – summary

location (n.) – localização

locação – rental

senior (adj.) – idoso(a)

senhor – gentleman, sir

magazine (n.) – revista

magazine – department store

shoot (n.) – atirar, disparar

chutar – kick

mayor (n.) – prefeito

maior – bigger

stranger (n.) – desconhecido(a)

estrangeiro – foreigner

motto (n.) – lema

moto – motorcycle

support (v.) – dar apoio

suportar – bear, hold up, tolerate

notice (v.) – avisar, perceber

notícia – news

syllabus (n.) – conteúdo programático

sílaba – syllable

office (n.) – escritório

oficial – official

tax (n.) – imposto

taxa – fee, rate

particular (n.) – específico

particular – personal, private

tent (n.) – barraca, tenda

tentar – try

pasta (n.) – massa (comida)

pasta – folder

turn (n.; v.) – vez; virar

turno – shift

pipe (n.) – cano, cachimbo

pipa – kite

vegetables (n.) – legumes

vegetais – plants

FALSE COGNATES

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AUDIOSCRIPTS UNIT 1 TRACK 3, PAGE 19 Appearance Personality attractive boring cute cool handsome fun short intelligent tall quiet

Radio presenter And what about our haggis with neeps and tatties? Have you tried it yet? David

Radio presenter And what do you like about studying abroad? David

TRACK 4, PAGE 19 One: My name's Patrick. There are three people in my family: my dad, my brother and I. In this picture we're playing a video game. We always play games on Saturday afternoons. My father isn't boring. He's cool. And my brother's very intelligent and fun. Two: I’m Alicia and my family is small. It’s just my grandfather, my grandmother and I. My grandmother Beth is a bit quiet and really cool. My grandfather Roberto is short and handsome. In this picture we’re sitting together in a park near my house. Three: I'm Rick. My family is really small: my two mothers and I. My moms are tall and they’re cool. I love my family! In this picture we're having a picnic in the park.

UNIT 2 TRACK 9, PAGE 32 Radio presenter …and you’re listening to KLM Radio Station. Today our program is about studying abroad and our first guest speaker is a lad, David Melo, from Brazil. Awrite, David! How are you doing? David

Fine!

Radio presenter How old are you? David I’m 15, turning 16 next month. Radio presenter How are you enjoying your stay here in Edinburgh? I think it’s a very lively city. What do you think? David I’m having the time of my life! I’ve only been here for three months, but I love it. There’s so much to do.

156

Oh, the typical Scottish dish with turnip and potatoes? Yes, it’s delicious!

Well, a lot of things. In my opinion, it’s good to learn about different customs and the culture of the country. For example, here in Edinburgh we go to school from 8:20 to 3:30 p.m., but in Brazil we usually go to school either in the mornings or in the afternoons. In Brazil soccer is our passion, but here sports like hockey and golf are very popular. It’s a good way to meet interesting people. Scots are polite and friendly.

Radio presenter Aye, we are! But… are there any disadvantages to studying abroad? David

Well, in my case, I’m trying to get used to the cold weather here. I think it’s really hard to get up early in the winter! And I also miss my friends in Brazil, of course.

Radio presenter Yes, it can be tough, can’t it, and…

UNIT 3 TRACK 12, PAGE 47 Julie

…so, Flavio, when was the project created?

Flavio In 2006. Julie

And how many kids take part in the project?

Flavio We have 348 kids here now. Julie Wow, that's an impressive number. What kind of activities do they do here? Flavio Well, they can choose from among five different sports: capoeira, basketball, skateboarding, judo and soccer. Julie

Really? Who are the instructors or coaches?

Flavio Oh, they're all volunteers. Julie Are they? Flavio Sure. We provide the space and equipment and they come once a week and we have activities from Monday to Saturday.

AUDIOSCRIPTS

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Julie Hm….That's great. What are the goals of the project? Flavio Mainly to give children a healthy start in life through exercise and sport. Also, put them on a positive course and promote social inclusiveness. Julie I see… How do you think the project helps them? Flavio Most kids here are doing better at school and they don't miss their training sessions.They're more confident and they smile more, you know? They respect their instructors and dream that some day they can take part in the Olympics. Julie How interesting. And…

UNIT 4 TRACK 14, PAGE 60 Eric Hi, Grace. Are you studying? Grace Hi, Eric. No, I’m not. I’m reading this novel. Eric What is it? Grace  Sense and Sensibility by Jane Austen. It’s really good. Eric Hm, let me have a look at the blurb. Hm… it’s a romantic novel, isn’t it? I don’t really like to read romantic novels… I prefer mystery stories. The one I’m reading right now, for instance, is one of Edgar Allan Poe’s most popular short stories: The Black Cat. I just can’t put it down! Grace I like Edgar Allan Poe, too, but I prefer reading novels to short stories. Eric Really? I love reading short stories. I’m a readit-all-at-once kind of person, you know? And besides that, I can always choose a new story each night in any order I want. Grace

right, you'll be awarded a full scholarship for your four years at university! Matthew OK! Hostess You know that for this part of the game you are not given options for the questions, and you won't know if your answers are right or wrong until the end. You can ask for help only once. Remember: one wrong answer and you are out! Are you ready to start?

TRACK 18, PAGE 75 Hostess So now, welcome back to our quiz show about historic figures. Matthew, there are four questions standing between you and the grand prize. If you get the four questions right, you'll be awarded a full scholarship for your four years at university! Matthew OK! Hostess You know that for this part of the game you are not given options for the questions, and you won't know if your answers are right or wrong until the end. You can ask for help only once. Remember: one wrong answer and you are out! Are you ready to start? Matthew Er… yes, I guess. Hostess Question 1: When was the famous physicist and chemist Marie Curie born? Matthew Hm… in December… no, no it was on November 7, 1867. Hostess

Is it your final answer?

Matthew Yes... yes, final answer. Hostess So, let’s move on to question 2. Where is Kofi Atta Annan from? Matthew That’s easy! He's from Kumasi, Ghana. Hostess OK. Question 3 coming up, Matthew...

Yes, I see. Then, perhaps you’ll enjoy reading…

Professor Good morning everyone. Let’s get ready for today’s class…

UNIT 6 TRACK 22, PAGE 88

UNIT 5 TRACK 17, PAGE 75 Hostess So now, welcome back to our quiz show about historic figures. Matthew, there are four questions standing between you and the grand prize. If you get the four questions

Hostess And we’re back with our guest speakers, Professor Peter Miller and Professor Ellie Parker, who dedicate their research studies to climate change and its impact on future life on the planet. In this section of the show, I'd like to focus on global

AUDIOSCRIPTS

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warming. This is certainly a very controversial issue. Some say global warming isn’t real while others say the world is getting warmer. So… is it real? Professor Parker Well, I do believe the planet is getting warmer. There’s plenty of scientific evidence showing that sea levels are rising, ice caps are melting, extreme weather conditions are becoming more common. It’s impossible to ignore these changes. Professor Miller I see your point, Professor Parker, but we can’t forget these changes in climate have been happening over the centuries or even longer than that and most of them may be caused by natural processes such as volcanic eruptions, variations in the sun’s intensity and slow changes in the ocean’s circulation. Professor Parker Absolutely. Some changes can occur naturally. But unfortunately we can’t deny that humans are also greatly responsible for climate change. We all know that carbon dioxide, CO2, is the most important contributor to climate changes and that the levels of this greenhouse gas are increasing because of human activities like the burning of fossil fuels: oil, natural gas, gasoline, and so on. Hostess So, Professor Parker, what you’re saying is that…

TRACK 23, PAGE 88 Hostess And we’re back with our guest speakers, Professor Peter Miller and Professor Ellie Parker, who dedicate their research studies to climate change and its impact on future life on the planet. In this section of the show, I'd like to focus on global warming. This is certainly a very controversial issue. Some say global warming isn’t real while others say the world is getting warmer. So… is it real?

TRACK 24, PAGE 88 Professor Parker Well, I do believe the planet is getting warmer. There’s plenty of scientific evidence showing that sea levels are rising, ice caps are melting, extreme weather conditions are becoming more common. It’s impossible to ignore these changes.

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Professor Miller I see your point, Professor Parker, but we can’t forget these changes in climate have been happening over the centuries or even longer than that and most of them may be caused by natural processes such as volcanic eruptions, variations in the sun’s intensity and slow changes in the ocean’s circulation.

UNIT 7 TRACK 28, PAGE 103 Podcast 1: Hi, my name is John White and I have an environmental tip for you: check how much of your electricity comes from renewable green power sources, such as wind or solar. Green power produces less carbon emissions, reduces air pollution, and helps protect against future costs or scarcity of fossil fuels. If green power is a consumer option, check price differences from suppliers before you buy. Help protect the environment! Podcast 2: Hi, my name is Ray Pinkman and I have an environmental tip that you can use: use public transportation, carpool, walk, or bike whenever possible to reduce air pollution and save on fuel costs. Leaving your car at home just two days a week will reduce greenhouse gas emissions by an average of 1,600 pounds per year. If you can work from home, you'll reduce air pollution and traffic congestion – and save money. Help protect the environment! Podcast 3: Hi, my name is James Cash and I'm here to give you environmental tips. The tip today is: just bag it! Help protect the environment when you shop. Keep reusable bags on your car seat or near your door. Also, you can combine shopping bags – just tell the cashier that you don't need a bag, then put all your purchases together in one bag. Be sure to hang on to your receipts, allright? Help protect the environment!

UNIT 8 TRACK 32, PAGE 116 Christina Hi, everyone. This is Christina and welcome to this week’s program All About Teens and I'm here today with Mr. Matt Owens, our school principal. He’s going to talk to us

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about dress codes. We know that in many schools around the country the dress code is often a topic of debate and it has also been an issue among new students at our school. So, Mr. Owens, can you give us more information about the dress code?

TRACK 33, PAGE 116 Christina Hi, everyone. This is Christina and welcome to this week’s program All About Teens and I'm here today with Mr. Matt Owens, our school principal. He’s going to talk to us about dress codes. We know that in many schools around the country the dress code is often a topic of debate and it has also been an issue among new students at our school. So, Mr. Owens, can you give us more information about the dress code? Mr. Owens Hello, Christina, hello, everyone! To begin with, in a school, a dress code is a set of rules that determines the type of clothing and accessories students must wear and mustn’t wear when they come to classes. Christina I see. What types of clothes aren’t allowed in our school, for example? Mr. Owens For example, baggy pants and bandanas or dew rags are not permitted. Athletic wear, hats and sunglasses aren’t allowed either.

Christina Can you tell us more about it? Mr. Owens Yes, sure. One of the problems with these clothes and accessories is that they are inappropriate for the school environment because they can be interpreted as gang dress. Besides, they make it difficult to identify the students. In the case of baggy pants with large pockets, for example, drugs and weapons can be carried in them. Our aim is to keep students safe and focused on their studies. Christina OK. One final question, Mr. Owens. Are students’ opinions taken into consideration? Mr. Owens Yes, we’re interested in listening to what students have to say. In order to be accepted, a dress code should be openly discussed with the parents’ committee, the teaching staff, the school board and, of course, the students themselves, as we do here in our school. Everybody should be involved in this discussion. On our site we have an area where students can find more information about our dress code, but we have an open door policy and students’ opinions are always welcome. Christina Thank you for being with us today, Mr. Owens! So, as you heard, guys, if you have any questions, Mr. Owens is available to chat, so…

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BIBLIOGRAPHY AMOS, Eduardo; PRESCHER, Elisabeth. Simplified Grammar of English. São Paulo: Richmond Publishing, 2008. BAKHTIN, Mikhail Mikhailovich. Estética da criação verbal. São Paulo: Martins Fontes, 1992. BRASIL. Ministério da Educação. Secretaria de Educação Média e Tecnológica. Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (Ensino Médio). Brasília: MEC, 2000. BRASIL. Ministério da Educação. Secretaria de Educação Média e Tecnológica. Orientações Curriculares do Ensino Médio. Brasília: MEC/SEB, 2006. BROWN, H. Douglas. Teaching By Principles: an Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Regents, 1994. CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL DICTIONARY OF ENGLISH. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. COLLINS COBUILD ADVANCED DICTIONARY OF AMERICAN ENGLISH. Boston: Thomson Heinle, 2007. COSTA, Sérgio Roberto. Dicionário de gêneros textuais. 3. ed. Belo Horizonte: Autêntica, 2012. DELORS, Jacques; AL-MUFTI, In’am; AMAGI, Isao et al. Educação: um tesouro a descobrir. Relatório para a UNESCO da Comissão Internacional sobre Educação para o século XXI. São Paulo: Cortez, 1998. FREIRE, Paulo. Pedagogia da autonomia: saberes necessários à prática educativa. São Paulo: Paz e Terra, 1996. HARMER, Jeremy. The Practice of English Language Teaching. Essex: Pearson Longman, 2007. KRESS, Gunther. The linguistic expression of social meaning: discourse, genre and text. In: ______. Linguistic Processes in Sociocultural Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989. cap. 1. LONGMAN DICIONÁRIO ESCOLAR. 2. ed. Pearson Education, 2008. PARROT, Martin. Grammar for English Language Teachers. 2. ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. SANTOS, Denise. Como ler melhor em inglês. São Paulo: Disal, 2011. SCRIVENER, Jeremy. Learning Teaching: a Guidebook for English Language Teachers. Oxford: Macmillan, 2005. VYGOTSKY, Lev Semenovitch. A formação social da mente: o desenvolvimento dos processos psicológicos superiores. Versão organizada por COLE, Michael et al. Tradução de José Cipolla Neto et al. São Paulo: Martins Fontes, 1998. cap. 4 e 6. WILLIS, Dave; WRIGHT, Jon. Collins Cobuild Elementary English Grammar. 2. ed. Bath: HarperCollins Publishers, 2003. WILLIS, Dave. Collins Cobuild Intermediate English Grammar. London: HarperCollins Publishers, 2004.

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