Page 1

Rosana Amancio Mariana Killner

Ensino Médio Componente curricular Língua Estrangeira Moderna – Inglês Ensino Médio Componente Língua Estrangeira curricular Moderna – Inglês

Manual do Professor

Inglês

Inglês

Manual do Professor

ISBN 978-85-8392-098-4

9

3NOI_PROF.indd 1

788583 920984

5/19/16 3:38 PM


Manual do Professor

Inglês Ensino Médio Componente curricular Língua Estrangeira Moderna Inglês

Rosana Gemima Amancio

Mariana Killner

Professora graduada em Letras Anglo-Portuguesas pela Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL-PR).

Licenciada em Letras Anglo-Portuguesas pela Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL-PR).

Especialista em Língua Portuguesa pela Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL-PR). Especialista em Língua Inglesa pela Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL-PR). Mestre em Linguística pela Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp-SP).

Bacharel em Letras, Língua e Cultura Francesas pela Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL-PR). Especialista em Língua Inglesa pela Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL-PR). Atuou como professora de Inglês em escolas da rede particular de ensino.

Atuou como professora de Inglês em escolas da rede particular de ensino.

1a. edição

São Paulo

2016


Copyright © Rosana Gemima Amancio, Mariana Killner, 2016

Diretor editorial Gerente editorial Coordenadora editorial Assessoria Gerente de produção editorial Coordenador de produção editorial Coordenadora de arte Coordenadora de preparação e revisão Supervisora de preparação e revisão Revisão Coordenador de iconografia e licenciamento de textos Supervisora de licenciamento de textos Iconografia Coordenadora de ilustrações e cartografia Diretor de operações e produção gráfica

Produção editorial Edição Assistência editorial Assessoria Projeto gráfico Capa Imagem de capa Edição de ilustrações Diagramação Tratamento de imagens Ilustrações Preparação de texto Revisão técnica Assistência de produção Autorização de recursos Pesquisa iconográfica Editoração eletrônica

Lauri Cericato Cayube Galas Ana Carolina Costa Lopes Lidia Furusato Mariana Milani Marcelo Henrique Ferreira Fontes Daniela Máximo Lilian Semenichin Viviam Moreira Amanda Lenharo Expedito Arantes Elaine Bueno Ana Paula de Jesus Marcia Berne Reginaldo Soares Damasceno Scriba Projetos Editoriais Mariana Cavalcante Diamante Isabela Ventura Silvério Biz, Ruth Carvalho da Silva, Jefferson de Moura Saraiva, Karina Otsuka Nihonmatsu Renata Quirino Laís Garbelini e Hatadani Marcela Pialarissi e Hatadani Fotomontagem formada pelas imagens Dmitry Zimin/ Konstantin Remizov/Masson/ILYA AKINSHIN/Madlen/Comaniciu Dan/ BrAt82/Zerbor/Alexey Boldin/Evikka/Mega Pixel/Shutterstock.com Natanaele Bilmaia Ana Maria Puerta Guimarães José Vitor Elorza Costa Anna Simonin, Art Capri, Bárbara Sarzi, Camila Ferreira, Estúdio Meraki, Júnior Caramez, Rogério Casagrande Laís Morais Canonico Metz Robin Camargo Denise A. Santos, Daiana Melo e Tamires Azevedo Erick L. Almeida Alaíde França Luiz Roberto L. Correa (Beto)

Dados Internacionais de Catalogação na Publicação (CIP) (Câmara Brasileira do Livro, SP, Brasil) Amancio, Rosana Gemima #Contato inglês, 3 o ano / Rosana Gemima Amancio, Mariana Killner. – 1. ed. – São Paulo : Quinteto Editorial, 2016. – (Coleção #contato inglês) “Componente curricular: inglês” ISBN 978-85-8392-097-7 (aluno) ISBN 978-85-8392-098-4 (professor) 1. Inglês (Ensino médio) I. Killner, Mariana. II. Título. III. Série.

16-02610

      CDD-420.7

Índices para catálogo sistemático: 1. Inglês : Ensino médio Reprodução proibida: Art. 184 do Código Penal e Lei 9.610 de 19 de fevereiro de 1998. Todos os direitos reservados à QUINTETO EDITORIAL LTDA. Rua Rui Barbosa, 156 – Bela Vista – São Paulo-SP CEP 01326-010 – Tel. (11) 3598-6000 Caixa Postal 65149 – CEP da Caixa Postal 01390-970

g18_ftd_lt_3noi_1iniciais_002.indd 1

420.7 Em respeito ao meio ambiente, as folhas deste livro foram produzidas com fibras obtidas de árvores de florestas plantadas, com origem certificada.

Impresso no Parque Gráfico da Editora FTD S.A. CNPJ 61.186.490/0016-33 Avenida Antonio Bardella, 300 Guarulhos-SP – CEP 07220-020 Tel. (11) 3545-8600 e Fax (11) 2412-5375

9/6/16 11:26 AM


Para conhecer seu livro Hot dog, self-service, e-mail, blog, game... você já percebeu quantas palavras em Inglês usamos diariamente? Essas relações de palavras são bastante interessantes, pois nos mostram a importância da língua inglesa dentro da nossa cultura. E estudar uma língua estrangeira é uma maneira de termos acesso a uma imensidão de novas informações, de nos preparar para desafios, de conhecermos outras culturas, e é, sobretudo, uma forma de conhecermos melhor a nossa própria cultura. Pensando nisso, preparamos para este livro uma seleção de conteúdos contemporânea e consistente, textos atuais e diversificados, além de recursos atraentes, como fotografias, ilustrações, mapas, tabelas e quadros, que possibilitam a você ter um contato envolvente com a informação. Esperamos que você se identifique com este material e encontre nele o prazer de estudar outra língua, e que ele seja um incentivo para você buscar cada vez mais conhecimento.

Abertura

Nas páginas de abertura, você encontrará uma montagem de imagens relacionada ao tema da unidade e um texto introdutório explicando o significado da expressão idiomática ou do provérbio usado como título. Além disso, apresentamos algumas questões para que você e os seus colegas troquem ideias e entrem no clima da unidade.

4

baby [ beibi] - plural babies - noun 1 a very young child: Some babies cry during the night; (also adjective) a baby boy. bebê 2 (especially American, often babe) a girl or young woman. garota babyish adjective like a baby; not mature: a babyish child that cries every day at school. pueril baby buggy/carriage (American) a pram. carrinho baby grand a small grand piano. piano meia-cauda baby-sit verb to remain in a house to look after a child while its parents are out: He baby-sits for his friends every Saturday. ficar de baby-sitter baby-sitter noun. baby-sitter baby-sitting noun. serviço de baby-sitter

5

bachelor [ bat∫ l ] noun an unmarried man: He’s a confirmed bachelor (= he has no intention of ever marrying); (also adjective) a bachelor flat (= a flat suitable for one person). solteiro back [bak] noun 1 in man, the part of the body from the neck to the bottom of the spine: She lay on her back. costas 2 in animals, the upper part of the body: She put the saddle on the horse’s back. lombo 3 that part of anything opposite to or furthest from the front: the back of the house; She sat at the back of the hall. fundos 4 in football, hockey etc a player who plays behind the forwards. defesa adjective of or at the back: the back door. dos fundos adverb 1 to, or at, the place or person from which a person or thing came: / went back to the shop; She gave the car back to its owner. de volta 2 away (from something); not near (something): Move back! Let the ambulance get to the injured man; Keep back from me or I’ll hit you! para trás 3 towards the back (of something): Sit back in your chair. para trás 4 in return; in response to: When the teacher is scolding you, don’t answer back. de volta 5 to, or in, the past: Think back to your childhood. para trás verb 1 to (cause to) move backwards: He backed (his car) out of the garage. dar marcha à ré 2 to help or support: Will you back me against the others? apoiar 3 to bet or gamble on: I backed your horse to win. apostar em backer noun a person who supports someone or something, especially with money: the backer of the new theatre. patrocinador

acúmulo back- number noun an out-of-date copy or issue of a magazine etc: She collects back-numbers of comic magazines. número atrasado backside noun the bottom or buttocks: He sits on his backside all day long and does no work. traseiro backstroke noun in swimming, a stroke made when lying on one’s back in the water: The child is good at backstroke. nado de costas backwash noun 1 a backward current eg that following a ship’s passage through the water: the backwash of the steamer. ressaca 2 the unintentional results of an action, situation etc: The backwash of that firm’s financial troubles affected several other firms. repercussão backwater noun 1 a stretch of river not in the main stream. braço, esteiro 2 a place not affected by what is happening in the world outside. That village is rather a backwater. fim

3 Phonetic symbols They show how the word is pronounced. Some dictionaries have a guide which helps you to understand and use the pronunciation symbols presented in them.

Na seção Looking words up, você encontrará orientações sobre como usar o dicionário de uma maneira mais ef iciente.

Monolingual dictionaries

4 Parts of speech It indicates if the word is a noun, a verb, an adjective, an adverb, etc. It can be abbreviated (n./noun; v./ verb; etc.)

5 Definition The definition and meaning of the word. On-line dictionaries

6 Example sentence

6

An example of how the word is used in a sentence. It can provide more context and relevance.

Learning strategies 7 Translation

The word changed into Portuguese.

If you want to be a good learner of English, there are strategies you can use. These are some suggestions:

many 8 Syllables

7

Some dictionaries show you how to break the word into syllables.

de mundo back yard noun (especially American) a garden at the back of a house etc: He grows vegetables in his backyard. quintal

30

Bilingual dictionaries

The word to be defined. Dictionary entries are arranged in alphabetical order. Nouns are usually in the singular form. Verbs are usually in the base form (not in the past or past participle).

Concise Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press, 2010

baboon [b bu n, (American) ba-] noun a kind of large monkey with a dog-like face. babuíno

There are different types of dictionaries. For example:

They indicate the first and the last words on the page.

2 Entry

Password: English dictionary for speakers of Portuguese. São Paulo: Martins Fontes, 1995. p. 30.

Macmillan Dictionary. Available at: <www. macmillandictionary.com>. Accessed on: March 31st, 2016

3

babe [beib] noun 1 a baby: a babe in arms (= a small baby not yet able to walk). bebê 2 see baby.

Merriam-Webster. Available at: <www.merriam-webster.com>. Accessed on: March 31st, 2016

eleven

ten

11

Na seção Learning strategies, você encontrará diferentes estratégias de aprendizado que poderão auxiliá-lo em seu estudo.

Estúdio Meraki

10

1 Guide words

backbite verb to criticize a person when he is not present. falar mal (pelas costas) backbiting noun: Constant backbiting by her colleagues led to her resignation. maledicência backbone noun 1 the spine: the backbone of a fish. espinha dorsal 2 the chief support: The older employees are the backbone of the industry. sustentáculo backbreaking adjective (of a task etc) very difficult or requiring very hard work: Digging the garden is a backbreaking job. pesado back date verb 1 to put an earlier date on (a cheque etc): She should have paid her bill last month and so she has backdated the cheque. antedatar 2 to make payable from a date in the past: Our rise in pay was backdated to April. retroagir back fire verb 1 (of a motor-car etc) to make a loud bang because of unburnt gases in the exhaust system: The car backfired. estourar 2 (of a plan etc) to have unexpected results, often opposite to the intended results: His scheme backfired (on him), and he lost money. dar um revertério background noun 1 the space behind the principal or most important figures or objects of a picture etc: She always paints ships against a background of stormy skies; trees in the background of the picture. fundo 2 happenings that go before, and help to explain, an event etc: the background to a situation. pano de fundo 3 a person’s origins, education etc: He was ashamed of his humble background. antecedentes backhand noun 1 in tennis etc, a stroke or shot with the back of one’s hand turned towards the ball: a clever backhand; His backhand is very strong. backhand 2 writing with the letters sloping backwards: I can always recognize her backhand. grafia inclinada à esquerda adverb using backhand: She played the stroke backhand; She writes backhand. de revés backlog noun a pile of uncompleted work etc which has collected: a backlog of orders because of the strike.

Dicionário Oxford escolar. Oxford University Press, 2013

Bb

Babble / back

babble [ babl] verb 1 to talk indistinctly or foolishly: What are you babbling about now? tagarelar 2 to make a continuous and indistinct noise: The stream babbled over the pebbles. murmurar noun such talk or noises. tagarelice, murmúrio

Password. São Paulo: Martins Fontes, 2010

1

2

Fotomontagem formada pelas imagens J. Helgason e LOGVINYUK YULIIA/ Shutterstock.com

Looking words up

12

twelve

thirteen

13


A seção Contextualizing inicia o estudo por meio de atividades relacionadas ao tema das unidades e ao vocabulário que será ensinado. Essa contextualização será feita, também, muitas vezes, com base na leitura e análise de diversos gêneros textuais.

Contextualizing

1.

b ) Think of characteristics that you find beautiful in people and that don’t match the media patterns. c ) In your opinion, do we need a wider definition of beauty?

1.

A seção Learning and acting foi proposta para unir o trabalho com as habilidades de leitura e de escrita. Ela está dividida em Reading and reflecting, momento em que a leitura e compreensão textual são estudadas, e Writing, em que se realiza a produção textual.

Discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates. a ) Do you usually post personal information or photos on the internet? For what reason? b ) Do you worry about protecting your on-line identity? c ) Have you already read anything related to on-line prevention?

2.

Exposing information on the internet can cause many problems. Read examples of situations that can occur and associate them with their corresponding images. a ) posting personal information on the internet b ) taking pictures that may expose you c ) chatting with unknown people d ) meeting in real life someone that you only know from the internet

I

II

III

IV

During the Renaissance (cultural movement in Europe from the 14th to the 17th century), the ideal women were more voluptuous and curvier than nowadays. The paintings from that period portray this beauty standard showing women that would be considered fat today. Nowadays, women’s beauty is usually associated with a fit and thin body. Simon Vouet - The Toilet of Venus. Cincinnati Art Museum. 1628-1639.

Andrew H. Walker/Getty Images

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Reading and reflecting

Observe the following pictures and read the information. Then, write down in your notebook what you can conclude from this observation.

Simon Vouet. 1628-1639. Óleo sobre tela. 184 x 153 cm. Museu de arte de Cincinnati (EUA)

Learning and acting

Discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates. a ) When you think of the word beautiful, what comes to your mind?

2.

Pre-reading

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Warming up

Hilary Rhoda (2014)

a ) From the observation of these images it is possible to conclude that… I

the concept of beauty is universal and unchangeable.

II

the concept of beauty changes over time.

b ) Therefore, we may conclude that… I

the physical characteristics that are considered beautiful nowadays may not be the beauty standard in a few years.

II

the physical characteristics that are considered beautiful nowadays have always been and will always be the beauty standard.

c ) Based on this logic, one possible conclusion is that…

Listening and understanding

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Listening Ilustrações: Art Capri

66

1.

Discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates.

2.

Observe the magazine cover and answer the following questions.

I

the socially accepted definition of beauty is an unquestionable truth.

II

our society must rethink their concepts of beauty and enlarge their understanding of what is beautiful.

sixty-six

a ) In your opinion, is being beautiful related to being thin? Why (not)?

What isFirst, the title You are going to read an opinion article about protecting identity on thea )internet. readof the magazine and what kind of the sentences below and write down in your notebook the one(s) you think you are going magazine is it? to find in the article.

A seção Listening and understanding está divida em Listening, em que se privilegia a compreensão de áudios autênticos, e Speaking, que busca contemplar situações de uso real da língua para você praticar o que aprendeu.

b ) Describe the model that appears on the magazine cover.

a ) Nothing is private on the internet. b ) There is no problem if you share personal pictures on the internet. c ) We cannot control who reads our information on the internet.

c ) Is it common to see chubby models on magazine covers?

d ) Passwords should be changed frequently. e ) Our on-line identity and our real world identity are the same.

34

© 2016 Competitor Group, Inc.

b ) Do you believe that thinner people have a better quality of life? Explain.

Reading 3.

d ) In your opinion, what message is being sent by this magazine cover?

thirty-four

3. track 20

You are going to listen to part of an Australian program called The World Today. The topic of the program is related to what you’ve been discussing so far. Listen to the introduction of the program and answer the following question.

• What is the relation between what you listened to and the questions you discussed in activities 1 and 2?

Women’s Running. Available at: <www.popsugar.com/fitness/WomenRunning-Plus-Size-Cover-Model-August-201537914676#photo-37914676>. Accessed on: January 25th, 2016.

4.

What is the difference between being overweight and being obese?

5.

Listen again and answer the questions that follow in your notebook.

track 20

As atividades de compreensão oral e o número das faixas no CD de áudio são indicados por esse ícone.

a ) According to this study, who struggles more with body image issues: overweight teenage boys or overweight teenage girls? b ) Why do scientists think this happens? c ) In what Australian city was this study conducted? d ) How many school children were interviewed? e ) How many years after the first interview did the scientists follow up the school children?

Comprehending and using

1. 72

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Learning about the language Relative pronouns Discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates. a ) Do you have a favorite section in magazines and newspapers? If so, which one?

seventy-two

b ) When you read them, what calls your attention? c ) Do you think they can influence your behavior? Explain. d ) Can you think of advantages and disadvantages of this influence?

2.

You are going to read excerpts from two articles about the impact of the media, such as magazines, newspapers and adversiting, on people’s lives. How does the media affect people’s lives? Read the texts and answer.

[...] Magazines for both men and women are thought to perpetuate problems with body image and eating disturbances. For women, it’s the constant articles like “28 Flat Belly Tricks!”, “Slim down for Swim Season!”, and other headlines, but even more important may be the constant depiction of models, who start out already skinny and get photoshopped even thinner. For men, the magazines emphasize muscle gain, muscularity, and are increasingly coming to include weight loss articles as well. And these influences are particularly important in teens, who experience intense social pressure which is often based on how they look. [...]

A seção Comprehending and using está divida em duas partes. A primeira, Learning about the language, apresenta estruturas linguísticas e suas regras. Na segunda, Using the language, você encontrará atividades para praticar o uso dessas estruturas em situações próximas do uso real da língua.

Magazines, media, and teen body image. Available at: <http://scicurious.scientopia.org/2011/04/25/magazines-media-and-teenbody-image>. Accessed on: December 9 th, 2015.

[...] Seeing violent media content often enough can make it more likely that someone will behave in an aggressive or violent way, be less understanding of other people’s needs and feelings, and feel more afraid of their environment. [...] teenagers who are exposed to and take an interest in the news are more likely to be interested in major social and political issues. This can help educate them and encourage them to become more involved as citizens in their communities. [...] Celebrities often get into the media for bad behaviour. But celebrity role models aren’t always bad influences. Media influence can be more powerful if a celebrity role model says a particular lifestyle, product or behaviour is good. There are lots of examples of celebrities whose lifestyles, values and behaviour provide positive examples. The hard work and success of these role models can be inspirational. [...] Media influence on teenagers. Available at: <http://raisingchildren.net.au/articles/media_influences_teenagers.html/context/1106>. Accessed on: December 9 th, 2015.

40

Summing up

Nesta unidade, você...

Unit 2

refletiu sobre como a mídia pode influenciar o que as pessoas pensam, como se vestem e como se comportam; refletiu sobre como a internet mudou a forma como a informação é veiculada; leu e interpretou artigos sobre a influência da mídia na sociedade; estudou vocabulário referente às tecnologias e aos meios de comunicação; refletiu sobre a exposição excessiva e como manter-se seguro em ambientes on-line;

forty

No Summing up, você poderá autoavaliar seu aprendizado, verificando quais conteúdos da unidade precisam ser revistos.

escreveu um artigo sobre as vantagens e desvantagens da exposição em redes sociais e na internet e como ela pode influenciar sua vida; escutou um podcast australiano sobre a veracidade das informações veiculadas pela mídia e como as pessoas as recebem; estudou os relative pronouns e as relative clauses e refletiu sobre os seus usos; estudou palavras de ligação que indicam uma sequência de elementos no texto;

the J. Pakula. All Filme de Alan men. EUA. 1976 president’s

praticou a pronúncia correta dos sons representados pelos símbolos /u:/ e /U/.

Going further Watching

All the president’s men, by Alan J. Pakula. Warner Bros.: USA, 1976.

No Going further, você encontrará sugestões de livros, filmes, sites e músicas referentes ao tema da unidade. Vale a pena conferir algumas dessas sugestões!

www.onlinenewsp

apers.com

The movie All the president’s men, set in 1972, tells the story of two reporters who worked for the Washington Post and investigated the Watergate Scandal, a major political scandal that occurred in the United States in the 1970s and led to President Richard Nixon’s resignation.

Surfing the net Online newspapers <http://tub.im/5mkxd6> is a website where you can find thousands of newspaper websites listed by country and region.

ael Ochs Suzan Carson/Michty Images Archives/Get

Singing The Song of the Free Press, performed by the English singer Leon Rosselson and recorded on the album Bringing the News from Nowhere, is a satirical song about how newspapers influence people’s daily lives.

Online newspapers. Available at: <www. onlinenewspapers. com>. Accessed on: March 29 th, 2016.

Choosing a career

Leon Rosselson (2014).

forty-five

45

Essa seção apresenta diferentes profissões e informações sobre o mercado de trabalho. Por meio de uma lista com as principais características dessas profissões, propomos que você avalie os prós e os contras de cada carreira, com o objetivo de auxiliá-lo em sua escolha profissional.

g18_ftd_lt_3noi_003a005_conheca.indd 4

5/28/16 9:32 AM


Thinking cross-curricularly

A seção Thinking cross-curricularly retoma alguns dos temas abordados em unidades anteriores, estabelecendo uma relação entre esses temas e outras disciplinas do currículo escolar. O objetivo é ampliar as propostas de discussão feitas nas unidades, proporcionando mais oportunidades de leitura e compreensão de textos variados.

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

In this section of the book, you are going to read texts related to some of the topics you have discussed in the previous units. Here, you are going to have the opportunity to reflect on various themes and their relation with other subjects, such as Physics, Sociology and Chemistry. The activities follow the same structure you have worked with in the units, respecting the stages of pre-reading, reading and post-reading.

1.

Discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates.

2.

Do you know what anaglyphs are? In order to find out, read the following text. Then, in your own words, explain to a classmate what an anaglyph is.

a ) What creates your world vision? b ) How do you think the media influences the way people think? c ) Do you think images can be altered? Why (not)?

x

www.stereoscopy.com/faq/anaglyphs.html

Anaglyphs What is an anaglyph? Anaglyphic stereograms (anaglyphs) are stereo pairs of images in which each image is shown using a different color. The two images are overlapped and then viewed using red/green or red/blue or red/cyan glasses (depending on the colors used). This means livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no that the color channel is used for the stereo separation and therefore the perception of Este ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno. anaglyphs is monochrome (black and white), although color anaglyphs can be made. […] In this section of the book, you are going to study universities entrance examinations from all How do the red/green work? over the country. This means that you are going to have the opportunity to learn and have more When you look through the red lens, only red light is allowed through. The eye that is information styles of exams and prepare yourself for when your time to take covered with the red lens will see the green image. By the sameabout token,the thedifferent green lens the examinations comes. only allows green light through, so the eye that is covered with the green lens will see the red image. In an anaglyph, when a given color filterThe stops the other entrance colors, it examinations is called universities have, in most cases, objective questions. The English subtractive filtration. Because the red and green images are slightly offset, each eye sees exams questions usually offer four or five alternatives. They can demand from the students the a slightly different view of the picture. This disparity simulates the distance between our ability to interpret a textusorwith to use two eyes, which provides two views of the same scene, therefore providing thea grammatical and linguistic knowledge. Moreover, some exams ask the questions in English, while others ask them in Portuguese. perception of depth, or binocular stereopsis. […] (UNESP - 2003) Unesp stands for Universidade Estadual Paulista. Bárbara Sarzi

Getting ready for exams

Anaglyphs. Available at: <www.stereoscopy.com/faq/anaglyphs.html>. Accessed on: December 8 th, 2015.

3.

Decide if the sentences below are true or false according to the text. In your Television and ournotebook, children write the true statements and rewrite the false ones using information. Howthe docorrect children watch television? a ) Anaglyphs are made by overlapping images with theChildren same color and. adults watch, think about and understand television very differently.

A seção Getting ready for exams é uma oportunidade para se preparar para avaliações oficiais, como ENEM e vestibulares de diversas regiões do Brasil e com questões de diferentes formatos.

Between the agesred/blue of 2-5, children’s interest in television is growing. Many young children b ) The lens of the glasses used to view anaglyphs can be red/green, or red/cyan. c ) Anaglyphs can be monochrome or colored.

may have trouble following and remembering the stories. They are more interested in the action on the screen than on how the story is going to end. Before age 4 many children

don’t know that are different and they trust commercials. d ) The eye covered with the red lens only sees the red color, and thecommercials eye coveredand withprograms the Between the ages of 6 and 8, children’s interest in TV continues to grow. They green lens only sees the green color. e ) Each eye sees a different view of the picture.

understand and remember what they watch. Most children in this age range know that not all of what they see on the screen is real. They can tell the difference between the

commercials f ) The notion of depth comes from the disparity between images.and the programs and, by the age of 8, many children know that the purpose

80

of a commercial is to persuade. Still, they watch ads with great interest.

eighty

Going out there

Between the ages of 10 and 14, children’s attention to TV stops increasing and decreases into adulthood. They understand some of the persuasion techniques used in commercials and begin to turn their attention away from the TV when commercials start. What is the impact of television on our children? Childhood is a time of learning. Whatever children are doing, whether they are in school, talking to their parents, playing, helping with household chores or watching television, they are gathering clues to help them make sense of the world around them. They are developing skills, values and thinking strategies that they will use throughout their lives. Watching TV, children encounter a wide range of places, people, and information that they might not meet in their communities. They are exposed to issues, ideas and values that might not be found in their own homes. As they try to understand the world and how it works, children draw on both real life and television experiences. The more TV they watch, the more information and ideas they take away from it. Television and our children. Available at: <www.media-awareness.ca/eng/med/home/resource/oma.htm>.

1.

Com base nas informações contidas no texto, é possível afirmar que a ) crianças entre 2 e 5 anos estão muito mais interessadas no desfecho do que na ação dos programas a que assistem na TV. b ) o interesse da criança pela TV é crescente mas, na faixa etária compreendida entre 10 e 14 anos, seu interesse para de crescer e começa a diminuir até a idade adulta. c ) antes de completar 4 anos, a criança já é capaz de perceber, claramente, a diferença entre programas e comerciais. d ) por volta dos 8 anos, a criança já demonstra interesse particular pelos comerciais, embora não consiga identificar que o propósito deles é persuadir. e ) o interesse da criança pela TV começa a se desenvolver a partir dos 2 anos, quando já consegue acompanhar e lembrar das histórias a que assiste.

88

eighty-eight

Essa seção propõe um processo investigativo de trabalho e pesquisa, com uma ação voltada para a prática.

Understanding literature

Nessa seção propomos a leitura e a interpretação de textos literários, para que você conheça a produção literária de alguns países onde o inglês é língua oficial.

unit

Grammar appendix

among (prep.): entre accomplish (v.): realizar

anchoring (n.): apresentação

accomplishment (n.): realização, conquista, feito

appealing (adj.): atraente

account (n.): conta de banco

approach (v.): abordar, aproximar

behavior/behaviour (n.): comportamento

arouse (v.): despertar, estimular

belief (n.): crença

appointment (n.): agendamento

achievement (n.): realização, feito

beforehand (adv.): antecipadamente beg (v.): implorar

acquaintance (n.): conhecido

arrest (n.): detenção

benchmark (n.): referência

activist (n.): ativista

arrest (v.): prender, capturar

bend (v.): curvar, dobrar

acute (n.): grave, intenso

artsy (adj.): artístico

address (v.): enfrentar, abordar

assault (v.): agredir

beware (v.): ter cuidado, ter cautela

advertisement (n.): anúncio, propaganda

assembly (n.): assembleia assumption (n.): suposição

advocate (n.): defensor

atrocity (n.): atrocidade

affair (n.): assunto, acontecimento, caso amoroso

atypical (adj.): atípico

aftermath (n.): resultado, consequência afterward (adv.): mais tarde, depois

binge (n.): consumo excessivo birthmark (n.): marca de nascença

augment (v.): aumentar, ampliar

blast (n.): rajada, explosão

available (adj.): disponível

bleach (v.): lavar com água sanitária, alvejar

average (adj.): médio, normal, comum avoid (v.): evitar

bra (n.): sutiã

air (v.): ir ao ar

award (v.): conceder, premiar

brand (n.): marca

aim (n.): objetivo

awareness (n.): consciência, conscientização

broad-mindedness (n.): mente aberta

allowance (n.): mesada aloft (adv.): acima alter (v.): alterar, mudar although (c.): embora, apesar de que amateur (adj.): amador one hundred and ninety-eight

bonding (n.): ligação

brood (v.): refletir, meditar brotherhood (n.): fraternidade, irmandade bubble (n.): bolha

B

build (n.): constituição física be worth (v.): valer algo beat (v.): vencer, derrotar

om k.c oc rst tte hu /S

Some past forms of verbs are irregular. They don’t follow any rules. To know more irregular forms of verbs in the past, study the List of irregular verbs on pages 204 to 206. be - I was anxious to watch the new season of the series. We were at home yesterday. go - He went to his friend’s house to watch the game on TV. have - They had their cable TV canceled.

To form negative sentences, use didn’t (did not) and the verb in the base form. To ask questions, use did before the subject, and the verb in the base form after the subject. With verb to be, use wasn’t/weren’t (was not/were not) in the negative sentences, and was/ were before the subject for questions.

bind (v.): amarrar, atar

auction (n.): leilão

awkward (adj.): embaraçoso, inadequado

vowel + consonant, duplicate the last letter and add -ed. plan - They planned to shoot a TV show together.

bill (n.): conta

ahead (adv.): à frente

allegedly (adv.): supostamente

omit the -y and add -ied. cry - She cried watching the soap opera.

• If the verb ends in consonant + stressed

billboard (n.): letreiro, outdoor

agency (n.): atuação, ação

aim (v.): ter o objetivo de

198

beckon (v.): chamar com um gesto, acenar

like - He liked the movie.

• If the base verb ends in consonant + y,

on

A

watch - I watched the news yesterday.

• If the base verb ends in -e, add -d.

nd

v. = verb

n. = noun

Spelling

• Usually, add -ed to regular verbs in the past.

rlo

c. = conjunction

Review of verb tenses Simple Past The Simple Past is used to talk about past actions and states. To form affirmative sentences in the Simple Past, add -ed, -d or -ied to the base form of regular verbs.

de

pron. = pronoun prep. = preposition

1

eri

adj. = adjective adv. = adverb

No Grammar appendix, você encontrará um resumo, apresentado de forma sistemática, dos pontos gramaticais estudados ao longo do livro. Sugerimos que você recorra a essa seção para estudar em casa ou para solucionar dúvidas em sala de aula.

bik

Glossary

In this section, you can find the meaning and the classification of several words. All the meanings presented are from the uses in the specific situations of this book. The meanings and classifications of these words may vary depending on their use.

burn (v.): queimar, incendiar by the same token: do mesmo modo

Affirmative

No Glossary, você encontrará, em ordem alfabética, vocabulário de textos e atividades de todas as unidades, com as respectivas traduções em língua portuguesa.

Negative

Interrogative

Short answers

I watched a movie on TV yesterday.

I didn’t watch a movie on TV yesterday.

Did you watch a movie on TV yesterday?

You bought a new TV for the living room.

You didn’t buy a new TV for the living room.

Did you buy a new TV for the living room?

Yes, I did.

Yes, I did.

He/She/It was tired.

He/She/It wasn’t tired.

Was he/she/it tired?

Yes, he/she/it was.

We/You/They were crazy about cartoons in childhood.

We/You/They weren’t crazy about cartoons in childhood.

Were we/you/they crazy about cartoons in childhood?

No, I didn’t.

No, I didn’t.

No, he/she/it wasn’t.

188

one hundred and eighty-eight

Yes, we/they were. No, we/they weren’t.


Contents Looking words up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Learning strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

unit

A picture is worth a thousand words

..............

14

Contextualizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 TV programs

Learning and acting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Reading a review Writing a review

Listening and understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Listening to an old TV commercial Making a commercial

Comprehending and using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Review of verb tenses: Simple Past, Simple Present, Past Continuous, Present Continuous and Future

Summing up. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

unit

Going further . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

A drop of ink may make a million think 30 .......

Contextualizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Menzl Guenter/ Shutterstock.com

Technologies and means of communication

Learning and acting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Reading an article Writing an opinion article

Listening and understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Listening to a podcast Talking about pieces of news

Comprehending and using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Relative pronouns Relative clauses

Summing up. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Going further . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

Choosing a career . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46


unit

All that glitters is not gold

.................................................

48

Contextualizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Clothing and footwear

Learning and acting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

Listening and understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Listening to a radio program Talking about an idea to make the world a better place

Comprehending and using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Passive voice

Summing up. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Going further . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

unit

Beauty is in the eye of the beholder

.................

64

Contextualizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Beauty patterns

Learning and acting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Reading a magazine article Writing a magazine article

Listening and understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Listening to a program Giving a speech

Comprehending and using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Second conditional

Summing up. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Going further . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

Thinking cross-curricularly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Choosing a career . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Getting ready for exams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

Dimitar Sotirov/ Shutterstock.com

Reading a campaign advertisement Creating an advertisement


unit

No man is an island

.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

94

Contextualizing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Prejudice and tolerance

Learning and acting.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Reading an excerpt of a speech Carrying out a survey

Listening and understanding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Listening to a podcast Role-playing a podcast

Comprehending and using. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Review of verb tenses: Present Perfect and Present Perfect Continuous

Summing up.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

unit

Stuart Jenner/ Shutterstock.com

Going further. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

When the going gets tough

.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

110

Contextualizing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Human rights

Learning and acting.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Reading an excerpt of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights Making a campaign poster

Listening and understanding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Listening to an interview Giving a speech

Comprehending and using. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Past Perfect

Summing up.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Going further. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Choosing a career. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126


unit

It is up to you

.............................................................................................

128

Contextualizing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Career path

Learning and acting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Reading an opinion article Writing an opinion article

Listening and understanding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Listening to a talk show Conducting an interview

Comprehending and using. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Reported speech

Summing up.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

Look on the bright side

..........................................................

144

Contextualizing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Decisions and regrets

Learning and acting.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Reading tips on planning your future Creating a mood board

Listening and understanding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Listening to a speech Having a debate

Comprehending and using. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Third conditional Future Continuous

Summing up.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Going further. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

Thinking cross-curricularly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Choosing a career. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Getting ready for exams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Going out there. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Understanding literature.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Grammar appendix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Glossary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 List of irregular verbs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 List of phrasal verbs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208

FuzzBones/Shutterstock.com

unit

Going further. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143


Looking words up

1

2

Bb

Babble / back  backbite verb to criticize a person when he is not present. falar mal (pelas costas)  backbiting noun: Constant backbiting by her colleagues led to her resignation. maledicência  backbone noun 1 the spine: the backbone of a fish. espinha dorsal 2 the chief support: The older employees are the backbone of the industry. sustentáculo  backbreaking adjective (of a task etc) very difficult or requiring very hard work: Digging the garden is a backbreaking job. pesado  back  date verb 1 to put an earlier date on (a cheque etc): She should have paid her bill last month and so she has backdated the cheque. antedatar 2 to make payable from a date in the past: Our rise in pay was backdated to April. retroagir  back  fire verb 1 (of a motor-car etc) to make a loud bang because of unburnt gases in the exhaust system: The car backfired. estourar 2 (of a plan etc) to have unexpected results, often opposite to the intended results: His scheme backfired (on him), and he lost money. dar um revertério  background noun 1 the space behind the principal or most important figures or objects of a picture etc: She always paints ships against a background of stormy skies; trees in the background of the picture. fundo 2 happenings that go before, and help to explain, an event etc: the background to a situation. pano de fundo 3 a person’s origins, education etc: He was ashamed of his humble background. antecedentes  backhand noun 1 in tennis etc, a stroke or shot with the back of one’s hand turned towards the ball: a clever backhand; His backhand is very strong. backhand 2 writing with the letters sloping backwards: I can always recognize her backhand. grafia inclinada à esquerda adverb using backhand: She played the stroke backhand; She writes backhand. de revés  backlog noun a pile of uncompleted work etc which has collected: a backlog of orders because of the strike.

babble [  babl] verb 1 to talk indistinctly or foolishly: What are you babbling about now? tagarelar 2 to make a continuous and indistinct noise: The stream babbled over the pebbles. murmurar noun such talk or noises. tagarelice, murmúrio

3

babe [beib] noun 1 a baby: a babe in arms (= a small baby not yet able to walk). bebê 2 see baby. baboon [b   bu n, (American) ba-] noun a kind of large monkey with a dog-like face. babuíno

4

baby [  beibi] - plural  babies - noun 1 a very young child: Some babies cry during the night; (also adjective) a baby boy. bebê 2 (especially American, often babe) a girl or young woman. garota  babyish adjective like a baby; not mature: a babyish child that cries every day at school. pueril baby buggy/carriage (American) a pram. carrinho baby grand a small grand piano. piano meia-cauda  baby-sit verb to remain in a house to look after a child while its parents are out: He baby-sits for his friends every Saturday. ficar de baby-sitter  baby-sitter noun. baby-sitter  baby-sitting noun. serviço de baby-sitter

5

bachelor [  bat∫ l ] noun an unmarried man: He’s a confirmed bachelor (= he has no intention of ever marrying); (also adjective) a bachelor flat (= a flat suitable for one person). solteiro back [bak] noun 1 in man, the part of the body from the neck to the bottom of the spine: She lay on her back. costas 2 in animals, the upper part of the body: She put the saddle on the horse’s back. lombo 3 that part of anything opposite to or furthest from the front: the back of the house; She sat at the back of the hall. fundos 4 in football, hockey etc a player who plays behind the forwards. defesa adjective of or at the back: the back door. dos fundos adverb 1 to, or at, the place or person from which a person or thing came: / went back to the shop; She gave the car back to its owner. de volta 2 away (from something); not near (something): Move back! Let the ambulance get to the injured man; Keep back from me or I’ll hit you! para trás 3 towards the back (of something): Sit back in your chair. para trás 4 in return; in response to: When the teacher is scolding you, don’t answer back. de volta 5 to, or in, the past: Think back to your childhood. para trás verb 1 to (cause to) move backwards: He backed (his car) out of the garage. dar marcha à ré 2 to help or support: Will you back me against the others? apoiar 3 to bet or gamble on: I backed your horse to win. apostar em  backer noun a person who supports someone or something, especially with money: the backer of the new theatre. patrocinador

acúmulo  back-  number noun an out-of-date copy or issue of a magazine etc: She collects back-numbers of comic magazines. número atrasado  backside noun the bottom or buttocks: He sits on his backside all day long and does no work. traseiro  backstroke noun in swimming, a stroke made when lying on one’s back in the water: The child is good at backstroke. nado de costas  backwash noun 1 a backward current eg that following a ship’s passage through the water: the backwash of the steamer. ressaca 2 the unintentional results of an action, situation etc: The backwash of that firm’s financial troubles affected several other firms. repercussão  backwater noun 1 a stretch of river not in the main stream. braço, esteiro 2 a place not affected by what is happening in the world outside. That village is rather a backwater. fim

6

7

de mundo  back  yard noun (especially American) a garden at the back of a house etc: He grows vegetables in his backyard. quintal

30

10

ten

Password: English dictionary for speakers of Portuguese. São Paulo: Martins Fontes, 1995. p. 30.


Fotomontagem formada pelas imagens J. Helgason e LOGVINYUK YULIIA/ Shutterstock.com

They indicate the first and the last words on the page.

There are different types of dictionaries. For example: Bilingual dictionaries DicionĂĄrio Oxford escolar. Oxford University Press, 2013

1 Guide words

2 Entry The word to be defined. Dictionary entries are arranged in alphabetical order. Nouns are usually in the singular form. Verbs are usually in the base form (not in the past or past participle).

They show how the word is pronounced. Some dictionaries have a guide which helps you to understand and use the pronunciation symbols presented in them.

Monolingual dictionaries Concise Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press, 2010

Password. SĂŁo Paulo: Martins Fontes, 2010

3 Phonetic symbols

4 Parts of speech It indicates if the word is a noun, a verb, an adjective, an adverb, etc. It can be abbreviated (n./noun; v./ verb; etc.)

5 Definition The definition and meaning of the word.

An example of how the word is used in a sentence. It can provide more context and relevance.

7 Translation The word changed into Portuguese.

8 Syllables Some dictionaries show you how to break the word into syllables.

On-line dictionaries Macmillan Dictionary. Available at: <www. macmillandictionary.com>. Accessed on: March 31st, 2016

6 Example sentence

Merriam-Webster. Available at: <www.merriam-webster.com>. Accessed on: March 31st, 2016

eleven

11


Learning strategies If you want to be a good learner of English, there are many strategies you can use. These are some suggestions:

12

twelve


Estúdio Meraki

Sugerimos comentar com os alunos sobre as estratégias de aprendizado listadas nestas páginas. Você pode explicar que elas poderão ajudá-los a atingir o objetivo de aprender e/ou aperfeiçoar a língua inglesa.

thirteen

13


Fotomontagem de EstĂşdio Meraki formada pela imagem TaraPatta/Shutterstock.com

unit

track 2

14

A picture is worth a thousand words


The idiom a picture is worth a thousand words means that images convey a stronger message than words. The local news have decided to show many photos of the protest, since a picture is worth a thousand words. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, as respostas e comentários referentes a esta atividade.

Exchanging ideas A

Do you agree with the expression a picture is worth a thousand words? Why (not)?

B

Have you ever been in a situation in which an image you saw was stronger than words? If so, share this experience with your classmates.

C

In your opinion, is this expression true in today’s society?

D

In your opinion, what is the relation between the title of this unit and the picture on these pages?

15


Contextualizing Warming up 1.

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

2. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem os textos e conversarem com um colega de classe, dizendo com qual trecho concordam e por quê. Caso eles tenham curiosidade, você pode pedir que acessem os links e leiam os artigos na íntegra. Ao final da atividade, é importante promover uma discussão com toda a turma, levantando os principais pontos de cada texto e pedindo que comentem quais aspectos, sejam eles considerados positivos ou negativos, são apresentados em cada um.

Discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates. Respostas pessoais.

a ) Do you like watching television? b ) What do you usually watch on TV?

Você pode ajudar os alunos com o vocabulário referente aos tipos de programas televisivos, que serão trabalhados nas atividades 6 e 7.

c ) How much time a day do you usually spend watching TV?

2.

The following excerpts from articles present some aspects that are considered positive and others that are considered negative about watching television. Which one(s) do you agree with? Why? Read them and talk to a classmate. Resposta pessoal.

[...] Television is an inescapable part of modern culture. We depend on TV for entertainment, news, education, culture, weather, sports – and even music, since the advent of music videos. [...] The good things about television. Availabe at: <http://mediasmarts.ca/ television/good-things-about-television>. Accessed on: December 1st, 2015.

[...] There has been overwhelming evidence that suggests viewing violent and aggressive behaviour on television does indeed directly affect children. Children are great imitator’s of imaginary plays and their favorite characters. [...] Although we see TV as the means of mass communication, it sometimes creates a sense of violence in the younger minds as they are unable to distinguish what is good and bad. [...] Quest: ‘Television has negative impact too’. Availabe at: <http://indianexpress. com/article/cities/mumbai/quest-television-has-negative-impact-too/>. Accessed on: December 1st, 2015.

3.

In informal British English, TV is also called telly. In informal American English, the tube.

[...] Gathering around the TV to watch a show as a family is a convenient way to spend quality time together. While you should turn off the TV during mealtimes so your family members can talk, setting a time for everyone to view a show as a family can create a bonding experience. [...] O’NEIL, Sharon. The positive effects of TV on the family. Availabe at: <http:// everydaylife.globalpost.com/positive-effects-tv-family-42142.html>. Accessed on: December 1st, 2015.

[...] One of the most harmful effects of watching television is that [...] it just allows us to get a small glimpse of what’s really going on. This particularly happens when watching TV newscasts. When we watch a 30 minute newscast, we usually believe that what it is showing us is all that there is to see. [...] Unfortunately most people accept whatever television is feeding them without ever casting a doubt on its truthfulness. [...] ARCHON, Sofo. The harmful effects of watching television. Availabe at: <http://theunboundedspirit.com/the-harmful-effects-of-watching-television/>. Accessed on: December 1st, 2015.

Let’s see some other points of view about TV watching. In order to do this, in your notebook, match the two parts of the sentences in a way that they make sense. Then, decide if, in your opinion, they show a positive or a negative aspect. Finally, talk to a classmate and discuss your opinions about each statement. a - IV; b - II; c - V; d - I; e - VI; f - III. A segunda parte da resposta é pessoal.

a ) By watching cultural programming, young people can

I

our eyes may get tired.

II

are more likely to be overweight.

III

learn to make our favorite dishes.

IV

learn about the world of music and art.

d ) If we watch too much TV,

V

the present affairs around the world.

e ) Too much watching TV may distract us from

VI

other important things we have to do, such as studying.

b ) Kids who spend too much time in front of TV c ) Watching news channels is a way of knowing about

f ) By watching cooking shows, we can

16

sixteen


your notebook, draw up the table below and take notes of the aspects from activity 3 that are considered positive and negative about watching TV. Positive aspects

Negative aspects

By watching cultural programming, young people can learn about the world of music and art. Watching news channels is a way of knowing about the present affairs around the world. By watching cooking shows, we can learn to make our favorite dishes.

Kids who spend too much time in front of TV are more likely to be overweight. If we watch too much TV, our eyes may get tired. Too much watching TV may distract us from other important things we have to do, such as studying.

5. Can

you think of other advantages and disadvantages of watching TV? In your notebook, write down your ideas and, after that, share them with a classmate. Resposta pessoal.

5. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a escreverem no caderno outros pontos positivos e negativos que conseguem pensar em relação a assistir à televisão. Depois, é importante que eles trabalhem em duplas, comentando e justificando suas respostas com um colega de classe.

Unit 1

4. In

Learning vocabulary 6. Read

TheFix/Mi9

a TV guide from Sydney, in Australia. Then, in your notebook, match the sentences. If necessary, do some research. a - II; b - IV; c - I; d - VI; e - III; f - V.

Source: Sydney TV guide. Available at: <www.yourtv.com.au/guide>. Accessed on: December 1st, 2015.

a ) Nine news is the name of a

I

movie.

b ) The Big Bang theory is a

II

newscast.

c ) Man on fire is the name of a

III

documentary about a rock band.

d ) Top chef is a

IV

sitcom.

e ) Foo Fighters is a

V

reality show.

f ) House hunters is the name of a

VI

cooking show.

7. In

your notebook, answer the following questions.

a ) Are the TV programs in the Sydney TV guide similar to the shows we watch in Brazil? b ) Can you think of other examples of TV shows? For each kind of TV show below, write an example of a program in your notebook. Resposta pessoal. Possíveis respostas:

series • •Game of thrones, Grey’s anatomy, Hoje é dia de Maria. sports program • •Esporte espetacular, Super bowl. * • •soap Avenida Brasil, Days of our lives. • •cartoon Peppa Pig, The Simpsons, Sponge Bob.

Empresas, marcas e produtos citados nesta obra não representam recomendação ou indicação comercial. Eles foram mencionados apenas como recurso didático.

7. a) Yes, they are. In Brazilian television, there are many TV shows which are similar to the ones shown in the Australian TV guide, especially movies, newscasts, reality shows and sitcoms.

show Marília Gabriela entrevista, The • •talk Noite com Danilo Gentili, The Ellen DeGeneres show. music show • •MTV unplugged, The Voice, American Idol. show • •Otravel mundo segundo os brasileiros, Lugar incomum.

c ) What is your favorite kind of TV show? Why?

Resposta pessoal. *Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que soap é a forma curta de soap opera, termo utilizado em inglês para se referir às novelas de televisão. A origem do termo remete à decada de 1960, em que as novelas estadunidenses eram patrocinadas por fabricantes de sabão (soap).

g18_ftd_lt_3noi_u01_014a029.indd 17

seventeen

17

5/28/16 9:34 AM


Learning and acting

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Reading and reflecting Pre-reading 1.

Discuss these questions with a classmate. Respostas

pessoais.

a ) Do you think that, in general, too much time is spent watching TV? b ) What attracts you to watch a TV show? c ) What do you think of TV shows that are designed to discover new talents?

2.

Read the title of the text on page 19. What do you think it is about? Choose the most orientar os alunos a lerem somente o título do texto na próxima suitable picture for the text. B Sugerimos e identificarem qual das imagens melhor o representa. B

D

FOX Image Collection/Getty Images

Pete Marovich/Bloomberg/Getty Images

C

STR/AFP Photo

Kohl-Photo/Alamy Stock Photo/Latinstock

A

página

3.

Based on the title of the text and the kind of TV show, answer these questions in Após os alunos terem inferido o tipo de programa na atividade anterior, sugerimos que eles your notebook. respondam às perguntas para perceber que o programa possui várias versões e que o texto a ) What is the

irão ler tratará somente da versão indiana. name of this TV show? The voice India.

b ) Where is the TV show originally from? It’s

originally from the USA.

c ) Does your country have this TV show? Yes, 4. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que o texto que eles lerão é uma resenha da versão indiana do programa The voice. Você pode pedir que eles leiam o texto rapidamente e identifiquem qual frase melhor define a ideia central da resenha.

18

eighteen

que

it does. It’s called The voice Brasil.

d ) Have you ever seen it? If so, what is your opinion about it?

Resposta pessoal.

Reading 4.

On the next page, you are going to read a review about a TV show in India. Read it briefly and identify the most appropriate summary. b a ) The review describes how unsuccessful the adaptation of an international TV program in India was. b ) The review describes the challenge of an international TV program adapted to Indian television and its success.


Read the text again and answer the following questions in your notebook. Unit 1

5.

x

Rogério Casagrande

The Voice India: TV Series Review Tulika Dubey,Guest | Aug 3,3,2015, PMIST | TV IST | TV Series Series Review Review Tulika Dubey, GuestContributor Contributor | Aug 2015, 12.18 12.18 PM As with every international show that is adapted for Indian screens, 'The Voice India' had a As everyininternational show adapted for screens, Voice India’ bigwith challenge front of it since thethat day is it premiered onIndian &TV: How would‘The it alter itself to suit had a big challenge in frontlosing of it since the day it premiered How[...] would it altera the Indian appetite without the international essence of on the&TV: original? Thankfully, itself suit the Indian appetite losing thethe international essence of the original? lot ofto careful thought appears to without have gone behind execution of 'The Voice India'. This [...] Thankfully, of careful thought appears to have execution of it. ‘The Voice has resulted ainlot a very successful venture with some very gone strongbehind salient the features going for India’. [...] This has resulted in a very successful venture with some very strong salient features going for entertainment it. On the front, it is delightful how the show relies heavily on music, and not on manufactured drama. [...] The anchoring by Karan Thacker is succinct while managing to [...] provide good-natured humor at regular intervals. By keeping melodrama on the periphery, On the entertainment front, it is delightful how the show relies heavily on music, and not on 'The Voice' is gradually beginning to prove itself as a successful experiment in the genre of manufactured drama. [...] The anchoring by Karan Thacker is succinct while managing to Indian Reality TV. The telecasts transfer a spirit of celebration to the screen and establish the provide good-natured humor at regular intervals. By keeping melodrama on the periphery, fact that in this show, there is only one hero: Music. Looking at the genuine hard work and the ‘The Voice’ is gradually beginning to prove itself as a successful experiment in the genre of funnel approach of 'The Voice India', it would be proper to say that the winner of the Finale Indian The telecasts a spirit of man/woman celebration to stands Reality to have aTV.  great career ahead transfer [...]. So let the best win!the screen and establish the fact that in this show, there is only one hero: Music. Looking at the genuine hard work The times ofIndia’, India. Available at: <http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/tv/news/hindi/The-Voice-India-TV-Seriesand the funnel approach of ‘The Voice it would be proper to say that the winner of the Review/articleshow/48326150.cms>. Accessed on: December 1st, 2015. Finale stands to have a great career ahead [...]. So let the best man/woman win! DUBEY, Tulika. The voice India: TV series review. Available at: <http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/tv/news/hindi/The-VoiceIndia-TV-Series-Review/articleshow/48326150.cms>. Accessed on: December 1st, 2015.

a ) What kind of TV show is it? It’s b ) What channel is it on? It’s

a reality show.

on &TV.

c ) Who is the TV show’s host? Karan

5. Neste momento, você pode pedir aos alunos que releiam o texto tendo como foco uma compreensão voltada para os detalhes. Em seguida, você pode orientá-los a responder às perguntas. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, informações sobre o gênero textual resenha.

Thacker.

d ) Is the writer’s opinion about the TV show positive or negative? It’s

6.

positive.

Considering the TV show review you have read, its purpose and characteristics, read the description below, discuss and decide with a classmate if it’s true or false. True.

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem a descrição e pedir que discutam com um colega de classe para decidir se ela é verdadeira ou falsa.

A TV show review expresse s the opinion and impressi ons of a critic. It has a title that describe s what is going to be written about or one that catches the reader’s attention . To write a TV show review, the critic has to gather basic informat ion while or after watching it. For example: the name of the show, its genre, the name of the host(s) and what channel it is on. When writing the review, a critic must start with an introduc tion to present the TV show using basic informat ion and a brief summary of it. After that, the review expresse s the critic’s opinion pointing out and describin g the strong and/or weak elements . In order to do this, adjective s are often used. The review ends with a conclusi on that sums up the overall view of the critic and possibly a piece of advice to the reader or viewer.

nineteen

19


7. Adjectives

are commonly used when writing a review. What are the adjectives used in the review you read? Big, careful, successful, strong, salient, delightful, good-natured, great, succinct, good and genuine.

8. After

finding the adjectives in the review, in your notebook, match them with the person or things they qualify. a - IV; b - VIII; c - VI; d - II; e - VII; f - I; g - III; h - V; I - IX. a ) big

d ) strong

b ) careful

e ) delightful

c ) successful

f ) great

Nesta atividade, você pode explicar aos alunos que adjetivos são palavras utilizadas para descrever e qualificar alguém ou algo. Sugerimos orientá-los a retornar ao texto para identificar quem ou o que os adjetivos qualificam.

I

the winner’s future career

II

the characteristics of the show

III

Karan Thacker’s anchoring

IV

the challenge to adapt the program for Indian screens

V

Karan Thacker’s humor

VI

the show as a project or experiment

VII

the focus on the music as entertainment

VIII the IX

g ) succinct h ) good-natured i ) genuine

thought behind the execution of the show

the hard work and funnel approach of the show

9. Some

adjectives have the suffix -ful. Which of these adjectives are presented in the review?

Careful, successful and delightful.

10. The

suffix -ful means full of. Some adjectives are formed by a noun and the suffix -ful. Observe the nouns below and form the adjectives in your notebook. a - beautiful; b - joyful; c - powerful; d - peaceful; e - colorful; f - wonderful; g - doubtful; h - meaningful; i - useful.

a ) beauty

d ) peace

g ) doubt

b ) joy

e ) color

h ) meaning

c ) power

f ) wonder

i ) use

11. Talk

to a classmate.

a ) According to the first paragraph of the review, the international shows that are adapted for Indian television face a big challenge. What challenge is it?

These programs have to be altered to suit the Indian appetite without losing the international essence of the original.

b ) In your opinion, do the international shows that are adapted for Brazilian television face the same challenge? Or do you think that the Brazilian audience is more receptive to the original essence of the shows? Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre este item.

Post-reading 12. Discuss

these questions with your teacher and classmates. Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade. a ) Do you think TV shows influence you? If so, how?

b ) Do you think TV makes you a passive person? Does it take away your ability to think by yourself? Explain. c ) The critic’s opinion is that The voice India is a success. In your opinion, is this true? d ) The voice and other reality shows are programs that give people an opportunity to become famous. What’s your opinion about them? e ) TV shows are often interrupted by commercials. Do you watch them? Why (not)? f ) Is there anything you don’t like on TV? If so, explain.

20

twenty


Unit 1

Putting your ideas into words Before writing 13.

What is your favorite TV show? Talk about it with a classmate. Tell him/her the name of the show, what it is about and your opinion using adjectives from activities 8 to 10.

Neste momento, sugerimos orientar os alunos a compartilharem com um colega de sala quais são seus programas de televisão favoritos. Sugerimos orientá-los a dizer o nome do programa, como o programa funciona (se possui entrevistas, se conta com a participação de convidados, se traz reportagens, e assim por diante) e o que eles acham do programa utilizando adjetivos das atividades 8 a 10.

Writing Imagine you are a TV critic. Write a review about your favorite TV program. After you write the final version of your review, post it on your class virtual group or on the class blog.

Anna Simonin

14.

After writing 15.

Read a classmate’s TV show review. Report to another classmate what you read. Use the pedir aos alunos que acessem o grupo virtual da sala e que leiam questions below as a guide. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos uma resenha de um colega de classe. Isso pode ser feito no laboratório de

What is the name of the TV show? What kind of TV show is it?

informática da escola ou em casa. Se necessário, você pode sugerir que eles tomem nota em seus cadernos sobre a resenha. Em seguida, é importante orientá-los a reportar a um colega de sala o que leram na resenha, utilizando as perguntas do quadro como um roteiro.

What channel is it on? What are the strong and/or weak elements? What is your classmate’s overall opinion about it? After reading your classmate’s review, would you watch the TV program?

twenty-one

21


Listening and understanding

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Listening 1.

Answer the following questions before listening.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) Besides the different kinds of shows, what else can you see on TV? Resposta esperada: TV commercials.

b ) What is the best definition of commercial? I I

An advertisement transmitted during television programming with the objective to market a product or service.

II

A program produced by an organization with the objective to entertain the public.

c ) Do you usually pay attention to TV commercials? Is there one that you find specially interesting? Resposta pessoal. d ) Have you ever watched an old TV commercial? Resposta

pessoal.

e ) What are some differences between old TV commercials and modern ones? Talk to a classmate and decide if the following characteristics apply to old commercials, modern commercials or both.

Television commercials... I II III IV V VI

intend to motivate customers to buy the products.

Both.

were black and white.

Old commercials.

described the product’s features or specifications in detail.

Old commercials.

focus on the consumers’ feelings when using the products.

Modern commercials.

used texts or speech to describe the product’s characteristics.

Old commercials.

use modern visual effects to motivate modern people.

Modern commercials.

2. track 3

3.

You are going to listen to an old TV commercial aired in 1947. What is the first aspect that catches your attention? Listen to it once and answer. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade e a transcrição do áudio.

What kind of product is being marketed in this commercial? b a ) a toothpaste b ) a cleaning product

4. track 3

5.

22

twenty-two

Listen to the commercial again and identify the words you hear. Bathroom; cleanser; greasy; tub; sink; drain; foaming; polishes; smells.

restroom

cleanser

sink

bathroom

greasy

drain

cleaner

tub

shower

Sugerimos tocar o áudio mais uma vez e pedir que os alunos identifiquem as palavras que são mencionadas no comercial.

foaming polishes smells

Now, from the words in activity 4, identify the ones with the following meanings and write them down in your notebook. a - foaming; b - greasy; c - polishes; d - cleanser; e - drain; f - tub. a ) that makes small bubbles

d ) a substance used for cleaning

b ) oily, covered with fat

e ) a pipe or hole that takes away waste water

c ) rubs to make it shine

f ) a container that you fill with water to wash your body


track 3

What are the main qualities of the product advertised? Write down the following sentences in your notebook, then, listen to the commercial one more time and complete them. This cleaning product...

surfaces

a ) cleans all bathroom soaps

b) c)

the

dirt

leaves no

faster.

greasy cleanser scum in tub or sink. cleans

.

faster

e ) cuts grease

f ) polishes with

8.

fifty percent

and up to

right down the drain.

d ) foams as it

7.

Unit 1

6.

leading

than any other

half

effort

the

cleanser.

. And it smells

good

too!

The commercial also mentions the two pieces of information below. In pairs, discuss what pessoal. Resposta esperada: the first sentence means that the product cleans surfaces very well and leaves they mean. Resposta them spotless. The second sentence means that you will have to make no effort to clean when you start using the product. Na primeira frase, wiz é a abreviação da palavra wizardry, que significa “magia”, ou seja, as coisas Get things cleaned, just like the wiz. You’ll stop paying the elbow tax. ficam limpas como mágica. Na segunda frase, a expressão The television commercial you listened to is an animated advertisement. The images show paying the elbow tax faz alusão ao three little elves cleaning the bathroom as they sing the commercial jingle. Having that in esforço que será poupado ao mind, discuss the questions below with your teacher and classmates. Respostas pessoais. braço para polir as superfícies. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) Why do you think TV commercials nowadays do not usually use drawings?

Resposta esperada: because nowadays there are more technological resources that allow the creation of modern commercials.

b ) Do you think the commercial would be effective nowadays if it was aired on T V? esperada: probably not, because the commercials that are considered effective nowadays Why (not)? Resposta are more dynamic and more visually appealing. c ) Television commercials are a very influential medium in people’s buying decisions. Has a TV commercial ever influenced you to buy a new product? Resposta pessoal.

Speaking

10.

om k .c

soap

bleach

Pe Sh t r Ma ut t l er s y she toc v/ k .c om

detergent

sp a S h x ia x ut t / er s toc

St S h u dio ut t 52 er s / toc k .c

cleanser

St o Sh ck P ut t ho er s t o s toc A r t k .c / om

How different from the commercial you listened to would a cleanser commercial be nowadays? Imagine you were hired by an agency to make a TV commercial to market a cleaning product for today’s consumers. First of all, choose one of the products below to advertise.

om

9.

Follow these steps to make your commercial.

Se preferir, você pode orientar os alunos a realizarem esta atividade em duplas ou grupos.

• Create a name for your product. • Think about the qualities of your product and write them down. • Imagine the images that are going to be part of your commercial. • If you think it is necessary, create a jingle for your commercial. • Exchange ideas with another student and make comments on each other’s ideas. • Make the necessary changes and/or corrections according to your classmate’s comments. • Make the final version of your commercial and present it to the class. twenty-three

23


Comprehending and using

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Learning about the language Review of verb tenses 1. b) Caso os alunos não saibam o que é uma pessoa transgênera, sugerimos explicar que se trata de alguém cuja identidade ou percepção de si mesmo(a) não corresponde com o gênero sexual biológico. Essa pessoa normalmente passa por uma transformação visual e submete-se a tratamentos cirúrgicos e/ou hormonais.

Simple Past, Simple Present, Past Continuous and Present Continuous 1.

Discuss these questions with a classmate.

Respostas pessoais.

a ) Do you like watching TV shows about a person’s daily routine and life? Explain. b ) Do you know what a transgender is? c ) Have you ever seen a transgender on a TV show? If so, which show was it?

2.

Sugerimos pedir aos alunos que mencionem quais transgêneros já viram na televisão. Por exemplo, no Brasil há alguns transgêneros que fazem parte do meio televisivo, como Rogeria e Thammy Miranda.

You are going to read two small texts about a girl called Jazz. Read them and tell a classmate who she is according to what you understand.

Resposta esperada: Jazz is a transgender. She has a TV show about her life. Você pode comentar que o programa I am Jazz é um reality show e, no Brazil, foi traduzido como A vida de Jazz.

A

‘I Am Jazz’: a transgender girl plus a family that loves her July 19, 2015 1:30 pm   FRAZIER MOORE Associated Press

NEW YORK | Like many 14-year-old girls, Jazz Jennings goes to school, plays soccer, hangs out with friends, has a thing for mermaids and loves social media, kind of wishes her tummy were a little bit flatter, and lives life feeling good about herself. She’s also transgender. She was assigned male at birth yet was sure as young as 2 years old that she was a girl. She transitioned into Jazz at 5. [...] Jazz Jennings has emerged as a leading advocate, role model and explainer for the transgender community. She wrote a children’s book about her life. She makes heart-to-heart YouTube videos that get hundreds of thousands of views. Now she’s opening the door to her everyday routine on “I Am Jazz”, an 11-episode unscripted series which premiered at 9 p.m. Wednesday. [...] MOORE, Frazier. ‘I am Jazz’: a transgender girl plus a family that loves her. Available at: <http://siouxcityjournal.com/ ap/entertainment/i-am-jazz-a-transgender-girl-plus-a-family-that/article_4c78e5ac-84fd-5b25-ad94-643d4d18e39d.html>. Accessed on: December 3 rd, 2015.

B

Jazz Jennings: America’s Favorite Trans Teen [...] You’ve been in the public spotlight for a while now. What was it like growing up with so much attention? You know, a lot of people think that growing up was hard for me, that people were stopping me in the streets and stuff like that. But actually, I’ve gotten to live the average teenage girl life, or just the average girl life.  In the community, no one really recognized me before the show. So I was just doing my thing, doing whatever. People knew I was transgender, but y’know, I had my close friends, I had my family, so it didn’t really matter what they thought.  So yeah, I really just lived a normal life, and I would say that I continue to live a normal life even though every now and then someone stops and asks for a picture. But I still get my private Jazz time. [...] EHRHARDT, Michelle. Jazz Jennings: America’s favorite trans teen. Avilable at: <www.out.com/television/2015/7/29/jazzjennings-americas-favorite-trans-teen>. Accessed on: December 3 rd, 2015.

24

twenty-four


3. Read

Unit 1

the texts again and decide if the following sentences are true or false. In your notebook, write down the true statements and rewrite the false ones. a ) She was born a male. True. b ) She started her transition to become Jazz when she was 2 years old. False. At the age of 2, she was sure that she was a girl. She transitioned into Jazz at 5. True.

c ) She wrote a children’s book about her life.

d ) Before the show, people didn’t know she was a transgender.

False. Before the show, people knew she was transgender, but she wasn’t recognized on the street.

e ) She has a TV show about her life. True.

f ) Before the show, she wasn’t recognized in the community.

True.

g ) She doesn’t have private time.

False. She still gets her private Jazz time.

h ) People stop her on the streets to ask for pictures.

True.

4. Which

of the sentences from activity 3 are in the past and in the present? In your notebook, draw up the table below, then complete it with sentences from activity 3, according to their verb tense. Correct the false statements.

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a relerem as frases da atividade 3 e as dividirem entre ações que expressam o passado e o presente da vida de Jazz, corrigindo as sentenças falsas.

Past She was born a male. She started her transition to become Jazz when she was 5 years old. She wrote a children’s book about her life. People knew she was a transgender. Before the show, she wasn’t recognized in the community.

Present She has a TV show about her life. She has some private time. People stop her on the streets to ask for pictures.

5. Read

the following rules and identify if they are about the Simple Past or the Simple Present. In your notebook, write them in a table similar to the one in activity 4. a ) We add -ed, -d or -ied at the end of the verb if it’s a regular verb. Simple

Past.

b ) To make a question, we use do or does at the beginning of the sentence. Simple c ) To make a question, we use did at the beginning of the sentence. Simple

Present.

Past.

d ) If the subject is he, she or it, we add -s, -es or -ies at the end of the verb. e ) Some irregular verbs change their form completely.

5. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem as regras do passado e presente simples. Você pode sugerir que eles analisem as frases da atividade anterior para auxiliá-los. Nesta atividade, eles devem identificar se a regra aplica-se ao Simple Past ou ao Simple Present. Caso os alunos manifestem dificuldades, sugerimos orientar que estudem as páginas 188 e 189 do Grammar appendix.

Simple Present.

Simple Past.

f ) To form the negative structure, we use didn’t + the base form of the verb.

Simple Past.

g ) To form the negative structure, we use don’t or doesn’t + the base form of the verb.

6. In

your opinion, what are some other past and present aspects of Jazz’s life? Talk to a classmate. Follow the example. Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

Simple Present.

Jazz probably had short hair. Now she has long hair.

7. Discuss

these questions with a classmate. Then, share your ideas with your teacher and classmates. Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade. a ) Jazz was aware she wanted to be a girl at a very young age. What do you think she was probably doing to notice it? b ) According to the text, Jazz is a role model and an explainer for the transgender community. In your opinion, what is she probably doing to represent the transgenders? c ) Jazz says that before the show she wasn’t recognized. How do you think she’s probably feeling now that the whole world knows about her life? twenty-five

25


8.

The following sentences were extracted from the texts. Read the sentences and choose the appropriate alternatives about them. a; c; e; f.

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a analisarem, em especial, as expressões em negrito para identificar quais são as afirmativas apropriadas. Caso necessário, você pode instruí-los a estudar a página 190 do Grammar appendix.

Now she’s opening the door to her everyday routine on “I Am Jazz”. People were stopping me in the streets and stuff like that.

a ) The first sentence describes an action that is happening at the present moment. b ) The first sentence describes an action in the future. c ) The second sentence describes an action that was happening in the past. d ) To talk about actions happening now, we use is or are + the main verb in the past. e ) To talk about actions happening now, we use is or are + the main verb with -ing. f ) To talk about actions that were happening at a point in the past, we use was or were + the main verb with -ing.

Future 9.

You are going to read a text about the removal of I am Jazz from television in some countries. Discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates. Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) In your opinion, what countries have canceled the TV show? b ) Why do you think the TV show was forbidden in those countries? c ) Do you know if your country broadcasts or has canceled this TV show? d ) Have you ever seen it?

10. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem o texto para descobrir quais foram os países que baniram o programa de suas redes televisivas e a razão que os levaram a isso. Em seguida, eles devem identificar a frase que melhor sintetiza a ideia geral do texto.

10.

Read the text to verify if what you discussed in activity 9 matches with its content. Then, identify the sentence that best summarizes the text’s main idea. II

New transgender reality show pulled from local TV channels after threat [...] The abrupt removal of I Am Jazz follows after Nigeria’s broadcasting regulator, the National Broadcasting Commission (NBC), over the past weekend said it is going to investigate MultiChoice and TLC Entertainment over the transgender teen show and whether “the programme is indeed promoting undesirable ideas that will offend the Nigerian public”. [...] The dumping of the show a day before it was to air, however marks the first time that the threat of censorship of Nigerian television is directly impacting on pay-TV across the African continent and not just one country. South Africa, where viewers are more liberally minded, and several other African countries [...] are now kept from seeing I Am Jazz after some Nigerians complained about a show they haven’t seen yet. […] FERREIRA, Thinus. New transgender reality show pulled from local TV channels after threat. Available at: <www.channel24.co.za/TV/News/ New-transgender-reality-show-pulled-from-local-TV-channels-after-threat-20151027>. Accessed on: December 3 rd, 2015.

26

twenty-six

I

The TV show I am Jazz was canceled in South Africa after some viewers claimed they are not going to watch it.

II

Nigeria has removed I am Jazz from its television schedules to investigate if it has inappropriate ideas that will offend the public.


Read the text again and answer the questions in your notebook. Unit 1

11.

a ) Why has the TV show been removed from Nigerian’s television?

Because the National Broadcasting Comission is going to investigate if the TV show promotes undesirable ideas that will offend the Nigerian public.

b ) When was the TV show cancelled?

It was cancelled a day before it was supposed to go on air.

c ) Why can’t African countries, where people are more open-minded, see the TV show? Because some Nigerians have complained about it.

d ) Have the Nigerians seen the TV show? No, they haven’t.

12.

The text says that the NBC is going to investigate if the TV show promotes ideas that will offend the Nigerian public. What is true about this sentence? a; c; d. a ) It is about a decision that will be taken about the TV show. b ) It is about a decision that won’t be taken about the TV show. c ) “is going to investigate” expresses an action in the future. d ) The phrase “that will offend the Nigerian public” predicts what might happen if the TV show was broadcast. Analyze the sentence from activity 12 and decide if the following statements are true or orientar os alunos a relerem o enunciado da atividade anterior false. Then, in pairs, correct the false ones. Sugerimos tendo especial atenção às expressões em negrito. Em seguida, sugerimos

te n c e a ) T h e se n tu re d e sc ri b e s fu . a c ti o n s. Tr ue

b ) In the first high lighted phra se, be goin g to expresse s a plan ned actio n in the futu re. True.

d ) W il l is u s e d to e x p re s s a fu tu re p re d ic ti o n or an a c ti o n in th e fu tu re th a t is u n c e rt a in to h a p p e n. Tr u e .

14.

pedir que decidam se as sentenças desta atividade sobre as expressões em negrito são verdadeiras ou falsas.

g c ) Af te r be go in a e us to, we ve rb wi th -in g.

13. c) False. After be going to, we use a verb in the base form.

e ) After will, we use a verb in the base form. True. Bárbara Sarzi

13.

After reading about the TV show in activity 2 and learning about some countries that have banned it, think about the positive and negative impacts of this TV show. Discuss with a classmate and write your ideas in your notebook. Follow the example. After that, share them with your teacher and classmates. Resposta pessoal. People, who are not going to watch the TV show, won’t have the opportunity to learn about transgenders. Jazz will help other transgenders to accept themselves the way they are.

15.

Do you agree with the investigation and the removal of the TV show? Explain. Resposta pessoal.

16.

After the investigation, what do you think will happen to the TV show? Discuss this question with a classmate. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a discutirem em duplas o que eles acham que irá acontecer após a investigação da NBC.

twenty-seven

27


Using the language 17. Read

some extracts from an interview with Jazz. To know a little bit more about her life, choose the appropriate word or sentence to complete the text.

Sugerimos explicar aos alunos que eles lerão fragmentos de uma entrevista com Jazz. Você pode pedir que reescrevam o texto em seus cadernos e selecionem as expressões mais adequadas para completá-lo e conhecer um pouco mais sobre a vida de Jazz.

x

Fotomontagem de Rogério Casagrande formada pela imagem Helga Esteb/Shutterstock.com

http://www.cosmopolitan.com/entertainment/tv/a40068/jazz-jennings-internets-most-fascinating/

[...] Another huge misconception is about the surgery — “(Did she get/Does she have) the surgery?” That’s not what it’s about at all. It’s about an emotional transition, not a physical transition. And the other big misconception is that people (were thinking/think) that this is a choice. It’s not at all. It’s something you’re born with and you realize that you’re trapped in the wrong body. [...] I’m still so young but the gender reassignment surgery is definitely something I’ve been considering because it’s really the next big step in my transition. [...] It’s a big deal. You (’re really changing/really changed) your body, so it’s something I really have to think about. [...] (Do I look/Did I look) like I have a problem? Being transgender is not a problem. It (is going to be/is not) an illness. It’s just who you are. [...] I know my mom would jump in front of a bullet for me, and I think all moms should be like that. [...] All it (comes/is going to come) down to is love and support. If we have that, then we (are being/’ll be) OK. [...]

Cosmopolitan. Available at: <www.cosmopolitan.com/entertainment/tv/a40068/jazz-jennings-internets-most-fascinating/>. Accessed on: December 8 th, 2015.

18. a) As respostas podem variar. Possíveis respostas: what are people’s most common doubts about being a transgender?; Are you considering having the gender reassignment surgery?; How do you feel about being a transgender?; How is your relationship with your mom?.

18. Answer

the following questions about the interview you read. a ) The questions have been removed from the interview. In your opinion, what questions were asked? b ) Which of Jazz’s answers were you most impressed by? Why? Resposta pessoal.

c ) Jazz says that being a transgender is not a choice. What do you know about it? Do you know other cases of transgenders? Resposta pessoal. d ) After reading about Jazz, did you learn anything new about transgenders? Did you change your point of view somehow? Resposta pessoal.

28

twenty-eight

Speaking up

/´/

1. Listen and repeat. track 4

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir as atividades deste boxe.

My friends and I are going to the movie theater to watch an action movie.

2. What part of the words are weakly pronounced? Listen and aswer. track 5

theater action

3. Listen and identify the weak sounds. Then, practice the words with a classmate. track 6

a ) actor

d ) comedy

b ) saga

e ) adventure

c ) director

f ) thriller


Nesta unidade, você...

Unit 1

Summing up

Sugerimos levar os alunos a refletirem sobre as alternativas apresentadas no quadro abaixo e instruí-los a escrever no caderno as frases que se relacionam ao que leram, discutiram e estudaram nesta unidade.

discutiu sobre aspectos considerados positivos e negativos em relação a assistir à televisão; estudou vocabulário referente a tipos de programas televisivos; leu e interpretou uma resenha sobre um reality show indiano; refletiu sobre a influência que a televisão exerce sobre os telespectadores; produziu uma resenha sobre seu programa de TV preferido; analisou as diferenças entre comerciais de televisão antigos e modernos; ouviu um comercial de televisão antigo; criou um comercial para divulgar um produto de limpeza; revisou diferentes tempos verbais;

ter Fil me de Pe Weir. The . ow sh n Truma EUA. 1998

praticou a pronúncia correta do som representado pelo símbolo /´/.

Going further Watching

The Truman show, by Peter Weir. Paramount Pictures: USA, 1998.

www.t v.com

The movie The Truman show is the story of an ordinary salesman who discovers his entire life is a TV show.

Surfing the net On the website TV.com <http://tub.im/ogbg2k> you can read about TV shows, reviews, news and talk to other fans.

Photo Agency/ Featurefl ash om Shutters tock.c

TV.com. Available at: <www.tv.com>. Accessed on: March 28th, 2016.

Singing Trapped in a box, performed by No Doubt and recorded on the CD No Doubt, is a critical song about how people are influenced by TV.

No Doubt (2012).

twenty-nine

29


unit

track 7

30

A drop of ink may make a million think


The sentence a drop of ink may make a million think means that even a few words can spark the most interesting thoughts and may influence people. Thousands of people started a campaign against pollution after the local newspaper published an article about the air quality. You know: a drop of ink may make a million think. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, as respostas e comentários referentes a esta atividade.

Exchanging ideas How often do you read the daily news?

B

What is your opinion about the importance of mass media nowadays, after the spread of social networks?

C

In your opinion, do means of communication influence people and their attitudes? How?

D

What is the relation between the title of this unit and the picture on these pages?

Fotomontagem de Estúdio Meraki formada pela imagem Sergey Nivens/Shutterstock.com

A

31


Contextualizing

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Warming up 1.

Discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) How has the internet changed the way information is spread? The b)

internet makes information much more accessible and widespread. People can get information from all over the world and in real time. In your opinion, what are the functions of social media? Resposta pessoal. Resposta esperada: social media can provide people with news, information, entertainment, education etc.

c ) What are the advantages and disadvantages of the media?

2.

Resposta esperada: the media makes information and knowledge accessible but can also influence people, for example, to behave like celebrities and buy things they don’t need.

You are going to read an article about the influence of mass media on society. Read it and do the activity on page 33. x

http://thedailyjournalist.com/pen-and-pad/mass-media-and-its-influence-on-society/

HOME

NEWS

VIDEOS

ABOUT US

Home >> News

Mass Media and its influence on society In the last five decades or so, the media and its influence on the societies have grown exponentially with the advance of technology. First there was the telegraph and the post offices, then the radio, the newspaper, magazines, television and now the internet and the new media including palmtops, cell phones etc. There are positive and negative influences of mass media, which we must understand as a responsible person of a society. [...] the three basic functions of mass media [...] are providing news/information, entertainment and education. The first and foremost function of the media in a society is to provide news and information to the masses [...]. People need news/information for various reasons, on one hand it can be used to socialize and on the other to make decisions and formulate opinions. Entertainment would be the other function of the mass media where it is mostly used by the masses to amuse them in present day hectic environment. Educating the masses about their rights, moral, social and religious obligations is another important function of mass media, which needs no emphasis. [...] After seeing thousands of advertisements we make our buying decisions based on what we saw on TV, newspapers or magazines. These are the effects of mass media especially on teenagers, they buy what they see on TV [...]. [...] The media has a huge impact on society in shaping the public opinion of the masses. They can form or modify the public opinion in different ways depending on the objective. [...] MUGHAL, M. A. Mass media and its influence on society. Available at: <http://thedailyjournalist.com/pen-and-pad/mass-media-and-itsinfluence-on-society>. Accessed on: December 7th, 2015.

32

thirty-two

Bárbara Sarzi

By M. A Mughal.


• Draw up the following table in your notebook and work in pairs to complete it according The three basic functions of mass media are… These functions help people to…

3.

providing news/ information

providing entertainment

providing education

socialize, make decisions and formulate opinions

be amused in the present day hectic environment

learn about their rights, moral, social and religious obligations

Unit 2

to what you read in the article.

Discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) How are people related to the media in the era of globalization?

Most people are connected to the world by the means of communication to get information for personal and professional use.

b ) According to the text, how does the media influence people?

The media influences people through advertisements on TV, internet, magazines, by offering them products to buy and consume.

c ) What is the impact of the media on society?

The media shapes, forms and modifies the public opinion depending on the objective.

d ) In your opinion, how can people deal with the excess of media influence? Resposta pessoal.

Learning vocabulary The text mentions some technologies and means of communication. What are they? Read the opinion article again and identify them. A; B; E; F; G; H. C

k .c v il Sh lore j ut t e r o/ s to c

a telegraph

a billboard

E

F

te ut

rs

Sh

te

a magazine

em

ka 74 /

ut Sh ir/ go

a newspaper

H

a palmtop

Fa Sh r s ad ut t e -B eh rs to zad ck .co G ha m fa

a cellphone

Al S h e xe y ut te B ol d rs t o in/ ck .co m

r ia

n/

G

rs

ck to

m Me Sh g a ut Pix te r s el / to ck .co

a post office box

to

.co

ck

m

.co

m

D

a television

Al Sh ek s a ut t e ndar rs t o M ij ck at .co ov m ic /

B

om

A

Ale Sh x an d ut t er r B o s to g na ck t .co / m

4.

In American English, we use cellphone. In British English, we use mobile phone.

Sugerimos comentar com os alunos algumas diferenças de vocabulário na variante americana e britânica do inglês, tais como billboard e hoarding (para o que chamamos de propaganda em outdoor), candy e sweet (doce), subway e underground (metrô), apartment e flat (apartamento), entre outros.

thirty-three

g18_ftd_lt_3noi_u02_030a045.indd 33

33

5/30/16 7:55 AM


Learning and acting

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Reading and reflecting Pre-reading 1.

Discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates.

Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) Do you usually post personal information or photos on the internet? For what reason? b ) Do you worry about protecting your on-line identity? c ) Have you already read anything related to on-line prevention?

2.

Exposing information on the internet can cause many problems. Read examples of situations that can occur and associate them with their corresponding images. a - II; b - IV; c - III; d - I.

a ) posting personal information on the internet b ) taking pictures that may expose you

Você pode comentar com os alunos que a exposição digital pode ser perigosa, pois há informações que podem prejudicar pessoas e até mesmo fornecer dados a pessoas de má índole para agir em sequestros, roubos etc.

c ) chatting with unknown people d ) meeting in real life someone that you only know from the internet I

III

IV

Ilustrações: Art Capri

II

Reading 3.

You are going to read an opinion article about protecting identity on the internet. First, read the sentences below and write down in your notebook the one(s) you think you are going Sugerimos orientar os alunos a fazerem inferências sobre o texto que to find in the article. Resposta pessoal. vão ler, pensando em quais tópicos serão mencionados no texto e a ) Nothing is private on the internet.

dizendo se consideram estas informações importantes. Os itens mencionados no texto são a, c e d.

b ) There is no problem if you share personal pictures on the internet. c ) We cannot control who reads our information on the internet. d ) Passwords should be changed frequently. e ) Our on-line identity and our real world identity are the same.

34

thirty-four


Now, read the opinion article and verify if your predictions were correct. Na primeira leitura do texto, sugerimos orientar os alunos a conferirem se as previsões que fizeram na atividade 3 estavam corretas. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, informações sobre o gênero textual artigo de opinião.

x

http://issuu.com/floridacreativeliving/docs/fcl_web_1111

MENU Protecting Your Online Identity and Reputation: Things to consider

Bárbara Sarzi

Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD

Ashley is a high-school junior in Illinois. She and her friends use MySpace to communicate, but she’s very careful about the information, pictures, and comments she sends and posts — even though her profile is set to private. She knows that nothing is ever really private online. […] Her advice is simple: “Be smart about what you put on the Internet, because you never know who is looking at what you have on there.” From the first time you log on to a social networking site like Facebook or MySpace, pick a screen name for instant messaging (IM), or post to a blog on your favorite band, you’re creating an online identity. Your online identity may be different from your real-world identity […]. [...] Here are some things to consider to safeguard your online identity and reputation: Remember that nothing is temporary online. The virtual world is full of opportunities to interact and share with people around the world. It’s also a place where nothing is temporary and there are no “take-backs”. A lot of what you do and say online can be retrieved online even if you delete it — and it’s a breeze for others to copy, save, and forward your information. Mark your profiles as private. Anyone who accesses your profile on a social networking site can copy or screen capture information and photos that you may not want the world to see. Don’t rely on the site’s default settings. Read each site’s instructions or guidelines to make sure you’re doing everything you can to keep your material private. Safeguard your passwords and change them frequently. If someone logs on to a site and pretends to be you, they can trash your identity. […] Don’t respond to inappropriate requests. Research shows that a high percentage of teens receive inappropriate messages and solicitations when they’re online. These can be scary, strange, and even embarrassing. If you feel harassed by a stranger or a friend online, tell an adult you trust immediately. It is never a good idea to respond. Responding is only likely to make things worse, and might result in you saying something you wish you hadn’t. […] Try typing your screen name or email address into a search engine and see what comes up. That’s one way to get a sense of what others see as your online identity. Take it offline. In general, if you have questions about the trail you’re leaving online, don’t be afraid to ask a trusted adult. Sure, you might know more about the online world than a lot of adults do, but they have life experience that can help. Your online identity and reputation are shaped in much the same way as your real-life identity, except that when you’re online you don’t always get a chance to explain your tone or what you mean. Thinking before you post and following the same rules for responsible behavior online as you do offline can help you avoid leaving an online identity trail you regret. Protecting your online identity and reputation: things to consider. Available at: <http://issuu.com/floridacreativeliving/docs/fcl_ web_1111>. Accessed on: December 14th, 2015.

thirty-five

35

Unit 2

4.


5.

Read the opinion article again. Match the beginning of the sentences with the appropriate endings. Write down the answers in your notebook. a ) Ashley is a… II I

student who posts and communicates a lot on several social networks.

II

student who is careful about her information on the internet.

III

student whose profile is not set to private.

b ) It’s important to be careful on-line… III I

only if your profile is set to private.

II

only if your profile is not set to private.

III

even if your profile is set to private.

c ) Your on-line identity is created… I I

when you log on to a social networking site for the first time.

II

only when you want to.

III

when you delete your social networking profile.

d ) On the internet, nothing is temporary because… I I

what you do and say on-line can be retrieved even if you delete it.

II

what you do and say on-line is deleted every day.

III

what you do and say on-line is stored in the cloud.

e ) To protect your on-line identity, you should... I I

set your profiles to private and change your passwords frequently.

II

be offline as often as you can.

III

use fake information.

f ) If you receive an inappropriate request, you should... III I

ignore it.

II

respond.

III

tell an adult you trust.

g ) A good way to discover what others see in your on-line identity is to… III I

ask your friends about it.

II

search your telephone number in a search engine.

III

search your name or e-mail address in a search engine.

h ) You should think before posting because… II

6. 8. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a pesquisarem outras maneiras de proteger sua identidade digital, tais como checar em sites como o Procon se há reclamações de sites de compras antes de realizá-las, evitar o cadastro de dados pessoais, entre outras atitudes.

36

I

your on-line reputation and identity are deleted.

II

your on-line reputation and identity are shaped as well as in the real world.

III

your on-line reputation and identity are not related to the real world.

Write down in your notebook the piece of advice that Ashley gives about on-line identity.

Her advice is “be smart about what you put on the Internet, because you never know who is looking at what you have on there.”

Post-reading 7.

Discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates. Respostas Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

pessoais.

a ) Do you agree with what Ashley said in the text?

b ) Have you ever seen inappropriate requests on the internet? c ) Have you ever posted something that you regretted later? d ) Do you know any website where you can denounce inappropriate things on the internet?

8.

thirty-six

In groups, research some ways to protect your on-line identity. Resposta pessoal. Resposta esperada: people can check if the website is trustable and avoid giving their personal details to suspicious sites.


Before writing 9.

Go back to the article on page 32 and identify the paragraph(s) that... a ) introduces the topic of the article. Paragraph 1.

b ) presents the arguments. Paragraphs 2, 3, 4 and 5.

c ) has a conclusion with the author’s overall opinion. Paragraph 6.

10.

9. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a relerem o texto da página 32 e encontrarem os páragrafos com as informações destacadas a seguir. O objetivo desta atividade é que eles compreendam a organização de um artigo, no qual o primeiro parágrafo destina-se a uma introdução e contextualização do tópico, os parágrafos seguintes apresentam fatos, argumentos e/ou a opinião do autor e o último traz uma conclusão sobre o que foi escrito, além da visão geral e opinião do autor.

Read the expressions below. They are used when writing an article. In your notebook, match them with their use and meaning. a - IV; b - V; c - I; d - II; e - VI; f - III. a ) for example, for instance

I

to present the arguments one after another

b ) in order to, in other words, that is why

II

to contrast ideas, facts and arguments

c ) first, firstly, second, secondly, finally

III

to add extra information

d ) on one hand… on the other hand, however

IV

to give an example

e ) in conclusion, above all, to summarize

V

to explain

f ) moreover, as well as, not only... but also

VI

to conclude the text

10. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que as expressões desta atividade são comumente utilizadas em artigos e demais textos, pois elas estruturam e organizam as ideias do autor. Após a correção, você pode pedir-lhes para reler o texto da página 32 e encontrar algumas dessas expressões.

Writing 11.

In groups, you are going to write an opinion article about the advantages and disadvantages of media exposure and how it influences your life. Follow the instructions below.

Anna Simonin

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

After writing 12.

Read your classmates’ articles. Then, discuss these questions with your group.

Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem a produção de seus colegas para responder às questões desta atividade.

a ) Do the articles present more pros or cons of media exposure?

b ) What are the overall opinions about the influence of the media? c ) Are the paragraphs well-organized? Are the arguments well-presented? Explain. thirty-seven

37

Unit 2

Putting your ideas into words


Listening and understanding

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Listening 1. Discuss

the following questions with your teacher and classmates. Respostas

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

pessoais.

a ) Do you like reading the news? b ) Where do you read it?

c ) Do you check if the information you read is trustworthy? d ) Have you ever published some information without checking if it was trustworthy?

2. Read

the sentences below and decide if they are related to printed media, digital media O objetivo desta atividade é estabelecer algumas das características que separam a mídia impressa da digital. or both. Por mídia impressa entendem-se os veículos mais tradicionais de disseminação de informação, tais como

jornais e revistas, que têm como características a necessidade de serem impressos e serem publicados em um tempo específico (diariamente, mensalmente ou anualmente, entre outros Printed media. possíveis padrões). Sites e redes sociais It can be updated constantly. são considerados exemplos de mídia Digital media. digital que permitem a publicação instantânea de notícias que são It may contain photos and drawings. reproduzidas facilmente, acompanhadas, Both. com frequência, de recursos como It can be easily shared with people all over the world. gravações de áudio, fotos e vídeos. Digital media.

a ) A physical copy must be delivered to the reader. b ) c ) d )

e ) It may have videos and sounds. Digital media.

f ) It is published according to a specific schedule. Printed media.

3. The audio you are going to listen to is from a popular newspaper. To know more about some

3. O objetivo da atividade é que os alunos vejam a origem de alguns jornais que serão abordados no áudio. Os locais de origem dos textos podem ser inferidos a partir dos títulos que fazem refêrencia aos países e continentes. Nem todos os jornais serão citados no áudio.

popular newspapers worldwide, in your notebook, match them to their countries of origin. a - IV; b - V; c - I; d - III; e - II; f - VII; g - VI; h - VIII.

a ) The Guardian

I

Australia

b ) New York Times

II

Kenya

c ) Sydney Morning Herald

III

South Africa

d ) Cape Times

IV

England

e ) The EastAfrican

V

The United States of America

f ) The Nikkei

VI

India

g ) The Times of India

VII

Japan

h ) Al-Ahram

VIII Egypt

4. Now,

listen and write down in your notebook the newspapers below that are mentioned in the podcast. Then, guess the country of origin of the ones you don’t know.

track 8

a ) New York Times b ) The Washington Post c ) ABC News d ) CNN

5. Listen

All the newspapers are mentioned in the podcast. The Washington Post, the ABC News and the CNN are American newspapers, The Australian is from Australia. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, a transcrição do áudio.

e ) The Guardian f ) Sydney Morning Herald g ) The Australian

to the podcast again and, in your notebook, associate the following information with the names. a – III; b – VI; c – I; d – V; e – II; f – IV.

track 8

The word journo means the same as journalist. It is more common in British English.

a ) the name of the program

Sugerimos dizer aos alunos que o áudio foi extraído de um podcast, arquivo de áudio semelhante a um programa de rádio, porém disponibilizado pela internet.

I

Kellie Riordan

II

Grant Young

III

Future tense

IV

Chris Elliott

e ) a male student interviewee

V

Rebecca Wall

f ) a journalist mentioned in the podcast

VI

Antony Funnell

b ) the name of the presenter c ) the producer of the podcast d ) a female student interviewee

Você pode comentar com os alunos que a palavra journo, mencionada no podcast, significa journalist. É uma palavra mais utilizada no inglês britânico.

38

thirty-eight


6. track 8

Listen to the podcast again and verify if the sentences below are true or false. Write down the true statements and rewrite the false ones in your notebook. a ) Disruption is very important in the digital age. True.

Unit 2

b ) Kellie Riordan spent time at Oxford University’s Reuters Institute for the Study of Advertising. False. Kellie Riordan spent time at Oxford University’s Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism.

c ) We are in the middle of a revolution in news delivery. True.

d ) According to Chris Elliott, internet has changed everything. True.

e ) Everyone in the news game is busy trying to work out what consumers want and how best to get it to them. True.

f ) In the edition of the journal, Kellie Jordan explores only issues of content. False. In the edition of the journal, Kellie Jordan explores issues of content, platform and trust.

g ) Rebecca gets most of her news from the radio.

False. Rebecca gets most of her news from on-line sources or TV.

h ) Rebecca prefers checking news outlets with a good reputation as well as big newspapers. True.

i ) Grant always buys a printed newspaper. False. Grant doesn’t buy a printed newspaper.

j ) Grant prefers reading the facts in the traditional media. True.

7.

Order (from 1 to 6) what Kellie Jordan says in your notebook. 1 A

B

Did you download the Future tense podcast?

D

E

Maybe someone recommended this to you.

8.

Maybe you searched for media and technology in a search engine?

What convinced you that you could trust this information?

- F; 2 - C; 3 - A; 4 - B; 5 - D; 6 - E.

C

How did you find me?

F

I wonder where you’re listening to me right now.

Discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates.

Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) How is internet changing news delivery?

Resposta esperada: now people want things done much faster. News delivery must be faster too.

b ) In your opinion, is reading different newspapers a good way to get trustworthy information? c ) Can you trust news from social media? d ) Can you exemplify other ways of getting trustworthy news?

Possível resposta: you can also check sources that have a different political position, avoid reading news from unnamed sources and also read articles written by experts or famous writers.

Speaking 9.

You and a classmate will choose some interesting news about the same fact from different newspapers. Then, you have to explain the point of view in your news piece and compare esta atividade, os alunos podem escolher duas notícias de jornais diferentes que se referem a um it with your classmate’s. Para mesmo fato e, após cada um ler seu artigo, os dois devem se posicionar oralmente para defender o ponto de vista de sua notícia e buscar similaridades e diferenças na notícia apresentada pelo colega.

Ways of defending your point of view

• I believe that… • I agree/disagree that… • In my point of view…

• To my knowledge… • As far as I know… thirty-nine

39


Comprehending and using

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Learning about the language Relative pronouns 2. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que os textos foram extraídos de artigos que tratam sobre os impactos da mídia na vida das pessoas, especialmente em adolescentes. Sugerimos orientá-los a ler brevemente os trechos abaixo e discutir com um colega de classe se esses impactos são positivos ou negativos.

1.

1. c) Sugerimos perguntar aos alunos se os jornais e revistas podem influenciar seus comportamentos. Caso eles respondam afirmativamente, sugerimos pedir que deem exemplos do que poderia influenciá-los. Você pode perguntar também se a mídia os influencia no modo de vestir e nos produtos que compram e consomem.

Discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates.

Respostas pessoais.

a ) Do you have a favorite section in magazines and newspapers? If so, which one?

Alguns exemplos de seções em jornais e revistas são: esporte, moda, classificados, cultura, horóscopo, política, entre outras.

b ) When you read them, what calls your attention?

c ) Do you think they can influence your behavior? Explain. d ) Can you think of advantages and disadvantages of this influence?

2.

You are going to read excerpts from two articles about the impact of the media, such as magazines, newspapers and adversiting, on people’s lives. How does the media affect people’s lives? Read the texts and answer. The media affects people’s lives positively and negatively.

[...] Magazines for both men and women are thought to perpetuate problems with body image and eating disturbances. For women, it’s the constant articles like “28 Flat Belly Tricks!”, “Slim down for Swim Season!”, and other headlines, but even more important may be the constant depiction of models, who start out already skinny and get photoshopped even thinner. For men, the magazines emphasize muscle gain, muscularity, and are increasingly coming to include weight loss articles as well. And these influences are particularly important in teens, who experience intense social pressure which is often based on how they look. [...] Magazines, media, and teen body image. Available at: <http://scicurious.scientopia.org/2011/04/25/magazines-media-and-teenbody-image>. Accessed on: December 9 th, 2015.

[...] Seeing violent media content often enough can make it more likely that someone will behave in an aggressive or violent way, be less understanding of other people’s needs and feelings, and feel more afraid of their environment. [...] teenagers who are exposed to and take an interest in the news are more likely to be interested in major social and political issues. This can help educate them and encourage them to become more involved as citizens in their communities. [...] Celebrities often get into the media for bad behaviour. But celebrity role models aren’t always bad influences. Media influence can be more powerful if a celebrity role model says a particular lifestyle, product or behaviour is good. There are lots of examples of celebrities whose lifestyles, values and behaviour provide positive examples. The hard work and success of these role models can be inspirational. [...] Media influence on teenagers. Available at: <http://raisingchildren.net.au/articles/media_influences_teenagers.html/context/1106>. Accessed on: December 9 th, 2015.

40

forty


3. Read

the texts again and write down in your notebook what was mentioned about orientar os alunos a lerem os textos novamente para identificar quais media influence. a; c; d; f. Sugerimos influências da mídia na vida das pessoas foram mencionadas.

Unit 2

a ) Magazines influence people’s body image by promoting images of skinny women and muscular men, which can induce eating disturbances. b ) Magazines influence what people eat and contribute to their weight loss. c ) Violence in media can influence people who see this content pretty often to be agressive. d ) Media influences teenagers to be interested in the news, which motivates them to be citizens of their communities. e ) Teenagers are always influenced by media to have bad behavior. f ) Celebrities, who are often in the media, can have a bad and good influence depending on their lifestyles, values and behavior.

4. According

to the texts you read, write down the following sentences in your notebook choosing the appropriate expression to complete them. a ) (Men, women and teenagers/Women and teenagers) are affected by the body image perpetuated by magazines. b ) Articles of magazines for men and women are constantly related to (social pressure/ weight loss). c ) Media can be (a positive example/more influential) if a celebrity says a particular lifestyle, product or behavior is good. d ) People can be inspired by the (work and success/products) of celebrities.

5. Go

back to the texts and read the words in bold. What do they refer to?

a ) who b ) whose c ) which

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a relerem as frases com palavras em negrito nos textos. Você pode explicar que essas palavras fazem referência a algo ou alguém já mencionado e instruí-los a identificar a quem ou a que elas se referem.

a - II; b - III; c - I.

I

intense social pressure

II

models and teenagers

III

celebrities

6. The

words highlighted in the texts are called relative pronouns. The sentences below have more of them. In pairs, identify and write them down in your notebook. a ) The newspaper Charlie Hebdo is published in Paris, France, where terrorist attacks happened in 2015.

6. Sugerimos perguntar aos alunos se eles conhecem outros pronomes relativos além dos que apareceram nos textos. Em seguida, sugerimos orientá-los a ler as frases desta atividade e identificar outros pronomes relativos.

b ) The typewriter that I told you about isn’t being sold anymore. c ) The news presenter that I met is a very intelligent and witty person. d ) Life Magazine was founded in 1883, when The adventures of Pinocchio by Carlo Collodi was first published complete in book form.

7. How are the relative pronouns used? Now that you know them, analyze the following sentences. Then, write the true statements down and rewrite the false ones in your notebook. a ) Relative pronouns are usually used to define or identify the noun after them. False. They are usually used to define or identify the noun that precedes them.

b ) Who is used to refer to a thing. False. Who is used to refer to a person.

c ) Which is used to refer to a person.

False. Which is used to refer to animals and things.

d ) That is used to refer to people, animals and things. True.

e ) Whose has a possessive meaning. True.

f ) Where is used to refer to a period of time. False. Where is used to refer to a place.

g ) When is used to refer to time.

7. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a identificarem se as afirmativas sobre o uso de pronomes relativos são verdadeiras ou falsas, basendo-se no que estudaram nas atividades 2 a 6. Você pode instruí-los a estudar a página 192 do Grammar appendix.

True.

forty-one

g18_ftd_lt_3noi_u02_030a045.indd 41

41

5/28/16 9:36 AM


8. Discuss

the questions with your teacher and classmates.

Respostas pessoais.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) The texts you read say magazines influence body image. Do you agree with this? Why (not)? b ) Why do you think magazines perpetuate pictures of models with skinny and muscular Resposta esperada: the media imposes the models as bodies? In your opinion, are they realistic? beauty standards. They are not realistic. Most magazines’ pictures are photoshopped.

c ) In your opinion, can the body image perpetuated by the media influence how people look? Have you ever felt influenced by it? If so, talk about it. d ) The texts say that media celebrities can be a bad and good influence. What’s your opinion about this? e ) Do you trust the information you read in newspapers and magazines? Why (not)?

Relative clauses 9. You’ve

seen that relative pronouns are used to refer to someone or something mentioned before. The sentences below have relative pronouns, but they are split in two parts. Match them in your notebook and learn a bit more about mass media. a - V; b - I; c - VI; d - II; e - IV; f - III. a ) Columnists, b ) A tabloid, c ) The press is all media agencies d ) A newsstand is a kind of store e ) An editor is the person f ) Some people read the newspaper in the morning, which is a kind of compact newspaper, often has sensationalist news.

II

where people can buy newspapers and magazines.

III

when they feel more energized.

IV

whose function is to determine the final content of newspapers and magazines.

V

who write regularly for the same newspaper or magazine, always share information and offer opinions to the readers.

VI

that print, broadcast and transmit news.

be

lle

na

/S

hu

tt

er

st

oc

k .c

om

I

Learning more 1. Read and understand.

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem a explicação e os exemplos sobre palavras de ligação que são utilizadas para conectar ideias e organizá-las em um texto. Você pode pedir que deem exemplos de frases com as palavras de ligação listadas nesta atividade.

Linking words: sequence

••Linking words are used to connect ideas and sentences. Some of them are used to organize a sequence of ideas or events.

First/firstly, second/secondly, third/thirdly etc. Next, last, finally In addition, moreover Furthermore In conclusion/to conclude/to summarize

2. In your notebook, write a paragraph using at least three of the linking words above. Resposta pessoal.

42

forty-two

g18_ftd_lt_3noi_u02_030a045.indd 42

5/28/16 9:37 AM


10. The

a ) Relative clauses are used to describe someone or something. b ) Relative clauses are used to give more details and information in a sentence. c ) When the information is additional in the sentence, we use commas before and after this information. d ) When the information is necessary in a sentence, we don’t use commas. e ) Sometimes it’s possible to omit the relative pronouns without losing the meaning in the sentence.

Using the language 11. Observe

the pictures below. They are sections of newspapers and magazines. In your notebook, match them with their names. A - III; B - II; C - I.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

A

novamente as relative clauses da atividade 9 e a identificarem as afirmativas corretas sobre elas. Você pode pedir que eles exemplifiquem ou expliquem cada uma das sentenças desta atividade com suas palavras ou citando exemplos de frases da atividade anterior. Caso necessário, sugerimos orientar os alunos a estudarem a página 192 do Grammar appendix.

C

RemPics/Alamy Stock Photo/Latinstock

Feng Yu/Shutterstock.com

I

horoscope

Eva Hambach/AFP/Getty Images

B

II

obituary

III

classified ads

12. What

are the newspaper and magazine sections from activity 11 about? To find out more information about them, read the relative clauses below and choose the best relative pronouns to complete them. a ) The horoscope is a section of magazines or newspapers (that/whose) describes what may happen to people (when/who) were born under a particular sign of the zodiac. b ) The classified ads is a newspaper section (that/whose) publishes advertisements of people (who/where) are offering or looking for jobs, houses, apartments, cars and services. c ) The obituary, (which/who) advertises somebody’s death, usually mentions details about the person’s life. forty-three

43

Unit 2

momento, sentences connected by relative pronouns are called relative clauses. Read the relative Neste sugerimos orientar os clauses from activity 9 again and identify the correct information about them. b; c; d; e. alunos a lerem


13.

Observe the pictures. They are related to the media. What do you know about them? In your notebook, match the pictures with the information. a - II, VII, X; b - I, IV, V, VIII; c - III, VI, IX.

Para esta atividade, sugerimos pedir aos alunos que observem as imagens e perguntem uns aos outros do que se trata. Em seguida, sugerimos pedir que relacionem as imagens com suas respectivas informações.

B

C

Asian Scientist Publishing Pte. Ltd.

Emmanuel Dunand/AFP/Getty Images

Lúcio Távora/Ag. A Tarde/Futura Press

A

The New York Times

Arnaldo Jabor *Sugerimos explicar aos alunos que o Prêmio Pulitzer é um prêmio norte-americano concedido a profissionais do jornalismo, literatura e composição musical que se destacam em suas áreas.

14.

Asian Scientist

I

It’s a daily newspaper.

VII

He’s Brazilian.

II

He’s a journalist, director and writer.

VIII

III

It’s about science and technology.

It has won several Pulitzer Prizes. *

IV

It’s published in New York, in the United States.

IX

It’s a magazine.

V

It was published for the first time in 1851.

X

VI

It’s from Singapore.

He was a columnist in a newspaper in which he published his chronicles.

Use the information in activity 13 and make sentences in your notebook. Use the relative pronouns. Then, compare your sentences with a classmate’s. Look at the example. Respostas pessoais.

The Asian scientist, which is a magazine from Singapore, publishes articles about science and technology.

Speaking up

/u:/x/U/

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir as atividades deste boxe.

1. Listen and repeat. track 9

Luke got a flu so he couldn’t travel. He looked for a doctor and took some medicine.

2. What’s the difference in the pronunciation of the following words? Listen and answer. blue

track 10

book

3. Listen to the words below and practice them with a classmate. track 11

/u:/ blue, pool, fruit, glue

/U/ book, cook, good, wood

4. Draw up the following table in your notebook. In pairs, organize the words track 12

44

according to the /u:/ and /U/ sounds. Then, listen to the track and check your work. After that you can practice the words with a classmate. cook

room

fool

choose

should

would

/u:/

/U/

choose, room, fool

should, would, cook

forty-four

g18_ftd_lt_3noi_u02_030a045.indd 44

5/28/16 9:38 AM


Summing up

Nesta unidade, você...

Sugerimos levar os alunos a refletirem sobre as alternativas apresentadas no quadro abaixo e instruí-los a escrever no caderno as frases que se relacionam ao que leram, discutiram e estudaram nesta unidade.

Unit 2

refletiu sobre como a mídia pode influenciar o que as pessoas pensam, como se vestem e como se comportam; refletiu sobre como a internet mudou a forma como a informação é veiculada; leu e interpretou artigos sobre a influência da mídia na sociedade; estudou vocabulário referente às tecnologias e aos meios de comunicação; refletiu sobre a exposição excessiva e como manter-se seguro em ambientes on-line; escreveu um artigo sobre as vantagens e desvantagens da exposição em redes sociais e na internet e como ela pode influenciar sua vida; escutou um podcast australiano sobre a veracidade das informações veiculadas pela mídia e como as pessoas as recebem; estudou os relative pronouns e as relative clauses e refletiu sobre os seus usos; estudou palavras de ligação que indicam uma sequência de elementos no texto;

Al l the an J. Pakula. 1976 Fil me de Al men. EUA. president ’s

praticou a pronúncia correta dos sons representados pelos símbolos /u:/ e /U/.

Going further Watching

All the president’s men, by Alan J. Pakula. Warner Bros.: USA, 1976.

ww w.onlinene wsp

apers.com

The movie All the president’s men, set in 1972, tells the story of two reporters who worked for the Washington Post and investigated the Watergate Scandal, a major political scandal that occurred in the United States in the 1970s and led to President Richard Nixon’s resignation.

Surfing the net Online newspapers <http://tub.im/5mkxd6> is a website where you can find thousands of newspaper websites listed by country and region.

The Song of the free press, performed by the English singer Leon Rosselson and recorded on the album Bringing the news from nowhere, is a satirical song about how newspapers influence people’s daily lives.

hs n/Michael Oc Suzan Carso tty Image s Archives/Ge

Singing

Online newspapers. Available at: <www. onlinenewspapers. com>. Accessed on: March 29 th, 2016.

Leon Rosselson (2014).

forty-five

g18_ftd_lt_3noi_u02_030a045.indd 45

45

5/28/16 9:39 AM


Choosing a career

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, mais informações sobre as profissões mencionadas nesta seção.

Degree

Journalism

Job purpose

Research, document, write and present the news in an honest, ethical and impartial way.

Usually hired by

Newspapers and communication companies.

Required skills

• Having good communication skills. • Speaking well in public. • Getting on well with people. • Having good writing skills. • Being a good listener.

Characteristics of the job In your opinion, is it a pro (an advantage) or a con (a disadvantage)? Resposta pessoal.

• Working with tight deadlines. • Being able to work on different things. • Frequently meeting and talking to a variety of • • • •

people. Influencing a great number of people. Taking risks when investigating a story. Having to cover many events, even on weekends and holidays. Being skillful at editing technologies.

Ao abordar as características do trabalho de um jornalista, sugerimos pedir aos alunos que as classifiquem em pró ou contra, de acordo com a visão e a personalidade de cada um.

If you like journalism, you can also work as an editor.

To work in the journalism field, you can also become a technician. You can find Journalism technical courses at several institutions.

46

forty-six

1.

Do some research and find out other aspects related to the professions of journalist and graphic designer, presented on the next page. Share your findings with your classmates.

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos chamar a atenção também para os textos nos posts-its e incentivar os alunos a pesquisarem outros aspectos relacionados às profissões apresentadas, como média salarial, diferentes possibilidades de atuação e curiosidades. Em seguida, você pode pedir que formem pequenos grupos e compartilhem uns com os outros o que descobriram.


Choosing a Career

Degree

Graphic design

Job purposes

Create design solutions with high visual impact, according to clients’ needs.

Usually hired by

Industries or design offices.

Required skills

• Being creative. • Paying attention to details. • Being proficient at design software. • Being good at drawing. • Being organized. • Being aware of new design applications. • Having good communication skills. • Being a good listener.

Characteristics of the job In your opinion, is it a pro (an advantage) or a con (a disadvantage)?

• Sometimes working as a freelancer. • The opportunity to share your ideas. • Working with tight deadlines. • Having to worry about details. • Dealing with clients’ ideas and expectations. • The possibility of working with more than just one area.

Resposta pessoal.

Ao abordar as características do trabalho de um designer gráfico, sugerimos pedir aos alunos que as classifiquem em pró ou contra, de acordo com a visão e a personalidade de cada um.

If you like graphic design, you can also be an illustrato r.

2.

Think about these professions and talk to a classmate. I would like to be a journalist/a graphic designer because… I wouldn’t like to be a journalist/a graphic designer because… Resposta pessoal.

To work in the graphic design field, you can also become a technician. You can find technical courses at several institutions. Fotomontagem de Anna Simonin formada pelas imagens michaeljung, Ahmet Misirligul, withGod, I AM NIKOM, suriya yapin e A.S. Zain/Shutterstock.com

forty-seven

47


unit

track 13

48

All that glitters is not gold


The proverb all that glitters is not gold means that the external beauty and attractive looks of something don’t make it genuine or valuable. Fashion advertisements give the impression that models’ lives are perfect. But you shouldn’t buy that idea, because all that glitters is not gold. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, as respostas e comentários referentes a esta atividade.

Exchanging ideas A

Do you agree with the expression all that glitters is not gold? Why (not)?

B

Take a look at all the elements on these pages. Do they call your attention? If so, why?

C

Do you think that when people go shopping they think of what is behind the products or the fashion industry? Explain.

D

When you go shopping, do you worry about the origin of the products and the history of the brands?

Fotomontagem de Estúdio Meraki formada pelas imagens Nata Sha, Sam Aronov/Shutterstock.com

49


Contextualizing

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Warming up 1. b) Neste momento, sugerimos estimular os alunos a pensarem em campanhas publicitárias de roupas e/ou calçados que tenham visto e que tenham chamado a atenção deles. É importante que destaquem os elementos mais marcantes desse anúncio, como as imagens utilizadas, as cores escolhidas, o uso da mensagem verbal, o slogan, entre outros.

Empresas, marcas e produtos citados nesta obra não representam recomendação ou indicação comercial. Eles foram mencionados apenas como recurso didático.

1.

Discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates. a ) Do you usually pay attention to clothing and footwear ads published in magazines and on the internet? Resposta pessoal. b ) Is there a specific advertisement that comes to your mind? If so, talk to your classmates about it. Resposta pessoal. c ) What is the objective of this kind of ad?

Clothing and footwear advertisements intend to market a product and to sell the idea that consuming this product is good for the reader.

d ) In your opinion, are they generally effective? Resposta pessoal.

2.

Advertisements that market fashion products usually reflect the society’s consumption behavior and desires. They are intended to sell a product or service, but there are symbolic meanings behind them. Read the following characteristics of this text genre and share your thoughts with your classmates. If possible, select examples of advertisements that illustrate these characteristics.

• These ads can be published on magazines, websites or billboards.

• They may use models and high-quality photography. • They use different strategies to catch the consumers’ attention, such as appealing images, special visual effects and creative slogans.

• They sell the idea that buying and using the product will be good for the consumer.

• They usually portray the symbolic idea that the product is directly related to happiness, accomplishment, freedom and other human desires.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, mais informações sobre o gênero anúncio publicitário.

3.

You are going to read two fashion advertisements. Read them and, in your notebook, a discussão das questões, é importante ressaltar que as answer the questions on the next page. Durante propagandas utilizam-se de estratégias criativas e convincentes,

Lycra. Criação: SapientNitro EUA

usando texto verbal e não verbal, para divulgar produtos e marcas e convencer os leitores a consumi-los.

Lycra: moves you. Available at: <http://adsoftheworld.com/media/print/lycra_moves_you_1>. Accessed on: December 9 th, 2015.

50

fifty


I

That this particular brand of clothes makes people look more beautiful and allows them to express their creativity.

II

That this particular brand of clothes enables people’s freedom and flexibility and inspires them to express themselves physically.

Unit 3

Town Shoes

a ) What is the message expressed in the ad on page 50? II

b ) What message is conveyed by the second ad? I I

That buying shoes is directly related to being happy and feeling good about yourself.

II

That wearing shoes is essential for comfort and for being fashionable and stylish.

c ) Do these ads make you interested in the products? Why (not)? Resposta pessoal.

Happiness comes in pairs. Fashion Magazine, Toronto, v. 50, n. 4, p.53, May 2015.

d ) In your opinion, are people usually influenced by these kinds of ads? Resposta pessoal.

Learning vocabulary 4.

Draw up the table in your notebook and organize the following words into their corresponding categories. Se necessário, sugerimos orientar os alunos a utilizarem um dicionário dictionary (impresso ou on-line) para realizarem esta atividade.

5.

ou picture

belt

flip-flops

necklace

ring

sneakers

boots

headband

nylon

shirt

suit

cotton

high heels

pants

shoes

watch

denim

jacket

purse

silk

wool

dress

leather

raincoat

sandals

clothing

fabrics

footwear

accessories

dress jacket pants raincoat shirt suit

cotton denim leather nylon silk wool

boots flip-flops high heels sandals shoes sneakers

belt headband necklace purse ring watch

Do some research and add other items to each category from activity 4.

Possíveis respostas: clothing: blouse, sweater, jeans, socks, skirt, shorts; fabrics: linen, velvet, polyester; footwear: pumps, slippers; accessories: tie, earring, scarf.

fifty-one

51


Learning and acting

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Reading and reflecting Pre-reading 1.

Discuss the questions with your teacher and classmates.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir alguns dos itens desta atividade.

a ) Do you usually read clothing labels? Resposta pessoal.

b ) What kind of information is usually written on them?

Where the item of clothing was manufactured, what materials it is made of, the item’s size, and laundry instructions.

c ) Observe the following clothing labels. Are they similar to the ones in your own clothes? Resposta esperada: yes, they are.

II

52

d ) Read the information on the clothing labels above and identify...

• the fabrics these pieces of clothing are made of. Cotton, nylon, viscose and polyacrylic. size of the piece of clothing in picture I. • the In the UK, it is a size 8. In other European countries, it is a size 36.

e ) In pairs, discuss the washing and ironing instructions listed on the labels. Do you understand all of them? Explain to your classmate. Resposta pessoal. f ) What do these symbols represent? Match in your notebook. A

B

C

A - III; B - V; C - II; D - I; E - IV.

E

D

I

do not dry clean

III

iron on low heat

II

do not bleach

IV

do not tumble dry

V

Ilustrações: Bárbara Sarzi

2. Neste primeiro contato com o texto, sugerimos orientar os alunos a observarem apenas as informações não verbais da campanha, sem se preocuparem em ler o texto escrito. Você pode aproveitar para explicar que, nesse gênero textual, o texto não verbal é tão importante quanto o verbal e ser capaz de fazer uma leitura imagética crítica é fundamental para a compreensão. É importante que os alunos percebam que a etiqueta da peça de roupa é muito maior do que as etiquetas costumam ser e tem informações que, normalmente, não são encontradas nelas. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade.

Africa Studio/Shutterstock.com

1. e) Nesse momento, sugerimos que os alunos trabalhem em duplas para que um explique ao outro o que compreenderam das instruções apresentadas nas etiquetas. Você pode orientá-los a utilizar um dicionário para solucionar dúvidas de vocabulário.

Dmitriy Sudzerovskiy/Shutterstock.com

I

wash at or below 40°C

g ) When you buy an item of clothing, do you worry about where and how it was manufactured? Resposta pessoal.

Reading 2.

Observe the campaign advertisement on the next page and answer these questions. a ) What can you see in the image?

A sweater on a hanger, with a long clothing label.

b ) What is unusual about the image?

The clothing label is much longer than normal labels.

fifty-two

g18_ftd_lt_3noi_u03_048a063.indd 52

1/6/16 5:03 PM


The label doesn’t tell the whole story. Available at: <http://cftn.ca/campaigns/ label-doesnt-tell-whole-story>. Accessed on: December 9 th, 2015.

It’s time for change. Buying fair trade ensures workers are being compensated fairly and not exposed to unsafe working conditions.

3. What

is the main purpose of this campaign? Read the written message in the campaign advertisement and choose the most appropriate answer. b a ) To show people the importance of choosing the fabrics carefully when they shop for clothes. b ) To make people reflect critically on the inhumane working conditions in some garment factories. fifty-three

53

Unit 3

The Canadian Fair Trade Network. Criação: ReThink Communications

100% cotton. Made in Cambodia by Behnly, nine years old. He gets up at 5 a.m. every morning to make his way to the garment factory where he works. It will be dark when he arrives and dark when he leaves. He dresses lightly because the temperature in the room he works in reaches 30 degrees. The dust in the room fills his nose and mouth. He will make less than a dollar, for a day spent slowly suffocating. A mask would cost the company ten cents. The label doesn’t tell the whole story.


4.

Answer the following questions about the story narrated in the clothing label.

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a relerem o texto escrito na etiqueta da peça de roupa para responder às perguntas abaixo.

a ) How old is the worker that made this sweater?

5. Neste momento, você pode orientar os alunos a trabalharem em duplas, justificando suas respostas. É importante que eles expliquem a relação entre as palavras que escolheram e a situação de trabalho denunciada pela campanha. 6. a) This sentence means that, behind the final product, there is a tragic reality of people who work under unsafe and unhealthy conditions to get these pieces of clothes manufactured.

He is nine years old.

b ) What is his name and where is he from? His name is Behnly and he is from Cambodia.

c ) What time does he wake up to get ready for work? He gets up at 5 a.m.

d ) What kinds of clothes does he wear? Why?

He wears light clothes because it is very hot in the factory.

e ) Is the factory where he works in good sanitary conditions? No, it’s not. It’s dusty and workers do not wear masks.

f ) How much money does he receive for a day of work? He receives less than a dollar for a day of work.

5.

Resposta esperada: unfair, unhealthy, unsafe, disrespectful.

6.

fair

healthy

safe

respectful

unfair

unhealthy

unsafe

disrespectful

Discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates. a ) The text says “The label doesn’t tell the whole story”. What is the relation between this sentence and the message conveyed by the campaign?

6. b) Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta expressão. 7. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem o objetivo da organização ao lançar essa campanha e, com base nessas informações, a refletirem sobre sua eficácia. É importante que eles percebam que esse tipo de campanha publicitária não tem o objetivo de vender um produto, mas sim divulgar uma ideia, uma mensagem que levará os leitores a refletirem criticamente e, talvez, a mudarem seus pontos de vista e atitudes em relação ao tópico em questão.

Which of the words below do you think can be associated with the working conditions described in this advertisement? In pairs, explain your answers.

b ) What does the expression buying fair trade mean?

It means buying certified products that have been produced in decent and respectful conditions.

c ) In your opinion, is it important that workers are “compensated fairly and not exposed to unsafe working conditions”? Resposta pessoal. Resposta esperada: yes, it is.

É importante estimular os alunos a exporem seus pontos de vista em relação a esta questão e justificarem suas respostas.

d ) Have you ever thought about these questions before buying clothes? Resposta pessoal.

e ) After reading this campaign advertisement, are you more concerned about the importance of buying fair trade? Resposta pessoal.

7.

The advertisement you read is part of a campaign launched by The Canadian Fair Trade Network, a non-profit organization that supports fair trade and intends to increase people’s awareness about the importance of this practice. On their website, they explain the objective of this campaign. Read it and discuss the following questions with a classmate. Respostas pessoais.

[...] This campaign is aimed at bringing awareness to and getting people thinking, talking and taking action on ongoing issues within garment and textile production and manufacturing. […] We’re hoping that these images will make people think about the garments they are wearing and just where they have come from. [...] The label doesn’t tell the whole story. Available at: <http://cftn.ca/campaigns/labeldoesnt-tell-whole-story>. Accessed on: December 9 th, 2015.

a ) Explain, in your own words, the organization’s objective with the campaign. b ) Do you think this advertisement is an effective way to achieve the intended result?

Post-reading 8.

After reading this campaign advertisement, are you curious to find out where your clothes come from? Follow the steps below. Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a seguirem os seguintes passos e a tentarem descobrir mais

sobre o processo de produção de • Choose one of your favorite pieces of clothing. informações uma de suas roupas preferidas. • Read the label to see what country it was made in. • On the internet, do some research about the factory where it was produced. • Try to discover some information about the working conditions in this factory. • Share the information you collected with your classmates.

54

fifty-four


Putting your ideas into words Before writing 9.

One of the characteristics of clothing and footwear advertisements is that they use catchy and creative slogans. Having that in mind, answer the following questions. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) Do you usually pay attention to the slogans in ads?

Unit 3

Resposta pessoal.

b ) Do some research and select some clothing and footwear advertisements. Then, observe the slogans in these ads. What messages do they want to convey? Resposta pessoal.

c ) Based on the slogans of the ads you researched, identify the characteristics of this genre. I; I

short

III

catchy

V

complicated

II

long

IV

memorable

VI

simple

d ) In your opinion, are the slogans you selected and analyzed catchy and creative? Why (not)? Resposta pessoal.

Writing 10.

You are going to create an advertisement to market a piece of clothing or footwear. Remember that advertisements sell more than products. They sell a symbolic idea associated with the consumption of these products.

III; IV; VI. 9. c) Sugerimos explicar aos alunos que os slogans costumam ser simples, redigidos com frases curtas e fáceis de ler, além de serem atraentes e fáceis de serem memorizados.

Anna Simonin

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a revisarem as características do gênero anúncio publicitário, trabalhadas na página 50. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade.

After writing 11.

These are some characteristics usually related to good advertisments. Read them.

• Good advertisements are simple. They communicate quickly and convincingly. • Good advertisements catch the readers’ attention. The design must be colorful and attractive.

• Effective advertisements are memorable. Consumers must remember them. 12.

Analyze some of the ads produced by your class. Can you identify the characteristics mentioned above in them? Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

fifty-five

55


Listening and understanding

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Listening 1. Have

you ever listened to a radio program about fashion? If so, tell your classmates what it was about. If not, would you like to do so? Resposta pessoal.

2. You track 14

are going to listen to part of a radio program about fashion. Listen to its introduction Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem as perguntas antes de and answer the following questions. tocar a introdução do programa. Você pode tocar o áudio a ) What program is the host announcing? A forum from the BBC World Service.

b ) What is the theme of this episode? III

quantas vezes julgar necessário e fazer pausas para que eles tenham tempo de marcarem suas respostas. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, a transcrição do áudio.

I

How many pieces of clothing do people usually buy?

II

How much importance do people give to clothes?

III

How much do clothes express who we really are?

c ) In your notebook, match the people mentioned in the audio with who they are. a - II; b - III; c - IV; d - I.

a ) Bridget Kendall

I

an American curator of fashion

b ) Daniel Miller

II

the host of the forum from the BBC World Service

c ) Folake Folarin-Coker

III

a British anthropologist

d ) Sonnet Stanfill

IV

an award-winning Nigerian designer

d ) Before the discussion starts, one of the guests has to present an idea to improve the world. II I

half a minute

II

one minute

III

two minutes

e ) Which of the guests is going to present this idea?

The BBC World Service Forum is a discussion program that invites important thinkers from different areas and different parts of the world to discuss varied topics. Each week one of the guests is invited to present an idea to improve the world. He or she has only sixty seconds to do it.

Daniel Miller.

3. Now

you are going to listen to Daniel Miller’s idea to improve the world. Listen to it once and identify the words you hear. b; d; e; g; h; i; k; l.

track 15

a ) fashion

e ) ethical issues

i ) lapels

b ) over consumption

f ) footwear

j ) garments

c ) beautiful

g ) label

k ) pockets

d ) ethics

h ) fair trade products

l ) brands

4. Listen to the Sixty Second Idea again and write down the options that complete the information. track 15

a ) Daniel Miller first thought of a more I

intelligent

b ) His first idea was to I

II

idea. II frivolous

black and white and make everyone

ban/wear

II

wear/avoid

c ) But, more seriously, his idea is related to the I

damage risks

d ) He is concerned about the

56

fifty-six

III

II

I

improvement/pollution/warming

II

exploitation/pollution/water

colorful clothes. I III

make/print

associated with clothes. III

fashion trends

of the label,

serious

III

, or over consumption of III

ethical issues for growing cotton. II

emmigration/ambition/waffle


e ) His idea is that internationally recognized regulatory bodies create I

an ethical label

a different lapel

II

f ) He suggests that this label be called I

track 15

new pockets

III

the Big E

. III

the Big V

II

III

Listen again and verify what is correct according to Daniel Miller’s idea. b;

c; e.

a ) The creation of an ethical label would be costy and inneffective.

Unit 3

5.

the Phillipine

for clothes. I

He does not mention the costs of the idea, but he suggests it would be effective.

b ) Energy efficient cars that make this characteristic very evident sell more than similar cars that do not make this noticeable. c ) Some people already pay extra money for ethical clothes. d ) The ethical label would be small and discrete and it would be sewn on the inside of the piece of clothing. It would be a green brand E, emblazoned on lapels and pockets, up front.

e ) The ethical label would mean that the consumer is ethical and is proud of it.

6. track 14

The BBC World Service Forum is a British on-line radio program. The host, Bridget Kendall, and the guest Daniel Miller are British and, therefore, they speak with a British accent. Listen to the tracks again and answer the following questions in your notebook.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade. track 15

a ) In the first track, how does Bridget Kendall pronounce the letter R in the following words: world, service, are, first, Miller, chair, other, designer and course? What can you notice? She almost doesn’t pronounce the letter R. b ) In the first track, what is the difference in the pronunciation when Kendall says: curator of fashion? She pronounces the letter R. c ) In the second track, how does Daniel Miller pronounce the letter A in the following words: ban, black, brands and brand? He pronounces a more “open” A. d ) In the second track, what letter is more associated with the sound of the consonants in the following words? I

7.

water t

II

cotton

t

III

better t

IV

bodies

d

What is your opinion about Daniel Miller’s idea? Share your point of view with a classmate. Resposta pessoal.

7. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a discutirem a questão em duplas, dizendo o que pensam sobre a ideia apresentada no áudio. É importante estimulá-los a dizer, por exemplo, se acreditam que essa etiqueta atestando que o produto foi fabricado e comercializado de forma ética iria atrair o interesse dos consumidores, se acham que é uma ideia fácil de ser colocada em prática e se eles próprios se interessariam em comprar os produtos que tivessem essa etiqueta.

Speaking 8.

Imagine you are a guest at the BBC World Service Forum and you have one minute to present an idea to make the world a better place. What is your idea? Follow the steps below to present it. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

• Think about your idea to improve the world. It can

be related to clothing, fair trade or another topic of your preference.

• Take some notes and show them to your teacher. Correct what is necessary.

• Rehearse your presentation. Remember you have only sixty seconds to talk.

• Present your idea to the class. fifty-seven

57


Comprehending and using Learning about the language Passive voice 1.

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

2. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que eles lerão pequenos textos sobre três modelos que não seguem o padrão de beleza comumente visto em fotografias e passarelas. Você pode citar os seus nomes (Tess Holliday, Winnie Harlow e Shaun Ross) e perguntar se lhes são familiares. Em seguida, sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem os textos e descreverem os modelos para um colega de classe.

Discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) What comes to your mind when you hear the word models?

Resposta pessoal. Possível resposta: fashion; beauty; fashion and women’s magazines; catwalk.

b ) Think about fashion ads and their models. What do they look like? Resposta esperada: they are usually tall and thin.

c ) Do you think models’ appearance and lifestyle influence other people? How? Resposta pessoal.

d ) In your opinion, must models have the same body shape and appearance? Explain. Resposta pessoal.

e ) Have you ever seen an unconventional model? If so, talk about it. Resposta pessoal.

2. A

You are going to read texts about some successful models. Read them and talk to a classmate about these models’ appearance and personality. Resposta pessoal.

Fashion is being redefined by Tess Holliday. She is the first model of her size to sign a contract with a modelling agency. But before being a model, Tess dropped out school at 17 because of bullying. She was inspired to go after her dream of becoming a model while working as a make-up artist in Seattle. In 2010 she moved to Los Angeles where her career started. Recently, the movement #EffYourBeautyStandards was started by Tess to encourage women to accept their body shapes. After its success on the internet, Tess’s potential was recognized by a modelling agency and they signed a contract with her. Now, she is the model of a plus-size clothing collection whose managing director states that the fashion industry is positively influenced by her. Source: See size 22 model tess Holliday rocking it in your clothing summer campaign. Available at: <www.irishexaminer.com/examviral/real-life/ see-size-22-model-tess-holliday-rocking-it-in-yours-clothing-summer-campaign-325658.html>. Accessed on: December 17th, 2015.

B

Winnie Harlow was diagnosed with vitiligo when she was 4 years old. One in every one hundred people is affected by this disorder in which cells are destroyed by the immune system and the skin gets white patches. Winnie’s parents are Jamaican, but she was raised in Canada. She suffered from bullying when she was a child. She was called names and was sometimes physically abused. She was discovered by a jornalist who encouraged her to be a model. She found fame when she participated in the reality show America’s Next Top Model. Source: KEYES-BEVAN, Bronwen. Winnie Harlow: her emotional story with vitiligo. Available at: <www.personalhealthnews.ca/preventionand-treatment/her-emotional-story-with-vitiligo>. Accessed on: December 18 th, 2015.

C

Shaun Ross is best known for being the first albino model. He’s also an actor and dancer. He’s an African descendant who had to deal with discrimination and bullying when he was younger. He was discovered on the internet and his career as a model started when he was 16. In 2009, a short film was shot with him and it won a first place prize in a contest. He has appeared in many other films and music videos. Recently, he was hired to be the face of a vehicle brand whose slogan is “Be Unique”. Source: Shaun Ross the first male albino model. Available at: <http://thechicagocitizen.com/news/2014/jul/02/shaun-ross-first-male-albinomodel/>. Accessed on: December 18 th, 2015.

58

fifty-eight


3.

Take a look at the pictures below. Associate them with the texts you read.

I - text C; II - text A; III - text B. Neste momento, sugerimos pedir que os alunos observem as imagens e comentem se elas são compatíveis com a descrição que fizeram dos modelos quando leram os textos.

II

III

4.

Ovidiu Hrubaru/Shutterstock.com

Jason LaVeris/FilmMagic/Getty Images

FashionStock.com/Shutterstock.com

Unit 3

I

Read the texts again. In order to organize and understand the more relevant information about each model, write in your notebook if the statements below are about Tess, Shaun or Winnie. É importante comentar que as informações podem se aplicar a mais de um modelo ou a todos eles. a ) He/she was bullied and discriminated against when younger. Tess, Shaun and Winnie

b ) He/she was discovered on the internet. Shaun

c ) His/her career started when he/she moved to Los Angeles after stopping working as a make-up artist. Tess

d ) He/she was diagnosed with a disorder called vitiligo. Winnie

e ) He/she started a campaign on the internet to motivate women to accept the way they are. After that, he/she was recognized by a modelling agency and signed a contract with it. Tess

f ) His/her parents were born in Jamaica. Winnie

g ) He/she is known to be the first model with a lack of pigmentation and colloration in the skin, hair and eyes. Shaun

5.

After reading about the models, you could notice they have atypical characteristics compared to what is usually seen on ads and catwalks in the modelling business. Based on this, discuss the following questions with a classmate. Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) Was your description of models in activity 1 different from what you read in the texts and saw in the pictures of activity 3? If so, why did this happen? b ) All the three models were victims of discrimination and bullying when they were children because of their condition. In your opinion, why did this happen? c ) Shaun is representing a brand whose slogan is “Be Unique”. Do you think people are discriminated against because their uniqueness doesn’t fit the expected beauty standard? If so, why do you think this happens and how can it be changed? fifty-nine

59


6.

Unconventional models are popular in the fashion business nowadays, but they are still a minority comparing to typical ones. The media and critics believe unconventional models are invigorating fashion. Read the statements below about what may happen in the future in the fashion business and discuss with a classmate whether you agree or disagree, justifying your opinions. Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) Typical models will never be totally excluded from the fashion business. b ) The clothing industry is going to be motivated to produce more clothes in special sizes if they recognize the campaign started by Tess. c ) Height, weight, color of skin, eyes or hair won’t be seen as requisites to be a model. Fashion won’t have a beauty standard. d ) Models aren’t going to be chosen by agencies only because of their appearance, but for other reasons, like attitude and personality. e ) Having more atypical models can promote the idea that everybody is beautiful and unique in their own way and, thus, discrimination will be beaten.

7.

The sentences below were taken from activities 2 and 6. They have examples of the passive voice, read them and answer the questions that follow.

7. Sugerimos pedir aos alunos que identifiquem as respostas corretas tendo as frases como exemplos. O objetivo desta atividade é fazer com que eles analisem o emprego da voz passiva, compreendendo como e quando usá-la. Caso julgue necessário, sugerimos orientá-los a estudar a página 193 do Grammar appendix.

• The movement #EffYourBodyStandards was started by Tess to encourage women to accept their body shapes.

• Shaun Ross is best known for being the first albino model. • Typical models will never be totally excluded from the fashion business.

• Models aren’t going to be chosen by agencies only because of their appearance, but for other reasons, like attitude and personality.

a ) The sentences are in the passive voice which is used...

II

I

when the focus is on who performed the action. It’s important to know who the doer of the actions is.

II

when the focus is on the receiver of the action. We don’t know the performer of the action or it’s not important.

b ) The sentences are formed by... I I

the appropriate form of verb to be + the main verb in the past participle form.

II

the appropriate form of verb to be + the main verb with -ing.

c ) The auxiliary be can be conjugated in all tenses in the passive voice. In the sentences above, be is conjugated in... I I

Simple Past, Simple Present and Future.

II

Simple Past and Simple Present.

d ) If we know the agent (who performed the action), such as in the first and fourth sentences,... II I

60

it is omitted in the sentence.

II

it is preceded by the preposition by.

sixty

g18_ftd_lt_3noi_u03_048a063.indd 60

5/28/16 9:47 AM


8. Now

that you have analyzed sentences in the passive voice and are able to understand why and how it is used, go back to the texts in activity 2 and find more examples of sentences in the passive voice. As respostas estão sublinhadas nos textos da atividade 2.

Using the language has vitiligo and Shaun has albinism. Have you heard of these conditions before reading the texts? Draw up the table below in your notebook and complete it with the information resquested. It might be necessary to read the texts in activity 2 again and do some research to know more about vitiligo and albinism. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, conduzir esta atividade.

One in every one hundred people is affected by vitiligo.

Information about the conditions presented in the texts Information I knew about them before reading the texts

Resposta pessoal.

Information I researched about the conditions

Resposta pessoal.

Unit 3

9. Winnie

como

In people with vitiligo, the cells are destroyed by the immune system and the skin gets white patches. 10. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a apresentarem as informações encontradas em suas pesquisas. Para que a atividade não fique repetitiva, você pode pedir que somente alguns alunos da turma apresentem suas pesquisas e que os demais complementem as informações com comentários, dando opiniões e sugerindo livros, filmes, documentários e/ou programas de televisão que abordam os assuntos.

10. Now

that you know more information about vitiligo and albinism, share what you found in your research with your classmates and teacher. You can present information about the conditions and also talk about your impressions, what you found interesting, talk about books, documentaries and TV shows that have discussed the issues and so on. Try to use the passive voice in your presentation. Resposta pessoal.

Learning more 1. Read and

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem a explicação e os exemplos de adjetivos seguidos de preposição. Você pode tirar as dúvidas sobre os significados das understand. expressões que eles não conhecem. Em seguida, sugerimos pedir-lhes que trabalhem em duplas e montem frases com as expressões.

Adjectives followed by prepositions

••Specific prepositions are used after certain adjectives. -- afraid of -- anxious about

-- excited about -- famous for

-- known for -- proud of

-- angry with -- bored with

-- good at -- impressed with/by -- interested in

-- responsible for -- successful in

-- conscious of -- curious about

-- tired of -- worried about

-- jealous of

2. Complete the sentences in your notebook using an adjective and a preposition from the box. impressed interested known proud worried

about for in of with

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a formarem expressões com os adjetivos e preposições do quadro e preencherem as frases. Depois, você pode pedir que comparem suas frases com um colega de sala.

known for

a ) Alexandre Herchcovitch is a Brazilian fashion designer eclectic prints.

his avant-garde design and

interested in

b ) Some teenagers are not so worried about

c ) Many parents are

the influence of fashion on teenagers.

d ) The designers are very impressed with

e ) We were

fashion.

proud of

their new collection of summer dresses.

the latest campaign for that perfume brand.

sixty-one

61


11.

Do you know any other unconventional models? Look at the pictures and match the models with the correct information in your notebook. A - II; B - III; C - I.

11. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a observarem as fotografias de outros modelos que não seguem um padrão de beleza. Você pode pedir que, rapidamente com um colega de classe, eles infiram como essas pessoas iniciaram suas carreiras como modelo ou como foram descobertas. Em seguida, sugerimos pedir que eles relacionem as fotos aos textos corretos.

12.

C

Jim Spellman/WireImage/Getty Images

Paul Drinkwater/NBC/NBCU Photo Bank/Getty Images

B

Jamie McCarthy/LACOSTE/Getty Images

A

I

Her name is Carmen Dell’Orefice. She’s been modelling since she was 15. She has been photographed by the most famous brands, magazines and photographers. She retired, but she was forced to go back to modelling for financial reasons.

II

Her name is Jillian Mercado. She was diagnosed with spastic muscular dystrophy and uses a wheelchair. She’s a model and a fashion blogger.

III

His name is Alex Minsky. He was a U.S. marine who served in Afghanistan in 2009 and was retired after an accident. He’s modelled in underwear ads.

Below, there is some extra information about each model from activity 11. In your notebook, write sentences using the given information and the passive voice. Then, share your work with a classmate and briefly discuss your impressions about the models. a ) Jillian Mercado - at college, her friends asked her to be a model since she could fit in small sample sizes. Resposta esperada: At college, she was asked to be a model since she could fit in small sample sizes.

b ) Alex Misnky - amputated leg. Resposta

esperada: His leg was amputated.

c ) Carmen Dell’Orefice - known for being the oldest working model. Resposta esperada: She is known for being the world’s oldest working model.

Speaking up

/√/

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir as atividades deste boxe.

1. Listen and repeat. track 16

Scarlet and her cousin are models. They went to the mall to buy some summer sandals and drink a cup of coffee.

2. Listen and practice the pronunciation of the words in pairs. track 17

cousin some

summer cup

3. Listen to the words and identify the ones with a different sound. track 18

62

sixty-two

a ) luck - book - truck - bush

c ) cup - hut - put - nut

b ) sun - son - fox - fun

d ) butter - duck - hug - four


Summing up

Nesta unidade, você...

Sugerimos levar os alunos a refletirem sobre as alternativas apresentadas no quadro abaixo e instruí-los a escrever no caderno as frases que se relacionam ao que leram, discutiram e estudaram nesta unidade.

conversou com seus colegas de classe sobre anúncios publicitários de roupas e calçados; refletiu sobre as características dos anúncios publicitários; Unit 3

revisou vocabulário relacionado a peças de roupas e calçados; analisou algumas etiquetas de roupas e as informações apresentadas nelas; leu e interpretou uma campanha publicitária contra o trabalho infantil em fábricas de roupas e a favor do comércio justo; criou um anúncio publicitário; ouviu parte de um programa de rádio; apresentou aos colegas de classe, em um minuto, uma ideia para melhorar o mundo; discutiu e refletiu sobre o padrão de beleza no mundo da moda; leu e refletiu sobre modelos que não seguem um padrão de beleza; estudou as estruturas da voz passiva no passado simples, presente simples e futuro simples; revisou o uso de preposições após alguns adjetivos; praticou a pronúncia correta do som representado pelo símbolo /√/.

Reading

Harper Collin

s

Going further

The boy in the dress is a humorous book about a 12-year-old boy who enjoys cross-dressing. Even though it’s a children’s book, it is a great opportunity to reflect on people’s reactions when someone does something extraordinary, and to understand that cross-dressing is a healthy and acceptable hobby.

The website Fashionista <http://tub.im/v68ztv> has fashion news, critics, career advice and is a trusted source and an influential voice about fashion.

Singing The song Fashion!, performed by Lady Gaga and recorded on the CD Artpop, is a criticism about how fashion influences people.

Fil me de P.J. Hogan. Confe ssions of a shopaholic. EU A. 20 09 om

Surfing the net

Confessions of a shopaholic, by P.J. Hogan. Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures: USA, 2009.

Shutters tock.c

The movie Confessions of a shopaholic tells Becky Bloom’s story. She is a girl addicted to shopping and needs to make a change.

Helga Esteb/

Watching

The boy in the dress, by David Walliams. HarperCollins: Canada, 2009.

Lady Gaga (2016).

sixty-three

g18_ftd_lt_3noi_u03_048a063.indd 63

63

5/28/16 9:48 AM


unit

track 19

64

Beauty is in the eye of the beholder


The proverb beauty is in the eye of the beholder means that people may have different opinions about what is beautiful and attractive. I can’t understand why she finds that painting in her living room beautiful. But I suppose it’s like they say: beauty is in the eye of the beholder. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, as respostas e comentários referentes a esta atividade.

Exchanging ideas A

Observe the image on this page. What is the boy doing? Do you consider what he is photographing beautiful? Explain.

B

Do you agree that beauty is in the eye of the beholder? Explain.

C

In unit 3, you saw that the media imposes some beauty patterns for people. What are they? Do you think that most of the population matches these patterns? If not, why do you think they are imposed and respected?

Fotomontagem de Estúdio Meraki formada pelas imagens Poprotskiy Alexey e Maksim Kabakou/Shutterstock.com

65


Contextualizing

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

2. Sugerimos aproveitar este momento para levar os alunos a perceberem que o conceito de padrão de beleza é variável e instável. O tipo físico que é considerado bonito muda ao longo dos anos, acompanhando mudanças sociais e culturais. É importante comentar que, embora as mudanças nos padrões de beleza feminina sejam mais fáceis de serem identificadas, mudanças nos padrões masculinos também acontecem. Você pode sugerir que os alunos pesquisem sobre tipos físicos masculinos considerados belos em outras épocas e compará-los com os homens considerados bonitos e atraentes atualmente. Discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates. Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

Warming up 1.

a ) When you think of the word beautiful, what comes to your mind?

b ) Think of characteristics that you find beautiful in people and that don’t match the media patterns. c ) In your opinion, do we need a wider definition of beauty? Observe the following pictures and read the information. Then, write down in your notebook what you can conclude from this observation.

Simon Vouet. 1628-1639. Óleo sobre tela. 184 x 153 cm. Museu de arte de Cincinnati (EUA)

During the Renaissance (cultural movement in Europe from the 14th to the 17th century), the ideal women were more voluptuous and curvier than nowadays. The paintings from that period portray this beauty standard showing women that would be considered fat today. Nowadays, women’s beauty is usually associated with a fit and thin body. Simon Vouet - The Toilet of Venus. Cincinnati Art Museum. 1628-1639.

Andrew H. Walker/Getty Images

2.

Hilary Rhoda (2014)

a ) From the observation of these images it is possible to conclude that… I

the concept of beauty is universal and unchangeable.

II

the concept of beauty changes over time.

b ) Therefore, we may conclude that…

II

I

I

the physical characteristics that are considered beautiful nowadays may not be the beauty standard in a few years.

II

the physical characteristics that are considered beautiful nowadays have always been and will always be the beauty standard.

c ) Based on this logic, one possible conclusion is that… II

66

sixty-six

I

the socially accepted definition of beauty is an unquestionable truth.

II

our society must rethink their concepts of beauty and enlarge their understanding of what is beautiful.


3. The

advertising campaign below was launched by a cosmetics brand. They used printed ads in which viewers were asked to judge women’s looks that are outside the stereotypical norms of beauty. Read this ad and answer the following questions. Respostas

pessoais. Durante a leitura, é importante estimular os alunos a refletirem sobre o papel das marcas que, por meio da mídia, podem influenciar consumidores positiva ou negativamente.

Dove. Criação: Ogilvy EUA

Unit 4

Empresas, marcas e produtos citados nesta obra não representam recomendação ou indicação comercial. Eles foram mencionados apenas como recurso didático.

Which are the best digital marketing campaigns of 2014? Available at: <www.kvrwebtech. com/digital-marketing-faqs/ which-are-the-best-digitalmarketing-campaigns-of-2014>. Accessed on: March 15th, 2016.

a ) The campaign invites viewers to join the beauty debate. In your opinion, what is the esperada: make people rethink their concepts of beauty and celebrate the natural objective of this campaign? Resposta physical variation among women, understanding that they are all beautiful in their own way. É importante comentar com os alunos que, embora essa campanha tenha Usually, the products developed by the cosmetics industry stimulate people’s desire to como foco a beleza feminina, be beautiful. So, in your opinion, why would a cosmetics brand launch a campaign os mesmos conceitos podem pessoal. É importante que os alunos percebam que against imposed beauty standards? Resposta e devem ser atualmente muitas marcas se preocupam em associar seus compreendidos produtos e serviços a conceitos de saúde e autoaceitação, em vez de ressaltar os padrões de beleza impostos pela sociedade. Assim, a intenção de muitos anúncios é levar os consumidores a valorizarem suas características físicas e, em relação à beleza masculina. ao mesmo tempo, continuarem usando os produtos da marca. Você pode dizer ainda que algumas campanhas publicitárias têm o objetivo de melhorar a imagem da empresa no mercado, muitas vezes relacionando seus produtos a ações para eliminar os problemas sociais. Essa estratégia de publicidade é conhecida como marketing social.

b ) Do you agree that there are different forms of beauty? What do you consider beautiful in the people you know? Resposta pessoal. c )

Learning vocabulary 4. Do

you know some synonyms and antonyms of the word beautiful? Among the words attractive, cute, good-looking, gorgeous, handsome, below, identify the synonyms and the antonyms. Synonyms: wonderful; antonyms: awkward, hideous, ordinary, plain, ugly. attractive

good-looking

hideous

pretty

awkward

gorgeous

ordinary

ugly

cute

handsome

plain

wonderful

pretty,

5. When

we describe physical appearance, there are different adjectives that can be used. Draw up the following table in your notebook and organize the words according to their meanings. chubby

medium-height

slim

thin

curvy

middle-aged

stocky

well-built

elderly

short

tall

young

fit

skinny

teenager

age elderly middle-aged teenager young

height

build

medium-height short stocky tall

chubby curvy fit skinny slim thin well-built

Remember When we describe a person’s physical characteristics, we usually follow this order: general opinion, size, shape and age. My grandmother is a beautiful mediumheight thin woman. sixty-seven

67


Learning and acting Reading and reflecting Pre-reading

1. a) Sugerimos orientar os alunos a associarem as palavras com as fotografias e utilizá-las para descrever as pessoas que veem nelas. Se necessário, você pode auxiliá-los com a formação das collocations, explicando que algumas dessas palavras são utilizadas com o verbo to have (have freckles, have a birthmark, have a scar e have acne), outras com o verbo to wear (wear glasses e wear braces) e uma com o verbo to be (be chubby).

1. c) Resposta esperada: the pictures represent some characteristics that don’t match the mainstream examples of beauty. In other words, they show people that would not be considered ideal examples of the beauty standard, but are beautiful in an unconventional way.

karelnoppe/Shutterstock.com Hriana/Shutterstock.com

Peter Kim/Shutterstock.com

Bill Frakes/Sports Illustrated/Getty Images

1. b) Sugerimos levar os alunos a refletirem sobre as características físicas representadas nas fotografias e relacionarem-nas com as expressões, contrastando as imagens com o padrão de beleza imposto pela sociedade e refletindo sobre o que faz com que cada um seja avaliado como bonito ou não.

Respostas pessoais.

Catherine Ursillo/Getty Images

Observe the following pictures and answer the questions.

NinaMalyna/Shutterstock.com

1.

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

a ) In pairs, describe the people you see in these pictures. You can use the following words. acne

braces

birthmark

glasses freckles

scar chubby

b ) Which of the words below would you associate with these pictures? Explain. beauty ideal

mainstream examples of beauty

unconventional beauty

c ) Read the title of the text on the next page. In your opinion, what is the relation between the title and these pictures? d ) There is a new concept that is called embracing our imperfections. What do you think esperada: it means accepting our physical characteristics and understanding that they it is about? Resposta make us beautiful. What some people call imperfections are only characteristics. They are only called imperfections because of the beauty standards that we have to challenge.

2.

On the next page, you are going to read an extract from a magazine article. Based on the title of the text, what words and expressions do you expect to be mentioned in it? Resposta pessoal.

good-looks

fat shaming

appearance

beauty standard

self-esteem

body issues

beauty requirements

body negativity

body shape

cosmetic surgeries

68

sixty-eight

g18_ftd_lt_3noi_u04_064a079.indd 68

Com base no título, sugerimos orientar os alunos a fazerem inferências sobre as palavras e expressões que podem aparecer no texto. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre o gênero textual reportagem de revista.

1/6/16 5:25 PM


Reading 3.

Read the text briefly and verify if your answers to activity 2 were correct. É importante estimular os alunos a explicarem o contexto em que cada uma dessas palavras e expressões são utilizadas e seus sentidos no texto.

Resposta pessoal. As palavras e expressões que efetivamente aparecem no texto são: beauty requirements, cosmetic surgeries, fat shaming, body negativity e appearance.

x

http://worldbook/atlasmagazine/docs/atlas_final_pdf_12-16

Upload

About

Create Account

Sign In Unit 4

world book

Bárbara Sarzi

Beauty Remarks: Embracing our ‘Imperfections’ “THE IDEAL BEAUTY IS A FUGITIVE which is never found,” wrote Renaissance woman Marquise de SéVingné in a letter to her daughter. Four hundred years ago, Marquise touched on a concept that is still relevant today, as beauty ideals constantly change. When it comes to body image, perhaps the most influential period in European history is the Renaissance. [...] Since then, we’ve seen a great shift in body image, moving back and forth between pale skin and corset-like curves in both the 1910s and ’50s and boyish figures of the ’20s flapper and ’60s icon, Twiggy. Popular culture is constantly adding to an endless list of beauty requirements. [...] The number of cosmetic surgeries for youth 18 and under has increased by more than 300% from 1997 to 2007. Also, due to societal pressures, nearly 65% of American women and girls, aged 25 to 45, are directly affected by unhealthy eating habits [...]. And according to Time Magazine, nearly 93% of female college students engage in fat shaming. But women are not the only ones seeking perfection. Often overlooked, men’s body negativity is also on the rise. In their September 2012 issue, GQ Magazine reported that men comprised 5 percent of people suffering from anorexia and bulimia 10 years ago. Today, the numbers reach nearly 20 percent. [...] Although women and men receive different body image messages, our insecurities are similar. Nick Holmes [...] says “Acne is one thing that men are surprisingly self-conscious about.” [...] Body image relies so much on our mental outlook. Depending upon how many times we check ourselves in the mirror before leaving the house or the amount of money we so easily drop on skin care, hair, or makeup products, it’s fair to note that everyone, regardless of age or gender, is concerned about their appearance to some extent. Instead of working to fit ideals, it’s important to embrace what makes your beauty different from the mainstream images – a face full of freckles, a funky-shaped birthmark, or your crazy-huge scar. Embracing your imperfections encourages others to do the same. [...]

CASSARD, Caroline. Beauty remarks: embracing our ‘imperfections’. Available at: <http://issuu.com/atlasmagazine/docs/atlas_ final_pdf_12-16>. Accessed on: January 18 th, 2016.

sixty-nine

69


5. a) In the 1910s and 1950s, women with pale skin and corset-like curves were considered beautiful; in the 1920s, it was fashionable for women to have an independent behavior, what the text describes as “boyish figures”; in the 1960s, women copied a beauty and fashion icon, the model, actress and singer Twiggy. Se necessário, você pode pedir que os alunos realizem uma pesquisa sobre os padrões de beleza de cada uma das décadas mencionadas e sobre os ícones mencionados, tais como o termo flapper e a modelo Twiggy.

4.

Read the text again and, in your notebook, match the paragraphs to the main ideas expressed in them. a - I; b - III; c - II; d - IV. a ) paragraphs 1 and 2 b ) paragraphs 3 and 4 c ) paragraphs 5 and 6 d ) paragraphs 7 and 8

5.

I

The ideal concept of beauty changes over time.

II

Not only women, but also men cope with body issues and insecurities.

III

Cultural and social pressures force women to try to achieve an imposed beauty ideal.

IV

Everyone worries about what they look like. But, instead of trying to achieve a beauty ideal, people should accept their own uniqueness.

Answer the following questions about the article in your notebook. a ) The text gives some examples of how beauty standards have changed over the years. What examples are these? b ) The following percentages are associated with how women are influenced by the social pressure to be beautiful. What information are they related to? increase in cosmetic • 300% The surgeries for young people

5. c) É fundamental que os alunos percebam que os dados apresentados no texto se referem ao ano de 2012, quando a reportagem foi publicada.

from 1997 to 2007.

women and girls, aged college • 65% American • 93% Female 25 to 45, directly affected by students who engage unhealthy eating habits.

in fat shaming.

c ) Men also suffer the consequences of this social pressure. According to GQ Magazine, what was the percentage of men suffering from anorexia and bulimia 10 years before 2012? 5%.

d ) What was the percentage of men suffering from anorexia and bulimia in 2012, when the article was published? 20%. e ) What does this data indicate?

It indicates that body negativity is increasing among men.

f ) According to the article, men are self-conscious about acne. In your opinion, are men more self-conscious about acne than women? Why (not)? Resposta pessoal.

6. Sugerimos organizar os alunos em pequenos grupos e orientá-los a discutir sobre os seguintes excertos do texto. É importante que eles troquem informações sobre o que cada um compreendeu e compartilhem seus pontos de vista.

g ) Do you agree with the following statement? Explain.

Resposta pessoal.

Everyone, regardless of age or gender, is concerned about their appearance to some extent.

h ) What piece of advice is given in the last paragraph of the excerpt?

It suggests that, instead of trying to achieve an ideal beauty standard, people should embrace what makes their beauty different from the mainstream images.

Post-reading 6.

In groups, discuss the following ideas presented in the article. Explain them in your own words and say what your opinion about them is. Resposta pessoal.

“The ideal beauty is a fugitive which is never found”.

Embracing your imperfections encourages others to do the same.

Body image relies so much on our mental outlook.

70

seventy


Putting your ideas into words Before writing 7.

On page 69, you read part of a magazine article. Now, you are going to see some of the characteristics of this text genre. Use the words and expressions below to complete them in your notebook. data

information

quotes

headline

point of view

straightforward

type

type

of the magazine and the audience.

Unit 4

• Magazine articles may be about many different subjects, which will vary according to the straightforward

written in objective and language. • Articles are usuallyheadline have a , which gives information about the content of the text. • They alwaysinformation point of view author’s about the topic. • They present , ideas and, sometimes, the data • Magazine articles may contain references to extracted from other sources and, also, quotes

related to the theme that is discussed.

Writing 8.

In groups, you are going to write a magazine article. This is a good opportunity for you to put down in words your conclusions about all that has been discussed so far.

Anna Simonin

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

After writing 9.

After reading all the articles produced by your class, engage your group in a discussion in the form of a round table. Make sure all students in the group participate. You can list the main ideas presented in the articles and share your thoughts about them, saying, for example, what your opinion is and if any important aspect of that topic was left out. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

seventy-one

71


Listening and understanding

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Listening 1. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

1. Discuss

2. a) Women’s Running. It’s a magazine about running and the running lifestyle directed specifically to women.

2. Observe the magazine cover and

the following questions with your teacher and classmates. Respostas

pessoais.

a ) In your opinion, is being beautiful related to being thin? Why (not)?

© 2016 Competitor Group, Inc.

b ) Do you believe that thinner people have a better quality of life? Explain.

answer the following questions.

2. c) Sugerimos aprofundar esta questão perguntando aos alunos por que modelos acima do peso não costumam aparecer em capas de revistas (porque elas não se encaixam em um padrão de beleza e de magreza imposto pela sociedade) e estimulando-os a mencionar seus pontos de vista sobre isso.

a ) What is the title of the magazine and what kind of magazine is it? b ) Describe the model that appears on the magazine Resposta pessoal. Possível cover. resposta: she is a beautiful

medium-height chubby girl.

c ) Is it common to see chubby models on magazine covers? No, it’s not. d ) In your opinion, what message is being sent by this magazine cover?

3. You are going to listen to part of

track 20

2. d) Resposta pessoal. Possível resposta: that chubby women can do sports and have a good quality of life, as well as that chubby women can be beautiful and represent a model to be followed by others. 3. É interessante chamar a atenção dos alunos para o sotaque australiano, na pronúncia das palavras overweight e teenage, e para a entonação.

an Australian program called The World Today. The topic of the program is related to what you’ve been discussing so far. Listen to the introduction of the program and answer the following question.

• •What is the relation between

what you listened to and the Women’s Running. Available at: <www.popsugar.com/fitness/Womenquestions you discussed in Running-Plus-Size-Cover-Model-August-2015The program is about a study that found activities 1 and 2? that overweight or obese boys struggle 37914676#photo-37914676>. Accessed on: January 25 , 2016. th

more with body image issues than overweight teenage girls. It is related to the association of being thin and having a good quality of life and also to the idea that only thin people are beautiful.

4. What

is the difference between being overweight and being obese?

5. Listen

again and answer the questions that follow in your notebook.

track 20

Someone who is considered overweight is heavier than the weight standards. Someone who is obese is very fat, in a way that is dangerous for their health.

a ) According to this study, who struggles more with body image issues: overweight teenage boys or overweight teenage girls? Overweight teenage boys.

b ) Why do scientists think this happens?

They think it may have to do with the greater role that sport plays in boys’ social lives.

c ) In what Australian city was this study conducted? In Sydney.

d ) How many school children were interviewed? More than 2000.

e ) How many years after the first interview did the scientists follow up the school children? Five years later.

72

seventy-two

g18_ftd_lt_3noi_u04_064a079.indd 72

1/6/16 5:26 PM


6. track 21

You are going to listen to another part of the program, in which one of the scientists, Bamini Gopinath, talks a little bit more about this research. Listen and identify what is true according to it. b, d, e, g. Antes de tocar o áudio, sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem as alternativas e solucionarem possíveis dúvidas.

a ) According to the research, overweight or obese boys always have a poorer quality of life. b ) The research suggested that overweight or obese boys tended to have a poorer quality of life. c ) It indicates that, in comparison, the quality of life of teenage boys who were in the normal weight range was worse.

Unit 4

d ) It indicates that, in comparison, the quality of life of teenage boys who were in the normal weight range was better. e ) These findings were surprising because it was expected that girls would have more body image issues and eating disorders than boys. f ) The research proved the data that the scientists already expected to find. g ) The scientists still don’t know the explanation for these findings and they believe that more studies are necessary. h ) The scientists believe that these findings are complete and not to be questioned.

7.

Listen to the first part of the program again and pay special attention to the sentence below. Then, talk to a classmate. Respostas pessoais. É importante aproveitar esse momento para reforçar

a ideia de que pessoas acima do peso podem e devem praticar atividades físicas. 7. a) Sugerimos orientar os alunos a refletirem sobre essa informação e a dizerem They found that being obese significantly o que pensam sobre ela. Você pode ajudá-los perguntando, por exemplo, qual a affected the boys’ quality of life compared importância do esporte na vida social de um adolescente e qual a relação entre o peso to the girls’ and they think it may have to dos jovens e a prática do esporte. É importante que eles compreendam que, do with the greater role that sport plays in provavelmente, por estarem acima do peso, os adolescentes pesquisados não praticavam boys’ social lives. tantos esportes quanto os outros e isso afetava suas interações sociais e, consequentemente, sua autoestima.

track 20

a ) What do you understand from this sentence? And what is your opinion about it? b ) This research was conducted in Australia. From this sentence, we may understand that in that country sports are more important in boys’ lives than in girls’. Do you think it is the same in Brazil? Why (not)? c ) If this reasearch was conducted in our country, do you believe the findings would be similar or different? Why?

Speaking 8.

Imagine you were invited to give a speech about teenage boys’ and girls’ body image ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como issues. In order to do this, follow these steps. Sugerimos conduzir esta atividade.

• Decide what the general purpose of your speech is. • Summarize in one sentence what your goal is. • Do some research, study more about the topic and put all of your ideas on paper.

• Rehearse your speech. • Remember to speak clearly and slowly. • During your speech it is important to make eye contact with your audience.

seventy-three

73


Comprehending and using

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Learning about the language Second conditional 1. Discuss

these questions with a classmate. Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade.

a ) In your opinion, is there an ideal body? If so, what does it look like? b ) Do you think your body is ideal? Why (not)?

É importante deixar claro aos alunos que, ao discutir essa questão, eles devem expressar como se sentem em relação aos seus corpos sem compará-los ao padrão de beleza.

2. You

are going to read a comic strip about a man in his leisure time. Before reading it, observe the pictures and, in pairs, try to predict the speeches in the balloons.

Cathy, Cathy Guisewite © 2001 Guisewite/Dist. by Universal Uclick

Sugerimos pedir aos alunos que não leiam os balões de fala. Para isso, você pode pedir que eles os tampem, e que, observando as imagens, tentem inferir as falas da personagem juntamente com um colega de sala.

Cathy, by Cathy Gusewite. Available at: <www.amureprints.com/reprints/results?terms=abs&feature_codes%5B%5D=ca&release_ date_from=&release_date_to=&commit=Search>. Accessed on: January 14th, 2016.

3. Now

that you have guessed the speeches in the balloons based on what you observed in the pictures, read the comic strip and verify if the speeches you imagined were similar to the real ones. Then, Sugerimos pedir aos alunos que leiam a choose the best answers. tirinha e que verifiquem se as falas que a ) What is the man surrounded by? I I

muscular abdomens

II

buses

imaginaram chegaram próximas às falas originais. Você pode perguntar quem é o personagem principal da tirinha (o homem) e comentar que não só as mulheres sofrem pressões com relação a suas aparências físicas, os homens também passam por essa cobrança.

b ) How does he define the images he’s looking at? II I

just images of abs

II

perfect male bodies

c ) What does he ask for? II I

a perfect body

II

chocolate

d ) Who offers chocolate to him? II I

nobody

II

all the women

e ) Do the women face the same problem as the man? I

74

seventy-four

I

yes, they do

II

no, they don’t

Abs is an informal and abbreviated word for abdominal muscles.


4.

Read the comic strip again and discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates. a ) The man believes that abs represent a perfect male body. Do you agree with him? Explain. Resposta pessoal. b ) Do you think that media and ads disseminate the idea of a perfect body? Do people feel opressed by the images of bodies they see? Resposta pessoal. c ) What does the man look like? Do you think he fits in his idea of a perfect male body? He has short, straight, black hair and black eyes. He is medium-height and chubby. He doesn’t How does he feel about it? fit in his idea of a perfect male body since he doesn’t have a muscular abdomen and he feels bad about it.

to

have chocolate with them because they aren’t as concerned as him about achieving a perfect body. 4. O objetivo desta atividade é Resposta pessoal. continuar a discussão sobre a You are going to read a post on a website of a girl talking about her experience with body opressão por um corpo perfeito issues. But first, read only the title and answer the questions. iniciada na Sugerimos orientar os alunos a fazerem inferências sobre o conteúdo do texto com base na leitura do título. primeira atividade da seção. Neste a ) In your opinion, why did the author write this text? Resposta esperada: to present facts and arguments of a life experience she has had, and to alert and help other people. momento, você pode aproveitar b ) The title expresses her opinion about something. What is it? para discutir Her opinion is that people believe in the lie that they have to be skinny. como os homens também são c ) Do you agree with her? Why (not)? atingidos pela Resposta pessoal. visão de corpo veiculada pela Read the text quickly to understand its general idea. Then, choose the sentence that best mídia.

e ) If you were the man, how would you feel or what would you do in the same situation?

6.

describes it. b a) b) c) d)

4. e) Esta questão traz a second conditional. Até The girl writes about how important it is to be skinny. este momento, a seção ainda não trouxe nenhuma The girl writes about the difficulty to accept her body which reflected in her eating atividade gramatical habits. específica sobre este conteúdo, The girl writes about the diet she was on that made her body skinny. mas consideramos This text describes the journey of a girl who suffered from starvation when younger. importante comentar com os alunos que se trata de uma x estrutura usada para falar sobre situações http://thoughtcatalog.com/megan-nicole/2014/01/why-the-importance-of-being-skinny-is-the-lie-we-all-believe/ hipotéticas, aquelas que não são reais.

PRODUCTS AND SERVICES

ABOUT US

SUBSCRIBE

SIGN IN

January 17, 2014 Why The Importance Of Being Skinny Is The Lie We All Believe By Megan Nicole

In early elementary school, my best friend asked me, “If you could change one thing about your body, what would it be?” [...] “I guess nothing,” I replied. What I meant was “I guess everything.” [...] In ninth and tenth grade, I didn’t eat. It was less of a conscious starvation effort and more of a “I’m so nauseated by how I look that I can’t eat anything.” I soon started taking a medication, with weight loss as a side effect. [...] I never thought my problems stemmed from the media’s impossibly perfect portrayal of women. [...] but I’m probably wrong. [...] Everyone wants to feel beautiful. If you’re not beautiful, you’re not good enough. [...] I know that “pretty” is a choice. A choice of mindset. I also know that I’ve made the choice to eat. [...]

Bárbara Sarzi

5.

NICOLE, Megan. Why the importance of being skinny is the lie we all believe. Available at: <http://thoughtcatalog.com/ megan-nicole/2014/01/why-the-importance-of-being-skinny-is-the-lie-we-all-believe/>. Accessed on: December 14th, 2015.

seventy-five

75

Unit 4

d ) Why does he want chocolate at the end? Why do you think all the women have Possível resposta: he thinks that, if he eats chocolate, he’ll feel better. The women have chocolate chocolate to offer him? offer him because they are also looking at unachievable perfect bodies around them./The women


7. 8. Sugerimos pedir aos alunos para observar e descrever as imagens: na imagem A, há uma garota evitando fazer uma refeição; na imagem B, a garota está fazendo uma refeição. Em seguida, eles devem escolher uma das imagens para representar a autora do texto hoje em dia e justificar essa escolha para um colega de classe.

Read the text again. This time, read it more carefully paying attention to the details. Then, decide if the following sentences are true or false. Write the true statements and rewrite the false ones in your notebook. After that, compare your answers with a classmate’s. a ) The author told the truth when her friend asked what she would change about her body. False. She didn’t tell the truth.

b ) She stopped eating because she wasn’t happy with her appearance. True.

c ) She believes her problems might have been caused by the media’s perfect portrayal of women. True.

d ) She has made the choice to eat, but she still believes that pretty means a skinny body. False. She believes that pretty is a choice of mindset.

8.

Take a look at the pictures below. If you had to choose one that represents Megan, the author of the text, nowadays, which one would you choose? Talk to a classmate. Resposta esperada: B.

B

9.

Matthew Ennis/Shutterstock.com

Nicoleta Ionescu/Shutterstock.com

A

The following sentence was taken from the text you read. It is in the second conditional. Read it and write the information about this structure in your notebook, choosing the best answers to complete the sentences. Neste momento, você pode orientar os alunos a estudarem a página 196 do Grammar appendix.

If you could change one thing about your body, what would it be?

a ) The sentence describes an action that... II I

is going to happen in the future.

b ) The sentence has... I

II

is not going to be true, it’s unreal.

II

one clause.

II

if + Simple Past.

II

would + verb in the base form.

II

the if clause is omitted.

I

two clauses.

c ) The if clause is formed by... II I

if + Past Continuous.

d ) The main clause is formed by... II I

will + verb in the base form.

e ) A comma is used between the clauses when... I

I

the if clause comes first.

f ) Another sentence in the second conditional is...

76

seventy-six

g18_ftd_lt_3noi_u04_064a079.indd 76

II

I

I will accept the way I look if I was her.

II

I would accept the way I looked if I were her.

*

*Nas sentenças com second conditional, o verbo to be no passado simples deve ser sempre were.

5/28/16 9:53 AM


10.

Based on the text you read, discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates.

Respostas pessoais.

a ) The author says that she stopped eating because she didn’t like her appearance when she was in the ninth and tenth grades. She was a teenager. Do you think teenagers are more inclined to feel insecure about appearance and develop body image distortion which can lead to disorders? Why? b ) The author says that “if you’re not beautiful, you’re not good enough”. Do you agree with this statement? Explain.

10. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade e informações sobre os distúrbios alimentares e de imagem.

12. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a criarem no caderno suas próprias questões hipotéticas, que devem ter a estrutura da second conditional. Em seguida, é importante estimulá-los a circular pela sala para fazer essas perguntas aos colegas e responder às perguntas feitas por eles.

Using the language 11.

Now that you have studied about the second conditional, answer and talk to a classmate orientar os alunos a formarem duplas para about the hypothetical questions below. Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos responder às perguntas da atividade. É importante instruí-los a ) Would you change anything about your body if you could? Why (not)? b ) Would you stop eating if you were not happy about your appearance? c ) If you could, what advice would you give to anyone who isn’t happy with his/her body?

12.

Create your own hypothetical questions in your notebook and ask your classmates. Resposta pessoal.

13.

Unit 4

c ) The author defends that pretty is a choice of mindset. What does this mean to you? Do you agree with her?

Some people struggle to reach an idealized perfect body or are so dissatisfied with their body that they end up developing disorders. Take a look at the pictures. In pairs, try to guess what disorder each one represents. Then, read the definitions to know more about the disorders and match them with the pictures. Write the answers in your notebook.

a utilizar a estrutura das second conditionals em suas respostas. Para isso, sugerimos dizer que estas questões tratam de situações hipotéticas, portanto, para respondê-las eles devem imaginar o que fariam ou como agiriam.

A - III; B - II; C - I.

C

I

Binge eating disorder is characterized by overeating. People with this disorder eat large amounts of food compulsively.

II

Body dysmorphic syndrome is a psychological disorder in which people are constantly worried about minor and sometimes imaginative flaws in their physical appearance.

III

Anorexia is an eating disorder characterized by a distorted perception of the body, intense fear of gaining weight and extreme efforts to lose it.

Duplass/Shutterstock.com

Vladimir Gjorgiev/Shutterstock.com

B

sergo1972/Shutterstock.com

A

13. Sugerimos retomar a discussão sobre os distúrbios alimentares e de imagem do corpo iniciada na questão a da atividade 10. Você pode pedir aos alunos que observem as imagens e, com um colega de sala, tentem inferir o distúrbio que cada uma delas representa. Em seguida, eles devem relacionar as imagens com suas definições. seventy-seven

77


14. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem as histórias de pessoas que sofreram e/ou sofrem com os distúrbios que vêm sendo discutidos. Você pode pedir a eles que façam uma primeira leitura para descobrir qual o distúrbio tratado por cada texto e, em seguida, façam uma nova leitura para completar as frases, expressando suas próprias ideias. Por fim, sugerimos orientá-los a compartilhar suas frases com um colega de sala.

14.

You are going to read three stories about people who have had disorders. After reading them, complete each sentence with your own ideas in your notebook. Respostas pessoais.

[...] Worthless, useless, hopelessness and the worst of all fat. Some of the words that have haunted me for nearly four years now. I am 16 years old and in the midst of recovering from Anorexia Nervosa. I have been struggling with this life altering disorder for a while now, and as of right now for the first time in years it is under control. [...] Kelly’s story. Available at: <http://nedic.ca/node/861>. Accessed on: January 15th, 2016.

a ) If I could help her, I would

.

[...] When Sarah was 13 years old, she started to worry about her appearance. [...] She didn’t want to let anyone know how much her appearance was upsetting her, but when she was in the 11th grade she finally got up the courage to tell her mother and a friend that she was worrying about how ugly she was for hours a day and was spending lots of time in the bathroom staring at herself in the mirror and trying to fix her hair and makeup. [...] Patient stories. Available at: <www.rhodeislandhospital.org/patient-stories.html>. Accessed on: January 15th, 2016.

b) I

if I were Sarah’s mother.

[...]

15. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a discutirem as questões em duplas. Em seguida, você pode pedir que as duplas compartilhem os principais pontos de suas discussões com a sala. O objetivo desta discussão é que, após os alunos lerem, discutirem e refletirem sobre os problemas acarretados pela busca obsessiva por um corpo perfeito e sobre histórias de pessoas que passaram e/ou passam por transtornos alimentares e de imagem do corpo, eles possam relacionar esses conteúdos às próprias experiências de vida e saberes.

78

I recall many times walking around, cramming food into my mouth with tears streaming down my face. The thing I recollect most vividly is the extreme loneliness and isolation I experienced. The emotional despair and shame made me so frightened. [...] I was in my early 30s when I finally started to question what was going on with me in a more realistic way. My first step towards recovery came by attending a course at the Council of Adult Education (CAE). [...] I now enjoy food because of the flavours and taste sensation and social interaction that goes with it. I now scan a menu looking for something that I really feel like eating and not something that will fit in with my food obsession. [...] Carol’s recovery from binge eating disorder. Available at: <www.eatingdisorders.org.au/news/39-recovery-stories/245carols-recovery-from-binge-eating-disorder>. Accessed on: January 15th, 2016.

c ) If I could say something to this woman,

15.

.

After reading the stories and learning more about body image disorders, discuss these questions with a classmate. Then, share the main points of your discussion with your teacher and the whole class. Respostas pessoais. a ) Do you know anyone who has had any of those disorders? b ) Do you know any other disorder or health issue not presented in the last activities? If so, talk about it.

seventy-eight

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre este item.


Summing up

Nesta unidade, você...

Sugerimos levar os alunos a refletirem sobre as alternativas apresentadas no quadro abaixo e instruí-los a escrever no caderno as frases que se relacionam ao que leram, discutiram e estudaram nesta unidade.

conversou com seus colegas de classe sobre conceitos de beleza e sobre os padrões de beleza impostos pela sociedade; revisou vocabulário para descrever a aparência física das pessoas; leu e interpretou uma reportagem de revista; produziu uma reportagem de revista em grupo; Unit 4

ouviu parte de um programa apresentando um estudo sobre como o peso afeta a qualidade de vida dos adolescentes; apresentou uma palestra aos colegas de classe; conversou com seus colegas de classe sobre a busca por um suposto corpo perfeito; leu e discutiu com seus colegas de classe sobre transtornos alimentares e de imagem do corpo; estudou a second conditional para expressar situações hipotéticas.

Dumplin’ tells Willowdean Dickson’s story, or Will, a fat girl who starts to work in a fast food restaurant and meets Bo, a handsome former jock. The most surprising thing is when Will, who is attracted to Bo, notices he is also attracted to her. She goes through a crisis and does what she never thought she would: enters a beauty contest.

Editora Ba

Reading

lzer & Br ay

Going further

Dumplin’, by Julie Murphy. Balzer & Bray: USA, 2015.

Beauty against bullying <http://tub.im/amied9> is the website of an organization which helps to promote all kinds of beauty and empower all types of bodies, regardless of their size, age, culture, genre or socio-economic status.

Singing The song All about that bass, performed by Meghan Trainor and recorded on the album Title, is about a girl who is proud of her body, even though she is not as thin as modern society expects women to be.

Beastly, by Daniel Barnz. CBS Films: United States, 2011.

ers tock.com

Surfing the net

Dfree/ Shutt

The movie Beastly tells the story of two teens who fall in love. What Lindy doesn’t know is that Kyle was cursed to be ugly. He can only be free from the curse if he finds someone who will love him despite what he looks like.

Fil me de Danie l Barnz . Beast ly. EUA. 20 11

Watching

Meghan Trainor (2015).

seventy-nine

79


Thinking cross-curricularly

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

1. b) Resposta pessoal. In this section of the book, you are going to read texts related to some of the topics you have Resposta esperada: the discussed in the previous units. Here, you are going to have the opportunity to reflect on various media can influence what themes and their relation with other subjects, such as Physics, Sociology and Chemistry. The people think about specific subjects, such activities follow the same structure you have worked with in the units, respecting the stages of as politics or pre-reading, reading and post-reading. the economy, by showing determined points of view Discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates. and not showing Sugerimos pedir que os alunos falem sobre tudo que altera e molda a other a ) What creates your world vision? visão que eles têm do mundo, tais como os jornais, a internet e a perspectives on televisão, a influência dos amigos, o meio onde vivem, entre outros. Resposta pessoal. the same topics. It may also b ) How do you think the media influences the way people think? influence the way people see c ) Do you think images can be altered? Why (not)? themselves Yes, they can. Images can be altered for many reasons such as to hide things in the picture, to make them funnier mainly by and to provoke a different sensation in the viewers. showing patterns of beauty, Do you know what anaglyphs are? In order to find out, read the following text. Then, in success etc., based on rich your own words, explain to a classmate what an anaglyph is. and thin people, Resposta pessoal. Possível resposta: an anaglyph is an image that produces a three-dimensional effect when the for example. viewer is wearing 3D glasses. Sugerimos chamar a x atenção dos alunos para a influência que a www.stereoscopy.com/faq/anaglyphs.html mídia exerce na vida das pessoas, seja por meio das notícias veiculadas em jornais, revistas Anaglyphs e na televisão, seja pelas What is an anaglyph? propagandas, ideias e demais Anaglyphic stereograms (anaglyphs) are stereo pairs of images in which each image is mensagens shown using a different color. The two images are overlapped and then viewed using expressas nesses veículos. red/green or red/blue or red/cyan glasses (depending on the colors used). This means

1.

1. c) Sugerimos explicar que imagens podem ser alteradas, manualmente ou digitalmente, para diferentes propósitos, como esconder determinados elementos ou exagerar outros para torná-las mais engraçadas. Além disso, efeitos, como os filtros, podem ser aplicados a uma fotografia para dar à imagem uma aparência mais antiga, deixá-la com as cores mais fortes, em preto e branco etc. 2. Este texto apresenta aspectos relacionados a efeitos de ótica e, por isso, possibilita o trabalho com os conteúdos de Física. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade.

that the color channel is used for the stereo separation and therefore the perception of anaglyphs is monochrome (black and white), although color anaglyphs can be made. […] How do the red/green work? When you look through the red lens, only red light is allowed through. The eye that is covered with the red lens will see the green image. By the same token, the green lens only allows green light through, so the eye that is covered with the green lens will see the red image. In an anaglyph, when a given color filter stops the other colors, it is called subtractive filtration. Because the red and green images are slightly offset, each eye sees a slightly different view of the picture. This disparity simulates the distance between our two eyes, which provides two views of the same scene, therefore providing us with the perception of depth, or binocular stereopsis. […]

Anaglyphs. Available at: <www.stereoscopy.com/faq/anaglyphs.html>. Accessed on: December 8 th, 2015.

3.

Decide if the sentences below are true or false according to the text. In your notebook, write the true statements and rewrite the false ones using the correct information. a ) Anaglyphs are made by overlapping images with the same color. False. Anaglyphs are made by overlapping images with different colors.

b ) The lens of the glasses used to view anaglyphs can be red/green, red/blue or red/cyan. True.

c ) Anaglyphs can be monochrome or colored. True.

d ) The eye covered with the red lens only sees the red color, and the eye covered with the The eye covered with the red lens will see the green image. green lens only sees the green color. False. And the eye covered with the green lens will see the red image. e ) Each eye sees a different view of the picture. True.

f ) The notion of depth comes from the disparity between images. True.

80

eighty

Bárbara Sarzi

2.


Read the following definitions. Then, identify and write down the words associated with them in your notebook. a – cyan; b – stereo; c – overlapped; d – subtractive filtration; e – lens. a ) A greenish-blue color that is one of the basic colors in printing. b ) A quality of having a three-dimensional aspect. c ) The characteristic of an object that is covered by another one. d ) The process of stopping a color using a color filter. e ) A piece of curved glass used in glasses.

Bárbara Sarzi

You are going to make a 3D pair of glasses. In order to do this, you will need a sheet of cardboard or paperboard, red and cyan cellophane sheets, scissors and glue or tape. Transfer the template below to the cardboard. Then, cut it and glue the red cellophane sheet (on the left eye and the cyan cellophane sheet on the right eye). Then, use your glasses to look at the picture below and see what happens.

Zastolskiy Victor/Shutterstock.com

5.

5. Essa atividade propõe a criação de um par de óculos para visualização de anáglifos. O modelo no livro tem as medidas exatas para a confecção dos óculos, que podem ser transferidas para uma cartolina. Serão necessárias também duas folhas de celofane, uma na cor vermelha e outra na cor ciano. Os alunos devem recortar dois pedaços de celofane, que serão colados nos óculos conforme indicado no modelo (na lente esquerda, o papel vermelho; e na lente direita, o papel ciano). Os óculos permitirão a visualização de qualquer imagem anáglifa, além da disponibilizada no livro. Essas imagens têm sido publicadas por décadas em livros, revistas em quadrinhos e outras mídias impressas. Além disso, na internet há inúmeros anáglifos e ferramentas para conversão de fotos comuns em anáglifos.

eighty-one

81

Thinking cross-curricularly

4.


6. b) Resposta esperada: no, the media has imposed standards of beauty, such as top athletes, models and digitally altered photos, that are unlikely to be reached by most people. Sugerimos discutir com os alunos sobre como muitas vezes as pessoas tentam reproduzir a imagem de um atleta ou de uma modelo, cujos corpos são resultados de seus ofícios. Além disso, muitas fotos são digitalmente modificadas e reforçam padrões irreais de beleza.

6.

Now that you know that our vision of reality can be easily tricked, discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates. Além de discutir como a sociedade dá grande valor à aparência física, sugerimos levar os alunos a refletirem sobre o culto à beleza das celebridades e o alto número de cirurgias plásticas com fins estéticos.

a ) In your opinion, how important is appearance in our society? b ) Are the standards of beauty realistic? Why (not?)

c ) What are some of the consequences of the quest for beauty?

Resposta esperada: many people suffer from different problems, such as eating disorders and mental issues.

d ) Can exercising and dieting be dangerous? Why (not)?

Resposta esperada: yes, they can. Both are dangerous if done without the supervision of a professional.

7.

In groups, think about the words below and explain how they can be related to body image. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade.

fitness

8.

eating disorder

82

diet

perception

The quest for beauty can lead people to very complicated situations. You are going to see a picture of Ollie Roche, a British teenager who suffered from anorexia. He started to eat less and less and worked out every time he felt he would gain weight. As a consequence, he almost died from self-starvation. You are also going to see a picture of a fit man. Look pode complementar as respostas dos alunos comentando at the pictures and answer the questions. Você que aqueles que sofrem de anorexia desejam ter corpos tão

magros que frequentemente colocam a saúde em risco, uma vez que, deixam de B se alimentar adequadamente. Existe uma grande preocupação com relação à promoção e incentivo, especialmente pela internet, da anorexia como modo de vida, quando, na verdade, trata-se de uma doença. Essa prática é frequentemente referenciada como pro-ana (pró-ana, em português).

A

Mark Clifford/Barcroft Media/Getty Images

6. c) Algumas consequências da busca por um padrão de beleza que podem ser discutidos são: o surgimento de transtornos alimentares, problemas psicológicos oriundos das frustrações e pressões e, em casos extremos, até mesmo a morte, como pode acontecer com pessoas anoréxicas. 6. d) Sugerimos explicar aos alunos que ambos podem ser perigosos se forem feitos sem um controle cuidadoso e sem instrução profissional. É pertinente lembrar que muitas pessoas adotam dietas e rotinas de exercícios de celebridades sem levar em consideração todo o apoio que elas possuem. Portanto, seria interessante levar os alunos a refletirem sobre esses hábitos de risco.

self-esteem

I

How would you describe both pictures?

II

Do you know w hat anorexia is?

Malyugin/Shutterstock.com

6. a) Resposta esperada: appearance plays an important role in our society because there are many factors like the media and celebrities that make people more concerned about how they look.

Resposta esperada: one picture shows a very thin boy and the other one shows a fit man. Resposta esperada: anorexia is an eating disorder.

9.

eighty-two

Observe the pictures from activity 8 again. Then, write in your notebook the characteristics that can be related to each picture or both. Then, add two more.

Anorexia nervosa, frequently referred to as anorexia, is an eating disorder related to food restriction, the desire to be thin, an inability to eat and fear of gaining weight.

Resposta esperada: image A can be related to young, thin, unhealthy, slim; image B can be related to young, strong, fit, slim, muscular.

young

strong

fit

slim

thin

unhealthy

healthy

muscular

Após os alunos relacionarem as palavras às fotografias, sugerimos pedir que listem, pelos menos, mais dois adjetivos para descrever as imagens.


10. 11.

Read the title of the text below. Based on the title, what kind of information do you think is going to be discussed in the text? Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a fazerem inferências sobre o conteúdo do texto com base em seu título. É importante ajudá-los a identificar o significado das palavras-chaves do título, tais como beware, dangerous, fetishising e fitness.

Now, read the text and verify if your ideas are correct.

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a fazerem a leitura do texto com o objetivo de conferirem se suas previsões estavam corretas. O texto apresenta aspectos relacionados à imagem corporal em nossa sociedade, por isso, possibilita o trabalho com os conteúdos de Sociologia.

x

Bárbara Sarzi

Beware of the dangerous fetishising of fitness on social media […] ‘Thinspo’ or ‘thinspiration’ is an image or collection of images that show an extremely thin, usually female body, sometimes accompanied by a pleasant motivational message, variations of which include ‘stay strong, starve on’, ‘do you really want that cake?’, ‘keep calm and the hunger will pass’ and ‘stop stuffing your fat face’. Thinspiration is a reliable feature of any pro-ana blog (a site that promotes anorexia as a lifestyle choice rather than an illness) and is used to provide those suffering from eating disorders with goals to strive and pictorial representations of the ‘perfect body’ that they can purportedly achieve through starvation. […] Similarly to ‘thinspiration’, ‘fitspiration’ encourages an obsession with diet, exercise and weight. It is about the external appearance of thinness rather than internal health. Its motivational value lies in urging the viewer to push themselves that little bit harder when exercising, something that is actually discouraged by professional trainers because it can cause injury and prevent trainees reaching their fitness goals. […] There is no meaningful difference between ‘fitspo’ and ‘thinspo’. Both terms glorify a body ideal that is unrealistic for the majority of women and is unlikely to be achieved merely through exercise. So please don’t be fooled by ‘fitspo’, it’s merely a sneaky rebranding of something inexplicably linked to illness, disordered eating and body dissatisfaction.

Thinking cross-curricularly

www.telegraph.co.uk/women/womens-life/10376945/Beware-of-the-dangerous-fetishising-of-fitness-on-social-media.html

WILLIAMSON, Harriet. Beware of the dangerous fetishising of fitness on social media. Available at: <www.telegraph.co.uk/ women/womens-life/10376945/Beware-of-the-dangerous-fetishising-of-fitness-on-social-media.html>. Accessed on: December 15th, 2015.

12.

Read the text again and discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates. a ) How is the ‘perfect body’ shown by the thinspiration images? They show extremely thin and unhealthy people.

b ) What is the problem with thinspiration?

It makes people suffering from eating disorders believe that these disorders are okay in order to have a perfect body.

c ) Why is fitspiration not really related to health?

It is only about the external appearance of thinness rather than internal health. It also urges people to push harder so it can cause injuries.

d ) What is the relation between the words inspiration, fitspiration and thinspiration?

Thinspiration is a new word formed by thin plus inspiration, and fitspiration is formed by fit plus inspiration. Thinspo and fitspo are abbreviations.

e ) According to the text, why should people avoid following thinspiration and fitspiration? Both terms glorify unrealistic bodies and are linked to illness, disordered eating and body dissatisfaction.

f ) Have you ever seen a thinspiration or fitspiration picture? If so, how did you feel about it?

13.

questionar se os alunos já viram esse tipo de imagem e como eles reagiram. Seria pertinente Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos perguntar se eles concordam ou não com o que a imagem expressa, se eles se sentiram compelidos a tomar alguma decisão ou se ignoraram a mensagem.

Now, in groups, you are going to research about issues related to body image. Choose one of the themes and present it to your classmates. You can use videos, pictures and other resources that you consider necessary. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre

esta atividade.

12. e) Thinspiration e fitspiration retratam padrões de beleza não saudáveis. Muitas das mensagens contidas nas imagens são Body dysmorphic disorder Bulimia nervosa consideradas irresponsáveis e estimulam práticas nocivas, como ignorar a dor durante exercícios Muscle dysmorphia Binge eating disorder físicos e fazer dietas sem supervisão adequada. É importante dizer aos alunos que essas imagens e mensagens, apesar de parecerem inspiradoras, glorificam corpos irreais, o que leva a disfunções alimentares e estimula a insatisfação com o próprio corpo.

eighty-three

83


14. Physical

USAgain

appearance is also related to clothes. Do you know how many tons of textiles are trashed in the USA? Read the text below and find out. Then, share your thoughts with a classmate. 12 million tons.

Empresas, marcas e produtos citados nesta obra não representam recomendação ou indicação comercial. Eles foram mencionados apenas como recurso didático.

O infográfico apresenta diversos dados com relação aos danos ambientais causados pelo descarte de tecidos nos Estados Unidos. Sugerimos questionar os alunos sobre a disposição gráfica dos elementos no infográfico: a palavra waste (desperdício) está em destaque, assim como a quantidade de toneladas de tecidos têxteis. Você pode comentar que a visualidade é uma característica do infográfico, que tem como objetivo disponibilizar informações de maneira clara e concisa. O infográfico foi produzido pela USAgain, organização norte-americana que promove a reciclagem de materiais.

USAgain. World wide waste. Availablet at: <www.usagain.com/upload/World_Wide_Waste_UPDATED-print.pdf>. Accessed on: December 18 th, 2015.

84

eighty-four


15.

Discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates. a ) What are the impacts of textile recycling?

It decreases carbon dioxide emissions and the amount of harmful pollutants in our water supplies and saves landfill space. 700 gallons. Você pode comentar com os alunos que um gallon (galão) é uma medida muito comum nos EUA. Um galão equivale a 3,75 litros. What is the percentage of the global carbon footprint from textile manufacturing? Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que carbon footprint se refere à “pegada ecológica”, isto é, o quanto uma pessoa ou evento produz 10%. de gases que What is the percentage of industrial water pollution? What are the causes? colaboram com 17-20% is due to textile dyeing and treatment. o efeito estufa.

b ) How many bathtubs could be filled with the water to make one cotton T-shirt? c) d)

e ) What is the main problem related to landfilled textiles?

They take years to decompose and they release the gas methane, which is a potent greenhouse gas. pessoal. Possível resposta: buying less and recycling clothes.

g ) USAgain is a company that encourages clothes recycling and reutilization in order to reduce textile waste. In your city or region, is there an entreprise or organization with the same objective?

16.

The USA uses some metric systems that are different from ours. In your notebook, match Seria interessante explicar aos alunos the unit with the appropriate correspondent. a – III; b – I; c – II. a ) 1 gallon b ) 1 pound

15. f) Você pode comentar com os alunos que a produção e descarte de roupas causam problemas ambientais e, por consequência, quanto mais se compra, mais se descarta e maior é a poluição.

c ) 1 ton

17.

I

0.453 kg

II

907.18 kg

III

3.75 lt

Using the information from activity 16, convert the values below and write them down in atividade tem como objetivo converter os valores your notebook. If necessary, ask your Math teacher for help. Esta expressos no cartaz. Para isso eles poderão fazer os 2,625

a ) 700 gallons of water equals

liters.

b ) 1/3 pound of pesticides and herbicides equals 787,500,000,000

c ) 210 billion gallons of water equals

liters.

453,000

d ) 1 million pounds of CO2 equals

kilograms.

e ) 12 million tons of textiles equals

kilograms.

10,886,160,000

18.

que existem outros sistemas métricos utilizados em outros países. No caso dos EUA, algumas dessas medidas aparecem no infográfico. Por exemplo, ton refere-se à medida chamada short ton que equivale a 907.18 kg e, portanto, não pode ser confundida com a medida de tonelada no Brasil, que equivale a 1000 kg. Você pode dizer que, nos EUA, 1000 kg é chamado de tonne.

Thinking cross-curricularly

f ) In your opinion, how could we reduce textile waste? Resposta

151

cálculos e, se necessário, você pedir o auxílio do professor de Matemática.

grams.

15. g) Resposta pessoal. Caso os alunos não saibam, você pode pedir uma pesquisa para que descubram se há alguma iniciativa voltada para a reciclagem têxtil onde moram. Campanhas de coleta e doação de roupas usadas também se aplicam nesse caso. É importante reforçar que a reciclagem e/ou o reaproveitamento das roupas usadas, bem como a diminuição do consumo excessivo, podem contribuir para a preservação do meio ambiente, pois ajudam na conservação de recursos naturais, evitam emissões de gases de efeito estufa e economizam espaço em aterros sanitários.

One of the problems related to the process of decomposing is the release of greenhouse gases, creating global warming. In groups, you are going to build a model to see how the atividade possibilita o trabalho com os conteúdos de Química ao propor um sunlight warms the Earth’s surface. Esta experimento que demonstra o efeito estufa. É importante chamar a atenção dos alunos para a linguagem usada nas instruções do experimento: o uso do imperativo e de conectivos sequenciais (then, now, and). Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade.

Materials

OFF

• a small box (like a shoebox); • a thermometer; • a piece of glass (big enough to cover the shoebox);

OFF

ON

ON

Paint the inside of a small box black. Then, place a thermometer inside and cover the box with the piece of glass. Turn the lamp on. Observe how the temperature goes up fast inside the box.

OFF

Ilustrações: Bárbara Sarzi

• a desk lamp.

Now, uncover the box and turn the lamp on. Observe how the temperature does not go up as much as it did before.

eighty-five

g18_ftd_lt_3noi_u04_080a085_thinking1.indd 85

85

5/28/16 9:55 AM


Choosing a career

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, mais informações sobre as profissões mencionadas nesta seção.

Degree

Fashion design

Job purpose

Design clothes and fashion ranges.

Usually hired by

Industries or stores.

Required skills

• Being a good decision-maker. • Having good communication skills. • Being good at drawing. • Having good analyzing skills. • Being creative and innovative.

Characteristics of the job In your opinion, is it a pro (an advantage) or a con (a disadvantage)? Resposta pessoal.

• Having several areas of expertise. • High competitive job market. • Not very good freelancer opportunities. • Long working hours in order to meet deadlines and order supplies.

• The fact that it’s a long path until you prove you’re good and build your reputation.

• Good pay and consistent income. • The possibility of having your own business.

• Working according to clients’ schedule.

Ao abordar as características do trabalho de um estilista, sugerimos pedir aos alunos que as classifiquem em pró ou contra, de acordo com a visão e a personalidade de cada um.

If you like fashion design, you can also work as a personal stylist.

To work in the fashion field, you can also become a technician. You can find technical courses at several institutions.

86

eighty-six

1.

Do some research and find out other aspects related to the professions of fashion designer and adman, presented on the next page. Share your findings with your classmates.

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos chamar a atenção também para os textos nos posts-its e incentivar os alunos a pesquisarem outros aspectos relacionados às profissões apresentadas, como média salarial, diferentes possibilidades de atuação e curiosidades. Em seguida, você pode pedir que formem pequenos grupos e compartilhem uns com os outros o que descobriram.


Choosing a career

Degree

Advertising

Job purposes

Create and produce advertisements and promotions.

Usually hired by

Advertising agencies or industries.

• Having good interpersonal and communication skills.

• Being creative and innovative. • Being a team worker. • Knowing the advertising field. • Having good research skills.

Required skills

• Getting to know different and interesting people. • Spending several hours in front of your computer. • The possibility of wearing casual clothes to work. • The possibility of having good pay. • Flexible working hours. • Having to create things according to clients’ taste and

Characteristics of the job In your opinion, is it a pro (an advantage) or a con (a disadvantage)?

needs.

• Not having your ideas approved.

Resposta pessoal. Ao abordar as características do trabalho de um publicitário, sugerimos pedir aos alunos que as classifiquem em pró ou contra, de acordo com a visão e a personalidade de cada um.

2.

If you like advertising, you can also be a digital marketer.

Think about these professions and talk to a classmate. Resposta pessoal.

I would like to be a fashion designer/an adman because... I wouldn’t like to be a fashion designer/an adman because...

To work in advertising, you can also become a technician. You can find technical courses at several institutions. Fotomontagem de Anna Simonin formada pelas imagens Luisma Tapia, Africa Studio, Shutter Top, Arsenis Spyros, Zurijeta, g-stockstudio/Shutterstock.com

eighty-seven

g18_ftd_lt_3noi_u04_086a087_choosing2.indd 87

87

5/28/16 9:57 AM


Getting ready for exams

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

In this section of the book, you are going to study universities entrance examinations from all over the country. This means that you are going to have the opportunity to learn and have more information about the different styles of exams and prepare yourself for when your time to take the examinations comes. The universities entrance examinations have, in most cases, objective questions. The English exams questions usually offer four or five alternatives. They can demand from the students the ability to interpret a text or to use a grammatical and linguistic knowledge. Moreover, some exams ask the questions in English, while others ask them in Portuguese.

(UNESP - 2003) Unesp stands for Universidade Estadual Paulista. As atividades 1 a 4 referem-se ao tema e/ou conteúdos da unidade 1.

Television and our children How do children watch television? Children and adults watch, think about and understand television very differently. Between the ages of 2-5, children’s interest in television is growing. Many young children may have trouble following and remembering the stories. They are more interested in the action on the screen than on how the story is going to end. Before age 4 many children don’t know that commercials and programs are different and they trust commercials. Between the ages of 6 and 8, children’s interest in TV continues to grow. They understand and remember what they watch. Most children in this age range know that not all of what they see on the screen is real. They can tell the difference between the commercials and the programs and, by the age of 8, many children know that the purpose of a commercial is to persuade. Still, they watch ads with great interest. Between the ages of 10 and 14, children’s attention to TV stops increasing and decreases into adulthood. They understand some of the persuasion techniques used in commercials and begin to turn their attention away from the TV when commercials start. What is the impact of television on our children? Childhood is a time of learning. Whatever children are doing, whether they are in school, talking to their parents, playing, helping with household chores or watching television, they are gathering clues to help them make sense of the world around them. They are developing skills, values and thinking strategies that they will use throughout their lives. Watching TV, children encounter a wide range of places, people, and information that they might not meet in their communities. They are exposed to issues, ideas and values that might not be found in their own homes. As they try to understand the world and how it works, children draw on both real life and television experiences. The more TV they watch, the more information and ideas they take away from it. Television and our children. Available at: <www.media-awareness.ca/eng/med/home/resource/oma.htm>.

1. Com

base nas informações contidas no texto, é possível afirmar que

b

a ) crianças entre 2 e 5 anos estão muito mais interessadas no desfecho do que na ação dos programas a que assistem na TV. b ) o interesse da criança pela TV é crescente mas, na faixa etária compreendida entre 10 e 14 anos, seu interesse para de crescer e começa a diminuir até a idade adulta. c ) antes de completar 4 anos, a criança já é capaz de perceber, claramente, a diferença entre programas e comerciais. d ) por volta dos 8 anos, a criança já demonstra interesse particular pelos comerciais, embora não consiga identificar que o propósito deles é persuadir. e ) o interesse da criança pela TV começa a se desenvolver a partir dos 2 anos, quando já consegue acompanhar e lembrar das histórias a que assiste.

88

eighty-eight


2. Partindo

da afirmação de que crianças e adultos assistem, encaram e entendem a TV de formas diferentes, o texto e a ) apresenta como crianças de 2 e 14 anos gostam da TV e ressalta que, como a infância é um período de aprendizagem, quanto maior for a experiência com a TV, maior será o entendimento sobre a vida real. b ) especifica o que chama a atenção das crianças quando estas assistem à TV e afirma que, como elas estão desenvolvendo habilidades, valores e estratégias, precisam ver muitas experiências na TV. Getting ready for exams

c ) apresenta o que crianças de 2 a 14 anos preferem assistir na TV e enfatiza a importância de uma programação variada para que elas possam aprender quais informações e ideias devem ser descartadas. d ) destaca como a TV é percebida em cada faixa etária e condena o papel que desempenha ao expor a criança a experiências que, com certeza, jamais poderá viver em sua casa ou comunidade. e ) apresenta como o interesse pela TV se modifica com a idade e argumenta o papel que ela exerce quando expõe a criança a informações, ideias e valores que a ajudam a entender o mundo real.

(UNESP - 2003)

Violence on television Psychological research has shown three major effects of seeing violence on television:

••Children may become less sensitive to the pain and suffering of others. ••Children may be more fearful of the world around them. ••Children may be more likely to behave in aggressive or harmful ways toward others.

Children who watch a lot of TV are less aroused by violent scenes than are those who only watch a little; in other words, they’re less bothered by violence in general, and less likely to see anything wrong with it. One example: in several studies, those who watched a violent program instead of a nonviolent one were slower to intervene or to call for help when, a little later, they saw younger children fighting or playing destructively. Studies by George Gerbner, Ph.D., at the University of Pennsylvania, have shown that children’s TV shows contain about 20 violent acts each hour and also that children who watch a lot of television are more likely to think that the world is a mean and dangerous place. Children often behave differently after they’ve been watching violent programs on TV. In one study done at Pennsylvania State University, about 100 preschool children were observed both before and after watching television; some watched cartoons that had a lot of aggressive and violent acts in them, and others watched shows that didn’t have any kind of violence. The researchers noticed real differences between the kids who watched the violent shows and those who watched nonviolent ones. “Children who watch the violent shows, even ‘just funny’ cartoons, were more likely to hit out at their playmates, argue, disobey class rules, leave tasks unfinished, and were less willing to wait for things than those who watched the nonviolent programs,” says Aletha Huston, Ph.D., now at the University of Kansas. Violence on television. Available at: <www.cmu.edu/CSR/case_studies/tv_violence.html>. Accessed on: March 21st, 2016.

eighty-nine

89


3. Conforme

o texto, pesquisas revelam que crianças expostas à violência na TV

a

a ) podem se tornar menos sensíveis à dor e sofrimento alheios, mais apreensivas com o mundo ao seu redor e estar mais sujeitas a apresentar um comportamento agressivo em relação aos outros. b ) podem se tornar menos sensíveis à dor e sofrimento alheios, menos apreensivas com o mundo ao seu redor e estar menos sujeitas a apresentar um comportamento agressivo em relação aos outros. c ) podem se tornar menos sensíveis à dor e sofrimento alheios, menos apreensivas com o mundo ao seu redor e estar mais sujeitas a apresentar um comportamento agressivo em relação aos outros. d ) podem se tornar mais sensíveis à dor e sofrimento alheios, mais apreensivas com o mundo ao seu redor e estar menos sujeitas a apresentar um comportamento agressivo em relação aos outros. e ) podem se tornar mais sensíveis à dor e sofrimento alheios, mais corajosas em relação ao mundo ao seu redor e gostar mais de se comportar agressivamente com os outros.

4. Ao

argumentar sobre a violência na TV, o texto

d

a ) afirma que, como as crianças reagem diferentemente ao assistir a programas violentos na TV, esta não pode ser apontada como causa de agressividade infantil. b ) afirma que pesquisas psicológicas não revelam diferenças marcantes entre crianças que assistem a programas violentos e a programas inofensivos. c ) garante que, embora programas infantis contenham 20 atos violentos por hora, eles jamais levam as crianças a ver o mundo como um lugar ruim e perigoso. d ) afirma que o hábito de assistir a programas violentos na TV faz com que as crianças se acostumem a atitudes destrutivas que passam a ser vistas por elas como normais. e ) comprova, através de pesquisas, que as crianças que não assistem à TV não estão sujeitas à agressividade com colegas e desobediência às regras.

(UnB - 2014) UnB stands for Universidade de Brasília. As atividades 5 e 6 referem-se ao tema e/ou conteúdos da unidade 2.

The press is sometimes called the fourth estate. That is probably too grandiose a concept for most journalists’ tastes – but it does suggest an important, coherent and independent force in society. That “apartness” is crucial. The press does not share the same aims as those of government, the legislature, the executive, religion or commerce. It is, or should be, an outsider. Stanley Baldwin did not intend it as a compliment when he said of newspapers in 1931 that they had “power without responsibility”. But, in fact, that lack of responsibility is one of the important respects in which the press is different. Of course, the press must be responsible for its own standards and ethics. But it is not the job of journalists to run things: they are literally without responsibility. They don’t have to respond to a party whip, make the compromises necessary in politics or answer to shareholders. They are not bound by the confidentiality agreements that bind others. They are careless of causing inconvenience or embarrassment. They do not have to win votes. They can write things – about the economy, say, or the environment – which may need saying but which are unsayable by politicians. They come from a different place. Available at: <www.theguardian.com/media/2011/oct/06/importance-free-press-alan-rusbridger>. Accessed on: March 21st, 2016.

90

ninety


5. Based

on the text above, judge the items that follow.

In this question, you must answer C for the correct statements and E for the false ones.

C - d, h, i; E - a, b, c, e, f, g.

a ) Most journalists agree the press deserves to be called the fourth estate. b ) A “fourth estate” (l. 1) conveys the idea that the press and some other social segments do have the same goals.

c ) The press is said to totally neglect its responsibilities. d ) Journalists are not tied to commitments which can impair their activities. e ) Journalists are eager to cause inconvenience. f ) Politicians avoid telling the truth. Getting ready for exams

g ) The pronoun “it” (l. 2) refers to “The press” (l. 1). h ) The noun “embarrassment” (l. 14) means a feeling of being nervous or ashamed because of what people know or think about you. i ) Not always is the press considered the fourth estate.

(UEL - 2009) UEL stands for Universidade Estadual de Londrina.

Magazines and their Companion Websites: Competing Outlet Channels? Ulrich Kaiser

It is widely believed among industry participants that the internet is cannibalistic to print media. Despite that fear, many magazines have recently started to launch companion websites that make some, but not all, of the print version content available online. That led an analyst at J.P. Morgan, cited in “The New York Times”, to claim that “Newspapers are cannibalizing themselves.” In April 2005, “Der Spiegel”, Germany’s leading news magazine, published a very sceptical article about the future of print media – ironically on its companion website – with the suggestive title “Too much to die, too little to survive”. Pessimistic views on the relationship between magazines and the internet are quite time invariant. Already in 1997, Hickey cites the Vice President of the media consultancy Jupiter Media Metrix who is reported to have said: “Seize the day! Either you are going to cannibalize yourself or somebody else is going to cannibalize you.” KAISER, Ulrich. Magazines and their companion websites: competing outlet channels? Available at: <www.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?co ntext=romsjournal&article=1046&date=&mt=MTIyMzU3ODk0Mg==&access_ok_form=Continue>. Accessed on: September 12 th, 2008.

6. De

acordo com o texto, visões pessimistas sobre a relação entre internet e revistas

a ) estão diminuindo com o tempo.

d

b ) tendem a desaparecer.

d ) vêm se mantendo inalteradas ao longo do tempo.

c ) começaram a despontar no ano de 2005.

e ) têm-se agravado desde 1997.

(PUC-RIO 2004/2) PUC-RIO stands for Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro. As atividades 7 e 8 referem-se ao tema e/ou conteúdos da unidade 3.

“Fashion is a form of ugliness so intolerable that we have to alter it every six months.” Oscar Wilde (1854 - 1900). Available at: <www.lifeisajoke.com/wildehumor_html.htm>. Accessed on: March 21st, 2016.

7. According

to the quotation, the author believes that:

c

a ) we can not stand fashion because it changes twice a year. b ) we do not tolerate fashion because it is a strategy to make money. c ) fashion must change frequently because its products are horrible. d ) modern fashion designers are not concerned with making people look beautiful. e ) fashion is like any other human activity: if we do not change it, we get bored. ninety-one

91


(UERJ – 2004) UERJ stands for Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. As atividades 1 a 4 referem-se ao tema e/ou conteúdos da unidade 1.

INTERVIEW WITH A FASHION DESIGNER Earle Bannister, a fashion designer in the Baltimore area, has captured the viewers’ attention at many fashion shows. I was one of those viewers. - Gary Tanner GT – How did you come about becoming a fashion designer? E. Bannister – I began sewing in April of 1989 while attending Morgan State University. My younger sister taught me how to use a sewing machine and the rest is history. GT – What inspires you from time to time the most, the models, the fabric, the movies or the music, or something else entirely? E. Bannister – I get my inspirations from old black and white movies and old jazz music. I identify with the portrayed lifestyle of America in the 1930’s and 40’s. It seems that back then quality was paramount. Things made back then are still around today. I really identify with that work ethics. It makes me be creative with my ideas but still remain classic. GT – What is the major difference in designing for men versus designing for women? E. Bannister – The major difference for me is that I am a man and I know how I want to look in my clothes. I can only guess how a woman wants to look and feel in her clothes. So my women’s clothes come off very sexy and revealing. However, my men’s clothes are classic with an artsy twist that keeps the garment very masculine. GT – How do you describe your design, as conservative, fun and sophisticated, or wild and adventurous? E. Bannister – My design style is always ever changing but my signature is in every garment. I would say that I am a sophisticated adventurous designer because I am always searching for new ways to do simple things. Everyone wants something different without it being too different. That is the fine line we designers must walk on. I enjoy the challenge. GT – One more…, once the outfits have been seen in a fashion event, where do they go next? E. Bannister – The outfits go to the next show. Every season I do about 25 to 30 fashion shows all over the country. Once the season is over, I design a new line. Before I introduce the new line, I auction off the old line and make a donation to charity in my community. We have been doing this since 1995. The auction is very exciting and it gives people an opportunity to own an E. Bannister show piece at a really good price while supporting a charity. GT – My gratitude for sharing with us your work and your responses. I know time is an absolute value to you as it is to all of my interviewees. But what would it be like for the world of models without the fashion designers? Thank you for being with us. Interview with a fashion designer. Available at: <www.apollogt-studio.com/ebannister.html>.

8. The

text is the transcription of an interview with a fashion designer.

Bannister was chosen to be interviewed because: d a ) his outfits have repelled men b ) his style has been conventional c ) his moods have inspired women d ) his work has impressed the public

92

ninety-two


(PUCRS - 2001/1)

PUCRS stands for Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul.

As atividades 9 e 10 referem-se ao tema e/ou conteúdos da unidade 4.

What is beauty? Define beauty? One may as well dissect a soap bubble. We know it when we see it – or so we think. Philosophers define it as a moral equation. What is beautiful is good, said Plato. Poets look for high standards. Beauty is truth, truth is beauty, wrote John Keats.

Getting ready for exams

Science examines beauty and pronounces it a strategy. “Beauty is health”, a psychologist tells me. “It’s a sign saying ‘I’m healthy and fertile. I can pass on your genes.” At its best, beauty celebrates. From the painted Txikão Indian in Brazil to Madonna in her metal bra, humanity likes to abandon its everyday look and masquerade as a more powerful, romantic, or sexy being. At its worst, beauty discriminates. Studies suggest attractive people make more money, get more attention in class and are seen as friendlier. We do judge people by their looks. In an era of feminist and politically correct values, not to mention the belief that all men and women are created equal, the fact that all men and women are not – and that some are more beautiful than others – disturbs, confuses, even angers. The search for beauty is costly. In the United States last year people spent six billion dollars on fragrance and another six billion on make up. In the mania to lose weight 20 billions were spent on diet products and services – in addition to the billions that were paid out for health club memberships and cosmetic surgery. The sad, sometimes ugly side of beauty: In a 1997 magazine survey, 15 percent of women and 11 percent of men sampled said they’d sacrifice more than five years of their life to be at their ideal weight. According to one study, 80 percent of women are dissatisfied with their bodies. In one of its worst manifestations, discontent with one’s body can wind up as an eating disorder, such as anorexia or bulimia. Both can be fatal. Today eating disorders, once mostly limited to wealthy Western cultures, occur around the world, in countries as different as Fiji, Japan and Argentina. The preoccupation with beauty can be a neurosis, and yet there is something therapeutic about paying attention to how we look and feel. “People are so quick to say beauty is superficial”, says Ann Marie Gardner, beauty director of W magazine. “They’re fearful. They say: ‘It doesn’t have substance.’ What many don’t realize is that it’s fun to reinvent yourself, as long as you don’t take it too seriously.”

9. The

main purpose of the text is to

c

a ) tell of the sacrifices people make to become beautiful. b ) inform that most women are dissatisfied with their bodies. c ) show that the notion of beauty is still an enigma. d ) warn people about eating disorders. e ) argue that it is therapeutic to worry about beauty.

10. The

author thinks that

d

a ) beauty is a soap bubble. b ) many men are doing cosmetic surgery. c ) you can only be beautiful if you invest a lot of money. d ) society values beautiful people. e ) beautiful people are neurotic. ninety-three

93


Fotomontagem de EstĂşdio Meraki formada pela imagem Rawpixel.com/Shutterstock.com

unit

track 22

94

No man is an island


The idiom no man is an island means that people are dependent on others. In other words, no one is selfsufficient. Tolerance and respect are essential for life in society. And, as no man is an island, everyone should practice these attitudes.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, as respostas e comentários referentes a esta atividade.

Exchanging ideas A

Observe the people pictured on these pages. What are they doing? Do you think they represent the idiom no man is an island? Explain.

B

The people pictured on these pages represent the multiculturalism in a society. Do you think people’s beliefs, religions, origins and colors are respected in our society? Is the respect of differences important to social coexistence? Why?

C

From the words below, choose the ones that, in your opinion, are fundamental to live and have good relationships in society. respect

harmony

gratitude

tolerance

indifference

politeness

peace

fight

gentility

95


Contextualizing

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Warming up *Caso os alunos não conheçam essa palavra, que é um falso cognato, você pode orientá-los a utilizar um dicionário. É importante estimulá-los a com suas próprias palavras, o que entendem como sendo Answer the following questions. explicar, preconceito e o que essa palavra evoca neles. * Resposta pessoal. a ) What comes to your mind when you think of the word prejudice?

1.

b ) Which of the words and expressions below would you associate with a prejudicial attitude? Preconceived, unreasonable, unfair, harmful, discriminatory. preconceived

IV

morally correct

VII

II

unreasonable

V

harmful

VIII discriminatory

III

unfair

VI

right

c ) There are many different types of prejudice and discrimination. Use the following words to complete the definitions in your notebook. ageism I

II

III

IV

V

homophobia

sexism

xenophobia

is prejudice and discrimination against an individual or a group of people based on their race. It relies on the belief that certain races are better than others.

Sexism

is prejudice and discrimination toward people based on their gender. It is associated with the belief that men and women should be treated differently. Ageism

is prejudice and discrimination toward people based on their age. It happens, for example, when older people are treated in an unfair way. Homophobia

is prejudice and discrimination toward people based on their sexual orientation. It includes prejudice against non-heterosexual people, such as lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transgenders.

Xenophobia

is prejudice and discrimination toward people who are from other countries and cultures. It can be described as an unreasonable fear or hatred of foreigners or strangers.

d ) In pairs, exchange some ideas and explain the meaning of these other types of prejudice. If necessary, do some research. class prejudice

cultural prejudice

following campaign was launched in 2010 by the Ligue Internationale Contre le Racisme e l’Antisémitisme (LICRA), a French organization that is opposed to intolerance, xenophobia and exclusion. Read it and answer the questions on the next page in your notebook.

LICRA. Your skin color shouldn’t dictate your future. Available at: <http://moazedi. blogspot.com.br/2014/06/your-skin-colorshouldnt-dictate-your.html>. Accessed on: January 20 th, 2016.

ninety-six

racism

Racism

2. The

96

ethical

linguistic prejudice

religious prejudice LICRA. Criação: Publicis Conseil Paris

1. d) Class prejudice relies on the belief that people of a certain economic class are inferior to those of another class. Cultural prejudice is discrimination against other people’s culture and values. Linguistic prejudice is associated with discrimination of people based on their languages and accents. Religious prejudice happens when people’s religions are not respected and they are discriminated against because of their religious practices. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a formarem duplas e, juntos, chegarem a uma definição para cada um dos tipos de preconceito citados. Você pode explicar que os significados são praticamente literais, mas, se necessário, eles podem fazer uma pesquisa para auxiliá-los a chegar às respostas.

I


a ) What type of prejudice is the campaign emphasizing? Racial b ) What is the slogan of the campaign? c ) What can you see in the picture?

prejudice and discrimination.

Your skin color shouldn’t dictate your future.

The picture shows babies in a maternity hospital, which means they were recently born. The white babies are wearing diapers. The Afro baby is dressed as a cleaning lady.

d ) What is the relation between the picture and the slogan?

They make reference to a social reality: in general, Afro-descendants have less opportunities and poorer quality of life than white ones.

e ) What is your opinion about the message expressed by the campaign?

3.

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a refletirem sobre a mensagem veiculada pela campanha e a expressarem seus pontos de vista em relação a ela.

Discuss the questions with your teacher and classmates. Respostas

pessoais.

a ) What comes to your mind when you think of the word tolerance? Sugerimos

pedir aos alunos que expliquem, com suas próprias palavras, o que entendem como sendo tolerância e o que essa palavra evoca neles.

b ) On a website of a museum that exhibits historic and contemporary forms of discrimination, people were asked to answer the question “What does tolerance mean to you?”. You are going to read one of the answers, published by Alexa, from New York. Read it and explain in your own words what you understand.

Unit 5

Sugerimos pedir aos alunos que leiam a resposta da internauta e, em duplas, comentem o que compreenderam.

[…] Tolerance is when you accept that each person is worth the same. A person that is worth less doesn’t exist. No matter if we’re men or women, black or white, Arabs or Jews, Muslims or Christians, no matter where we come from and who we are, we are all equal. When you can understand this and also treat others with respect and dignity, then you are tolerant. […] What does tolerance mean to you? Available at: <www.museumoftolerance.com/site/c.tmL6KfNVLtH/b.5158109/k.3C5F/What_Does_ Tolerance_Mean_to_You/apps/ka/ct/contactus.asp?c=tmL6KfNVLtH&b=5158109&en= dmJPK6NPLcIYIgOSIbLVKcP2KpIVLcN1JjJULkOaIAJ>. Accessed on: January 26 th, 2016.

c ) According to Alexa, tolerance is when you accept that all people are worth the same, no matter the differences. Do you agree with her? Why (not)? d ) Do you think that being tolerant is important for life in our society? Resposta

esperada: yes, it is, because being tolerant means respecting others and, in order to live in a society, people must respect each other.

e ) In your opinion, is it easy to be tolerant of other people’s characteristics, beliefs and Durante a discussão desta questão, é importante que os alunos percebam que exercitar a tolerância pode não ser behaviors? fácil, mas é fundamental, pois, devido à diversidade existente entre os seres humanos, é impossível se relacionar de forma harmoniosa com os outros sem haver tolerância.

f ) Do you think that, if people were more tolerant, there would be less conflicts in levar os alunos a refletirem sobre o fato de que muitos conflitos e até mesmo guerras entre comunidades the world? Sugerimos e países acontecem porque as pessoas não concordam umas com os outras e não aceitam as suas diferenças, sejam elas raciais, religiosas, sexuais ou outras.

Learning vocabulary 4.

5.

Do you know some synonyms and antonyms of the word tolerance? In your notebook, write synonym (S) or antonym (A). a - S; b - A; c - S; d - A. a ) acceptance

c ) broad-mindedness

b ) prejudice

d ) narrow-mindedness

Observe the following words and expressions. Can they be associated with the concept of prejudice or tolerance? In your notebook, categorize the words according to their meanings. bullying

equality

discrimination

human rights hate crime

stereotype respect

prejudice

tolerance

bullying stereotype discrimination hate crime

equality human rights respect

ninety-seven

97


Learning and acting

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Reading and reflecting Pre-reading 1.

Read the following definition of racial discrimination and discuss the questions with your teacher and classmates.

[...] Racial discrimination is when a person is treated less favourably than another person in a similar situation because of their race, colour, descent, national or ethnic origin or immigrant status. [...]

1. a) Sugerimos orientar os alunos a comentarem sobre casos de discriminação racial que possivelmente já tenham visto, ouvido falar ou mesmo sofrido. Você pode deixar que eles se organizem em grupos e troquem informações e pontos de vista sobre o assunto. 1. b) Resposta pessoal. Resposta esperada: yes, racial discrimination is still common in Brazil. It happens especially based on people’s skin color and immigrant status.

AUSTRALIAN HUMAN RIGHTS COMISSION. Racial discrimination: know your rights. Sydney, 2014. p .2.

a ) Have you ever witnessed or experienced any form of racial discrimination? Resposta pessoal.

b ) In your opinion, do cases of racial discrimination usually happen in Brazil? If so, is it more related to race, color, descent, national or ethnic origin or immigrant status? c ) Do you think that racial discrimination also exists in other countries?

Resposta pessoal. Resposta esperada: yes, it does. Racism exists all over the world, but some countries are more racist than others.

d ) Can you think of an example of racial discrimination based on people’s national or pessoal. Possível resposta: prejudice against the Brazilian indigenous peoples, ethnic origin? Resposta prejudice against the Latinos who live in the United States, prejudice against Arabs all over the world, and so on.

2.

Observe the title of the text on the next page and answer the following questions in your notebook. If necessary, do some research. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade.

a ) What country is it about? Australia.

b ) What is the major ethnic group in that country? People of European (white) ancestry.

c ) Are there ethnic minorities in that country?

Yes, there are. About three percent of the Australian population is indigenous: Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders (people who come from the islands of the Torres Strait).

Reading 3. Você pode explicar aos alunos que a Universidade de Tecnologia de Queensland é uma instituição de ensino e pesquisa localizada no estado australiano de Queensland. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, informações sobre o gênero textual discurso.

3.

You are going to read an excerpt of a speech given in the Queensland University of Technology in 2012. This speech was published on the website of the Australian Human Rights Comission, whose objective is to promote and protect human rights in Australia. Read it briefly and answer. a ) The kinds of racial discrimination mentioned in the text are based on people’s... I

skin color

II

ethnic origin

III

II and III.

immigrant status

b ) What are the native peoples that, according to the study, suffer from racism in Australia? The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.

c ) The text also presents information about the racial discrimination against... I I

4.

foreigners.

II

Asians.

Find in the text the sentences that correspond to the following information and write them down in your notebook. a ) The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples still suffer from racism in many different situations. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples continue to experience high levels racism, across multiple settings.

of

b ) Racism is a problem that exists in Australia now. Racism is a current issue in Australia.

c ) People from other countries suffered more racism than people who were born in Australia. People born overseas experienced higher rates of racism than those born in Australia.

98

ninety-eight


x

www.humanrights.gov.au/news/speeches/racism-exists-australia-are-we-doing-enough-address-it HOME

PUBLICATIONS

OUR WORK

NEWS

CONTACT

A+a-

Racism exists in Australia – are we doing enough to address it?

Fotomontagem de Bárbara Sarzi formada pelas imagens evantravels/ Shutterstock.com e UIG Education/Auscape/Diomedia

Unit 5

[...] Racism does exist in Australia. We know this is a fact. [...] It is also identified in research. National data from the Challenging Racism Project was released in 2011 and gave us information about the prevalence of racism and attitudes about racism. We know from this research that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples continue to experience high levels of racism, across multiple settings. The research found that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander respondents returned much higher rates of experiences of racism: in relation to contact with police and seeking housing, their experiences of racism were four times that of non-Aboriginal Australians. Similarly, in 2008 other research found that 27% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples over the age of 15 reported experiencing discrimination in the preceding 12 months; in particular by the general public, in law and justice settings and in employment. Further recent research has found that three out of four Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples regularly experienced race discrimination when accessing primary health care, and that racism and cultural barriers led to some Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples not Australian Aborigines being diagnosed and treated for disease in its early stages, when treatment is most effective. More generally, the Challenging Racism research resulted in the following findings: ∙ around 85% of respondents believe that racism is a current issue in Australia ∙ around 20% of respondents had experienced forms of race-hate talk (verbal abuse, name-calling, racial slurs, offensive gestures etc) ∙ around 11% of respondents identified as having experienced race-based exclusion from their Torres Strait Islanders workplaces and/or social activities ∙ 7% of respondents identified as having experienced unfair treatment based on their race ∙ 6% of respondents reported that they had experienced physical attacks based on their race This research also found that people born overseas experienced higher rates of racism than those born in Australia, and were twice as likely to experience racism in the workplace. Culturally and linguistically diverse communities in Australia are themselves diverse, each community and generation having quite different experiences of migration and settlement. As a result, their experiences of racism vary considerably, and have also varied over time. For example, research suggests that ‘settled’ immigrants tend to experience lower levels of racism or racist attitudes than more recent arrivals to Australia. [...] SZOKE, Helen. Racism exists in Australia – are we doing enough to address it? Available at: <www.humanrights.gov.au/news/ speeches/racism-exists-australia-are-we-doing-enough-address-it>. Accessed on: January 22nd, 2016.

ninety-nine

99


5. Sugerimos aproveitar cada questão para discutir com os alunos as informações apresentadas no texto, certificando-se de que eles compreendem todos os dados citados no discurso. Você pode, por exemplo, perguntar, com relação à resposta ao item a, se saberiam o significado de respondents (entrevistados) conforme o contexto.

5.

The information mentioned in the speech is based on data collected from different researches about racism. Read the text again and answer these questions in your notebook. a ) What did the Challenging Racism Project find out?

This research found that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander respondents returned much higher rates of experiences of racism.

b ) According to this research, what is an example of discrimination against the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples? In relation to contact with police and seeking housing, their experiences of racism were four times that of non-Aboriginal Australians.

c ) According to a research conducted in 2008, what happened to 27% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples over 15 years old? They reported experiencing discrimination in the preceding 12 months.

d ) In what social settings was this discrimination more evident?

In particular from the general public, in law and justice settings and in employment.

e ) According to another recent research, how many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples regularly experienced race discrimination when accessing primary health care? Three out of four.

f ) What are some of the consequences of this?

Because of this discrimination, some Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples were not diagnosed and treated for disease in its early stages, when treatment is most effective.

g ) According to the Challenging Racism research, what do the following numbers relate to?

• 85% Percentage of respondents who believe that racism is a current problem in Australia. • 20% Percentage of respondents who had experienced forms of race-hate talk. of respondents who have experienced race-based exclusion from their workplaces and/or • 11% Percentage social activities. • 7% Percentage of respondents who have experienced unfair treatment based on their race. • 6% Percentage of respondents who reported that they had experienced physical attacks based on their race.

h ) What are some forms of race-hate talk mentioned in the text? Verbal abuse, name-calling, racial slurs, and offensive gestures.

i ) According to the research, who else suffers from racial prejudice in Australia? People born overseas.

j ) In what situation are foreigners more likely to be discriminated against? In the workplace.

k ) Do all immigrants in Australia suffer from racism in the same way? No, their experiences of racism vary considerably, and have also varied over time.

l ) What is an example of this finding?

For example, ‘settled’ immigrants tend to experience lower levels of racism or racist attitudes than more recent arrivals to Australia.

Post-reading 6.

After reading the text, discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) Were you surprised by the information presented in this speech? Why (not)? Resposta pessoal.

b ) In your opinion, if a similar research were conducted with the indigenous Brazilian peoples, would the findings be the same? Resposta pessoal. c ) Why do you think ethnic minorities are usually discriminated against? Resposta

pessoal.

d ) What are some groups in Brazil that are considered minorities and suffer prejudice because of social The indigenous peoples, assumptions that don’t make sense? black people, immigrants from the northeast region of the country.

f ) Has everything you read and discussed so far made you change your beliefs and/or behavior in relation to racial and ethnic discrimination? Resposta pessoal.

100

one hundred

Fabio Colombini

e ) According to the text, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are treated less favorably than other Australians in certain situations, such as in contact with police, when they are are trying to buy or rent a house or an apartment, when they are sick and need health treatments, and when they are looking for a job. In Brazil, are the groups considered ethnic minorities also treated less favorably in situations like these? Yes, they are.


Putting your ideas into words Before writing In the text on page 99, read the data collected from the Challenging Racism research again (paragraph 5). What do you think the questions asked in the survey were? Read the Have you experienced any example below and write the other questions in your notebook. forms of race-hate talk?;

Com base nas informações apresentadas no texto, sugerimos orientar os alunos a imaginarem quais foram as perguntas feitas aos sujeitos da pesquisa. Você pode pedir que observem o exemplo abaixo e tentem fazer o mesmo tipo de inferência com as demais questões.

8.

Accor ding to the text, “arou nd 85% of respo nden ts belie ve that racism is a current issue in Austr alia”. So, the question asked was “Do you belie ve that racism is a current issue in Austr alia?”.

Have you experienced race-based exclusion from your workplace and/or social activities?; Have you experienced unfair treatment based on your race?; Have you experienced physical attacks based on your race?

Unit 5

7.

If you were to conduct a survey on racism and racist attitudes in your school, what questions would you ask? Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a escreverem no caderno questões que julgam pertinentes para uma pesquisa sobre racismo e atitudes em relação ao racismo. Eles podem elaborar quantas perguntas acharem necessário e, se preferir, essa etapa de elaboração das questões pode ser realizada em grupos.

Writing 9.

You are going to carry out a survey on racism and attitudes about it. After that, write a text in which you present and discuss the collected data.

Anna Simonin

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade.

After writing 10.

Read the texts published by your classmates on your class virtual private group and As questões propostas a seguir têm o objetivo de levar os answer the following questions. Respostas pessoais. alunos a pensarem sobre os resultados das pesquisas e,

sobretudo, a refletirem sobre os dados do preconceito em sua escola. Caso as pesquisas indiquem uma alta taxa de ocorrência de racismo entre os estudantes, você pode a the results of the surveys? Or did you already expect them? estimulá-los sugerir atitudes que possam promover uma mudança e is there a high rate of racism in your school? combater o preconceito racial.

a ) Were your classmates’ findings similar to yours? b ) Were you surprised by c ) Based on the surveys,

d ) If so, what can you do to change that?

one hundred and one

101


Listening and understanding

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Listening 1. Do

you know what hate crimes are?

Resposta pessoal. Resposta esperada: hate crimes are crimes motivated by racial, sexual, religious or any other kind of prejudice.

2. Read

the following headlines and lead paragraphs and discuss the questions with your teacher and classmates.

Sugerimos explicar aos alunos que lead paragraph é o primeiro parágrafo de uma notícia. Tanto a manchete quanto esse parágrafo inicial têm o objetivo de proporcionar ao leitor uma noção sobre o principal assunto do texto.

Two Teenagers Charged in Hate Crime Attack Against Muslim Man in the Bronx

Jeana Terry, Missouri Lesbian, Allegedly Attacked By Teen Neighbors For Being Gay

By LIAM STACKJAN. 23, 2016

Two teenage boys were arrested on Friday and charged with assaulting a Muslim man in the Bronx * last week while shouting “Isis! Isis!,” the police said. [...]

CAPE GIRARDEAU, Mo. – Three children from the same family are in juvenile custody after allegedly attacking a Missouri woman, and the victim believes she was targeted because she is gay. [...]

STACKJAN, Liam. Two teenagers charged in hate crime attack against Muslim man in the Bronx. Available at: <www.nytimes.com/2016/01/24/nyregion/two-teenagerscharged-in-hate-crime-attack-against-muslim-man-in-the-bronx.html?ref=topics&_r=0>. Accessed on: January 26th, 2016.

Jeana Terry, Missouri lesbian, allegedly attacked by teen neighbors for being gay. Available at: <www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/08/02/jeana-terrymissouri-lesbian-attack-teens_n_1733698.html>. Accessed on: February 1st, 2016.

*Se necessário, você pode explicar aos alunos que a sigla ISIS significa Islamic State of Iraq and Syria, um grupo islâmico fundamentalista também conhecido como Estado Islâmico.

3 Brazilian Teens Confess to Burning Homeless Man Alive Published at 12:06 pm EST, August 22, 2013

Three teenagers confessed to burning alive a vagrant who was living on the streets of the Brasilia suburb of Guara, Brazilian authorities said Wednesday. [...] 3 Brazilian teens confess to burning homeless man alive. Available at: <www.hispanicallyspeakingnews.com/latino-daily-news/details/3-brazilian-teens-confess-to-burninghomeless-man-alive/26619/>. Accessed on: January 26 th, 2016.

a ) What do these headlines and lead paragraphs have in common? They are all excerpts of news articles about hate crimes.

b ) What kind of prejudice motivated each of these crimes? Religious prejudice, sexual prejudice and class prejudice.

c ) Were you surprised by the fact that all these crimes were committed by teenagers? Resposta pessoal.

d ) Have you ever read a piece of news similar to these ones?

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos levar os alunos a pensarem em outras notícias relacionadas a crimes de ódio que eles possivelmente já tenham visto. Em caso de resposta afirmativa, você pode incentivá-los a comentar sobre a notícia e a dizerem qual foi sua reação ao lê-la.

3. You are going to listen to part of a podcast in which the leader of the UK government hate crime

2. c) É program is talking about their policy against this kind of crime. Listen to it once and answer. importante que track 23 Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, a transcrição do áudio. os alunos prestem a ) The main topic that Paul Giannasi is talking about is... II atenção a esse detalhe das I how the percentages of hate crimes have increased in the last few years. notícias. A partir daí, você pode promover II how some tragic events have affected the way the British police deals with hate crimes. uma discussão sobre o que b ) He mentions hate crimes against... I eles acreditam que levam I disabled people, people with different lifestyles and gays. certos adolescentes a cometerem II people from different social classes, women and foreigners. crimes de ódio.

102

one hundred and two


4. track 23

Listen to the podcast again and identify what is correct.

A - II; B - I; C - I; D - II; E - II; F - I; G - II; H - I. Sugerimos tocar o áudio novamente para que os alunos ouçam e identifiquem quais das afirmações seguintes são verdadeiras. Antes de tocar o áudio, é importante orientá-los a ler as alternativas e, se necessário, você pode fazer pausas para facilitar a compreensão.

A I

The authorities have been aware of hate crimes against disabled people for a long time.

II

The authorities have just become aware of hate crimes against disabled people.

I

Disabled people have suffered different kinds of abuses, including murders.

II

Disabled people have only been victims of hate-talk.

I

A Southern Lancaster young girl was a victim of hostility because of the way she dressed.

II

A Southern Lancaster young girl was a victim of hostility because of her accent.

I

In 2005 in London, Jody Dobrowski was arrested because he had murdered a gay man.

II

In 2005 in London, Jody Dobrowski was murdered because he was gay.

I

Hate crimes affect only the victims and their families.

II

Hate crimes affect communities all around the country.

I

According to Giannasi, it’s important to make victims feel comfortable to report the crimes to the police.

II

According to Giannasi, all victims of hate crimes report the crimes to the police.

I

Giannasi says that police officers do not know how to deal with hate crimes.

II

Giannasi says that it’s important that police officers are well-trained to deal with hate crimes.

I

If police officers deal with hate crimes badly, less victims will probably come forward in the future.

II

If police officers deal with hate crimes badly, more victims will probably come forward in the future.

C

D

Unit 5

B

E

F

G

H

5.

After listening, discuss the following question with your teacher and classmates.

• In your opinion, what causes the hostility that motivates those crimes?

Resposta pessoal. Resposta esperada: this hostility is caused by prejudice and lack of tolerance and respect for differences between people.

Speaking 6.

Do some research and find out some information about hate crimes that happen or have happened in Brazil. Then, imagine you are the guest of a podcast about human rights and talk about your findings.

Rem ember! Yo u were in vited to talk about... hate cr im es (d ata an d statistic s about th em ); ho w th ey af fe ct ou r so ci et y; wh at we sh ou ld do to stop th em .

• • •

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

one hundred and three

103


Comprehending and using

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

2. Charlie Hebdo was attacked by terrorists with guns. Terrorists with explosives tied to their bodies 1. O objetivo desta atividade é discutir exploded The Ankara Railway Station. The World Trade Center was hit by airplanes which had been religião, preconceito contra religiões e kidnapped by conflitos e guerras. É importante enfatizar terrorists. que o Brasil é um país com diversidade religiosa e que cada religião e seus Sugerimos seguidores devem ter suas práticas e comentar com crenças respeitadas. Desse modo, os alunos que sugerimos pedir aos alunos que respeitem as imagens as posições e opiniões dos colegas de mostram sala e que não façam comentários que reações julguem como corretas ou erradas as públicas após crenças e práticas religiosas. eventos trágicos que Discuss these questions with a classmate. Respostas pessoais. ocorreram há alguns anos. Sugerimos a ) What comes to your mind when you hear the word religion? orientá-los a observar as imagens b ) Do you think that there is prejudice against certain religions and religious people? e comentar com um colega de classe o que ocorreu em c ) Religions usually preach that everyone is equal. Based on this, why is there prejudice? cada uma delas. Sugerimos ver, nas d ) In your opinion, can conflicts and wars start because of religion? Orientações para o professor, informações sobre Observe the pictures below. They represent public reactions after tragic events. Do you os eventos nas imagens.

Learning about the language

Review of verb tenses

Present Perfect and Present Perfect Continuous 1.

2.

Charlie Hebdo, 2015. 3. Sugerimos discutir sobre os ataques terroristas das imagens da atividade 2 e sobre o preconceito contra muçulmanos que tem se fortalecido após esses ataques. O objetivo é refletir e questionar sobre como os atos de alguns adeptos dessa religião, que usaram suas ideologias para causar o terror, fez com que todos os seguidores dessa religião fossem relacionados ao terrorismo, tendo como consequência a discriminação desse grupo.

3.

Ankara Central Railway Station, 2015.

Alexandra Winkler/Reuters/ Latinstock

conejota/Shutterstock.com

Umit Bektas/Reuters/Latinstock

remember what happened in each one? Talk to a classmate.

World Trade Center, 2001.

Based on the pictures, discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates. The terrorist group Al-Qaeda claimed responsibility for the attack on Charlie Hebdo. No group claimed responsibility for the Ankara Station attack. The World Trade Center was attacked by Al-Qaeda too.

a ) Do you know who was responsible for these attacks? b ) In your opinion, why do terrorist attacks happen?

Resposta pessoal. Resposta esperada: because of religious and political conflicts.

c ) Has a terrorist attack ever happened in Brazil? No.

d ) ISIS and other groups have been claiming responsibility for or been associated with the most recent terrorist attacks. They promote violence due to their interpretation of Islam. After the attacks, do you think muslims are being associated with terrorism and being discriminated against? Explain. Resposta pessoal.

4.

5.

Have you ever heard the expression Islamophobia? What is it? After choosing the best answer, try to explain it with more details to a classmate. II Para auxiliar os alunos, você pode sugerir que eles dividam a palavra em duas partes: 1-Islamo 2-phobia e que discutam seus significados (Islamo refere-se à religião islâmica, phobia refere-se ao medo e à aversão).

I

It’s a religion.

II

It’s a kind of prejudice against a religion.

Read the definition of Islamophobia below. Was your classmate’s explanation in activity 4 Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem a definição da palavra Islamophobia retirada de adequate? Resposta pessoal. um dicionário. Sugerimos perguntar se suas inferências e as dos colegas de sala na atividade 3 foram adequadas.

Islamophobia noun Dislike of or prejudice against Islam or Muslims, especially as a political force. Oxford Dictionaries. Available at: <www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_ english/islamophobia>. Accessed on: January 27th, 2016.

104

one hundred and four


6.

Do you think there is Islamophobia in Brazil?

Resposta pessoal.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade.

7.

Islamophobia is hostility against Islam and Muslims, but there can be prejudice against other religions. In your city, is there any religion that suffers discrimination? If so, talk about it. Resposta pessoal.

8.

You are going to read a text about the way that a girl called Isra Mohammed found to talk about her beliefs. What did she decide to do? Read it briefly and answer in your notebook.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade.

She wrote and gave a speech about her religion.

Unit 5

This 15-year-old’s speech about Islamophobia has been watched by thousands online After her seven-year-old sister was blamed for the Paris atrocities, 15-year-old Isra Mohammed was inspired to write a five-minute assembly. […] In the speech, she explains how her religion is one of peace. And it’s amazing. […] This 15-year-old’s speech about Islamophobia has been watched by thousands online. Available at: <www.breakingnews.ie/discover/ this-15-year-olds-speech-about-islamophobia-has-been-watched-by-thousands-online-712117.html>. Accessed on: January 27th, 2016.

9.

Read the excerpt again and answer the questions in your notebook. a ) How old is Isra?

She’s 15 years old.

b ) What’s her religion?

She’s a Muslim.

c ) Why did she write a speech? Because

her little sister was blamed for the Paris terrorist attacks.

d ) What was the purpose of her speech?

Resposta esperada: she wanted to explain about her religion and show people that Muslims are not terrorists.

10.

After reading about what motivated Isra Mohammed to defend her religion, read some parts of her speech. In pairs, tell a classmate if you agree or disagree with her. Resposta

pessoal.

Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que eles lerão partes do discurso de Isra. Após a leitura, eles deverão formar duplas para trocar ideias, expressando e justificando suas opiniões sobre os trechos destacados nesta atividade.

[...] Islam is a beautiful religion, just like many others. It is a religion of peace and mercy. [...] Therefore terrorism has no religion and terrorism is not the face of Islam. [...]

[...] I have people coming to me at school, this week, and last week telling me that because I am a Muslim, I am a terrorist. And this is something I go through every day of my life. [...]

[...] People link us to terrorism, but we are not terrorists. They have hijacked our religion and used it against us. [...]

[...] So what can we do about it? We can learn about each other’s religions and cultures. We can stop making assumptions. We can be fair to one another. And remember, when you tell somebody you’re a terrorist because of your religion — it’s a hate crime. And you have to report it once you’ve viewed it. My name is Isra Mohammed, I am a Muslim and I am not a terrorist. Isra Mohammed: ‘My name is Isra Mohammed, I am a Muslim and I am not a terrorist’, Kenton school assembly - 2015. Available at: <http://speakola.com/ideas/isra-mohammed-islamophobia-kenton-2015>. Accessed on: January 27th, 2016.

one hundred and five

105


12. Sugerimos pedir aos alunos que leiam, analisem e estudem as frases que foram retiradas do texto, que têm exemplos do Present Perfect. Sugerimos orientá-los a estudar a página 194 do Grammar appendix e identificar as respostas corretas desta atividade, que traz as principais regras desse tempo verbal.

11.

Ask these questions to at least two classmates. Then, share the overall answers with your teacher and the whole class. Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) If you were Isra, what would you do?

b ) Suppose you heard or saw someone being discriminated because of his/her religion, what would you do?

12.

These two sentences were taken from the text. They are in the Present Perfect tense. Read the following sentences and write the appropriate answers in your notebook. If necessary, study page 194. a ) The sentences are formed by...

14. Após os alunos lerem o texto e explicarem a um colega de sala o que compreenderam, você pode fazer algumas perguntas à turma para verificar a compreensão textual. Algumas sugestões de perguntas são: Who visited Kenya? (Pope Francis), Was he warmly welcomed? (yes, he was), Do Muslims and Christians get along well in Kenya? (no, there have been conflicts between them), Is the Kenya’s president interested in fighting religious intolerance in the country? (yes, he’s opened to dialogue and pleased to work with religious leaders).

13.

14.

They have hijacked our religion and used it against us. And you have to repo rt it once you’ve viewed it.

I

I

have/has (not) + a verb in the past participle form.

II

have/has (not) + a main verb verb + -ing.

b ) In both sentences, the actions...

II

I

are happening in the present moment.

II

happened in a moment in the past that is not specified.

c ) These sentences do not use an expression such as yesterday, last week or in 2010 to specify the past time in which they happened. I I

true

II

false

d ) The Present Perfect can also be used to express...

I and III. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que, para essa questão, mais de uma alternativa pode estar correta.

I

an action that started in the past and continues until the present time.

II

regrets about the past.

III

the result of a past action without mentioning when it happened.

In your opinion, what is necessary to stop religious conflicts and prejudice? Do you think the dialog between political and religious leaders can help? Resposta pessoal.

Sugerimos discutir com os alunos algumas ações que poderiam ser tomadas contra os conflitos e preconceito religiosos, perguntando se o diálogo entre líderes políticos e religiosos poderia ajudar a promover o respeito e a tolerância entre as religiões.

The text below is about the visit of the Catholic leader to an African country. Read the text and explain it to a classmate using your own words. Resposta pessoal.

Ph S h il ip C ut t er hide s to ll / ck .co m

Kenya: Pope begins Africa visit with plea for religious harmony, peace (By Kennedy Abwao, PANA Correspondent) Nairobi, Kenya (PANA) - Pope Francis kicked off a three-nation African tour in Nairobi Wednesday emphasising the need for religious harmony, peaceful coexistence and environmental conservation. […] President Kenyatta said during the pontiff’s visit, priority would be given to the inter-faith dialogue. “I am pleased to say that religious leaders are pleased to work with Kenya. Your Pope Francis presence here today galvanizes these efforts,” President Kenyatta said. There is a feeling that religious intolerance has been growing in parts of Kenya between the Muslim and the Christian population after the series of terrorist attacks in Nairobi, Garissa, Mombasa, Lamu and parts of North Eastern Kenya, where Christians were targeted during terrorist attacks. The Pope expressed his gratitude to the Kenyan government for the warm welcome he received on his arrival in Nairobi. […] ABWAO, Kennedy. Kenya: Pope begins Africa visit with plea for religious harmony, peace (by Kennedy Abwao, PANA correspondent). Available at: <www.panapress.com/Kenya--Pope-begins-Africa-visit-with-plea-for-religious-harmony,-peace-(By-Kennedy-Abwao,-PANA-Correspondent)--13-630461052-0lang2-index.html>. Accessed on: January 28 th, 2016.

106

one hundred and six


15.

Discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates. a ) Based on the texts you read, do you think anyone has the right to have and practice the religion he/she wishes? Resposta pessoal. b ) In your opinion, are political and religious leaders really concerned about minimizing religious prejudice? Are they concerned about freedom of religion? Resposta pessoal. c ) Does your country have laws about religious prejudice?

Resposta esperada: yes.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre este item.

The following sentence was taken from the text on page 106. It is in the Present Perfect Continuous tense. Read it and write down the appropriate answers in your notebook.

There is a feeling that religious intolerance has been growing in parts of Kenya.

a ) The Present Perfect Continuous is used to talk about an action that... II I

happened in the past.

II

started in the past and is still happening in the present.

b ) To form the Present Perfect Continuous structure, we use…

II

I

have/has (not) + a verb in the past participle form with -ing.

II

have/has (not) + been + a main verb with -ing.

c ) The Present Perfect Continuous can also be used to express an action that was finished in the past, but there’s still evidence of its result. I É importante apresentar outros I

true

II

Using the language 17.

false

exemplos para os alunos, como I know she’s been crying from the red in her eyes. She was bullied for being Muslim.

16. Sugerimos pedir aos alunos que leiam, analisem e estudem a frase em destaque, cujo trecho em negrito está no Present Perfect Continuous. Eles podem estudar a página 194 do Grammar appendix para identificar as respostas corretas desta atividade, que traz as principais regras do tempo verbal.

17. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que os textos desta atividade são sobre a discriminação racial em diferentes países. É importante orientá-los a ler os textos para conhecer um pouco mais sobre como a discriminação ocorre nesses países e contra quais grupos de pessoas. Para isso, eles devem completá-los no caderno com a forma correta do Present Perfect utilizando os verbos abaixo.

Discrimination doesn’t happen only in Brazil, but everywhere in the world. In order to learn more about discrimination worldwide, read the following texts and complete them in your notebook using the verbs below in the Present Perfect form. lead A

B

C

face

be

increase

have

[…] The growing economy in Spain invites immigrants from North African countries such as Morocco. However, the poor conditions that immigrants to have had endure and the already racially charged region to friction and confrontations. has led […] […] Greece has one of the worst records in the European Union for racism against ethnic minorities [...]. Anti-immigrant sentiment high, especially has been against ethnic Albanians, who form the largest minority. […]

Since the horrific terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, have increased 2001, security concerns , but so too has racial profiling, discrimination etc. In the early aftermath of the attacks some Americans that were understandably outraged and horrified, even attacked some members of the Sikh community […] because they resembled certain types of Muslims, with beards and have faced turbans. Various people of Middle Eastern or South Asian origin controversial detentions or questionings by officials at American airports. […] SHAH, Anup. Racism. Available at: <www.globalissues.org/article/165/racism>. Accessed on: March 14th, 2016.

one hundred and seven

107

Unit 5

16.


You are going to read facts about Daniel Alves, a Brazilian soccer player, and Taís Araújo, a Brazilian actress. Both of them faced discrimination. What happened to them? To find out, match the sentences with the most appropriate endings in your notebook. a - III; b - I; c - IV; d -

Rnoid/Shutterstock.com

18. Sugerimos pedir aos alunos que observem as imagens. Você pode perguntar se eles conhecem essas duas pessoas e comentar que ambos foram vítimas de preconceito. Para saber um pouco mais sobre como eles foram discriminados e quais foram suas reações, os alunos devem relacionar o início e o fim das sentenças. Após a correção, você pode discutir com os alunos suas opiniões sobre as reações das vítimas.

Trícia Vieira/FotoArena/Folhapress

18.

Daniel Alves (2013) 19. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a contarem a um colega de classe sobre um caso de preconceito que presenciaram, ao qual assistiram na televisão, ou sobre o qual leram na internet ou no jornal. É importante instruí-los a utilizar as frases propostas como exemplos para que eles usem tanto o Present Perfect quanto o Present Perfect Continuos.

19.

Taís Araújo (2010)

a ) Daniel Alves played for different teams in Brazil. He has… b ) Once, a spectator threw a banana near Daniel. He ate it and continued playing. This… c ) Taís Araújo has… d ) Taís was a victim of racism on the internet. Some comments on her social network about her skin color and hair... I

was considered one of the most remarkable acts against racism in soccer.

II

caught national attention and were investigated by the police.

III

also been playing for soccer teams abroad, such as Barcelona in Spain.

IV

been acting and modeling since she was a teenager.

Have you ever seen or heard about a case of prejudice? Tell a classmate. Use the sentences below to report the case. Resposta pessoal.

I have seen...

The media has shown...

I haven’t seen, but I’ve heard...

Cases like these have been happening...

Speaking up

Silent final -e

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir as atividades deste boxe.

1. Listen and repeat the sentences. track 24

a ) We need to raise awareness against all types of prejudice. b ) Any act promoting prejudice is a crime. c ) All hate crimes should be reported to the police. d ) Tolerance is the acceptance of beliefs, opinions and practices that differ from our own.

2. Listen to the words. Pay attention to the final -e. Then, practice the pronunciation with a classmate. track 25

108

prejudice

acceptance

indifference

crime

have

same

pride

peace

come

one hundred and eight

II.


Summing up

Nesta unidade, você...

Sugerimos levar os alunos a refletirem sobre as alternativas apresentadas no quadro abaixo e instruí-los a escrever no caderno as frases que se relacionam ao que leram, discutiram e estudaram nesta unidade.

refletiu sobre o que significa preconceito e tolerância; revisou palavras e expressões relacionadas às atitudes de preconceito e de tolerância; leu um trecho de uma palestra sobre o preconceito contra os povos nativos da Austrália. escreveu um texto discutindo os dados obtidos em uma pesquisa feita em sala de aula com seus colegas; leu as manchetes e os parágrafos iniciais de notícias sobre crimes de ódio; ouviu parte de um podcast sobre crimes de ódio no Reino Unido; Unit 5

pesquisou sobre crimes de ódio no Brasil e fez um podcast para falar sobre o que você descobriu; discutiu e refletiu sobre preconceito religioso e liberdade religiosa; leu sobre vítimas de preconceito; estudou o Present Perfect para falar de ações que ocorreram no passado sem ter uma data específica ou que ocorreram no passado e ainda são verdadeiras ou estão relacionadas ao presente; estudou o Present Perfect Continuous para falar de ações que iniciaram no passado e que ainda estão em progresso no presente ou para falar de uma ação que ocorreu recentemente e cujos resultados ainda são perceptíveis;

Going further

Editora n HarperTee

praticou a pronúncia correta de palavras terminadas em -e.

Reading

Infinite in between, by Carolyn Mackler. HarperTeen: USA, 2015.

The movie Suffragette is about women’s fight for their right to vote in 1848. Up to that year, only men were allowed to vote in England, and some brave women tried to change that.

Surfing the net The website Breaking prejudice <http://tub.im/icb4ej> is dedicated to stopping prejudice and discrimination, to break these habits and overcome these social issues.

Singing The song Everyday people, performed by Sly and the Family Stone, recorded on the CD Greatest hits, is about how people are different and like different things, but still need to live together.

Suffragette, by Sarah Gavron. Pathé: UK, 2015.

Archives/ Michael Ochs s Ge tty Image

Watching

Fil me de Sarah Gavron. Su ffr age tte. Reino Unido. 20 15

The book Infinite in between tells the story of five friends who promised to reunite after their graduation. They are going to find out how we can affect others and how we are also affected by other people’s lives in different and unexpected ways.

Sly and the Family Stone (1968).

one hundred and nine

109


Fotomontagem de EstĂşdio Meraki formada pela imagem Aaron Amat/Shutterstock.com

unit

track 26

110

When the going gets tough


The idiom when the going gets tough means that, when strong and brave people face a difficult situation they do not run away. They face the difficulty and take action. She always fights actively for her rights. So, we can say that, when the going gets tough, she gets going. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, as respostas e comentários referentes a esta atividade.

Exchanging ideas A

Do you agree with the expression when the going gets tough, the tough get going? Explain.

B

What are the people represented in the image doing?

C

Have you ever seen a situation like those represented in the image? When and where? Talk to your classmates about it.

D Would you like to protest against something? If so, what?

111


Contextualizing

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Warming up 1. Observe the poster below and answer the questions in your notebook. Anistia Internacional. Criação: Agência Air Brussels

Você pode orientar os alunos a observarem os aspectos verbais e não verbais do pôster para responder às perguntas. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir alguns dos itens desta atividade.

Amnesty International: Little Mandela. Available at: <https://adsoftheworld.com/ media/print/amnesty_international_little_mandela>. Accessed on: January 11th, 2016.

a ) What country does the poster refer to? Observe the boy’s clothes. III I

Argentina

II

Brazil

III

South Africa

b ) Who is the personality represented by the boy in the poster? Nelson Mandela.

c ) What is the meaning of the sentence “All the big human rights defenders used to be little once”? II I

It means that children’s opinions are not important.

II

It means that big human defenders were a child once.

d ) What does the boy’s gesture mean?

Resposta esperada: his gesture is encouraging people to fight for human rights.

e ) The sentence “Take part in our RIGHTS IN THE EYE photography contest with your class and help Amnesty International fight for human rights”… I I

challenges children to join and help the campaign.

II

is inviting people to work for Amnesty International.

f ) Would you like to take part in the campaign? Explain.

112

one hundred and twelve

Resposta pessoal.


Learning vocabulary 2. When

you think about human rights, what words come to your mind? In the list below, identify the ones that symbolize what you understand by human rights. Resposta pessoal. c ) protection

3. The

D

The Intouchables. France, 2011.

Filme de Steve McQueen. 12 years a slave. EUA. 2013

Inside I’m dancing. England, 2004.

E

Filme de Sherry Hormann. Desert flower. Alemanha. 2009

C

Desert Flower. Germany, 2009.

F

3. Sugerimos incentivar os alunos a imaginarem a história de cada filme com base na análise das capas dos DVDs e, além disso, a imaginarem que tipos de direitos podem ser abordados em cada um deles. É interessante perguntar se já 12 years a slave. The Normal Heart. Que horas ela volta? viram estes USA, 2013. USA, 2014. Brazil, 2015. filmes e se gostariam de assistir a eles. Eles podem dizer outros filmes aos quais tenham assistido sobre o mesmo tema para que seus colegas de sala possam conhecer. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, informações sobre os filmes.

one hundred and thirteen

Filme de Anna Muylaert. Que horas ela volta?. Brasil. 2015

B

Filme de Ryan Murphy. The normal heart. EUA. 2014

A

Filme de Eric Toledanof. The intouchables. França. 2011

Filme de Damien O’Donnell. Inside I’m dancing. Inglaterra. 2004

plots of the following movies are related to human rights. Observe the DVD covers and imagine what the stories are about. If necessary, do some research about the movies and exchange ideas with a classmate. Resposta pessoal.

113

Unit 6

f ) equality Jean-Philippe WALLET/ Shutterstock.com

e ) respect sezer66/Shutterstock.com

d ) freedom

santypan/Shutterstock.com

bikeriderlondon/Shutterstock.com

igor.stevanovic/Shutterstock.com

b ) discrimination

ChristianChan/Shutterstock.com

a ) education


Learning and acting

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Reading and reflecting Pre-reading 1. Have you ever 2. Observe

heard or read anything about human rights?

Resposta pessoal.

the logos below. What do they have in common? Identify the ones you know.

Resposta pessoal.

Sugerimos incentivar os alunos a buscarem na internet mais informações sobre as organizações abaixo. Na aula seguinte, você pode pedir que eles apresentem para a turma as informações pesquisadas.

B

Unicef

Unesco

A

UNESCO

UNICEF D

Amnesty International

Médicos sem fronteiras

Anistia Internacional

C

Doctors Without Borders

3. The

organizations above are all related to human rights. In your notebook, match the definitions below to the pictures in activity 2. I - B; II - C; III - A; IV - D.

5. As palavras que efetivamente aparecem no texto são: dignity, freedom, brotherhood, race, colour, language, religion. Neste momento, é importante orientar os alunos a fazerem uma leitura rápida do texto, com o objetivo de identificar quais das palavras listadas na atividade 4 realmente são mencionadas nele. Você pode incentivá-los a ler o texto na íntegra no site das Nações Unidas. Além de poderem conhecer mais sobre a Declaração dos Direitos Humanos, eles terão a oportunidade de conhecer outras ações dessa organização.

114

I

United Nations Children’s Fund promotes humanitarian assistance to children in developing countries.

II

A worldwide movement of people who campaign for internationally recognized human rights for all.

III

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is an agency that promotes peace and security among nations.

IV

The world’s leading independent international medical relief organization.

4. You

are going to read an excerpt from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, a very important document in the history of human rights. It was first proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly in Paris on December 10 th, 1948. What words do you think are orientar os alunos a going to be mentioned in the text? Make a list in your notebook. Sugerimos fazerem inferências sobre o

• •dignity • •freedom • •brotherhood

• •race • •colour • •language

• •religion • •happiness • •competition

conteúdo do texto, imaginando quais das palavras serão mencionadas nele.

Reading 5. Now,

read the text briefly and verify if your answers to activity 5 were correct.

6. Read

the text again and write down in your notebook...

a ) how many articles the declaration has. b ) how many articles you read in the text. c ) the article that has three clauses.

one hundred and fourteen

a - 30 articles; b - 11 articles; c - Article 29.


Unit 6

Universal declaration of human rights [â&#x20AC;Ś] Article 1 All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Article 2 Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty. Article 3 Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person. Article 4 No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms. Article 5 No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Article 6 Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law. Article 7 All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination. Article 8 Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law. Article 9 No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile. [â&#x20AC;Ś] Article 29 (1) Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible. (2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society. (3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations. Article 30 Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein. UNITED NATIONS. Universal declaration of human rights: dignity and justice for all of us. New York, 2010.

one hundred and fifteen

g18_ftd_lt_3noi_u06_110a125.indd 115

115

5/28/16 9:59 AM


7.

The words below are from the text. To find out what they mean, match them with their synonyms in your notebook. If necessary, read the text again to understand the words in context. a - III; b - II; c - IV; d - VI; e - I; f - VII; g - V; h - VIII. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a utilizarem o dicionário, caso necessitem.

8.

9.

a ) endowed with

c ) set forth

e ) granted

g ) duty

b ) entitled to

d ) remedy

f ) to arrest

h ) welfare

I

given or allowed

V

responsibility

II

qualified for

VI

solution

III

provided with

VII

to put in prison

IV

fixed by

VIII

health and happiness

The list below shows the main topics of the articles you read. In your notebook, write the respective number of the article that matches each of the following descriptions.

I

We are all born free and equal, and must be treated in the same way. Article

II

The law is the same for everyone and we all have the right to equal protection against any kind of discrimination. Article 7

III

Everyone has the right to live in freedom and safety.

IV

Nobody will be arrested without good reason or sent away from their country.

V

People’s race, color, sex, language and religion must be respected.

VI

Slavery or servitude is prohibited.

VII

Anyone can be helped by the law if they are not treated fairly.

VIII

We must all be equally recognized as a person before the law.

IX

We have the responsibility to protect other people’s rights and freedoms.

X

Nobody can hurt or torture another person.

1

Article 3

Article 9

Article 2

Article 4 Article 8 Article 6 Article 29

Article 5

Decide if the sentences below are true or false according to the text. Write down the true statements and rewrite the false ones using the correct information in your notebook. a ) The rights established in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights are the same for everybody. True. We are all entitled to b ) Not every person has the right to equal protection of the law. False. equal protection of the law.

c ) According to the declaration, we only have rights, not responsibilities. 10. Sugerimos incentivar os alunos a dizerem a importância da Declaração Universal de Direitos Humanos e por que esse documento deve ser respeitado e seguido por todos. É importante que percebam que, antes dessa declaração ser fundamentada pela lei, não existia outro documento para estabelecer o direito das pessoas à civilidade.

116

False. We have a duty to other people and to the community. True.

d ) No one can take away your human rights.

Post-reading 10.

After reading the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates. Respostas pessoais. a ) Do you think this is an important document? Why? b ) Is there any specific article that you liked the most? If so, which one and why? c ) Do you think people respect it? Explain.

11.

If you were invited to write one more article to complement this document, what would you add? Write your article in your notebook. Then, share it with your teacher and classmates.

Resposta pessoal. Para auxiliar os alunos na produção de um artigo sobre direitos humanos, você pode perguntar quais outros temas seriam importantes neste documento, como direito a saneamento básico, acesso à cultura, mídia e internet, e escrevê-los no quadro.

one hundred and sixteen


Putting your ideas into words

12.

A human rights defender is a person who acts to promote or protect human rights. Read the poster on page 112 again and discuss the questions below. a ) The boy in the picture represents Nelson Mandela. Do you think Mandela was a human rights defender? Resposta pessoal. Resposta esperada: yes, he was. b ) What was his job? Why was it important?

13.

He was the president of South Africa. It was important because he was an anti-apartheid revolutionary who fought for human rights.

Remember what you studied about campaign posters and identify this genre’s characteristics. a; b; c; d. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, mais informações sobre o gênero textual pôster.

a ) They have verbal and non-verbal information, such as photos and short texts.

d ) They may invite the reader to take part in a campaign.

b ) They aim to get the reader’s attention.

e ) Their purpose is always to sell a product or idea.

c ) They may have a slogan.

Writing Choose one human rights defender or one person you admire and represent him/her on a campaign poster you will create to defend human rights.

Anna Simonin

14.

a) Nesse momento é importante perguntar quais outros defensores dos direitos humanos os alunos conhecem, uma vez que eles produzirão um cartaz de campanha sobre um deles. Alguns exemplos são: Malala Yousafzai, Mahatma Gandhi e Madre Teresa de Calcutá. Um representante brasileiro foi Dom Hélder Pessoa Câmara, defensor dos direitos humanos durante a ditadura militar.

After writing 15.

Invite students from other classes to read the campaign posters you and your classmates produced. Talk to them and find out what their impressions about the posters are. These are some topics you can ask them about: a ) If they felt motivated to take part in the campaigns. b ) If they thought the campaign posters were interesting and convincing. c ) What their opinion about the slogans are. d ) Which other human rights defenders they would like to see represented on the posters. one hundred and seventeen

117

Unit 6

Before writing


Listening and understanding

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Listening 1. Discuss

the questions with your teacher and classmates.

Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) Do you know what civil rights are?

b ) Do you think all people have their civil rights respected? Why (not)? Resposta esperada: no, sometimes their rights are infringed or broken.

c ) What can happen when civil rights are infringed?

2. You

are going to listen to an interview with a famous American film director. Which movie is mentioned in the interview? Listen and answer. B Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, a transcrição do áudio.

B

Malcolm X. USA, 1992.

Selma. USA, 2014.

3. Listen track 27

C Filme de Ava DuVernay. Selma. EUA. 2014

Filme de Spike Lee. Malcolm X. EUA. 1992

A

Filme de Ritesh Batra. The Lunchbox. Índia. 2014

track 27

The lunchbok. India, 2014.

to the track again and answer the following questions in your notebook.

a ) What is the name of the program? I I

Democracy Now!

II

Sundance Film Festival

b ) Where is the program broadcast? I I

in Park City, Utah

II

in Montgomery, Alabama

Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que o áudio foi extraído de um programa televisivo norte-americano. Você pode tocar a faixa de áudio várias vezes para que eles possam compreender os detalhes.

c ) Who is being interviewed? II I

Amy Goodman

II

Ava DuVernay

d ) What is the movie about? I I

the march lead by Martin Luther King Jr.

II

the march lead by Montgomery

e ) Which awards are mentioned in the interview? II

118

I

European Film Awards

II

Academy Awards and the Golden Globe

Sugerimos perguntar aos alunos se eles conhecem os prêmios mencionados, ou seja, o Oscar (Academy Awards) e o Globo de Ouro (Golden Globe), se já assistiram às cerimônias e se conhecem outras premiações, como o Festival de Gramado no Brasil e o Festival de Cannes na França. Você pode perguntar o que eles acham desses festivais e se os consideram importantes.

one hundred and eighteen

g18_ftd_lt_3noi_u06_110a125.indd 118

5/28/16 10:01 AM


4. track 27

Listen to the interview one more time and decide if the sentences below are true or false. Write down the true statements and rewrite the false ones in your notebook. a ) Martin Luther King Jr.’s march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama, happened fifteen years ago. False. Martin Luther King Jr.’s march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama, happened fifty years ago,

in March of 1965.

True.

c ) The movie Selma was received with critical acclaim. True.

d ) It was shot in Brazil.

False. It was shot in the United States.

e ) Selma is a documentary.

False. Selma is a biographical drama.

f ) The movie shows the time when black people could not vote. True.

g ) It is a story of justice and dignity. True.

h ) The movie is about the power of people. True.

5.

Discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates. a ) Why were the people marching?

Resposta esperada: people were marching for their right to vote.

b ) What are the consequences for people who cannot vote? Resposta esperada: they cannot choose their representatives.

c ) Why did the director of Selma, Ava DuVernay, call these people “giants, bold and brave”?

Resposta esperada: she called these people giants, bold and brave, because they fought for what they believed in.

Speaking In 1963, Martin Luther King made in Washington DC, capital city of the United States, one of his most famous speeches, called I have a dream which talks about the difficulties that black people faced at that time. He also expressed his wishes that black and white people could live together in peace. Read part of his speech below.

[…] I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. I have a dream today! […] JR, Martin Luther King. Martin Luther King, Jr.: I have a dream. Availablet at: <www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/ mlkihaveadream.htm>. Accessed on: January 18 th, 2015.

ges

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade.

5. b) Sugerimos discutir com os alunos sobre o valor do voto em uma democracia: ele representa a capacidade de escolha dos cidadãos, ou seja, representa a voz da sociedade. Quando esse direito foi negado aos negros, isso significou que eles não eram importantes para a sociedade.

Granger/Gl ow Ima

6.

5. a) Você pode comentar com os alunos que o americano Martin Luther King Jr. organizou marchas partindo da cidade de Selma até Montgomery com o objetivo de protestar contra a proibição dos votos aos negros. Essas marchas encontraram grande resistência de governantes e da população e vários conflitos com a polícia foram registrados.

Based on Martin Luther King’s speech, write down your own speech in your notebook. Follow the steps below. Then, present it to your teacher and classmates. Resposta pessoal.

• Remember that King’s speech was about peace and living in harmony. • Don’t use slang. Speeches are usually made in a formal language. • Speak with emotion. • Talk about your personal experiences related to discrimination and racism. one hundred and nineteen

119

Unit 6

b ) The movie Selma was nominated for an Academy Award for best film in 2014.


Comprehending and using

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Learning about the language Past Perfect 1. O objetivo desta atividade é discutir com os alunos sobre o protesto e suas diferentes formas. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

1.

2. Você pode explicar que o boicote é uma ação iniciada por alguém ou por um grupo de pessoas em que é manifestada a recusa em participar ou ter relações com algo que se desaprova. Ao ter conhecimento da ação, outras pessoas que se identificam com a causa podem aderir ao boicote.

2.

120

pessoais.

a ) Have you ever been in a protest or heard about one in your city? If so, talk about it. b ) What ways of protesting do you know? c ) Do you think there is a more effective way of protesting? Explain. d ) What are the causes that make people protest in your city?

Respostas pessoais.

• a boycott

• a march

• a strike

• a petition

To check if your explanations in activity 2 were accurate, read the definitions below and associate them with the corresponding pictures. a - II; b - III; c - I; d - IV. a ) to participate in an event where people walk in a group to express agreement or disagreement with something b ) to stop working for a period of time to protest against bad working conditions c ) to abstain or refuse to have dealings with someone or something to express disapproval d ) to sign a document that requests a right, benefit or action from the government or an authority

III

to go on strike

II

to go on a march

Rena Schild/Shutterstock.com

to organize or join a boycott

IV

one hundred and twenty

to sign a petition

Monkey Business Images/ Shutterstock.com

I

racorn/Shutterstock.com

3.

These are some ways of protesting. What do they mean? Explain to a classmate.

Ms Jane Campbell/Shutterstock.com

3. Primeiramente, sugerimos pedir aos alunos que observem as imagens. Você pode perguntar o que cada uma delas representa e pedir que infiram a razão dos protestos estarem acontecendo. Em seguida, sugerimos orientá-los a ler as definições dos tipos de protesto comparando-as com a explicação que eles compartilharam com um colega na atividade 2.

Discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates. Respostas


4.

You are going to read a text about a kind of protest at the 2016 Academy Awards ceremony, known as the Oscars. Before you read, take a look at the pictures and discuss Sugerimos orientar os alunos a observarem as imagens e lerem these questions with your teacher and classmates. título do texto para fazer inferências sobre o seu conteúdo e

o

responder às perguntas abaixo.

a ) Have you ever seen the Academy Awards ceremony? Resposta pessoal.

b ) Does it belong to any specific culture or country?

Yes, it does. It is an American awards ceremony that recognizes excellence in cinematic achievements in the United States.

c ) Do you think it is important? Why (not)? Resposta pessoal.

d ) Do you know any other event like that in your country? If so, which one? Resposta pessoal.

e ) The text will mention some important people in the movie industry. Who are they? George Clooney and Spike Lee.

f ) In your opinion, what will the text say about them? Resposta pessoal.

g ) Do you think these people took part in a protest? If so, what kind of protest? I

a boycott

II

a march

III

a strike

IV

A primeira parte da resposta é pessoal. Resposta esperada: I.

a petition

www.abc.net.au/news/2016-01-20/oscars-george-clooney-joins-white-oscars-criticism-of-academy/7100468 HOME

RADIO

KIDS

NEWS

SHOP

MORE

Oscars: George Clooney joins 'white Oscars' criticism, as Spike Lee calls for Hollywood affirmative action By Jill Serjeant

Oscar winner George Clooney and British actor David Oyelowo have joined those calling for changes in the movie industry and at the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, whose members nominated no non-white actors for the 2016 Oscars for a second straight year. [...] Director Spike Lee, who is leading the call for an Oscars boycott, has demanded affirmative action in Hollywood to address racial disparity. Lee, who has an honorary Oscar, said Hollywood had fallen behind music and sports in reflecting racial diversity. Lee cited a National Football League rule that requires teams to interview minority candidates for head coaching and senior executive jobs. [...] Documentary-maker Michael Moore said he would join the boycott, along with Jada Pinkett-Smith [...]. No other major stars had yet said they would boycott the February 28 ceremony. […]

Fotomontagem de Bárbara Sarzi formada pelas imagens e s_bukley/Shutterstock.com

Updated earlier today at 12:44am

George Clooney

Spike Lee

SERJEANT, Jill. Oscars: George Clooney joins ‘white Oscars’ criticism, as Spike Lee calls for Hollywood affirmative action. Available at: <www.abc.net.au/news/2016-01-20/oscars-george-clooney-joins-white-oscarscriticism-of-academy/7100468>. Accessed on: January 20 th, 2015.

The Oscars is an annual ceremony that awards excellence in movie production and performance in the United States. The nominees and award winners are chosen by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, which is an organization that promotes the advancement of motion pictures, such as movies and series. one hundred and twenty-one

121

Unit 6

x


5.

Read the text briefly to understand only the main points. Then, answer the following questions in your notebook. a ) What is the main idea of the text?

II

I

George Clooney has joined a protest against the movie industry and the Oscars ceremony.

II

Spike Lee and other people organized a boycott of the 2016 Oscars to manifest disapproval about the lack of black actors among the nominees.

b ) What was the 2016 Oscars criticized for? I

6.

I

lack of racial diversity among the nominees

II

lack of African-American members in the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences

Read the text again. Find the specific information to answer the following questions in your notebook. a ) According to the text, who is leading the call for a boycott? b ) When did the 2016 Oscars ceremony take place?

Spike Lee.

February 28 th.

c ) Spike Lee mentions a good example of racial diversity inclusion. What is it? The National Football League.

d ) What rule in The National Football League is cited by Spike Lee? The rule that requires the interview of minority candidates for coaching and executive jobs.

The text mentions the people who have joined the boycott. Besides Spike Lee and George Clooney, identify who else has joined it. A; C; E. B

C

David Oyelowo (2012)

8.

Jada Pinkett-Smith (2013) F

Featureflash Photo Agency/ Shutterstock.com

E

Featureflash Photo Agency/ Shutterstock.com

D

Naveen Andrews (2016)

Helga Esteb/Shutterstock.com

Lucy Liu (2007)

Michael Moore (2003)

Discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates. Respostas Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

Featureflash Photo Agency/ Shutterstock.com

A

Everett Collection/Shutterstock.com

7.

Featureflash Photo Agency/ Shutterstock.com

7. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a observarem as imagens. Você pode pedir que eles trabalhem em duplas para identificar quem são essas pessoas e comentar o que sabem sobre elas.

Julianne Moore (2004) pessoais.

a ) Why do you think no African-American people were nominated in the 2016 Oscars? b ) Do you think the lack of diversity among the nominees could be considered prejudice? Explain. c ) Do you think that having diversity among the nominees and in the movie industry is important? Why (not)? d ) People who have joined the boycott want a change in the movie industry. In your opinion, what could be done to promote the inclusion of ethnic minorities in this industry?

122

one hundred and twenty-two


Imagine you are one of the members of the Academy. Think of the movies, actors and actresses from 2016. What movies would you nominate? What actors, actresses and directors? Talk to a classmate. Make a list in your notebook. Resposta pessoal.

10.

Analyze your list of nominees from activity 9. Does it have African-American people among the nominations? Discuss this with your teacher and classmates. Resposta pessoal.

11.

Do you know any other protest started because of racial reasons? Talk about it.

12.

The sentences below were taken from the text. Read them and pay special attention to the words in bold. They are in the Past Perfect tense. Then, in order to study and learn more about this tense, match the following information in your notebook. a - III; b - I; c - II.

Resposta pessoal.

Helga Esteb/Shutterstock.com

Lee, who has an honorary Oscar, said Hollywood had fallen behind music and sports in reflecting racial diversity.

No other major stars had yet said they would boycott the February 28 ceremony.

a ) The Past Perfect is used to talk about an event b ) The Past Perfect is formed by c ) “In the year before the 2016 Oscars, African-American actors hadn’t been nominated either”. In this sentence, the Past Perfect is in the I

had + a past participle verb.

II

negative form.

III

that finished before another one happened in the past.

Speaking up

/e/x/Q/

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir as atividades deste boxe.

1. Listen to the quotes. Then, tell a classmate what you infer from them. track 28

“Waste no more time with arguing about what a good man should be. Be one.” (Marcus Aurelius) “Nothing great will ever be achieved without great men, and men are good only if they are determined to be so” (Charles de Gaulle) Available at: <www.goodreads.com/quotes/5433-nothing-great-will-ever-be-achieved-without-great-men-and>. Accessed on: January 30 th, 2016.

9. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a fazerem uma pesquisa dos filmes, atores e atrizes que mais se destacaram em 2016 a fim de elaborar suas próprias listas de indicados. Para isso, sugerimos incluir somente as categorias principais, como: best actor in leading role (melhor ator protagonista), best actress in leading role (melhor atriz protagonista) e best movie (melhor filme). Sugerimos que eles trabalhem em duplas para trocar ideias. 11. Sugerimos discutir com os alunos se eles sabem sobre outro(s) protesto(s ) iniciado(s) por alguma questão racial. Por exemplo, nas Olímpiadas de 1968, no México, dois atletas fizeram um protesto silencioso na cerimônia de premiação. Eles permaneceram em silêncio com um dos braços estendidos em sinal de luta contra a discriminação racial. 12. O objetivo desta atividade é que os alunos compreendam que o Past Pefect descreve uma ação que ocorreu antes de outra ação no passado e é formado por had (not) seguido de um verbo na forma do partícipio passado. Antes de os alunos iniciarem a atividade, você pode instruí-los a estudar a página 195 do Grammar appendix.

2. Is there any difference when you pronounce the following words? Listen and answer. track 29

man

men

3. Unscramble the letters in your notebook to form pairs of words. Then, listen and practice saying them with a classmate. track 30

a ) abd – deb bad - bed

c ) asg – essgu gas - guess

b ) rryma – yermr marry - merry

d ) add – daed dad - dead

one hundred and twenty-three

123

Unit 6

9.


Using the language 13.

Me neither.

14.

I didn’t know that black actors hadn’t been nominated for the Oscars for two years in a row.

Observe the timeline below. It shows some important facts that happened before the 2016 Oscars related to ethnic minorities in this event. In your notebook, complete the sentences with the Past Perfect form of the verbs to learn more about them. be

become

receive

record

win (neg.)

2002

2006

2015

January 2016

February 2016

Halle Berry

Forrest Whitaker

#OscarsSoWhite

Jada Pinkett-Smith

Oscars

a

15. b) Sugerimos discutir com os alunos a reação da Academia após saber dos boicotes. Logo após o boicote ser anunciado por alguns atores e diretores, a presidente do Oscar, Cheryl Boone Isaacs, anunciou a frustração por não haver uma diversidade étnica entre os indicados daquele ano e anunciou que a Academia tomaria medidas com relação ao recrutamento de seus membros para tentar reverter a situação e promover uma maior inclusão étnica entre os indicados.

15.

b

c

d

Today

e

Fotomontagem de Bárbara Sarzi formada pelas imagens s_bukley, Helga Esteb, Photology1971 Tinseltown/Shutterstock.com

14. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a observarem a linha do tempo, fazendo inferências sobre a relação entre as datas e as imagens. Em seguida, eles deverão completar as frases com o Past Perfect dos verbos para descobrir alguns eventos relacionados a minorias étnicas que ocorreram antes do Oscar de 2016.

124

Now that you have studied the Past Perfect, use this tense to talk to a classmate about events that happened before you read the text. Follow the example. Resposta pessoal.

SINITAR/Shutterstock.com

13. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a trabalharem em duplas para compartilhar alguns fatos que ocorreram antes de lerem o texto da atividade 4. Você pode ler o exemplo com os alunos para que eles o utilizem como parâmetro. É importante instruí-los a utilizar o Past Perfect em suas frases.

a ) Halle Berry was the first African-American actress to win an Oscar for best actress in a leading role. Before her, other African-American actresses nominated, but . had been

hadn’t won

b ) Forrest Whitaker won an Oscar for best actor in a leading role in 2006. Before him, had received three other African-American actors this prize: Sidney Poitier in 1963, Denzel Washington in 2001, and Jamie Foxx in 2004. c ) The hashtag #OscarsSoWhite was used in 2016 as a protest against the lack of diversity among Oscar nominees. A year before that, in 2015, this hashtag already had become a trending topic on social media platforms. d ) The actress Jada Pinkett-Smith and her husband Will Smith did not go to the 2016 Academy Awards ceremony. A few weeks before the ceremony, she a video had recorded announcing the boycott of the Oscars. After reading and reflecting about the boycott of the 2016 Academy Awards ceremony, discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates. Respostas pessoais. a ) Would you join the boycott? Why (not)?

Tendo como base as informações com as quais os alunos tiveram contato durante toda a seção, sugerimos perguntar se eles participariam do boicote ao Oscar e suas justificativas.

b ) In your opinion, how did the Academy react after learning about the boycott?

one hundred and twenty-four


Summing up

Nesta unidade, você...

Sugerimos levar os alunos a refletirem sobre as alternativas apresentadas no quadro abaixo e instruí-los a escrever no caderno as frases que se relacionam ao que leram, discutiram e estudaram nesta unidade.

refletiu sobre alguns direitos humanos e sobre as leis que os fundamentam; estudou vocabulário referente aos direitos humanos; leu e interpretou um cartaz de uma campanha sobre direitos humanos; percebeu a importância de líderes para lutar por direitos humanos e civis; leu e interpretou parte da Declaração Universal de Direitos Humanos; analisou a importância de leis que fundamentem os direitos humanos; produziu um cartaz sobre um líder ou defensor de direitos humanos que você admira; ouviu parte de uma entrevista veiculada em um programa televisivo; conversou com os colegas de sala sobre diferentes tipos de protesto; Unit 6

produziu um discurso e o pronunciou para seu professor e seus colegas de sala; leu sobre o boicote à cerimônia do Oscar em 2016; refletiu sobre a diversidade étnica na indústria cinematográfica; estudou e usou o Past Perfect para falar sobre uma ação que aconteceu no passado antes de outra ação também no passado;

The book Because I am a girl: I can change the world tells stories of many girls around the world. It intendes to contribute to the end of gender inequality, promoting girls’ rights and helping to lift millions of girls out of poverty.

Watching The movie The first grader tells the story of an 84-year-old who fights for his right to study. Kimani lives in a mountain village in Kenya and is determined to learn how to read and write alongside the six-year-old class.

Singing The lyrics to the song When the going gets tough, the tough get going, performed by Billy Ocean and recorded on the album The Jewel of the Nile, mean that when a situation is difficult, strong people will resolve the problem no matter what. In this case, somebody who is in love will climb mountains and do anything to be with the beloved one.

Because I am a girl: I can change the world, by Rosemary McCarney and Jen Albaugh. Second Story Press: Canada, 2014.

Fil me de Jus tin Chad wick. Th e firs t grader. EUA, Reino Unido e Quênia. 20 10

Reading

The first grader, by Justin Chadwick. National Geographic Entertainment: USA/ United Kingdom/ Kenya, 2010. Photo Featurefl ash ers tock.com Agency/ Shutt

Going further

cond Editora Se s Stor y Pres

praticou a pronúncia correta dos sons representados pelos símbolos /e/ e /Q/.

Billy Ocean (2012).

one hundred and twenty-five

125


Choosing a career

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, mais informações sobre as profissões mencionadas nesta seção.

Degree

Sociology

Job purpose

Study society and social behavior in order to design projects, analyze, write and advise companies or government organizations about these issues.

Usually hired by

Universities, industries and local government.

Required skills

• Having good reading and interpretation skills. • Knowing how to analyze data. • Being a critical thinker. • Having good writing skills. • Being a researcher.

Characteristics of the job In your opinion, is it a pro (an advantage) or a con (a disadvantage)? Resposta pessoal.

• The possibility of working in a variety of

fields, such as business, criminal justice, social services and education.

• Having to interact with strangers. • Good pay as a researcher. • Having to study a lot. • Having to compile research data.

Ao abordar as características do trabalho de um sociólogo, sugerimos pedir aos alunos que as classifiquem em pró ou contra, de acordo com a visão e a personalidade de cada um.

If you like Sociology, you can also work as a Sociology teacher.

To work in the Sociology field, you can also become a technician. You can find technical courses at several institutions.

126

one hundred and twenty-six

1.

Do some research and find out other aspects related to the professions of sociologist and geographer, presented on the next page. Share your findings with your classmates.

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos chamar a atenção também para os textos nos posts-its e incentivar os alunos a pesquisarem outros aspectos relacionados às profissões apresentadas, como média salarial, diferentes possibilidades de atuação e curiosidades. Em seguida, você pode pedir que formem pequenos grupos e compartilhem uns com os outros o que descobriram.


Geography

Job purposes

Study the physical and human characteristics of all parts of the Earth.

Usually hired by

Universities, architectural and engineering companies, or industries.

Required skills

Choosing a career

Degree

• Having spatial reasoning. • Having good writing skills. • Being good at mathematics. • Having critical and analytical thinking. • Being curious about geopolitical facts and population data.

• Having good research skills. • Being a good observer of environmental issues. • The possibility of making a positive change to our environment.

Characteristics of the job

• Having physical demand when doing field research. • The fact that there aren’t lots of positions in industries. • Traveling to work in the field. • The possibility of earning a high salary. • Having to interact with strangers. • The fact that the job market is broad. • The fact that there are few civil service exams.

In your opinion, is it a pro (an advantage) or a con (a disadvantage)? Resposta pessoal.

Ao abordar as características do trabalho de um geógrafo, sugerimos pedir aos alunos que as classifiquem em pró ou contra, de acordo com a visão e a personalidade de cada um.

If you like Geography, you can also work with urban planning.

2.

Think about these professions and talk to a classmate. Resposta pessoal.

I would like to be a sociologist/a geographer because… I wouldn’t like to be a sociologist/a geographer because…

To work with Geography, you can also become a technician. You can find technical courses at several institutions. Fotomontagem de Anna Simonin formada pelas imagens Rawpixel.com, Halfpoint, Milos Batinic, iofoto, Alexander Chaikin e Yarchyk/Shutterstock.com

one hundred and twenty-seven

g18_ftd_lt_3noi_u06_126a127_choosing3.indd 127

127

5/28/16 10:03 AM


track 31

unit

It is up to you

128


The expression it’s up to you means that you are responsible for deciding which way you will follow in a certain situation. Do you want to leave or stay? It’s up to you.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, as respostas e comentários referentes a esta atividade.

Exchanging ideas A

Observe the picture on these pages. What’s happening? Describe it to a classmate.

B

How do you think the person in the picture is feeling? Why is she feeling that way?

C

Have you ever felt this way? When? How was it?

Fotomontagem de Estúdio Meraki formada pela imagem Kues/Shutterstock.com

D What’s the relation between the picture and the expression it’s up to you?

129


Contextualizing 3. a) These symbols represent the dollar and the cent respectively. 3. b) $ represents payment, less unemployment. While ¢ represents less money and therefore high level of unemployment.

Warming up 1.

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

2. Você pode comentar com os alunos que o pôster apresenta estatísticas relativas à porcentagem de desemprego. De um lado, em major with lowest unemployment, são listadas as áreas que possuem a menor porcentagem de trabalhadores desempregados. Do outro lado, major with highest unemployment, estão as áreas com maior porcentagem de trabalhadores desempregados. É importante esclarecer aos alunos que a palavra major é utilizada no pôster com sentido de “curso universitário”.

Discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates.

Respostas pessoais.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) In what area would you like to work or study?

b ) Have you thought that every profession requires some specific abilities? c ) What are your strong and weak characteristics?

2.

Observe the poster below and match the sentences in your notebook.

a - I; b - II.

Georgetown Public Policy Institute/Georgetown University

a ) majors with lowest unemployment b ) majors with highest unemployment

3.

I

areas in which a small number of professionals are not working

II

areas in which a large number of professions are not working

Answer the following questions in your notebook. a ) What do the symbols $ and ¢ represent? b ) What is the relation between the lowest and highest unemployment levels and the symbols $ and ¢? c ) What does the drawing in the center represent?

Available at: <http://chemistry.eku.edu/insidelook/jobs-jobs-jobs>. Accessed on: January 21st, 2016.

It represents the comparison of the value of different majors in the job market according to the level of unemployment in each field.

3. c) Sugerimos comentar com os Read the poster again and associate the sentences with the pictures. a – II; b – I. alunos que a imagem Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que as imagens representam profissionais das áreas apontadas na imagem. representa a a ) the area with the highest level of unemployment 3. b) Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que, em comparação do uma comparação, o dólar vale mais que o centavo. valor (cabeça as profissões associadas com o dólar b ) the area with the lowest level of unemployment Portanto, representada por possuem menos desempregados e seus moeda) de diferentes rendimentos são melhores. Já as profissões graduações (máscaras associadas com com capelo de colação) o centavo I II no mercado de trabalho apresentam maior de acordo com a taxa de quantidade de desemprego na área. É desempregados e pertinente trabalhar os seus rendimentos aspectos visuais com os são menores. alunos, levando-os a perceber que as expressões nas máscaras reforçam as estatísticas apontadas.

130

Rocketclips, Inc./Shutterstock.com

www.BillionPhotos.com/Shutterstock.com

4.

one hundred and thirty

g18_ftd_lt_3noi_u07_128a143.indd 130

5/28/16 10:04 AM


5.

Among the areas mentioned in the poster, in which one would you like to work? Why?

6.

Observe the non-verbal aspects in the poster and answer.

Resposta pessoal.

a ) What elements in the poster show its origin?

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

The English language, the graduation hood and the name of the university indicate the poster’s origin.

b ) For you, is it important to know the areas with the lowest and highest levels of unemployment before choosing one? Explain. Resposta pessoal. c ) What do you know about the numbers in Brazil? Which professions do you think present the lowest and the highest levels of unemployment in our country? If you are not so sure, do some research on-line. Resposta pessoal. d ) After reading this poster, would you like to change the area of your studies or job? Why? If so, what would you like to study? Resposta pessoal.

Learning vocabulary Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que o termo path se refere ao caminho, percurso tomado por alguém em sua carreira profissional.

Do you know what the term career path means? career

8.

From the words on the right, which ones do you consider important for a career path? Justify by talking to your classmates about them. Resposta pessoal.

worry

Sugerimos comentar com os alunos quais dentre os termos incluídos na placa podem ser considerados importantes durante o percurso profissional de cada um deles.

Match the sentences with the same meanings in your notebook. Then, complete them using the adjectives that correspond to the nouns from activity 8.

confidence

a – III; b – V; c – II; d – VI; e – IV; f – I.

a ) I have no worries about my future. b ) The more I think about my future the more my anxiety grows.

anxiety excitement

commitment

c ) I was filled with excitement when I heard I had passed my exams.

responsibility

d ) Teachers and parents must give students confidence to make their decisions.

Bárbara Sarzi

9.

Unit 7

7.

e ) I made a commitment to studying hard for the final exams. f ) We have responsibility for our choices. responsible

10.

I

We are

for our choices.

II

I was very

III

I’m not

IV

I am

V

Thinking about my future makes me feel really

VI

With the help of teachers and parents, students will feel more

excited

worried

at the exam results.

about my future.

committed

to studying hard for the final exams.

anxious

.

confident

about their decisions.

Now, write the following sentences down in your notebook using the most appropriate words to complete them. a ) I’m very (excited/responsible) about starting this new job! b ) Are you (committed/worried) about which career path to choose? c ) Serena is (anxious/confident) about the exam. She is a very positive girl. d ) Students should be (worried/committed) to their studies. e ) Is Henrique a (confident/responsible) person? one hundred and thirty-one

g18_ftd_lt_3noi_u07_128a143.indd 131

131

5/28/16 10:05 AM


Learning and acting

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Reading and reflecting 1. b) Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que existem muitos livros dedicados à orientação de pessoas no mercado de trabalho. Você pode questionar se eles conhecem e já leram algum material que tem como função auxiliar as escolhas pessoais de cada um e se foi útil.

Pre-reading 1. Discuss a )

the following questions with your teacher and classmates. Respostas

pessoais.

Você pode promover uma reflexão com os alunos para How concerned are you about your future? entender como eles se sentem em relação aos próximos estágios de suas vidas, como o fim da adolescência, o início da vida adulta, a faculdade e a entrada no mercado de trabalho.

b ) Have you ever read something to help you with your career choices?

Careers: the graphic guide to finding the perfect job for you. USA, 2015.

B

B. Editora Random House

A

Editora Touchstone

the books below, which ones are about career paths? A; Editora Dorling Kindersley

2. From

C

Now What?: the young person’s guide to choosing the perfect career, by Nicholas Lore. USA, 2008.

Curfewed night, by Basharat Peer. India, 2010.

3. On

the next page, you are going to read an opinion article questioning when a career path is determined in life. Before reading it, answer the questions below. Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) Have you ever taken any vocational course or test to help you find an area you would like to study? If so, what was the result? b ) Do you think they can help people to find their career path? How? c ) Do you believe your career path is determined by your studies? In what grade or phase is the career choice more likely to happen?

• •in high school

• •at university

• •in kindergarten

d ) From the words below, predict and write down in your notebook the ones you may find in the text. decisions

trainee

employee

specialize

values

goals

work

resume

boss

Reading 4. Read

the text and verify if your predictions in activity 3 were correct.

The words mentioned in the text are: decisions, specialize, work, values and goals.

5. The

title of this opinion article puts a question to the reader. What is your opinion about it? Talk to your teacher and classmates and answer this question. Resposta pessoal.

132

one hundred and thirty-two

Com base na leitura do título do texto, sugerimos levar os alunos a refletirem se suas escolhas quanto à carreira que pretendem seguir são determinadas durante o Ensino Médio e se acreditam que, nessa fase da vida, os jovens têm condição de tomar decisões importantes para o futuro.


This opinion article is divided into three parts. Read the text again and match the subtitles below to the parts of the texts in your notebook. a - II; b - I; c - III. a ) What do you want from life? b ) When do we start to make the decisions that determine the course of our career? c ) Are you going to stick with the decisions you made when you were 13 years old?

Is Your Career Path Determined By a High School Kid? I. […] It’s only as we get a bit older and go to school that we really start to be exposed to the career choices available, and our answers might start to seem more realistic, perhaps “a policeman”, “a doctor”, “a train driver”. These choices, however, are still based on a childish notion of what might be a cool job, rather than any actual knowledge of what the job entails. As we go into high school, and learning becomes ‘work’ rather than ‘play’, we are encouraged to start thinking seriously about what we want to do for a career. By age 13 or 14, we are already choosing subjects that we want to focus on, which will pave the way for our university education and ultimately the work we end up doing. So it seems that the decisions that determine our career path start to be made around the age of 13. […] Not only is it ridiculous to expect 13-year-olds to have any real concept of what they want to do for the rest of their lives, it’s also unfair to make them choose a single thing to specialize in, and work towards that at the expense of developing any other areas of interest. […]

Unit 7

Written by Emilie

Fotomontagem de Bárbara Sarzi formada pelas imagens Marijus Auruskevicius, Rido e ra2studio/Shutterstock.com

6.

II. Most high school kids don’t know what they really want from life (most 30-year-olds I know still don’t)! They haven’t had enough life experience to establish their own values and goals. So why is that we are encouraged at such a young age to choose the direction our lives will take? […] III. […] The question is, are you going to change course and start getting where you are meant to be, or are you going to continue down a path that was chosen for you by a 13 year-old kid?

Is your career path determined by a high school kid? Available at: <http://puttylike.com/is-your-career-path-determinedby-a-high-school-kid/>. Accessed on: January 25th, 2016.

one hundred and thirty-three

133


7. c) Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que, nesse período, as brincadeiras perdem espaço para o pensamento voltado para o futuro profissional.

7.

Answer the following questions about the text in your notebook. a ) According to the text, when do people start to be exposed to the career choices available? When they get a bit older and go to school. b ) According to the author, at what phase are we motivated to think about what we want for life? In high school, by age 13 or 14.

7. e) Você pode aproveitar para explicar aos alunos que se algo acontece at the expense of something else, a segunda alternativa é deixada de lado em razão da primeira.

c ) And what happens to learning in this period?

Learning becomes ‘work’ rather than ‘play’.

d ) What is the author’s opinion about expecting 13-year-olds to decide what they want to do for the rest of their lives? She thinks it is ridiculous and unfair. e ) What happens if 13-year-olds have to choose a single thing to specialize and work in? They have to give up developing any other areas of interest.

f ) Does the author think that school kids are ready to decide what they really want from life?

7. g) Sugerimos No, she doesn’t. She thinks they haven’t had enough life experience to establish their own values and goals. promover uma g ) What do you think about it? In your opinion, can the decisions that determine our career reflexão com os alunos com base path be made around the age of 13 or 14? If not, when do you think it should happen? na experiência deles com Resposta pessoal. relação à vida profissional. É In the last paragraph of the text, the author gives the reader two options. Match what she importante explicar que o says with their meanings in your notebook. a - II; b - I. sistema educacional de a ) Are you going to change course and start getting where you are meant to be? um país estrangeiro não é necessariamente b ) Are you going to continue down a path that was chosen for you by a 13 year-old kid? igual ao do Brasil. Nos I You don’t need to persist in the decisions you made at the age of thirteen. Estados Unidos, por exemplo, a high school é II You can change your mind and decide what is really good for you. dividida em quatro anos escolares: 9 th grade ou Freshman, que se inicia quando os alunos têm entre 14 e 15 Talk to a classmate and give your opinion about the following questions. anos; 10 th grade Sugerimos orientar os alunos a discutirem as questões em duplas, levando em consideração o que foi lido e discutido nesta seção. ou Sophomore, a ) When should teenagers be exposed to the career choices available? com início entre Resposta pessoal. os 15 e 16 anos; b ) Are you motivated to think about what you want in life? 11th grade ou Junior, entre os Resposta pessoal. 16 e 17 anos; e c ) Do you think your childish beliefs influence your career choices? How? 12 th grade ou Resposta pessoal. Senior, entre 17 e d ) The text says that each job entails a type of knowledge. Do you agree? Explain. 18 anos. O college ou Resposta pessoal. undergraduate e ) The text mentions three professions. What are they? corresponde à Policeman, doctor, train driver. nossa fase de graduação, e o número de anos What kind of knowledge should each one of these professions entail? In your notebook, de estudo varia de acordo com o match the jobs with the respective skills they require. curso e o nível Possíveis respostas: A - I, II, III, V and VI; B - I and V; C - I, III, IV and V. de graduação escolhido. Para A B C se formar em um curso major (bacharelado) geralmente são quatro anos. O graduate corresponde ao mestrado e doutorado.

8.

Post-reading

9.

134

a train driver

active lifestyle

REDAV/Shutterstock.com

John Roman Images/ Shutterstock.com

10. Sugerimos que os alunos reflitam sobre os aspectos que cada profissão requer mais. É pertinente notar que, embora seja possível justificar a a police officer associação de todos as características com todas as I attention profissões, indicamos as II physically mais comumente III empathy associadas.

Andrew Hayes/Alamy Stock Photo/Latinstock

10.

a doctor IV

sensibility

V

responsibility

VI

good shape

one hundred and thirty-four

g18_ftd_lt_3noi_u07_128a143.indd 134

5/28/16 10:06 AM


Putting your ideas into words Before writing 11.

Do you like reading opinion articles? Why?

12.

As their name implies, the objective of opinion articles is to explain the author’s opinion or point of view about a topic. Analyze the sentences below and write down in your notebook the ones that are true about this text genre. If necessary, do some research. b; c;

Resposta pessoal.

d; f.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, mais informações sobre o gênero textual artigo de opinião.

a ) The author’s opinions do not have to be grounded in facts. b ) The author’s opinions have to be grounded in facts in order to persuade readers and influence their opinions. c ) Opinion articles may be insightful and/or critical. d ) Opinion articles must be clear and persuasive. e ) The author may use jargon and slang.

Unit 7

f ) The author should use short sentences and active voice. For example, instead of saying “It is believed that...”, it’s better to say “I believe that...”.

Writing You are going to write an opinion article about what career you would like to follow and your points of view about the process of making this decision. Imagine you were invited by the school newspaper to write this article, which is going to be read by all the students and teachers in your school. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

Anna Simonin

13.

After writing 14.

Read some of the opinion articles produced by your class and discuss the best topics and ideas with your teacher and classmates.

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a se sentarem em um círculo para discutir suas ideias e sugestões após a leitura dos artigos. Você pode dar a eles um exemplo começando com o levantamento dos pontos fortes de cada texto lido e sugerindo o que pode ser melhorado. one hundred and thirty-five

135


Listening and understanding Listening 1. Discuss

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

1. a) Sugerimos promover uma reflexão com os alunos abordando a mudança de expectativas conforme eles crescem e se deparam com novas realidades e oportunidades.

these questions with your teacher and classmates. Respostas

pessoais.

a ) Have your ideas of what to study or work changed as you grow older? Explain. b ) Do you consider yourself ready to choose your future career? Why (not)? c ) If you believe you are not ready, what do you think you can do to be ready? Com base nas respostas dos alunos ao item b, você pode conversar com eles sobre seus anseios com relação às próprias expectativas.

2. You

are going to listen to part of a talk show called Real Talk Canada. Listen to it and find out what this episode is about. b Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, a transcrição do áudio.

track 32

a ) high school

b ) career choices

c ) how teenagers feel

3. Listen

to the track again and match the beginning and the end of the following sentences in your notebook. a - V; b - III; c - IV. d - I; e - II.

track 32

a ) As students grow older, b ) Students should not decide their future careers c ) The more you think about what you want to do d ) Students won’t e ) In order to find out what a job is really about, it’s a good idea for students to I

get a job right away.

II

take the time to volunteer.

III

until they are ready.

IV

the more you are set on it.

V

they start to realize that their ideas of what they want to be change.

4. According

to the guest of the talk show, what are the benefits of volunteering?

When you volunteer and spend some time with those professionals, you learn about the job and decide if that is really what you want to do.

5. What

questions should you ask the professionals you are volunteering with? Listen to the talk show again and write down the questions you hear in your notebook. b; c; e; f; g.

track 32

a ) How long does it take from your house to your work? b ) How long have you been doing this job? c ) Do you like your job? d ) How many hours a day do you work? e ) Do you think there is a balance between your professional life and your personal life? f ) What are the advantages of your job? g ) What are the disadvantages of your job?

6. Sugerimos que os alunos escolham, entre as três opções, aquela que melhor resume a função das questões trabalhadas na atividade 5.

6. In

pairs, choose, from the options below, the main reason why the questions from activity 5 are important. c a ) They will prepare students for a job interview. b ) They will help students to find a job right away. c ) They will give students a better idea if that is a job they will enjoy or if it is something they would like to do.

7. Do you think the ideas presented in the audio helped you to decide what career to follow? How? Resposta pessoal.

136

one hundred and thirty-six


One piece of advice from the talk show is to do volunteer work before choosing a career. Would you like to do this? Look at some pictures that represent volunteer work and choose the one you like the most. Explain to your teacher and classmates why you chose this kind of work. Resposta pessoal. B

C

Storyteller

Computer instructor

wavebreakmedia/Shutterstock.com

Bob Ebbesen/Alamy Stock Photo/Latinstock

Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock.com

A

Caring clown E

Animal caretaker

Robert Kneschke/Shutterstock.com

Catchlight Visual Services/Alamy Stock Photo/Latinstock

D

Unit 7

8.

Senior caregiver

Speaking 9.

You are going to interview a professional that you have contact with and ask him/her questions similar to the ones you heard in the talk show. This person can be one of your parents or relatives, an employee in your school or even one of your teachers. In case the person you interview doesn’t speak English, you can ask each question in both languages, take notes in Portuguese and then translate the main information to share in class. These are some questions you can ask. Think about others and take notes in your notebook. a ) Why did you choose this career? b ) How long have you been doing the job?

Sugerimos que os alunos realizem uma entrevista com um profissional que eles admirem, podendo ser alguém da própria escola, bem como parentes, amigos, entre outros. É importante estimulá-los a elaborarem outras questões, além das sugeridas nesta atividade.

c ) Do you like your job? d ) How many hours do you work/study per day? e ) Would you like to work more or less hours? f ) Do you think there is a balance between your professional life and your personal life? g ) What are the advantages of your job? h ) What about the disadvantages?

10.

During the interview, you can write the answers down in your notebook or record them, if you have the equipment to do it. Then, share what you find out with your teacher and que, após a entrevista, os alunos transcrevam as respostas classmates and tell them how the experience was. Sugerimos para o caderno e falem delas para os colegas. Para facilitar, uma opção é sugerir que gravem o áudio da entrevista, usando o celular ou outro aparelho. No momento de compartilhar os resultados das entrevistas, é fundamental aproveitar para perguntar aos alunos se elas possibilitaram conhecer one hundred and thirty-seven mais sobre determinadas profissões e se isso os ajudou a decidir qual carreira escolher.

137


Comprehending and using

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Learning about the language Reported speech 3. After knowing her colleagues’ opinions about homosexuals during a seminar activity, she decided to leave the company she was working at. She is a lesbian and couldn’t accept her colleagues’ thoughts about homosexuality. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que o texto relata uma situação no ambiente de trabalho que ocasionou uma mudança na vida de uma das funcionárias. Você pode orientá-los a ler o texto rapidamente para entender sua ideia geral. Em seguida, sugerimos pedir a eles que contem a um colega de classe o que ocorreu para que uma das funcionárias da empresa tomasse uma decisão enérgica.

1.

Discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates. a ) How do you imagine yourself as a professional?

Respostas pessoais. O objetivo desta discussão é que os alunos se imaginem no mercado de trabalho e reflitam sobre as dificuldades que possam ser enfrentadas e sobre o que eles considerariam intolerável.

b ) What kind of difficulties do you think a person might have in his/her career or levar os alunos a refletirem não somente sobre os fatores relacionados ao trabalho workplace? Éemimportante si, mas também sobre o relacionamento com os colegas de trabalho, o estresse, entre outros. c ) What would you view as intolerable in the workplace?

2.

Suppose you have a job and the following situations are happening with you or someone near to you. Reflect on them. Would these situations be OK? What would you do? Talk to Sugerimos orientar os alunos a discutirem em duplas as situações propostas a classmate. Respostas pessoais. nesta atividade, conversando sobre o que fariam nessas situações e se acham que são aceitáveis no ambiente de trabalho.

a ) Your colleagues are not very nice.

b ) You’ve realized you didn’t choose the right profession. c ) You are unhappy with your job, but it pays well.

3.

You are going to read a real story of a woman who had a turnaround in her career. Read it and talk to a classmate about what happened to her.

When Intolerance Becomes Intolerable by Marci Alboher June 2, 2008

Many career shifts involve an “aha” moment. In Lisa Sherman’s case, the moment was not only the catalyst for a career change but also led her to tell her boss she was gay. [...] It all started in 1993 with a diversity training seminar [...] where Ms. Sherman was a vice president for marketing. She kept the fact that she was a lesbian to herself at work because, she said, she worried that being openly gay would derail her career. [...] During the seminar, participants were asked to write on flip charts, filling in the blanks on a variety of sentences: “Blacks are ...,” “Asians are ...,” “Jews are. ...” Ms. Sherman said that many of the answers reflected certain stereotypes. But when she got to the page with gay people on it, she said that seeing the words written by her colleagues literally made her sick. “Pathetic,” “perverse” and “immoral” were among the ones she recalls. Some were written by people she had worked with for 15 years, many of whom she considered to be friends. At that moment, she said, she decided she had to leave the company since she could not imagine working with people who thought those things about her. But before she left, she made an appointment to see the chief executive of the company, Raymond W. Smith [...]. She told Mr. Smith, she said, what had happened at the diversity seminar, and in the process, told him about being a lesbian. Even though Bell Atlantic officially supported diversity, including sexual orientation, under its antidiscrimination policy, she said she wanted him to know the real atmosphere that people like her worked in. [...] She called the meeting “extraordinary,” yet she stuck by her decision to leave the company, using this incident as a push to try other things in her career. […] ALBOHER, Marci. When intolerance becomes intolerable. Available at: <www.nytimes.com/2008/06/02/business/ smallbusiness/02shift.html?pagewanted=print&_r=0>. Accessed on: February 1st, 2016.

138

one hundred and thirty-eight


4.

Take a look at the definitions below. They define key words related to the professional field. Learning their meaning will help you to understand the text better. In pairs, read the definitions, go back to the text and find the words that match them. a – vice president; b – training seminar; c - marketing; d – colleagues; e – chief executive.

a ) The person whose position is right below the president.

b ) A short and intensive course held by an expert to provide instruction on a subject. c ) The process of promoting, selling and distributing a product or service to the consumer. d ) One person or a group of people that you work with. e ) The person who is the principal executive officer and responsible for a company or an organization. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que esse cargo também é conhecido como CEO, uma abreviação para Chief Executive Officer (diretor executivo, em português).

5.

Now that you have worked with the vocabulary of the text, read it again to have a more accurate understanding. Then, write down the correct answers in your notebook.

4. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem as definições de algumas palavras que se encontram no texto. Você pode comentar que a compreensão dos significados dessas palavras facilitará a compreensão do texto. Portanto, sugerimos que eles encontrem as palavras no texto para cada definição. Eles devem trabalhar em duplas e as respostas podem ser escritas no caderno.

a ) Who is the text about? II I

Raymond W. Smith

II

Lisa Sherman

I

She was the vice president for marketing.

II

She was the secretary.

c ) What did she discover at the seminar? II I

She discovered her colleagues were discriminating against her because she’s a lesbian.

II

She discovered her colleagues’ opinions about homosexuals.

d ) What did she decide to do? I I

She decided to leave the company and pursue other things in her career.

II

She decided to report what happened at the seminar to the police.

6.

Do you think you would do the same thing as Lisa did if you found out that your colleagues had any kind of prejudice against something you like or defend? Resposta pessoal.

7.

You are going to read one more text about a job experience. It brings up a common subject with regard to making decisions. What do you expect you will read about? Talk to a classmate and choose one of the options below. Resposta esperada: b. Sugerimos pedir que a ) Students are choosing their career influenced by family and friends. b ) People are working in jobs they don’t love. c ) Unemployment is growing because of lack of qualifications.

8.

os alunos trabalhem em duplas para inferir o assunto abordado pelo próximo texto. Para auxiliá-los, você pode escrever o título do texto no quadro: Don’t get stuck in a job you hate.

6. Espera-se que os alunos reflitam sobre outras possíveis discriminações e tentem se colocar no lugar da pessoa discriminada para imaginar o que fariam. Assim, eles podem desenvolver maior consciência crítica bem como maiores habilidades cognitivas e emocionais sobre como agir em situações desse tipo.

Read the text and verify if your prediction in activity 7 was correct.

[...] I was asked to be the keynote speaker at a recent event and while I was waiting to take the stage, I had a conversation with the assistant in his 30s who was running the back of the room. [...] I started asking him if he loved what he did. That’s when he told me he had gone to college and had a degree in gaming development. I wondered why he was not well on his way to what seemed like it could be an awesome career. He said he had spent the last 10 years doing a job that he doesn’t enjoy because it pays well. Someday, he said, he would get back to doing what he loves to do. [...] BERLER, Chelsea. Don’t get stuck in a job you hate. Available at: <www.entrepreneur.com/article/242609>. Accessed on: February 1st, 2016.

one hundred and thirty-nine

139

Unit 7

b ) What was Lisa’s occupation? I


9. Read

the text again and answer these questions in your notebook.

a ) Who did Chelsea, the author of the text, start talking to at the event?

She talked to an assistant who was in charge of organizing the equipment at the event where she would give a speech.

b ) What did she ask him?

She asked him if he loved his job.

c ) What did the assistant study at university? He studied gaming development at university.

d ) Does he like his current job? No, he doesn’t.

e ) Why is he working as an assistant? Because it pays well.

f ) Does he want to leave his current job? Yes. He wants to get back to doing what he loves.

10. After

reading both texts, talk to your teacher and classmates about the following questions.

Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir alguns dos itens dessa atividade.

a ) Although Lisa’s colleagues’ thoughts on homosexuals weren’t nice, the company officially supported diversity. In your opinion, is it important that a company has policies on diversity and other concerns, for example, sustainability and the employee’s welfare? Would you prefer to work in a company with these policies? Explain. b ) The second text reports a story of a man who chose to have a better wage rather than working in what he really loves. Do you think wage is important when choosing a career? Are you concerned about the average wage of the career you intend to pursue? Would you give up on the career of your dreams because of money? c ) Both texts mention people who had to make difficult decisions. Lisa decided to leave her job and the assistant decided to work in something he doesn’t love to make more money. Do you think they made good decisions? d ) Have you ever made a difficult decision in your life? Talk about it. e ) Do you think there’s an attitude or a technique for making better decisions? Explain. f ) You are about to choose your course at university and your future career. What have you been doing to make the right decision? g ) Making decisions can be stressful. Do you feel pressured to decide about your future? How do you deal with the stress? h ) Growing older not only involves the responsibility to decide what you will study and work in, but also decisions about relationships, financial independence, marriage and children. Do you think or make plans about these things too?

11. The 11. Sugerimos propor aos alunos que leiam as frases que foram extraídas dos textos. A sugestão desta atividade é que eles as relacionem com aquelas que possuem o mesmo significado e que estão nos balões de fala.

sentences below were extracted from the texts you read. In your notebook, match them with what the people originally said. a - II; b - III. c - IV; d - I. a ) Ms. Sherman said that many of the answers reflected certain stereotypes. b ) She said she wanted him to know the real atmosphere that people like her worked in. c ) He said he had spent the last 10 years doing a job that he doesn’t enjoy because it pays well. d ) Someday, he said, he would get back to doing what he loves to do.

I III

Someday I will get back to doing what I love to do. II

Many of the answers reflect certain stereotypes.

140

one hundred and forty

I want you to know the real atmosphere that people like me work in.

IV

I have spent the last 10 years doing a job that I don’t enjoy because it pays well.


the sentences in activity 11. The sentences in the balloons are what the people originally said. They are in direct speech. The sentences extracted from the texts report what another person has said. They are examples of reported speech. Study the statements below. Write down the true sentences in your notebook and rewrite the false ones using the correct information. a ) Direct and reported speech are used to tell what someone says or thinks. True.

b ) Direct speech is used to say exactly what someone has said and the speech is written between parentheses. False. Direct speech can be written between quotation marks, but not between parentheses.

c ) Reported speech is used when we want to report what another person said without reproducing his/her exact words. True. d ) When we report what someone else has said, we use verbs like say, tell and ask. True.

e ) In reported speech, we have to change the tenses. For example, the Simple Past shifts to the Past Perfect, the Simple Present shifts to the Simple Past and the Simple Future (will) shifts to would. True. f ) When we are reporting what someone else has said, we usually change the adjectives in a sentence. False. The pronouns and time expressions are changed.

13. Read

the texts on pages 138 and 139 again and find more examples of reported speech. Write them down in your notebook. Then, in pairs, transform the reported speeches you found into direct speech. Sugerimos propor aos alunos que releiam aos textos para encontrar outros exemplos de frases no discurso indireto e, em seguida, transformá-las no discurso direto. A sugestão é que essa atividade seja feita em duplas.

Learning more 1. Read and understand.

Sugerimos pedir aos alunos que leiam as explicações e exemplos sobre os verbos say, tell, talk e speak. Você pode comentar que alguns deles são comumente utilizados com o discurso indireto.

Say/Tell/Speak/Talk

••Say means to express something using words. We use say in reported speech. When we mention who something is said to, we use the preposition to and the conjunction that. The counselor said that I should pick a career. People always say to teens that it’s necessary to make decisions about the future.

••Tell means to give information to someone. It is also used in reported speech. After tell, we need to mention who received the information. It can be followed by the preposition about or by the conjunction that. I told you about my feelings. Marcie told the counselor that she is worried about the exams.

••Speak and talk have similar meanings. They mean to communicate using words. In some cases, they are interchangeable, but talk is usually more informal. Can I talk to you?/Can I speak to you?

••Most commonly, talk refers to conversational exchanges and informal communication. All the students were talking when the teacher came in.

••Speak is used to refer to knowledge and use of languages. If you speak English, you have more chances of getting a good job.

2. Rewrite the following sentences in your notebook and complete them using the verbs say, tell, speak or talk. Após a correção da atividade, você pode pedir que os alunos se organizem em speaks

a ) Susan

b ) Experts

duplas e pensem em outros exemplos de frases com esses verbos.

two foreign languages. She wants to be a translator.

say

that having to choose a career is very stressful for teenagers.

c ) In order to feel better, teens should d ) Some teens don’t

tell

talk

about how they feel.

their parents and teachers about their worries and anxieties.

12. Nesta atividade, sugerimos pedir aos alunos que estudem as frases da atividade anterior e, se necessário, a página 196 do Grammar appendix. O objetivo desta atividade é que eles compreendam que o discurso indireto reporta as falas e pensamentos de uma outra pessoa e que mudanças, nos tempos verbais, pronomes e expressões de tempo são necessárias quando utilizamos o discurso indireto. 13. Reported speech: She said she worried that being openly gay would derail her career. Direct speech: “I worry that being openly gay will derail my career”. Reported speech: At that moment, she said, she decided she had to leave the company since she could not imagine working with people who thought those things about her. Direct speech: “At this moment, I decided I had to leave the company since I couldn’t imagine working with people who think these things about me”. Reported speech: She told Mr. Smith, she said, what had happened at the diversity seminar, and in the process, told him about being a lesbian. Direct speech: “I told Mr. Smith what happened at the diversity seminar, and in the process, told him about being a lesbian”. Reported speech: That’s when he told me he had gone to college and had a degree in gaming development. Direct speech: “I went to college and have a degree in gaming development”.

one hundred and forty-one

141

Unit 7

12. Analyze


Using the language 14. In

your notebook, associate the speeches in the pictures with the sentences below. Complete them using the appropriate verb forms. A - III; B - I; C - IV; D - II. C

I always study a lot.

michaeljung/Shutterstock.com

racorn/Shutterstock.com

Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ll send my resume to you soon.

D Lisa F. Young/Shutterstock.com

B rmnoa357/Shutterstock.com

A

I will travel to improve my career.

I passed my exams this year.

studied/studies

He said that he always

I

had passed

a lot.

II

She said she

III

He said he

his resume to him soon.

He said he

to improve his career.

IV

her exams that year.

would send

would travel

15. Talk

to someone that has recently made an important decision about his/her future or one that works in the profession you want to pursue. Ask for advice. Then, report some of the advice to your teacher and classmates. Resposta pessoal.

Speaking up

/n/x/N/

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientaçþes para o professor, como conduzir as atividades deste boxe.

1. Listen. track 33

His son has been a musician for years. He has been through tough moments in his career. So, he decided to compose a song about his career path.

2. Are the -n and -ng in the words pronounced in the same way? Listen, repeat and answer. track 34

son

song

3. Listen and identify the correct words that complete each sentence. Then, practice them with a partner. track 35

sings

kin

sins

king

sings

a ) Jenna will probably be a singer. She b ) Felipe VI is the c ) She is tall and d ) Burning your

142

one hundred and forty-two

king

thin

ton

thing

tongue

all the time.

of Spain.

thin

. She could be a model.

tongue

while trying hot food is probably part of being a chef.


Summing up

Nesta unidade, você...

Sugerimos levar os alunos a refletirem sobre as alternativas apresentadas no quadro abaixo e instruí-los a escrever no caderno as frases que se relacionam ao que leram, discutiram e estudaram nesta unidade.

conversou com seus colegas de classe sobre a escolha de áreas e carreiras que vocês podem seguir; conheceu alguns substantivos e adjetivos que descrevem sentimentos relacionados ao trabalho e aos estudos; leu e interpretou um pôster; leu e interpretou um artigo de opinião sobre a idade em que podemos fazer nossas escolhas profissionais e o que pode influenciar essas escolhas; produziu um artigo de opinião sobre escolhas profissionais; ouviu parte de um programa sobre dicas de como pensar na profissão ou carreira a seguir; entrevistou uma pessoa conhecida sobre as decisões que a levaram a escolher sua carreira profissional; leu textos sobre pessoas que tomaram decisões em suas carreiras; conversou com seus colegas de classe sobre decisões que afetam o futuro e a pressão e o estresse que elas geram; Unit 7

estudou o reported speech para reportar as falas e os pensamentos de outra pessoa; estudou os significados e usos dos verbos say, tell, speak e talk;

Going further

Editora n HarperTee

praticou a pronúncia correta dos sons representados pelos símbolos /n/ e /N/.

Reading

The Brazilian movie O concurso is a comedy about a group of friends who are going to take a test to try to get a public job position. What they wish for their professional future is to become federal judges, but in order to get there they have a lot of unusual and funny situations.

Singing The song I’m eighteen, performed by Alice Cooper and recorded on the CD The beast of Alice Cooper, is about the difficult time we face when we are eighteen years old and we still don’t know what we want in life.

Fil me de Pedro Vasconcelos .O concur so. Bra sil. 20 13

Watching

Anatomy of a Misfit, by Andrea Portes. Harper Teen: USA, 2014.

O concurso, by Pedro Vasconcelos. Downtown Filmes: Brazil, 2013. asepe/ Eugene Parci om Shutters tock.c

The book Anatomy of a Misfit tells the story of a teenage girl who is popular and has a crush on a boy that is a big problem. Anika needs to decide between her crush and her popularity because she’s being threatened by another girl who also likes Logan.

Alice Cooper (2008).

one hundred and forty-three

143


Fotomontagem de EstĂşdio Meraki formada pela imagem Ttstudio/Shutterstock.com

unit

track 36

144

Look on the bright side


The idiom look on the bright side means that, even though there are difficulties, you should be optimistic. Having to make decisions about your future is very stressful. But look on the bright side: you’re young and, if your plans don’t work out, you can change them. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, as respostas e os comentários referentes a esta atividade.

Exchanging ideas A

Observe the person in this picture. What is he doing?

B

In your opinion, what is the relation between the title of this unit and the image on these pages?

C

What is the feeling evoked by the landscape?

D Do you agree that every action and situation has a positive side? Why (not)?

145


2. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que Sylvia Plath é conhecida pela poesia confessional, gênero no qual os poemas enfatizam temas da intimidade da vida pessoal do poeta. O romance The bell jar foi publicado sob o pseudônimo de Victoria Lucas para evitar a exposição dos personagens reais da história, inclusive a mãe da autora.

Contextualizing Warming up

1. Talk

to your classmates.

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Sugerimos promover uma discussão com os alunos levando-os a comentar sobre as decisões que eles têm que tomar nessa fase da vida. Pode ser que eles mencionem, por exemplo, as decisões sobre suas futuras carreiras, escolhas amorosas, questões com os amigos, e assim por diante. É importante aproveitar esse momento para levá-los a refletir sobre como podem se arrepender de algumas decisões tomadas e o que Respostas pessoais. isso significa para eles.

a ) In this phase of your life, do you have to make decisions? If so, what kind? b ) Have you ever regretted a decision you have made?

2. You

are going to read an excerpt from the novel The bell jar, by Sylvia Plath, an American writer and poet. What is this excerpt about? Read it and answer. Resposta esperada: it is about making life decisions.

[...] I saw my life branching out before me like the green fig tree in the story. From the tip of every branch, like a fat purple fig, a wonderful future beckoned and winked. One fig was a husband and a happy home and children, and another fig was a famous poet and another fig was a brilliant professor, [...] and another fig was Europe and Africa and South America, and another fig was Constantin and Socrates and Attila and a pack of other lovers with queer names and offbeat professions, and another fig was an Olympic lady crew champion, and beyond and above these figs were many more figs I couldn’t quite make out. I saw myself sitting in the crotch of this fig tree, starving to death, just because I couldn’t make up my mind which of the figs I would choose. I wanted each and every one of them, but choosing one meant losing all the rest, and, as I sat there, unable to decide, the figs began to wrinkle and go black, and, one by one, they plopped to the ground at my feet. [...]

Sylvia Plath (1932–1963) was a North American poet, novelist and short story writer. The novel The bell jar, which was published in 1963, a short time before her death, was written under the pseudonym Victoria Lucas. 3. f) Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que uma escolha resulta na impossibilidade de se saber para onde as outras possibilidades levariam. Você pode questioná-los sobre como eles lidam com as diferentes opções de escolhas e com as desistências, isto é, quando uma decisão os força a abandonar outro caminho.

PLATH, Sylvia. The bell jar. Available at: <letters.to.stephanie.gportal.hu/portal/letters.to.stephanie/upload/745843_1406744742_07068.pdf>. Accessed on: April 8th, 2016.

3. Read the novel excerpt again and discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates. a ) What does the author compare her life to? A b ) What is on the tip of every branch?

green fig tree.

A possible future.

c ) What possibilities does she envision for her future?

I; II; III; V; VI; VII.

I

getting married and becoming a mother

V

traveling

II

being a poet

VI

having romantic relationships

III

teaching at a university

VII being

IV

making new friends

VIII becoming

an athlete famous

d ) Were these her only options? 5. Sugerimos No. As well as these, there were many more figs (future possibilities) she couldn’t quite make out. comentar com os alunos que o texto e ) Which of the possibilities did she want? trabalha com a She wanted all of them. That’s why she couldn’t make up her mind. ideia de f ) The author says “choosing one meant losing all the rest”. For you, what does it mean? arrependimento Resposta esperada: it means that when you make a decision, you have to give up the other options. como uma ferramenta de g ) Could she make a decision? What happened then? aprimoramento No. She was unable to decide. She says that the figs began to wrinkle and go black, and plopped to the ground at her feet. pessoal e h ) Do you relate to the feeling expressed by the author? Resposta pessoal. aprendizado. Caso eles questionem, você pode explicar que a citação Sometimes, when you have to make an important decision, you may regret it in the future. mencionada no primeiro parágrafo In your opinion, is regret something you should feel bad about? Why (not)? Resposta pessoal. e que é seguida Sugerimos promover uma reflexão com os alunos buscando levantar os lados positivos e negativos do arrependimento. pela expressão he says refere-se a Neal J. Roese, Read the text on page 147, about regrets and discuss the questions with your teacher and professor de marketing da classmates. Kellogg School of Management. Roese e Mike Morrison, um aluno da Universidade de Illinois, desenvolveram um estudo que deu origem a este texto.

4. 5.

146

one hundred and forty-six

g18_ftd_lt_3noi_u08_144a159.indd 146

5/28/16 10:09 AM


x

http://insight.kellogg.northwestern.edu/article/the_biggest_regret_of_all Research

Ideas

Podcast

Blogs

Topics

The Biggest Regret of All

10 COMMENTS

Based on the research of Mike Morrison and Neal J. Roese.

Bárbara Sarzi

[...] Whatever the cause of the regret, [...] people should not see it as negative. “Regret is an essential part of the human experience – something everybody has as long as they have life goals,” he says. “Rather than avoid it, it’s better to try to take some insights out of the regret experience.” […] While that sounds dour, there may be a silver lining to looking back on wistful memories. “At the end of the day, regrets are highly useful emotions that signal to us where in life we need to improve, and motivate us to actually make those improvements,” Roese points out. “We should listen to our regrets rather than pretend that we do not have them.” The biggest regret of all. Available at: <http://insight.kellogg.northwestern.edu/article/the_biggest_regret_of_all>. Acessed on: February 4th, 2016.

a ) Why shouldn’t people see regret as negative?

Because regret is an essential part of the human experience, as long as people have life goals. We can take some insights out of the regret experience. Você pode comentar com os alunos que experiências que levam ao arrependimento podem gerar aprendizados e reflexões. c ) Why is regret considered a useful emotion? It is useful because it can show us how to improve and it motivates us to do it. 5. c) Você pode d ) What is the best attitude towards feelings of regret? Do you agree with it? Why (not)? comentar que, a The best attitude is to listen to our regrets and not pretend that we do not have them. A segunda parte da resposta é pessoal. partir das reflexões e ) In your opinion, can regret help us in our expectations about the future? Resposta pessoal. causadas pelo Resposta esperada: yes, when we improve ourselves we can work better to make our goals and expectations become a reality. arrependimento, nós podemos The words below were extracted from the text you have just read. In your notebook, match compreender melhor nossos pontos fracos e them with their meanings. a - IV; b - VIII; c - IX; d - VI; e - V; f - VII; g - III; h - I; i - II. nos aprimorarmos. 5. d) Você pode a ) goals d ) silver lining g ) to improve comentar com os alunos que, se consideramos o b ) insights e ) wistful h ) improvement arrependimento como uma ferramenta de aprimoramento pessoal, c ) dour f ) to signal i ) to pretend a melhor atitude é não ignorá-lo, pois assim I the state of being better than it was before VI optimism encontraremos uma função útil para ele.

6.

II

to behave in a way that is not true

VII

to indicate

III

to make something better, more desirable

VIII

IV

things you want to achieve

the possibility of learning or understanding something, especially in an intuitive way

V

full of melancholy and longing

IX

depressing, sad

Learning vocabulary 7.

5. e) Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que o aprimoramento a partir de nossos arrependimentos nos torna melhores e isso pode nos ajudar a realizar nossas expectativas futuras.

6. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que a expressão silver lining é oriunda de outra expressão: every cloud has a silver lining. Essas expressões se referem ao fato de que mesmo nas nuvens mais escuras os raios de sol transparecem. Isso significa que, mesmo da situação mais difícil, é possível extrair coisas positivas.

What do these words and expressions mean? In your notebook, complete the text using them. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a trabalharem em duplas e trocarem informações sobre os significados das seguintes palavras e expressões.

Resposta pessoal.

a missed opportunity

decision-making process

make up your mind

to regret

alternatives

make decisions

regret not doing

weigh the risks

make decisions

decision-making process

Sometimes, we have to that may affect us and other people. During the , you alternatives weigh the risks make up your mind to regret and the consequences. When you , you will be less likely must list the , a missed opportunity regret not doing something. your decision. Regrets can be related to . It means that you may one hundred and forty-seven

147

Unit 8

b ) What is the good aspect of regret?


Learning and acting

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Reading and reflecting Pre-reading 1.

Discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates. Respostas Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

pessoais.

a ) What are your expectations for your future?

b ) Is it possible to create strategies for planning the future? c ) Do you make plans for your future? Why (not)? d ) Which aspects do you consider when you think about your future?

2.

Which of the following activities do you see yourself doing in future? In pairs, discuss. Resposta pessoal.

A

B

Wavebreak Media LTD/Corbis/Latinstock

D

India Picture/Shutterstock.com

C

Rawpixel.com/Shutterstock.com

Vitaliy Mateha/Shutterstock.com

2. Você pode comentar com os alunos que as imagens mostram algumas atividades que poderiam ser realizadas por eles no futuro. Sugerimos pedir que discutam em duplas sobre quais imagens lhes agradam mais.

3. Após os alunos terem selecionado a alternativa que mais se aproxima de como eles se sentem em relação às tomadas de decisões e planejamentos sobre o futuro, sugerimos orientá-los a conversar com um colega de classe e justificar suas respostas.

3.

When you think about your future, what comes to your mind? In your notebook, write down the statement that best represents how you feel. Resposta pessoal. a ) I feel like my future is just around the corner and, because of this, I think it is important to reflect upon my options and start making decisions that will have an impact on my future life. b ) I know it is important to make decisions for the future. But I feel like my future is too far away, so I am not worried about it right now. I believe I still have plenty of time to do that.

4.

On the next page, you are going to read some tips for planning your future. Before reading the text, observe the list below and identify the most efficient ways to plan your future. Then, talk to a classmate and imagine which of the tips below will be mentioned in the text. Respostas pessoais.

a ) writing down goals

e ) learning from people that you admire

b ) opening a savings account

f ) being flexible

c ) opening a retirement account

g ) imagining the future

d ) keeping in

148

Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que esta atividade contém algumas ações que visam ajudar as pessoas a atingirem seus objetivos. touch with people possíveis Você pode promover uma reflexão com o objetivo de discutir as impressões individuais sobre cada alternativa. Em seguida, sugerimos orientá-los a fazer inferências sobre o conteúdo do texto, levando-os a imaginar quais dessas dicas serão citadas no texto da página 149.

one hundred and forty-eight


Read the text and check if the tips you chose in activity 4 are mentioned in it.

6 Tips For Planning For Your Future, Even When It Seems Super Far Away […] 1. Make A List Of Things You Want To Accomplish […] You need to know what you want to do before you can make plans to do it. I suggest taking notes and keeping track of all the things you love to do, where you see yourself going, and what you’d like to learn. […] 2. Envision Your Life Going Your Way Perhaps cheesier than making a five year plan is envisioning that five year plan, but it really can help. […] 3. Open A Savings Account, Because We All Need Money […] The reality is that we have bills to pay, and those expenses can really get in the way of other life goals, such as traveling. That’s why it’s important to put a portion of each paycheck into a savings account, even if it’s just a little bit. You’ll thank yourself the next time you want (or need) to make a big purchase. 4. Also Open A Retirement Fund [...] get this — if you start saving for retirement now, you’ll likely be totally loaded by the time you’re in your 60s. […] 5. Surround Yourself With People Who Want To Help […] you should surround yourself with people you want to be like someday. Not only will you learn their ways, but they will be there to offer advice and to set you straight when you feel like giving up. 6. Don’t Burn Any Bridges [...] I know it can be difficult, but try not to burn any bridges if only for this reason. You never know when you’ll need to reach out to someone from your past for help. […]

ESTEBER, Carolyn. 6 tips for planning for your future, even when it seems super far away. Available at: <www.bustle.com/articles/126929-6-tips-for-planning-for-yourfuture-even-when-it-seems-super-far-away>. Accessed on: February 2nd, 2016.

6.

Unit 8

5.

Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que o texto trata de seis dicas para o planejamento do futuro individual. Durante a leitura, você pode pedir que confiram se suas inferências estão de acordo com o que o texto sugere. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade.

Camila Ferreira

Reading

Discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates. Respostas pessoais. a ) Before you read the text, had you ever thought of any of these tips? b ) Which of these tips do you consider the most important? Why? c ) Which of these tips do you consider the least important? Why? d ) Do you think these tips can help you to achieve your goals?

Sugerimos perguntar aos alunos o que essas dicas, como um todo, acrescentaram ao planejamento pessoal de cada um deles com relação às próprias expectativas para o futuro.

one hundred and forty-nine

149


7.

In your notebook, write down the best options to complete the sentences according to the text. a ) The first important step to plan your future is... II I

to decide if your future is far away.

II

to determine your goals.

b ) Writing notes and keeping track of what you like to do help you… I

to know what you want to do.

II

to remember your past.

I

c ) The verb to envision means… II I

to take a careful look at something.

II

to picture something mentally.

d ) Envisioning your plans…

II

I

can be very frustating.

II

can help more than just making the plans.

e ) Saving money is good… I I

to afford big or unexpected purchases and to have spare money after retirement.

II

to avoid burning bridges.

f ) If you save for retirement, you will have enough money when... II I

you decide to travel.

II

you stop working.

g ) Don’t burn any bridges can be understood as… I I

don’t make decisions that eliminate the possibility of return or retreat.

II

don’t travel unless the road is safe.

h ) Keeping in touch with people from your past is important because...

8. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que essas frases tratam de expectativas para o futuro. Eles devem discutir em duplas sobre o que essas pessoas podem fazer, seguindo as dicas do texto. Você pode aproveitar esse momento para começar a explicar o Future Continuous, tempo verbal que eles estudarão na seção Comprehending and using.

I

you may need their help.

II

having friends is essential.

Post-reading 8.

In pairs and based on what you read, discuss what these people must do to accomplish their future expectations. Resposta pessoal.

In 10 years time, I will be working for a big company.

12 years from now, I will be living in a big house.

In 5 years time, I will be travelling in the countryside.

Yo u ca n use the fol low ing exp res sio ns: To ach ieve you r goa l, you sho uld... it’s a goo d ide a to... I sug ges t you...

150

I

one hundred and fifty

8 years from now, I will be starting my own company.


Putting your ideas into words Before writing 9.

The text suggested that writing your goals is a good strategy to make plans for your future. Have you ever tried to write your goals down? Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que o texto sugere ao leitor a possibilidade de escrever os objetivos para que haja uma visualização mais clara dessas expectativas. Você pode questioná-los se já escreveram seus objetivos antes e se isso os ajudou a realizar esses planos.

Writing 10.

You are going to create a mood board. It will help you to plan and achieve your expectations. Mood boards are a mix of pictures, images and sentences that are put together on a big piece of paper. Mood boards are created in order to help people visualize their own ideas and also make these ideas easier to be communicated to others.

Anna Simonin

Unit 8

Mood board pode ser traduzido como “painel semântico”. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

After writing 11.

After finishing your mood board, you are going to present it to your teacher and classmates. You can ask your classmates about their opinions on your expectations. You can also exchange ideas when a classmate’s expectations are the same as yours. Sugerimos que, após a produção dos mood boards, os alunos os apresentem aos colegas, que poderão fazer sugestões e comentários sobre os trabalhos.

one hundred and fifty-one

g18_ftd_lt_3noi_u08_144a159.indd 151

151

5/28/16 10:16 AM


Listening and understanding Listening 1. Discuss

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

1. Dentre as possibilidades discutidas no item a, você pode aproveitar para chamar a atenção dos alunos para as tatuagens. Sugerimos perguntar se eles acham que as tatuagens, cuja remoção é complexa, podem causar arrependimentos.

these questions with your teacher and classmates. Respostas

pessoais.

a ) In your opinion, what are the biggest causes of regret among young people? b ) Do you think tattoos are often a cause of regret? c ) Do you know anyone who regrets his or her tattoo(s)?

2. You

are going to listen to the audio from a speech by Kathryn Schulz, an American journalist and author. Listen to the first part and answer the following questions.

track 37

3. b) Você pode dizer que, provavelmente, devido ao fato de que o espelho reflete a frase de maneira que pareça estar escrita na forma correta e por ele parecer satisfeito, o personagem não se deu conta do erro. 3. c) A expressão facial do tatuador permite concluir que ele está satisfeito com o trabalho.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, a transcrição do áudio. a ) This part of her speech is about… I Sugerimos comentar que os alunos ouvirão uma fala de Kathryn Schulz, uma jornalista e autora norte-americana. Na palestra, ela faz comentários com relação aos sentimentos de I tattoos and regrets. arrependimento, com base em sua própria experiência de quando foi tatuada.

II

b ) What elements of the speech confirm this?

I; II; III; IV.

I

25 percent of Americans between 16 and 50 years old have tattoos.

II

Many people that got tattooed young regret it later.

III

She had her first tattoo when she was 19 years old.

IV

She regrets having a tattoo.

V

She lives on the Lower East Side.

3. Read © 2016 King Features Syndicate/Ipress

Americans in their mid-20s.

3. a) Você pode comentar com os alunos que, ao se tatuar utilizando o espelho como referência, o tatuador acabou por escrever a tatuagem de trás para frente. A ironia está no fato que ele escreveu no regrets, que significa “sem arrependimentos”.

the cartoon below and discuss the questions with your teacher and classmates. a ) What is wrong with his tattoo? It is written in reverse.

b ) Does he know what is wrong with his tattoo? No, he doesn’t. c ) Does he look regretful? Why? No, he doesn’t. He looks satisfied.

d ) In your opinion, will he regret this tattoo in the future? Resposta pessoal.

e ) What is the relation between the cartoon and the first part of the speech that you listened to in activity 2? Both the speech and the cartoon are about tattoos that are later regretted.

Bizarro, by Dan Piraro. Available at: <http:// bizarro.com/comics/august-2-2013/>. Accessed on: February 3 rd, 2016.

152

3. d) Você pode questionar os alunos sobre o que vai acontecer quando ele se der conta do erro. Por

lado, a tatuagem está escrita ao contrário; por outro, seu significado implica na ideia que ele não one hundred and fifty-two um se arrependerá.


4. track 37

Listen to the track again and discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates. a ) Why did Kathryn Schulz wait to have her first tattoo?

She thought she would regret having her first tattoo when she was young.

b ) What did she say about other people’s tattoos? She said many people regret their tattoos as they get older.

c ) How did those people serve as an example to her? She took their regrets as an example.

d ) Why was using this example a failure?

Você pode comentar com os alunos que, mesmo tomando as precauções It was a failure because she regretted her tattoo anyway. necessárias, ela se arrependeu imediatamente após ter feito a tatuagem.

e ) How did she react to this failure? She had a massive emotional meltdown.

f ) Did she literally melt down? No, she didn’t.

4. f) Sugerimos comentar que a palavra meltdown significa “colapso” e é empregada para eventos que geralmente são de proporções colossais. Ao optar pelo uso informal da palavra para descrever sua crise de choro, ela utilizou a figura de linguagem chamada hipérbole: escolha de palavras que soam exageradas, desproporcionais e dramáticas.

g ) In your opinion, what else could she have done?

5. track 38

Resposta pessoal. Você pode pedir aos alunos que imaginem outras possíveis reações para o problema enfrentado por Schulz, como remover a tatuagem ou tentar aceitá-la, entre outras possibilidades.

Now, you are going to listen to another part of Kathryn Schulz’s speech. Listen to the track and match the beginning and the end of the sentences in your notebook. a - III; b - I; c - II. a ) Regret can be associated with thinking that our present situation could be better or happier if

I

making a decision and having imagination.

II

the more acute the regret will be.

b ) Regret requires

III

we had done something different in the past.

c ) The more agency and imagination we have,

6. track 38

Listen to the track again and discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates. a ) What is the relation between the feeling of regret and the past? Unit 8

People regret things that they did or didn’t do in the past.

b ) Why is it necessary to have imagination to regret?

Because imagination makes people think about things that could be better if they hadn’t done a specific act in the past.

c ) Why did she say that the more agency and imagination we have the more acute the people with more agency and imagination are able to think and imagine more about regret will be? Because happened if they had done something different in the past.

what would have

d ) Do you agree with her definition of regret? Why (not)?

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que, segundo Schulz, arrependimento é o resultado da nossa capacidade de tomar decisões, que podem ser equivocadas, e imaginação, que nos faz pensar em cenários hipotéticos caso fosse possível agir diferente no passado.

Speaking Organize a debate with your classmates. The students should be divided into two groups. One group believes in the idea of no regrets, which is, never worrying about the past, no matter what happened. The other group believes that regretting is fine since you can learn from your past mistakes. Before the debate, each group must think about their arguments. Then, both groups should try to convince each other that their point of view is the best. ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários You can use the expressions below. Sugerimos sobre esta atividade. Ways of agreein g I agree with... You are right about... I see your point. I see exactly what you mean.

Ways o f dis ag reein g I’m n ot su re abo ut th at. I do n ’t th in k so. Th at’s n ot al ways th e ca se. Th at’s n ot ho w I see it.

Nelosa/ Shutterstock.com

7.

6. c) Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que, quanto mais a pessoa possuir agência (que é a capacidade de agir e tomar decisões, aumentando, por consequência a possibilidade de escolhas equivocadas) e quanto mais imaginativa ela for, mais profundas e criativas serão as visualizações de possíveis resultados se tivesse agido diferente.

one hundred and fifty-three

153


Comprehending and using

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Learning about the language Third conditional 1. Talk

b ) If you could go back in time, is there anything you would do differently? Explain. c ) In your opinion, is it important to have regrets in life? Would a person with regrets be better or worse? Why? d ) What do you think about people who have no regrets? e ) Think about the three biggest regrets of your life. Share them with a classmate. f ) Are your regrets about things you have done or things you haven’t done? Do you think it’s possible to regret something you didn’t do? Explain.

2. Think

about your high school years and discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre alguns dos itens desta atividade. a ) Do you have any regrets about your high school years?

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos pedir aos alunos que reflitam sobre o período do Ensino Médio e digam se têm algum arrependimento sobre esse período escolar.

b ) How important is high school for students in Brazil?

I

II

Glee. USA, 2012.

Tomboy. France, 2012.

Filme de Dennis Gansel. Die Welle. Alemanha. 2008

c ) In some countries high school is a very important moment in a student’s life. This is often a subject in movies and series. Which of the movies and series below have stories about high school students? I and III. Filme de Céline Sciamma. Tomboy. França. 2012

2. c) Sugerimos orientar os alunos a observarem as capas dos filmes e do seriado. Você pode perguntar se eles os conhecem e se já os viram. Caso eles respondam que sim, você pode pedir que contem brevemente sobre o que o filme/seriado retrata.

Respostas pessoais.

a ) Are you an impulsive person? Or are you the type of person who thinks carefully before taking actions? How does this personality trait influence your life decisions?

Série de Ryan Murphy. Glee. EUA. 2012

2. b) Resposta esperada: it’s somehow important because students are finishing school and closer to the university entrance exam, but it’s not more important than any other school term. Nesse momento, você pode perguntar aos alunos se em países estrangeiros os alunos possuem a mesma concepção sobre a importância do Ensino Médio. O objetivo desta discussão é que os alunos percebam que, em alguns países, esse período é um dos mais importantes da vida.

to your teacher and classmates about the following questions.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

III

Die Welle (The Wave). Germany, 2008.

d ) In your opinion, why is high school so important in the life of students from foreign countries, such as the USA? Resposta esperada: because they are going to college soon and, when finish high school, they usually move out from their parents’ house.

3. On

the next page, you are going to read some regrets about high school posted on a social network. Before you read the posts, read the regrets below. Which ones do you think will be mentioned? Talk to a classmate. Resposta pessoal. a ) I wish I had been gentler with my teachers. b ) I wish I had made more friends. c ) I wish I had done my homework more often. d ) I wish I had enjoyed it more.

154

one hundred and fifty-four

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a trabalharem em duplas para fazer inferências sobre os arrependimentos que serão mencionados nos depoimentos da página seguinte.

they


4.

Now, read the posts and find out what the regrets are.

Sugerimos pedir aos alunos que leiam os textos para descobrir quais são os arrependimentos, verificando se suas previsões estavam corretas.

[…] “Talk to more people sooner. I had a few friends freshman/sophomore year but I didn’t really start to expand my social group until my junior year. If I had focused on that I think I would’ve been happier earlier on and my grades probably would’ve been better too.” - T. […]

[…] “If I could do it all over again the only thing I would change would be to enjoy High School a little more. I don’t know about you guys but after high school is just work and school. Some people get the chance to enjoy college but unfortunately I’m not one of those people [...] If I had had a better concept of time maybe I would’ve used my time more wisely instead of the random stuff...” - Z. […]

High school regrets: Reddit users share the one thing they would have done differently in high school. Available at: <www. huffingtonpost.com/2013/10/01/high-school-regrets_n_4025602.html>. Accessed on: February 4th, 2016.

5.

Do you relate to any of the posts? Explain.

6.

Read the regrets and write the true statements and rewrite the false ones in your notebook.

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos perguntar aos alunos se eles se identificam com algum dos depoimentos, ou seja, se possuem o mesmo arrependimento citado em algum dos comentários.

a ) People shared on the network what they would like to forget about high school.

False. People shared on the network what they would like to do differently if they had the chance to relive high school.

b ) The people who posted on the social network are high school students. False. They are people who have already finished high school.

c ) In one of the posts, the replier regrets not having made more friends. True.

d ) According to one replier, he/she didn’t make the best of his/her time in high school. Unit 8

True.

7.

If you had the opportunity to share your ideas on that social network, what would you say?

8.

The following sentences were taken from the texts. They are in the third conditional. Read ler as frases com os alunos e comentar and study them. Then, answer the questions in your notebook. Sugerimos que elas foram retiradas dos depoimentos. Em

Resposta pessoal.

If I had focused on that, I think I would’ve been happier earlier on and my grades probably would’ve been better too. If I had had a better concept of time, maybe I would’ve used my time more wisely instead of the random stuff.

a ) Both sentences express impossible conditions. They describe actions in the past that didn’t happen. The people are imagining the results of these hypothetical situations. I b)

c)

seguida, sugerimos orientá-los a analisar essas frases e, se necessário, estudar a página 197 do Grammar appendix para responder às questões.

4. Sugerimos lembrar aos alunos que freshman, sophomore e The third conditional has two clauses: the if clause and the main clause. The junior são nomenclaturas que os alunos recebem if clause expresses an impossible condition in the past, and the main clause em países como os Estados Unidos de acordo com o ano letivo que estão expresses its imaginary result. I cursando. Freshman é um aluno que está cursando o primeiro ano do Ensino Médio ou da faculdade; I true I false sophomore é o aluno que está cursando o segundo ano; e junior é o aluno do terceiro ano. Ainda há a palavra senior para o aluno que cursa o último ano do How is the if clause formed? II Ensino Médio ou da faculdade.

I

true

I

If + subject (I, he, she, etc.) + the verb in the past participle form.

II

If + subject (I, he, she, etc.) + had (not) + the verb in the past participle form.

d ) How is the main clause formed? II

II

false

Sugerimos explicar aos alunos que, dependendo do sentido da frase, além de would, é possível utilizar os verbos modais could ou might.

I

Subject + had + the verb in the infinitive form.

II

Subject + would (not) + have + the verb in the past participle form.

e ) When the sentence starts with the if clause, do we need to use a comma between the clauses? II I

no

II

yes one hundred and fifty-five

155


9.

After studying the third conditional, you could notice that this structure can be used to express regrets. Go back to activity 1 on page 154 and recall the three regrets you shared with a classmate. After that, write them in your notebook using the third conditional. Follow the example. Finally, share your regrets again with a different classmate.

Resposta pessoal.

If I had (not) , I would (not) have . I would (not) (not)

if I had .

Remember We can also express regrets using the verb wish. I wish I had paid more attention to the classes. She wishes she had been a better student.

Future Continuous 10.

11. 12. 13.

Sugerimos retomar as expectativas para o futuro discutidas na atividade 1 da seção Learning and acting e perguntar aos alunos se, após refletirem sobre seus arrependimentos, elas mudaram.

You are going to read a comic strip about future expectations. Before reading it, observe the pictures. With a classmate, imagine the characters’ dialog. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos propor que os alunos observem as imagens da tirinha na atividade 13 e infiram o seu tema. Em seguida, eles devem tampar as falas nos balões e criar um diálogo próprio com um colega de sala.

Observe the man’s facial expression in each panel. How’s he feeling? Why do you think he’s feeling that way? Does he change his mood? If so, why? He’s happy in the second panel, but he changes his mood in the next ones. He becomes thoughtful and, then, sad. As respostas para as demais perguntas são pessoais.

Read the comic strip. Was your dialog close to the real one? © 2015 Darrin Bell

12. Sugerimos discutir os sentimentos do personagem masculino da tirinha. Para isso, é importante pedir aos alunos que analisem sua expressão facial em cada quadrinho.

Thinking about our regrets is a way to avoid making the same mistake(s) and to reflect on what we need to change to be better people or have a better life. Thinking and planning our future is also important in this process. After reflecting about your regrets, have your expectations for the future changed? Resposta pessoal.

Cadorville, by Darrin Bell. Available at: <http://candorville.com/2015/04/09/lemont-looks-happy/>. Accessed on: February 4th, 2016.

14.

15.

Read the comic strip again. In your notebook, match the beginning and end of the sentences about what is happening in the panels. a - IV; b - II; c - I; d - V; e - III. a ) They are

I

the good weather and the view.

b ) The woman notices the man is

II

happy.

c ) The man is happy because of

III

sad.

d ) The man worries that

IV

on the top of a building.

e ) After thinking about what might happen in the future, the man gets

V

maybe in the future he won’t enjoy that again.

Read the sentence below. Have you ever had a similar thought? Talk to a classmate. Someday, I’ll be lying on my death-bed, realizing I’ll never enjoy any of that again.

156

one hundred and fifty-six


to a classmate and answer the following questions.

a ) Do you think the man has an optimistic or pessimistic idea of his future?

Resposta esperada: pessimistic.

b ) What about you? When you think about the future, are you optimistic or pessimistic? Give examples of some of your thoughts. Resposta pessoal. c ) In the last panel, the woman tells the man to forget about her first comment. In your opinion, why does she say that? If you were in her shoes, how would you react? She tries to console him. A segunda parte da resposta é pessoal.

17. The

sentence highlighted in activity 15 is in the Future Continuous. What is the Future Continuous used for? Read that sentence again and answer in your notebook. b a ) It’s used to talk about something that is uncertain to happen in the future. b ) It’s used to predict or talk about something that will be happening at a future time.

18. In

order to understand the Future Continuous a little better, read the sentences below. Write down the true statements and rewrite the false ones in your notebook. a ) The Future Continuous is used when we refer to an event in the future and we imagine what we will be doing at that time. True. b ) The Future Continuous is also used to express an action that will be happening in the future when another action interrupts it. For example, will you be working when she gets home?. True. c ) To form the Future Continuous, we use will (won’t) + be + the verb in the base form. To form the Future Continuous, we use will (won’t) + be + the verb with -ing.

19. Read

the man’s sentence about the future in activity 15 again. How would you change it using your own ideas? Rewrite the sentence below in your notebook and complete it. Then, compare your sentence with a classmate’s. Resposta pessoal. Someday, I’ll be

realizing I’ll

.

Learning more 1. Read and understand.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre este boxe.

Hope/Expect/Look forward to

••Hope means to expect for something to happen. It usually involves emotions.

16. b) Sugerimos discutir com os alunos se suas expectativas para o futuro são otimistas ou pessimistas, pedindo que justifiquem suas respostas com exemplos de alguns de seus pensamentos sobre o futuro. 17. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a relerem a frase na atividade 15. Você pode dizer que ela tem o Simple Future e o Future Continuous e pedir que eles localizem essas estruturas na frase (Future Simple: I’ll never enjoy; Future Continuous: I’ll be lying). Em seguida, sugerimos orientá-los a anotar no caderno a alternativa que descreve como o Future Continuous é utilizado. 18. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a estudarem a página 197 do Grammar appendix, escreverem as afirmações verdadeiras no caderno e reescreverem as falsas, corrigindo-as.

I hope that all your dreams come true. Optimistic people always hope for the best.

••Expect means to believe something will happen because it is likely or has been planned. She’s studied a lot. I expect that she’ll pass the exams and get into a good university.

••Look forward to means to be excited about something that is going to happen. After look forward to we use a verb with –ing.

I’m really looking forward to graduating.

2. Read the sentences below. Write in your notebook the best options to complete them. a ) My aunt is I

hoping

b ) Don’t I

a baby. II II

me to be a lawyer. I’ll never be comfortable working in a suit and tie. I

expect

c ) I’m so tired. I’m really I

expect

II

look forward to

II

hoping

II

hope

my next vacations. I

looking forward to

d ) Mark is ill. I I

expecting

he gets better soon. II

one hundred and fifty-seven

157

Unit 8

16. Talk


Using the language 20.

Take a look at the pictures below. What are the people doing? Talk to a classmate. Then, answer the questions in your notebook. Respostas pessoais.

Halfpoint/Shutterstock.com

wavebreakmedia/Shutterstock.com

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a observaram as imagens e descrevê-las para um colega de sala enfatizando o que cada pessoa está fazendo. Em seguida, eles devem responder às perguntas de acordo com as imagens.

Ardelean Andreea/Shutterstock.com

b ) What would have happened if she had studied more?

Image Point Fr/Shutterstock.com

a ) If he had thought more carefully, what would he have done differently?

c ) If she had read the reminder, what wouldn’t she have forgotten?

21. 22. 23.

Share the sentences you wrote in activity 20 with a classmate. Discuss with him/her what the regrets of each person might be. Possíveis respostas: a) The man wishes he hadn’t got the tattoo; b) The girl wishes she had studied more; c) The woman wishes she hadn’t forgotten something; d) The man and the woman wish they hadn’t argued with each other.

Having in mind their regrets, what do you think they will be doing next? Talk to your perguntar aos alunos o que eles acham que as pessoas classmates and teacher. Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos representadas nas fotografias farão em um futuro próximo. Sugerimos incentivá-los a utilizar o Future Continuous. Você pode dar um exemplo e escrevê-lo na lousa, como The man will be removing the tattoo.

Now it’s your turn to think about what you will be doing in the future. Read the example below. Then, write similar sentences in your notebook about what you will be doing.

Para orientar os alunos nessa atividade, você pode ler o exemplo com eles. Em seguida, sugerimos perguntar o que eles imaginam que estarão fazendo com vinte anos de idade e ajudá-los a montar as demais frases de acordo com a idade ou evento sugerido nas alternativas.

24.

d ) If you had been in their shoes, what would you have regretted saying?

I’ll be studying Arts at 20 years old. a ) … five years from now.

d ) ... at university or work.

b ) … in ten years time.

e ) ... at 30 years old.

c ) ... after I finish high school.

f ) ... at 50 years old.

Share your sentences with a classmate to check whether he/she has the same expectations as yourself. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a compartilharem as sentenças que produziram na atividade 23 e verificar se seus colegas possuem expectativas de futuro similares às deles.

158

one hundred and fifty-eight


Summing up

Nesta unidade, você...

Sugerimos levar os alunos a refletirem sobre as alternativas apresentadas no quadro abaixo e instruí-los a escrever no caderno as frases que se relacionam ao que leram, discutiram e estudaram nesta unidade.

leu parte de um romance sobre as escolhas da vida; leu e conversou sobre os aspectos positivos do arrependimento; conversou sobre o planejamento de futuras realizações; aprendeu diferentes ações que facilitam a realização de metas pessoais e profissionais; produziu um painel semântico cuja função é a visualização de expectativas e planos para o futuro; ouviu trechos de uma palestra sobre arrependimentos; ouviu a definição de arrependimento e como lidar com esse sentimento; debateu com os colegas sobre a utilidade do sentimento de arrependimento; refletiu e conversou com um colega de sala sobre os seus arrependimentos; discutiu sobre a importância do Ensino Médio no Brasil e em outros países; leu depoimentos sobre o que as pessoas fariam diferente se pudessem retornar ao Ensino Médio; estudou a third conditional para imaginar o que poderia ter ocorrido no passado; leu uma tirinha com uma reflexão sobre o futuro; Unit 8

estudou o Future Continuous para expressar o que estará acontecendo em um determinado período no futuro; estudou os significados e usos dos verbos hope, expect e look forward to.

Going further Emmanuel’s dream: the true story of Emmanuel Ofosu Yeboah, by Laurie Ann Thompson. Schwartz & Wade: Canada, 2015. Fil me de Richa rd Linklater. Bo yhoo d. EUA. 20 14

ar tz & Wad Editora Schw

The book Emmanuel’s dream: the true story of Emmanuel Ofosu Yeboah tells the story of a boy from Ghana, West Africa, who has one deformed leg. Despite all his dificulties, he pursued his dream and managed to do a lot of things, such as learning how to play soccer and ride a bicycle.

e

Reading

Watching The movie Boyhood shows Mason from the age of 6 until he is 18 years old. He has to deal with all aspects of growing up and becoming an adult.

Boyhood, by Richard Linklater. Universal Pictures: USA, 2014.

Singing The song The climb, performed by Miley Cyrus and recorded on the CD Hannah Montana: the movie, is about dreams for the future and the obstacles we face to get there.

Shutters tock.c

The website Action for happiness <http://tub.im/4kxn9m> is from an organization which promotes actions to transform people’s work, family and local community with the goal of making the future better.

s_bukl ey/ om

Surfing the net

Miley Cyrus (2013).

one hundred and fifty-nine

g18_ftd_lt_3noi_u08_144a159.indd 159

159

5/28/16 10:18 AM


Thinking cross-curricularly 1. a) Resposta pessoal. Resposta esperada: no, some people face more difficulties because they are part of minority and/or oppressed groups. Sugerimos levar os alunos a refletirem sobre como algumas pessoas são oprimidas em nossa sociedade por causa de sua condição social, cor de pele ou gênero. 1. c) Resposta esperada: people can think more about their own attitudes in order to avoid prejudice, and also engage in campaigns to raise awareness. Sugerimos questionar os alunos sobre diferentes formas de se combater discriminações. É importante estimulá-los a comentar sobre suas próprias experiências e opiniões. 2. Este texto possibilita o trabalho com os conteúdos de Biologia, pois aborda os conceitos de raça e racismo sob a perspectiva da Antropologia Biológica, ciência que estuda os processos relativos à evolução da humanidade a longo prazo. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade.

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

In this section of the book, you are going to read texts related to some of the topics you have discussed in the previous units. Here, you are going to have the opportunity to reflect on various themes and their relation with other subjects, such as Biology, Sociology and History. The activities follow the same structure you have worked with in the units, including the stages of pre-reading, reading and post-reading.

1. Discuss

the following questions with your teacher and classmates.

a ) Do you think all people have the same treatment and opportunities? Why (not)? b ) Can you give some examples of discrimination faced by some people? Racism, sexism, homophobia, transphobia, xenophobia, ableism, ageism.

c ) How can people fight against discrimination?

2. You

are going to read an interview with the professor and physical anthropologist Dr. Robert Sussman about racism. Read it and on the next page identify the best option to complete its main idea.

The Surprising Science of Race and Racism Eliza Sankar-Gorton

[…] Is there any scientific validity to the concept of different races? In biology, there is a concept of sub-species, or race. Over time animals of a species may separate and develop different populations with different gene frequencies. If this happens over a very long period of time, the genetic differences will make it difficult for these populations to breed with one another, and they develop into two different species. Over this period of time, the different populations of animals would develop into different subspecies; differences would be great but during the interim they could still interbreed. Thus, for example, different populations of mammals could be very different from one another but, if brought together (in a zoo, for example), they could still breed. There are a number of subspecies or races of chimpanzees in Africa. These are separate populations with some specific biological differences and with a number of genetic differences in each population. Biologists now have a way of measuring these biological and genetic differences. (Basically, subspecies are geographically, morphologically, and genetically distinct populations but can still interbreed.) We can measure different mammalian populations, for example, and see how close different populations are genetically. We can examine the patterns and amount of genetic diversity found within and among populations. However, the genetic differences among human populations are not similar to those found among many other mammalian populations. Modern humans (Homo sapiens) have only been on earth for about 200,000 years and have not been separated from one another for any long period of time. […] How do anthropologists think about different groups of humans? Anthropologists think of them as ethnic groups. Different people have different backgrounds, behaviors, world views, values, social organizations, etc. because of their socialization, history, and culture, not because of their biology. […] Did we evolve to be suspicious of or racist toward others? If so, why? We might have some adaptations to be suspicious of strangers, but this might also be a cultural adaptation. We can teach our children to be suspicious or racist. However, we can also teach our children to be open to strangers. It really does depend on our education and our socialization, not on our biology. There is no biological device to make us fear either snakes or other people. We teach and learn these behaviors. [...] SANKAR-GORTON, Eliza. The surprising science of race and racism. Available at: <www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/06/30/ racism-race-explained-science-anthropologist_n_7687842.html>. Accessed on: January 13 th, 2016.

160

one hundred and sixty


• Robert Sussman is talking about race and racism from a... b a ) social perspective.

Read the interview again and write the appropriate answers in your notebook. a ) Race or sub-species are the… I I

genetic differences caused by the separation of populations after a long time.

II

genetic differences caused by social aspects after a long time.

b ) Subspecies are…

II

I

geographically, morphologically, and genetically equal.

II

geographically, morphologically, and genetically distinct.

c ) Groups of humans are characterized by… I I

their culture, world views, history, society, and so on.

II

specific biological differences.

d ) Being racist and suspicious of others are behaviors that can be… I I

4.

learned and taught.

II

transmitted genetically.

4. a) No, there are not. Because humans do not have big genetic differences. Você pode comentar com os alunos que muitos mamíferos possuem diferenças suficientes para serem classificadas em subespécies. Os seres humanos, por outro lado, não possuem diferenças significativas para que raças ou subespécies sejam cientificamente possíveis. 4. b) Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que o racismo é uma prática discriminatória que se baseia em um conceito cientificamente errôneo, já que não há diferentes raças humanas.

4. c) Você pode comentar que o racismo é um comportamento aprendido com outras pessoas, ou seja, é uma prática assimilada e reproduzida na convivência em sociedade.

According to the interview you read, discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates. a ) Are there races of humans? b ) Is there scientific basis for racism? No, there is not. Because there are no races.

c ) How do people become racists? They learn it from others.

5.

Akhenaton Images/Shutterstock.com

d ) After reading this interview, what can you conclude pessoal. Resposta esperada: there is no about racism? Resposta scientific explanation for racism, which means that all human beings are biologically equal. Consequently, racism is a kind of behavior that should be banished from our society.

Besides racism, there are other forms of discrimination. Match the words with their meanings. a - IV; b - V; c - III; d - I; e - II.

a ) sexism

d ) ableism

b ) ageism

e ) linguicism

c ) classism

6.

I

discrimination or prejudice against people with disabilities

II

discrimination or prejudice based on one’s use and knowledge of a language

III

discrimination or prejudice based on social or economic class

IV

discrimination or prejudice based on sex or gender

V

discrimination or prejudice based on age

5. Você pode comentar com os alunos que racismo é uma forma de discriminação, mas que existem outras, e muitas dessas foram discutidas na unidade 5. Sugerimos retomar esses conceitos, pedindo que os alunos expliquem o significado de cada palavra.

In groups, you are going to research about one of the kinds of discrimination from activity 5. After collecting the data, you have to present it to your classmates. Your presentation Após as pesquisas, os alunos devem apresentar oralmente à turma o que aprenderam, utilizando has to consider: vídeos, fotografias, infográficos e outros recursos audiovisuais. Os dados pesquisados nesta atividade servirão de base para a criação de um infográfico na atividade 10.

• The defi nitio n of the chosen discrimi nati on. • Pos sible causes (historic al, social and/or cultural ). • Notable examples of this disc rimi nati on. • Specific anti-discrimination law s. one hundred and sixty-one

161

Thinking cross-curricularly

3.

b ) biological perspective.


7. Read

the following infographic and analyze its elements and data. According to this infographic, what is the relation between gender and agriculture? International Water Management Institute/CGIAR

7. The infographic shows many details about the relation between food production and gender. It shows that, even though women play a key role in agriculture, most resources are possessed by men. So, we can conclude that if gender discrimination is erased, the food production will rise as a result of women’s access to resources such as land, credit, education and others. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a fazerem uma leitura rápida para identificar a proposta geral do infográfico, que contém dados sobre a participação das mulheres na agricultura, e relacionar esses elementos com o título. Você pode comentar também que o infográfico foi produzido pela IWMI (International Water Management Institute), uma organização sem fins lucrativos que objetiva a criação de estratégias para o uso sustentável da água. O infográfico utilizado faz parte de um estudo promovido pela ONG com o objetivo de analisar as relações entre gênero, opressão das mulheres, participação das mulheres em diferentes atividades, como ciências e agricultura, e o uso da água.

IWMI. Gender & Agriculture. Available at: <http://www.iwmi.cgiar.org/issues/gender/multimedia/>. Accessed on: April 12 th, 2016.

162

one hundred and sixty-two


8.

The infographic is divided into three main parts. Work in groups, draw up the following Você pode comentar com os alunos que o infográfico é table and write ideas related to each part in your notebook. claramente dividido em três partes e essa divisão é feita

com o objetivo de organizar a apresentação dos dados e Possíveis respostas: facilitar a leitura. 9. c) Women 9. a) Although would have women have an world facts, food production by women, water, working hours First part more access to important role education and in agriculture then farm yields and providing discrimination against women, conditions of work, land, money, Second part could increase household education, services from 7 to 22%. food, they don’t have access to importance of women, food security, farm yield, food production, De acordo com Third part land, money, hunger o infográfico, o education or acesso à other necessary educação, isto é, a técnicas de produção, poderia resultar em um aumento de produção de até 22%. resources. levar After reading the infographic, discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates. Sugerimos os alunos a refletirem sobre a ) What is the relation between women and agriculture? como as mulheres têm menos acesso b ) What are some elements that indicate discrimination against women? a recursos que poderiam c ) According to the infographic what would be one of the results of gender equality? ajudá-las em sua d ) What would happen if women had the same resources as men? Give one example from participação na agricultura, tais Farm yields could increase from 20 to 30% and reduce hunger from 12 to 17% in developing como acesso a the text. countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, the production of maize, beans and cowpeas increased 22% when terras de women had the same conditions as men. qualidade, água e ) In your opinion, why do women face these problems? limpa e Resposta pessoal. Resposta esperada: these problems are part of the discrimination against women. instrução técnica.

10.

You are going to create an infographic with the information you collected in activity 6 and present it to the class. Infographics present a mix of verbal texts and graphic elements, which make the information more accessible.

Sugerimos organizar os alunos em grupos e orientá-los a criar um infográfico com base nas informações coletadas nas pesquisas da atividade 6. O professor de História pode auxiliar na pesquisa por mais informações do histórico das discriminações e o professor de Sociologia pode Your infographic has to contain the following structure: ajudar os alunos a compreenderem as políticas e Title: the title should anticipate what the infographic is ações afirmativas relativas à about. discriminação na sociedade atual. First part: it should present more general facts about the

• •

subject. Remember to show some statistics to support your ideas. Second part: it should present more specific facts about the subject. It is important to direct the reader through the information.

Third part: it should present examples, numbers and graphic elements related to the information.

Stephane Bidouze/Shutterstock.com

9. b) In Africa, women work twice as long as men; they grow food on degraded, smaller plots than those owned by men; and women represent 48% of business owners but only 7% of them receive credit in Kenya. O infográfico aponta que, embora as mulheres produzam metade da comida do mundo, elas possuem menos acesso a financiamentos, educação e condições melhores de trabalho.

one hundred and sixty-three

163

Thinking cross-curricularly

9.


11.

11. b) Resposta esperada: yes, people can get more attention and be more representative when they are in organized groups. Você pode comentar com os alunos que a união de minorias oprimidas é uma ferramenta eficiente na diminuição de preconceitos, uma vez que, em grupos, ganham mais representatividade.

12.

Discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates. a ) In your opinion, what can people do to assure their rights? b ) Can organizations be helpful in order to prevent prejudice?

Resposta esperada: they can start campaigns to raise awareness, send messages to the politicians, engage in protests and many other actions.

You are going to read a text about gay activism. After that, draw up the table in your notebook and complete it with information from the text.

Gay Identity, Gay Rights, and Gay Activism The terms gay (referring to men), lesbian (referring to women), and LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) include not only personal feelings and behaviors, but also describe a political, cultural, and social identity. k .c

om

[...]

Sh

ut t

er s

toc

The Beginnings of the Gay Rights Movement ni t

o/

Gay people finally became tired of being mistreated and began to fight back. In the 1960s, they simply wanted the public to leave them alone. They didn’t want to be called names and didn’t want to be arrested for going to gay bars. When dialog and reason didn’t get results, they began to form organizations and develop protest strategies. Following the social protest strategies of the era, they turned social issues into political issues. Although homosexual behavior is as old as history itself, there had not previously been a social identity based entirely on sexual behavior. The gay rights movement took the behavioral definition and expanded it to become a definition of a class of people. […] Over the years, gay people formed various organizations to further their efforts for equal and fair treatment. Over time, many of these well-meaning efforts went to extremes, often including violence, vandalism, and clandestine efforts to change public opinion and public policy. These extreme efforts are often referred to as gay activism. Today, a number of highly organized, well-funded organizations influence public opinion in favor of homosexuality as a normal, alternative sexuality. Large pro-gay organizations spend hundreds of millions of dollars each year to promote their causes. […] Gay identity, gay rights, and gay activism. Available at: <http://samesexattraction.org/gay-rights-movement-activism.htm>. Accessed on: March 5th, 2016.

Three words related to the main idea

Resposta esperada: gay

Two facts that you already knew about the topic

Resposta pessoal.

One keyword

164

one hundred and sixty-four

Resposta esperada: activism; rights.

lesbian

identity


13.

Answer the following questions about the text in your notebook.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) What do the terms gay and lesbian include?

They include personal feelings and behaviors, but also describe a political, cultural, and social identity.

b ) What happened in the 1960s?

Gay people started to fight back and began to form organizations.

c ) What did the gay rights movement do in relation to homosexual behavior? They took the behavioral definition and expanded it to become a definition of a class of people.

d ) What are the objectives of the organizations formed by gay people? To further their efforts for equal and fair treatment.

e ) In your opinion, what are other actions that organizations can take? Resposta pessoal.

You are going to read about one of the most famous uprisings in history. What happened on June 28 th, 1969? Read the text and answer. The people that were in the Stonewall Inn rioted and protested against oppression.

*Título adaptado

Stonewall Uprising * In the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, police raided the Stonewall Inn, a popular gay bar in the Greenwich Village section of New York City. Such raids were not unusual in the late 1960s, an era when homosexual sex was illegal in every state but Illinois. That night, however, the street erupted into violent protests and demonstrations that lasted for the next six days. The Stonewall riots, as they came to be known, marked a major turning point in the modern gay civil rights movement in the United States and around the world. [...]

Christopher Vernon-Parry/Alamy Stock Photo/Latinstock

Introduction: Stonewall uprising. Available at: <www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/introduction/stonewall-intro/>. Accessed on: March 7th, 2016.

Esta atividade possibilita a articulação com os conteúdos de História e Sociologia. Uma sugestão é convidar os professores dessas matérias para que falem brevemente sobre este acontecimento histórico e sua influência e consequências na sociedade.

The Stonewall Inn, New York, 2008.

15.

Discuss the questions with your teacher and classmates. a ) Have you ever heard about the Stonewall riots?

Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos comentar que os protestos no bar Stonewall, frequentado pela comunidade LGBT local e onde a polícia promovia batidas frequentes, viriam a ser conhecidos como um dos pontos mais marcantes das lutas pelos direitos civis dos homossexuais.

b ) Did you know that a few years ago homosexuality was considered illegal? c ) What were the consequences of the Stonewall riots? d ) Do you know any other examples of people rioting against oppression?

16.

In groups, research about the history of the LGBT movement in Brazil. You and your classmates can choose one of the suggestions below and make a presentation. You can use pictures, videos and other resources. You can research…

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade.

• the history of LGBT rights; • activist groups;

• notable Brazilian activists; • LGBT parades.

LGBT stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender. This term is used to refer to sexual diversity.

one hundred and sixty-five

165

Thinking cross-curricularly

14.


Choosing a career

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, mais informações sobre as profissões mencionadas nesta seção.

Degree

Law

Job purpose

Represent clients and advise them on their legal situation.

Usually hired by

Major companies and offices.

Required skills

• Getting on well with people. • Being organized. • Having good communication skills. • Being a team worker. • Paying attention to details. • Having good reading skills. • Being a good problem-solver. • Having good writing skills. • Being a good investigator. * Being able to pass the OAB exam. • *OAB stands for Ordem dos Advogados do Brasil.

Characteristics of the job In your opinion, is it a pro (an advantage) or a con (a disadvantage)?

• Having a competitive job market. • The possibility of having a good salary. • Working long hours. • Dealing with clients’ attitudes and moods. • The fact that there are a lot of areas to work in. • Having to work with tight deadlines.

Resposta pessoal. Ao abordar as características do trabalho de um advogado, sugerimos pedir aos alunos que as classifiquem em pró ou contra, de acordo com a visão e a personalidade de cada um.

If you like Law, you can also work as a district attorney.

To work in the Law field, you can also become a technician. You can find technical courses at several institutions.

166

one hundred and sixty-six

1.

Do some research and find out other aspects related to the professions of lawyer and economist, presented on the next page. Share your findings with your classmates.

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos chamar a atenção também para os textos nos posts-its e incentivar os alunos a pesquisarem outros aspectos relacionados às profissões apresentadas, como média salarial, diferentes possibilidades de atuação e curiosidades. Em seguida, você pode pedir que formem pequenos grupos e compartilhem uns com os outros o que descobriram.


Economics

Job purposes

Study the economic market, research and analyze economic issues, and provide specialist advice based on the application of economic theory and knowledge and on the economic scenario.

Usually hired by

Financial institutions, universities, or local government.

Required skills

• Having good analytical skills. • Paying attention to details. • Having critical thinking. • Being good at mathematics. • Having good communication skills. • Working well with technology. • Being a good problem-solver.

Characteristics of the job

• Having several areas of specialization. • The fact that the job market is very competitive. • Having the opportunity to work in multiple industries. • The fact that there are high requirements to work in the

In your opinion, is it a pro (an advantage) or a con (a disadvantage)?

area.

• The possibility of working overtime. • Having to work with strict deadlines. • Traveling abroad to work.

Resposta pessoal.

If you like EconomICS, you can also be a financial risk analyst.

2.

Choosing a career

Degree

Ao abordar as características do trabalho de um economista, sugerimos pedir aos alunos que as classifiquem em pró ou contra, de acordo com a visão e a personalidade de cada um.

Think about these professions and talk to a classmate. Resposta pessoal.

I would like to be a lawyer/an economist because… I wouldn’t like to be a lawyer/an economist because…

To work in the EconomICS field, you can also become a technician. You can find technical courses at several institutions. Fotomontagem de Anna Simonin formada pelas imagens wavebreakmedia, Valeri Potapova, Rawpixel.com, hxdbzxy e NuOilSuwannar/Shutterstock.com

one hundred and sixty-seven

g18_ftd_lt_3noi_u08_166a167_choosing4.indd 167

167

5/28/16 10:19 AM


Getting ready for exams

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

In this section of the book, you are going to study university entrance examinations from all over the country. This means that you are going to have the opportunity to learn and have more information about the different styles of exams and prepare yourself for when your time to take the examinations comes. The university entrance examinations have, in most cases, objective questions. The English exam questions usually offer four or five alternatives. They can demand from the students the ability to interpret a text or to use grammatical and linguistic knowledge. Moreover, some exams ask the questions in English, while others ask them in Portuguese.

(FiPMoc - 2014/2)

FiPMoc stands for Faculdades Integradas Pitágoras de Montes Claros.

As atividades 1 a 5 referem-se ao tema e/ou conteúdos da unidade 5.

Soccer Stars’ Anti-Racism Statement Was Actually Not That Spontaneous [...] A viral campaign soccer stars sparked against racism this week wasn’t as spontaneous as it looked. Instead, it was carefully orchestrated — and even cooler than it initially appeared. Brazil and FC Barcelona star Dani Alves drew worldwide acclaim on Sunday when he took a bite out of a banana that a fan threw on the field during an away match against Spanish team Villarreal. Racist taunts, including bananas and other references to monkeys, are an all-too-common way some European soccer fans harass opposing players, so Alves’ banana bite was seen as a cheeky and powerful response. Soon after, Alves’ harrassment in the Field, Neymar Jr., his Barcelona teammate, posted this photo of himself and his young son with bananas, alongside the hashtags weareallmonkeys. The hashtag has since been tweeted more than 114,000 times according to Topsy, and a host of global soccer stars and other celebrities have posted similar photos. An active opposition against all forms of discrimination is being shown by an increasing number of fans’ groups on their own initiative, which is one of the most positive signs there can be. When fans take up such issues on their own, it shows a truly genuine interest in changing and improving the situation. This must be the ground work for any further antidiscrimination work, since there is nothing more powerful than peer pressure. Soccer stars’ anti-racism statement was actually not that spontaneous. Available at: <www.bizgeekly.com>.

1. From

what the author claims, it is clear that people are…

b

a ) denying prejudice more and more in the field. b ) increasingly showing that there is no place for prejudice in the field. c ) obliged to behave in a standard way in the field. d ) less likely to oppose discrimination. e ) neglecting what is expected from them to deal with.

168

one hundred and sixty-eight


2. In

the following sentence: ”When fans take up such issues on their own, it shows a truly genuine interest in changing and improving the situation.”, the underlined words refer to: e a ) their own initiative against prejudice. b ) unexpected behavior regarding prejudice. c ) overrated behavior regarding discrimination. d ) foreseen behavior concerning prejudice. e ) an active opposition against all kinds of prejudice.

(UESPI - 2010) UESPI stands for Universidade Estadual do Piauí.

All Together Now

Getting ready for exams

Though it may seem hard to believe, as recently as two years ago, the high school students of Charleston, Mississippi (population 2,198), still attended segregated proms – one for black pupils, one for white, each privately planned and funded by their parents. “It is the stupidest thing I’ve ever heard of,” says the actor Morgan Freeman when he returns to his childhood hometown to address the local students in Prom Night Mississippi (premiering this month on HBO). In Paul Saltzmann’s engaging documentary, Freeman goes to Charleston to strike a deal: If the kids come together to organize an integrated prom, the Oscar winner will foot the bill (no budget limit). As the film shows, this breakthrough moment sparks many different reactions in Charleston: lots of joy, a bit of What took us so long?, some wariness (we meet an interracial teen couple who avoid even holding hands at school), and a blast of ugly resistance (a few parents organize their own all-white prom in protest). Prom Night Mississippi presents a troubling but cautiously optimistic portrait of a town trying to heal an ageold racial divide, starting with one very complicated party. All together now. O: The Oprah Magazine, New York: Hearst Communications, p. 28, June 2009.

3. Racism

in Mississippi

c

a ) is nothing but history. b ) finds room only in white people’s hearts. c ) can still be eye witnessed. d ) is fought against by all blacks and whites. e ) had its last days a long time ago.

4. Morgan

Freeman is a black Oscar winner who

a

a ) opposes racism himself. b ) supports racism himself. c ) challenges blacks to divide. d ) helps white kids exclusively. e ) stars a documentary on racism in a big city.

5. Reactions

in Charleston regarding the special moment experienced are

e

a ) neither positive nor negative.

d ) not able to be told apart.

b ) only positive.

e ) both positive and negative.

c ) only negative. one hundred and sixty-nine

169


(UnB - 2002/1) UnB stands for Universidade de Brasília. As atividades 6 a 8 referem-se ao tema e/ou conteúdos da unidade 6.

On December 10, 1948, the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, would strive by teaching and education to promote respect for those rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction. Following this historic act the Assembly called upon all Member countries to publicize the text of the Declaration and “to cause it to be disseminated, displayed, read and expounded principally in schools and other educational institutions, without distinction based on the political status of countries or territories.” The first two articles follow: Article 1. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Article 2. Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty1. 1

sovereignty – quality of being a fully independent and self-governing country. Adapted from: <www.un.org>.

In this question, you must answer C for the correct statements and E for the false ones.

6. In

relation to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights mentioned in the text, judge the items below. C - a; E - b, c, d. a ) It has already completed more than five decades. b ) Sovereign-limited countries are excluded from it. c ) All the peoples of all countries have always observed all of its articles. d ) Racial prejudice is over throughout the world.

170

one hundred and seventy


(UFSC - 2014) UFSC stands for Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Six months ago, Malala Yousafzai was lying in a hospital bed, recovering from a Taliban attack in which she was shot in the head and neck. The shooting was intended to silence the Pakistani teenager who had defied the Taliban’s ban against girls in school. But it had the opposite effect: Instead of silencing the 15-year-old, the attack only made her voice more powerful. Malala’s story has raised global awareness of girls’ education. And now that she’s out of the hospital and back in school, she is determined to keep fighting for equality. “God has given me this new life,” she said in February, her first public statement since the shooting. “I want to serve the people. I want every girl, every child, to be educated.” Worldwide, there are 66 million girls out of school, according to UNESCO – many more than boys, who don’t have to face the same discrimination and obstacles that girls do in some countries. Malala was critically injured in the attack, but she suffered no permanent brain injuries. She underwent several successful surgeries in Pakistan and the United Kingdom, where she now lives after her father was given a job with the Pakistani Consulate.

Getting ready for exams

In March, she went back to school for the first time since the attack, attending an all-girls high school in Birmingham, England. And while she recovers from her injuries, she is continuing to raise awareness and money for education. Last month, she announced a $45,000 grant to a fund that was set up in her name – and the first to benefit will be girls from the Swat Valley. Adapted from: ALMOND, Kyle. Malala’s global voice stronger than ever. Available at: <http://edition.cnn.com/2013/04/30/world/ malala-girls-education/index.html>. Accessed on: April 6 th, 2016.

In this exam, the alternatives are indicated by the numbers 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64. You must choose the correct alternative(s) according to what the question requires. The final answer will be the sum of all correct answers.

7. Select

the appropriate title(s) for the text. 4;

32. A somatória das alternativas corretas é 36.

01 . Schools for boys and girls

02 . Religion against violence

04 . Fighting for women’s right to study

08 . Raising money to build hospitals for girls

16 . Schools in Pakistan and England

32 . Malala’s battle for life and education

8. Select

the CORRECT proposition(s) according to the information in the text.

8; 16; 64. A somatória das alternativas corretas é 88.

01 . Malala still lives in Pakistan.

02 . All of Malala’s surgeries were performed in the United Kingdom.

04 . Malala got injured because her family was irresponsible.

08 . The attack could have killed Malala.

16 . Currently Malala attends a school for female students.

32 . The Pakistani government has donated money to help Malala in her campaign.

64 . Malala has already raised money to help girls. one hundred and seventy-one

171


(UEM - 2006)

UEM stands for Universidade Estadual de Maringá.

As atividades 9 e 10 referem-se ao tema e/ou conteúdos da unidade 7.

GETTING YOUR FIRST JOB About Your First Job Time to find your first job, start making your own money and maybe think about building a career. It doesn’t have to be scary, overwhelming or impossible. In fact, it can be one of the most exciting times of your life if you are prepared. No matter what your level of education, or whether you are looking for a temporary job or an entry-level career position, you need to know a few basic rules to get on track. You in Person You’ve been invited to an interview! Nervous? It’s only natural. But you’ll feel more at ease if you go to the interview prepared. Learn all you can about the company you are interviewing with and consider these tips. Dress appropriately. Professional attire that makes no bold statements is best. You want to look well-groomed, responsible and neat without letting your clothing or your appearance do your talking for you. Arrive on time. Map out your route, and an alternate route, ahead of time, to be sure you know where you’re going. Allow yourself plenty of time to get there, find parking and collect your thoughts before you go in. This is your chance to make a good first impression as a responsible, conscientious person. Listen to questions carefully and answer them directly. Don’t ramble, but don’t answer with just a “yes” or “no”. A good interviewer will ask questions that require some thought. See the list of commonly asked interview questions later in this section to help you prepare. Ask questions. It’s your chance to find out whether the job fits your expectations and to prove your interest in the company. Avoid talking about salary and benefits. That’s a subject best left for a second interview, or, better yet, a job offer. Offer a firm handshake at the beginning and end of the interview, and maintain eye contact during your discussions. You want the employer to know you are confident. Send a thank-you note. This simple idea is often overlooked by job seekers, so it can give you an edge over the competition. It also gives you a chance to say something you may have forgotten during the interview, and it shows the employer that you are courteous and interested. A List of Commonly Asked Interview Questions Tell me about yourself. Keep your answer brief. The interviewer doesn’t want to know about your grandmother’s birthplace or how many pets you own. He or she is interested in your goals, experience, interests and communication skills. What are your strengths/weaknesses? Emphasize your good traits and those that relate to the job for which you’re interviewing. You can mention an area that you’re working to improve or one in which you have recently made great strides. Why do you want to work here? This is a good chance to mention how you can apply your skills, interests and goals to the job. Why should we hire you? Take this opportunity to highlight the unique qualities you can bring to the job. What would you do in (a particular situation)? Don’t be afraid to say that you would ask questions of your supervisor and approach each challenge as a learning opportunity. Metropolitan Life Insurance Company – NY, 2003.

172

one hundred and seventy-two


9. O

texto aconselha aos candidatos a um emprego

b

a ) comparecerem à entrevista usando suas melhores roupas. b ) informarem-se tanto quanto possível sobre a empresa em que pretendem trabalhar. c ) estarem preparados para picos de trânsito no caminho para a entrevista. d ) pedirem ao entrevistador que lhes forneça mapas da área. e ) fazerem o máximo que puderem para provar que são pessoas responsáveis.

10. Com

relação à lista de questões frequentes em entrevistas, assinale o que for correto. a

a ) O entrevistador não tem interesse em detalhes da vida pessoal do candidato. b ) Se necessário, minta sobre seus pontos fortes ou suas fraquezas. c ) O candidato deveria mencionar seus planos para conseguir o trabalho. d ) O candidato deve enfatizar todas suas qualidades. e ) Não saber como solucionar um problema é um desafio.

(UFU - 2015/2) UFU stands for Universidade Federal de Uberlândia. A atividade 11 refere-se ao tema e/ou conteúdos da unidade 8.

Getting ready for exams

Tattoo Regret? A Topical Removal Cream May Help By Paula Mejia Tats all, folks: A Ph.D. student has developed a cream that targets cells, not pigments, to get rid of unwanted ink. Hannibal Hanschke/Reuters Today, before getting inked, one must have a serious think so as to avoid tattoo remorse. In the future, though, you may not have to worry about laser removal, or surgery, or a touch-up tattoo for those inky regrets anymore, though. Alec Falkenham, a Ph.D. candidate at Halifax, Nova Scotia’s Dalhousie University, has developed a painless tattoo removal cream that causes tats to gradually fade away. The application of the cream, which he hopes will eventually become commercially available, involves none of the inflammation, redness, blistering or scarring side effects that traditional tattoo removal procedures can have, either. He believes the procedure might even be anti-inflammatory. All you have to do is apply the topical cream to your skin. Unlike lasers, which target the pigments in tattoos, the Bisphosphonate Liposomal Tattoo Removal (BLTR) cream targets macrophages, immune system cells that work to rid foreign agents from your body. When you tattoo your body, you are injecting ink deep into the dermis – and the macrophages recognize tattoo ink as “foreign” invaders. Some of these macrophages absorb the ink and then carry it to lymph nodes, where both cells and ink are destroyed. MEJIA, Paula. Tattoo regret? A topical removal cream may help.

11. Em

relação ao processo descrito no texto, para a remoção de tatuagens, é correto afirmar que ele b a ) é ainda um processo doloroso e caro. b ) requer a aplicação de um creme especial. c ) pode causar inflamação e outros efeitos colaterais. d ) deve ser evitado por pessoas com problemas imunológicos. one hundred and seventy-three

g18_ftd_lt_3noi_u08_168a173_getting2.indd 173

173

5/28/16 10:21 AM


Going out there

How to find your vocation Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

O tempo estimado para a realização desta seção é de cinco semanas. O processo de avaliação deve ser contínuo, portanto sugerimos promover momentos de pausas, reflexões e correções do que já foi feito durante todo o desenvolvimento da seção.

How many times in your life you have you been asked about what you are going to be when you grow up? Have you already come up with a satisfactory answer for that question? Finding your vocation may not be an easy task, but you can use some strategies to help you do this. a leitura do texto, sugerimos propor uma Read the text below and answer the questions that follow. Após discussão com toda a turma, pedindo aos alunos

[…] There are two types of work in this world. The first is the laborious kind, which I call “work with obligation.” It’s work that we do because of a contractual obligation. The second – very different – type of work that we do is “work with intention.” When we are working with intention, we toil away endlessly […] on projects we care about deeply. Whether it is building an intricate replica model of an ancient ship, or pulling an all-nighter to write a song or map out an idea for a new business, you do it because you love it. If you can put “work with intention” at the center of your efforts, you’re more likely to make an impact on what matters most to you. So, how do we find (and foster) work with intention in our lives and projects? […] What fascinates you? What topic do you like to discuss the most? Most legendary creative careers start with a genuine interest in a particular field. Perhaps it’s film, coffee, or airplane travel. A genuine interest is not about what promises the most economic gain. […] What are your skills and natural gifts? Do you have a knack for math or storytelling? Perhaps you possess a unique compassion for the human condition? Take an inventory of what you know or could easily learn. […] when paired with a genuine interest and a new opportunity, your innate capabilities can truly shine, opening the path to success. […] A career of “work with intention” is the kind that moves industries forward. Do it for yourself and for the rest of us. BELSKY, Scott. Finding your work sweet spot: genuine interest, skills & opportunity. Available at: <http://99u.com/articles/7003/ finding-your-work-sweet-spot-genuine-interest-skills-opportunity>. Accessed on: April 10 th, 2016.

1.

Talk to your classmates and answer the following questions. a ) According to the text, what types of work are there? There are two types: “work with obligation” and “work with intention”.

b ) What does working with obligation mean?

It means working because of a contractual obligation, with no pleasure or personal interest.

c ) What does working with intention mean? It means working because you love it.

d ) If someone works with intention, do they work less hours? No, they toil away endlessly on projects they care about deeply.

174

one hundred and seventy-four

wavebreakmedia/Shutterstock.com

que comentem os principais pontos apresentados no texto lido. Você pode perguntar se eles já conheciam essas informações, se acharam interessantes as que não conheciam e por quê.

Syda Productions/Shutterstock.com

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir as atividades desta seção.


e ) What should you do to find work with intention? You f) g) h)

should have in mind what interests you, as well 1. f) It means as what your skills and gifts are. that the job one loves might not The text says that “a genuine interest is not about what promises the most economic pay very well. A segunda parte gain”. What does it mean? What is your opinion about that? da resposta é pessoal. Sugerimos levar The text says that “a career of ‘work with intention’ is the kind that moves industries os alunos a forward”. In your opinion, what does it mean? Do you agree with this? refletirem sobre o que é mais importante: ter Talk to a classmate and answer these questions from the text. Respostas pessoais. um emprego que se ama, mesmo I What fascinates you? II What are your skills and natural gifts? que não pague muito bem, ou ter um emprego cujo salário é muito bom, porém não agrada ao profissional.

Getting down to work

Now, it’s time to think about how you can choose the most suitable career for you. You and your classmates are going to do some research, organize a career fair, talk to professionals from different areas and draw conclusions that might help you to find your calling.

Researching There are many options of professions so it is not possible to include all of them in the career fair. So, the first thing you have to do is to carry out a survey among your classmates and other third-graders to find out what areas of knowledge and what possible careers interest them the most. In order to do this, you can ask questions such as the following ones.

1. g) Resposta pessoal. Espera-se que os alunos compreendam que, de acordo com o texto, o profissional que trabalha com prazer se dedica e se esforça mais do que aquele que está apenas cumprindo sua obrigação.

a ) What areas of knowledge are you interested in? Going out there

b ) Where would you like to work: in a company, in an office, at a school, at a hospital, or other? c ) What professions would you like to know more about?

Analyzing and organizing the results After this survey, with your teacher and classmates, evaluate the information collected and decide what professions are going to be included in the career fair. Once you have determined the careers, the next step is to contact professionals that would be willing to participate in the career fair. You can invite them to give a speech about their jobs, or just to go to the school on the day of the fair and answer the students’ questions. You can also invite undergraduate students to talk about how they chose their major and if they are enjoying it so far. In advance, write down the questions you would like to ask the professionals during the career fair. If you don’t know what questions to ask, you can do some research beforehand. Some possible questions are:

• How long have you been doing

th is jo b? Do yo u lik e it? Wh at ar e th e advan tages an d disadvan tages of yo ur jo b? Do yo u have to wo rk overtim e? Do yo u usually tak e wo rk home? Do yo u wo rk indivi dually or in a te am ?

• • • •

one hundred and seventy-five

175


Going further These are some interesting suggestions related to choosing a career. Surfing the net On the website Zur Institute <http://tub.im/5tg2k2>, there’s a test that might help you to explore your vocation and find your calling.

The book Superdicas para o jovem escolher bem sua profissão might help you to make decisions about your future career.

Editora Sarai

Superdicas para o jovem escolher bem sua profissão, by Ruy Leal. Saraiva: Brazil, 2010.

va

Reading

Organizing a career fair Now, you and your classmates are going to organize a career fair that will help you and the other students in your school to solve doubts and make up your mind about your future profession. Follow these steps to organize the event:

Print signs inviting the students from other classes, specially the third-graders, to the career fair.

Don’t forget to take along a pen and a notebook or a notepad, so that you can take notes.

It’s important that each professional is given equal time to talk and that students have enough time to ask questions at the end of the speeches.

During the presentation On the day of the career fair, make sure that everything you need is ready and that the room and the necessary equipment are prepared to receive the professionals. Be punctual and organized, so that everything goes according to schedule. Pay attention to all the speeches, even if it is about a job or area you are not very interested in. Ask all the questions you wrote down and solve all your doubts. Besides that, pay attention to the other students’ questions. They may also help you to learn more about these possible jobs. Remember that it is very important to be polite when talking to the professionals and that you must respect the other students’ questions and opinions.

176

one hundred and seventy-six

g18_ftd_lt_3noi_u08_174a177_going_out_there.indd 176

5/28/16 10:23 AM


In advance, talk to the professionals and ask about the equipment they need. You may have to know what equipment the school can make available for the event. If necessary, you can ask the professionals if they can provide their own material and equipment.

Going out there

Select a date, time and place for your fair. Make sure the location you choose is large enough for everybody.

JĂşnior Caramez

Decide how many tables and chairs you will need and make sure everything is ready for receiving guests and students.

Evaluating the process You are going to think and talk to your teacher and classmates about the steps taken during this activity. Establish the ups and downs of this assignment. You can use the questions below to guide your discussion.

Did I participate in all the steps?

Which step was the most difficult for me? Why?

Did I respect other studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; ideas and points of view?

What did I learn from this assignment? Has it helped me to find my vocation?

Could I solve all my doubts about the profession I like the most?

one hundred and seventy-seven

177


Understanding literature

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

The English language in the world 1. a) Resposta pessoal. Resposta esperada: England, Scotland, South Africa, Nigeria, India, Australia, Jamaica, the USA and many others. 2. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que este texto trata de como o inglês adquiriu características próprias em países como a Austrália, Nova Zelândia e África do Sul, mas, mesmo assim, ainda mantém laços com a variante britânica. Você pode aproveitar e comentar que, assim como acontece com o inglês falado nos EUA, nesses países a língua inglesa adquiriu características únicas que remetem ao próprio país, como a inclusão de palavras de línguas locais e os diferentes sotaques.

1. Discuss

the following questions with your teacher and classmates.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) English is spoken all around the world both by native and non-native speakers. Do you know some countries where English is spoken by most people? b ) In your opinion, how has English spread so widely around the globe?

Resposta pessoal. Resposta esperada: because of the colonization of many countries by the UK, and because of the status that this language has achieved.

2. You

are going to read a text about the English language around the world. After reading it, write down the true sentences and rewrite the false ones in your notebook.

[...] English around the world Like American English, English in Australia, New Zealand and South Africa has evolved such that they are distinct from British English. However, cultural and political ties have meant that until relatively recently British English has acted as the benchmark for representing ‘standardised’ English – spelling tends to adhere to British English conventions, for instance. Elsewhere in Africa and on the Indian subcontinent, English is still used as an official language in several countries, even though these countries are independent of British rule. However, English remains very much a second language for most people, used in administration, education and government and as a means of communicating between speakers of diverse languages. […] In the Caribbean and especially in Canada, however, historical links with the UK compete with geographical, cultural and economic ties with the USA, so that some aspects of the local varieties of English follow British norms and others reflect US usage. […] Minority ethnic English. Available at: <www.bl.uk/learning/langlit/sounds/case-studies/minority-ethnic/>. Accessed on: January 27th, 2016.

4. Both forms of literature have a setting, characters and a plot. First, second or third point of view are used to tell the story. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que os dois gêneros literários trabalhados, short story e novella, apresentam os mesmos elementos encontrados no romance (novel), como tempo, espaço, personagens, enredo e foco narrativo. A narrativa pode ser na primeira ou terceira pessoa. A novela apresenta uma narrativa mais extensa que o conto e menor que o romance. Além disso, a novela costuma apresentar personagens mais elaborados que o conto e normalmente o tempo e o espaço são mais explorados. Já com relação ao romance, a novela apresenta menos situações ou acontecimentos.

a ) The English language is the same everywhere.

b ) Cultural and political ties have kept British English as the standard. True.

c ) After their independence, many countries kept English as their official language. True.

d ) English is rarely spoken as a second language by speakers of diverse languages. False. Nowadays, English is widely used as a second language by people who speak different languages.

e ) Caribbean countries and Canada are also influenced by American English. True.

3. Based

on what you have read, discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) Do you think writers from the countries mentioned in the text write in English or in local pessoal. Resposta esperada: both. They can write in English languages? Resposta and local languages. b ) Have you ever read any book by writers from those countries? Would you like to do it? Resposta pessoal.

c ) In this Understanding literature, you are going to read some excerpts of short stories and a novella written in English by authors from Nigeria, India, South Africa and Canada. What are your expectations regarding these readings? What themes do you imagine these authors write about? Resposta pessoal.

4. You

178

False. English has different accents, spellings, words and expressions according to the region where it is spoken.

are going to read excerpts from a novella and from short stories. A novella is a work of literature that is too short to be considered a novel and too long to be considered a short story. Short stories are often defined as stories that one can read in one sitting. Remember what you have studied in English and Portuguese classes about the characteristics of both genres of literature and share with your classmates.

one hundred and seventy-eight


Indian literature in English You are going to read an excerpt from a classic Indian novella called The Vendor of Sweets. It tells the story of a simple man, called Jagan, who owns a small sweetmeat shop and his son, Mali, who wants to be a writer and live in America. Jagan’s cousin tells him that Mali has secretly saved money and has already bought an air-ticket to America. Jagan, with mixed feelings, tries to understand his son. What elements in the text are clearly related to India? Read the text and answer.

Rasipuram Krishnaswami Iyer Narayanaswami (1906- 2001), also known as R. K. Narayan, was an Indian writer. Most of his writings took place in the fictional town of Malgudi. His works deal with social themes by portraying people in everyday life. Narayan received many awards during his life.

Anna Simonin

Chapter Four […] The cousin said, ‘Did you know that he had gone to Madras for a few days?’ ‘No? Without my permission or help, without telling me anything? I thought he was in his room.’ He remembered that the five-rupee notes left by him had not been picked up on certain days. Thinking that the boy had been saving, he had withheld the allowance, hoping to be asked. ‘He has fixed his passport and other such things.’ ‘How is he going to find the fare?’ ‘He says he has got it; he said he always knew where to find the money in the house.’ Jagan felt shocked for a moment, but he also felt a sneaking admiration. ‘The boy is very practical,’ he said with feeling. He sat brooding for some time and then said, trying to put on a happy look, ‘See, how self-reliant he has grown! I have always believed in leaving the entity to develop by itself, without relying on extraneous support. As they say in the Gita, “Every soul is God…”’ ‘And God can always look after himself,’ added the cousin. ‘That’s the whole point’, said Jagan. ‘That’s why I never wished to interfere when he suddenly decided to end his education. I said to myself, “Perhaps he wants to educate himself in the school of life,” and left him free,’ – echoing various tit-bits of banality he had picked up in the course of his life and haphazard reading. […] ‘He has almost paid for the air-ticket,’ said the cousin, enjoying Jagan’s predicament. ‘It must be very costly,’ said Jagan like a prattling baby. ‘But he has doubtless found the cash for it,’ said the cousin. ‘Naturally. What is the cash worth to me? It’s all for him. He can have everything he wants,’ said Jagan, making a note mentally to count at the earliest moment his cash hoarded in the loft. He also considered transferring it all, in due course, to a casket behind the family gods in the puja room. [...]

5. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que, ao lerem um texto oriundo de outro país, eles terão a chance de conhecer elementos únicos daquela cultura. Eles poderão identificar alguns elementos em The Vendor of Sweets que remetem à cultura e ao dia a dia indiano. Esses elementos são: Madras (também conhecida como Chennai), uma grande cidade indiana, considerada um grande centro cultural e econômico; rupee, a moeda indiana; Gita (Bhagavad Gita), texto religioso hindu de grande importância; e puja room (ou pooja room), cômodo destinado às meditações, orações e outras práticas religiosas. Pooja, no Hinduísmo, refere-se à atividade de adoração divina. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, mais informações sobre a obra literária.

NARAYAN, R.K. The vendor of sweets. Penguin Books: Great Britain, 1983. p. 36-37.

one hundred and seventy-nine

179

Understanding literature

5.


6.

Do you know all the elements related to India mentioned in the excerpt? In groups, research the words below and associate them with the pictures. Then, present to the class some more information about one of them. a - II; b - I; c - IV; d - III. a ) Madras

b ) rupee

d ) puja room

c ) Gita

I

II

IV

7. a) Mali stole money from his father because he wanted to buy the ticket to travel to America.

7.

Discuss the following questions with your teacher and ver, nas Orientações para o professor, classmates. Sugerimos como conduzir alguns dos itens desta atividade. a ) What did Mali do to his father? Why did he do that? b ) What would you do if you had a dream that was difficult to make come true, like Mali’s? Do you think you would do something unethical to get it? Why (not)? Resposta pessoal.

c ) How did Jagan react to his son’s actions?

espies/Shutterstock.com

Mukesh Kumar/Shutterstock.com

III

tantrik71/Shutterstock.com

Wara1982/Shutterstock.com

6. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que um texto pode ser mais bem compreendido se seus elementos são conhecidos pelo leitor. No trecho utilizado, temos alguns elementos relacionados à vida e cultura indiana. Após associarem as imagens, os alunos podem fazer uma pesquisa em grupos sobre esses elementos e apresentar à turma.

The Republic of India, also known as India, is a country in Asia. This country is known for its vast and rich culture and religious diversity. English is a subsidiary official language and Hindi is the most spoken language.

Jagan was shocked but he convinced himself that his son was doing the right thing.

d ) Do you agree with Jagan’s attitude towards his son? Resposta pessoal.

e ) Do you think Mali is a spoiled boy? Why (not)? Resposta pessoal.

f ) What would you do if you were Jagan? Resposta pessoal.

8.

180

Do you understand all the words from the excerpt? In your notebook, match the following words with their meanings. a - VII; b - IV; c - II; d - V; e - VI; f - III; g - I. a ) withheld

I

speaking in a foolish way

b ) allowance

II

not fully recognized

c ) sneaking

III

dilemma

d ) tit-bits

IV

amount of money that parents give to their children

e ) haphazard

V

pieces

f ) predicament

VI

pointless

g ) prattling

VII

held back

one hundred and eighty


9.

Mali went to America and now he’s back in India and has brought his American wife. Jagan goes to the train station to welcome his son, but, then, it becomes a really awkward moment. What is Jagan’s reaction? Read the following excerpt and answer.

Chapter Five

Anna Simonin

[...] His worst misgivings were confirmed on an afternoon when the train dumped Mali, ‘another person’ and an enormous quantity of baggage onto the railway platform and puffed away. The very sight of the streamlined trunks, suitcases and corded cartons filled Jagan with uneasiness and a feeling of inferiority. […] Jagan slipped into the background, pushing his cousin to the fore to do all the talking and receiving. He was overwhelmed by the spectacle of his son, who seemed to have grown taller, broader and fairer and carried himself in long strides. He wore a dark suit, with an overcoat, an airbag, a camera, an umbrella and what not on his person. Jagan felt that he was following a stranger. When Mali approached him, extending his hand, he tried to shrink away and shield himself behind the cousin. When he had to speak to his son, with great difficulty he restrained himself from calling him “sir”, and employing the honorofic plural. […]

9. He felt uncomfortable and inferior. Você pode comentar com os alunos que, anos após viajar para a América, Mali retorna casado e muito diferente. Ele se veste de maneira pomposa e trouxe muita bagagem. Jagan, seu pai, por outro lado, é um homem simples e de poucas posses. O choque entre os dois é inevitável e Jagan se sente inferior ao filho.

NARAYAN, R.K. The vendor of sweets. Penguin Books: Great Britain, 1983. p. 42-43.

11.

12.

13.

Mali is not Jagan’s little son anymore. In your notebook, write down the true statements and rewrite the false ones using the correct information.

11. Sugerimos Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que a cena descreve bem a maneira tímida com que Jagan age na chegada do filho. organizar os alunos em a ) Before Mali arrived, Jagan was already worried about how his son had changed. True. duplas e orientá-los a b ) Mali arrived with light baggage and traditional Indian clothes. pesquisar, em False. He arrived with a lot of baggage and western clothes (the ones worn in America). revistas ou na c ) The cousin had to speak on behalf of Jagan. internet, imagens das True. d ) Jagan was so shy that he almost talked to his son like he was from a higher social status. roupas mencionadas True. no texto (dark suit, overcoat). Depois, eles The most noticeable aspect of Mali’s changing is his way of dressing. Do you know all poderão those clothes? In pairs research pictures of all of them and make a collage. After that, talk discutir a importância dessas roupas to your teacher and classmates about what those clothes mean in the text. na história, isto é, elas representam a It was difficult for Jagan to understand how his son, Mali, wanted to live in a different way mudança de Mali e sua and embraced a more American identity. Son and father are from different generations. vontade de se desligar da Can you think of similar situations in your life? Discuss with a partner. cultura indiana. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade. 13. Sugerimos ver, nas The conflict between Mali and Jagan expresses some of the difficulties present in Indian Orientações o society, and which may also be present in other cultures, in different forms. In groups you para professor, informações are going to research about Indian society specifically. The caste system is one of the sobre o sistema de most known aspects of this society, which is divided into four groups: castas indiano.

• Brahmin: people whose occupations are related to religion and teaching.

• Kshatriya: governors and warriors. • Vaishya: farmers, landowners and merchants.

• Shudra: commoners, servants. • There is also a group of excluded people, called dallit.

There are many social changes and affirmative actions which aim to make progressive advances for all people in India. In groups, research on books from Indian authors which are about the caste system. one hundred and eighty-one

181

Understanding literature

10.


14. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, mais informações sobre a obra literária.

Nigerian literature in English 14.

You are going to read an excerpt from a short story called Apollo by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, a Nigerian novelist, non-fiction writer and short story writer. The narrator is a man called Okenwa, who is visiting his parents in Enugu, a city in Nigeria. His parents tell him about Raphael, a houseboy who lived with them when Okenwa was a young boy. When Okenwa hears about the tragic destiny of Raphael, he starts to remember the times that they spent together. What is the illness mentioned in the excerpt? It is conjunctivitis, also known as Apollo.

Apollo by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

Júnior Caramez

[…] On weekends, I ate lunch with my parents. I always ate quickly, dreaming of escape and hoping that they would not turn to me with one of their test questions. At one lunch, Raphael served white disks of boiled yam on a bed of greens, and then cubed pawpaw and pineapple. “The vegetable was too tough,” my mother said. “Are we grass-eating goats?” She glanced at him. “What is wrong with your eyes?” It took me a moment to realize that this was not her usual figurative lambasting – “What is that big object blocking your nose?” she would ask, if she noticed a smell in the kitchen that he had not. The whites of Raphael’s eyes were red. A painful, unnatural red. He mumbled that an insect had flown into them. “It looks like Apollo,” my father said. My mother pushed back her chair and examined Raphael’s face. “Ah-ah! Yes, it is. Go to your room and stay there.” Raphael hesitated, as though wanting to finish clearing the plates. “Go!” my father said. “Before you infect us all with this thing.” […]

16. a) The food was white disks of boiled yam on a bed of greens, and then cubed pawpaw and pineapple. A segunda parte da resposta é pessoal. Você pode aproveitar também para trabalhar a figura de linguagem utilizada pela autora para se referir a como os alimentos estão dispostos no prato (on a bed of greens), usada para falar de como as verduras forraram o prato, trazendo a ideia de uma “cama de verduras”. 16. c) He wanted to leave before his parents started asking him questions. Okenwa não gostava de ser questionado por seus pais durante a refeição. Talvez ele não gostasse da maneira como seus pais tratavam Raphael ou talvez ele fosse naturalmente arredio ou rebelde, entre outras possibilidades

182

ADICHIE, Chimamanda Ngozi. Apollo. Available at: <www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015-04-13/apollo>. Accessed on: January 27th, 2016.

15.

Based on the excerpt, write the appropriate answers in your notebook. a ) How did Okenwa feel when his parents were around? II I

comfortable

II

uncomfortable

b ) What was Okenwa’s parents’ attitude towards Raphael? I

They were disrespectful and rude.

II

They were tolerant and pleasant.

I

c ) What was Raphael’s justification for his red eyes? II

16.

I

He said it was because he had noticed a different smell in the kitchen.

II

He said an insect had flown into his eyes.

In pairs, discuss the following questions. a ) What was the food served for lunch? Would you eat it? Why (not)? b ) In your opinion, why was Raphael so badly treated by Okenwa’s parents? Resposta pessoal. Resposta esperada: because he was a servant.

c ) Why did Okenwa want to leave the table fast at lunch on weekends?

one hundred and eighty-two


You are going to read another excerpt from the short story Apollo. It is a memory from Okenwa. After Raphael got sick, he couldn’t see Okenwa for a while. However, Okenwa would secretly go to Raphael’s room to talk and take care of him. Which words express the friendship and affection between Okenwa and Raphael? Wondrous, admiration, laughing and warmth.

Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie (1977-) is a celebrated writer from Nigeria, Africa. She has written and published poems, short stories and novels. She has also given lectures about gender, equality and feminism.

The Federal Republic of Nigeria, commonly known as Nigeria, is the most populated country in Africa. The country is inhabited by innumerous ethnic groups which also speak several languages. English is the official language. Nigeria was colonized by the British until its independence in 1960.

[...] He opened his eyes and looked at me, and on his face shone something wondrous. I had never felt myself the subject of admiration. It made me think of science class, of a new maize shoot growing greenly toward light. He touched my arm. I turned to go. “I’ll come before I go to school,” I said. ez In the morning, I slipped into his m ra Ca r o room, put in his eye drops, and ni Jú slipped out and into my father’s car, to be dropped off at school. By the third day, Raphael’s room felt familiar to me, welcoming, uncluttered by objects. As I put in the drops, I discovered things about him that I guarded closely: the early darkening of hair above his upper lip, the ringworm patch in the hollow between his jaw and his neck. I sat on the edge of his bed and we talked about “Snake in the Monkey’s Shadow.” We had discussed the film many times, and we said things that we had said before, but in the quiet of his room they felt like secrets. Our voices were low, almost hushed. His body’s warmth cast warmth over me. He got up to demonstrate the snake style, and afterward, both of us laughing, he grasped my hand in his. Then he let go and moved slightly away from me. “This Apollo has gone,” he said. His eyes were clear. I wished he had not healed so quickly. [...]

18. 19.

17. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que o trecho extraído contém uma lembrança de Okenwa, na qual ele relembra quando cuidava de Raphael. Alguns sentimentos de afetividade podem ser notados na cena, por meio da linguagem de Okenwa. É importante levar os alunos a perceberem como a autora escolhe as palavras para criar o clima da cena.

19. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a discutirem as questões abaixo em grupos, trocando ideias e impressões sobre o conto. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

*Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que tone (tom) se refere à maneira de escrita escolhida pelo autor para criar uma determinada sensação no leitor. Por exemplo, uma mesma frase ADICHIE, Chimamanda Ngozi. Apollo. Available at: <www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015-04-13/apollo>. pode ser escrita th Accessed on: January 28 , 2016. de maneira que soe irônica, ingênua ou dúbia.

While Okenwa was taking care of Raphael, he started to notice his facial features. What are The early darkening of hair above his upper lip, the ringworm patch in some facial features he mentioned? between his jaw and his neck.

the hollow

Você pode comentar com os alunos que parte da afeição demonstrada por Okenwa se dá pela descrição de detalhes físicos do rosto de Raphael que até então ele não havia notado. In groups, discuss the following questions about the short story. In literature, tone* is the mood

a ) How did you feel as a reader of Okenwa’s childhood memories? Resposta pessoal. Resposta esperada: I felt closer to Okenwa.

b ) What is the tone of the second excerpt in relation to the first one? The tone is softer than in the first excerpt.

c ) In your opinion, why did Okenwa wish Raphael had not healed pessoal. Resposta esperada: Okenwa wished that because, so quickly? Resposta as soon as Raphael healed, he would go back to work and they would

created by the author by the choices of words, expressions and style. This literary device is used to make readers feel in a specific way while reading.

not spend any more time together.

20.

Raphael was a houseboy, a male housecleaner. This position was very common in countries colonized by the British. In groups, do some research and find out other novels, short stories or poems that show the influence of the British in Nigeria. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que a Nigéria sofreu muita influência da Inglaterra. Em grupos, eles podem pesquisar romances, livros e poemas produzidos na Nigéria que falam dessa influência.

one hundred and eighty-three

183

Understanding literature

17.


South African literature in English 21.

You are going to read an excerpt from a short story called The First Sense. It’s about a young couple’s life. After reading the excerpt, write the feelings that you found in the text. Resentment, envy and pride. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, mais informações sobre a obra literária.

Nadine Gordimer (1923-2014) was a South African writer and activist. She wrote several books and received many awards, including the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1991. As an activist, she struggled against the apartheid and against censorship. Some of her books were banned by the government. She also worked to raise awareness about AIDS/HIV.

The First Sense

23. a) She is proud of him and believes that he was born to play the cello. A personagem feminina acredita não ter nenhum sentimento negativo quanto ao sucesso do marido, tais como ressentimento ou inveja. Ela crê que sente orgulho e acredita que essa é a vocação dele.

22.

23. b) They don’t give her much attention and wonder what she and her husband have in common. A vida social dos dois acontece no círculo social dele, isto é, os outros músicos da orquestra, críticos musicais, entre outros, e que ela, por não ser uma musicista profissional, muitas vezes se sente ignorada e deslocada.

184

She has never felt any resentment that he became a musician and she didn’t. Could hardly call her amateur flute-playing a vocation. Envy? Only pride in the achievement that he was born for. She sits at a computer in a city-government office, earning, under pleasant enough conditions, a salary that has at least provided regularly for their basic needs, while his remuneration for the privilege of being a cellist in a symphony orchestra has been sometimes augmented by chamber-music engagements, sometimes not; in the summer, the off season for the orchestra, he is dependent on these performances on the side. Their social life is in his professional circle – fellow-musicians, music critics, aficionados whose connections insure them free tickets, and the musical families in which most of the orchestra members grew up, the piano-teacher or choir-singing mothers and church-organist fathers. When new acquaintances remember to give her the obligatory polite attention, with the question “What do you do?,” and she tells them, they clearly wonder what she and the cellist who is married to her have in common. […] GORDIMER, Nadine. The first sense. Available at: <www.newyorker.com/magazine/2006/12/18/the-first-sense>. Accessed on: January 29 th, 2016.

Based on the excerpt, complete the sentences with the appropriate answers in your notebook. a ) She plays the... and he plays the... I

cello/flute.

II

flute/cello.

b ) Only he is a…

II

II

I

a piano teacher.

II

professional musician.

c ) In relation to him, she is responsible for providing… I

23.

I

their basic needs.

II

free tickets.

Discuss the questions with your teacher and classmates. a ) How does the female character feel about her husband’s achievements? b ) How is she treated and seen by his friends and coworkers? c ) In your opinion, is she living her own life? Resposta

one hundred and eighty-four

pessoal. Sugerimos promover uma reflexão entre os alunos e questioná-los, com base no trecho lido, sobre a impressão que tiveram da personagem, se a dedicação dela ao marido implica em um distanciamento de suas próprias vontades ou se, de fato, ela vive sua vida.

Júnior Caramez

by Nadine Gordimer


24. You

are going to read another excerpt from The First Sense. Things are not really good between the couple and she thinks he has been distant. What is the role of the cello in their relationship? Read the text and answer.

The cello reflects and expresses the ups and downs of their relationship. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que o violoncelo simboliza a sintonia entre os dois e quando ele começa a se afastar dela, criando compromissos e estando ausente constantemente, o violoncelo parece expressar também esse distanciamento, como se sua música fosse para outra pessoa, não ela.

Júnior Caramez

[…] She had suggestions for relaxation: a film, a dinner, away from concert-hall discipline, with the ensemble musicians; one becomes close to people – a special relationship that she had long recognized in him – with whom one has achieved something. He was not enthusiastic. “Next week, next week.” He took the revered cello out of its solitude in the case carved to its shape and played, to himself, to her – well, she was in the room those evenings. It is his voice, that glorious voice of his cello, saying something different, speaking not to her but to some other. […] There’s a deliberation in the caresses. She is almost moved to say stupidly what they’ve never thought to say to each other: Do you still love me? He begins to absent himself from her at unexplained times or for obligations that he must know she knows don’t exist. The voice of the cello doesn’t lie. How to apply to the life of this man that shabby ordinary circumstance – what’s the phrase? He’s having an affair. […]

25.

The cello plays an important role in the excerpt. Read the following excerpts from the text and, then, decide if the statements are true or false. In your notebook, write down the true statements and rewrite the false ones, correcting them. a ) [...] He took the revered cello out of its solitude in the case carved to its shape and played, to himself, to her […]. b ) It is his voice, that glorious voice of his cello, saying something different, speaking not to her but to some other. c ) The voice of the cello doesn’t lie. I

26.

The words in bold type are related to human actions.

True.

False. A cello cannot literally do these actions because it is an inanimate obje ct.

II

A cello can speak, say and lie.

III

The voice of the cello is, in fact, the sound that it produces when it is played. True.

IV

There is a personification of human qualities and actions attributed to the cello. True.

25. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que há no trecho uma figura de linguagem chamada prosopopeia ou personificação, que se trata da atribuição de características e qualidades humanas a objetos inanimados. No caso, o violoncelo sente solidão, tem voz, fala e não mente. Esse recurso é importante para o efeito literário e poético do texto.

The cello is an example of personification in literature. Personification is a literary device. Do you know others? In groups, research some literary devices present in South African Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que a personificação é um exemplo de figura de linguagem e que existem muitas literature. outras. Em grupos, eles podem pesquisar a presença dessas figuras na literatura sul-africana e apresentar para a turma.

Exemplos de figuras de linguagem incluem hipérbato (inversão da ordem direta na oração), metáfora (comparação), antítese (termos com sentidos opostos), hipérbole (exagero proposital), entre outros.

The official name of South Africa is the Republic of South Africa, a country known for its diversity of cultures, nature and languages. There are eleven official languages in South Africa, including English and Afrikaans, a language that evolved from the Dutch spoken by the settlers that arrived in the country in the XVII century. Among the other languages spoken in the country, are Xhosa and Zulu. one hundred and eighty-five

185

Understanding literature

GORDIMER, Nadine. The first sense. Available at: <www.newyorker.com/magazine/ 2006/12/18/the-first-sense>. Accessed on: January 29 th, 2016.


Canadian literature in English 27.

You are going to read an excerpt from the The Lamp at Noon by Sinclair Ross. This short story is about a couple, Ellen and Paul, and their baby facing poverty and hopelessness while surviving through a desert storm. What is the meaning of the title? Read the excerpt and answer.

Sinclair Ross (1908-1996) was a Canadian writer of novels and short stories. His writings were about life in the Canadian prairies. He was a member of the Order of Canada, which is the highest merit for a civilian in Canada.

It means that it was so dark and cloudy that even at noon the lamp was lit. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, mais informações sobre a obra literária.

The Lamp at Noon

A little before noon she lit the lamp. Demented wind fled keening past the house: a wail through the eaves that died every minute or two. Three days now without respite it had held. The dust was thickening to an impenetrable fog. She lit the lamp, then for a long time stood at the window motionless. In dim, fitful outline the stable and oat granary still were visible; beyond, obscuring fields and landmarks, the lower of dust clouds made the farmyard seem an isolated acre, poised aloft above a sombre void. At each blast of wind it shook, as if to topple and spin hurtling with the dust-reel into space. From the window she went to the door, opening it a little, and peering toward the stable again. He was not coming yet. As she watched there was a sudden rift overhead, and for a moment through the tattered clouds the sun raced like a wizened orange. It shed a soft, diffused light, dim and yellow as if it were the light from the lamp reaching out through the open door. She closed the door, and going to the stove tried the potatoes with a fork. Her eyes all the while were fixed and wide with a curious immobility. It was the window. Standing at it, she had let her forehead press against the pane until her eyes were strained apart and rigid. Wide like that they had looked out to the deepening ruin of the storm. Now she could not close them. [...] ROSS, Sinclair. The lamp at noon. Available at: <http://blogs.ubc.ca/lled4492015/files/2015/03/TheLampAtNoon.pdf>. Accessed on: February 1st, 2016.

30. Sugerimos comentar aos alunos que a descrição do ambiente é muito importante no conto. No entanto, alguns desses elementos podem não ser familiares aos alunos. Portanto, em grupos, eles podem realizar uma pesquisa de imagens dos elementos pedidos para que os visualizem e compreendam melhor. Você pode explicar que, embora o conto não cite as pradarias canadenses, Ross é conhecido por ambientar suas histórias nessa região.

186

28.

29.

The natural elements are very important in this short story. In pairs, verify which natural elements are mentioned in the text and write them down in your notebook. a; b; d; e; f; g; h. a ) landscape

c ) water

e ) storm

g ) clouds

b ) wind

d ) fog

f ) dust

h ) light

Nature is very present in the excerpt. Having this in mind, discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade. d ) What is she doing?

b ) What elements in the text help to create The presence of the fog, the this atmosphere? dim light, the wind and its wail,

e ) Can you imagine how she is feeling?

It is desolate, melancholic and desperate.

the storm.

c ) How is the place where Ellen is? She is in a dusty house in a farmyard.

30.

She is waiting for her husband while she is baking potatoes.

a ) What is the atmosphere in the excerpt?

Resposta esperada: she is feeling anxious.

f ) What would you do if you were in the same situation? Resposta pessoal.

Now, in groups, research the elements described in the text, select pictures that illustrate them and present them to your classmates. Find pictures of…

• the Canadian prairies; • the house;

one hundred and eighty-six

• the fog; • the stable;

• the oat granary; • tattered clouds and the sun.

Júnior Caramez

by Sinclair Ross


31.

You are going to read another excerpt from The Lamp at Noon. After a disagreement with Ellen, Paul is alone in the stable, considering what the future may bring for him and his family. What feelings would describe Paul’s state of mind?

Júnior Caramez

[...] But all the time was he only a blind and stubborn fool? Was Ellen right? Was he trampling on her life, and throwing away his own? The five years since he married her, were they to go on repeating themselves, five, ten, twenty, until all the brave future he looked forward to was but a stark and futile past? She looked forward to no future. She had no faith or dream with which to make the dust and poverty less real. He understood suddenly. He saw her face again as only a few minutes ago it had begged him not to leave her. The darkness round him now was as a slate on which her lonely terror limned itself. He went from Prince to the other horses, combing their manes and forelocks with his fingers, but always it was her face before him, its staring eyes and twisted suffering. ‘See Paul — I stand like this all day. I just stand still — My throat’s so tight it aches —” And always the wind, the creak of walls, the wild lipless wailing through the loft. Until at last as he stood there, staring into the livid face before him, it seemed that this scream of wind was a cry from her parched and frantic lips. He knew it couldn’t be, he knew that she was safe within the house, but still the wind persisted as a woman’s cry. The cry of a woman with eyes like those that watched him through the dark. Eyes that were mad now — lips that even as they cried still pleaded, “See Paul — I stand like this all day. I just stand still — so caged! If I could only run!” [...]

31. He seems to be regretful and worried for not listening to Ellen’s complaints. Sugerimos comentar que o trecho narra o momento logo após uma discussão entre Ellen e Paul, que, irritado, deixa a casa, vai ao estábulo e começa a repensar a situação que ambos enfrentam. Subitamente, ele começa a se arrepender da maneira como agiu e passa a entender as queixas de sua esposa.

32.

Sugerimos pedir aos alunos que releiam o texto e busquem as informações para responder às questões.

Based on the excerpt, identify what the most appropriate answers are. a ) What did Paul understand suddenly?

I

I

Ellen was right, they wouldn’t have a future there.

II

That she begged him to stay.

b ) When he is with his horses, he is tormented by…

II

I

the aching of his throat.

II

Ellen’s face and her staring eyes and twisted suffering.

Canada is the second biggest country in the world. Due to the British and French colonization in the past, the country is officially bilingual: English and French are the official languages there. Canada is also known for its beautiful landscapes and advanced economy.

c ) The wind reminds him of… I

33.

I

his wife’s cry and her suffering.

II

the dust storm of the last three days.

What happened to Paul, Ellen and their baby? In pairs, imagine and write a short paragraph about the events that happened to them. Then present it to your teacher and que os alunos, em grupos, imaginem o que aconteceu após Paul retornar a casa. Depois que classmates. Sugerimos chegarem a um consenso, eles podem escrever um pequeno parágrafo contando, resumidamente, o desfecho imaginado.

34.

The main element in the The Lamp at Noon is the conflict of people against nature. In groups, research more examples of Canadian literature about people surviving in nature.

Você pode comentar com os alunos que um conflito bastante comum na literatura se dá quando os personagens tentam sobreviver em um ambiente adverso. Portanto, sugerimos pedir que eles pesquisem, em grupos, por outras obras canadenses que tratam dessa temática e as apresentem aos colegas de sala. one hundred and eighty-seven

187

Understanding literature

ROSS, Sinclair. The lamp at noon. Available at: <http://blogs.ubc.ca/lled4492015/files/2015/03/TheLampAtNoon.pdf>. Accessed on: February 1st, 2016.


unit

Grammar appendix 1

Review of verb tenses Simple Past The Simple Past is used to talk about past actions and states. To form affirmative sentences in the Simple Past, add -ed, -d or -ied to the base form of regular verbs. Spelling

••Usually, add -ed to regular verbs in the past. watch - I watched the news yesterday.

••If the base verb ends in -e, add -d. like - He liked the movie.

••If the base verb ends in consonant + y,

k .c

om

omit the -y and add -ied. cry - She cried watching the soap opera. t te

rst

oc

••If the verb ends in consonant + stressed

bik

er i

de

rlo

nd

on

/S

hu

vowel + consonant, duplicate the last letter and add -ed. plan - They planned to shoot a TV show together.

Some past forms of verbs are irregular. They don’t follow any rules. To know more irregular forms of verbs in the past, study the List of irregular verbs on pages 204 to 206. be - I was anxious to watch the new season of the series. We were at home yesterday. go - He went to his friend’s house to watch the game on TV. have - They had their cable TV canceled.

To form negative sentences, use didn’t (did not) and the verb in the base form. To ask questions, use did before the subject, and the verb in the base form after the subject. With verb to be, use wasn’t/weren’t (was not/were not) in the negative sentences, and was/ were before the subject for questions. Affirmative

*Quando fazemos uma pergunta nos referindo à segunda pessoa do plural, you, a resposta será sempre na primeira pessoa do plural, we.

188

Negative

Interrogative

Short answers

I watched a movie on TV yesterday.

I didn’t watch a movie on TV yesterday.

Did you watch a movie on TV yesterday?

Yes, I did.

You bought a new TV for the living room.

You didn’t buy a new TV for the living room.

Did you buy a new TV for the living room?

Yes, I did.

He/She/It was tired.

He/She/It wasn’t tired.

Was he/she/it tired?

Yes, he/she/it was.

No, I didn’t.

No, I didn’t.

No, he/she/it wasn’t. We/You/They were crazy about cartoons in childhood.

one hundred and eighty-eight

We/You/They weren’t crazy about cartoons in childhood.

Were we/you/they crazy about cartoons in childhood?

* Yes, we/they were. * No, we/they weren’t.


Simple Present The Simple Present tense is used to talk about an action that is regular, a habit or a fact. The verb to be in the Simple Present has three forms: am, is and are. In negative statements, we use the forms: ’m not (am not), ’s not/isn’t (is not) or ’re not/ aren’t (are not). And for interrogative sentences, we use the verb to be (am/is/are) before the subject. The other verbs are used in the base form for the subjects: I, you, we and they. For the third person singular (he/she/it), we add -s, -es, -ies to the verb. In negative statements, we use don’t or doesn’t + a verb in the base form. Doesn’t is used for the third person singular (he/she/it) and don’t for the other pronouns. For interrogative statements, we use do or does before the subject. Does is used for the third person singular (he/she/it) and do for the other pronouns. Negative

Interrogative

Short answers

I am a big fan of music shows.

I’m not a big fan of music shows.

Are you a big fan of music shows?

Yes, I am.

You are sad because of the news on TV.

You aren’t sad because of the news on TV.

Are you sad because of the news on TV?

Yes, I am.

He/she thinks that TV show is a success.

He/she doesn’t think that TV show is a success.

Does he/she think that TV show is a success?

Yes, he/she does.

We/you/they turn off the TV when commercials start.

We/you/they don’t turn off the TV when commercials start.

Do we/you/they turn off the TV when commercials start?

Yes, we/they do.

No, I’m not. No, I’m not. No, he/she doesn’t.

g-

KP

s to

GP

ck

ay

stu

les

s2

dio

/S

/S

hu

hu

t te

t te

rst

rst

oc

oc

k .c

k .c

om

om

No, we/they don’t.

Spelling

••In affirmative sentences, for the third person singular (he, she and it), we usually add -s to the base form of the verb. you like - he likes we play - she plays

••If the base verb ends in -o, -ch, -sh, -ss, -x or -z, add -es. we go - he goes they watch - she watches

••If the base verb ends in consonant + y, omit the -y and add -ies. I cry - he cries you worry - she worries

••One exception is:

I/you/we/they have – he/she/it has

••Modal verbs (can, may, might, must, should) remain in the same form, without -s. one hundred and eighty-nine

189

Grammar appendix

Affirmative


Past Continuous The Past Continuous is used to describe an action that was happening over a period of time in the past. It’s also used to say that something was happening when another action interrupted it. I was watching TV when there was a black out.

The Past Continuous is formed by the verb to be in the past (was/were) followed by a verb with -ing. For negative statements, we use: wasn’t/weren’t (was not/were not) + a verb with -ing. In interrogative statements, was/were comes before the subject. Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

Short answers

I was looking for a good documentary on TV.

I wasn’t looking for a good documentary on TV.

Were you looking for a good documentary on TV?

Yes, I was.

You were watching TV.

You weren’t watching TV.

Were you watching TV?

Yes, I was.

He/She was waiting for the new season of I am Jazz.

He/She wasn’t waiting for the new season of I am Jazz.

Was he/she waiting for the new season of I am Jazz?

Yes, he/she was.

We/You/They were reading Jazz’s book at school.

We/You/They weren’t reading Jazz’s book at school.

Were we/you/they reading Jazz’s book at school?

Yes, we/they were.

No, I wasn’t. No, I wasn’t. No, he/she wasn’t. No, we/they weren’t.

Spelling

••The continuous form is usually made by adding -ing to the base form of the verb. do - doing                   play - playing

••If the base verb ends with a silent -e, drop the -e and add -ing.

make - making                 dance - dancing

••If the base verb is a short, one-syllable verb ending with consonant + vowel + consonant (CVC), double the last consonant and add -ing. sit - sitting                   plan - planning

••If the base verb has two or more syllables ending with consonant + stressed vowel + consonant, double the last consonant and add -ing. begin - beginning                control - controlling

••If the base verb has two or more syllables ending with consonant + unstressed vowel + consonant, just add -ing. listen - listening                 travel - traveling

••Some exceptions are:

lie – lying                    picnic - picnicking

Present Continuous The Present Continuous expresses the idea that something is happening now, at this moment. The Present Continuous is formed by verb to be in the present form (am/is/are) followed by a verb with -ing. For negative statements, we use: ’m not/isn’t/aren’t (am not/is not/are not) + a verb with -ing. In interrogative sentences, am/is/are comes before the subject. Affirmative

190

Negative

Interrogative

Short answers

I am paying for cable TV.

I’m not paying for cable TV.

Are you paying for cable TV?

Yes, I am.

You are testing a new recipe you learned on the cook show.

You aren’t testing a new recipe you learned on the cook show.

Are you testing a new recipe you learned on the cook show?

Yes, I am.

He/She is watching a travel show.

He/She isn’t watching a travel show.

Is he/she watching a travel show?

Yes, he/she is.

We/You/They are avoiding violent TV shows.

We/You/They aren’t avoiding violent TV shows.

Are we/you/they avoiding violent TV shows?

Yes, we/they are.

one hundred and ninety

No, I’m not. No, I’m not.

No, he/she isn’t. No, we/they aren’t.


Simple Future – will There are different ways to talk about the future in English. One possibility is to use will + a verb in the base form. The future with will (or the contraction ’ll) is usually used at the moment we make a decision or a plan about the future, a promise, a prediction or an offer. To form negative sentences, we use will not (won’t) + the verb in the base form. In questions, we use will before the subject of the sentence. Affirmative I will watch less TV.

Negative I won’t watch less TV.

Interrogative Will you watch less TV?

Short answers Yes, I will. No, I won’t.

You will be impressed with the reality show about a transgender teenager.

You won’t be impressed with the reality show about a transgender teenager.

Will you be impressed with the reality show about a transgender teenager?

Yes, I will.

He/She/It will fall asleep with the TV on.

He/She/It won’t fall asleep with the TV on.

Will he/she/it fall asleep with the TV on?

Yes, he/she/it will.

We/You/They will be distracted while watching TV.

We/You/They won’t pay attention if the TV is on.

Will we/you/they be distracted while watching TV?

Yes, we/they will.

No, I won’t.

No, he/she/it won’t.

No, we/they won’t.

Simple Future – be going to

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

Short answers

I am going to stay at home and watch TV.

I’m not going to stay at home and watch TV.

Are you going to stay at home and watch TV?

Yes, I am.

You are going to forbid your children to watch violent shows.

You aren’t going to forbid your children to watch cartoons.

Are you going to forbid your children to watch violent shows?

Yes, I am.

He/She is going to watch the news.

He/She isn’t going to watch the news.

Is he/she going to watch the news?

Yes, he/she is.

We/You/They are going to buy the product we saw in the commercial.

We/You/They aren’t going to buy the product we saw in the commercial.

Are we/you/they going to buy the product we saw in the commercial?

Yes, we/they are.

No, I’m not.

No, I’m not.

No, he/she isn’t.

No, we/they aren’t.

one hundred and ninety-one

191

Grammar appendix

ma

vo

/S

hu

t te

rst

oc

k .c

om

When we want to talk about a plan for the future, we use verb to be (am/is/are) + going to + a verb in the base form. We can also use this future form to talk about a prediction if there’s evidence. To form the negative for this tense, use ’m not/isn’t/aren’t (am not/is not/are not) + going to + a verb in the base form. In interrogative sentences, the verb to be comes before the subject of the sentence.


unit

2

Relative pronouns and relative clauses Some of the relative pronouns are who, which, that, whose, where and when. They are used to join two sentences and introduce relative clauses. I bought a magazine. The magazine has good series reviews.

I bought a magazine which has good series reviews.

There is a girl on the magazine’s cover. She’s a model.

The girl who is on the magazine’s cover is a model.

We use who to refer to someone. Teenagers who read magazines and newspapers frequently can be influenced by them.

We use which to refer to something. The tabloid, which is published everyday, is not a source of reliable news.

We use that to refer to something or someone. The newspaper that is on the table is from yesterday. I read an interesting article about a girl that traveled around the world by bicycle.

We use whose to express possession of someone or something. The mass media, whose function is to inform, entertain and educate, has grown with technology.

We use where to refer to a place. I saw him in front of the building where he lives.

The only day of the week when I buy a newspaper is Sunday.

There are two types of relative clauses: defining and non-defining.

Ub Sh er Im ut t er age s t o s/ ck .co m

We use when to refer to time.

Defining relative clauses give more details and define a noun. We don’t need to use commas with this type of clause. Have you ever read the magazine which John is reading right now? Look at the news! That is the woman who was arrested after stealing a bank.

Sometimes, in defining clauses, the relative pronoun can be omitted. The magazine that you gave me is very interesting.

The magazine you gave me is very interesting.

Non-defining relative clauses give additional details and information about a noun. We need to use commas in this type of clause. The columnist, who publishes opinion articles in the newspaper, is also a movie director. The fashion magazine, which she likes to read on-line, will be published every month. hin255/Shutterstock.com

192

one hundred and ninety-two


unit

3

Passive voice (Simple Present, Simple Past and Simple Future) A sentence can be in the active or passive voice. In the active voice, the subject is doing the action and the object is receiving the action. In the passive voice, the person/thing receiving the action is the subject, and the person/ thing doing the action is at the end of the sentence or is not mentioned. We can use the passive voice when we do not want to mention or do not know who did the action. We can also use the passive voice to emphasize the person/thing receiving the action. The structure to form the passive voice is: was/were (Simple Past) will be (Simple Future - will)

unit

am/is/are going to be (Simple Future – be going to)

4

Affirmative

Active

Passive

Simple Past

He ironed the shirt.

The shirt was ironed by him.

Simple Present

She buys new clothes.

New clothes are bought by her.

Simple Future (will)

They will launch a new clothing line.

A new clothing line will be launched by them.

Simple Future (be going to)

We are going to change these working conditions.

These working conditions are going to be changed by us.

Negative

Active

Passive

Simple Past

He didn’t iron the shirt.

The shirt wasn’t ironed by him.

Simple Present

She doesn’t buy new clothes.

New clothes aren’t bought by her.

Simple Future (will)

They won’t launch a new clothing line.

A new clothing line won’t be launched by them.

Simple Future (be going to)

We aren’t going to change these working conditions.

These working conditions aren’t going to be changed by us.

Interrogative

Active

Passive

Simple Past

Did he iron the shirt?

Was the shirt ironed by him?

Simple Present

Does she buy new clothes?

Are new clothes bought by her?

Simple Future (will)

Will they launch a new clothing line?

Will a new clothing line be launched?

Simple Future (be going to)

Are we going to change these working conditions?

Are these working conditions going to be changed by us?

Second conditional The second conditional is used to talk about something that is impossible, imaginary or unlikely to happen. If I had an opportunity to change anything about my body, I wouldn’t change anything. If I were you, I wouldn’t worry so much about your weight.

one hundred and ninety-three

193

Grammar appendix

Ph Sh otog ut t er r aph s to ee. ck eu/ .co m

+ past participle verb

am/is/are (Simple Present)


The second conditional has two clauses, the if clause and the main clause. We use the Simple Past in the if clause, and would + a verb in the base form in the main clause. When the if clause comes first, use a comma before the main clause. But when the main clause comes first, don’t use the comma. Were is used instead of was, with I, she, he and it.

unit

If clause

5

Main clause

Main clause

If clause

If he won the lottery,

he would have surgery.

He would have surgery

If she were you,

she wouldn’t be ashamed of her appearence.

She wouldn’t be ashamed if she were you. of her appearance

if he won the lottery.

Review of verb tenses Present Perfect We use the Present Perfect to talk about something that happened at an unspecified time in the past. It means that we don’t know or it’s not important to say when the action happened. This tense is also used to describe actions that started in the past and continue until the present, or something that happened in the past, but has a consequence at the time of speaking. To form the Present Perfect, we use an auxiliary (have/has) and a main verb in the past participle form. The verbs in the past participle form can be regular or irregular. The past participle form of regular verbs are formed by adding -ed, -d or -ied to the verbs. respect - respected     discriminate - discriminated     try - tried

The past participle form of irregular verbs can change their forms completely. In the List of irregular verbs, on pages 204 to 206, the past participle is displayed in the third column. write - wrote - written    know - knew - known    think - thought - thought

Yu r

iy

Ru

dy

y/ S

hu

t te

rst

oc

k .c

om

To form the negative of the Present Perfect, we use: haven’t/hasn’t (have not/has not) + a main verb in the past participle form. In interrogative sentences, have/has comes before the subject, and after the subject we use the verb in the past participle form.

Affirmative

194

Negative

Interrogative

Short answers

I have learned about the racism in Australia.

I haven’t learned about the racism in Australia.

Have you learned about the racism in Australia?

Yes, I have.

You have respected your friend’s origin and beliefs.

You haven’t disrespected your friend’s origin and beliefs.

Have you respected your friend’s origin and beliefs?

Yes, I have.

He/She has been a victim of prejudice.

He/She hasn’t been a victim of prejudice.

Has he/she been a victim of prejudice?

Yes, he/she has.

We/You/They have believed in equality.

We/You/They haven’t believed in intolerance.

Have we/you/they believed in equality?

Yes, we/they have.

one hundred and ninety-four

No, I haven’t. No, I haven’t.

No, he/she hasn’t. No, we/they haven’t.


Present Perfect Continuous The Present Perfect Continuous is used to talk about actions that started at a moment in the past and still continue until the present. We can also use this tense to talk about an action that has just happened and there’s still evidence of its results. Have you been cooking dinner? It smells good.

unit

Affirmative

6

Negative

Interrogative

bik Sh er id u t er l t er on s to do ck n/ .co m

To form the Present Perfect Continuous, we use have/has + been + a verb with -ing. The negative sentences are formed by have not/ has not (haven’t/hasn’t) + been + a verb with -ing. In the interrogative, we use have/has before the subject of the sentence and been + a verb with -ing after the subject.

Short answers

I have been reading about racism in Brazil.

I haven’t been reading about racism in Brazil.

Have you been reading about racism in Brazil?

Yes, I have.

You have been practicing the candomblé since you were a child.

You haven’t been practicing the candomblé since you were a child.

Have you been practicing the candomblé since you were a child?

Yes, I have.

He/She has been talking to us about the importance of tolerance and respect.

He/She hasn’t been talking to us about the importance of tolerance and respect, but about islamophobia.

Has he/she been talking to us about the importance of tolerance and respect?

Yes, he/she has.

We/You/They have been investigating hate crimes.

We/You/They haven’t been investigating hate crimes.

Have we/they been investigating hate crimes?

Yes, we/they have.

No, I haven’t. No, I haven’t.

No, he/she hasn’t.

No, we/you/they haven’t.

Past Perfect

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

Short answers

I had already read the Universal Declaration of Human Rights before studying it at college.

I hadn’t read the Universal Declaration of Human Rights before studying it at college.

Had you read the Universal Declaration of Human Rights before studying it at college?

Yes, I had.

When we arrived, you had left the strike.

When we arrived, you hadn’t left the strike.

Had you left the strike when we arrived?

Yes, I had.

He/She had signed the petition before we did.

He/She hadn’t signed the petition before we did.

Had he/she signed the petition before we did?

Yes, he/she had.

We/You/They had watched Duvernay’s movies before listening to her interview.

We/You/They hadn’t watched Duvernay’s movies before listening to her interview.

Had we/you/they watched Duvernay’s movies before listening to her interview?

Yes, we/they had.

No, I hadn’t.

No, I hadn’t No, he/she hadn’t. No, we/they hadn’t.

one hundred and ninety-five

g18_ftd_lt_3noi_u08_188a197_grammar.indd 195

Grammar appendix

Ld

pr

od

/S

hu

t te

rst

oc

k .c

om

The Past Perfect is used to talk about a completed action that happened before another past action. To form this tense we use had/hadn’t (had not) + the verb in the past participle form. In interrogative sentences, had comes before the subject and the verb in the past participle form after it.

195

5/28/16 10:25 AM


unit

7

Reported speech There are two ways of reporting what someone else has said or thought: using direct speech or reported speech. When we use direct speech, we reproduce exactly what the person has said or thought using quotation marks. Ana said to her mother “I want to be a teacher”.

But when we use reported speech, we don’t need to use quotation marks because we don’t reproduce what someone has said or thought word for word. Ana said to her mother that she wanted to be a teacher.

Direct speech

Reported speech

Simple Present

Simple Past

He said “I’m worried about my career path”.

He said (that) he was worried about his career path.

Simple Past

Past Perfect

“We chose to study at a private university”, they said.

They said (that) they had chosen to study at a private university.

Simple Future (will)

Would

My mother always said to me “Your choices will shape your future”.

My mother always said to me that my choices would shape my future.

Direct speech

Reported speech

“I had a big change in my career last year”, he said.

ab Sh sol u t ut t er e -in s t o dia ck / .co m

When we report what someone has said or thought, we need to make some adjustments in the sentence. We need to change the tense of the statements, the pronouns and the time expressions.

He said he had had a big change in his career the year before.

196

Now

Then, at that time

Today

That day, yesterday

Tonight

That night, last night

Tomorrow

The next day, the following day

Last night/month

The night/month before

This week

That week, last week

Next year

The following year

Two minutes/hours ago

Two minutes/hours later

In three hours

Three hours later

one hundred and ninety-six

Po S h in t Im ut t er age s t o s/ ck .co m

Time expressions:


Third conditional The third conditional is used to talk about unreal situations in the past. It talks about a situation that didn’t happen, but we imagine the results as if it had happened. The third conditional has two clauses: the if clause and the main clause. The if clause presents the situation we are imagining having happened in the past and the main clause presents the results of it. To form the if clause, we use if + had (not) + the verb in the past participle form. And to form the main clause, we use subject + would (not) + have + the verb in the past participle form. If clause

Main clause

If you had studied more,

you would have passed the exams.

If she hadn’t made an impulsive decision,

she wouldn’t have regretted about it.

When the if clause is the first clause in a sentence, we need to use commas between the clauses. But, if the main clause is the first, we don’t need to use a comma. If clause

Main clause he would have regretted getting the tattoo.

ck

.co

If clause

3/

Sh

ut

if he hadn’t thought it over.

pio

He would have regretted getting the tattoo

t er

s to

Main clause

m

If he hadn’t thought it over,

Future Continuous

To form the Future Continuous we use will + be + a verb with -ing. In negative sentences, we use won’t (will not) + be + a verb with -ing. For interrogative sentences, we use will before the subject, and be + a verb with -ing after the subject. Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

Short answers

I’ll be getting married when I get my university degree.

I won’t be getting married when I get my university degree.

Will you be getting married when you get your university degree?

Yes, I will.

You will be moving to a new house soon.

You won’t be moving to a new house soon.

Will you be moving to a new house soon?

Yes, I will.

Don’t phone him/her now. He/She will be doing the homework.

You can phone him/her now. He/She won’t be doing the homework.

Will he/she be doing the homework if you call him/ her now?

Yes, he/she will.

We/You/They will be studying at university next year.

We/You/They won’t be studying at university next year.

Will we/you/they be studying at university next year?

Yes, we/they will.

No, I won’t.

No, I won’t. No, he/she won’t.

No, we/they won’t.

one hundred and ninety-seven

197

Grammar appendix

The Future Continuous is used to predict or talk about an action that will be in progress at a time in the future. It can also be used to talk about an action that will be happening in the future when another one interrupts it.

Sh Sh ahr u ut t er l A zm s to an / ck .co m

unit

8


Glossary

In this section, you can find the meaning and the classification of several words. All the meanings presented are from the uses in the specific situations of this book. The meanings and classifications of these words may vary depending on their use.

adj. = adjective

pron. = pronoun

adv. = adverb

prep. = preposition

c. = conjunction

v. = verb

n. = noun As palavras apresentadas no glossário foram transcritas seguindo a grafia em que aparecem no livro do aluno. No caso de textos de terceiros, mantivemos a grafia original das palavras. Dessa maneira, alguns vocábulos são apresentados na grafia americana e outros na britânica.

A

among (prep.): entre accomplish (v.): realizar

anchoring (n.): apresentação

accomplishment (n.): realização, conquista, feito

appealing (adj.): atraente

account (n.): conta de banco

approach (v.): abordar, aproximar

behavior/behaviour (n.): comportamento

arouse (v.): despertar, estimular

belief (n.): crença

acquaintance (n.): conhecido

arrest (n.): detenção

benchmark (n.): referência

activist (n.): ativista

arrest (v.): prender, capturar

bend (v.): curvar, dobrar

acute (n.): grave, intenso

artsy (adj.): artístico

address (v.): enfrentar, abordar

assault (v.): agredir

beware (v.): ter cuidado, ter cautela

advertisement (n.): anúncio, propaganda

assembly (n.): assembleia

appointment (n.): agendamento

achievement (n.): realização, feito

assumption (n.): suposição

advocate (n.): defensor

atrocity (n.): atrocidade

affair (n.): assunto, acontecimento, caso amoroso

atypical (adj.): atípico

aftermath (n.): resultado, consequência afterward (adv.): mais tarde, depois

beforehand (adv.): antecipadamente beg (v.): implorar

bill (n.): conta billboard (n.): letreiro, outdoor bind (v.): amarrar, atar binge (n.): consumo excessivo

auction (n.): leilão

birthmark (n.): marca de nascença

augment (v.): aumentar, ampliar

blast (n.): rajada, explosão

available (adj.): disponível

bleach (v.): lavar com água sanitária, alvejar

agency (n.): atuação, ação

average (adj.): médio, normal, comum

ahead (adv.): à frente

avoid (v.): evitar

bra (n.): sutiã

air (v.): ir ao ar

award (v.): conceder, premiar

brand (n.): marca

aim (n.): objetivo

awareness (n.): consciência, conscientização

broad-mindedness (n.): mente aberta

awkward (adj.): embaraçoso, inadequado

brood (v.): refletir, meditar

aim (v.): ter o objetivo de allegedly (adv.): supostamente

bonding (n.): ligação

allowance (n.): mesada

brotherhood (n.): fraternidade, irmandade

aloft (adv.): acima

bubble (n.): bolha

alter (v.): alterar, mudar although (c.): embora, apesar de que amateur (adj.): amador

198

beckon (v.): chamar com um gesto, acenar

one hundred and ninety-eight

B

build (n.): constituição física be worth (v.): valer algo beat (v.): vencer, derrotar

burn (v.): queimar, incendiar by the same token: do mesmo modo


deeply (adv.): profundamente

endure (v.): aguentar, suportar

degraded (adj.): degradante, reduzido

engagement (n.): compromisso

caged (adj.): enjaulado campaign (n.): campanha

delightful (adj.): encantador

caregiver (n.): cuidador

demand (v.): exigir

caress (n.): carícia

demented (adj.): louco, intenso

caretaker (n.): cuidador

depiction (n.): representação

carton (n.): caixa pequena

depletion (n.): diminuição

carve (v.): esculpir, entalhar

depth (n.): profundidade

casket (n.): pequeno cofre, estojo

derail (v.): descarrilhar

C

enlarge (v.): ampliar, aumentar ensemble (n.): conjunto enslave (v.): escravizar ensure (v.): assegurar entail (v.): implicar, acarretar entitle (v.): dar direito a envision (v.): imaginar, mentalizar

descent (n.): descendência

catchy (adj.): cativante, atraente

envy (n.): inveja

desire (n.): desejo

catwalk (n.): passarela

dim (adj.): obscuro

censorship (n.): censura

evoke (v.): evocar, lembrar, reativar na memória

disagreement (n.): desacordo, discordância

evolve (v.): evoluir

challenge (n.): desafio

expense (n.): custo, gasto

discouraged (adj.): desencorajado

character (n.): personagem charge (v.): acusar

extraneous (adj.): alheio, estranho

disrespectful (adj.): desrespeitoso

cheesier (adj.): de qualidade inferior childish (adj.): infantil, imaturo

dissect (v.): dissecar, analisar com detalhes

cleanser (n.): produto de limpeza

doubt (n.): dúvida doubtless (adv.): sem dúvida

clue (n.): pista, dica

eye drops (n.): colírio

F

dour (adj.): severo

fabric (n.): tecido

drain (n.): ralo

factory (n.): fábrica

due (adj.): devido

fair (adj.): justo

dump (v.): descarregar

fair trade (n.): comércio justo

consumption (n.): consumo

dust (n.): poeira, pó

convincingly (adv.): convincentemente

dust-reel (n.): redemoinho de poeira

fairly (adv.): imparcialmente, de forma justa

corded (adj.): amarrado

duty (n.): dever, obrigação

commoner (n.): plebeu compliment (n.): elogio comprise (v.): compreender, incluir

cotton (n.): algodão

cowpea (n.): feijão de corda

fare (n.): tarifa

E

cram (v.): lotar, abarrotar

eager (adj.): ansioso

creak (n.): rangido

earn (v.): ganhar

crotch (n.): gancho, forquilha

eave (n.): beiral do telhado

cyan (n.): ciano

effort (n.): esforço, empenho elf (n.): duende [plural: elves]

D

far away (adv.): longínquo

darken (v.): escurecer

endlessly (adv.): interminavelmente, sem fim

deepening (adj.): profundo

endow (v.): dotar

farm input (n.): recursos utilizados para a prática da agricultura fashionable (adj.): elegante, na moda Glossary

course (n.): curso, rumo

failure (n.): falha

fat (n.): gordura favourably (adv.): favoravelmente feature (n.): característica, aspecto fear (n.): medo fear (v.): temer, ter medo one hundred and ninety-nine

199


fit (adj.): em forma

harassed (adj.): assediado

fitful (adj.): irregular

hatred (n.): ódio

flatter (adj.): mais liso, mais plano

haunt (v.): assombrar

flaw (n.): defeito, imperfeição

head coach (n.): treinador principal

flee (v.): escapar, fugir [p. fled/p.p. fled] flip chart (n.): cavalete

junior (n.): aluno do penúltimo ano de high school ou college

K

heal (v.): curar

keen (v.): lamentar

hectic (adj.): frenético

keep track (v.): manter(-se) informado

herein (adv.): aqui

fog (n.): névoa

keynote speaker (n.): orador principal

hijack (v.): sequestrar

footprint (n.): pegada

hoard (v.): reservar, acumular

fore (n.): frente

knack (n.): jeito, destreza

hole (n.): buraco

forelock (n.): topete

hollow (n.): cavidade

foremost (adj.): principal

homeless (adj.): sem-teto

foster (v.): cuidar, promover

L

frantic (adj.): agitado, ansioso

hopelessness (n.): desespero, desesperança

lack (v.): faltar, carecer de

freckle (n.): sarda

host (n.): apresentador

further (v.): promover, favorecer

household (n.): doméstico

lambaste (v.): criticar severamente landfill (n.): aterro sanitário

household chore (n.): tarefa doméstica

G

landowner (n.): proprietário de terra

hunger (n.): fome galvanize (v.): estimular, pôr em prática, iniciar

hurtle (v.): deslocar(-se) violentamente

garment (n.): peça de roupa

hushed (adj.): calado

launch (v.): lançar leadership (n.): liderança leading (adj.): principal

gather (v.): reunir(-se)

lens (n.): lente

gift (n.): dom

light (adj.): leve

glance (v.): olhar de relance

I

light (n.): luz limn (v.): delinear, retratar

glimpse (n.): vislumbre, visão vaga

illness (n.): doença

goat (n.): cabra

incitement (n.): incitação

good-natured (adj.): bem­- humorado, agradável

increase (v.): aumentar

livelihood (n.): subsistência

inescapable (adj.): inevitável

load (v.): carregar

inhuman (adj.): desumano

loneliness (n.): solidão

injury (n.): lesão

longing (n.): saudade, anseio

innate (adj.): inato, natural

lymph node (n.): gânglio linfático (parte do sistema linfático responsável por produzir anticorpos para defesa do organismo humano)

granary (n.): celeiro grandiose (adj.): grandioso grant (v.): conceder grasp (v.): agarrar

lip (n.): lábio lipless (adj.): sem lábio

insight (n.): compreensão, perspicácia

greasy (adj.): gorduroso, oleoso greenly (adv.): tornando-se verde, maduramente

insightful (adj.): perspicaz invigorate (v.): revigorar

M

H harmful (adj.): prejudicial, nocivo

J

macrophage (n.): macrófago (célula do tecido conjuntivo)

haphazard (adj.): casual, fortuito

jaw (n.): mandíbula

harass (v.): assediar, importunar

join (v.): juntar(-se)

200

mainstream (adj.): dominante, convencional

two hundred

g18_ftd_lt_3noi_u08_198a203_glossary.indd 200

5/28/16 10:27 AM


maize (n.): milho

oily (adj.): oleoso

policy (n.): política

major (n.): maior, principal; curso de graduação

on behalf of: em nome de

polish (v.): lustrar, polir

ongoing (adj.): contínuo

pontiff (n.): pontífice

mane (n.): crina

outfit (n.): traje, roupa

portray (v.): representar, retratar

manufacture (v.): fabricar

outlook (n.): perspectiva, visão

portrayal (n.): representação

manufacturer (n.): fabricante

outraged (adj.): indignado, ultrajado, ofendido

prattling (adj.): murmurante

overall (adj.): geral, global

predicament (n.): situação difícil, apuro

market (v.): comercializar, divulgar mealtime (n.): hora da refeição

overhead (adv.): acima, no alto

merchant (n.): comerciante

overlap (v.): sobrepor

mercy (n.): piedade, clemência

overlooked (adj.): negligenciado

mermaid (n.): sereia

overweight (adj.): acima do peso

midst (n.): meio mindset (n.): mentalidade

overwhelmed (adj.): sobrecarregado

misconception (n.): equívoco

overwhelming (adj.): esmagador

misgiving (n.): dúvida, receio

own (v.): possuir

mistreat (v.): maltratar

owner (n.): dono, proprietário

prejudice (n.): preconceito premiere (v.): estrear pretend (v.): fingir, simular pride (n.): orgulho prom (n.): baile de formatura proud (adj.): orgulhoso purchase (n.): compra, aquisição purportedly (adv.): alegadamente

mood (n.): humor, estado de espírito motionless (adj.): imóvel, sem se mexer mumble (v.): balbuciar, murmurar Muslim (n.): mulçumano

P

Q painful (adj.): doloroso queer (adj.): estranho

pale (adj.): pálido, sem cor

quote (n.): citação

pane (n.): vidro panel (n.): painel, quadrinho

R

parched (adj.): ressecado, seco

racial slur (n.): injúria racial

patch (n.): mancha

raid (n.): ataque

newscast (n.): jornal (televisivo)

pave (v.): pavimentar

raid (v.): atacar

non-profit (adj.): sem fins lucrativos

pawpaw (n.): mamão

raise (v.): criar railway (n.): ferrovia, trilho

notice (v.): notar, perceber

paycheck (n.): salário, pagamento

noticeable (adj.): perceptível

peaceful (adj.): pacífico

random (adj.): aleatório, casual

peer (v.): espreitar, perscrutar

range (n.): faixa

perhaps (adv.): talvez

rather (adv.): em vez de

persona (n.): eu-lírico

reach (v.): alcançar, chegar a

oat (n.): aveia

pipe (n.): cano

recall (v.): recordar, lembrar-se

offbeat (adj.): fora do padrão, incomum

plea (n.): apelo, súplica

recognize (v.): reconhecer

plead (v.): suplicar, implorar

recovery (n.): recuperação, restabelecimento

narrow-mindedness (n.): intolerância, estreiteza de visão

O

off season (n.): fora de época offset (adj.): deslocado

plot (n.): enredo, terreno pequeno

ramble (v.): vaguear

reel (n.): bobina, carretel two hundred and one

201

Glossary

paramount (adj.): supremo, muito importante

N


regardless (adv.): independentemente, apesar de regret (n.): arrependimento regret (v.): lamentar, arrepender-se regretful (adj.): arrependido reliable (adj.): confiável relief (n.): alívio rely (v.): depender remain (v.): permanecer remark (n.): observação, comentário removal (n.): remoção, retirada resemble (v.): parecer-se com resentment (n.): ressentimento

seek (v.): procurar, buscar

spread (n.): disseminação, espansão

seize (v.): aproveitar

spread (v.): espalhar, propagar

self-conscious (adj.): consciente de si mesmo

[p. spread/p.p. spread]

self-reliant (adj.): autoconfiante

stable (n.): estábulo

seem (v.): parecer

stanza (n.): estrofe

senior (adj.): superior; idoso, mais velho

stare (v.): olhar fixamente starvation (n.): fome, inanição

senior (n.): aluno do último ano de high school ou college; pessoa mais velha

starve (v.): passar fome, morrer de fome

set (someone) straight: esclarecer, deixar claro

stereo (n.): estereoscópio

sew (v.): costurar

straight (adj.): consecutivo

stubborn (adj.): teimoso

[p. sewed/p.p. sewn]

straightforward (adj.): simples, direto, claro

resource (n.): recurso

shabby (adj.): esfarrapado, maltrapilho

respectful (adj.): respeitoso

shame (n.): vergonha

stream (v.): correr, fluir

respite (n.): descanso, pausa

shareholder (n.): acionista

restrain (v.): restringir, impedir, conter

shed (v.): produzir, emitir

streamlined (adj): modernizado em simplicidade e melhor eficácia

retirement (n.): aposentadoria retreat (n.): recuo, retirada retrieve (v.): recuperar, restaurar revered (adj.): venerado rhyme (n.): rima rift (n.): fenda ringworm patch (n.): marca circular na pele causada por fungos riot (n.): motim, tumulto rub (v.): esfregar rule (n.): regra, regulamento

strain (v.): pressionar

[p. shed/p.p. shed]

stride (n.): passo largo

shield (v.): proteger

strive (v.): ambicionar, aspirar

shift (n.): mudança

[p. strove/p.p. striven]

shine (v.): brilhar

struggle (v.): lutar

shoot (v.): gravar, filmar

struggle (n.): luta, esforço

[p. shot/p.p. shot]

stuff (n.): coisa

shout (v.): gritar side effect (n.): efeito colateral

stocky (adj.): baixo e forte, robusto

sight (n.): visão

stylish (adj.): estiloso, elegante

slate (n.): ardósia

supply (n.): provisão, reserva

slavery (n.): escravidão

surround (v.): cercar, rodear

slightly (adv.): levemente, ligeiramente

sustain (v.): sustentar, aguentar sweetmeat shop (n.): loja de doces

smell (v.): cheirar, ter cheiro

S safeguard (v.): proteger, defender

sneaky (adj.): dissimulado, sorrateiro sneaking (adj.): furtivo, secreto

save (v.): reservar, poupar

solely (adv.): somente

scar (n.): cicatriz

sooner (adv.): mais cedo

sceptical (adj.): cético

sovereignty (n.): soberania, supremacia

scouring cleanser: produto de limpeza

202

two hundred and two

spark (v.): sair faísca, chispar

T tattered (adj.): despedaçado, rasgado taunt (n.): insulto telecast (n.): programa de televisão


than (c.): do que

uneasiness (n.): desconforto

while (c.): enquanto que

therefore (adv.): portanto

unfair (adj.): injusto

whole (adj.): todo, inteiro

thicken (v.): engrossar

unfortunately (adv.): infelizmente

wider (adj.): mais amplo

threat (n.): ameaça

unhealthy (adj): insalubre

wink (v.): piscar

thus (adv.): assim, deste modo, portanto

unquestionable (adj.): inquestionável, indiscutível

wisely (adv.): sabiamente, sensatamente

tie (n.): nó, vínculo

unreasonable (adj.): irracional, insensato

wistful (adj.): triste, melancólico

tit-bit (n.): pedaço

withhold (v.): conter, recusar

unsafe (adj.): perigoso

toil (v.): trabalhar pesado, labutar

[p. withheld/p.p. withheld]

unscripted (adj.): sem roteiro, improvisado

tool (n.): ferramenta

within (prep.): dentro de

upper (adj.): superior

topple (v.): desabar tough (adj.): duro, resistente toward (prep.): em direção a, relativamente a, com respeito a

uprising (n.): rebelião, motim

witness (v.): presenciar, testemunhar

upset (v.): perturbar, chatear

witty (adj.): espirituoso wizened (adj.): murcho

[p. upset/p.p. upset]

wondrous (adj.): maravilhoso, surpreendente

urge (v.): incitar, estimular

trail (n.): rastro, trilha trample (v.): pisar com força, pisotear trash (v.): descartar

wood (n.): bosque, madeira worthless (adj.): inútil, sem valor

V

trick (n.): truque

vagrant (n.): mendigo

trunk (n.): baú truth (n.): verdade

venture (n.): empreendimento, empreitada

truthfulness (n.): veracidade

void (n.): lugar desabitado, vazio

tumble dry (v.): secar em máquina que gira as peças em ar quente tummy (n.): barriga turnaround (n.): reviravolta twisted (adj.): retorcido

wrinkle (v.): enrugar

Y yam (n.): inhame yield (n.): produção

W wail (n.): lamento, lamúria warmth (n.): calor warrior (n.): guerreiro waste (n.): lixo, desperdício wealthy (adj.): rico

U

welfare (n.): bem-estar

unlikely (adj.): improvável

well-groomed (adj.): bem cuidado

unable (adj.): incapaz unchangeable (adj.): imutável

well-meaning (adj.): bem-intencionado

undergo (v.): passar por, submeter(-se)

whatever (c.): qualquer que, o que quer que

[p. underwent/ p.p. undergone] undesirable (adj.): indesejável

Glossary

weight (n.): peso ultimately (adv.): finalmente, por fim

wheelchair (n.): cadeira de rodas whether (c.): se two hundred and three

g18_ftd_lt_3noi_u08_198a203_glossary.indd 203

203

5/28/16 10:28 AM


List of irregular verbs

track 39

204

Infinitive

Simple Past

Past Participle

Translation

be

was/were

been

ser, estar

become

became

become

tornar-se

begin

began

begun

comeรงar

bite

bit

bitten

morder

blow

blew

blown

soprar, assoprar

break

broke

broken

quebrar

bring

brought

brought

trazer

build

built

built

construir

buy

bought

bought

comprar

catch

caught

caught

pegar, agarrar

choose

chose

chosen

escolher

come

came

come

vir

cost

cost

cost

custar

cut

cut

cut

cortar

dig

dug

dug

cavar

do

did

done

fazer

draw

drew

drawn

desenhar

drink

drank

drunk

beber

drive

drove

driven

dirigir

eat

ate

eaten

comer

fall

fell

fallen

cair

feed

fed

fed

alimentar

feel

felt

felt

sentir(-se)

fight

fought

fought

lutar, brigar

find

found

found

encontrar

fly

flew

flown

voar

forbid

forbade

forbidden

proibir

forget

forgot

forgotten

esquecer

forgive

forgave

forgiven

perdoar

freeze

froze

frozen

gelar, congelar

get

got

gotten

conseguir, obter, ganhar, chegar, pegar etc.

give

gave

given

dar

go

went

gone

ir

two hundred and four


track 40

Infinitive

Simple Past

grow

grew

grown

crescer

have

had

had

ter

hear

heard

heard

ouvir

hide

hid

hidden

esconder

hit

hit

hit

bater, atingir, acertar

hold

held

held

segurar, pegar

hurt

hurt

hurt

doer, ferir

keep

kept

kept

manter

know

knew

known

saber, conhecer

lay

laid

laid

pĂ´r, colocar, botar

lead

led

led

liderar, guiar, conduzir

learn

learned/learnt

learned/learnt

aprender

leave

left

left

sair, partir

lend

lent

lent

emprestar

let

let

let

deixar, permitir

lie

lay

lain

deitar

lose

lost

lost

perder

make

made

made

fazer

mean

meant

meant

significar

meet

met

met

encontrar, conhecer

pay

paid

paid

pagar

put

put

put

pĂ´r, colocar

quit

quit

quit

largar (o emprego), parar (de fazer algo)

read

read

read

ler

ride

rode

ridden

andar (de bicicleta, a cavalo etc.)

ring

rang

rung

rise

rose

risen

subir, aumentar, levantar-se, nascer (o Sol)

run

ran

run

correr

say

said

said

dizer

Past Participle

Translation

tocar (campainha, telefone)

two hundred and five

205


track 41

206

Infinitive

Simple Past

Past Participle

Translation

see

saw

seen

ver

sell

sold

sold

vender

send

sent

sent

enviar

set

set

set

marcar (uma data), pôr-se (o Sol), ajustar, programar etc.

shake

shook

shaken

sacudir, tremer, apertar as mãos

sing

sang

sung

cantar

sink

sank

sunk

afundar

sit

sat

sat

sentar

sleep

slept

slept

dormir

speak

spoke

spoken

falar

spend

spent

spent

stand

stood

stood

levantar-se, ficar de pé

steal

stole

stolen

roubar

swear

swore

sworn

jurar

swim

swam

swum

nadar

take

took

taken

tomar, pegar, segurar etc.

teach

taught

taught

ensinar

tell

told

told

dizer

think

thought

thought

pensar

throw

threw

thrown

jogar, arremessar

understand

understood

understood

entender

wake

woke

woken

despertar, acordar

wear

wore

worn

vestir

weep

wept

wept

chorar, derramar lágrimas

win

won

won

vencer, ganhar

write

wrote

written

escrever

two hundred and six

gastar, passar (tempo)


List of phrasal verbs track 42

Phrasal Verb

Translation

come off

emergir, acontecer

come up

surgir, ser mencionado

cope with

dar conta, aguentar

deal with

lidar com algo

draw on

tirar partido

drop off

descarregar

drop out

desistir, largar

end up

acabar

fill in

preencher algo

fit in with

encaixar-se com algo

get along

dar-se bem

get back to

voltar (a fazer algo)

get into

entrar

give up

desistir

go through

passar por, atravessar

hang out

sair com alguém

hit out

criticar

kick off

dar o pontapé inicial, iniciar

log on

conectar

look back

relembrar

look through

olhar através

melt down

derreter, fundir

pay out

pagar muito dinheiro

puff away

fumaçar, fumegar

reach out

pedir ajuda

rely on

depender de alguém/algo, contar com alguém/algo

run away

fugir

set forth

estabelecer, anunciar

shrink away

recuar

slim down

emagrecer

slip into

entrar rapidamente

slip out

sair rapidamente

stick by

aderir, manter-se fiel a algo

sum up

resumir, fazer um resumo

take away

tirar, retirar, levar

trample on

pisotear, destruir

wind up

provocar two hundred and seven

207


Bibliography ARMSTRONG, Thomas. Inteligências múltiplas na sala de aula. Trad. Maria Adriana Veríssimo Veronese. Porto Alegre: ARTMED Editora, 2001. BRANCO, Sandra. Atividades com temas transversais. 1. ed. São Paulo: Cortez, 2009. (Oficinas aprender fazendo). BROWN, H. Douglas. Teaching by principles: an interactive approach to language pedagogy. London: Prentice Hall Regents, 1994. MCINTOSH, Colin (Ed.). Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. 4. ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013. CAMBRIDGE word routes: inglês-português. São Paulo: Martins Fontes, 1996. CARVALHO, Anna Maria Pessoa de (Coord.). Ensino de língua inglesa. São Paulo: Cengage Learning, 2010. CASSANY, Daniel. Oficina de textos: compreensão leitora e expressão escrita em todas as disciplinas e profissões. Tradução Valério Campos. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2008. CLARKE, Simon. Macmillan English grammar in context: essential. Oxford: Macmillan Publishers Limited, 2008. CORDEIRO, Jaime. Didática. 2. ed. São Paulo: Contexto, 2013. COSTA, Marisa Vorraber (Org.). A educação na cultura da mídia e do consumo. Rio de Janeiro: Lamparina, 2009. 220 p. DURÃO, Adja Balbino de Amorim Barbieri (Org.). Vendo o dicionário com outros olhos. Londrina: UEL, 2010. FAZENDA, Ivani C. A. (Org.). Didática e interdisciplinaridade. 17. ed. Campinas: Papirus, 2012. (Coleção Práxis). FERREIRA, Martins. Como usar a música na sala de aula. 2. ed. São Paulo: Contexto, 2002. (Coleção como usar na sala de aula). FREIRE, Nádia Maria Bádue (Org.). Educação para a paz e a tolerância: fundamentos teóricos e prática educacional. Campinas: Mercado de Letras, 2011. (Coleção Educação e Psicologia em Debate). FRIGOTTO, Gaudêncio; CIAVATTA, Maria; RAMOS, Marise (Orgs.). Ensino Médio integrado: concepções e contradições. 3. ed. São Paulo: Cortez, 2012. GODOY, Sonia M. Baccari; GONTOW, Cris; MARCELINO, Marcello. English pronunciation for Brazilians: the sounds of American English. São Paulo: Disal, 2006. HOUSE, Christine; STEVENS, John. Gramática prática do inglês: uma gramática do inglês com exercícios e respostas. Tradução Eva Glenk. Barueri: Disal, 2012. IGREJA, José Roberto A. How do you say in English?: expressões coloquiais e perguntas inusitadas para quem estuda ou ensina inglês! 1. ed. São Paulo: Disal, 2005. ISIDORO, Marisol. Gramática comparativa: 100% inglês e 100% português. 1. ed. São Paulo: FTD, 2003. LIMA, Diógenes Cândido de Lima (Org.). Ensino e aprendizagem de língua inglesa: conversa com especialistas. 1. ed. São Paulo: Parábola Editorial, 2009. LONGMAN language activator. Harlow: Longman, 1993. LONGMAN American idioms dictionary. Harlow: Longman, 1999. MCCARTHY, Michael; O’DELL, Felicity. English vocabulary in use: elementary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008. MENDES, Edleise; CUNHA, José Carlos (Orgs.). Práticas em sala de aula de línguas: diálogos necessários entre teoria(s) e ações situadas. Campinas: Pontes Editores, 2012. MOITA LOPES, Luiz Paulo da. Oficina de linguística aplicada: a natureza social e educacional de processos de ensino/aprendizagem de línguas. Campinas: Mercado de Letras, 1996. (Coleção Letramento, Educação e Sociedade). MOROSOV, Ivete. A didática do ensino e a avaliação da aprendizagem em língua estrangeira. Curitiba: Ibpex, 2008. (Metodologia do ensino de língua portuguesa e estrangeira). NEVES, Iara Conceição Bitencourt et al (Orgs.). Ler e escrever: compromisso de todas as áreas. 8. ed. Porto Alegre: Editora da UFRGS, 2007. (Série Educação Continuada). OLIVEIRA, João Batista Araujo e; CHADWICK, Clifton. Aprender e ensinar. 5. ed. São Paulo: Global, 2002. PAVANI, Cecília; JUNQUER, Ângela; CORTEZ, Elizena. Jornal: uma abertura para a educação. Campinas: Papirus, 2007. PEREIRA, Regina Celi; ROCA, Pilar (Orgs.). Linguística aplicada: um caminho com diferentes acessos. São Paulo: Contexto, 2009. PINTER, Annamaria. Teaching young language learners. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. RIOS-REGISTRO, Eliane Segati et al (Orgs.). Connecting ide@s: tools for teaching English in a contemporary society. 1. ed. Londrina: Capes, 2011. SANTOS, Vivaldo Paulo dos. Interdisciplinaridade na sala de aula. São Paulo: Edições Loyola, 2007. (Sociedade Educativa Consciência e Compromisso). SEVERINO, Antônio Joaquim; SEVERINO, Estevão Santos. Ensinar e aprender com pesquisa no ensino médio. 1. ed. São Paulo: Cortez, 2012. SOUZA, Cristiano. Expressões necessárias para falar inglês. 2. ed. Belo Horizonte: Autêntica Editora, 2009. TEIXEIRA, Adla Betsaida Martins (Org.). Temas atuais em didática. Belo Horizonte: Editora UFMG, 2010.

208

two hundred and eight

g18_ftd_lt_3noi_u08_208_bibliografia.indd 208

5/28/16 10:30 AM

Contato ingless 3  
Contato ingless 3