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Rosana Amancio Mariana Killner

Ensino Médio Componente curricular Língua Estrangeira Moderna – Inglês Ensino Médio Componente Língua Estrangeira curricular Moderna – Inglês

Manual do Professor

Inglês

Inglês

Manual do Professor

ISBN 978-85-8392-096-0

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Manual do Professor

Inglês Ensino Médio Componente curricular Língua Estrangeira Moderna Inglês

Rosana Gemima Amancio

Mariana Killner

Professora graduada em Letras Anglo-Portuguesas pela Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL-PR).

Licenciada em Letras Anglo-Portuguesas pela Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL-PR).

Especialista em Língua Portuguesa pela Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL-PR). Especialista em Língua Inglesa pela Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL-PR). Mestre em Linguística pela Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp-SP).

Bacharel em Letras, Língua e Cultura Francesas pela Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL-PR). Especialista em Língua Inglesa pela Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL-PR). Atuou como professora de Inglês em escolas da rede particular de ensino.

Atuou como professora de Inglês em escolas da rede particular de ensino.

1a. edição

São Paulo

2016


Copyright © Rosana Gemima Amancio, Mariana Killner, 2016

Diretor editorial Gerente editorial Coordenadora editorial Assessoria Gerente de produção editorial Coordenador de produção editorial Coordenadora de arte Coordenadora de preparação e revisão Supervisora de preparação e revisão Revisão Coordenador de iconografia e licenciamento de textos Supervisora de licenciamento de textos Iconografia Coordenadora de ilustrações e cartografia Diretor de operações e produção gráfica

Produção editorial Edição Assistência editorial Assessoria Projeto gráfico Capa Imagens de capa Edição de ilustrações Diagramação Tratamento de imagens Ilustrações Preparação de texto Revisão técnica Assistência de produção Autorização de recursos Pesquisa iconográfica Editoração eletrônica

Lauri Cericato Cayube Galas Ana Carolina Costa Lopes Lidia Furusato Mariana Milani Marcelo Henrique Ferreira Fontes Daniela Máximo Lilian Semenichin Viviam Moreira Enymilia Guimarães Expedito Arantes Elaine Bueno Ana Paula de Jesus Marcia Berne Reginaldo Soares Damasceno Scriba Projetos Editoriais Mariana Cavalcante Diamante Isabela Ventura Silvério Biz, Ruth Carvalho da Silva, Jefferson de Moura Saraiva, Karina Otsuka Nihonmatsu Renata Quirino Laís Garbelini e Hatadani Marcela Pialarissi e Hatadani Fotomontagem formada pelas imagens Haveseen/hadkhanong/ Sergey Moskvitin/nednapa/Gruffi/M.Stasy/Shutterstock.com Natanaele Bilmaia Ana Maria Puerta Guimarães José Vitor Elorza Costa Anna Simonin, Art Capri, Bárbara Sarzi, Camila Ferreira, Estúdio Meraki, Júnior Caramez, Poliana Garcia, Rafael Luís Gaion, Rogério Casagrande Laís Morais Canonico Metz Theo E. Kleinhans Denise A. Santos, Daiana Melo e Tamires Azevedo Erick L. Almeida Alaíde França Luiz Roberto L. Correa (Beto)

Dados Internacionais de Catalogação na Publicação (CIP) (Câmara Brasileira do Livro, SP, Brasil) Amancio, Rosana Gemima #Contato inglês, 2o ano / Rosana Gemima Amancio, Mariana Killner. – 1. ed. – São Paulo : Quinteto Editorial, 2016. – (Coleção #contato inglês) “Componente curricular: inglês” ISBN 978-85-8392-095-3 (aluno) ISBN 978-85-8392-096-0 (professor) 1. Inglês (Ensino médio) I. Killner, Mariana. II. Título. III. Série.

16-02609

      CDD-420.7

Índices para catálogo sistemático: 1. Inglês : Ensino médio

Reprodução proibida: Art. 184 do Código Penal e Lei 9.610 de 19 de fevereiro de 1998. Todos os direitos reservados à QUINTETO EDITORIAL LTDA. Rua Rui Barbosa, 156 – Bela Vista – São Paulo-SP CEP 01326-010 – Tel. (11) 3598-6000 Caixa Postal 65149 – CEP da Caixa Postal 01390-970

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Em respeito ao meio ambiente, as folhas deste livro foram produzidas com fibras obtidas de árvores de florestas plantadas, com origem certificada.

Impresso no Parque Gráfico da Editora FTD S.A. CNPJ 61.186.490/0016-33 Avenida Antonio Bardella, 300 Guarulhos-SP – CEP 07220-020 Tel. (11) 3545-8600 e Fax (11) 2412-5375

9/6/16 11:22 AM


Para conhecer seu livro Hot dog, self-service, e-mail, blog, game... você já percebeu quantas palavras em Inglês usamos diariamente? Essas relações de palavras são bastante interessantes, pois nos mostram a importância da língua inglesa dentro da nossa cultura. E estudar uma língua estrangeira é uma maneira de termos acesso a uma imensidão de novas informações, de nos preparar para desafios, de conhecermos outras culturas, e é, sobretudo, uma forma de conhecermos melhor a nossa própria cultura. Pensando nisso, preparamos para este livro uma seleção de conteúdos contemporânea e consistente, textos atuais e diversificados, além de recursos atraentes, como fotografias, ilustrações, mapas, tabelas e quadros, que possibilitam a você ter um contato envolvente com a informação. Esperamos que você se identifique com este material e encontre nele o prazer de estudar outra língua, e que ele seja um incentivo para você buscar cada vez mais conhecimento.

Abertura

Nas páginas de abertura, você encontrará uma montagem de imagens relacionada ao tema da unidade e um texto introdutório explicando o significado da expressão idiomática ou do provérbio usado como título. Além disso, apresentamos algumas questões para que você e os seus colegas troquem ideias e entrem no clima da unidade.

They indicate the first and the last words on the page.

4

baby [ beibi] - plural babies - noun 1 a very young child: Some babies cry during the night; (also adjective) a baby boy. bebê 2 (especially American, often babe) a girl or young woman. garota babyish adjective like a baby; not mature: a babyish child that cries every day at school. pueril baby buggy/carriage (American) a pram. carrinho baby grand a small grand piano. piano meia-cauda baby-sit verb to remain in a house to look after a child while its parents are out: He baby-sits for his friends every Saturday. ficar de baby-sitter baby-sitter noun. baby-sitter baby-sitting noun. serviço de baby-sitter

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bachelor [ bat∫ l ] noun an unmarried man: He’s a confirmed bachelor (= he has no intention of ever marrying); (also adjective) a bachelor flat (= a flat suitable for one person). solteiro back [bak] noun 1 in man, the part of the body from the neck to the bottom of the spine: She lay on her back. costas 2 in animals, the upper part of the body: She put the saddle on the horse’s back. lombo 3 that part of anything opposite to or furthest from the front: the back of the house; She sat at the back of the hall. fundos 4 in football, hockey etc a player who plays behind the forwards. defesa adjective of or at the back: the back door. dos fundos adverb 1 to, or at, the place or person from which a person or thing came: / went back to the shop; She gave the car back to its owner. de volta 2 away (from something); not near (something): Move back! Let the ambulance get to the injured man; Keep back from me or I’ll hit you! para trás 3 towards the back (of something): Sit back in your chair. para trás 4 in return; in response to: When the teacher is scolding you, don’t answer back. de volta 5 to, or in, the past: Think back to your childhood. para trás verb 1 to (cause to) move backwards: He backed (his car) out of the garage. dar marcha à ré 2 to help or support: Will you back me against the others? apoiar 3 to bet or gamble on: I backed your horse to win. apostar em backer noun a person who supports someone or something, especially with money: the backer of the new theatre. patrocinador

acúmulo back- number noun an out-of-date copy or issue of a magazine etc: She collects back-numbers of comic magazines. número atrasado backside noun the bottom or buttocks: He sits on his backside all day long and does no work. traseiro backstroke noun in swimming, a stroke made when lying on one’s back in the water: The child is good at backstroke. nado de costas backwash noun 1 a backward current eg that following a ship’s passage through the water: the backwash of the steamer. ressaca 2 the unintentional results of an action, situation etc: The backwash of that firm’s financial troubles affected several other firms. repercussão backwater noun 1 a stretch of river not in the main stream. braço, esteiro 2 a place not affected by what is happening in the world outside. That village is rather a backwater. fim

3 Phonetic symbols They show how the word is pronounced. Some dictionaries have a guide which helps you to understand and use the pronunciation symbols presented in them.

Na seção Looking words up, você encontrará orientações sobre como usar o dicionário de uma maneira mais ef iciente.

Monolingual dictionaries

4 Parts of speech It indicates if the word is a noun, a verb, an adjective, an adverb, etc. It can be abbreviated (n./noun; v./ verb; etc.)

5 Definition The definition and meaning of the word.

6 Example sentence

6

An example of how the word is used in a sentence. It can provide more context and relevance.

Learning strategies 7 Translation

The word changed into Portuguese.

8 Syllables

7

Some dictionaries show you how to break the word into syllables.

de mundo back yard noun (especially American) a garden at the back of a house etc: He grows vegetables in his backyard. quintal

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Bilingual dictionaries

The word to be defined. Dictionary entries are arranged in alphabetical order. Nouns are usually in the singular form. Verbs are usually in the base form (not in the past or past participle).

Concise Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press, 2010

baboon [b bu n, (American) ba-] noun a kind of large monkey with a dog-like face. babuíno

There are different types of dictionaries. For example:

2 Entry

Password: English dictionary for speakers of Portuguese. São Paulo: Martins Fontes, 1995. p. 30.

On-line dictionaries Macmillan Dictionary. Available at: <www. macmillandictionary.com>. Accessed on: March 31st, 2016

3

babe [beib] noun 1 a baby: a babe in arms (= a small baby not yet able to walk). bebê 2 see baby.

Merriam-Webster. Available at: <www.merriam-webster.com>. Accessed on: March 31st, 2016

eleven

ten

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Na seção Learning strategies, você encontrará diferentes estratégias de aprendizado que poderão auxiliá-lo em seu estudo.

Estúdio Meraki

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1 Guide words

backbite verb to criticize a person when he is not present. falar mal (pelas costas) backbiting noun: Constant backbiting by her colleagues led to her resignation. maledicência backbone noun 1 the spine: the backbone of a fish. espinha dorsal 2 the chief support: The older employees are the backbone of the industry. sustentáculo backbreaking adjective (of a task etc) very difficult or requiring very hard work: Digging the garden is a backbreaking job. pesado back date verb 1 to put an earlier date on (a cheque etc): She should have paid her bill last month and so she has backdated the cheque. antedatar 2 to make payable from a date in the past: Our rise in pay was backdated to April. retroagir back fire verb 1 (of a motor-car etc) to make a loud bang because of unburnt gases in the exhaust system: The car backfired. estourar 2 (of a plan etc) to have unexpected results, often opposite to the intended results: His scheme backfired (on him), and he lost money. dar um revertério background noun 1 the space behind the principal or most important figures or objects of a picture etc: She always paints ships against a background of stormy skies; trees in the background of the picture. fundo 2 happenings that go before, and help to explain, an event etc: the background to a situation. pano de fundo 3 a person’s origins, education etc: He was ashamed of his humble background. antecedentes backhand noun 1 in tennis etc, a stroke or shot with the back of one’s hand turned towards the ball: a clever backhand; His backhand is very strong. backhand 2 writing with the letters sloping backwards: I can always recognize her backhand. grafia inclinada à esquerda adverb using backhand: She played the stroke backhand; She writes backhand. de revés backlog noun a pile of uncompleted work etc which has collected: a backlog of orders because of the strike.

Dicionário Oxford escolar. Oxford University Press, 2013

Bb

Babble / back

babble [ babl] verb 1 to talk indistinctly or foolishly: What are you babbling about now? tagarelar 2 to make a continuous and indistinct noise: The stream babbled over the pebbles. murmurar noun such talk or noises. tagarelice, murmúrio

Password. São Paulo: Martins Fontes, 2010

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2

Fotomontagem formada pelas imagens J. Helgason e LOGVINYUK YULIIA/ Shutterstock.com

Looking words up

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Twelve

Thirteen

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A seção Contextualizing inicia o estudo por meio de atividades relacionadas ao tema das unidades e ao vocabulário que será ensinado. Essa contextualização será feita, também, muitas vezes, com base na leitura e análise de diversos gêneros textuais.

Contextualizing

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Warming up 1.

Discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates. a ) Are you a technological person? How much time do you spend on electronic devices?

a cell phone/ smartphone

Learning and acting

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

a computer

III BallBall14/ Shutterstock.com

Denis Rozhnovsky/ Shutterstock.com

II

Gerisima/Shutterstock.com

I

a video game console

b ) What do you do when you are using these devices? c ) In your opinion, which of these devices is the best thing since sliced bread? d ) What are the pros and cons of your favorite electronic device?

Reading and reflecting

A seção Learning and acting foi proposta para unir o trabalho com as habilidades de leitura e de escrita. Ela está dividida em Reading and reflecting, momento em que a leitura e compreensão textual são estudadas, e Writing, em que se realiza a produção textual.

1.

Do you think that spending too much time in front of a TV or computer screen may cause health problems?

2.

Read the following headlines and talk to a classmate. a ) What kind of information do you think is mentioned in each of the following news articles? b ) What are some characteristics of headlines? I

They are placed above the article.

II

They are written in large or boldface fonts.

III

They attract the reader’s attention.

IV

They summarize the article.

c ) Can you predict the information from a news article just by its headline?

Teen sends 8,000 texts a month CREWDSON, Patrick. Teen sends 8,000 texts a month. Available at: <www.nzherald. co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_ id=1&objectid=10120912>. Accessed on: October 29 th, 2015.

1,9 3,5 TV Video game console Computer Cellphone/Smartphone Tablet In a 24-hour day, people usually spend 17.3 hours using electronic devices.

3,5

Source: <http:// marketingland.com/surveyteens-spend-2x-more-timewith-mobile-than-pcs-ortvs-139775>. Accessed on: October 29 th, 2015.

b ) Teens spent around 7 hours away from these devices. c ) Teens spent the same amount of time using cellphones and watching TV.

Listening and understanding

d ) They spent the same amount of time using computers and watching TV.

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

e ) They spent twice the amount of time with cellphones than TV. f ) Video game was the least used device.

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Look at the following pictures and identify the objects you use in class.

HOPE, Jenny. Teenagers who use screen for more than four hours a day ‘take longer to fall asleep and get poorer quality rest’. Available at: <www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2937191/Teenagers-use-screen-four-hours-daylonger-fall-asleep-poorer-quality-rest.html>. Accessed on: October 28 th, 2015.

a laptop

Teens who spend too much time on internet at risk of high blood pressure: study. Available at: <www. timeslive.co.za/lifestyle/2015/10/07/Teens-who-spend-too-much-time-on-internet-at-risk-of-high-bloodpressure-study>. Accessed on: December 14th, 2015.

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a tablet

A seção Listening and understanding está divida em Listening, em que se privilegia a compreensão de áudios autênticos, e Speaking, que busca contemplar situações de uso real da língua para você praticar o que aprendeu.

a book

F Brian Kinney/ Shutterstock.com

E

nixki/Shutterstock.com

D

Teens who spend too much time on internet at risk of high blood pressure: study

Denis Rozhnovsky/ Shutterstock.com

PEARCE, Tralee. Study: teens spending seven hours a day in front of TVs, computers. Available at: <www. theglobeandmail.com/life/parenting/study-teens-spending-seven-hours-a-day-in-front-of-tvs-computers/ a notebook article571660/>. Accessed on: October 27th, 2015.

tsev/ Alex Starosel tock.com Shutters

Study: teens spending seven hours a day in front of TVs, computers

C egon999/Shutterstock.com

B SirinS/Shutterstock.com

A

2.

2,1

6,3

a ) Teens used cellphones/smartphones more than any other device.

CHATTERJEE, Sreemoyee. Addiction to online games up among teens. Available at: <http://timesofindia. indiatimes.com/tech/tech-news/Addiction-to-onlinegames-up-among-teens/articleshow/49052265.cms>. Accessed on: October 29 th, 2015.

1.

The graph shows how much time American teenagers spent using different electronic devices in 2015. Read it and decide if the sentences that follow are true or false. Write down the true statements and rewrite the false ones in your notebook. How much time do you usually spend using each of the following devices?

Addiction to online games up among teens

Teenagers who use screen for more than four hours a day ‘take longer to fall asleep and get Listening poorer quality rest’

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2.

Fotomontagem de Rafael Luís Gaion formada pela imagem g-stockstudio/Shutterstock.com

Pre-reading

a headset

a PC (personal computer)

Discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates. a ) Are students in your school allowed to use laptops, tablets or cell phones? b ) Do you think those devices help or distract students in class? How? c ) Would you like to study with a laptop instead of a book and notebook? Explain.

3.

In pairs, think about the advantages and disadvantages of having laptops and tablets in class. Make a list in your notebook. Then, share it with your teacher and classmates.

4.

After listening to your classmates’ lists of advantages and disadvantages, are you in favor or against the use of laptops and tablets in class?

5.

Listen to a podcast about the use of laptops in class. What’s the main idea? a ) Laptops help students to study at home.

track 16

As atividades de compreensão oral e o número das faixas no CD de áudio são indicados por esse ícone.

b ) Laptops help students to take notes in class, but they can be a distraction.

6.

Listen to the podcast again and decide if the following sentences are true or false. Write down the true statements and rewrite the false ones in your notebook.

track 16

a ) The name of the show is The Current. b ) The radio broadcaster is a woman. c ) Students are going on vacation. d ) Students arrived at the school with laptops. e ) The students don’t get distracted with the laptop in class.

Comprehending Comprehending and and using using

f ) The podcast presents the teacher’s opinions.

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Learning Learning about about the the language language Simple Simple Past Past xx Past Past Continuous Continuous 1.1. Discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates. Discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates.

a ) Do you have an e-mail or a social network account? a ) Do you have an e-mail or a social network account? b ) How often do you access it? b ) How often do you access it? c ) Do you think your e-mail and social network have a safe password? Explain. c ) Do you think your e-mail and social network have a safe password? Explain. d ) Does anyone else know your password? Who? Why does this person know it? d ) Does anyone else know your password? Who? Why does this person know it?

seventy-two

2. the comic strip, but do not read the speech bubbles. Then, in the notebook, write 2. Observe Observe the comic strip, but do not read the speech bubbles. Then, in the notebook, write 2016 King Features Syndicate/Ipress ©© 2016 King Features Syndicate/Ipress

the correct answers. the correct answers.

A seção Comprehending and using está divida em duas partes. A primeira, Learning about the language, apresenta estruturas linguísticas e suas regras. Na segunda, Using the language, você encontrará atividades para praticar o uso dessas estruturas em situações próximas do uso real da língua.

Zits, by Jerry Scott Zits,Jim by Borgman. Jerry Scott and and Jim at: Borgman. Available <http:// Available at: <http:// zitscomics.com/ zitscomics.com/ comics/ comics/ october-22-2008/>. october-22-2008/>. Accessed on: Accessed , 2015. October 28 thon: October 28 th, 2015.

a ) How many people are there in the comic strip? a ) How many people are there in the comic strip? I two II one I two II one b ) What are they doing in the first picture? b ) What are they doing in the first picture? I reading the newspaper II looking at a computer screen I reading the newspaper II looking at a computer screen c ) What is the expression of the man wearing glasses in the second picture? c ) What is the expression of the man wearing glasses in the second picture? I He’s surprised and shocked. II He’s sad and angry. I He’s surprised and shocked. II He’s sad and angry. d ) What’s the number of the house in the last picture? d ) What’s the number of the house in the last picture? I 2201 II 2101 I 2201 II 2101

3. the speech bubbles in the comic strip and decide if the following sentences are true 3. Read Read the speech bubbles in the comic strip and decide if the following sentences are true or false. Write down the true statements and rewrite the false ones in your notebook. or false. Write down the true statements and rewrite the false ones in your notebook. a ) They are watching a video on the internet. a ) They are watching a video on the internet. b ) The boy knows the man’s password. b ) The boy knows the man’s password. c ) The man thinks his password is a secret. c ) The man thinks his password is a secret. d ) The man’s password is the same for everything. d ) The man’s password is the same for everything. e ) The man’s password is the number of his house. e ) The man’s password is the number of his house.

4. the following questions with your teacher and classmates. 4. Discuss Discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates.

a ) Why do you think the boy knew the man’s password? a ) Why do you think the boy knew the man’s password? b ) Do you use the same password for everything? Why (not)? b ) Do you use the same password for everything? Why (not)? c ) What would you do if someone knew your password without you telling him/her? c ) What would you do if someone knew your password without you telling him/her?

Summing up

Nesta unidade, você...

conversou com seus colegas de classe sobre o uso de aparelhos eletrônicos, redes sociais e aplicativos; leu gráficos apresentando dados sobre quanto tempo os adolescentes passaram utilizando sites e aplicativos e quais foram usados com mais frequência; estudou vocabulário utilizado em diferentes redes sociais;

Unit 4

leu um artigo canadense sobre o tempo que os jovens passam em frente a um computador ou televisão; escreveu uma manchete para um artigo de jornal;

No Summing up, você poderá autoavaliar seu aprendizado, verificando quais conteúdos da unidade precisam ser revistos.

74 74

seventy-four seventy-four

ouviu trechos de um podcast; debateu com seus colegas de classe sobre os prós e contras da utilização de laptops na sala de aula; revisou os usos do tempo verbal Simple Past; estudou o Past Continuous para falar de ações que estavam em curso em um momento no passado; conheceu alguns acrônimos utilizados em interações on-line; praticou a pronúncia correta de palavras inglesas terminadas em -m.

Watching The movie The social network tells the story of Mark Zuckerberg, the inventor of a famous social network website. When things start to work out, he is sued by two brothers who claimed he stole their idea. Later, his cofounder also goes against him after being squeezed out of the business.

Surfing the net The website Geek <http://tub.im/7r9uib> has the latest news and reviews of the best hardware and software, resources and more.

Singing The song Computer love, performed by Kraftwerk and recorded on the CD Computer world, is about a person who wants to find someone to have a relationship with, but only looks for it on the computer.

Girl Online, by Zoe Sugg. Atria Books: USA, 2014.

Filme de David Fincher. The social network. EUA. 2010

The book Girl Online is about Penny, a girl who has found a way to talk about her hidden feelings: blogging. She has a secret identity to talk about friendship, boys, high school drama, family and her panic attacks. Moving to New York, she is going to start living new adventures.

No Going further, você encontrará sugestões de livros, filmes, sites e músicas referentes ao tema da unidade. Vale a pena conferir algumas dessas sugestões!

The Social Network, by David Fincher. Columbia Pictures: USA, 2010. amy Stock EyeBrowz/Al tock Photo/Latins

Reading

Editora Penguin

Going further

Kraftwerk (1978).

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Choosing a career

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Essa seção apresenta diferentes profissões e informações sobre o mercado de trabalho. Por meio de uma lista com as principais características dessas profissões, propomos que você avalie os prós e os contras de cada carreira, com o objetivo de auxiliá-lo em sua escolha profissional.

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Thinking cross-curricularly

A seção Thinking cross-curricularly retoma alguns dos temas abordados em unidades anteriores, estabelecendo uma relação entre esses temas e outras disciplinas do currículo escolar. O objetivo é ampliar as propostas de discussão feitas nas unidades, proporcionando mais oportunidades de leitura e compreensão de textos variados.

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

In this section of the book, you are going to read texts related to some of the topics you have discussed in the previous units. Here, you are going to have the opportunity to reflect on various themes and their relation with other subjects, such as Sociology, Chemistry and History. The activities follow the same structure you have worked with in the units, including the stages of pre-reading, reading and post-reading.

1.

Read the following quote and discuss the questions with your teacher and classmates. Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) was a North-American author, poet and philosopher. One of the most famous writers from the USA, he is considered the father of environmentalism because of his writings about nature. He was also an abolitionist and pacifist.

[…] a man is rich in proportion to the number of things which he can afford to let alone. THOREAU, Henry. Walden, and on the duty of civil disobedience. Available at: <www.gutenberg.org/ files/205/205-h/205-h.htm>. Accessed on: November 30 th, 2015.

a ) In your opinion, what is the meaning of the quote? b ) In your opinion, are all the advances of modern life good and useful? Why (not)? c ) Do you think people without access to technology have better or worse lives? Why?

2.

Read the following text. Then, discuss with your teacher and classmates the connection between Thoreau’s quote and the text. x

http://news.com/archive/9507946/

NEWS

160

VIDEOS

NEWS

PHOTOS

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

APPS

A seção Getting ready for exams é uma oportunidade para se preparar para avaliações oficiais, como ENEM e vestibulares de diversas regiões do Brasil e com questões de diferentes formatos.

Bárbara Sarzi

Minimalism means to simplify things to their essential characteristics. It is usually related to painting, music, design and architecture movements.

Getting ready for exams

HOME

In this section of the book, you are going to study universities entrance examinations from all Minimalists find happiness living with less over the country. This means that you are going to have the opportunity to learn and have more We’ve all heard the saying, “money can’t buy happiness”, but is the opposite information about the different styles of exams and prepare yourself for when your time to take true? Could happiness be as simple as living with less? There’s a growing minimalist movement and it might be right forthe you.examinations comes. universities entrance If you are feeling like your garage looks more like The a storage unit than a placeexaminations have, in most cases, objective questions. The English offer four or five alternatives. They can demand from the students the to park your car, you are not alone. Americans exams love to questions buy “stuff”.usually We spend $380 billion each year on clothes, shoes, cars, gadgets, odds aand ends. ability to and interpret text or to use a grammatical and linguistic knowledge. Moreover, some To pay for it all, we work long hours, and buy big houses store it all. in English, while others ask them in Portuguese. exams asktothe questions But is all that stuff making you happy? Ryan Nicodemus and Joshua Millburn don’t think so. (UFPR - 2012) UFPR stands for Universidade Federal do Paraná. […] The childhood friends are now leaders of the growing “minimalist movement”. They are encouraging other people to get rid ofCurriculum all that stuff in Falls Short on Bigger Lessons School their lives that isn’t making them happy. By Tara PARKER-POPE […] Now that children are back in the classroom, are they really learning the lessons that will help themAs succeed? Millburn and Nicodemus are excited about the huge response. the minimalists movement grows, they hope others willMany find happiness from child development experts worry that the answer may be no. They say the letting go of stuff. ever-growing emphasis on academic performance and test scores means many children aren’t “If we could convey one message to everyone who comes tolife ourskills events”, developing like said self-control, motivation, focus and resilience, which are far better Nicodemus, “we really want to leave this behind:predictors to love people, and usesuccess than high grades. And it may be distorting their and their of long-term things, because the opposite never works.” parents’ values.

In one set of studies, children who solved math puzzles were praised for their intelligence or for their hard work. The first group actually did worse on subsequent tests, or took an easy way out, shunning difficult problems. The research suggests that praise for a good effort encourages harder work, while children who are consistently told they are smart do not know what to do when confronted with a difficult problem or reading assignment.

MIGUEL, Ken. Minimalists find happiness living with less. Available at: <http://abc7news.com/archive/9507946/>. Accessed on: November 4th, 2015.

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Going out there

Academic achievement can certainly help children succeed, and for parents there can be a fine line between praising effort and praising performance. Words need to be chosen carefully: Instead of saying, “I’m so proud you got an ‘A’ on your test”, a better choice is “I’m so proud of you for studying so hard”. Both replies rightly celebrate the ‘A’, but the second focuses on the effort that produced it, encouraging the child to keep trying in the future. Praise outside of academics matters, too. Instead of asking your child how many points she scored on the basketball court, say, “Tell me about the game. Did you have fun? Did you play hard?”. Parents also need to teach their children that they do not have to be good at everything, and there is something to be learned when a child struggles or gets a poor grade despite studying hard. One strategy is to teach children that the differences between easy and difficult subjects can provide useful information about their goals and interests. Subjects they enjoy and excel in may become the focus of their careers. Challenging but interesting classes or sports can become hobbies. Adapted from: <http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/09/05/school-curriculum-falls-short-on-bigger-lessons/?_r=0>. Accessed on: February 2nd, 2016.

1.

Are these statements TRUE (T) or FALSE (F), according to the text?

• Schools tend to emphasize academic performance and test scores. • Students should develop life skills, such as self-control, ambition, and competitiveness. • Getting high grades does not necessarily mean that the student will be successful in life. • The emphasis on academic performance is not supported by parents at all. • Long-term success is usually achieved by students who get high grades. Mark the alternative which presents the correct sequence, from top to bottom.

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a ) F – T – F – T – F.

c ) F – T – T – F – F.

b ) F – F – F – T – T.

d ) T – T – F – F – T.

e ) T – F – T – F – F.

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Essa seção propõe um processo investigativo de trabalho e pesquisa, com uma ação voltada para a prática.

Understanding literature

Nessa seção propomos a leitura e a interpretação de textos literários, para que você conheça a produção literária de alguns países onde o inglês é língua oficial.

unit

Grammar appendix

Glossary

In this section, you can find the meaning and the classification of several words. All the meanings presented are from the uses in the specific situations of this book. The meanings and classifications of these words may vary depending on their use.

adj. = adjective

c. = conjunction

pron. = pronoun

adv. = adverb

n. = noun

prep. = preposition

A abolition (n.): abolição

arrival (n.): chegada

bottom (n.): fundo

article (n.): artigo

braces (n.): aparelho ortodôntico

asleep (adj.): adormecido

brainy (adj.): inteligente, esperto

abolitionist (n.): abolicionista abound (v.): existir em quantidade grande

attachment (n.): ligação, conexão

above (adv.): acima

attain (v.): atingir

abroad (adv.): no exterior

attend (v.): frequentar

accomplishment (n.): realização

aware (adj.): consciente

account (n.): conta

awareness (n.): consciência, conscientização

act (v.): agir

branch (n.): ramo breath (n.): fôlego breathe (v.): respirar bright (adj.): esperto, inteligente broadcaster (n.): apresentador brotherhood (n.): fraternidade, irmandade

away (adv.): distante

addiction (n.): vício

advance (n.): avanço afford (v.): dispor, permitir afraid (adj.): com medo age-old (adj.): antíquissimo

barrier (n.): barreira bauxite ore (n.): minério de bauxita beauty (n.): beleza

carbon (n.): carbono

behold (v.): observar

century (n.): século

app (n.): aplicativo appointment (n.): compromisso appreciate (v.): apreciar arise (v.): emergir [p. arose/pp. arisen] one hundred and ninety-eight

strong - stronger than

simple - simpler than

for -i and add -er.

easy - easier than

almost (adv.): quase

annihilation (n.): aniquilação

large - larger than

[p. beheld/ pp. beheld] belonging (n.): objeto, pertence bend (v.): dobrar [p. bent/pp. bent] beneath (adv.): abaixo betrothed (adj.): noiva biologist (adj.): biólogo birth (n.): nascimento bleak (adj.): gelado blood (n.): sangue boarding school (n.): internato boring (adj.): entediante borrow (v.): emprestar bother (v.): incomodar, preocupar-se

charcoal (n.): carvão vegetal charity (n.): caridade cheapen (v.): baratear, pechinchar childhood (n.): infância chill (v.): esfriar chore (n.): tarefa citizen (n.): cidadão claim (n.): reivindicação claim (v.): reivindicar clever (adj.): inteligente, esperto clog (v.): travar, entupir closely (adv.): muito próximo cloth (n.): roupa clump (n.): arvoredo

happy - happier than

pretty - prettier than

It’s much easier to learn through music than through texts and reading.

• When the adjective ends in consonant + vowel + consonant, we double the last letter and add -er. big - bigger than

captivated (adj.): cativado

alone (adj./adv.): só

anger (n.): raiva

nice - nicer than

candle (n.): vela

carefully (adv.): cuidadosamente

amount (v.): tornar(-se)

cold - colder than

When adjectives with one or two syllables end in -e, we just add -r.

cap (n.): tampa

caregiver (n.): cuidador

ancestor (n.): antepassado

smart - smarter than

Do you think he’s smarter than she is?

calligraphy (n.): caligrafia

behaviour (n.): comportamento

amongst (prep.): entre

Spelling

• In adjectives with one or two syllables, we add -er.

C

behind (adv./prep.): atrás

among (prep.): entre (várias pessoas ou coisas)

I’m not as intelligent as you are. You have better grades.

• When adjectives with one or two syllables end in -y, we change the -y

allow (v.): permitir

amid (prep.): entre (várias pessoas ou coisas)

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babyish (adj.): infantil, imaturo

beginning (n.): princípio, começo, início

amaze (n.): estupefação

Lucia isn’t as logical as Marco.

Differently from the comparatives of equality, the comparatives of superiority are used to highlight the superiority of one person, thing or place compared to another. In this case, we use the word than after the adjective, which is modified depending on the number of syllables.

Studying in a group is nicer than studying alone.

agog (adj.): curioso

although (c.): embora

Igor is as sociable as I am. We have interpersonal intelligence. You are as shy as Joshua.

Comparatives of equality can also be in the negative form. In this case, we are expressing that the people, things or places are not equal in some way.

B

aid (n.): auxílio, ajuda air (v.): ir ao ar

Comparatives

Comparatives of equality express that things, people or places are equal. They are formed by as + adjective + as. Note that the adjective doesn’t change its form.

buried (adj.): enterrado

addition (n.): adição adopt (v.): adotar

v. = verb

1

Comparatives are used to establish comparisons between people, things or places. It is possible to have: comparatives of equality and comparatives of superiority.

No Grammar appendix, você encontrará um resumo, apresentado de forma sistemática, dos pontos gramaticais estudados ao longo do livro. Sugerimos que você recorra a essa seção para estudar em casa ou para solucionar dúvidas em sala de aula.

hot - hotter than

thin - thinner than

My ability to speak in public is bigger than yours.

No Glossary, você encontrará, em ordem alfabética, vocabulário de textos e atividades de todas as unidades, com as respectivas traduções em língua portuguesa.

• Some adjectives are irregular. They don’t follow the rules. They change their form completely. good - better than

bad - worse than

far - farther/further than

In my opinion, it’s better to be visual than a naturalist person. For me, Math is worse than Portuguese. I definitely don’t have mathematical intelligence.

• Adjectives that have more than two syllables are not modified. In this case, we use the word more before the adjective. intelligent – more intelligent than

important – more important than

beautiful – more beautiful than Women aren’t more intelligent than men. I think they are equally intelligent.

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Monkey Business Images/ Shutterstock.com


Contents Looking words up. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Learning strategies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Think outside the box unit

.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

Contextualizing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Multiple intelligences

Learning and acting.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Reading about different kinds of intelligence Making an infographic

Listening and understanding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Listening to a podcast .Talking about famous people and their kinds of intelligence

Comprehending and using. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Comparatives

Summing up.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

unit

Going further. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

The world is your oyster

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Contextualizing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Learning foreign languages

Learning and acting.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Reading about languages in Europe Writing an opinion article about learning foreign languages

Listening and understanding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Listening to an interview Interviewing someone who speaks a foreign language

Comprehending and using. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Modal verbs: must, can, could, may, might, should

/Shu tters to Joseph Calev

ck .com

Summing up.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Going further. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

Choosing a career. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46


Necessity is the mother of invention

unit

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48

Contextualizing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Gadgets

Learning and acting.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Reading a comic strip and a cartoon Creating a cartoon Bogdan Vija/Shutterstock.com

Listening and understanding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Listening to a talk show Talking about the creation of a video game

Comprehending and using. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Superlatives

Summing up.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Going further. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

Best thing since sliced bread unit

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Contextualizing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Social networks, apps and words related to them

Learning and acting.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Reading about the time spent in front of screens Writing a headline

Listening and understanding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Listening to a podcast Debating with classmates

Comprehending and using. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Simple Past x Past Continuous

Summing up.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Going further. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

Thinking cross-curricularly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Choosing a career. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Getting ready for exams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88


Come rain or shine

unit

.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

94

Contextualizing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Environment

Learning and acting.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Reading a campaign poster Writing a campaign poster

Listening and understanding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Africa Studio/ Shutterstock.com

Listening to a talk Talking about environmental problems

Comprehending and using. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Future - will First conditional

Summing up.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Going further. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

Roll up your sleeves

unit

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110

Contextualizing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Volunteer work

Learning and acting.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Reading a blog post Writing a blog post

Listening and understanding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Listening to a podcast Giving a presentation

Comprehending and using. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Future â&#x20AC;&#x201C; be going to

Summing up.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Going further. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

unit

Choosing a career. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

All things are difficult before they are easy

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128

Contextualizing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Experiences

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Learning and acting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Reading a blog post Writing a reply

Listening and understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Listening to a podcast Talking about kick starts

Comprehending and using ........................................................ 138 Present Perfect Present Perfect and already, yet, just, never

Summing up. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

Actions speak louder than words

.....................

144

Contextualizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Important events

Learning and acting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Reading a magazine article Producing a magazine

Listening and understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Listening to a podcast Presenting elderly peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s experiences

Comprehending and using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Present Perfect Continuous For/Since

Summing up. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Going further . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

Thinking cross-curricularly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Choosing a career . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Getting ready for exams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Going out there . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Understanding literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Grammar appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 List of irregular verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 List of phrasal verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208

wavebreakmedia/ Shutterstock.com

unit

Going further . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143


Looking words up

1

2

Bb

Babble / back  backbite verb to criticize a person when he is not present. falar mal (pelas costas)  backbiting noun: Constant backbiting by her colleagues led to her resignation. maledicência  backbone noun 1 the spine: the backbone of a fish. espinha dorsal 2 the chief support: The older employees are the backbone of the industry. sustentáculo  backbreaking adjective (of a task etc) very difficult or requiring very hard work: Digging the garden is a backbreaking job. pesado  back  date verb 1 to put an earlier date on (a cheque etc): She should have paid her bill last month and so she has backdated the cheque. antedatar 2 to make payable from a date in the past: Our rise in pay was backdated to April. retroagir  back  fire verb 1 (of a motor-car etc) to make a loud bang because of unburnt gases in the exhaust system: The car backfired. estourar 2 (of a plan etc) to have unexpected results, often opposite to the intended results: His scheme backfired (on him), and he lost money. dar um revertério  background noun 1 the space behind the principal or most important figures or objects of a picture etc: She always paints ships against a background of stormy skies; trees in the background of the picture. fundo 2 happenings that go before, and help to explain, an event etc: the background to a situation. pano de fundo 3 a person’s origins, education etc: He was ashamed of his humble background. antecedentes  backhand noun 1 in tennis etc, a stroke or shot with the back of one’s hand turned towards the ball: a clever backhand; His backhand is very strong. backhand 2 writing with the letters sloping backwards: I can always recognize her backhand. grafia inclinada à esquerda adverb using backhand: She played the stroke backhand; She writes backhand. de revés  backlog noun a pile of uncompleted work etc which has collected: a backlog of orders because of the strike.

babble [  babl] verb 1 to talk indistinctly or foolishly: What are you babbling about now? tagarelar 2 to make a continuous and indistinct noise: The stream babbled over the pebbles. murmurar noun such talk or noises. tagarelice, murmúrio

3

babe [beib] noun 1 a baby: a babe in arms (= a small baby not yet able to walk). bebê 2 see baby. baboon [b   bu n, (American) ba-] noun a kind of large monkey with a dog-like face. babuíno

4

baby [  beibi] - plural  babies - noun 1 a very young child: Some babies cry during the night; (also adjective) a baby boy. bebê 2 (especially American, often babe) a girl or young woman. garota  babyish adjective like a baby; not mature: a babyish child that cries every day at school. pueril baby buggy/carriage (American) a pram. carrinho baby grand a small grand piano. piano meia-cauda  baby-sit verb to remain in a house to look after a child while its parents are out: He baby-sits for his friends every Saturday. ficar de baby-sitter  baby-sitter noun. baby-sitter  baby-sitting noun. serviço de baby-sitter

5

bachelor [  bat∫ l ] noun an unmarried man: He’s a confirmed bachelor (= he has no intention of ever marrying); (also adjective) a bachelor flat (= a flat suitable for one person). solteiro back [bak] noun 1 in man, the part of the body from the neck to the bottom of the spine: She lay on her back. costas 2 in animals, the upper part of the body: She put the saddle on the horse’s back. lombo 3 that part of anything opposite to or furthest from the front: the back of the house; She sat at the back of the hall. fundos 4 in football, hockey etc a player who plays behind the forwards. defesa adjective of or at the back: the back door. dos fundos adverb 1 to, or at, the place or person from which a person or thing came: / went back to the shop; She gave the car back to its owner. de volta 2 away (from something); not near (something): Move back! Let the ambulance get to the injured man; Keep back from me or I’ll hit you! para trás 3 towards the back (of something): Sit back in your chair. para trás 4 in return; in response to: When the teacher is scolding you, don’t answer back. de volta 5 to, or in, the past: Think back to your childhood. para trás verb 1 to (cause to) move backwards: He backed (his car) out of the garage. dar marcha à ré 2 to help or support: Will you back me against the others? apoiar 3 to bet or gamble on: I backed your horse to win. apostar em  backer noun a person who supports someone or something, especially with money: the backer of the new theatre. patrocinador

acúmulo  back-  number noun an out-of-date copy or issue of a magazine etc: She collects back-numbers of comic magazines. número atrasado  backside noun the bottom or buttocks: He sits on his backside all day long and does no work. traseiro  backstroke noun in swimming, a stroke made when lying on one’s back in the water: The child is good at backstroke. nado de costas  backwash noun 1 a backward current eg that following a ship’s passage through the water: the backwash of the steamer. ressaca 2 the unintentional results of an action, situation etc: The backwash of that firm’s financial troubles affected several other firms. repercussão  backwater noun 1 a stretch of river not in the main stream. braço, esteiro 2 a place not affected by what is happening in the world outside. That village is rather a backwater. fim

6

7

de mundo  back  yard noun (especially American) a garden at the back of a house etc: He grows vegetables in his backyard. quintal

30

10

ten

Password: English dictionary for speakers of Portuguese. São Paulo: Martins Fontes, 1995. p. 30.


Fotomontagem formada pelas imagens J. Helgason e LOGVINYUK YULIIA/ Shutterstock.com

They indicate the first and the last words on the page.

There are different types of dictionaries. For example: Bilingual dictionaries DicionĂĄrio Oxford escolar. Oxford University Press, 2013

1 Guide words

2 Entry The word to be defined. Dictionary entries are arranged in alphabetical order. Nouns are usually in the singular form. Verbs are usually in the base form (not in the past or past participle).

They show how the word is pronounced. Some dictionaries have a guide which helps you to understand and use the pronunciation symbols presented in them.

Monolingual dictionaries Concise Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press, 2010

Password. SĂŁo Paulo: Martins Fontes, 2010

3 Phonetic symbols

4 Parts of speech It indicates if the word is a noun, a verb, an adjective, an adverb, etc. It can be abbreviated (n./noun; v./ verb; etc.)

5 Definition The definition and meaning of the word.

An example of how the word is used in a sentence. It can provide more context and relevance.

7 Translation The word changed into Portuguese.

8 Syllables Some dictionaries show you how to break the word into syllables.

On-line dictionaries Macmillan Dictionary. Available at: <www. macmillandictionary.com>. Accessed on: March 31st, 2016

6 Example sentence

Merriam-Webster. Available at: <www.merriam-webster.com>. Accessed on: March 31st, 2016

eleven

11


Learning strategies

12

Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que as estratégias listadas nestas páginas poderão ajudá-los a desenvolver suas habilidades de compreensão oral e pronúncia. Diga que os sites sugeridos aqui são apenas alguns dos que eles encontrarão na internet. Se julgar apropriado, indique outros.

Twelve


Thirteen

13

EstĂşdio Meraki


unit

track 2

14

Think outside the box


When you think outside the box, you think in an original or creative way. You need to think outside the box if you want to find a better solution for this problem. Sugerimos ver, nas

para o Exchanging ideas Orientações professor, as

A

respostas e os comentários referentes a esta atividade.

Do you think outside the box? If you do, how do people react to it? In your opinion, is it important to think outside the box? Explain.

C

Discuss with your teacher and classmates some common attributes of someone who thinks outside the box.

D

Look at the people illustrated on these pages. Do you recognize any of them? Do you believe they have ever thought outside the box?

Fotomontagem de Júnior Caramez formada pela koya979/Shutterstock.com

B

15

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Contextualizing

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Warming up 1. In

your opinion, what are some personal characteristics of people who can think outside the box? Write down in your notebook. Resposta esperada: a; b; c. Sugerimos pedir aos alunos que justifiquem suas respostas.

a ) intelligent

c ) original

e ) unimaginative

b ) creative

d ) organized

f ) hard-working

2. One

of the words from the list above is intelligent. Do you know other ways to say that someone is intelligent? Read the words below and write in your notebook the synonyms for this adjective. X X X X bright  slow  clever  smart  unimaginative  brainy

3. Who

is the most intelligent person you know? Why do you think he/she is intelligent? Answer in your notebook. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

4. There

are different kinds of intelligence. Read the information about the multiple intelligences and, in your notebook, match them to each kind.

The multiple intelligences (MI) theory was developed in the 1980s by Howard Gardner, a professor of education at Harvard University. This theory proposes that people are intelligent in different ways.

a - II; b - VI; c - IV; d - VIII, e - III; f - V; g - VII; h - I. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) linguistic intelligence

e ) spatial intelligence

b ) logical-mathematical intelligence

f ) interpersonal intelligence

c ) musical intelligence

g ) intrapersonal intelligence

d ) bodily-kinesthetic intelligence

h ) naturalist intelligence

I […] This is the ability to recognize and appreciate our relationship with the natural world. Astronomers, biologists, and zoologists are examples of professions with a high level of naturalist intelligence. [...] II […] This is the ability to use spoken and written language effectively to express yourself. Lawyers, writers, and speakers tend to have high linguistic intelligence. III […] This is the ability to recognize, use, and interpret images and patterns and to reproduce objects in three dimensions. Successful architects, sculptors and designers are likely to have high spatial intelligence. IV […] This is the ability to perform, compose, and appreciate musical patterns, including changes in pitch, tone, and rhythm. Successful musicians, composers, and people involved in music production have high levels of musical intelligence. V […] This is the ability to understand people’s intentions, motivations, and desires. This intelligence allows individuals to work well with others. Professions like therapy, teaching, and sales attract individuals with high interpersonal intelligence. VI […] This is the ability to analyze problems logically, work effectively with mathematical operations, and investigate issues using the scientific method. [...] People working in the scientific and mathematical communities tend to be high in this type of intelligence. VII […] This is the ability to understand yourself, and to interpret and appreciate your own feelings and motivations. Therapists, actors, caregivers, and writers are all people who can bring high levels of personal awareness to their work. VIII […] This is the ability to use the body for expression. [...] Professional dancers and athletes are good examples of this. Gardner’s multiple intelligences: distinguishing individual profiles of intelligence. Available at: <www.mindtools.com/pages/ article/newISS_85.htm>. Accessed on: October 14th, 2015. © Mind Tools Ltd, 1996-2015. All rights reserved. «Mind Tools» is a registered trademark of Mind Tools Ltd. Reproduced with permission.

16

sixteen


Unit 1

Learning vocabulary 5. As

you can deduce from the text on page 16, identifying which kinds of intelligence are more natural to you may help you to choose your future profession. Based on the text and on your own knowledge, draw up the table in your notebook and classify the words below.

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a identificarem, entre as palavras destacadas no quadro, quais são habilidades e quais são opções de carreiras, para, em seguida, completarem a tabela no caderno, associando essas habilidades e possíveis profissões às inteligências correspondentes.

accountant

engineer

personal

acting

gardener

decision-making

actor

interest in sciences

philosopher

architect

journalist

problem-solving

managing feelings

artist

musician

calculating constructing cooperating counselor

singer

painting playing instruments

and animals

salesperson

writer

singing speaking

empathy

scientist working with plants

playing sports

dancer

researcher

writing

Intelligence

Skills

Possible careers

linguistic

speaking writing

journalist writer

logical-mathematical

calculating problem-solving

accountant engineer

musical

playing instruments singing

musician singer

bodily-kinesthetic

acting playing sports

actor dancer

spatial

constructing painting

architect artist

interpersonal

empathy cooperating

counselor salesperson

intrapersonal

managing feelings personal decision-making

philosopher researcher

naturalist

interest in sciences working with plants and animals

gardener scientist

6. Do

some research and, in your notebook, make a list of characteristics that may describe the following professionals. You can use the table below as an example. Resposta pessoal. Possíveis respostas:

lawyer

mathematician

disc jockey (DJ)

athlete

ethical meticulous

focused organized

cool modern

motivated persistent

inventor

psychologist

caregiver

veterinarian

creative curious

careful patient

compassionate kind

caring skillful

seventeen

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Learning and acting Reading and reflecting Pre-reading 1.

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

1. c) Você pode comentar com os alunos que há educadores que acreditam que os estilos de aprendizagem e as múltiplas inteligências podem estar relacionados. Por exemplo, alguém que tenha a inteligência linguística pode preferir estudar usando a palavra, seja ela oral ou escrita; alguém que tenha a inteligência lógico-matemática pode preferir estudar com o uso de gráficos, diagramas e sistemas; e assim por diante.

Talk to your teacher and classmates.

Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) How do you usually study?

b ) Is your learning style similar to or different from your classmates’? c ) Do you think that identifying the types of intelligence you have can also help you to identify your learning style?

2.

Observe the pictures below. Which one best reflects the way you prefer to study? Talk to your classmates about it. Resposta pessoal.

A

I prefer using pictures and images.

B

C

I like using sound and music.

I prefer using written and spoken words.

I like studying in groups.

F

G

I prefer using logic, reasoning and systems.

I like using my hands and body.

Ilustrações: Art Capri

E

D

I like studying alone.

3.

18

eighteen

You are going to read an infographic with more specific information about these 7 styles of learning. Before reading the text, match the scenes from activity 2 with their corresponding VII; B - I; C - VI; D - IV; E - V; learning styles and write down the answers in your notebook. AF -- II; G - III. I

aural (auditory-musical)

V

solitary (intrapersonal)

II

logical (mathematical)

VI

verbal (linguistic)

III

physical (kinesthetic)

VII

visual (spatial)

IV

social (interpersonal)


4. Who

is this text directed at? Read the infographic and, talking with a classmate, identify the most suitable answer. b a ) Teachers, because it shows how to teach students with different learning styles.

Blue Mango Learning Systems

b ) Students, because it gives suggestions on how to study.

4. Sugerimos levar os alunos a perceberem que, além do sentido do texto, é possível identificar o público-alvo pelo uso dos pronomes you e your, que indicam que o autor se dirige diretamente aos alunos.

The 7 styles of learning: which works for you? Available at: <www.edudemic.com/ styles-of-learning>. Accessed on: October 15th, 2015.

nineteen

19

Unit 1

Reading


5. Infographics

are texts that visually represent information in a quick and clear way, using graphic visual representations. Analyze the text and decide if the sentences below are true or false. In your notebook, write down the true statements and rewrite the false ones using the correct information. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, mais informações sobre o gênero textual infográfico.

a ) The information is presented in a simple and direct way. True. b ) The texts are too long. There is too much information. False.

The texts are concise and objective.

c ) The layout is visually creative. True. d ) It is innovative in order to catch the reader’s attention. True.

6. What

learning style are the hints below related to? Write down in your notebook.

visual (spatial)

verbal (linguistic)

d ) Practice skills and behaviors by role-playing the learned concepts and situations. physical (kinesthetic)

Antonio Guillem/Shutterstock.com

f ) When you are e ) Focus on studying, use understanding the sound, rhyme, logical reasons behind and music. the contents you learn. logical (mathematical)

Pressmaster/Shutterstock.com

Georgejmclittle/Shutterstock.com

c ) Record the notes you take during classes and use it to study later.

Dragon Images/Shutterstock.com

solitary (intrapersonal)

b ) Make diagrams to visually organize the information you learn.

Rawpixel.com/Shutterstock.com

a ) When you are studying, make notes about what you are thinking and feeling.

dizain/Shutterstock.com

Eiko Tsuchiya/Shutterstock.com

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a relerem o texto e a escreverem em seus cadernos os estilos de aprendizagem correspondentes a cada dica.

aural (auditory-musical)

g ) Exchange ideas with your classmates about what you understand. social (interpersonal)

7. Choose

one of the learning styles presented in the text and explain the suggestions using your own words. Resposta pessoal. Se preferir, em vez de pedir aos alunos que escolham um dos estilos de aprendizagem e expliquem as dicas de como estudar, você pode dividir os estilos entre eles, de forma que todos os trechos do texto sejam trabalhados.

8. Now,

pair up with a classmate. Exchange ideas about the learning styles you chose.

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

Post-reading 9. What

learning style is the most similar to the way you like to study and learn new things? pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a selecionarem, entre Explain your answer in your notebook.Resposta os estilos apresentados no texto, aquele com o qual se identificam e, depois, comparar a resposta com a da atividade 2: as respostas coincidiram? Se houver diferença, o que causou a alteração da resposta?

10. Howard

Gardner says that if someone has a predominant type of intelligence it doesn’t necessarily mean that he has a corresponding learning style. He believes everyone can use any types of strategies to study. The author of the infographic suggests a correlation between the types of intelligence and the learning styles. Who do you agree with? Why?

20

twenty

Resposta pessoal. A partir das opiniões dos alunos, vários caminhos podem ser tomados, como a organização de um debate, fornecendo aos alunos o passo a passo e as expressões que podem ser utilizadas.


11. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a retornarem à página 16 para relembrar as múltiplas inteligências caso seja necessário. Para ilustrar que é possível ter mais de uma inteligência, você pode exemplificar contando aos alunos qual(is) inteligência(s) você possui mais desenvolvida(s) e qual(is) a(s) outra(s) inteligência(s) que possui em menor grau.

t na tu ra lis

i us

m is tic

ara S

in gu

B árb

bodily-kinesthetic

arzi

l ca l-l ba ve r

Do a survey in your class to find out the most and least common intelligences. Interview seven different classmates and take notes in your notebook. Resposta pessoal.

logical-mathematical

l

13.

a on

Observe the infographic on the right and identify your predominant intelligence(s), the one(s) that is(are) least dominant in you, and the one(s) you want to develop. Tell a classmate about it.

s er

12.

rp te

What is your predominant type(s) of intelligence? Talk to a classmate about it.

in

11.

visual-spatial

intrapersonal

Before writing

Unit 1

Putting your ideas into words

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

Writing

Make your own infographic based on your survey. Write in your notebook the intelligences in order from the most mentioned to the least mentioned by your classmates. Add a graph with the result of your survey. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

After writing 15. 16.

Anna Simonin

14.

12. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a observarem a imagem e explicar que se trata de outro infográfico, com um layout que demonstra como os diferentes tipos de inteligência se interconectam. Após isso, eles podem classificar os tipos de inteligência que possuem, conforme a categorização estipulada.

Read a classmate’s infographic. Check if it is similar to or different from the one you made.

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a trocarem seus infográficos com um colega de sala e observarem se as informações que coletaram na pesquisa da atividade 13 resultaram na produção de infográficos similares ou diferentes.

Observe the graph with the survey’s result on your classmate’s infographic. Discuss the result with your teacher and classmates.

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a observarem os gráficos com o resultado da pesquisa nos infográficos produzidos. É importante discutir o resultado da pesquisa e se os gráficos elaborados pelos colegas de sala representam adequadamente esse resultado. twenty-one

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Listening and understanding Listening 1.

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

3. Antes de ouvirem o podcast novamente, você pode pedir aos alunos que leiam as alternativas. Então, eles devem ouvir o áudio e anotar no caderno a afirmação correta.

Com o objetivo de prepará-los para o momento de escutar o Discuss the following questions with your classmates. Respostas pessoais. áudio desta seção, sugerimos promover uma discussão com a sala sobre inteligência e pessoas que os alunos consideram inteligentes.

a ) What comes to your mind when you hear the word intelligence?

b ) In your opinion, who is an intelligent person? Why? 2. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, a transcrição do áudio.

2. track 3

3. track 3

You are going to listen to a podcast about intelligence. Listen and share with a classmate what you understand the main idea to be. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a escutarem o áudio em busca das informações gerais. É importante instruí-los a manter o foco em palavras-chaves.

Listen to the podcast again and identify its main idea. Write the answer in your notebook. b a ) The man talks about how scientists, professors, leaders etc. are intelligent. b ) The man talks about how we tend to think only of scientists, professors, leaders etc. when we think about intelligence. The man talks about some famous people. In pairs, identify the ones he mentions. A; B; D; E; G. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, informações sobre as pessoas apresentadas nas fotografias.

Dave J Hogan/Getty Images

Stephen Hawking

Juscelino Kubitschek

F

Walt Disney

Oprah Winfrey

Albert Einstein

G Joe Seer/Shutterstock.com

Apic/Hulton Archive/Getty Images

E

D

H

Michael Jordan

Bettmann/Corbis/Latinstock

Michael Jackson

C

Corbis/Latinstock

B Brenda Chase/Hulton Archive/ Getty Images

A

Phillip A. Harrington/ Corbis/Latinstock

4.

Streeter Lecka/Getty Images

6. Antes de reproduzir o áudio, sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem as alternativas. É importante instruí-los a tentar compreender a ideia geral da opinião da mulher.

c ) What makes someone intelligent?

Frida Kahlo

5. Resposta pessoal. Este é o início de uma Look at the people in the pictures from activity 4. In your opinion, who seems intelligent? Explain. importante reflexão crítica, cujo principal objetivo é romper Listen to another part of the podcast. What is the woman’s opinion about intelligence? com estereótipos e preconceitos Write the answer in your notebook. a sobre track 4 inteligência. a ) She thinks we have to accept the way we are and not compare our intelligence with Você pode retomar o people next to us. conceito das múltiplas inteligências, b ) She thinks we have to compare ourselves with everyone around us to check who is the reforçando a explicação de que most intelligent. há diferentes formas de manifestar a inteligência e que, embora, no geral, as pessoas tenham a tendência a valorizar mais algumas delas, como a Matemática e a Linguística, todas as pessoas apresentadas na atividade 4 são inteligentes, cada uma com alguns tipos de inteligência mais desenvolvidos do que outros.

5.

6.

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to the podcast one more time. Write down in your notebook only the sentences that the woman says. a and e.

track 4

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem todas as alternativas e manterem o foco em detalhes mais específicos para realizar esta e a próxima atividade. Eles devem escrever somente as falas b ) Today we’re gonna talk about intelligence. da mulher que eles ouvirem no áudio. Após a c ) Why was all that other stuff the first thing that popped into your head? correção da atividade, é d ) [...] and you’re thinking maybe about IQ tests [...]. importante levá-los a refletir sobre as afirmações e ) The more we can understand where we, as individuals, shine [...], the more we accept marcadas, ourselves as we are and stop comparing, contrasting, ourselves with everyone around us [...]. verificando se eles compreendem o que a mulher quer dizer e se Rewrite the following sentences in your notebook choosing the correct options to concordam com ela. complete them.

a ) [...] because we’re not as quote unquote stereotypically smart as the person next to us.

Unit 1

7. Listen

8.

a ) The name of the podcast is (Personality Hacker/Personality Artists). b ) The man believes that the (FBI agents/NASA engineers) come to mind when you hear the word intelligence. c ) The woman says we shouldn’t (compare and contrast ourselves/share out thoughts) with other people. d ) The man (understands/questions) the reason we didn’t think of Michael Jackson or Walt Disney when he said the word intelligence.

9. Discuss

these questions with your teacher and classmates. Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) Do you agree with the two presenters’ opinions? Why (not)?

b ) Before listening to the podcast, you answered who you think an intelligent person is. The man says that we tend to think about brilliant minds only. Was it the same for you? c ) Why do you think these people come to mind when we hear the word intelligence? d ) Do you know anyone who has a brilliant mind and is extremely intelligent? Who is he/ she? Why do you think he/she is intelligent? Remember that there are multiple intelligences. Maybe you know someone whose predominant intelligence is to dance or to do handicrafts, for example. Think about all the possibilities.

10. In

your notebook, draw up the table below and list names of people for each intelligence. They may be people you know personally or famous people you’ve heard about. Resposta pessoal. Você pode pedir os alunos para preencherem a tabela com nomes de pessoas conhecidas por eles ou pessoas famosas que possuem cada inteligência.

Intelligences

People’s names

Intelligences

verbal-linguistic

intrapersonal

logical-mathematical

musical

visual-spatial

bodily-kinesthetic

interpersonal

naturalist

People’s names

Speaking 11. You

learned before that there are different types of intelligences. Go back to activity 4 and discuss with a classmate what type of intelligence is predominant in each famous person in the pictures. Explain your answers. You can follow the example below.

11. Resposta esperada: Stephen Hawking has the logical-mathematical intelligence, because he is a scientist. Juscelino Kubitschek had the linguistic and interpersonal intelligences, because, as a politician, he had to speak well in his speeches in public and interact well with people. Albert Einstein had the logical-mathematical intelligence, because he was a Physics and Mathematics professor and a scientist. Walt Disney had the spatial intelligence, because he was a creative artist. Oprah Winfrey has the linguistic and interpersonal intelligences, because she can communicate well with the public and interact well with people. Michael Jordan has the bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, because he used to be a great athlete. Frida Kahlo had the visual-spatial intelligence more predominant, because she produced many works of art. Durante a discussão, você pode auxiliá-los caso eles tenham dificuldades ou dúvidas quanto à pronúncia ou às estruturas de suas falas.

For Michael Jackson, the predominant intelligences were probably the musical and the bodily-kinesthetic ones, because he was a great singer and dancer.

12. Share

your list from activity 10 with a classmate and explain your answers.

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a compartilharem os nomes das pessoas que listaram com um colega de classe, justificando a escolha de cada pessoa para as inteligências indicadas no quadro e dizendo também como elas manifestam essas inteligências.

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Comprehending and using

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Learning about the language Comparatives Observe the pictures and choose the word that best describes each one. Write the answers in your notebook. A - II; B - I; C - I; D - II; E - II; F - I; G - II; H - I. B

C

D wavebreakmedia/Shutterstock.com

Alberto Andrei Rosu/Shutterstock.com

Corepics VOF/Shutterstock.com

A

glenda/Shutterstock.com

1.

I

sad

I

strategic

I

perfectionist

I

sensible

II

adventurous

II

funny

II

messy

II

talented

G

Jacek Chabraszewski/ Shutterstock.com

Rido/Shutterstock.com

H Diego Cervo/ Shutterstock.com

F Odua Images/Shutterstock.com

E

I

quiet

I

talkative

I

strong

I

fast

II

sociable

II

shy

II

artistic

II

slow

Learning more 1. Read and understand. Enough/Too

• Enough means “sufficient”. Enough is used after adjectives and before nouns. He is talented enough to be a successful musician. I don’t have enough energy to go hiking with you.

• Too means “more than sufficient” or “more than necessary”. Too is used before adjectives. The Math test was too difficult for her. Probably logical intelligence is not her dominant intelligence. Melissa is too shy to perform in a play at the school’s talent show.

2. Rewrite the sentences in your notebook choosing the correct word in parentheses. a ) My sister is (enough/too) worried about environmental issues. Her natural intelligence is highly developed. b ) You are intelligent (enough/too) to pass the exams. c ) Without (enough/too) interpersonal intelligence, one may have difficulty socializing. d ) Mike’s drawings are (enough/too) ugly. Maybe visual-spatial intelligence is not his dominant intelligence.

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Tell a partner what adjectives from activity 1 describe you the best. Use the words enough pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a trabalharem em duplas. Eles devem utilizar and too. Follow the example. Resposta adjetivos da atividade 1 para se descrever. Eles podem utilizar todos os adjetivos, não é I’m fast enough to run a marathon.

os

necessário que utilizem somente os que selecionaram na atividade. Você pode orientá-los a consultar um dicionário e auxiliá-los caso surjam dúvidas quanto à construção da(s) frase(s) ou pronúncia.

I’m too shy.

3.

Draw up the table below in your notebook and use the words you chose in activity 1 that best describes, in your opinion, each type of intelligence. Then, compare your chart with a pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a preencherem o quadro somente com as palavras classmate’s. Resposta que eles escolheram na atividade 1. Possíveis respostas:

4.

5.

verbal-linguistic

logical-mathematical

visual-spatial

interpersonal

talkative

strategic

artistic

sociable

intrapersonal

musical

bodily-kinesthetic

naturalist

perfectionist

talented

fast

adventurous

Read the sentences below and, in your notebook, rewrite the statements choosing the correct options to complete them. If necessary, study page 188. A

People with interpersonal intelligence are as communicative as the ones who have linguistic intelligence.

B

John has mathematical intelligence, but Laura is more visual. He isn’t as good as she is at drawing.

I

As + adjective + as is used to (compare/explain) two things or people.

II

In sentence A, the two intelligences are (equal/different).

III

In sentence B, John and Laura are (equal/different).

Tell at least three classmates what intelligence(s) is(are) dominant in you, based on the characteristics in the chart from activity 3. Listen to your classmates and take notes in your notebook. Resposta pessoal. É importante instruir os alunos a tomarem notas do que os colegas disserem, informações serão utilizadas na atividade seguinte.

6.

4. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a estudarem a página 188 do Grammar appendix. É importante chamar a atenção deles para o verbo to be nas duas frases. Na primeira frase, o verbo to be está na forma afirmativa. Na segunda frase, está na forma negativa, o que faz com que se exalte a diferença entre as duas pessoas.

pois as

Write down in your notebook sentences that you heard from your classmates’ descriptions Resposta pessoal. Antes and the notes you took in your notebook. Follow the example.

do início da atividade, você pode ler os exemplos e, caso surjam dúvidas, auxiliar os alunos com a escrita das frases.

Igor is as sociable as Carlos. Ana isn’t as adventurous as I am.

7.

Read the line(s) in bold from activity 8 on the next page and answer the following questions.

Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade e informações sobre o gênero textual.

a ) Do you think it is possible to measure people’s intelligence? How? b ) Do you think that women are more intelligent than men? c ) Can you give examples that prove your opinion?

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25

Unit 1

2.


8.

Read the following posts from a debate site. What questions do you think the two people were asked about? Resposta pessoal. Resposta esperada: are women more intelligent than men?

x

Fotomontagem de Anna Simonin formada pela imagem Vertes Edmond Mihai/Shutterstock.com

www.debate.org/opinions/are-women-more-intelligent-than-men

No, women are not more intelligent than men. […] Women act off of emotion too much to be smarter than men. Men are more logical thinkers and will think before reacting, while women let their emotions take control of them. […]

Women are smarter. Recent studies have proven that women have higher IQ’S than men, and that women have a better ability to recall things that men aren’t able to merely describe, […] we admit not in all, but in most aspects women are better.

Available at: <www.debate.org/opinions/are-women-more-intelligent-than-men>. Accessed on: April 19 th, 2016.

9.

After reading the posts, discuss these questions with a classmate. Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre o item a desta atividade.

a ) The posts are about gender differences. Do you think women and men are different? Explain. b ) Do you think intelligence can be measured based on gender? Explain. c ) You read two different opinions about intelligence and gender. Which one do you agree with? Why? d ) Have you ever been in a situation where your intelligence was valued or depreciated because of your gender? If so, how was it?

10.

The question on the debate site was “Are women more intelligent than men?”. This sentence… b and c

a ) talks about the women’s right. b ) describes two group of people. c ) uses more intelligent than to compare women and men. d ) uses more intelligent than to describe a physical characteristic.

11.

Read the sentences below taken from the posts. The sentences have the comparatives form, which is used when we estabilish a comparison between two people or things. In your notebook, match each sentence with the adequate comparatives rule.

a – II; b – I; c – III and IV.

a ) Men are more logical thinkers and will think before reacting, while women let their emotions take control of them. b ) Recent studies have proven that women have higher IQ’S than men. c ) […] but in most aspects women are better.

12. 26

I

To form the comparatives, we add -er to the adjective if it is a short one and the word than after it.

II

When the adjective is long, we use the word more before the adjective and than after it.

III

There are irregular adjectives. Their form changes without following the rules.

IV

Sometimes the last part of the comparatives sentence including the word than can be omitted because the meaning is clear.

Can you think of other reasons why men or women are more intelligent? Share your ideas with your teacher and classmates. Resposta pessoal.

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Look at the pictures. Do you know who these people are and what they did?

Josephine Cochrane

Joseph-Michel and Jacques-Étienne Montgolfier

14.

15.

Autor desconhecido. c. 1895

Autor desconhecido. 1889. Gravura. Coleção Particular. Foto: Emilio Ereza/Age fotostock/Esasypix

Alexander Graham Bell

Autor desconhecido. Séc. XIX. Sociedade Histórica de Shelby. Shelby. Ohio. Estados Unidos

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, informações sobre os inventores e as invenções.

Biblioteca e Arquivos do Canadá. Ottawa. Canadá. c. 1915

13.

Unit 1

Using the language

Wilhelm Konrad Röentgen

The pictures represent people who thought outside the box to create their inventions. In your notebook, match the inventors and inventions. a - III; b - I; c - II; d - IV. a ) Alexander Graham Bell

c ) Josephine Cochrane

b ) Joseph-Michel and Jacques-Étienne Montgolfier

d ) Wilhelm Konrad Röentgen

I

the hot-air balloon

III

the telephone

II

the dishwasher

IV

the X-ray

Caso seja necessário para a realização desta atividade, você pode orientar os alunos a fazerem uma pesquisa na internet ou na biblioteca da escola.

What types of intelligence do you think they had to have in order to create these inventions? Resposta esperada: logical-mathematical and spatial.

16.

Write the comparative forms of the adjectives in your notebook. a ) good b ) tall

easier than

g ) difficult

taller than

c ) interesting

17.

f ) easy

better than

more interesting than

h ) popular

d ) fast

faster than

i ) big

e ) bad

worse than

j ) famous

more difficult than more popular than

bigger than more famous than

In your notebook, write sentences about the inventors and inventions from activity 13 using Sugerimos orientar os alunos a escreverem em seus cadernos the comparative forms of adjectives. frases comparando os inventores e as invenções da atividade 13

utilizando comparativos. É importante ler o exemplo com os alunos antes de eles iniciarem a produção das frases.

Alexander Graham Bell is more famous than Josephine Cochrane.

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18.

Now it’s your turn to think up your own invention. Then, in your notebook, answer the Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a criarem suas próprias invenções e following questions. responderem às perguntas com suas ideias. Você pode auxiliá-los nas dúvidas quanto à estrutura das frases e incentivá-los a utilizar o dicionário.

a ) What will you call your invention? b ) What is its purpose? c ) How does it work?

d ) What are some advantages and disadvantages of your invention?

19. 20.

Explain your invention to a classmate. Listen to the explanation of his/her invention and pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a trabalharem em duplas. Eles devem take notes in your notebook. Resposta explicar suas invenções dizendo o que são, por que foram criadas, como são utilizadas, para qual(is) tipo(s) de pessoa(s) cada invenção é mais adequada, entre outros aspectos que julgarem relevantes. É importante pedir que tomem nota em seus cadernos, pois eles necessitarão das informações para a realização de uma atividade futura.

What adjectives describe your classmate’s invention and your invention? Make a list in pessoal. Caso necessário, você pode orientar os alunos a buscarem pelos adjetivos your notebook. Resposta atividade 16 desta seção e na seção Warming up. My invention is...

21. Resposta pessoal. Os exemplos trazem tanto frases no comparativo de igualdade quanto no comparativo de superioridade. Os alunos podem montar frases utilizando ambas as estruturas e também suprimindo o than e a segunda parte da frase, conforme mostra a segunda sentença. Sugerimos orientá-los a utilizar as anotações que fizeram quando realizaram a atividade 19 como suporte. Se necessário, você pode instruí-los a utilizar o dicionário.

21.

My classmate’s invention is...

Using the adjectives from activity 20, write sentences comparing the two inventions in your notebook. Follow the examples. Then, share some sentences with your class.

My invention is more useful than Bernardo’s invention. His invention is nice, but mine is nicer. The ZTO camera is as technologically advanced as the mini pocket computer.

Speaking up

/l/

1. Listen to the sentences. Then, repeat them to a classmate.

Sugerimos tocar a faixa e deixar que os alunos pratiquem, em duplas, repetindo as frases após o áudio.

track 5

a ) She has strong interpersonal skills. She’s communicative and makes friends easily.

b ) John is very artistic and he’s good at drawing. He has the visual intelligence well developed. c ) The black shoes are more beautiful than the brown ones. d ) My cell phone is as small as Tina’s cell phone.

2. Listen and notice how the -l at the end of the words is pronounced. track 6

interpersonal

beautiful

visual

small

3. With a classmate, practice saying the words below. real feel Brazil

28

na

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a praticarem a pronúncia das palavras abaixo em duplas.

equal meal spell

travel

awful

call

signal

Sugerimos tocar o áudio e pedir aos alunos que se atentem à pronúncia do -l no final das palavras. É importante explicar que o -l no final das palavras não é pronunciado com o som de -u, como fazemos na língua portuguesa. Em inglês, é necessário que a ponta da língua toque o céu da boca na região próxima aos dentes superiores.

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Nesta unidade, você...

conversou com seus colegas de classe sobre diferentes tipos de inteligências; leu um texto sobre as múltiplas inteligências propostas por Howard Gardner; percebeu que identificar seu tipo de inteligência pode ajudá-lo(a) a escolher uma possível carreira; leu um infográfico sobre diferentes estilos de aprendizagem; produziu um infográfico sobre as múltiplas inteligências; ouviu trechos de um podcast; conversou com seus colegas sobre pessoas que têm diferentes tipos de inteligências; estudou as comparações de igualdade e de superioridade em inglês; estudou o uso das palavras enough e too para expressar intensidade; praticou a pronúncia correta de palavras inglesas terminadas em -l.

Editora Grosse

t & Dunlap

Going further Reading The book Who Was Leonardo da Vinci?, by Roberta Edwards, presents Leonardo Da Vinci as a multi-talented person. He was a painter, musician, scientist and inventor. He designed flying machines, submarines and even helicopters. The book narrates his life story and his work.

Fil me de Morga n Matthew s. A brilliant you ng mind. Reino Unido. 20 14

Who Was Leonardo da Vinci?, by Roberta Edwards. Grosset & Dunlap: USA, 2005.

Watching The movie A brilliant young mind tells the story of Nathan, a teenage mathematics prodigy. He is very good at numbers, but has difficulty in understanding people.

Surfing the net The website Edutopia <http://tub.im/g6557e> has a quiz with 24 questions that will help you to find out what your kind of intelligence is.

ww w.edutopia.or

g

A brilliant young mind, by Morgan Matthews. Origin Pictures/Minnow Films: UK, 2014.

Edutopia. Available at: <www.edutopia. org/>. Accessed on: February 25th, 2016.

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Unit 1

Summing up

Sugerimos levar os alunos a refletirem sobre as alternativas apresentadas no quadro abaixo e instruí-los a escrever no caderno as frases que se relacionam ao que leram, discutiram e estudaram nesta unidade.


unit

track 7

30

The world is your oyster


When we say that the world is your oyster, we mean you can go anywhere or do anything you want. After you graduate from high school, you can do anything you want. The world is your oyster! Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, as respostas e comentários referentes a esta atividade.

Exchanging ideas In your opinion, can learning a foreign language make someone feel like the world is his/her oyster? Explain.

B

Do you remember a moment when you felt the world was your oyster? If so, tell a classmate about this experience.

C

What do you see in this image? What do these words mean and in what languages are they?

Fotomontagem de Júnior Caramez formada pela imagem kudla/Shutterstock.com

A

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Contextualizing Warming up 1.

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

2. Se necessário, você pode explicar aos alunos que todas as alternativas são possíveis, mas eles devem escolher aquelas com as quais concordam. Sugerimos pedir a alunos diferentes que leiam cada item e incentivá-los a levantar a mão quando concordarem com a afirmativa. Você pode estimulá-los a comentar e justificar oralmente o fato de concordarem ou não.

Discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates. Respostas

pessoais.

a ) Can you speak a foreign language? If so, which one? If not, would you like to learn one? Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir a discussão deste item.

b ) In your opinion, is it important to speak a foreign language? Why?

2.

É importante que os alunos justifiquem suas respostas. A atividade 2 trabalhará algumas justificativas.

There are many reasons why people should learn a foreign language. Read the sentences and decide which ones you agree with. Respostas pessoais.

If you learn a foreign language,... a ) you learn about another culture and, consequently, become more open-minded. b ) you are able to speak with native speakers, so you might have a better understanding of the world. c ) you can travel abroad. There, you can communicate with everyday people and study. d ) you can meet people from different parts of the world. e ) you can access information that is available in that language. For example, you can read or watch foreign news. f ) you exercise your brain. So you will probably be faster at memorizing and doing simple mental exercises. g ) you are more likely to have better job opportunities.

3.

The article below presents some other reasons why you should learn another language. Read it and answer the questions on the next page in your notebook. Caso os alunos tenham curiosidade, você pode incentivá-los a acessar a página de onde os trechos citados foram extraídos para ler sobre as outras razões pelas quais falar outra língua é bom.

Seven reasons why speaking another language is good for you It’s one of life’s truths: Being bilingual or multilingual can only be considered a good thing. The ability to travel seamlessly in another country; to interact with people you wouldn’t otherwise be able to communicate with; to really understand and immerse yourself in another culture, whether it be your own or another’s; and on the most trivial level, to order off a menu and truly know what you’re ordering. But aside from all these reasons, there is a multitude of research showing how speaking more than one language is also good for your health — particularly, the health of your brain. [...] People who speak two languages may process certain words faster, particularly if the word has the same meaning in both languages, according to a Psychological Science study. [...] Bilingual kids seem to do better on tasks examining problem-solving skills and creativity, according to a study in the International Journal of Bilingualism. [...] When people think in another language, they are more likely to make rational decisions in a problem scenario, a 2012 Psychological Study showed. [...] Seven reasons why speaking another language is good for you. Available at: <www.news.com.au/lifestyle/health/seven-reasonswhy-speaking-another-language-is-good-for-you/story-fniym874-1226955624013>. Accessed on: October 19 th, 2015.

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b)

able to travel to another country and communicate with native What statements are true according to the text? II; IV; V. speakers, being able to understand and immerse yourself in another culture, I Being bilingual or multilingual is not always a good thing. and being able to order food in a restaurant knowing what II Speaking more than one language is good for the health of your brain. you’re ordering. Also there is III Bilingual people can only process words faster if these words have the same the fact that learning a meaning in both languages. foreign language is good for the IV Children who speak more than one language tend to be more creative and better health of your brain: it helps, at solving problems. for example, to process certain V Learning another language helps you make more rational decisions. words faster, to do better on tasks examining problem-solving skills and creativity, and to make more rational decisions.

Learning vocabulary 4.

There are many different languages spoken around the world. Can you name some of them? In your notebook, match the languages with the countries where they are spoken.

A - IV; B - VI; C - VIII; D - III; E - V; F - VII; G - II; H - I; I - X; J - IX.

A

B

Hindi

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre alguns dos idiomas destacados nesta atividade.

C

Mandarin Chinese

E

D

Arabic

F

German

Russian

G

Spanish

I

J Ilustrações: Anna Simonin

H

Italian

Japanese

5.

English

Portuguese

I

Japan

VI

China and Singapore

II

Italy

VII

Spain, Mexico and Argentina

III

Russia

VIII

Egypt, Israel and Saudi Arabia

IV

India

IX

Brazil, Portugal and Mozambique

V

Germany and Austria

X

Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States

If you had the opportunity to learn one of the languages presented in activity 4, besides Resposta pessoal. Portuguese and English, which one would you choose? Why? Sugerimos incentivar os alunos a justificarem escolhas.

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suas

33

Unit 2

a ) According to the text, what are the advantages of learning a foreign language? Being


Learning and acting

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Reading and reflecting Pre-reading 1.

Answer the following questions in your notebook and talk to your teacher and classmates.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) In your opinion, why is English taught to Brazilian students? Resposta esperada: because English is considered a global language.

b ) What other foreign languages do you think are taught in Brazilian schools? Resposta esperada: Spanish, French, Italian, Japanese, German, Greek, Russian, among others.

2. O objetivo desta atividade é perceber se os alunos conhecem alguns dos idiomas originários da Europa. É importante explicar que eles devem identificar as línguas de origem europeia e não aquelas que são faladas na Europa hoje em dia (como no caso de uma comunidade chinesa vivendo em algum país europeu, que usa a língua materna como comunicação interna e a língua europeia para comunicação externa).

2.

c ) Do you think students finish upper secondary school being fluent in foreign languages? Why (not)? Resposta pessoal. d ) In your opinion, what should students be able to do using the English language after they finish upper secondary school? Resposta pessoal. I

read and understand different written texts

II

write well

III

listen to and understand different recordings, such as songs, movies and podcasts

IV

talk to native speakers of English

V

talk to non-native speakers of English

e ) Do you think the study of foreign languages in Brazilian schools is different from other orientar os alunos a pensarem se em outros países as pessoas countries? Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos aprendem idiomas da mesma forma que os brasileiros. Você pode questionar se eles já possuem algum conhecimento sobre o assunto e sugerir que façam uma pesquisa (em casa ou na escola).

There are many different languages spoken around the world. Among the languages below, identify the ones that originated in Europe. Write them down in your notebook. A; B; E; F; G; I; J; L; M; N; O; Q; R; T; U; W; X.

a ) Bulgarian

i ) Slovenian

q ) Dutch

b ) Greek

j ) English

r ) Croatian

c ) Hindi d ) Guarani

Língua indígena da América do Sul falada pela etnia guarani. Um dos idiomas oficiais do Paraguai.

k ) Xhosa

Uma das línguas oficiais da África do Sul.

t ) Swedish

e ) Portuguese

m ) Polish

u ) German

f ) Italian

n ) Hungarian

v ) Japanese

g ) Spanish

o ) Czech

w ) French

h ) Vietnamese

p ) Arabic

x ) Danish

What is the purpose of the infographic? Read and answer.

b

a ) to show policies for language learning in the future b ) to show data related to second language learning c ) to motivate people to study English as a foreign language

34

thirty-four

Língua africana.

l ) Finnish

Reading 3.

s ) Swahili

É importante levar os alunos a compreenderem que o infográfico utiliza recursos visuais para guiar o leitor. Por exemplo, além da possibilidade de observar a porcentagem, é fácil perceber que o inglês é uma língua mais estudada que o russo porque o destaque gráfico-visual dado para essa língua é maior. Pode-se também notar que os nomes dos países estão escritos na mesma cor dos idiomas.


Eurostat is the organization responsible for providing statistics for the European Union.

The European Union* (EU) is an association consisting of 28 European countries. It was formed in 1993 and its purpose is to create political and economical integration.

*Sugerimos explicar aos alunos que a União Europeia tem como objetivo sua integração econômica e política, por meio da facilitação do comércio interno e da movimentação de cidadãos. Alguns países também adotaram uma moeda em comum, o euro.

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35

Unit 2

Eurostat/União Europeia

Foreign language learning statistics. Available at: <http://ec. europa.eu/eurostat/statisticsexplained/index.php/File:Foreign_ language_learning_upper_ secondary_education_2013.jpg>. Accessed on: October 21st, 2015.


4. Observe

how the infographic is organized and answer the following questions in your notebook. a ) The first part of the infographic, on the left side of the page, presents the… I

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, known as the United Kingdom (UK), consists of England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.

I

foreign languages considered in the study.

II

official languages spoken in the countries considered in the study.

b ) The first part of the infographic, on the right side of the page, presents the member countries of the European Union with… II I

the highest share of foreign languages being taught in upper secondary schools.

II

the highest percentage of upper secondary education students who are studying the given foreign language.

c ) At the bottom of the infographic, on the left, it is shown… II I

European Union countries in which upper secondary education students are studying a foreign language.

II

European Union countries with the highest percentages of upper secondary education students who are not studying any foreign language.

5. Read

the infographic again and decide if the following sentences are true or false. In your notebook, write down the true statements and rewrite the false ones. a ) English is the most learned language. True. b ) All upper secondary students from Malta, Sweden and Austria are learning English. True. c ) All upper secondary education students from Croatia are learning German. False. 62% of upper secondary education students from Croatia are learning German.

d ) Most of UK upper secondary education students are not learning a foreign language. True.

e ) Italian and Russian are the second most studied foreign languages in the EU. False. French is the second most studied foreign language in the EU.

f ) Russian is more studied in Latvia than in Estonia. False. Russian is more studied in Estonia than in Latvia.

g ) German is the third most studied foreign language in the EU.

True.

h ) 15% of students from the EU are not learning a foreign language. False. 10% of students from the EU are not learning a foreign language.

i ) 34% of upper secondary education students in Portugal do not study a foreign language. True.

j ) 54% of upper secondary education students in the United Kingdom are not studying a 52% of upper secondary students in the United Kingdom are not foreign language. False. studying a foreign language. 6. b) Sugerimos explicar aos alunos que o estudo considerou apenas as línguas estrangeiras que fazem parte do currículo de disciplinas obrigatórias em cada país.

6. Read

the information box that is part of the infographic. Then, answer the following questions in your notebook. a ) How old are students when they start upper secondary education in the EU? They are typically 15 or 16 years old.

b ) For the purposes of this study, what languages were considered? Only foreign languages studied as compulsory subjects or compulsory curriculum.

c ) What does the text say about German and French languages in Luxembourg? Luxembourg has three official languages, French, German and Luxemburgish, but for this study German and French are considered foreign languages.

Post-reading 7. According

to the infographic and what you know, discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates. Respostas pessoais.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir essa atividade.

a ) In your opinion, do students from the EU countries learn more foreign languages than Brazilian students? b ) In the UK, the native language is English and most of the upper secondary education students there are not studying any foreign language. What is your opinion about that? c ) If Portuguese was a global language, would you learn any foreign languages? Why (not)?

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thirty-six


Before writing 8.

9.

In your opinion, what is important for a foreign language learner? Resposta pessoal.

a ) motivation

e ) instructional material

b ) being dedicated

f ) establishing goals

c ) having time to study

g ) enjoying the learning process

d ) speaking practice

h ) living abroad

In your notebook, tabulate the options from activity 8 according to their importance for you.

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a escreverem as opções da atividade 8 de acordo com o modal verb. Must implica em obrigação, should em sugestão, e could em uma possibilidade. As respostas podem variar.

what you must do

Writing 10.

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a comentarem o que é importante, na visão deles, para o aprendizado de uma língua. As respostas podem variar de acordo com o que consideram importante.

what you should do

what you could do

10. É importante explicar que esse artigo pode ser curto e, se julgar apropriado, ele pode ser feito coletivamente. Você pode pedir que se baseiem no que já viram nesta unidade, especialmente nas atividades 8 e 9 desta seção. Ao retomarem o artigo da página 32, seria interessante acessarem juntos o texto original na íntegra para que possam observar sua estrutura. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, mais comentários sobre esta atividade.

Imagine there is a school newspaper in your school and you were invited to publish an opinion article in it. Based on your notes from the previous activity, you are going to write an article presenting some instructions, tips and ideas for learning languages.

Anna Simonin

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a escreverem um artigo de jornal, contendo instruções, dicas e ideias, para pessoas que desejam aprender um idioma.

After writing 11.

Exchange your article with a classmate and check how he/she organized the ideas about learning languages. Ao orientar os alunos a trocarem os artigos e observarem como o colega organizou suas ideias, você pode pedir que estabeleçam similaridades e diferenças.

12.

Discuss with your teacher and classmates the differences between your article and theirs. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a compararem a maneira como cada um construiu sua abordagem a respeito de como aprender um idioma.

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37

Unit 2

Putting your ideas into words


Listening and understanding

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Listening 1. In

your notebook, match the words below with their definitions. a

- III; b - I; c - II.

a ) native speaker b ) bilingual c ) polyglot I

someone who can speak two languages

II

someone who can speak several languages

III

someone who has learned and used a language since they were a baby

2. You

are going to listen to part of an interview with a language teacher. Listen to the track Sugerimos orientar os alunos a ouvirem todo o áudio uma vez, once and answer the following questions. procurando fazer uma compreensão global do texto.

track 8

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, a transcrição do áudio. a ) What term from activity 1 best describes her? Polyglot.

b ) What words from the audio helped you to answer question a? Russian,

English, Italian. Sugerimos verificar se os alunos compreenderam que Ekaterina é professora de russo e inglês e fala italiano.

3. Listen

to the track again and choose the correct answers. Sugerimos tocar o áudio novamente para que os alunos ouçam e respondam às questões. É importante explicar que, nesta atividade, eles Write them in your notebook.

track 8

a ) The man who is conducting the interview is the teacher’s... II I

coworker.

devem procurar compreender informações específicas da entrevista. Se preferir, você pode ler as alternativas com os alunos antes de realizar a atividade.

II

student.

II

Russian and English

II

Dominika

II

When she started teaching.

II

Russian

b ) What languages does she teach? II I

Finnish and English

c ) What is her name? I I

Ekaterina

d ) When did her passion for languages start? I I

When she was 5 or 6 years old.

e ) What is her native language? II I

English

f ) What language would she like to learn in the future? I

Spanish

I

II

Portuguese

II

Washington, in the USA

II

in her car.

II

Italian

g ) Where does she live now? I I

Atlanta, in the USA

h ) She listens to Spanish radio... II I

at home.

i ) What other language can she speak? I

38

Hungarian

II

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track 8

Listen to the beginning of the interview again. What dialog shows how Ekaterina and her reproduzir os primeiros dez segundos do áudio e fazer uma pausa student greet each other? A Sugerimos para que os alunos respondam à atividade. A

How are you doing today, Ekaterina?

B

Hey, I’m good. What about yourself? I’m doing excellent. Thank you.

5.

6. track 8

I’m fine, thanks. And you?

How are you, Ekaterina?

Unit 2

4.

I’m excellent. Thank you.

Do you know the meaning of the following words? Match them with the adequate definition in your notebook. a - I; b - IV; c - III; d - II. a ) fortunate

c ) to struggle

b ) effort

d ) knowledge

I

lucky

III

to have difficulty with something

II

what someone knows

IV

energy that is put into something that is difficult

Write the following paragraph in your notebook. Then, listen to part of the track again and tocar o áudio novamente no trecho destacado abaixo para complete the gaps using the words from activity 5. Sugerimos que os alunos ouçam e completem as lacunas. É importante explicar

que será necessário conjugar o verbo to struggle. Após a correção desta atividade, você pode conversar com os alunos fortunate sobre a diferença entre Russian is my native language, so I guess I was quite to learn adquirir a língua materna struggling effort (o que acontece natural e it without any . At least, I don’t remember that I was to learn it, espontaneamente, como disse Ekaterina) e because it’s my native language. So, I’m very happy if I can transmit aprender uma língua estrangeira (o que exige my to other people and I can definitely say I love what I do. dedicação e muito estudo). knowledge Available at: <http://invideos.net/Interview-With-Russian-Teacher-Polyglot-Ekaterina(qjYUYH7JI30)>. Accessed on: October 22nd, 2015.

7.

Ekaterina says “From when I was little, I was fascinated by English language.” And you? Are conversar com os alunos sobre a you fascinated by English or any other language? Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos questão proposta e pedir que justifiquem e comentem suas respostas.

Speaking 8.

Talk to your teacher and classmates. Respostas

pessoais.

a ) Have you ever tried to speak to someone in a foreign language? Who did you talk to? What language did you use? How was it?

Camila Ferreira

b ) Do you know anyone close to you who can speak English and another foreign language? What foreign language does he/she speak besides English? c ) If you had the chance to interview this person, what questions would you like to ask?

9.

You’re going to interview someone who can speak English and another foreign language. Before the interview, write down in your notebook the questions you want to ask him/her. Using the questions you wrote, conduct the interview and record it. After that, bring it to the class and present it to your classmates and teacher. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

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5/24/16 2:38 PM


Comprehending and using

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Learning about the language 1. Some of them do. It depends on the country. In some English speaking countries, such as England and the US, many people don’t care about learning another language. Sugerimos retomar com os alunos o que já discutiram em outras seções desta unidade com o objetivo de prepará-los para a leitura do texto da atividade 2.

Must 1.

Do people from foreign countries learn foreign languages? Why (not)?

2.

Read the text. Then, write down the true statements and rewrite the false ones in your notebook.

2. Antes de os alunos inciarem a leitura do texto, é interessante perguntar se eles acham que deve ser obrigatório o estudo de língua(s) estrangeira(s) nas escolas. Então, você pode orientar que façam uma leitura sileciosa do texto e incentivá-los a consultar o glossário e o dicionário, caso tenham dificuldade para entender algumas palavras.

x

http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/07/13/learning-a-foreign-language-a-must-in-europe-not-so-in-america/ PUBLICATIONS

Bárbara Sarzi

DEVLIN, Kat. Learning a foreign language a ‘must’ in Europe, not so in America. Available at: <www.pewresearch.org/facttank/2015/07/13/learning-a-foreign-language-a-must-in-europe-not-so-in-america/>. Accessed on: October 20 th, 2015.

False. The typical European pupil must study languages in the classroom before becoming a teen.

a ) In Europe, students don’t learn foreign languages. multiple b ) In the USA, students have to study multiple languages.

False. The US does not have a national requirement for students to learn a foreign language in school.

c ) European students start studying foreign languages when they are at university.

False. In most European countries, students begin studying their first foreign language between the ages of 6 and 9.

d ) 25% of American adults speak a foreign language. True.

3.

Read the title of the text. Explain to a classmate what you understand.

4.

These sentences are related to the text you’ve read. Read them and, in your notebook, rewrite the rules using the options in parentheses that make sense.

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a estudarem a página 189 do Grammar appendix para a realização desta atividade.

a ) An European pupil must study multiple languages in the classroom before becoming a teen. b ) Europeans must study foreign languages between the ages of 6 and 9. c ) European schools must not fail to offer foreign languages in their curriculum. I

Must is used to express (an obligation/a possibility).

II

The negative form of must is (don’t must/must not or mustn’t).

III

Must not or mustn’t expresses (an option/a prohibition).

Make a list of what a foreign language learner must and mustn’t do. Observe the examples. Respostas pessoais.

The student must do homework. forty

METHODS

A popular stereotype of Americans traveling abroad is the tourist who is at a loss when it comes to coping with any language other than English. Fair or not, the fact is that while the U.S. does not have a national requirement for students to learn a foreign language in school, the typical European pupil must study multiple languages in the classroom before becoming a teen. [...] In most European countries, students begin studying their first foreign language as a compulsory school subject between the ages of 6 and 9, according to a 2012 report from Eurostat [...]. [...] the U.S. does not have a nationwide foreign-language mandate at any level of education. [...] Only 25% of American adults self-report speaking a language other than English, according to the 2006 General Social Survey. […]

5. 40

DATA

Learning a foreign language a ‘must’ in Europe, not so in America

3. Resposta esperada: the title says that learning a foreign language in Europe is mandatory, but it is not an obligation in the United States. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem o título do texto para explicar o que entenderam sobre ele a um colega de classe. O objetivo é que percebam por inferência que a palavra must indica uma obrigação.

5. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem novamente o texto e procurarem por uma sentença que expresse a obrigação de um aluno europeu para transcrever a sentença no caderno.

TOPICS

The student mustn’t be late for class.

Sugerimos pedir aos alunos que trabalhem em duplas para montar uma lista sobre o que um aluno aprendendo uma língua estrangeira deve ou não fazer. Em seguida, você pode pedir que eles compartilhem suas listas com a sala.


Can/Could you consider yourself a good student? Why (not)? Resposta pessoal. É importante discutir esta questão com os alunos tendo em mente que um bom aluno não é somente aquele que tira notas altas, mas sim aquele que presta atenção nas aulas, faz as tarefas, respeita os colegas de sala e os professores, é participativo e proativo. How do you think a student must behave during a test at school? Ao discutir sobre o comportamento adequado de um aluno em um dia de prova, você pode Resposta esperada: the student should sit in silence levar os alunos a refletirem sobre a própria and have the school materials he/she will need. postura durante uma prova.

7.

the comic strip and answer the questions in your notebook.

Calvin & Hobbes, Bill Watterson © 1993 Watterson/ Dist. by Universal Uclick

8. Read

Unit 2

6. Do

Calvin and Hobbes, by Bill Watterson. Available at: <www.gocomics.com/calvinandhobbes/2013/02/27>. Accessed on: October 21st, 2015.

a ) Where is Calvin? At

school.

b ) What is his teacher giving him? A

test.

c ) What does Calvin ask the teacher?

He asks to go to his locker to get something.

d ) Does the teacher allow him to leave the class?

No. She orders him to sit down and do the test.

e ) Does Calvin tell his teacher what he needs to get from the locker? Why? No. He says he can’t tell her because it’s a surprise for the class.

She said she woud get surprised if Calvin just started the test. Você pode comentar com os alunos que o personagem Calvin é conhecido por ser inquieto, estar sempre aprontando alguma travessura e ter imaginação fértil. É interessante pedir aos alunos que retornem à tirinha para ler Match the sentences to their description. novamente a fala de Calvin (expressa na alternativa a), para que percebam que a palavra can é utilizada para pedir permissão. a ) “Can I go get something from my locker?” I b ) Can you give me a sheet of paper? II

f ) According to the teacher, what would be surprising for her?

9.

I

This sentence implies permission to do something.

II

This sentence implies a request.

10. In

pairs, discuss the questions that follow. Then, share your ideas with your teacher and classmates. a ) Is Calvin’s behavior good? Why (not)?

Resposta esperada: no, because he should be quiet during the test.

b ) What do you think he wants to get in his locker? Resposta pessoal.

c ) In your opinion, did the teacher react well to Calvin’s esperada: yes, because she wanted to question? Why (not)? Resposta know the reason why he needed to go to his locker.

Remember Could is also used for requests and to ask for permission. Could you help me with my English homework? Could I use the dictionary during the test?

11. You

are going to read a text on the next page. Before reading, take a look at the topics in bold. Based on them, what do you think the text is about? 12. a) Sugerimos perguntar aos alunos o que

fazem para melhorar sua aprendizagem no estudo de língua estrangeira, como realizar as tarefas, revisar o conteúdo, prestar atenção Discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates. Respostas pessoais. e participar ativamente da Sugerimos promover uma discussão rápida com os alunos com o intuito de prepará-los para a leitura do texto. aula, procurar a ) When studying a foreign language, what do you do to improve your study skills? não faltar às aulas e assim b ) Would you like to have better results in your foreign language studies? Why (not)? por diante. Resposta esperada: the text gives tips to language learners.

12.

c ) What tips would you give someone who needs to improve his/her study skills? 12. b) Sugerimos perguntar aos alunos se eles gostariam de obter melhores resultados no estudo de língua estrangeira. É importante deixar claro que esta questão não se refere apenas às notas do boletim, mas ao processo de aprendizagem.

forty-one

41


13.

Read the text and confirm if your predictions from activity 11 were correct.

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a realizarem uma leitura rápida para confirmar se suas inferências sobre o possível assunto do texto foram corretas.

Fotomontagem de Rogério Casagrande formada pela imagem hobbit/Shutterstock.com

[...] Make time to study outside of class. It doesn’t have to be too long – 15 minutes a day is often more effective than one longer session each week. Go over what you have learnt in class several times and use every opportunity you can to practise. [...] Don’t worry about making mistakes – it’s part of learning! It’s much better to try to say something, even if it’s not quite right, than saying nothing until you are word perfect. Reflect on what you’ve learnt at regular intervals. It is easy to underestimate your progress and feel you aren’t learning quickly enough. When this happens, think back to something you learnt early on to see how much progress you have made. Don’t compare yourself with others in your class. Everyone learns differently and we all have different strengths. Remember your tutor is there to help you. Please talk to him/her about any concerns or difficulties you may have. Do try to come to every class but, if you have to miss a class, tell your tutor. S/he will be able to suggest things you can do to catch up and prepare for the next class. Don’t drop out just because you have missed a class and fell behind – get in touch! Finally, learning a new language is challenging but very rewarding. Enjoy it! ESSEX COUNTY COUNCIL. Tips for language learners. Chelmsford, 2008. p. 4-5.

15. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a estudarem a página 189 do Grammar appendix caso tenham dúvidas. O objetivo é que eles compreendam que may e might são utilizados para expressar a probabilidade de que algo acontecerá ou está acontecendo. Eles precisam perceber que could, além de ser utilizado em perguntas de permissão como visto anteriormente, também pode ser utilizado como probabilidade.

14.

Read the text again. Then, choose the adequate option to complete the following Sugerimos orientar os alunos a relerem o texto para desenvolver esta atividade. Caso seja necessário, statements. eles podem consultar o glossário e o dicionário. Após a leitura do texto, eles devem identificar as alternativas que consideram mais adequadas para completar as sentenças.

a ) The text gives tips to be applied (in and out of the classroom/at home). b ) If you have to miss a class, you should (drop out/tell your teacher). c ) You shouldn’t (compare yourself with other students/make mistakes). d ) You should study (at home and practice in every opportunity you can/only at school and never practice).

May/Might 15.

Study page 189. Then, rewrite in your notebook the following rules choosing the correct options to complete them. a ) The words may and might are used to... I I

express probability.

express a past action.

b ) What’s another word that also expresses probability? I

maybe

c ) How is an improbability expressed? I

16. 42

II

forty-two

II

II

could

II

Using not after the verb.

I

Using may not, might not and couldn’t.

Go back to the text to identify the sentence that expresses a probability or improbability. A resposta está sublinhada no texto. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a relerem o texto para buscar uma sentença que expresse uma probabilidade ou improbabilidade. Eles devem escrevê-la no caderno.


17.

Reflect on your foreign language study skills with a classmate. Which of the tips mentioned in the text have you already applied to your studies? Is there any you will apply from now on? Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos propor uma breve discussão sobre as dicas do texto, na qual cada aluno deve contar a um colega de sala quais dicas já incorporou aos seus estudos e quais gostaria de aplicar de agora em diante.

18.

Unit 2

Should Discuss with a classmate if the statements below are true or false, according to the text orientar os alunos a discutirem com um colega de sala se as sentenças desta atividade and your own experience. Sugerimos são verdadeiras ou falsas, de acordo com o que leram no texto e suas próprias experiências. a ) You should study for long hours at home.

False. The text suggests studying few hours everyday, because it’s more effective than studying long hours once in a while.

b ) You should practice the language with a native speaker.

True. According to the text, the language learner should use every opportunity to practice.

c ) If you have a doubt, you shouldn’t ask for a classmate’s help. True. The text suggests talking to the teacher in this situation.

d ) You shouldn’t say something in class unless you are word-perfect.

19. 20.

False. A language learner shouldn’t worry about making mistakes. They are part of the learning process, so it’s better to speak up in the class even if you are not word-perfect yet.

Read the sentences in activity 18. The words should and shouldn’t express...

b

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a relerem as a ) a surprise expression. b ) a piece of advice. frases da atividade 18 para perceber que should e shouldn’t são utilizados ao aconselhar alguém. Caso necessário, você pode What pieces of advice would you give to someone who is not doing well in his/her studies orientá-los a consultar a of foreign language? Discuss with a classmate, following the example. página 189 do Sugerimos orientar os alunos a trabalharem em duplas na elaboração de conselhos para alguém que não está Grammar tendo um bom desempenho na aprendizagem de uma língua estrangeira. appendix.

He/she should do the homework. He/she shouldn’t talk too much with the classmates during the class.

Using the language

22.

Match the sentences in your notebook.

a - III; b - I; c - II.

a ) They are in the library.

I

We must study hard.

b ) We have a difficult test tomorrow.

II

you must respect it.

c ) If your classmate expresses an opinion different from yours

III

They mustn’t speak loudly.

Observe the pictures and match them with the questions.

A - III; B - I; C - IV; D - II. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

A

B

I

Can I borrow your pencil?

II

Teacher, could I go to the restroom, please?

III

Can I ask a question?

IV

Excuse me. May I sit here?

C

D

Ilustrações: Art Capri

21.

forty-three

43


23. Write

the sentences down in your notebook and complete them with your own ideas. Use the words that express probability or improbability. Respostas pessoais. a ) I’m late for the class. The teacher might .

b ) Learning a new language may c ) If I could study abroad,

.

Você pode revisar com os alunos os verbos modais que indicam probabilidade (may, might e could). As três primeiras frases já possuem o verbo modal de probabilidade.

.

d ) This week, my English class e ) Traveling to a different country

. .

f ) Reading books in a foreign language

.

24. Read the sentences. Do they talk about an obligation or prohibition (OP), a request (RE), a permission (PE), the probability or improbability of something (PI), or a piece of advice (A)? a ) You shouldn’t be late for your first day at school. b ) They mustn’t eat in the classroom. c ) Can you lend me a pencil?

O objetivo da atividade é levar os alunos a identificarem e discriminarem o uso de cada verbo modal. Caso necessário, oriente-os a consultar a página 189 do Grammar appendix.

A

OP

RE

d ) Antonia should study Spanish before traveling to Argentina. e ) You must pay attention to the teacher. 25. É interessante explicar que os verbos poderão estar na forma afirmativa e na negativa e que, em alguns casos, haverá mais de uma possibilidade de resposta.

A

OP

f ) The teacher is sick. We might not have the English class.

PI

25. In

your notebook, write down the sentences and complete them using must, can, could, may, might or should. a ) If you go abroad to study a foreign language, you

must

b ) My friend gave me some advice. He told me that I speaking English. c ) I

respect the country’s culture.

shouldn’t

be afraid of making mistakes when

might/may

become fluent in a foreign language if I talk to a native speaker daily.

d ) Pair up with someone to study together. Find someone and ask: “

can/could/may

could/should

e ) You

I study with you?”.

listen to songs and watch movies in English to improve your pronunciation. may/might

f ) If you study a little bit every day, you

Speaking up

/θ/

learn a foreign language faster.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir as atividades deste boxe.

1. For many students, the -th sound is difficult to pronounce. What about you? Can you pronounce it flawlessly? track 9

a ) thief

d ) math

b ) thin

e ) both

c ) through

f ) fourth

2. Now, let’s pratice! Do you notice the difference between the words? track 10

a ) think - the b ) third - that c ) healthy - weather d ) birthday - mother

3. Listen to the track and in your notebook write down the words and complete them by adding the missing letters. track 11

44

forty-four

a )

ank -

ank thank - sank

b )

ee -

c )

ought -

ee tree - three ought thought - fought

d ) pa

- pa

e ) ten

- ten

f ) dea

- dea

path - pass tent - tenth deaf - death


Summing up

Nesta unidade, você...

Sugerimos levar os alunos a refletirem sobre as alternativas apresentadas no quadro abaixo e instruí-los a escrever no caderno as frases que se relacionam ao que leram, discutiram e estudaram nesta unidade.

Unit 2

conversou com seus colegas de classe sobre a importância de aprender uma língua estrangeira; leu sobre como aprender outra língua pode melhorar sua saúde mental; conheceu algumas línguas e onde elas são faladas; leu um infográfico sobre alunos que estudam línguas estrangeiras em escolas da União Europeia; produziu um artigo para o jornal da sua escola; ouviu partes de uma entrevista com uma professora de línguas; entrevistou uma pessoa que fala mais de uma língua estrangeira; estudou diferentes verbos modais, como can, could, should, must, may e might; estudou a pronúncia do som representado pelas letras -th.

Reading Anna and the French kiss tells Anna’s story. She is a student who has everything she always wanted: a great job, a loyal best friend and a crush. What she wasn’t expecting is to be shipped off to boarding school in Paris. The City of Light can bring a lot of surprises.

Usborne Publi

shing

Going further

Anna and the French kiss, by Stephanie C. Perkins. Usborne Publishing: UK, 2014.

The website Duolingo <http://tub.im/vxtmpr> is a platform you can use to learn a foreign language for free. You can choose one, two or several languages to learn. You can also play games to practice your skills.

Singing The lyrics of the song Belle, performed by Jack Johnson and recorded on the CD In between dreams, is written in four languages. The first and second lines are in Italian, the third in Spanish, the fifth in French, and the last ones are in English.

English Vinglish, by Gauri Shinde. Eros International: India, 2012. ers tock.com

Surfing the net

ver/Shutt Daniel DeSlo

English Vinglish tells the story of an Indian housewife who has difficulty in understanding and speaking English. When she travels to the United States, she enrolls in an English course.

Fil me de Gauri Shinde. English vingli sh. Índia. 20 12

Watching

Jack Johnson (2010).

forty-five

45


Choosing a career

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, mais informações sobre as profissões mencionadas nesta seção.

Degree

Pedagogy

Job purpose

Educate children by contributing to their development, learning and formation.

Usually hired by

Schools or clinics.

Required skills

• Getting on well with people. • Speaking well in public. • Being responsible. • Having lots of energy. • Being a good problem-solver. • Caring about others’ needs. • Being organized. • Having leadership skills.

Characteristics of the job In your opinion, is it a pro (an advantage) or a con (a disadvantage)?

• Dealing with difficult children and parents. • The opportunity to help people to develop. • Seeing the result of your work when people learn. • The fact that you always learn something new when preparing yourself for a consultation or a class.

• The fact of having lots of extra work to take home.

Resposta pessoal.

Ao abordar as características do trabalho de um pedagogo, sugerimos pedir aos alunos que as classifiquem em pró ou contra, de acordo com a visão e a personalidade de cada um.

If you like pedagogy, you can also work as a pedagogic al advisor.

1.

46

forty-six

Do some research and find out other aspects related to the professions of educator and psychologist, presented on the next page. Share your findings with your pessoal. Sugerimos chamar a atenção também classmates. Resposta para os textos nos post-its e incentivar os alunos a

pesquisarem outros aspectos relacionados às profissões apresentadas, como média salarial, diferentes possibilidades de atuação e curiosidades. Em seguida, você pode pedir que formem pequenos grupos e compartilhem uns com os outros o que descobriram.


Choosing a career

Degree

Psychology

Job purposes

Aim to reduce the distress and improve the psychological well-being of clients using psychological methods and research, in order to help make positive changes to their clients’ lives and offer various forms of treatment.

Usually hired by

Clinics or hospitals.

Required skills

• Having good communication skills. • Being good at examining and processing information. • Being patient. • Having good memory. • Being assertive. • Speaking well in public, as you may need to give presentations to the public.

• Being a good problem-solver.

Characteristics of the job In your opinion, is it a pro (an advantage) or a con (a disadvantage)?

• Being able to promote the psychological well-being of clients. • Working odd hours. • Being stressful. • The possibility of earning a high salary. • Having periodic psychological assessment. • The fact that there are many different areas of specialization. • Getting mentally tired. • The fact that the job market is growing.

Resposta pessoal. Ao abordar as características do trabalho de um psicólogo, sugerimos pedir aos alunos que as classifiquem em pró ou contra, de acordo com a visão If you like psychology, you can also e a personalidade de cada um. be a market researcher.

2.

Think about these professions and talk to a classmate. Resposta pessoal.

I would like to be an educator/a psychologist because… I wouldn’t like to be an educator/a psychologist because…

Fotomontagem de Anna Simonin formada pelas imagens Peter Dazeley/ Photographer’s Choice/Getty Images, ecco, kaitshot, inewsfoto, Andy Dean Photography e arka38/Shutterstock.com

forty-seven

g18_ftd_lt_2noi_u02_046a047_choosing1.indd 47

47

18/5/16 1:42 PM


unit

track 12

48

Necessity is the mother of invention


The expression necessity is the mother of invention means that difficult situations inspire ingenious solutions to problems. When my skateboard broke, I used my mother’s ironing board to make a new one. You know, necessity is the mother of invention. Sugerimos ver, nas

para o Exchanging ideas Orientações professor, as

A

respostas e comentários referentes a esta atividade.

Do you agree with the idea that necessity is the mother of invention? Explain.

B

Talk to your classmates about the importance of the inventions presented on these pages.

C

Can you think of some disadvantages of these inventions? What changed in people’s lives after they came along? And what are some possible solutions for these disadvantages?

Fotomontagem de Júnior Caramez formada pelas imagens Syda Productions, Monkey Business Images, Andrey_ Popov, Iryna Rasko, Mariia Golovianko, bannosuke, ponsulak e Perfect Lazybones/Shutterstock.com

49


Contextualizing

1. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos pedir aos alunos que reflitam sobre quais das tecnologias apresentadas abaixo consideram mais importantes para os dias de hoje. Você pode deixar que se expressem livremente. É interessante expandir a reflexão e levá-los a pensar sobre como a tecnologia facilita nossas vidas e como seria nossa vida sem ela.

Warming up 1.

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Among the technologies below, which one do you think is the most useful? Why? B

de n co c g / m Sh

ut t

er s

Al S h e xe y ut t B er s ol di toc n/ k .c om

toc

k.

A

the internet

a smartphone

a portable media player

G

Pa k Sh hny u t t us er s hc h toc y/ k .c om

Se r S h gej R ut t er s az vo toc dov k .c sk i om j/

F

a camera

2.

a remote control

b ) What is its title? Technology: c ) Where can you find it?

50

fifty

a GPS

Read the article on page 51 quickly and answer the questions in your notebook. a ) When was the article posted? It

3.

R im Sh an t u t t as er s A b toc rom k .c as om /

a tablet

E

va l S h er iia u t t ar er s nau toc d/ k .c om

D

Ale S h xe y ut t Bo er s l din toc / k .c om

C

was posted on December 2 nd, 2014.

12 ways it makes life better.

At the website <www.psychologytoday.com/blog/our-genderourselves/201412/technology-12-ways-it-makes-life-better>.

Find in the article some of the inventions mentioned in activity 1. Write them down in your notebook. The remote control, the internet, the GPS and smartphones.


Learning vocabulary 4.

*É importante explicar aos alunos que o texto original apresenta doze maneiras como a tecnologia torna a vida melhor, porém aqui eles lerão somente quatro. Se julgar apropriado, você pode pedir para acessarem o site do qual o texto foi extraído e o lerem na íntegra.

Read the article more carefully to find out how technology can make life better.

https://www.terapynowdays.com/blog/our-gender-ourselves/201412/technology-12-ways-it-makes-life-better FIND A THERAPIST

SUBJECTS

GET HELP

ARCHIVE

EXPERTS

E-MAIL US

Technology: 12 Ways It Makes Life Better * Thank you to all the technologists who make life easier. Posted Dec 02, 2014

Bárbara Sarzi

[…] I know that technology sometimes cheapens our lives, diverts us from deeper meanings, pollutes our world […] (It can also break our hearts, as I learned when my hard drive crashed, taking with it months of work that even computer geniuses working in a “clean room” in California could not bring back to me. Note: Back up your files, people.) I like it anyway. […] To all the technologists who have made my life easier, faster, and better, thank you for (in no particular order): 1. The fact that I don’t have to get out of the chair every time I want to change a channel. […] 3. Putting the great, global brain of the Internet at my fingertips. Need the current population of Zimbabwe? It’s 15,149,838. 4. GPS maps and the soothing voice of the lady who tells me when and where to turn. She’s a genius. […] 6. The fact that one device that can be smaller than a deck of cards holds my appointments, my work, and contact information for everybody I know. When necessary, I can use it to make a phone call. […] DREXLER, Peggy. Technology: 12 ways it makes life better. Available at: <www.psychologytoday. com/blog/our-gender-ourselves/201412/technology-12-ways-it-makes-life-better>. Accessed on: November 3 rd, 2015.

5.

6.

In your notebook, match the synonyms according to what they mean in the text.

a - II; b - I; c - III.

a ) cheapen

I

calm and relaxing

b ) soothing

II

make something less valuable

c ) put someone in charge

III

make someone responsible for something

Answer the following questions.

Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir o item b desta atividade.

a ) Do you agree with the author of the article? Explain your answer by talking to your teacher and classmates. b ) Can you imagine how life was in the past without these technologies? Talk to older people from your family or neighborhood to discover how life changed. Then, think about the advantages and disadvantages of technology in your life.

6. a) Espera-se que os alunos digam que as tecnologias mencionadas facilitaram suas vidas, já que sites de busca propõem pesquisa rápida e trazem muitas opções; smartphones nos auxiliam com GPS, acesso à internet de qualquer lugar etc. Sugerimos deixá-los mencionar outras tecnologias que facilitam seu dia a dia. fifty-one

51

Unit 3

x


Learning and acting Reading and reflecting Pre-reading

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

1. a) Sugerimos perguntar aos alunos qual(is) tipo(s) de história e personagens de que gostam mais. Sugerimos questionar sua frequência de leitura. Na faixa etária em que se encontram, os alunos podem mencionar HQs dos heróis da DC Comics e da Marvel.

1. b) Sugerimos questionar os alunos sobre onde leem histórias em quadrinhos e se sabem que é possível encontrá-las na internet. Você pode comentar que revistas e jornais trazem esse gênero textual e que, além da internet, eles podem encontrar alguns exemplares em sebos.

1. Before 1. d) Sugerimos promover uma discussão sobre o uso excessivo da tecnologia. Você pode levar os alunos a refletirem sobre o fato de gastarmos mais tempo na internet do que o necessário, de usarmos aplicativos e eletrônicos para armazenar informações, além do que podemos fazer para conter excessos.

reading the comic strip, discuss the following questions with your teacher and pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como classmates. Respostas conduzir o item c desta atividade. a ) Do you like reading comic strips? If so, give examples of the ones you know. b ) Where do you read them? Do you know many of them are available on the internet? c ) In your opinion, can technology help in daily life? If so, give examples. d ) Do you think technology can sometimes be addictive?

Reading 2. Read

the comic strip and find out which device organizes Marcy’s life.

A smartphone.

© 2011 Robb Armstrong/Dist. by Universal Uclick

3. a) Sugerimos orientar os alunos a checarem as informações visuais nos quadrinhos, tais como uma pessoa levando a outra em uma cadeira de rodas, o balcão de atendimento, o uniforme das personagens, e, no quarto quadrinho, a palavra hospital. 3. c) Resposta pessoal. Resposta esperada: Marcy spends so much time in having control of her virtual world that, when it comes to living real life, she is too tired. 3. d) Espera-se que os alunos percebam nessa fala a concepção machista de que certas tarefas são responsabilidade da mulher e que homens ajudam quando querem. Espera-se que digam que é importante dialogar em família e dividir as tarefas igualmente, pois todos têm responsabilidade nos afazeres domésticos.

JumpStart, by Robb Armstrong. Available at: <www.amureprints.com/reprints/results?terms=modern+techno logy>. Accessed on: October 31st, 2015.

3. Discuss

the following questions with your teacher and classmates.

a ) Where does Marcy work?

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir o item c desta atividade.

She works in a hospital.

b ) According to Marcy, can she manage her schedule with the help of technology?

Resposta esperada: yes, she says she can do everything she has to do because her smartphone organizes her entire schedule.

c ) Irony and humor are usually present in JumpStart comics. Can you explain how it is present in this comic strip?

d ) Did you notice that the comic strip gives the idea that women are the only ones responsible for taking care of the house and the children? Find some evidence of this in the text. Then, think of a solution for this misconception. I’m not alone. I have help./Your husband, Joe?/No, modern technology! A segunda parte da resposta é pessoal.

52

fifty-two


4. After

reading the comic strip on page 52, what can you infer from the title JumpStart?

Caso os alunos tenham dificuldade, você pode sugerir que utilizem o dicionário. It means… a

a ) to start your day with a little humor. b ) to delay doing something you need to do.

5. Now,

a ) Do you know some possible meanings of the word smart? Look it up in the dictionary In the text, the word smart means intelligent. Sugerimos orientar os alunos and see what it means in the text. procurarem no dicionário os diferentes significados da palavra smart. Eles devem destacar qual é o sentido da palavra no texto.

Unit 3

you are going to read a cartoon. After reading, discuss these questions with a classmate. a

5. b) Yes, they are

© 2015 Jeff Stahler/Dist. by Universal Uclick

b ) Talk to your classmates about the two times the word smart is used in the cartoon. Are the same. They mean intelligent. they the same? What do they mean? Sugerimos

6. What

Cartoon: smart people?, by Jeff Stahler. Available at: <www.tmnews.com/news/ opinion/cartoon-smartpeople/image_b1e522789a70-11e4-905597349303941f.html>. Accessed on: November 3 rd, 2015.

explicar aos alunos que mesmo a palavra smart aparecendo com o mesmo significado nas duas falas, ela é usada com propósitos diferentes. Na primeira fala, o termo smart, “inteligente”, qualifica os aparelhos eletroeletrônicos que possuem funções automáticas. Na segunda, o termo smart qualifica o substantivo people, “pessoas”, mas com o objetivo de fazer uma crítica ao insinuar que os aparelhos rotulados como inteligentes não exigem usuários inteligentes.

Você pode discutir com os alunos a questão que o cartum levanta sobre o fato de os aparelhos tecnológicos estarem distanciando as pessoas, levando-as a a ) They are talking to each other. b ) They are using their tablets. conversar menos, se isolar, mesmo estando no In the text, the woman says “Now we don’t have to be smart people anymore.” Do you mesmo ambiente. Esta pessoal. Você pode chamar a atenção dos alunos para a crítica agree with her? Why (not)? Resposta questão será presente no cartum. A personagem afirma ironicamente que os aparelhos aprofundada na rotulados como inteligentes não exigem usuários inteligentes. atividade 8.

are the people in the cartoon doing? b

7.

8. The

man and the woman are in the same place, but they are using their smart devices instead of paying attention to what the other is saying. Do you think this happens regularly pessoal. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o in our society? Resposta professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

9. Can you see yourself and the people around you in the same situation? Is it common for you? Resposta pessoal. Espera-se que os alunos comentem se a situação vivenciada pelos personagens acontece também com as pessoas ao redor deles, ou seja, se ela é comum. É importante levá-los a refletir sobre o uso das tecnologias, para que elas não afetem as relações entre as pessoas.

10. Read

the comic strip and the cartoon again and decide if the following sentences are true or false. Write the true statements down and rewrite the false ones in your notebook. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, informações sobre os gêneros textuais. True.

a ) Both texts are about technology.

b ) The comic strip is more critical than the cartoon.

False. Both the comic strip and the cartoon express critical opinions.

c ) Both the comic strip and the cartoon use illustrations and written text to express an idea. True.

d ) Comic strip do not tell a story.

False. Comic strips tell a story.

e ) It is necessary to know what a smartphone is to understand the joke in the cartoon. True.

fifty-three

53


11.

Write down the following sentences in your notebook choosing the appropriate words to Os gêneros quadrinhos e cartum foram trabalhados nas atividades anteriores. Por isso, sugerimos complete them. retomar os conceitos de cada um deles antes de realizar esta atividade, que tem como objetivo sintetizar as características de ambos.

a ) Comics are sequences of boxes with (photos/illustrations) and dialogs that come in (speech bubbles/boxes). Words that imitate sounds are called onomatopoeia, for example, “BOOM!” for an (singing/explosion) and “SPLASH” when someone (drinks/falls into) the water. Comic strips are usually published in magazines, newspapers and on the internet. b ) Cartoons are (illustrations/photos) that (criticize/praise) some social or political idea. So, it is (necessary/unnecessary) to know the facts to understand the cartoon. They are usually (boring/humorous) and (longer/shorter) than comics. Cartoons are usually published in newspapers, magazines and on the internet.

Post-reading 12.

12. b) Sugerimos aproveitar esta questão para saber mais sobre os hábitos de leitura dos alunos. Você pode perguntar se eles têm mais acesso a quadrinhos e cartuns por meio de dispositivos eletrônicos, como celular e computador, ou de mídias impressas, como revistas especializadas e jornais. Além disso, é possível incentivar esse tipo de leitura levando-os para a sala de informática da escola ou levando alguns textos para a sala de aula.

Discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates.

Respostas pessoais.

a ) Do you read more comic strips or cartoons? b ) Do you think technology makes comic strips and cartoons more accessible? Why (not)? Both comic strips and cartoons often use different kinds of bubbles to indicate the characters’ speech. If necessary, do some research to match the following bubbles with their meanings. A - II; B - III; C - I. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade. A

B I’M NOT ALONE! I HAVE HELP.

14. Você pode pedir aos alunos uma pesquisa antes de realizarem a atividade. Em seguida, é essencial fazer um levantamento de outras onomatopeias e pedir que escrevam no caderno. Sugerimos explicar que algumas onomatopeias são diferentes em inglês. A que indica o latido de um cão, em português, é Au! Au! e, em inglês, Woof! Woof!.

I’M NOT ALONE! I HAVE HELP.

I

The scream bubbles are used to show that the characters are screaming or shouting.

II

The speech bubbles are used to show what the characters are saying.

III

The thought bubbles are used to indicate what the characters are thinking about.

Onomatopoeia is also very common in comic strips and cartoons because they represent sound effects that are important to convey meaning. Match the following onomatopoeic words with their explanations. Then, do some research and write other onomatopoeic words down in your notebook. A - II; B - IV; C - III; D - I. A

B

C

D Ilustrações: Anna Simonin

14.

C

Ilustrações: Anna Simonin

13.

54

fifty-four

I

It represents the sound of thunder.

III

It represents the buzzing of an insect.

II

It represents a bell ringing.

IV

It represents the sound of something breaking.


Putting your ideas into words Before writing

16.

Do some research on the internet and in newspapers (printed or on-line) and select some dar início a esta atividade de produção escrita, sugerimos interesting cartoons to share with your classmates. Para orientar os alunos a pesquisarem e selecionarem outros exemplos de cartuns. Em seguida, você pode organizá-los em grupos para que compartilhem as charges selecionadas e identifiquem suas características, usando como base os tópicos listados na atividade seguinte.

Observe the cartoons you and your classmates selected and identify the following characteristics in them.

Unit 3

15.

• Cartoons use visual and verbal language that helps to convey the message. • Cartoons are usually humorous. • Cartoonists use symbols to express their points of view. • In cartoons, irony is usually an element that helps the cartoonists to express their opinion more effectively.

• Usually, cartoonists compare two different issues or situations that share some

characteristics. It is called analogy and it can help readers to see things in a different way.

• Sometimes physical characteristics of people or things illustrated in cartoons are exaggerated.

Writing You are going to create a cartoon about the theme discussed in this unit: technology and its importance in our lives. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

Anna Simonin

17.

After writing 18.

Talk to some of the students that have read the cartoons and conduct a survey of their Sugerimos estimular os alunos impressions. These are some topics you can consider. a conversarem com diferentes a ) Find out which cartoons the students liked the most and why. b ) Ask what caught their attention more: the illustrations or the written text.

alunos para entrevistá-los, com o objetivo de saber que opiniões têm sobre as charges produzidas pela turma.

c ) Ask if they noticed the irony and the analogies in the cartoons. d ) Find out if the cartoons made them reflect critically on the importance of technology in everyday life. fifty-five

55


Listening and understanding

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Listening 1.

Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas para o professor, como conduzir o item b desta atividade.

Discuss the following questions with a classmate. Orientações

a ) Do you like interviews? If so, what subject(s) do you like to watch or listen to in an pode pedir que os alunos citem tópicos interessantes em uma entrevista e incentivá-los a interview? Você justificar os motivos. b ) Do you like interviews about science and technology? Why (not)? c ) Would you like to watch an interview on these topics? If so, who would you like to be interviewed?

2.

Listen to the first part of the show. What kind of show is it? B Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, a transcrição do áudio.

track 13

a game show

C

White House Photo/Alamy Stock Photo/Latinstock

Jeff Overs/BBC News & Current Affairs/Getty Images

B Astrid Stawiarz/Stringer/ Getty Images

A

a talk show

a weather forecast

2. Os alunos Listen to the track again and choose the correct answers. Write them in your notebook. ouvirão a abertura de um programa a ) What’s the name of the show? I gravado e track 13 disponibilizado II Festival of Dangerous Ideas I Download This Show em um site de uma rádio australiana. b ) Where is it taking place? II Sugerimos pedir que, com base I at the Taj Mahal, in India II at the Sydney Opera House, in Australia no que eles compreenderam do áudio, c ) Who’s the broadcaster? II identifiquem qual é o tipo do I Tom Leonnel II Marc Fennel programa. Após a realização da atividade, você d ) Who was invited to participate? I pode perguntar quais são as I two scientists and writers II two doctors características de talk shows. Algumas e ) What are the areas studied by the interviewees? II características são: a presença I History and technology II Neuroscience and technology de convidados especialistas no tópico que será discutido, o fato Discuss the following questions with a classmate. Then, share the main points of your de o Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos apresentador discussion with your teacher and the other students in your class. discutir as questões com o ser o mediador objetivo de fazer o fechamento do primeiro áudio, pois, a partir da próxima atividade, os alunos ouvirão outro fragmento do talk show. do debate, o a ) What are some talk show hosts you know? Sugerimos perguntar aos alunos nomes de apresentadores(as) formato de de talk shows, como Jô Soares, Marília Gabriela, Danilo Gentili, Oprah Winfrey, David Letterman, Ellen Degeneres, entre outros. perguntas e respostas e a b ) If you had your own talk show, who would you like to interview? Explain. presença de uma plateia.

3.

4.

5. track 14

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fifty-six

Listen to another part of the same talk show. What topic are they discussing? Talk to a are talking about how video games can help children in mental health. Sugerimos dizer aos classmate about it. They alunos que eles ouvirão outro fragmento do talk show e devem compreender qual tópico está sendo discutido.


6.

Discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates.

Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade.

a ) Do you play video games? How often? b ) Do you think video games can become addictive? Explain. c ) Do you think video games can help someone to improve their health? How? Listen to the track again. In your notebook, complete the sentences with the words below. Sugerimos tocar o áudio novamente para que os alunos preencham as frases com as palavras do quadro.

track 14

a ) His

wife

relax

anxiety

wife

addiction

atomic energy

depression

Unit 3

7.

works with video games that help to improve mental health.

b ) According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the America Psychiatric addiction Association, video games are not considered an . atomic energy

c ) Video games can be compared to

since they’re both good and powerful.

anxiety

d ) Video games may help kids who have

and

depression

.

relax

e ) When interacting with a computer, the child can overcome risks, learn how to adjust their emotional capabilities.

and

8.

Do you play any game or video game that helps you to improve your health?

9.

Imagine you work for a technology company and they ask you to create a video game to improve children’s health. In pairs, discuss and write a project for this video game. Take Para que os alunos apresentem notes in your notebook. Resposta pessoal.

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a citarem os jogos que gostam de jogar e que contribuem para que eles tenham boa saúde (física ou mental).

You have to think about... a name for the video game; what kind of technology it will use; how it could help children; how it will be played.

seus projetos, você pode pedir que leiam as informações da atividade, que contêm os dados que precisam discutir. Eles devem criar um nome para o videogame, definir qual tipo de tecnologia irá envolver ( jogo no computador, console com sensor de movimentos ou com controle, jogo para aparelhos celulares), como o jogo poderá ajudar as crianças e como será jogado. É importante orientá-los a tomar notas no caderno, pois elas serão retomadas na atividade 10.

Speaking 10.

Prepare a talk show with your classmate. The interview is going to be about the video game project you created in activity 9. Think about the questions and answers, practice them and act out. Follow the steps below. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a produzirem um talk show cujo

• • • •

tópico será o jogo criado por eles na atividade 9. A dupla deverá definir quem será o entrevistador e quem será o entrevistado. Você pode orientá-los a pensar e planejar as perguntas e respostas sobre o jogo que criaram. Caso necessário, eles podem anotá-las no caderno. Uma Decide who will be the host and who will be the interviewee. sugestão é instruí-los a praticar as perguntas e respostas e, em seguida, apresentar o talk show Write what you are going to talk about. para a classe. O site About.com - How to Be a Talk Show Host Decide who your audience will be. <http://tub.im/beq7un>, acessado em 14 de dezembro de 2015, traz dicas sobre como The host is going to ask questions about the video game. realizar um talk show.

• The interviewee is going to present the video game.

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Comprehending and using

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Learning about the language Superlatives 1. What

2. a) Sugerimos orientar os alunos a observarem a imagem para inferir o gênero textual. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, informações sobre o gênero textual.

words would you associate with technology?

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a dizerem palavras que podem ser associadas à tecnologia. Você pode aproveitar para incentivá-los a citar adjetivos, tais como innovative, modern, creative, fun, expensive, entre outros.

2. Observe

the picture and answer the questions in your notebook.

a ) What is it? II I

a movie poster

II

a magazine cover

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a responderem às perguntas tendo como base o que eles observaram na imagem. O objetivo da atividade é que eles analisem os recursos que a capa da revista possui (nome em evidência e imagens, por exemplo) e infiram em qual esfera a revista atua (tecnologia).

Future plc Publishing

b ) What’s the name of the magazine? T3 The Gadget Magazine. c ) Based on its name and on the pictures of the cover, what do you think the magazine Resposta esperada: the magazine is about? is about electronic devices and technology in general.

d ) What objects are there in the phone, watch, drone, picture? Cell camera, bicycle, car, stove, beer cooler.

3. Read the magazine cover carefully and decide if the following sentences are true or false. Write the true statements down and rewrite the false ones in your notebook. a ) The magazine cover shows the The magazine shows the best cars. False. best technology for everything. b ) The magazine cover shows technologies that will improve our lives. True. c ) Cell phones are one of the best technologies on the magazine cover. True. d ) A fitness gear is not included as one of the best technologies. e ) Besides showing the best technologies for everything, the magazine will also rank the best action cams and £100 gadgets and rate a smartphone. True. T3: the gadget magazine. UK: Future, n. 244, jul. 2015.

4. Would

3. d) False. A fitness gear is included as one of the best technologies.

you read this magazine? Why (not)?

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a manifestarem interesse ou desinteresse pela revista, justificando suas respostas.

5. Do 58

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you know of any other magazines about technology? Which one(s)?

Resposta pessoal. As revistas nacionais mais populares sobre tecnologias que os alunos podem citar são a Info e a PC World. Sugerimos levar uma delas à sala para que a conheçam. Outra sugestão é levá-los à biblioteca para que busquem e leiam revistas sobre o tema ou matérias sobre tecnologia em revistas sobre assuntos gerais.

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the objects on the magazine cover. What do you think about them? Match the objects with the adjectives. a ) the cell phone

d ) the camera

g ) the beer cooler

b ) the smartwatch

e ) the health bracelet

h ) the stove

c ) the drone

f ) the eletric bicycle

i ) the car

I

nice

VII

II

dangerous

VIII useful

III

beautiful

IX

IV

ugly

V VI

XIII creative

elegant

XIV

interesting

useless

XV

boring

X

expensive

XVI

innovative

enjoyable

XI

cheap

XVII

fantastic

old-fashioned

XII

breakable

XVIII

awful

7. Give

a classmate your opinion about the objects according to what you answered in pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a compartilharem com activity 6. Follow the example. Resposta respostas da atividade anterior.

um colega de sala suas

I don’t agree. I think it’s dangerous.

I think the drone is nice.

8. On

Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos explicar aos alunos que nos itens a a i estão listados todos os objetos da capa de revista. Você pode pedir que eles os localizem na imagem. Em seguida, é possível ler os adjetivos e tirar as possíveis dúvidas sobre seus significados. Por fim, sugerimos orientá-los a dizer quais adjetivos qualificam os objetos de acordo com suas opiniões. Eles podem atribuir mais de um adjetivo a cada objeto.

Unit 3

6. Observe

the magazine cover, the sentence “The best tech for everything” means that...

a ) the technology in the magazine is superior to others. b ) the technology in the magazine is not good.

a

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem a frase em destaque na capa da revista e identificarem a resposta correta. O objetivo desta atividade é introduzir o superlativo fazendo com que os alunos percebam que a expressão the best se refere a um objeto cuja qualidade é superior à dos demais.

9. What

are the best technologies for each area? Draw up the following table in your notebook and complete it with objects from each technology group. Then, write down examples of the best gadgets in your opinion. Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

para

Possíveis respostas:

Objects phones and wearables toys fitness

mobile phone, smartwatch, smart wrist band, headset and other portable personal technology electronic toys smart accessories, clothes and devices for sports and apps

commuting

bicycle, bus, train, subway

photography

camera and its accessories

foods and drinks

What’s the best example you can think of?

electronic devices

entertainment

television, radio, video game, computer, notebook, tablet and games

driving

car, motorcycle, segway, electric bicycle

10. Do

a survey in your class. Ask and answer questions to check what gadgets your pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a pesquisarem com os colegas classmates think are the best. Take notes. Resposta de classe quais gadgets foram considerados os melhores em cada uma das

categorias mencionadas na atividade 9. Uma sugestão é orientá-los a tomar nota no caderno, uma vez que utilizarão essas informações em uma atividade futura.

g18_ftd_lt_2noi_u03_048a063.indd 59

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11.

Study page 190. Write the following rules in your notebook, choosing the correct options to Sugerimos orientar os alunos a estudarem a página 190 do Grammar appendix. O objetivo complete them. desta atividade é que eles estudem as regras gramaticais do superlativo. a ) The superlative talks about how someone or something is (superior/equal) in relation to others. b ) When the adjective is short, we add (-t/-est) to the adjective. c ) If the adjective ends in -y, we drop -y and add (-iest/-est). d ) If the adjective ends in consonant + vowel + consonant, we (omit/double) the last letter and add -est. e ) When the adjective is long, we use (the most + adjective/more + adjective).

12.

Write down sentences about the gadgets of the survey from activity 10 in your notebook. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a analisarem suas notas sobre as Follow the examples. informações que coletaram na pesquisa da atividade 10. Eles deverão escrever no caderno frases sobre essas informações, conforme ilustra o exemplo. Eles podem utilizar os adjetivos da atividade 6 para escrever as frases.

The Z3 camera is the cheapest. Car racing games are the most enjoyable entertainment.

13.

Share your sentences with your classmates. Sugerimos

orientar os alunos a compartilharem as frases que produziram na atividade 12 com a turma para que vejam as informações que os colegas coletaram na pesquisa sobre os melhores gadgets.

Using the language 14.

You are going to read about some records verified and recognized by the World Record Academy, a world record certification service. In order to learn about these records, complete the sentences in your notebook using the superlative form of the adjectives below.

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a escreverem os textos abaixo no caderno para completá-los usando os adjetivos na forma superlativa. Se julgar relevante, você pode propor uma pesquisa sobre outros recordes relacionados a tecnologias.

old

Krz

ysz Sh tof O ut t d er s ziom toc e k .c k / om

pr intin g ntly inve nted Usi ng a re ce itzer la nd Sw in se arch er s te ch no lo gy, re co lo r im ag e. or ld’s pr inte d th e w sm all es tfis he s sw im m in g by cl ow n Th e pi cture of 92 sq. m ea su re s 0.00 es on em se a an of a cross e dimensions pixel millimeters, th ir or a single le strand of ha part of a sing ne. an d bre aks on a smar tpho ag e: Sw itzerl

small

thin

A Chinese manufacturer launched a smartphone that is only 4.85mm, or 0.19 inches, thick and currently holds the smartphone in title of the thinnest the world. Source: Thinnest smartphone: Oppo R5 breaks Guinness World Records’ record. Available at: <www.worldrecordacademy.com/ technology/thinnest_smartphone_Oppo_R5_breaks_Guinness_World_ Records_record_214116.html>. Accessed on: February 23rd, 2016.

ted co lou r im at: <w ww. est ink jet-p rin ord. Avail ab le So urc e: Sm all rld Re co rds rec ma lle st_ ink jet-p rinted _ Gu inn es s Wo y/s log no ch rds _ ad emy.c om /te ks _G uin ne ss _Worl d_ Rerdco wo rld rec ord ac 23 , 2016. rla nd _b rea ry tze ua wi br _S Fe : ge on ss ed co lou r_i ma 3.htm l>. Ac ce rec ord _21560

SFIO CRACHO/ Shutterstock.com

advanced

Sourc e: Oldest worki ng comp uter: WITC H comp uter breaks Guinn ess world record. Availa ble at: <www.world record acade my.co m/tec hnolo gy/old est_ worki ng_co mpute r_WITCH_c ompu ter_breaks_Guinn ess_world_ record _213227.htm l >. Acces sed on: Febru ary 23 rd, 2016.

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Bob Jenkin/Alamy / Latins tock

olde st

The wor king digital com pute r in the wor ld is the Harwell Dek atro n, nick nam ed WITCH. It was built for the Atom ic Ene rgy Res earc h Esta blish ment in Oxfo rdsh ire and first switched on in 1951. The WITCH has bee n rece ntly restored and is now on disp lay in the UK’s Nati ona l Mus eum of Com puti ng.

sixty

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15.

Discuss the following questions with a classmate.

Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a, em duplas, discutirem às questões de acordo com o que é verdadeiro para eles.

a ) What is the latest gadget you bought? b ) What’s the most expensive computer in your opinion? c ) Which app do you think is the most creative? Why? d ) What’s the most expensive type of technology? f ) What’s the worst gadget in your opinion? Take a look at the picture below. What is he wearing? What is it used for?

Joe Seer/Shutterstock.com

16.

He’s wearing smart glasses. It’s used to access the internet. Se julgar necessário, você pode dizer aos alunos que smart glasses são óculos inteligentes. Eles possuem uma pequena tela acima do campo de visão que permite o acesso à internet para executar inúmeras funções, como checar o tempo e medir a quantos metros você está do seu local de destino.

20. a) Sugerimos perguntar aos alunos quais outras tecnologias avançadas eles conhecem. Caso eles não mencionem nenhuma, você pode pedir que eles façam uma pesquisa em casa e tragam o nome e a função do gadget.

17.

These are new gadgets. Have you heard of any of them?

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade.

a ) a hoverboard

d ) a flexible display

b ) a virtual reality headset

e ) a humanoid robot

c ) a 3D printer

f ) an unmanned aerial vehicle

18.

What are the devices mentioned above used for?

19.

Now, in your notebook, match the gadgets from activity 17 with their functions.

20.

I - d; II - e; III - a; IV - f; V - b; VI - c. 18. The hoverboard is used I A cell phone or tablet screen that can be bent without breaking. as a means of transportation. The virtual reality headset is II A social robot that can communicate with you and recognize your reactions used by players to immerse themselves in the virtual and emotions. world of games. The 3D printer is used to print three-dimensional objects. III A board that can be used as a means of transportation. The flexible display allows the screens of phones and IV A flying robot that can be controlled through remote control systems. tablets to be flexible and be bent. The humanoid robot can interact with human V A wearable device that makes immersion into virtual world possible. It’s beings. The unmanned aerial vehicle can fly long distances commonly used to play games. without a human pilot. Sugerimos orientar os alunos VI A machine that prints three-dimensional objects. a dizerem quais são as funções das tecnologias da atividade 17 que eles mencionaram conhecer. Eles Discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates. Respostas pessoais. descobrirão as funções das tecnologias que ainda não a ) Do you know any other new technology? If so, which one? conhecem na próxima atividade. b ) Which of the gadgets from activity 17 would you like to have? Why? Sugerimos pedir aos alunos que escolham um dos gadgets da atividade 17 que gostariam de ter. É importante que eles justifiquem suas respostas.

c ) Which one do you think is the best? Explain.

Sugerimos discutir com os alunos qual gadget eles consideram o melhor. Você pode comentar que a escolha do melhor gadget não precisa estar relacionada ao qual eles gostariam de ter. Sugerimos discutir as razões de suas escolhas com relação a requisitos como: função, custo-benefício, entre outros. sixty-one

61

Unit 3

e ) What’s the oldest gadget you have at home?


Here are the pictures of the gadgets from activity 17. Write sentences about them in your notebook using the superlative form of the adjectives. Then, share your sentences with your teacher and classmates.

a humanoid robot

a 3D printer

a hoverboard

wavebreakmedia/Shutterstock.com

E

Jung Yeon-Je/AFP Photo

D

a flexible display

21. Resposta pessoal. Possíveis respostas: I think the 3D printer is the most useful invention in this list; the humanoid robot is the coolest one; in my opinion, the most important gadget is the virtual reality headset; entre outras. Você pode auxiliá-los na produção das frases e orientá-los a utilizar o dicionário quando necessário.

dantess/Shutterstock.com

C

Tinxi/Shutterstock.com

B

Issei Kato/Reuters/ Latinstock

A

a virtual reality headset

F

Maria Dryfhout/ Shutterstock.com

21.

an unmanned aerial vehicle

Learning more 1. Read and understand.

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem os exemplos abaixo para entender que as palavras de ligação são utilizadas para expressar uma razão ou indicar um resultado.

Linking words: reason and result

• Linking words are used to connect ideas and sentences. Some linking words, such as: because, because of, since and as, are used to express ideas of reason.

Because I’m a big fan of technology, I like to test every new gadget on the market. These days, people’s lives are easier because of modern apps. Since Jack’s not a very technological person, he doesn’t have a tablet or a smartphone. As the students use their phones all the time, the teacher had to ask them to turn them off during class.

• Some linking words, such as so, therefore, consequently, as a result, are used to express ideas of result.

I like texting more than talking. So, I text my friends all the time. These days, there are many gadgets for social interaction. Therefore, the way our society interacts has changed. Teens use their phones all the time. Consequently, face-to-face interaction is becoming less common among them. There is a lot of new technology that help scientists do their work. As a result, there has been lots of progress in scientific research. Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos orientar

alunos a completarem as frases com 2. Complete the sentences using your personal information. os suas próprias ideias.

a ) New gadgets and apps are released every day. As a result, b ) Because of the new technologies,

.

c ) I am/am not a technological person. So, d ) As I use/don’t use many different apps,

62

sixty-two

. .

.


Summing up

Nesta unidade, você...

Sugerimos levar os alunos a refletirem sobre as alternativas apresentadas no quadro abaixo e instruí-los a escrever no caderno as frases que se relacionam ao que leram, discutiram e estudaram nesta unidade.

conversou com seus colegas de classe sobre tecnologias e sua importância para a vida diária; leu textos que propõem refletir sobre o uso das tecnologias; Unit 3

estudou vocabulário relacionado à tecnologia; leu e compreendeu uma tirinha e um cartum; produziu um cartum; escutou e compreendeu um talk show; conversou com seus colegas de classe sobre videogame e criou um videogame que promove a saúde de crianças; planejou e elaborou um talk show; estudou e utilizou os adjetivos no grau superlativo; estudou algumas expressões que ligam ideias com o sentido de razão e resultado.

Surfing the net The website Computer world <http://tub.im/as64ut> is an on-line magazine that makes news and other resources available about all areas of technology.

Singing The song Technologic, performed by Daft Punk and recorded on the CD Parlophone France, uses several technologic verbs. This song is about how we use technology all the time, every day, and it is becoming the center of our lives.

Fil me de Joã o Fal cão. A máquina. Bra sil. 20 05

The Brazilian movie A Máquina tells the story of Antônio. He is in love with Karina, a girl who dreams to see the world and become an actress. He promises to bring the world to her and invents a time machine.

A Máquina, by João Falcão. Globo Filmes: Brazil, 2005. ins tock

Watching

I, robot, by Isaac Asimov. Macmillan: [S.l.], 2008.

ni/ Reuters/ Lat

The book I, robot is a book about a society in which humans and robots live together, and robots have their own set of laws. They can’t break these laws, but they can go mad, have sense of humor, be politicians, and run the world.

Mario Anzuo

Reading

Editora Macm

illan

Going further

Daft Punk (2014).

sixty-three

63


unit

track 15

64

Best thing since sliced bread


When you say that something is the best thing since sliced bread, you mean it is extremely good. I think the internet is the best thing since sliced bread. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, as respostas e comentários referentes a esta atividade.

Exchanging ideas

The pictures on these pages show many things related to the internet. Can you identify them?

B

In your opinion, what’s the current importance of the internet in people’s lives?

C

Talk to your classmates about how the internet has changed people’s lives and their relationship with the world.

Fotomontagem de Júnior Caramez formada pelas imagens Samuel Borges Photography, Halfpoint, Ljupco Smokovski, Ollyy e Liashko/Shutterstock.com

A

65


Contextualizing

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Warming up 1.

Discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates.

Respostas pessoais.

a ) Are you a technological person? How much time do you spend on electronic devices?

a cell phone/ smartphone

III BallBall14/ Shutterstock.com

II

Denis Rozhnovsky/ Shutterstock.com

I

Gerisima/Shutterstock.com

As imagens são ilustrativas, o que não requer acesso a esses exatos aparelhos para discutir a questão. É importante evitar constrangimentos caso alguns deles não tenham acesso a algum desses dispositivos ou caso os usem em excesso. Portanto, sugerimos exemplificar a atividade dizendo o tempo que você gasta nesses aparelhos.

a computer

a video game console

b ) What do you do when you are using these devices? Sugerimos levar os alunos a relembrarem da expressão que abriu a unidade para nomear qual aparelho eletrônico eles consideram o melhor.

c ) In your opinion, which of these devices is the best thing since sliced bread? d ) What are the pros and cons of your favorite electronic device?

2.

Sugerimos questionar os alunos sobre as vantagens e desvantagens de seu dispositivo eletrônico preferido, como mobilidade, facilidade de uso, tamanho, fragilidade, preço, entre outros.

The graph shows how much time American teenagers spent using different electronic devices in 2015. Read it and decide if the sentences that follow are true or false. Write down the true statements and rewrite the false ones in your notebook. How much time do you usually spend using each of the following devices? 1,9

Fotomontagem de Rafael Luís Gaion formada pela imagem g-stockstudio/Shutterstock.com

3,5

2,1

6,3

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem o gráfico percebendo os elementos visuais que o compõem, além das informações verbais e numéricas presentes nele. É importante levá-los a perceber as diferentes cores utilizadas (tanto no gráfico quanto na legenda) para diferenciar as respostas dos entrevistados, que o tamanho de cada cor corresponde à porcentagem do item correspondente, entre TV outros aspectos.

Video game console Computer Cellphone/Smartphone Tablet In a 24-hour day, people usually spend 17.3 hours using electronic devices.

3,5

a ) Teens used cellphones/smartphones more than any other device. b ) Teens spent around 7 hours away from these devices.

Source: <http:// marketingland.com/surveyteens-spend-2x-more-timewith-mobile-than-pcs-ortvs-139775>. Accessed on: October 29 th, 2015.

True.

True.

c ) Teens spent the same amount of time using cellphones and watching TV. False. Teens spent the same amount of time using computers and watching TV.

d ) They spent the same amount of time using computers and watching TV. e ) They spent twice the amount of time with cellphones than TV. False. They spent 6.3 hours a day using cellphones or smartphones.

f ) Video game was the least used device. False. Tablet was the least used device.

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True.


Learning vocabulary 3. Discuss

the following questions with your teacher and classmates.

a ) Do you spend a lot of time on sites or apps? b ) What is your favorite site? And app? Why?

Respostas pessoais.

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a falarem sobre seus hábitos em relação ao uso de sites e aplicativos para celular. É interessante pedir que comentem para qual finalidade utilizam esses recursos.

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a falarem sobre seus sites e aplicativos favoritos, justificando suas respostas.

4. Read

the graph about some research done in 2015 among American teenagers. Then, answer the questions in your notebook.

Empresas, marcas e produtos citados nesta obra não representam recomendação ou indicação comercial. Eles foram mencionados apenas como recurso didático.

Percentage (%) 70 64 60 51

50

45

40

42

30

28

26

Rafael Luís Gaion

20

14

10 0

6 YouTube Facebook Instagram Snapchat

Twitter

Tumblr

Buzzfeed WhatsApp

a ) Do you know all these sites and apps? Resposta b ) What was the most used site or app?

App

Source: <http://marketingland. com/survey-teens-spend-2xmore-time-with-mobile-thanpcs-or-tvs-139775>. Accessed on: October 29 th, 2015.

pessoal.

It was YouTube.

c ) What was the least used site or app? It

5. Organize

Unit 4

Which sites or apps do you spend most of your time on?

was WhatsApp.

the words below in your notebook, according to the site or app they apply to. like

share

update

follow

friend

account

edit

unfriend

photo

comment

tag

hashtag

post

status

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a reproduzirem a tabela no caderno e organizarem as palavras de acordo com as características e atividades de cada aplicativo ou site. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade.

Possíveis respostas:

a social networking website like, edit, comment, post, share, friend, follow, unfriend, tag, status, update, account, photo, hashtag

a video-hosting website

an on-line photo sharing and social network platform

like, follow, post, edit, comment, share, like, follow, comment, post, share, tag, account account, photo, hashtag

6. Pair

up with a classmate and talk about any sites and/or apps that do the things mentioned in the chart from activity 5. The dialog below is Resposta pessoal. Caso os alunos escolham seguir o diálogo abaixo, é an example. importante enfatizar que eles deverão substituir algumas palavras do diálogo para torná-lo pertinente a cada site ou aplicativo.

A: Do you have an account on (name of site or app)? B: Yes, I have an account on (name of site or app). What about you? Iak o Shu v F il im t te r s t onov/ ock .co m

A: Me too. Can I (friend/follow) you? B: Sure! Do you post many (comments/photos)? A: Yes, I do. I like to (post/share/comment) a lot! B: That’s great! sixty-seven

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Learning and acting

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Reading and reflecting Pre-reading 1. Do

you think that spending too much time in front of a TV or computer screen may cause pessoal. Sugerimos levar os alunos a pensarem sobre como o uso excessivo de health problems? Resposta computadores, celulares e televisão pode causar dores físicas e problemas de visão. Além disso,

2. Read

esse excesso pode gerar certa dependência, sendo difícil ficar muito tempo sem usá-los, ansiedade e falta de sono, entre outros problemas.

the following headlines and talk to a classmate.

a ) What kind of information do you think is mentioned in each of the following news articles? Resposta pessoal. b ) What are some characteristics of headlines?

I; II; III; IV. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, informações sobre o gênero textual. Com base nas manchetes, sugerimos levar os alunos I They are placed above the article. a inferirem o conteúdo das notícias correspondentes, considerando de que forma II They are written in large or boldface fonts. o conteúdo mencionado nas manchetes é III They attract the reader’s attention. provavelmente trabalhado nos textos.

IV

They summarize the article.

c ) Can you predict the information from a news article just by its headline?

Resposta esperada: yes, I can. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a pensarem em como a manchete nos permite ter um conhecimento prévio da notícia, embora seja pouco detalhada.

Teen sends 8,000 texts a month CREWDSON, Patrick. Teen sends 8,000 texts a month. Available at: <www.nzherald. co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_ id=1&objectid=10120912>. Accessed on: October 29 th, 2015.

Addiction to online games up among teens CHATTERJEE, Sreemoyee. Addiction to online games up among teens. Available at: <http://timesofindia. indiatimes.com/tech/tech-news/Addiction-to-onlinegames-up-among-teens/articleshow/49052265.cms>. Accessed on: October 29 th, 2015.

Teenagers who use screen for more than four hours a day ‘take longer to fall asleep and get poorer quality rest’ HOPE, Jenny. Teenagers who use screen for more than four hours a day ‘take longer to fall asleep and get poorer quality rest’. Available at: <www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2937191/Teenagers-use-screen-four-hours-daylonger-fall-asleep-poorer-quality-rest.html>. Accessed on: October 28 th, 2015.

Study: teens spending seven hours a day in front of TVs, computers PEARCE, Tralee. Study: teens spending seven hours a day in front of TVs, computers. Available at: <www. theglobeandmail.com/life/parenting/study-teens-spending-seven-hours-a-day-in-front-of-tvs-computers/ article571660/>. Accessed on: October 27th, 2015.

Teens who spend too much time on internet at risk of high blood pressure: study Teens who spend too much time on internet at risk of high blood pressure: study. Available at: <www. timeslive.co.za/lifestyle/2015/10/07/Teens-who-spend-too-much-time-on-internet-at-risk-of-high-bloodpressure-study>. Accessed on: December 14th, 2015.

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Reading 3.

Which of the headlines from activity 2 is the most appropriate for the following text? Read the news article and write down the answer in your notebook. x

http://www.people.com/life/parenting/study-teens-spending-seven-hours-a-day-in-front-of-tvs-computers/article571660/

NEWS

MUSIC

VIDEOS

BUSINESS Unit 4

HOME Home >> News

NEWS

name: For parents who fret about the amount of time their kids devote to e-mail: electronic media, consider this: In Ontario, hundreds of thousands of teens spend nearly seven hours a day staring at a computer or TV screen. The number surprises even researchers familiar with this growing trend and is likely to take a serious toll not only on adolescents’ physical health, but on their emotional and mental well-being as well. “That’s a lot of time spent in front of a screen being sedentary,” said Robert Mann, a senior scientist at Toronto’s Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, whose study revealed the new screen-time data. “That’s almost a third of the day.” Public health officials such as the Canadian Paediatric Society recommend no screen time for children under two years of age and a maximum of two hours for children older than two. The new statistic - 9.7 per cent of kids in Grade 7 to 12, or about 327,000 students, spend at least seven hours a day in front of a TV or computer [...]. The study does not make a direct causal link between screen time - or “sedentary behaviour,” as it sometimes calls it - and health issues. But in an interview, Dr. Mann said it’s no coincidence that various indicators of physical health are simultaneously on the decline. [...] In a way, it would be easier if it was all bad, says Dr. Christakis. “If media were like cigarettes, we could just say, don’t do it. But we can’t.”

Bárbara Sarzi

Study: teens spending seven hours a day in front of TVs, computers

PEARCE, Tralee. Study: teens spending seven hours a day in front of TVs, computers. Available at: <www.theglobeandmail.com/life/ parenting/study-teens-spending-seven-hours-a-day-in-front-of-tvs-computers/article571660/>. Accessed on: October 27th, 2015.

4.

Read the news article again and, in pairs, identify the words and expressions that fret about; b - devote; c - nearly; d - take a serious toll; e - being sedentary; correspond to the following definitions. af -- screen time; g - at least; h - a direct causal link; i - simultaneously; a ) worry about (paragraph 1) b ) dedicate (paragraph 1)

j - on the decline.

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a relerem o texto e identificar as palavras e expressões que correspondem às definições abaixo.

c ) almost (paragraph 1) d ) cause a great damage (paragraph 2) e ) not doing any physical activity (paragraph 3) f ) time spent in front of a computer or TV (paragraph 3) g ) as much as or more than (paragraph 5) h ) a clear relation of cause (paragraph 6) i ) happening or existing at the same time (paragraph 6) j ) going down (paragraph 6) sixty-nine

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5. In

your notebook, write down the sentences below and complete them with the best orientar os alunos a options according to the information you read in the news article. Sugerimos completarem as frases em seus

cadernos de acordo com as informações que leram no texto. Caso necessário, você pode orientar uma nova leitura.

a ) The news article is about teens from… I I

Ontario, Canada.

II

Manchester, England.

III

Mumbai, India.

b ) The word staring in “staring at a computer or TV screen” means… I

playing around.

II

looking at intensively.

c ) Teens spend around... in front of a screen. I

30% of the day

II

50% of the day

III

70% of the day

II

III

using regularly.

I

d ) Spending so much time in front of a screen may not be good for… I

parents and friends.

II

studies.

III

physical health, emotional and mental well-being.

III

e ) According to the Canadian Paediatric Society,… I I

children under two years of age should not have screen time at all.

II

children under two years of age should have two hours of screen time.

III

children over two years of age should not have screen time at all.

f ) It’s not a coincidence that… III I

the number of sedentary teens is on the decline.

II

sedentary teens spend two hours a day in front of a screen.

III

sedentary teens have health issues.

6. In

activity 3, you read a news article. The purpose of a news article is to inform readers of current events. Read the characteristics of a news article and identify in the text the following points. a - first paragraph; b - third paragraph; c - fifth paragraph; d - seventh paragraph. a ) News articles usually have an introduction. b ) They may present researchers’ quotes to support the ideas in the text. c ) They normally show statistical ​e vidence to ​s upport the discussion. d ) They usually have a conclusion.

Post-reading 7. After

7. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos levar os alunos a refletirem sobre quanto tempo os adolescentes passam em frente à televisão, computador, celular, tablet, entre outros, e compará-lo com o tempo gasto com atividades físicas. Então, eles devem escolher a(s) opção(ões) que mais se aproxima(m) de sua opinião sobre o assunto e compartilhar com um colega de sala. Caso eles escolham uma das duas primeiras alternativas, é importante pedir que pesquisem informações e fatos que suportem essas afirmações.

reading the text, talk to a classmate about the alternative(s) below that best describes your point of view. a ) I think Brazilian teens are also spending too much time in front of a screen. b ) I don’t think Brazilian teens spend too much time in front of a screen. c ) I think most teens are sedentary. d ) I think most teens are active. e ) I think I spend little time in front of a screen. f ) I think I spend too much time in front of a screen.

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Putting your ideas into words

Answer the following questions in your notebook. Then, share your answers with your teacher and classmates. a ) Why are headlines written in a bigger font than the article? b ) Can the headline influence the reader’s choice to read the article or not? How?

9.

Read the sentences and identify more characteristics of headlines. a ) They use short sentences.

d ) They express personal opinion.

b ) They are written in the present tense.

e ) They have long descriptive sentences.

c ) They have easy and clear information.

f ) They are written in the third person.

Writing 10.

a; b; c; f.

News* usually contain a headline, the main information and visual elements such as photos and graphics.

9. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a identificarem mais características das manchetes. Você pode revisar as características de manchete já trabalhadas no item b da atividade 2 e pedir que os alunos avaliem se as manchetes que leram nessa mesma atividade possuem todas essas características.

You are going to write the headline for an article. Read the article below and create its headline. Then, publish it in the school’s newspaper.

[...] Young people’s attachment to their cellphones is eroding their personal relationships, according to a new study. The claims come after research revealed that young adults, in addition to sending more than 100 texts, also check their cellphones up to 60 times a day. […] HAZELHURST, Ethel. Cellphone addiction impairs youth relationships – study. Available at: <www.iol.co.za/business/news/cellphone-addiction-impairs-youthrelationships-study-1.1434285#.VjNMVNKrQdU>. Accessed on: October 30 th, 2015.

8. b) Resposta esperada: yes, it can. It can catch the reader’s attention and, therefore, make him/her more interested in reading the whole article. Sugerimos levar os alunos a refletirem sobre como a manchete tem a função de anunciar a notícia e, ao mesmo tempo, criar o interesse no leitor em saber seus detalhes.

11. a) Sugerimos orientar os alunos a falarem como foi a experiência de escrever um gênero que possui tantas peculiaridades. Você pode questioná-los sobre como é trabalhar com um número limitado de palavras, tempo verbal e outras características definidas.

Anna Simonin

8.

8. a) Resposta esperada: because they have to get the reader’s attention. Sugerimos levar os alunos a pensarem no porquê de as manchetes da notícia serem colocadas em fontes maiores.

After writing 11.

Read one of your classmates’ headlines and discuss the following questions. Respostas pessoais.

a ) Did you like writing headlines? Was it easy or difficult? b ) Could you understand the article just by reading your classmate’s headline?

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem a manchete de um colega para analisar se ela permite entender de que assunto trata a notícia.

c ) Is your headline similar to your classmate’s?

Sugerimos orientá-los a discutir as similaridades de suas manchetes, que podem coincidir no tamanho, na escolha das palavras, entre outros aspectos.

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Unit 4

Before writing

*Sugerimos explicar aos alunos que, geralmente, as notícias contêm três elementos principais. Essa estrutura não é fixa e outros recursos podem ser utilizados, tais como um subtítulo e links para outras páginas, no caso de jornais e revistas digitais.


Listening and understanding Listening

Look at the following pictures and identify the objects you use in class. B

C egon999/Shutterstock.com

a notebook

a laptop

a book

nixki/Shutterstock.com

Brian Kinney/ Shutterstock.com

2. c) Sugerimos perguntar aos alunos se a escola possui laboratório de informática ou se a D E F biblioteca possui computadores e se eles utilizam as tecnologias desses espaços. Se responderem que sim, você pode perguntar se os consideram importantes e por quê. Para finalizar, sugerimos questioná-los se gostariam de utilizar aparelhos a tablet a headset a PC (personal computer) eletrônicos em sala ao invés do livro didático e do caderno e incentivá-los a Discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates. justificar suas Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir o item a desta atividade. respostas.

2.

a ) Are students in your school allowed to use laptops, tablets or cell phones?

3. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a trabalharem em duplas na produção de uma lista com os aspectos positivos e negativos do uso de tecnologias como o laptop e o tablet em sala de aula. Em seguida, as duplas devem apresentar suas listas para a turma.

b ) Do you think those devices help or distract students in class? How? c ) Would you like to study with a laptop instead of a book and notebook? Explain.

3.

In pairs, think about the advantages and disadvantages of having laptops and tablets in class. Make a list in your notebook. Then, share it with your teacher and classmates.

4.

After listening to your classmates’ lists of advantages and disadvantages, are you in favor or against the use of laptops and tablets in class?

5.

5. Você pode track 16 pedir aos alunos que leiam as alternativas e infiram qual é a ideia geral do áudio antes de reproduzi-lo. Em seguida, sugerimos track 16 tocar o áudio para que eles identifiquem a opção que indica qual é a ideia principal do podcast.

6.

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a se posicionarem a favor ou contra o uso de laptops e tablets em sala de aula.

Listen to a podcast about the use of laptops in class. What’s the main idea? Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, a transcrição do áudio.

a ) Laptops help students to study at home.

b ) Laptops help students to take notes in class, but they can be a distraction. Listen to the podcast again and decide if the following sentences are true or false. Write de tocar o áudio down the true statements and rewrite the false ones in your notebook. Antes novamente, você pode a ) The name of the show is The Current. b ) The radio broadcaster is a woman. c ) Students are going on vacation.

True.

True.

False. Students are going back to school.

d ) Students arrived at the school with laptops.

True.

e ) The students don’t get distracted with the laptop in class.

False. One of the students sometimes gets distracted with the laptop in class.

f ) The podcast presents the teacher’s opinions. False. The podcast presents the students’ opinions.

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seventy-two

pedir aos alunos que leiam todas as alternativas. Além disso, você pode esclarecer as dúvidas sobre vocabulário ou compreensão das frases. Sugerimos orientá-los a ouvir o podcast com atenção para julgar se as afirmativas são verdadeiras ou falsas.

Denis Rozhnovsky/ Shutterstock.com

A

/ oseltsev Al ex St ar tock .com Shut ters

1.

1. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos pedir aos alunos que identifiquem quais objetos das imagens eles utilizam em sala de aula como recurso didático.

SirinS/Shutterstock.com

2. b) É possível que os alunos digam que os aparelhos podem distraí-los quando acessam websites, jogos ou conversam com amigos em redes sociais, mas, muitas vezes, o uso de tecnologias pode despertar o interesse e a motivação dos alunos por meio de atividades lúdicas, dinâmicas e interativas.

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.


7. track 16

What do the students think about the use of laptops in class? Listen to the podcast again and identify the opinions that are mentioned. a; b; d; e.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) Laptops can be used to take notes faster while listening to the teacher. b ) Laptops can be used to make presentations. c ) Laptops can be used to chat with the classmates. d ) Students can make notes on slides and study at home. e ) Laptops may be a distraction in class because students can access websites that are non-class related.

8.

Discuss these questions with a classmate. a) b) c)

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a discutirem as questões em duplas. O objetivo é que eles reflitam sobre o que ouviram no podcast. Are the opinions about the use of laptops in class positive or negative? The first two students’ opinions are positive (they mentioned laptops help them to take notes while in class), the Do you agree with the students’ opinions? Resposta pessoal. third and fourth opinions are negative (they think laptops can cause distraction). What do you think the teachers’ opinions would be? Resposta pessoal.

Unit 4

f ) Laptops may be a distraction in class because students can do research on-line.

d ) After listening to students’ opinions about the use of technology in class, did you change your opinion? Explain. Resposta pessoal.

9. 10.

Share the main points of your discussion in activity 8 with your teacher and classmates. Sugerimos pedir aos alunos que compartilhem os principais pontos que foram discutidos com suas duplas na atividade 8.

Do a survey in your class. Ask your classmates’ opinions about the use of laptops in class. Write down the chart in your notebook and complete it with the information you collect. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

Classmate’s name

11.

Is he/she for or against?

Reason(s)

Analyze and calculate the data of your survey. Share the results with your teacher and classmates. importante orientar a ) What are the percentages of students for and against the use of laptops in class? Éalunos a fazerem o

b ) What are their main reasons?

Speaking 12.

os

cálculo para chegar à porcentagem. Uma sugestão é utilizarem a regra de três, multiplicando o número de alunos a favor e depois os contra por 100 e, em seguida, dividirem esse número pelo total de alunos entrevistados. Outra sugestão é propor um trabalho em conjunto com o professor de Matemática.

Organize a debate with your classmates. Form a group with the students who share the same opinion as yours about the use of laptops in class. With your group, think and take notes of your arguments. Start the debate. If you want, you can use the expressions below. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

r Wa ys of exp res sin g you op inio n: In my op inio n, the use of lap top s in cla ss is..., be cau se... I think that laptops in class can... To me , thi s is go od / ba d be cau se...

Wa ys of dis agr eein g:

ei ng : Way s of ag re I ag re e. e m or e. I co ul dn’t ag re te ly rig ht . Yo u’re ab so lu . Th at ’s so tr ue

I disa gre e. I cou ldn’ t agr ee less . I don’t thin k so. That’s not always true.

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Comprehending and using Learning about the language Simple Past x Past Continuous 1. Discuss

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

2. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a observarem a tirinha e responderem às perguntas sem ler os balões de fala. O objetivo desta atividade é que eles utilizem os recursos visuais como uma forma de obter informações, antecipando o conteúdo dos diálogos da tirinha a fim de facilitar a leitura. Você pode orientá-los a observar cada quadrinho e o que está acontecendo nele. É importante que eles percebam as expressões faciais dos personagens, o ambiente em que eles estão e o fato de que, no último quadrinho, o homem está falando com alguém que não aparece na cena.

these questions with your teacher and classmates.

a ) Do you have an e-mail or a social network account?

Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

b ) How often do you access it? c ) Do you think your e-mail and social network have a safe password? Explain. d ) Does anyone else know your password? Who? Why does this person know it?

2. Observe © 2016 King Features Syndicate/Ipress

the comic strip, but do not read the speech bubbles. Then, in the notebook, write the correct answers.

Zits, by Jerry Scott and Jim Borgman. Available at: <http:// zitscomics.com/ comics/ october-22-2008/>. Accessed on: October 28 th, 2015.

a ) How many people are there in the comic strip? I I

two

II

one

II

looking at a computer screen

b ) What are they doing in the first picture? II I

reading the newspaper

c ) What is the expression of the man wearing glasses in the second picture? I

He’s surprised and shocked.

II

I

He’s sad and angry.

d ) What’s the number of the house in the last picture? I I

2201

Sugerimos comentar com os alunos sobre a importância desse número para compreender a história, pois esse número é usado pelo personagem para definir todas as suas senhas.

II

2101

3. Read

the speech bubbles in the comic strip and decide if the following sentences are true or false. Write down the true statements and rewrite the false ones in your notebook. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem os balões de fala para responder a esta atividade. False. They are probably logging on to a website.

a ) They are watching a video on the internet. b ) The boy knows the man’s password.

True.

c ) The man thinks his password is a secret. True. d ) The man’s password is the same for everything. True. e ) The man’s password is the number of his house. True.

Respostas pessoais. Uma sugestão é discutir as questões fazendo com que os alunos reflitam sobre a Discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates. segurança de suas senhas on-line e o que fariam se alguém as descobrisse. a ) Why do you think the boy knew the man’s password? Resposta esperada: the password is easy and obvious because it’s his house number.

4.

b ) Do you use the same password for everything? Why (not)?

c ) What would you do if someone knew your password without you telling him/her?

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5. The

a ) expresses actions in the past.

6. Did

O objetivo desta atividade é fazer com que os alunos revisem o passado simples. Caso necessário, você pode orientá-los a estudar a página 191 do Grammar appendix.

sentence “But how did you know? It was a secret!”... a

b ) expresses actions in the present.

you use the internet yesterday? If so, what did you do on-line?

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos discutir a questão tendo como objetivo fazer com que os alunos utilizem o passado simples para descrever como utilizaram a internet no dia anterior.

7. In your notebook, complete the following sentences choosing the correct past form of the verbs.

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a escreverem no caderno os verbos na forma correta do passado simples para completar as sentenças.

b ) They (didn’t like/don’t like) playing games on the computer. c ) David’s not at home. He (goes/went) to the internet café. d ) (Did you turn off/Do you turn off) the computer?

8. Discuss

8. a) Espera-se que os alunos reflitam sobre a internet e os aparelhos eletrônicos, já que nesse meio podem acontecer crimes cibernéticos, cyberbullying, golpes e pedofilia. Além de acidentes de trânsito, causados pelo fato do condutor do veículo estar no celular.

Unit 4

a ) Diana (surfed/surfs) the web for a very long time yesterday.

Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações o professor, comentários sobre o item b desta atividade.

these questions with your teacher and classmates. para

a ) Do you think surfing the internet can be dangerous? How? b ) Do you surf the internet anytime and anywhere?

c ) Do you surf the internet while you are doing something else? If so, do you think you can do both things well and not be distracted?

9. In

Sugerimos discutir as questões com os alunos tendo como objetivo a reflexão de que a internet ou os aparelhos eletrônicos não devem ser utilizados combinados com outras atividades que requerem total atenção.

which situations do you think the internet shouldn’t be used?

Resposta pessoal. Resposta esperada: a; b; c; d; f. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a identificarem as opções de atividades que d ) while driving a ) while cooking não devemos fazer utilizando a internet ao tempo (seja por meio de um b ) while eating e ) while watching TV mesmo computador, tablet ou celular). Você pode perguntar quais dessas situações representam algum perigo ao serem c ) while taking a shower f ) playing sports combinadas com o uso da internet. Por exemplo, dirigir ao mesmo tempo em que se utiliza a Do you know what distracted driving is? If necessary, do some research and write down internet em um celular pode ser the correct definition in your notebook. b perigoso, pois o motorista tira as mãos do volante a ) driving while listening to music and talking to the passengers e sua atenção do trânsito, o que b ) driving while using a cell phone or another electronic device pode causar um acidente.

10.

11. Discuss

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration/U. S. Department of Transportation

the following questions with a classmate. Respostas pessoais. a ) In your opinion, what are the consequences of distracted esperada: it can driving? Resposta cause accidents. b ) If you see a driver using the cell phone while driving, do you usually say something? Why (not)?

12. Read

the poster produced by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), an organ of the U.S. Department of Transportation. Then, answer the questions on the next page.

Available at: <www.distraction.gov/downloads/ images/u-drive-u-text-u-pay-infogrfx-4.jpg>. Accessed on: April 8 th, 2016.

seventy-five

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a ) What’s the percentage of young Americans who say something when they see a driver sending a text message or e-mail while driving? About 50%.

Sugerimos conversar com os alunos sobre os possíveis motivos pelos quais os jovens não falam nada ao ver um motorista usar o telefone ao dirigir. É importante que eles reflitam sobre as Resposta pessoal. consequências que isso pode causar e que, ao falar alguma What is the objective of this poster? coisa, os jovens podem estar educando e ajudando o motorista. Resposta esperada: make youngsters aware of the dangers of distracted driving and that it is important to talk drivers into not doing it.

b ) In your opinion, why does it happen? c)

13.

The sentence “another drive who was sending a text message or e-mail while driving”... a and d.

O objetivo desta atividade é introduzir o passado contínuo aos alunos. É importante que eles percebam que a estrutura das frases indica uma ação que estava em progresso em determinado tempo no passado.

a ) express actions in the past. b ) express actions in the present. c ) talk about things that never happened.

d ) talk about something that was (not) in progress during some time in the past.

Learning more 1. Read and understand. Acronyms

Sugerimos pedir aos alunos que leiam as explicações e os exemplos para compreender que acrônimos são abreviações de algumas expressões bastante utilizadas em conversas informais por e-mails, redes sociais ou aplicativos de mensagens.

• An acronym is an abbreviation consisting of letters that form a word. Some are very common, especially in informal situations. OMG – oh my Gosh

ASAP – as soon as possible

BFF – best friend forever

FAQ – frequently asked questions

DIY – do it yourself

• Some acronyms are very common in text messaging and on-line chats: 2nite – tonight

LOL – laughing out loud

GR8 – great

B4 – before

BRB – be right back

2. Match the acronyms and their meanings in your notebook. a - II; b - V; c - I; d - IV; e - III. c ) L8R

b ) B/C

d ) THX

I

later

III bye for now

II

oh, I see

IV thanks

because

C

I

He was fixing his computer.

II

They were chatting.

III

Cathy was surfing the web when her cell phone rang.

IV

She was shopping on-line.

D

Andrey_Popov/Shutterstock.com

B wavebreakmedia/Shutterstock.com

seventy-six

V

What were these people doing yesterday? In your notebook, match the pictures with the appropriate sentences. A - III; B - I; C - IV; D - II.

A

76

e ) B4N

Andrey_Popov/Shutterstock.com

14.

a ) OIC

Sergiy Zavgorodny/Shutterstock.com

14. Sugerimos dizer aos alunos que essas são imagens que representam atividades que as pessoas estavam fazendo ontem. Você pode orientá-los a observar as imagens e dizer o que cada pessoa estava fazendo. Em seguida, eles devem escrever no caderno qual imagem representa cada frase.

CU – see you


15.

Study page 191 and decide if the following sentences are true or false. Write down the true orientar os alunos a estudarem a página 191 do statements and rewrite the false ones in your notebook. Sugerimos Grammar appendix para auxiliá-los nesta atividade. Eles He was surfing on the internet when the police officer stopped him.

devem compreender que o Simple Past indica uma ação que ocorreu e se finalizou no passado, enquanto o Past Continuous remete a uma ação que estava acontecendo em determinado período de tempo no passado.

a ) The first part of the sentence is about an action that was in progress.

True.

b ) The second part of the sentence is about an action that is in progress now. False. The second part of the sentence is about an action that happened in the past.

d ) Stopped is a verb in the Simple Past. e ) The police officer didn’t stop the car.

True.

Unit 4

c ) Was surfing is formed by the verb to be in the past + the main verb + ing. True. False. The police officer stopped the car.

Using the language Observe what these people were doing yesterday. In your notebook, write sentences about orientar os alunos a observarem as imagens e dizerem o que cada pessoa estava fazendo no the pictures. Sugerimos computador para, em seguida, escrever frases no passado contínuo sobre as imagens. B

Africa Studio/Shutterstock.com

A

Possível resposta: he was playing an on-line game.

17.

Chris Howes/Wild Places Photography/ Alamy Stock Photo/Latinstock

16.

Possível resposta: they were having computer classes./ They were studying.

Take a look and read Matt’s schedule for last week. In your notebook, complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs below. go

watch

have

study

install

play

was watching

a ) Matt The Tech Show when his mother called him to dinner.

1 - 2 p.m. _ install a new antivirus

4 - 5 p.m. _ computer

8 - 9 p.m. _ study for

class

the Math exam

2 - 3 p.m. _ print the

4 - 8 p.m. _ go to the

homework at the internet café

movies with Samuel and Tom

went

c ) When his father got home for lunch, was installing he a new antivirus in his computer. had

d ) Matt a computer class last Wednesday. studied

e ) Matt for the Math exam last Thursday. played

f ) He computer games at Richard’s on Sunday.

2 - 4 p.m. _ go to Richard’s house to play computer games 6 - 7 p.m. _ watch T V _ The Tech Show

17. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a observarem a imagem para completar as frases de acordo com as informações da agenda e com as formas corretas dos verbos em parênteses. Estes verbos devem ser conjugados no passado simples ou no passado contínuo. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade. seventy-seven

Rogério Casagrande

b ) He to the movies with Sarah and Tom.

77


In pairs, ask and answer questions about Matt’s schedule. Follow the examples. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a utilizarem a agenda da página anterior para, em duplas, perguntar e responder questões sobre os compromissos e atividades de Matt.

Monkey Business Images/ Shutterstock.com

What was Matt doing on Sunday at 4 p.m.?

He was playing computer games.

He went to Richard’s house.

Where did he go on Sunday?

19. 20. 21. 22.

In your notebook, make your own schedule of things you did last week.

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a produzirem no caderno uma agenda com informações sobre os compromissos e atividades que tiveram na semana passada.

Exchange your schedule with a classmate. In your notebook, write a short paragraph of things he/she did or was doing last week. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a trocarem suas

agendas com um colega de sala. Eles devem observar e ler a agenda do(a) colega para produzir um pequeno parágrafo, utilizando os passados simples e contínuo, sobre os compromissos e atividades que ele(a) realizou.

Share your paragraph about your classmate’s schedule with your teacher and class. Find someone who...

Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) didn’t surf the web yesterday. b ) was chatting with a friend on the internet yesterday at 8 p.m. c ) used the computer to do some research last week. d ) wasn’t watching videos on the internet this morning.

Speaking up

/m/

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir as atividades deste boxe.

1. Listen and identify the words that end in -m. track 17

a ) He’s studying Computer Science. His dream is to develop software. b ) There was an error in the system, so it wasn’t possible to install the program. c ) Lisa should buy a webcam if she wants to talk to her cousins from England.

2. Practice the words you identified with a partner. 3. Listen and find the missing letters in each word. Write the words in your notebook. Then, practice saying with a classmate. track 18

a ) mod b ) bro c ) gy

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seventy-eight

modem broom gym

d ) muse e ) fa

museum

farm

f ) ice cr

ice cream

Blend Images/Shutterstock.com

18.


Summing up

Nesta unidade, você...

Sugerimos levar os alunos a refletirem sobre as alternativas apresentadas no quadro abaixo e instruí-los a escrever no caderno as frases que se relacionam ao que leram, discutiram e estudaram nesta unidade.

conversou com seus colegas de classe sobre o uso de aparelhos eletrônicos, redes sociais e aplicativos; leu gráficos apresentando dados sobre quanto tempo os adolescentes passaram utilizando sites e aplicativos e quais foram usados com mais frequência; estudou vocabulário utilizado em diferentes redes sociais;

Unit 4

leu um artigo canadense sobre o tempo que os jovens passam em frente a um computador ou televisão; escreveu uma manchete para um artigo de jornal; ouviu trechos de um podcast; debateu com seus colegas de classe sobre os prós e contras da utilização de laptops na sala de aula; revisou os usos do tempo verbal Simple Past; estudou o Past Continuous para falar de ações que estavam em curso em um momento no passado; conheceu alguns acrônimos utilizados em interações on-line; praticou a pronúncia correta de palavras inglesas terminadas em -m.

Watching The movie The social network tells the story of Mark Zuckerberg, the inventor of a famous social network website. When things start to work out, he is sued by two brothers who claimed he stole their idea. Later, his cofounder also goes against him after being squeezed out of the business.

Surfing the net The website Geek <http://tub.im/7r9uib> has the latest news and reviews of the best hardware and software, resources and more.

Singing The song Computer love, performed by Kraftwerk and recorded on the CD Computer world, is about a person who wants to find someone to have a relationship with, but only looks for it on the computer.

Girl Online, by Zoe Sugg. Atria Books: USA, 2014.

The Social Network, by David Fincher. Columbia Pictures: USA, 2010. amy Stock EyeBrowz /Al ck Photo/Latinsto

The book Girl Online is about Penny, a girl who has found a way to talk about her hidden feelings: blogging. She has a secret identity to talk about friendship, boys, high school drama, family and her panic attacks. Moving to New York, she is going to start living new adventures.

Fil me de David Fincher. The social ne twork . EUA. 20 10

Reading

Editora Peng

uin

Going further

Kraftwerk (1978).

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Thinking cross-curricularly

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

In this section of the book, you are going to read texts related to some of the topics you have discussed in the previous units. Here, you are going to have the opportunity to reflect on various themes and their relation with other subjects, such as History, Geography, Sociology and Art. The activities follow the same structure you have worked with in the units, including the stages of pre-reading, reading and post-reading. 2. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade. Este texto possibilita o trabalho interdisciplinar com História. O estudo do fluxo migratório dos povos indo-europeus através do continente em busca de novos territórios para caça e campos para pastagem permite entender como esses povos se desenvolveram e como os novos ambientes moldaram seus hábitos e culturas. *Sugerimos explicar aos alunos que, ao usar a sigla BC, a contagem dos anos é decrescente, ou seja, quanto maior o número, mais distante se está do nascimento de Cristo. Você pode explicar também que não existe year zero (ano zero), ou seja, após o ano 1 BC veio o ano 1 AC. Sugerimos comentar que os povos cristãos usam esse calendário, mas que adeptos de outras religiões podem ter diferentes formas de marcar a passagem do tempo.

1.

ver, Talk to your teacher and classmates. Sugerimos esta atividade.

a ) How do you think languages began?

nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre

Resposta pessoal. Você pode comentar que existem muitas teorias e divergências sobre o surgimento da linguagem humana e nenhuma delas é considerada definitiva.

b ) Can languages change and evolve through time? Why?

Yes, they can. Because languages change and evolve together with society.

c ) Why do you think some words are similar in different languages?

2.

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a pensarem no surgimento das palavras. É importante chamar a atenção para o fato de que alguns termos parecidos de línguas distintas são, na verdade, estrangeirismos.

Read the text and discuss the questions that follow with your teacher and classmates.

Before English (Prehistory - c. 500 AD) Indo-European The English language, and indeed most European languages, traces its original roots back to a Neolithic (late Stone Age) people known as the Indo-Europeans or Proto-Indo-Europeans, who lived in Eastern Europe and Central Asia from some time after 5000 BC […]. We do not know exactly what the original Indo-European language was like, as no writings exist from that time (the very earliest examples of writing can be traced to Sumeria in around 3000 BC), so our knowledge of it is necessarily based on conjecture, hypothesis and reconstruction. […] Indo-European is just one of the language families, or proto-languages, from which the world’s modern languages are descended, and there are many other families […]. Spread of Indo-European Languages Sometime between 3500 BC and 2500 BC, the Indo-Europeans began to fan out across Europe and Asia, in search of new pastures and hunting grounds, and their languages developed – and diverged – in isolation. By around 1000 BC, the original Indo-European language had split into a dozen or more major language groups or families [...]. Germanic The branch of Indo-European we are most interested in is Germanic [...]. The Germanic, or Proto-Germanic, language group can be traced back to the region between the Elbe river in modern Germany and southern Sweden some 3,000 years ago. […] The Germanic group itself also split over time as the people migrated into other parts of continental Europe […]. Thus, we can say that English belongs to the West Germanic branch of the Indo-European family of languages. [...] Before English (Prehistory - c. 500AD). Available at: <www.thehistoryofenglish.com/history_before.html>. Accessed on: October 22nd, 2015.

BC and AD* are abbreviations from a dating system. BC means Before Christ and refers to the years before Christ was born. AD means Anno Dommini, a Latin phrase that means “in the year of our Lord” and refers to the years after Christ was born.

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eighty

a ) After reading the text, why do you think different languages have similar words? Because different languages may have the same origin. b ) Can you think of other reasons why there are similar words in pessoal. Resposta esperada: words may come from different languages? Resposta the same origin (same root) or they can be a loanword, which is a word borrowed from another language.

c ) Do you know what the most spoken languages as native languages in the world are? And the most studied languages as a foreign language? Resposta pessoal. Resposta esperada: the most spoken languages as native ones are Chinese, English and Spanish. The most studied as foreign languages are English, French and Chinese.


3.

Esta atividade e as seguintes permitem o trabalho com as disciplinas de Respostas pessoais. Geografia e Sociologia. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir o item d desta atividade e comentários sobre as possibilidades de indigenous language? Which one(s)? trabalho com essas disciplinas.

Discuss these questions. a ) Do you know any

b ) Is it common to see indigenous people speaking their native language in your city? c ) In your opinion, do you think a language can be extinguished? If so, why? d ) Have you heard of any endangered or extinguished languages? Which one(s)?

What is an endangered language? Read the following text and answer this question in your endangered language is one that may become extinct in the near future. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a notebook. An rapidamente para entender sua ideia geral e responder à pergunta.

lerem o texto

Thinking cross-curricularly

4.

Resposta esperada: endangered languages from Brazil include Aikana, Tupari, Javaé and many others. Extinguished languages include Xacriabá, Umutina, Múra and many others.

x

http://www.linguisticsociety.org/sites/default/files/Endangered_Languages.pdf

Bárbara Sarzi

linguistic

HOME

NEWS

ABOUT US

CONTACT

What is an endangered language? What does it mean to say a language is endangered? An endangered language is one that is likely to become extinct in the near future. Many languages are falling out of use and being replaced by others that are more widely used in the region or nation [...]. Many other languages are no longer being learned by new generations of children or by new adult speakers; these languages will become extinct when their last speaker dies. [...] How do languages become extinct? Outright genocide is one cause of language extinction. For example, when European invaders exterminated the Tasmanians in the early 19 th century, an unknown number of languages died as well. Far more often, however, languages become extinct when a community finds itself under pressure to integrate with a larger or more powerful group. Sometimes the people learn the outsiders’ language in addition to their own [...]. But often the community is pressured to give up its language and even its ethnic and cultural identity. This has been the case for the ethnic Kurds in Turkey, who are forbidden by law to print or formally teach their language. It has also been the case for younger speakers of Native American languages, who, as recently as the 1960s, were punished for speaking their native languages at boarding schools. Is language extinction sudden or gradual? Both. The fate of a language can be changed in a single generation if it is no longer being learned by children. This has been true for some Yupik Eskimo communities in Alaska [...]. In other cases, languages have declined much more slowly. Iroquoian languages like Onondaga and Mohawk, spoken in upstate New York and adjacent parts of Canada, have been declining for over two centuries [...].

3. b) Sugerimos discutir com os alunos a migração WOODBURY, Anthony C. What is an endangered language? Available at: <www.linguisticsociety.org/sites/ dos indígenas para as cidades, as consequências default/files/Endangered_Languages.pdf>. Accessed on: October 22nd, 2015. desse movimento e quais são pontos positivos e/ou negativos. Você pode levá-los a refletir se, ao deixar as tribos e migrar às cidades, os indígenas conseguem manter sua cultura, costume e língua.

5.

The text mentions some groups whose languages were extinguished or are endangered. Do some research and find out some information about them. Then, share your research orientar os alunos a pesquisarem sobre alguns dos grupos étnicos with your teacher and classmates. Sugerimos mencionados no texto. Sugerimos pedir que eles tomem notas no caderno e que a ) Tasmanians

c ) Kurds

b ) Native Americans

d ) Yupik Eskimos

tragam essas informações para a sala de aula para que compartilhem o que pesquisaram. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, informações sobre esses grupos étnicos.

3. c) Sugerimos orientar os alunos a pensarem em línguas que não possuem mais falantes e nem registros que permitam conhecê-las ou estudá-las, como acontece com algumas línguas indígenas do Brasil. Você pode levar os alunos a refletirem sobre o(s) motivo(s) de essas línguas não serem mais utilizadas para comunicação, como a extinção de povos que as falavam. É importante comentar, no entanto, que quando uma língua é documentada e registrada, mesmo extinta, ela não se torna uma língua morta. eighty-one

81


7. a) Caso os alunos respondam que não há grupos indígenas em seu estado, sugerimos motivá-los a pensar nos grupos indígenas do país. Se necessário, eles podem retornar ao texto em busca de nomes de tribos indígenas (Paresí, Karajá, Enawenênawê, Maxakali e Kayapó). 7. c) Sugerimos dizer aos alunos que o Brasil é um dos países que mais apresenta línguas indígenas nativas em processo de extinção. Você pode perguntar se conhecem algum projeto governamental ou ações de organizações ou sociais que preservem suas culturas e línguas.

6.

Decide if the sentences below are true or false according to the texts. In your notebook, write the true statements and rewrite the false ones using the correct information. a ) An endangered language is a language that might be extinguished in the future. True. b ) When a community is forbidden to use their own language, it can become extinct. c ) Native people must give up on their languages and replace it for the most used 6. Sugerimos orientar os alunos language in the region. False. They must keep their language. d ) A language can be extinguished slowly or suddenly.

7.

a lerem novamente o texto. Desta vez, eles devem fazer uma leitura mais True. atenciosa e detalhada para a realização desta atividade.

Before reading the following text, answer the questions below.

Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, informações sobre o item a desta atividade.

a ) Is there any indigenous tribe in your state? If so, what is its name? Do you know what their native language is? Resposta pessoal. b ) In your opinion, is it important to avoid the extinction of these languages? Why (not)? Resposta pessoal.

c ) Brazil is one of the countries with the highest linguistic diversity. According to IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística), only 37,4% of the indigenous peoples can speak their native language. Do you think the government and the Brazilian population are taking actions to preserve these ethnic groups’ languages? Resposta pessoal.

8.

8. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem o título do texto e inferirem o assunto que será tratado. Você pode perguntar o que eles sabem sobre a UNESCO e o Museu do Índio. UNESCO é a sigla para Organização das Nações Unidas para a Educação, Ciência e Cultura, a qual tem o objetivo de promover o desenvolvimento humano nessas três áreas por meio do apoio a projetos governamentais e parcerias com setores da sociedade civil. Já o Museu do Índio está localizado no Rio de Janeiro e tem como objetivo preservar as culturas indígenas e conscientizar sobre sua importância.

Read the text. Then, write the following sentences in your notebook choosing the most appropriate options to complete them.

Director-General of UNESCO visits Museu do Indio (Indigenous Peoples Museum) The Director-General of UNESCO, Irina Bokova, visited Museu do Indio (Indigenous Peoples Museum), [...] in the city of Rio de Janeiro, where she handed the new products of the Indigenous Languages and Culture Documentation Programme (PROGDOC) to representatives of five Brazilian ethnic groups: Paresi, Karajá, Enawene Nawe, Maxakali and Kaiapó. Developed by Museu do Indio and the National Indian Foundation in partnership with UNESCO, the programme has documented the lifestyle, culture, knowledge and languages of indigenous peoples in Brazil. Irina Bokova highlighted the concern of UNESCO on safeguarding the Indigenous languages. She reminded that “each language that disappears is a memory and a whole culture that vanishes with it.” She also stressed that preserving this extraordinary heritage for humanity is everyone’s duty. [...]

UNESCO. Director-General of UNESCO visits Museu do Indio (Indigenous Peoples Museum). Available at: <www.unesco.org/new/en/brasilia/about-this-office/single-view/news/director_general_ of_unesco_visits_museu_do_indio_indigenous_peoples_museum/#.ViocU9KrQdU>. Accessed on: October 23 rd, 2015.

a ) Irina Bokova went to (the Indigenous Peoples Museum/FUNAI). b ) PROGDOC (might/shouldn’t) help to safeguard Brazilian indigenous’ culture and languages. c ) The document was handed to (the President of Brazil/five Brazilian ethnic groups). d ) According to UNESCO’s director, everyone (must/may) preserve the indigenous’ culture and languages.

9.

Draw up the following table in your notebook and complete it with information about the text. One key-word Two facts that you already knew about the topic Three words related to the main idea

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True.

Resposta esperada: UNESCO, indigenous people, language. Resposta pessoal. Resposta esperada: indigenous

preserving

languages

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18/5/16 4:27 PM


13.

is therefore the visual art of writing. A more contemporary definition of calligraphy goes like this: ‘the art of giving form to signs in an expressive, harmonious and skillful manner’. […] It is in the Roman alphabet of the first century AD that the roots of our present day letters lie. Before this, different civilizations used pictorial symbols to express words and concepts. Derivations were made from these abstract characters which retained their original meanings and eventually symbols which would represent sound were created. […] Then, the printing press was invented in the fifteenth-century and this led to the coming of the age of mechanical reproduction. This trend continues till date, more so in the age of computer technology, which has led to desktop publishing, etc. However, many people crave for hand-made work such as calligraphy especially because mechanically reproduced work more often than not lacks uniqueness. […] Calligraphy is used even in the present day for adding artistic touches to book designs, logo designs, signs, etc. Calligraphy has great contribution in the development of the modern day writing style, in typeface designs, etc. It is used for many practical purposes such as writing certificates, wedding cards, and for religious purposes. PURI, Suruchi. What is calligraphy? Available at: <http://readanddigest.com/what-is-calligraphy/>. Accessed on: February 26 th, 2016.

There are many words in the English language that originated from the Greek language. Some of these borrowed words came from languages which include the Greek language and some other words were directly borrowed from Greek. Some examples are the words alchemy, physics and philosophy. eighty-three

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Thinking cross-curricularly

.com

12.

i/Shu tterstock

11.

10. Sugerimos perguntar aos Possível resposta: in order to preserve a language, its use must be encouraged by promoting opportunities to speak, alunos qual ação teach and learn it. It is also important to preserve the communities where the language is spoken. a UNESCO, o do Índio e In pairs, do some research about a native Brazilian endangered or extinguished language. Museu a FUNAI Then, write down the information you find out in your notebook. Share the information of elaboraram para preservar as culturas e línguas your research with your teacher and classmates. Respostas pessoais. indígenas Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, mencionadas no comentários sobre esta atividade. texto. Caso You have learned about how languages may begin and how they can die. However, do younecessário, você pode pedir que know that languages can also be related to art? In groups, research about one of the retornem ao texto e o leiam atividades seguintes possibilitam o trabalho com os conteúdos de Arte. A caligrafia é uma arte topics below. As novamente em refinada que pode ser encontrada em diferentes culturas e de diferentes formas. busca dessa cuneiform script hieroglyphs printing press calligraphy informação. É importante orientá-los a refletir sobre mais Now that you know more about the relations between written language and art, read the ações de preservação das text and discuss the questions on the next page with your teacher and classmates. culturas e línguas indígenas e a compartilhar suas ideias utilizando os verbos modais, por exemplo: the government must motivate What is Calligraphy? indigenous peoples to teach The dictionary definition of calligraphy is their languages to other people; it ‘handwriting or penmanship’, or simply should be ‘beautiful writing’. The word has its root in mandatory to study the the Greek language. ‘Kalli’ means beautiful indigenous culture at school. and ‘graphia’ is the Greek word for writing. It

What can be done to avoid the extinction of the indigenous languages in Brazil?

Piotr Marcinsk

10.


13. a) This word comes from the Greek language and means beautiful writing. Você pode comentar com os alunos que muitas palavras do inglês têm origem na língua grega e que calligraphy é um exemplo.

b ) How is calligraphy defined nowadays? c ) What is the importance of the ancient pictorial symbols? d ) Why do some people consider mechanically reproduced works less valuable? e ) Where can we find examples of calligraphy nowadays? In certificates, wedding cards and documents for religious purposes.

f ) Look around you. Can you see any example of calligraphy?

Let’s see some examples of calligraphy. In your notebook, match the different types of calligraphy with the picture. a – II; b – V; c – III; d – IV; e – I. a ) Blackletter script: a type of calligraphy from the Western Europe. Its origin can be traced back to the 12 th century. Also known as Gothic script, it is still used nowadays. b ) Modern western calligraphy: a type that was formed in the 19 th and 20 th centuries. It uses the broad edged pen as a tool, instead of a paintbrush. c ) Islamic calligraphy: its evolution is related to the Islamic art and religion. It is considered a higher form of art due to its relation to spirituality. d ) Eastern Asian calligraphy: the types of calligraphy from China, Japan and Korea. A millennial form of art, it uses ink brushes. It also has influenced the painting styles of Asia. e ) Southern Asian calligraphy: this type includes Indian, Nepalese and Tibetan calligraphy. It has been mostly used in religious texts. Like eastern Asian calligraphy, this type is also a millennial form of art. II thaikrit/Shutterstock.com

IV

V designspace/Shutterstock.com

13. c) They were used to express words and concepts and, later, they evolved to letters. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que os antigos pictogramas, símbolos utilizados para representar conceitos, serviram de base para a criação da linguagem escrita.

III Vectorboost/Shutterstock.com

I

bango/Shutterstock.com

14.

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos pedir aos alunos que olhem em volta e procurem exemplos de caligrafia artística como indicação de títulos e capítulos em livros, convites de aniversário, entre outros.

Bikeworldtravel/Shutterstock.com

13. b) It is defined as the art of giving form to signs in an expressive, harmonious and skilful manner. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que caligrafia significa, literalmente, grafia bonita e que, hoje em dia, pode-se entender a palavra com um significado mais amplo, incorporando não somente a beleza estética na escrita, mas também a expressividade e a técnica envolvida.

a ) What is the meaning of the word calligraphy?

13. d) Because they lack uniqueness. Você pode comentar com os alunos que para muitas pessoas a reprodução mecânica da caligrafia é considerada menos valorosa por não ser um trabalho artesanal. Você pode aproveitar a oportunidade para discutir sobre como o processo tecnológico, que ao mesmo tempo torna a arte mais acessível e fácil de ser reproduzida, também contribui para a homogeneização da mesma.

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15.

After observing the images, discuss the questions with your teacher and classmates. a ) Have you ever seen any of these types of calligraphy? b ) Which one did you like the most? Why?

Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos promover uma discussão sobre as impressões dos alunos em relação aos diferentes tipos de caligrafia apresentados.

c ) Would you like to practice calligraphy?

16.

Calligraphy is an art that requires specific tools, high quality paper and a lot of skill and practice. However, you can do it in a simpler way. Follow the steps below to learn how to do it. Nessa atividade, sugerimos comentar com os alunos que a caligrafia exige muita técnica, treino e ferramentas e, portanto, será realizada uma prática similar e mais simples. Eles podem consultar o professor de Arte para informações sobre cursos ou fontes de pesquisa. Os alunos precisarão de um papel em branco e uma caneta pincel.

Thinking cross-curricularly

Você pode comentar com os alunos que nesta atividade eles irão desenvolver um trabalho de caligrafia.

Materials: • a brush pen; • sheet of paper.

a ) First, think of a sentence in English. Write it down in any shape or form that you like.

Nesse item, você pode pedir que os alunos escrevam a frase com uma linha simples, traçada com linhas uniformes.

b ) Then, draw close lines near the words. You don’t need to draw these lines near all words, just in some of them. Nesse item, sugerimos orientar os alunos a desenharem linhas paralelas à frase escrita, pensando em como a frase será visualmente.

c ) Now, fill in these lines and it is done! Quite easy, isn’t it?

Ilustrações: Rogério Casagrande

Nesse item, sugerimos instruir os alunos a preencherem os espaços entre as linhas com tinta e o trabalho estará finalizado.

17.

Now, you’re going to practice some more. Rewrite the following sentences on a sheet of paper, using the same procedure from activity 16. Then, show it to your classmates. Sugerimos repetir os processos da atividade 16 para produzir novas obras de caligrafia. Os alunos podem expor os trabalhos para os colegas e comunidade. Se preferir, você pode pedir ao professor de Arte que auxilie os alunos nesta atividade.

• Think outside the box • The world is your oyster • Necessity is the mother of invention • Best thing since sliced bread

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Choosing a career

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, mais informações sobre as profissões mencionadas nesta seção.

Degree

Web design

Job purpose

Develop and create websites and associated applications.

Usually hired by

Companies or self-employed.

Required skills

• Writing well. • Being creative. • Being a good problem-solver. • Being good at drawing. • Being a good listener. • Having good communication skills. • Being organized. • Paying attention to details. • Being punctual.

Characteristics of the job In your opinion, is it a pro (an advantage) or a con (a disadvantage)? Resposta pessoal.

• Working from remote locations. • Working on several projects at once. • The possibility of earning a high salary. • The fact that you can have eye, neck or back strain • •

from sitting for long periods. The fact that the job market is growing for this area. The possibility of taking home extra work when deadlines are close.

Ao abordar as características do trabalho de um web designer, sugerimos pedir aos alunos que as classifiquem em pró ou contra, de acordo com a visão e a personalidade de cada um.

If you like computers, you can also work as a programm er.

To work in the designer field, you can also become a technician. You can find Web Design technical courses at several institutions.

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1.

Do some research and find out other aspects related to the professions of web designer and software engineer, presented on the next page. Share your findings with your classmates.

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos chamar a atenção também para os textos nos post-its e incentivar os alunos a pesquisarem outros aspectos relacionados às profissões apresentadas, como média salarial, diferentes possibilidades de atuação e curiosidades. Em seguida, você pode pedir que formem pequenos grupos e compartilhem uns com os outros o que descobriram.

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Choosing a career

Degree

Software engineering

Job purposes

Analyze users’ needs and then design, test, and develop software by applying the theories and principles of computer science and mathematical analysis.

Usually hired by

Companies or self-employed.

Required skills

• Having aptitude for math and science. • Being creative. • Being a good problem-solver. • Having good communication skills. • Being organized. • Paying attention to details. • Being punctual.

Characteristics of the job In your opinion, is it a pro (an advantage) or a con (a disadvantage)? Resposta pessoal.

• Working from remote locations. • The possibility of earning a high salary. • The fact that the job market is growing for this area. • The fact that you can have eye, neck or back strain from sitting for long periods.

• Working on several projects at once. • The possibility of taking home extra work when deadlines are close.

Ao abordar as características do trabalho de um engenheiro de software, sugerimos pedir aos alunos que as classifiquem em pró ou contra, de acordo com a visão e a personalidade de cada um.

If you like software engineerin g, you can also be a cyber security manager.

2.

Think about these professions and talk to a classmate. Resposta pessoal.

I would like to be a web designer/software engineer because… I wouldn’t like to be a web designer/software engineer because…

Fotomontagem de Anna Simonin formada pelas imagens Africa Studio, scyther5, VR Photos, Dikiiy, Georgii Shipin e Serg64/Shutterstock.com

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Getting ready for exams

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

In this section of the book, you are going to study universities entrance examinations from all over the country. This means that you are going to have the opportunity to learn and have more information about the different styles of exams and prepare yourself for when your time to take the examinations comes. The universities entrance examinations have, in most cases, objective questions. The English exams questions usually offer four or five alternatives. They can demand from the students the ability to interpret a text or to use a grammatical and linguistic knowledge. Moreover, some exams ask the questions in English, while others ask them in Portuguese.

(UFPR - 2012)

UFPR stands for Universidade Federal do Paraná.

A atividade 1 refere-se ao tema e/ou a conteúdos da unidade 1.

School Curriculum Falls Short on Bigger Lessons By Tara PARKER-POPE

Now that children are back in the classroom, are they really learning the lessons that will help them succeed? Many child development experts worry that the answer may be no. They say the ever-growing emphasis on academic performance and test scores means many children aren’t developing life skills like self-control, motivation, focus and resilience, which are far better predictors of long-term success than high grades. And it may be distorting their and their parents’ values. In one set of studies, children who solved math puzzles were praised for their intelligence or for their hard work. The first group actually did worse on subsequent tests, or took an easy way out, shunning difficult problems. The research suggests that praise for a good effort encourages harder work, while children who are consistently told they are smart do not know what to do when confronted with a difficult problem or reading assignment. Academic achievement can certainly help children succeed, and for parents there can be a fine line between praising effort and praising performance. Words need to be chosen carefully: Instead of saying, “I’m so proud you got an ‘A’ on your test”, a better choice is “I’m so proud of you for studying so hard”. Both replies rightly celebrate the ‘A’, but the second focuses on the effort that produced it, encouraging the child to keep trying in the future. Praise outside of academics matters, too. Instead of asking your child how many points she scored on the basketball court, say, “Tell me about the game. Did you have fun? Did you play hard?”. Parents also need to teach their children that they do not have to be good at everything, and there is something to be learned when a child struggles or gets a poor grade despite studying hard. One strategy is to teach children that the differences between easy and difficult subjects can provide useful information about their goals and interests. Subjects they enjoy and excel in may become the focus of their careers. Challenging but interesting classes or sports can become hobbies. Adapted from: <http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/09/05/school-curriculum-falls-short-on-bigger-lessons/?_r=0>. Accessed on: February 2nd, 2016.

1. Are

these statements TRUE (T) or FALSE (F), according to the text?

e

• •Schools tend to emphasize academic performance and test scores. • •Students should develop life skills, such as self-control, ambition, and competitiveness. • •Getting high grades does not necessarily mean that the student will be successful in life. • •The emphasis on academic performance is not supported by parents at all. • •Long-term success is usually achieved by students who get high grades. Mark the alternative which presents the correct sequence, from top to bottom.

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a ) F – T – F – T – F.

c ) F – T – T – F – F.

b ) F – F – F – T – T.

d ) T – T – F – F – T.

e ) T – F – T – F – F.


(ENEM - 2014)

Enem stands for Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio.

As atividades 2 a 6 referem-se aos conteúdos da unidade 2.

PARIS — It happens all the time: during an airport delay the man to the left, a Korean perhaps, starts talking to the man opposite, who might be Colombian, and soon they are chatting away in what seems to be English. But the native English speaker sitting between them cannot understand a word. They don’t know it, but the Korean and the Colombian are speaking Globish, the latest addition to the 6,800 languages that are said to be spoken across the world. Not that its inventor, Jean-Paul Nerrière, considers it a proper language. “It is not a language, it is a tool,” he says. “A language is the vehicle of a culture. Globish doesn’t want to be that at all. It is a means of communication.” Nerrière doesn’t see Globish in the same light as utopian efforts such as Kosmos, Volapuk, Novial or staunch Esperanto. Nor should it be confused with barbaric Algol (for Algorithmic language). It is a sort of English lite: a means of simplifying the language and giving it rules so it can be understood by all. BLUME, M. If you can’t master English, try Globish. Available at: <www.nytimes.com>. Accessed on: October 28 th, 2013.

Enem, The National High School Examination, is an exam that takes place every year and is organized by the Brazilian Department of Education. The exam has a total of 180 objective questions divided in four areas. It also has a writing question. The foreign language exam has five questions. You have to answer only the questions in the foreign language that you chose when you enrolled. Enem has the objective to evaluate the quality of the Brazilian high school education and it is also a tool to get access to a university. To see the Enem exams, you can access INEP’s website on <http:// tub.im/fjoj8r>.

2. Considerando

as ideias apresentadas no texto, o Globish (Global English) é uma variedade da língua inglesa que: d a ) tem status de língua por refletir uma cultura global. b ) facilita o entendimento entre o falante nativo e o não nativo. c ) tem as mesmas características de projetos utópicos como o esperanto. d ) altera a estrutura do idioma para possibilitar a comunicação internacional. e ) apresenta padrões de fala idênticos aos da variedade usada pelos falantes nativos.

(PUCPR - 2014)

PUCPR stands for Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná.

Read the sentence given and observe the underlined word:

“In some cultures team members will be highly self-motivated to carry out their responsibilities without the need for a manager or colleagues to motivate them. In other cultures, team leaders may need to coach performance from team members and use positive feedback to motivate them.” Source: DIGNEN, Bob; CHAMBERLAIN, James. Fifty ways to improve your intercultural skills. London: Summertown Publishing, 2009. p. 121.

3. In the sentence “In other cultures, team leaders may need to coach performance from team members and use positive feedback to motivate them”, the modal verb ‘may’ indicates: a a ) possibility.

d ) habitual past action.

b ) prohibition.

e ) possession.

c ) lack of need. eighty-nine

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If You Can’t Master English, Try Globish


(UEL - 2012)

UEL stands for Universidade Estadual de Londrina.

Cool beans, rents! Mothers and fathers are finally being given a chance to understand ‘Teenglish’. They can study a new glossary of baffling vocabulary to prevent them looking like a ‘fudge’ in front of their offspring. The guide, Pimp Your Vocab, aims to demystify the jargon used by teenagers and young people. It translates words they regularly use including ‘cool beans’ which means something is great. ‘Rents’ means parents, combining the last half of the word with the fact they often provide rent-free accommodation. A ‘fudge’ is an idiot. Author Lucy Tobin said she got the idea during her English degree course when a tutor was confused by a student declaring: ‘I was IM-ing...’ She added: ‘After we students explained IM-ing - when you talk to friends online via instant messaging – I wrote a guide to the language kids use’. Miss Tobin believes that the guide could help improve staff-student communication. She said: ‘In communicating with a Teenglish-speaking randomer (an outsider to your social group) their words can seem like a new language’. Teachers and academics have already complained that Teenglish and ‘text message speak’ are creeping into exam answers. But last year, John Wells, president of the Spelling Society, claimed that the informal language of texts, chat rooms and emails were the ‘way forward’. He said that people should stop worrying about ‘text message speak’ creeping into general usage and called for the apostrophe to be abolished. Professor Wells said: ‘Let’s stop worrying if people sometimes spell ‘you’ as ‘u’, ‘your’ and ‘you’re’ both as ‘ur’; and ‘whose’ and ‘who’s’ both as ‘whos’. ‘Nowadays we often see ‘light’ written as ‘lite’ and ‘through’ as ‘thru’.’ Adapted from: HARRIS, S. Teenglish: from frape to neek the words used by teenagers that baffle adults. Available at: <www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1213626/Teenglish-From-Frape-Neek-words-used-teenagers-baffle-adults.html#>. Accessed on: July 13th, 2011.

4. De

acordo com o texto, o livro Pimp Your Vocab objetiva

e

a ) tecer uma crítica à linguagem dos adolescentes e jovens, que se deixam influenciar pela liberdade linguística possibilitada pela internet. b ) apresentar exemplos de linguagem inapropriada utilizada por adolescentes e jovens americanos no dia a dia e nos ambientes acadêmicos. c ) encorajar pais e professores a adotarem a linguagem dos jovens e adolescentes para otimizar a comunicação entre ambas as partes. d ) estabelecer uma comparação entre as expressões da língua inglesa usadas por jovens e adolescentes antes e depois do advento da era digital. e ) facilitar a compreensão da linguagem utilizada por adolescentes e jovens, traduzindo-a para o inglês normalmente empregado pelos adultos.

5. De

acordo com o texto, na visão de John Wells,

a

a ) a linguagem informal utilizada na comunicação representa o futuro da língua inglesa. b ) o uso do apóstrofo deveria ser aperfeiçoado para evitar problemas de comunicação. c ) a simplificação ortográfica é um indício da degeneração gradativa da língua inglesa. d ) a informalidade das mensagens de texto, salas de bate-papo e e-mails é preocupante. e ) as simplificações linguísticas representam uma ameaça à língua padrão.

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o Teenglish, considere as afirmativas a seguir.

I ) Pode parecer uma língua estranha a quem não pertence ao grupo de jovens e adolescentes que a utiliza. II ) Facilita a comunicação entre jovens e adolescentes falantes de diferentes línguas que se relacionam no ambiente escolar norte-americano.

Assertive questions, like this one, have true and false statements related to the text you read. You have to read these statements to check the alternative that presents the correct answer, according to what the question requires.

III ) É uma linguagem que deve desaparecer à medida que os jovens e adolescentes forem se habituando a utilizar o inglês padrão.

IV ) Tem sido motivo de preocupação de professores e acadêmicos, que já veem sinais dessa linguagem em provas e trabalhos escolares. Assinale a alternativa correta.

b

a ) Somente as afirmativas I e III são corretas.

d ) Somente as afirmativas I, II e IV são corretas.

b ) Somente as afirmativas I e IV são corretas.

e ) Somente as afirmativas II, III e IV são corretas.

c ) Somente as afirmativas II e III são corretas.

(UnB - 2014)

UnB stands for Universidade de Brasília.

As atividades 7 e 8 referem-se aos conteúdos da unidade 3.

The development of technology in the last decades has considerably improved our lifestyles. It has made its impact felt on each and every aspect of life, also on the communication techniques. Everything has both a positive and negative impact, and the impact of technology on the communication process also comes as mixed baggage. Technology has transformed the once big and far world into a tiny global village. Thanks to technology, we now have the power to communicate with anybody on the other side of the world. Technology has brought the world closer and promoted exchange of thoughts to find better solutions to any problem. Services like video-conferencing have made it possible to provide students with best education via the web. The most prominent negative effect of technology is that the charm of the good old world is missing. The lengthy face-to-face conversations have been slowly going away, and have been replaced by texting or chatting. The current young generation lacks essential interpersonal skills (the ability to express the ideas and thoughts to others face to face). Adapted from: <www.buzzle.com/articles/impact-of-technology-on-communication.html>. Accessed on: February 3 rd, 2016.

7. According

to the text above, it can be concluded that

C - a, c, d, e, f, h; E - b, g, j.

a ) the long face-to-face conversation has been fading away. b ) young people are unable to engage in interpersonal conversations.

In this question, you must answer C for the correct statements and E for the false ones.

c ) the verbal form “improved” (l. 1) is synonymous with bettered. d ) since the recent remarkable technological progress the world has witnessed, people’s life has no longer been the same. e ) significant advancement in communication has been brought about by the new technology. f ) the relation between technology and communication coexists with pros and cons. g ) the world is shrinking in size. h ) the world technological progress has turned out to be a more effective tool to find problem solutions. i ) people haven’t ever been so closely related due to modern technology.* j ) video-conferences are a satisfactory substitute for traditional teaching. *A alternativa i desta questão foi cancelada pela universidade responsável. ninety-one

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6. Sobre


(UNITAU - 2012)

Unitau stands for Universidade de Taubaté.

Growth of the gadget The cost of many gadgets is falling fast, giving another fillip to consumption. Smartphones priced at around $100-after a subsidy from telecoms companies, which make money on associated data plans – are starting to appear in America. The cheapest Kindle, an e-reader from Amazon, sells for $79, against $399 for the first version launched in 2007. The cost of digital storage has also fallen dramatically. A gigabyte (GB) of storage, which is roughly enough to hold a two-hour film after compression, cost around $2000,000 in 1980; today a disk drive holding a terabyte, or 1,024GB, costs around $100. The growth of the internet and the rapid spread of fast broadband connectivity have also transformed the landscape. So has the rise of companies such as Apple, Google and Amazon, whose main aim is to delight individuals rather than businesses or governments. Apple, in particular, has been to the fore in the democratization of IT, creating a host of impressive devices such as the iPhone and the iPad. Much of the credit for its success goes to Steve Jobs, who stood down in August as its chief executive. Adapted from: Growth of the gadget. Available at: <www.economist.com/node/21531109>. Acessed on: March 3 rd, 2016.

8. According

to the text, it is CORRECT to say that: d

a ) Amazon sales are growing fast. b ) the cost of digital storage has risen dramatically. c ) the growth of internet connectivity has changed the world geographical landscape. d ) Apple has created the democratization of IT. e ) a gigabyte of storage is extremely expensive nowadays.

(ENEM - 2010) As atividades 9 a 11 referem-se aos conteúdos da unidade 4.

THE DEATH OF THE PC The days of paying for costly software upgrades are numbered. The PC will soon be obsolete. And BusinessWeek reports 70% of Americans are already using the technology that will replace it. Merrill Lynch calls it “a $160 billion tsunami.” Computing giants including IBM, Yahoo!, and cash in on this PC-killing revolution. Yet, two little-known companies have a huge head start. Get their names in a free report from The Motley Fool called, “The Two Words Bill Gates Doesn´t Want You to Hear...” Click here for instant access to this FREE report! BROUGHT TO YOU BY THE MOTLEY FOOL The death of the PC. Available at: <www.fool.com>. Accessed on: July 21st, 2010.

9. Ao

optar por ler a reportagem completa sobre o assunto anunciado, tem-se acesso às duas palavras que Bill Gates não quer que o leitor conheça e que se referem e a ) aos responsáveis pela divulgação desta informação na internet. b ) às marcas mais importantes de microcomputadores do mercado. c ) aos nomes dos americanos que inventaram a suposta tecnologia. d ) aos sites da internet pelos quais o produto já pode ser conhecido. e ) às empresas que levam vantagem para serem suas concorrentes.

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(ENEM - 2013)

Steve Jobs: A Life Remembered 1955-2011 Readersdigest.ca takes a look back at Steve Jobs, and his contribution to our digital world.

Getting ready for exams

CEO. Tech-Guru. Artist. There are few corporate figures as famous and well-regarded as former-Apple CEO Steve Jobs. His list of achievements is staggering, and his contribution to modern technology, digital media, and indeed the world as a whole, cannot be downplayed. With his passing on October 5, 2011, readersdigest.ca looks back at some of his greatest achievements, and pays our respects to a digital pioneer who helped pave the way for a generation of technology, and possibilities, few could have imagined. Steve Jobs: a life remembered 1955-2011. Available at: <www.readersdigest.ca/features/hot-topics/steve-jobs-life-remembered-1955-2011/>. Accessed on: February 3 rd, 2016.

10. Informações

sobre pessoas famosas são recorrentes na mídia, divulgadas de forma impressa ou virtualmente. Em relação a Steve Jobs, esse texto propõe c a ) expor as maiores conquistas da sua empresa. b ) descrever suas criações na área da tecnologia. c ) enaltecer sua contribuição para o mundo digital. d ) lamentar sua ausência na criação de novas tecnologias. e ) discutir o impacto de seu trabalho para a geração digital.

(UFU - 2015/2)

UFU stands for Universidade Federal de Uberlândia.

Snowden on Cyberwar: America Is Its Own Worst Enemy By Lauren Walker

A hand is silhouetted in front of a computer screen. After a year punctuated by hacks and data breaches, most notably a cyberattack against Sony, President Barack Obama used part of his State of the Union address on Tuesday to mention the growing threat to cybersecurity. “No foreign nation, no hacker, should be able to shut down our networks, steal our trade secrets or invade the privacy of American families, especially our kids,” he said. The president’s speech came a week after the White House outlined a cybersecurity policy proposal that calls for more information sharing between the private sector and government, an increase in penalties for hacking and an update in the standards for when companies have to report that their customers’ data has been compromised. WALKER, Lauren. Snowden on cyberwar: America is its own worst enemy. Available at: <www.newsweek.com/snowden-cyber-war-america-itsown-worst-enemy-301175>. Accessed on: January 25th, 2015.

11. Based

on the text, it is possible to state that, concerning cybersecurity, the US Government, now,

I ) wants their network operating system to be terminated.

II ) worries about the security of American families’ privacy.

III ) needs the exchange of information with the private sector.

IV ) requires customers to be more committed to security issues.

V ) demands some more security measurements against hacking. Assinale a alternativa que apresenta apenas as afirmativas corretas. a ) I, III e IV.

b ) II, IV e V.

c ) II, III e IV.

d

d ) II, III e V. ninety-three

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Come rain or shine

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The idiom come rain or shine means that something will happen no matter what. Come rain or shine, we will do what we can to protect the environment. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, as respostas e comentários referentes a esta atividade.

Exchanging ideas Observe the picture on these pages. Talk to a classmate about what it represents.

B

In your opinion, is it possible to reverse the problems shown in the picture? If so, how?

C

What can your community and you do to reduce the impact of human actions on nature?

Fotomontagem de Júnior Caramez formada pela imagem leedsn/Shutterstock.com

A

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Contextualizing Warming up

1. b) Sugerimos levar os alunos a refletirem sobre a importância do meio ambiente em suas vidas. Eles podem comentar aspectos diferentes, como os momentos em que fazem passeios em parques ou, até mesmo, a folha de papel de seus cadernos, uma vez que elas são produzidas a partir de árvores.

1.

1. Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade.

Discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates. a ) Are you worried about the environment? Why (not)? b ) How important is the environment in your daily life? c ) In your opinion, what are some of the biggest environmental issues? d ) Do you do anything to protect the environment?

2.

1. c) Sugerimos promover uma discussão para verificar quais problemas ambientais os alunos conhecem. Você pode questioná-los em relação ao desmatamento, à poluição e ao aquecimento global.

Read the comic strip and answer the questions in your notebook. Frank & Ernest, Bob Thaves © 1993 Thaves/Dist. by Universal Uclick

1. a) Sugerimos perguntar aos alunos se eles se consideram preocupados com o meio ambiente. Você pode perguntar também se acham importante tomar ações que ajudem a preservá-lo.

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Frank and Ernest, by Thaves. Available at: <www.gocomics.com/frank-and-ernest/1993/10/01>. Accessed on: November 10 th, 2015.

2. d) Sugerimos chamar a atenção dos alunos para os elementos ao redor da Terra. É possível visualizar gotas de água e fumaça. Uma opção é perguntar aos alunos o que eles acham que esses elementos representam (as gotas de água indicam o derretimento do gelo nos Polos da Terra, a fumaça pode indicar as queimadas e a sujeira proveniente da poluição urbana e industrial).

3.

a ) What are the planets in the comic strip? I

Earth and Saturn

I

II

Venus and Saturn

II

Saturn

b ) Who’s speaking? I I

Earth

c ) What is it talking about? II I

It’s complaining about the simplicity of being a planet.

II

It’s complaining about the complexity of being an ecosystem.

d ) What does Earth look like? II I

It looks clean, but confused.

II

It looks dirty with smoke and ice melting.

Read the following definition of ecosystem and answer the questions in your notebook.

An ecosystem is a community of organisms interacting with each other and with their environment such that energy is exchanged and system-level processes, such as the cycling of elements, emerge. […] ELLIS, Erle. Ecosystem. Available at: <www.eoearth.org/view/article/152248>. Accessed on: November 13 th, 2015.

Earth is an ecosystem. Because it is a community of interacting with each other and with their environment. importante que os alunos compreendam que a Terra não é planet or an ecosystem? Ésomente um planeta, pois abriga seres vivos que desenvolvem papéis fundamentais nos ecossistemas, diferente de Saturno, que, até onde sabemos, é somente um planeta sem vida.

a ) Is Earth just a planet or an ecosystem? Why? organisms 4. a) Neste momento, você pode sugerir que eles analisem a expressão facial da Terra, além dos elementos ao seu redor, que já foram analisados na atividade anterior.

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b ) Is Saturn just a It is just a planet.

4.

ninety-six

Discuss the questions below with a classmate. Then, share your main ideas with your teacher and classmates. Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a trabalharem em duplas para discutir as questões. resposta: sad, melancholic, pensive, confused.

a ) How do you think the Earth is feeling? Possível

b ) Why do you think the Earth is saying it was easier to be just a planet instead of an ecosystem?

Possível resposta: because being an ecosystem means there are plants, animals and other organisms living together and interacting on Earth. When it was just a planet, there were no people around. So, as human beings are responsible for all the pollution, it was much simpler to be just a planet. Also, the Earth is talking to Saturn, which is just a planet.


Learning vocabulary

6.

- IV; b - I; c - III; d - II; e - VI; f - V. Você pode ler os a ) ozone hole c ) greenhouse effect e ) deforestation problemas ambientais com os alunos e pedir eles tentem b ) pollution d ) overpopulation f ) global warming que explicá-los com suas próprias palavras. Em I a damage caused to natural resources (water, air and soil) by dirty substances seguida, eles devem relacionar os termos com as definições II the situation of having too many people living in a specif area adequadas.

III

a phenomenon caused by gases that trap the heat from the sun, resulting in the rise of the Earth’s atmospheric temperature

IV

a region of the ozone layer that became thinner because of atmospheric pollution

V

an increase of the temperature of the air and water worldwide

VI

the removal of too many trees from a forest

Now, match the following consequences with the environmental issues from activity 5. I - f; II - e; III - a; IV - d; V - b; VI - c.

I

It raises the atmospheric temperature and melts the snow and ice.

II

It destroys the natural habitat of animals and plants.

III

It allows ultraviolet radiation to reach the Earth, which damages the environment and might cause skin cancer in humans.

IV

It causes the depletion of natural resources since consumption is more than what the Earth can sustain. It also causes social conflicts.

V

It destroys natural resources and can cause diseases in human beings.

VI

It changes the climate and causes more extreme weather events.

6. Antes da realização da atividade, é uma boa ideia explicar aos alunos que as frases dizem respeito às consequências dos problemas ambientais (itens a a f) vistos na atividade 5. Enquanto eles relacionam as consequências com os problemas ambientais, você pode auxiliá-los nas dúvidas que surgirem sobre as frases ou o vocabulário.

Another consequence of deforestation, pollution and other environmental problems is that many animal species risk becoming extinct. They are the endangered species. Observe objetivo desta atividade é que os alunos reconheçam os animais das imagens the pictures and discuss the questions. O deduzam que são animais ameaçados de extinção. Você pode levá-los a refletir

e

sobre as razões de estarem nessa situação, como o desmatamento ou o abate indiscriminatório, que é o que acontece no caso do atum, por exemplo.

a rhinoceros

Luiz Antonio da Silva/Shutterstock.com

a tuna fish Sue Berry/Shutterstock.com

a gorilla

Ugo Montaldo/Shutterstock.com

lexan/Shutterstock.com

7.

In your notebook, match the environmental issues with their definitions. a

Unit 5

5.

a toucan

7. c) Sugerimos aproveitar para conversar com os alunos sobre o que eles acham que pode ser feito para tirar esses animais dessa situação de risco.

Resposta esperada: no, it’s not, because they are endangered animals. Gorillas, rhinoceros and toucans can be seen in zoos though. Resposta esperada: because of the interference of men in nature, specially deforestation and indiscriminate fishing for consumption, as for example with tuna.

a ) Is it common to see those animals in nature? Why (not)? b ) Why do you think they are endangered?

c ) Do you know any other endangered animals? Which ones?

Resposta pessoal. Possíveis respostas: the panda, the Sumatran elephant, the golden lion tamarin, the Komodo dragon, the blue whale, the Galapagos penguin.

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Learning and acting 3. Sugerimos levar os alunos a inferirem o possível assunto do texto tendo como base seus elementos visuais e as informações da atividade anterior. Neste momento, é interessante recapitular o que eles sabem sobre fábulas, pois, devido à semelhança visual com esse gênero, é provável que eles imaginem que o texto terá as mesmas características. Entretanto, durante a leitura do pôster de campanha, na atividade 4, eles perceberão que, na verdade, há uma quebra de expectativa, pois o texto propõe um final realista para a história dos esquilos.

Reading and reflecting Pre-reading 1. Discuss

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

1. a) Sugerimos orientar os alunos a observarem a imagem apresentada na atividade 4.

1. b) Resposta esperada: they lose their natural habitat mainly because of deforestation and forest fires. Consequently, they have to migrate to other places where they might not find food and shelter. So, many of them can’t survive. Some species also get endangered because of illegal hunting.

these questions with your teacher and classmates.

a ) Take a look at the picture shown in activity 4. What type of animal is it? Is it an esperada: it’s a squirrel. Some species of it are endangered, such as endangered animal? Resposta Northern flying squirrel and the European ground squirrel.

the

b ) What happens to animals before they become endangered? O objetivo deste item é discutir o que acontece com os animais até que eles estejam ameaçados de extinção.

2. Observe

the text again and write down the appropriate answer for each question in your notebook. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade. a ) The text forms the image of a tree/a nut. b ) The picture is similar to a calendar/a book page. c ) The text is similar to a fable/a song. d ) The text genre is a campaign poster/a book cover. e ) The text belongs to PETA/Greenpeace.

3. What

2. d) Sugerimos levá-los a inferir o gênero textual pôster de campanha. Você pode aproveitar para perguntar se já viram outros pôsteres de campanha, de que se tratava e onde estava exposto. É interessante observar que essa campanha também pode ter sido impressa em folhetos, para aproximar-se mais da ideia de página de livro.

do you think the text is about? Answer based on the information you already have.

Resposta pessoal.

Greenpeace. Criação: Agência Jandl

Reading 4. Read the first sentence of the text. How do you imagine it ends? Talk to a classmate. Resposta pessoal.

a ) The baby squirrels have a long happy life with their mother. b ) The baby squirrels grow up and move away from the forest. c ) The baby squirrels suffer from the effects of deforestation. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem somente a primeira frase do texto do pôster: Once there were three baby squirrels living with their mother in the forest. Em seguida, eles devem, em duplas, imaginar qual será a continuação da história.

Greenpeace: squirrels. Available at: <http://adsoftheworld.com/media/ print/greenpeace_squirrels>. Accessed on: November 10 th, 2015.

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6.

Read the full text and check if your predictions were correct. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem o texto completo da campanha para checar se suas previsões estavam corretas. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a novamente o texto do pôster da campanha para responder às questões abaixo. Você pode auxiliá-los na compreensão das perguntas e na elaboração das respostas.

Read the campaign poster again and answer the questions in your notebook. lerem are four squirrels: three a ) How many squirrels are there in the text? There baby squirrels and their mom.

b ) Where did they live?

They lived in the forest.

c ) Where was their mom? It

had gone after food.

d ) How were the baby squirrels feeling? e ) What happened to their home?

They were hungry.

Their home fell to the ground.

f ) What happened to the baby squirrels?

They starved to death.

7.

What is the campaign slogan at the bottom of the poster? What does it mean?

8.

Which picture best represents the campaign? A

Nesta atividade, a sugestão é orientar os alunos a procurarem no pôster a frase que contém a mensagem da campanha e pedir que eles expliquem o seu significado.

Jarry/Shutterstock.com

PhilipYb Studio/Shutterstock.com

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a identificarem qual das fotografias melhor representa a mensagem veiculada na campanha.

B

Inga Nielsen/Shutterstock.com

A

C

9.

“Think before you cut.” It means that we should think about the consequences before cutting down a tree.

Unit 5

5.

Read and observe the campaign poster again. Then, identify its characteristics. a; c; d; f; g; i; j; k; l.

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a relerem o pôster de campanha e verificarem quais são as suas principais características. Você pode aproveitar para pedir que eles identifiquem onde The message is clear and objective. ou como essas características estão presentes no The language is complex to read. pôster. Por exemplo, o logotipo com o nome da It catches the reader’s attention. instituição responsável It has an unusual design. aparece no canto inferior direito.

a ) It has a picture.

g)

b ) It has no pictures.

h)

c ) It makes effective use of color(s).

i)

d ) It has the institution’s logo.

j)

e ) The text is long.

k ) It is convincing.

f ) The text is short.

l ) It is simple and objective.

ninety-nine

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10.

Do you know what Greenpeace is? Identify the correct definition. If necessary, do some orientar os alunos a lerem ambos os textos e identificarem qual é a definição correta research. a Sugerimos sobre o que é o Greenpeace. Você pode aproveitar para questionar se eles já conheciam essa organização e se já haviam visto alguma de suas campanhas e/ou ações.

a ) It’s an independent and global organization that defends and protects the environment. Its objective is to promote peace and a change in the way people think and act, to build a greener and better future for the next generations. It campaigns against deforestation, climate change, overfishing, chemical products and nuclear power.

11. Sugerimos discutir as questões com os alunos com o objetivo de levantar a reflexão sobre a tragicidade da história que o pôster traz, quais sentimentos foram despertados e se esses sentimentos os levaram a refletir sobre a preservação do meio ambiente, das florestas e dos animais.

11.

b ) It’s a nongovernmental organization that fights for human rights. Its objective is to investigate abuses and mobilize supporters to take actions and get justice for those whose rights were violated. It fights against the death penalty, discrimination and torture. Se necessário, sugerimos dizer aos alunos que esta descrição se refere ao Amnesty International, organização não governamental que defende os direitos humanos.

Discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates. a ) Fables teach a moral lesson at the end. What was the moral from the campaign poster?

11. a) Resposta esperada: the moral lesson is that animals are dying because we are cutting the trees and leaving them without shelter and food.

b ) When you read the first lines of the campaign poster, did you think it would have a happy end? Resposta pessoal. c ) Why did you think the story had a tragic end?

Resposta esperada: because it wants to shock people and make them reflect about how serious the situation is. Resposta pessoal.

d ) How did you feel when you finished reading it?

e ) Did it convince you about the importance of protecting trees and animals?

Resposta pessoal.

Post-reading 12. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a fazerem esta atividade em casa. Outra sugestão é levá-los até o laboratório de informática (caso a escola possua um) para que façam a pesquisa. Se possível, eles devem imprimir as campanhas que encontrarem. Caso não seja possível a impressão das campanhas, você pode pedir que eles anotem algumas informações no caderno, como o nome da campanha, o nome da organização, os recursos visuais, entre outras.

100

12.

Research other environmental campaign posters. Print them out and bring them to the class.

13.

Exchange posters with your classmates. Hold a panel discussion about them.

Após os alunos pesquisarem outros pôsteres de campanha, sugerimos propor uma mesa redonda para que eles troquem esses pôsteres entre si, caso os tenham imprimido, ou troquem as informações sobre os pôsteres que pesquisaram, caso não os tenham em formato impresso. Eles devem discutir sobre os tópicos listados ao lado.

Dis cus s the foll ow ing : wh at the cam pai gns are abo ut; the ma in me ssa ges of the cam pai gns; the ins titu tion s/o rga niz atio ns the y bel ong to; the pic ture s use d and how the y rela te to the wri tten me ssa ges; the ir des ign; how convin cin g the y are; you r gen era l opi nio n abo ut the m.

one hundred

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Putting your ideas into words Before writing 14.

Read the campaign poster on page 98 again and remember its purpose. Write down in your notebook some ideas about the purpose of images and texts in a campaign poster The purpose of both verbal and nonverbal text is to catch the public’s attention, and discuss with a classmate. and to explain and transmit the message of the campaign. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade.

Writing You and your classmates have to carry out a campaign in your school to warn students and workers about the importance of protecting the environment. Choose a subject, such as deforestation, wildfire, endangered animals, etc., and make a campaign poster to support the cause you want to fight for.

After writing 16.

Anna Simonin

Sugerimos conversar com os alunos sobre os possíveis temas a serem abordados. Propomos explicar aos alunos que o esboço se trata de um desenho inicial, que pode ser alterado, pois ainda será feito o desenho permanente. Nesse momento, o aluno poderá pensar também em onde irá posicionar seu texto e a tipografia que irá usar.

Unit 5

15.

Durante a atividade, sugerimos orientar os alunos a pesquisarem no glossário disposto no final do livro e/ou em um dicionário, seja ele impresso ou on-line.

After putting up all the posters on the walls of your school, discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates. Respostas pessoais. Após os alunos terem exposto os pôsteres pelas paredes a ) What is the subject of your campaign poster?

da escola, você pode orientá-los a ler todos os pôsteres criados pelos colegas de sala. Em seguida, sugerimos uma discussão para refletir sobre os pôsteres elaborados.

b ) What effect do you want to cause in the readers? Do you think your text is simple and effective? c ) Do you think the image you used catches the readers’ attention? d ) Which characteristics of campaign posters did you notice in your classmates’ posters? e ) What did you feel when you read them? one hundred and one

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Listening and understanding

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Listening 1. Discuss

1. a) Sugerimos promover uma discussão para levantar o conhecimento prévio dos alunos sobre a poluição dos oceanos por meio do descarte de lixo e vazamentos de óleo.

the questions with your teacher and classmates. Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir os itens b e c desta atividade.

a ) What do you know about ocean pollution?

b ) Do you think ocean pollution harms animals? How? c ) Do you know if there are people and organizations protecting oceans? What do they do?

2. Before

listening to the track, think about the phrase marine life and write down as many associated words as you can in your notebook. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

3. You track 20

are going to listen to a talk by Dr. Boersma. She researches conservation biology and studies seabirds as indicators of environmental change. Listen to it and identify the animals she mentions. b

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, a transcrição do áudio.

a ) pigs

b ) penguins

c ) pandas

4. Listen

to the track again and verify if the following statements are true or false. Write down the true sentences and rewrite the false ones in your notebook.

track 20

*Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que a Dr. Boersma pesquisa as ilhas Galápagos. Essas ilhas formam um arquipélago próximo à costa do Equador. Elas estão sob o governo equatoriano e a língua mais falada é o espanhol. Elas são conhecidas pela quantidade de espécies únicas e por ser o lugar que influenciou Darwin no desenvolvimento de suas teorias sobre a evolução.

a ) 40 years ago, the population of the Galapagos was 300 people. False. 40 years ago, the population of Galapagos was 3,000 people.

b ) Nowadays, the population of the Galapagos is 3,000 people. False. Nowadays, the population of Galapagos is 30,000 people.

c ) 40 years ago, there were two jeeps in Santa Cruz. True.

d ) Nowadays, there are around 1,000 vehicles there. True.

e ) The fundamental problems in Galapagos are overconsumption and too many people. True.

f ) There are 5 billion people in the world.

False. There are more than 7 billion people in the world.

g ) Everybody likes to consume.

The Galapagos Islands * are an archipelago located near the coastline of Equator, in South America. They are known for their unique animal and bird species that were studied by Charles Darwin and contributed to his theories on evolution.

True.

5. D r.

Magellanic penguins

Emperor penguins

a ) They can swim 173 kilometers a day.

Penguins’.

b ) They can swim night and day at the same speed. Penguins’. c ) They can go down more than 500 meters and hold their breath for 23 minutes. Sugerimos explicar que essa informação se refere aos pinguins-imperadores (emperor penguins).

Penguins’.

d ) They can dive to about 90 meters and they can stay down for about 4.6 minutes. Penguins’. Essa informação se refere aos pinguins-de-magalhães (magellanic penguins).

e ) They can go down 90 meters and hold their breath around 3.5 minutes. Humans’.

6. Do 102

GUDKOV ANDREY/Shutterstock.com

6. Sugerimos promover uma discussão para que os alunos digam se concordam com a afirmação da Dra. Boersma de que os pinguins têm qualidades incríveis. Se necessário, você pode tocar novamente a parte do áudio em que ela diz: what I learned when I came to the Galapagos is the importance of wild places, wild things, certainly wildlife, and the amazing qualities that penguins have.

Boersma’s talk is entitled Pay attention to penguins. Listen to another excerpt of this talk and, in your notebook, classify the characteristics as humans’ or penguins’. Volt Collection/Shutterstock.com

4. c) Sugerimos explicar aos track 21 alunos que Santa Cruz é a segunda maior ilha de Galápagos e está situada no centro do arquipélago.

you agree that penguins’ qualities are amazing? Why (not)? Resposta

one hundred and two

pessoal.


track 22

Listen to another part of the talk and, in your notebook, write down the appropriate endings to the sentences.

Jess Kraft/Shutterstock.com

7.

a ) Scientifically, penguins are amazing because... II I

they can swim fast and hold their breath.

II

they tell us about our world in a lot of different ways, and particularly about the ocean.

b ) According to Dr. Boersma, the Galapagos penguins… I are the rarest penguins in the world.

II

are the most common penguins in the world.

Bartolome Island in the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador

Unit 5

I

c ) When she was in Galapagos for the first time, she counted... II I

500 penguins.

d ) Since then…

II

II

I

the population of penguins increased.

II

the population of penguins decreased.

e ) Compared to 40 years ago…

II

I

the population of penguins is one third smaller (33%).

II

the population of penguin is a quarter smaller (25%).

f ) The situation can be linked to… I

8.

2,000 penguins.

I

most ecosystems.

II

Galapagos Islands only.

8. Sugerimos aceitar outras associações coerentes. Após a correção da atividade, você pode organizar a turma em duplas e pedir aos alunos que conversem sobre as seguintes frases, comentando seus pontos de vista e dizendo o que pode ser feito para minimizar os problemas ambientais apontados.

Dr. Boersma’s talk makes us think about some environmental issues. Reflect on that and match the following sentences in your notebook. Then, talk to a classmate about them.

a - II; b - IV; c - I; d - III.

a ) If we don’t think about our consumption,

I

pollution will increase.

b ) If we don’t take care of the environment,

II

the consequences will be serious.

c ) If we keep consuming and wasting too much,

III

many animal species will become extinct.

d ) If we don’t stop pollution and logging,

IV

the population of penguins will decrease.

Speaking 9.

Discuss the following questions with a classmate. Because the well-being of penguins can give us a clear signal of the well-being of the oceans. A palestrante afirma que a maneira como os pinguins se comportam é usada como parâmetro para entender como os oceanos estão. Do you agree that we should protect the environment? Why? Você pode comentar com os alunos sobre como a preservação do meio ambiente é importante, pois Resposta pessoal. Resposta esperada: yes, because life depends on it. as formas de vida dependem dele.

a ) Why are penguins considered sentinels? b)

10.

Do some research in groups about the protection of the environment, and make an oral presentation to the class using the information you find during the research. Follow the Sugerimos propor que os alunos façam uma pesquisa sobre alguma região no mundo que está passando por uma steps below: crise ecológica, como a Amazônia, a região da taiga, no Hemisfério Norte e a Mata Atlântica. Sugerimos que os alunos apresentem o trabalho utilizando painéis, vídeos, fotos e outros recursos que julgar pertinentes.

• Choose a specific region in the world. • Do some research about environmental problems there. • Consider the consequences of these issues on people and animals. • Find out if there are groups and people working to protect that place. • Prepare and present to your class.

one hundred and three

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Comprehending and using

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Learning about the language Future - will

Resposta esperada: the picture shows the deforestation of an area and some people to attack the only tree that is left. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

the picture. Describe the scene to a classmate. prepared

Bee Or Not To Be/CETAPIS. Criação: 6P Propaganda & Marketing

1. Observe

2. c) Sugerimos perguntar aos alunos quais florestas ou grandes áreas verdes eles conhecem, por exemplo, no Brasil temos a Amazônia e o Pantanal. Você pode perguntar também se suas cidades possuem uma área verde ou floresta, quais espécies de plantas e animais estão presentes ali e se a área é protegida pelo governo ou pela sociedade.

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Bee Or Not To Be/ CETAPIS. Criação: 6P Propaganda & Marketing

2. b) Você pode ajudá-los com exemplos, tais como a utilização de madeira para gerar móveis, casas e recursos (papel, combustível e carvão) e o desmatamento com o intuito de abrir áreas para construção ou agricultura.

Bee or not to be: firing squad. Available at: <http:// adsoftheworld.com/media/ print/bee_or_not_to_be_firing_ squad>. Accessed on: November 4th, 2015.

2.

Discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates. Respostas

pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, informações sobre o item a desta atividade.

a ) What are the impact of deforestation on the environment? b ) Why do you think deforestation happens? c ) Does your city have a forest? Is it a protected area?

3.

Look at the picture and read the slogan again. Then, answer the questions in your notebook. Você pode orientar os alunos a observarem a imagem novamente e a lerem a frase do pôster para esta atividade. Caso julgue necessário, você pode auxiliá-los com as respostas.

a ) What is the center of the picture? A b ) Who are the men in the picture? c ) What are they holding?

tree.

They’re lumberjacks.

They’re holding working tools such as axes, chainsaws and agricultural sprayers.

pessoal. Resposta esperada: d ) What do you think they want to do? Resposta tree./They want to get rid of the hive.

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realizar

they want to cut down the


Read the text again. In your notebook, write down the sentences below completing them ver, nas Orientações para o professor, with the most appropriate word or expression. Sugerimos informações sobre o item c desta atividade. a ) The men want to (cut/hug) the tree. b ) There’s a (bird/hive) in the tree. c ) The name of the campaign is (Bee or not to be?/The death of the bees). d ) This is a campaign about the (importance of the trees/importance of the bees) to the environment. e ) The death of the bees will have an impact on (wood/food) production. f ) Readers should find out (more information/other campaigns) about this issue. g ) The reader can get more information about the campaign (in a book/on a website). h ) The campaign invites the reader to (protect/kill) the bees.

5.

In the sentence “The declining of pollinators will cause devastating impacts on the environment and on food production”, will indicates... b Você pode orientar os alunos a a ) an action in the past. b ) an action in the future.

6.

localizarem e lerem a frase no pôster. O objetivo é que eles entendam que will indica uma ação futura. Se necessário, você pode sugerir que eles estudem a página 192 do Grammar appendix.

Discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates. Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, informações sobre os itens a e c desta atividade.

a ) The campaign compares the death of bees with a silent war. What does that mean?

4. b) Sugerimos orientar os alunos a localizarem o cacho de abelhas na árvore. É possível perceber a camuflagem do cacho no tronco da árvore. Você pode discutir rapidamente com os alunos as possíveis razões para o cacho não estar evidente na imagem. 4. g) Sugerimos pedir aos alunos que localizem, no pôster, o website. Você pode orientá-los a acessá-lo em suas casas e conhecerem mais sobre a campanha, lendo informações sobre o desaparecimento das abelhas e as consequências para o meio ambiente.

Unit 5

4.

Resposta esperada: it means that bees are silently and indirectly being killed by the interference of men in nature.

b ) In your opinion, what is killing the bees?

Resposta esperada: the deforestation and the use of pesticides in agriculture, which poisons bees.

c ) Why do you think bees are important to the environment?

7.

Resposta esperada: because they are pollinators, contributing to the existence of trees and plants, which provide us with fruits, flowers and nuts.

Identify the sentences that are true about bees. a; c; d. Antes de os alunos iniciarem a atividade, sugerimos explicar que as frases desta atividade contêm informações sobre as abelhas e que eles devem a ) Bees will become extinct if we don’t stop deforestation and the use of pesticides. identificar somente as que b ) Bees will become extinct because of a virus. possuem informações verdadeiras. c ) We won’t have foods like apples and almonds if bees die. d ) The ecosystem and biodiversity will be affected by the death of bees. e ) Bees will be extinct, but this won’t affect the environment.

8.

What can you do to save the bees? Talk to a classmate. Observe the example.

EduardSV/Shutterstock.com

I will plant flowers at home to provide them with nectar and pollen.

Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos que os alunos trabalhem em duplas e compartilhem algumas soluções para salvar as abelhas do desaparecimento em massa. Você pode ler o exemplo em voz alta para que sirva como referência. Ao término da atividade, você pode perguntar a eles qual foi a ideia que consideraram mais eficaz e verificar quem já a executa. 6. b) Você pode perguntar aos alunos se já ouviram o termo “distúrbio do colapso das colônias”. Trata-se do fenômeno de dizimação em massa de abelhas que ocorre em diversos países. Sugerimos levá-los a refletir sobre as possíveis causas do desaparecimento das abelhas. Além do desmatamento, pesquisadores acreditam que o uso de inseticidas também seja responsável.

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First conditional 9. Take

a look at another campaign poster. What do you think the campaign is about? WWF. Criação: Agência Contrapunto BBDO

9. Resposta pessoal. Resposta esperada: the campaign might be about electric energy. No primeiro contato com o pôster, antes de lê-lo, sugerimos orientar os alunos a analisarem seu conteúdo não verbal, levando-os a inferir o possível conteúdo dele.

WWF: energy. Available at: <http://adsoftheworld.com/media/outdoor/wwf_energy>. Accessed on: November 5th, 2015.

10. Read

the poster and verify if your prediction was correct. Then, decide if the following sentences are true or false. Write the true statements down and rewrite the false ones in Nesta atividade, sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem a frase do pôster para checar se suas your notebook. inferências na atividade anterior estavam corretas. Em seguida, eles devem escrever as frases

verdadeiras no caderno e reescrever as falsas. Você pode aproveitar e explicar que a expressão idiomática foot the bill significa pagar os custos de algo. Em português, a The campaign aims to alert people about water consumption. expressão equivalente False. The campaign aims to alert people about energy waste. seria “pagar o pato”.

a ) There’s a light bulb in the center of the poster. True. b ) 11. Nos itens b e c, você pode perguntar se os alunos e suas famílias utilizam a energia elétrica por meio de aparelhos eletrônicos e eletrodomésticos e se sabem a quantidade gasta.

c ) There’s a tree full of leaves in the light bulb. False. There’s a tree without leaves in the light bulb.

d ) The campaign alerts us on how the environment will be affected if we don’t save energy. True.

11. Discuss

these questions. Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, informações sobre o item d desta atividade. a ) How do you consume energy at home?

b ) Do you think you and your family consume a little or a lot of energy?

11. e) Sugerimos aproveitar para verificar o que os alunos sabem sobre a WWF, organização não governamental criada em 1996, que possui sede em Brasília (WWF Brasil). Destina-se a ações para proteger o meio ambiente e tem como objetivo articular as ações humanas e a conservação da biodiversidade ambiental, além de promover o uso racional de recursos naturais.

c ) Do you think it is important to save energy? Why?

Sugerimos perguntar aos alunos, ainda, se suas famílias tomam medidas para economizar energia elétrica.

d ) How can the overconsumption of energy affect the environment?

e ) This poster was created by the WWF. Have you heard of this organization? If so, what do you know about it? f ) Do you know any other organization that protects the environment?

12. What

106

is correct about the sentence “If we waste energy, the planet will foot the bill”?

b and c.

a ) The sentence has one clause. b ) The sentence has two clauses.

Você pode sugerir aos alunos que estudem a página 192 do Grammar appendix para fazer esta atividade. O objetivo é que eles compreendam que a first conditional possui duas cláusulas, sendo uma que indica uma possível ação que ocorrerá no futuro e outra que indica sua condição ou causa.

c ) It indicates a cause and its consequence in the future. d ) It talks about the consequence of deforestation.

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13. 14.

Imagine that you will create a campaign poster about the environment. What sentence would you like to have in your poster? Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos pedir aos alunos que criem uma frase para um pôster de campanha sobre o meio ambiente. Você pode auxiliá-los com o vocabulário e com a estrutura da sentença. Eles devem escrever as frases no caderno utilizando a first conditional. Antes de os alunos iniciarem a How can we save energy at home? a; c; d; e; g. atividade, é uma boa ideia explicar que algumas frases desta atividade trazem medidas que contribuem para a economia de energia elétrica. Eles devem identificar quais essas frases são. We will save energy... Após a finalização da atividade, você pode perguntar se eles a ) if we turn the power strips off when the devices are adotam algumas dessas medidas em suas casas.

not in use;

b ) if we use the air conditioner when it's hot; c ) if we take shorter showers; d ) if we use more efficient-energy appliances; Unit 5

e ) if we switch incandescent light bulbs to LED bulb. f ) if we use dishwashers and dryers between 6 and 8 p.m.; g ) if we turn the lights off when we are not in the room.

15.

Can you think of more ways to save energy at your home? Talk to a partner. Then, share orientar os alunos a trabalharem em duplas para conversar your ideas with your teacher and classmates. Sugerimos sobre outras ações que ajudam a poupar energia elétrica. Ao final, as duplas devem compartilhar com a turma suas ideias.

Using the language

C

D

Singkham/Shutterstock.com

B

A - III; B - IV; C - I; D - II.

18042011/Shutterstock.com

A

Pixelbliss/Shutterstock.com

Match the pictures with the eco-friendly actions in your notebook.

Chatcharin Sombutpinyo/ Shutterstock.com

16.

16. Nesta atividade, sugerimos pedir aos alunos que descrevam as imagens. A imagem A mostra produtos orgânicos; a B, uma muda de árvore sendo plantada; a C, uma sacola plástica; a D, a reciclagem de uma garrafa pet transformada em outro objeto. Você pode perguntar aos alunos como essas imagens ilustram ações ecológicas.

I

avoid plastic bags

III

reduce the use of chemicals

II

recycle

IV

plant trees and flowers one hundred and seven

107


17. L et’s

think a little bit more about eco-friendly actions. In order to do that, write down the sentences in your notebook and complete them with the verbs below in the affirmative or orientar os alunos a escreverem as frases no caderno completando-as com os negative future forms. Sugerimos verbos em parênteses conjugados no futuro simples, tanto na forma afirmativa quanto na negativa.

18. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a escreverem frases utilizando o futuro simples sobre ações ecológicas que eles passarão a tomar. Você pode ler o exemplo em voz alta para servir como referência. É interessante sugerir que eles utilizem o vocabulário da atividade 17, mas também podem utilizar suas próprias ideias.

pack

plant

reduce

recycle

will plant

a ) They

roses and a palm tree in their garden.

won’t pack

b ) My friends and I bought eco-bags yesterday. From now on, we plastic bags when we go to the supermarket.

our shopping in

will recycle

c ) She

the glass bottle. She wants to transform it into a vase.

d ) We’re making our own detergent so that we

will reduce

the use of chemical products at home.

18. Write

down in your notebook the eco-friendly actions you will start taking from now on. Observe the example. Respostas pessoais. I will use an eco-bag every time I go shopping.

19. Match

the clauses in your notebook to form sentences.

a - IV; b - III; c - I; d - II.

a ) We won’t have that much pollution

I

if we use both sides of a paper.

b ) If you use eco-friendly products,

II

the planet will get hotter.

c ) We’ll save thousands of trees

III

it will be better for the environment.

d ) If we don’t stop global warming,

IV

if we use less vehicles.

20. In

your notebook, write the sentences down and complete them with your own ideas. .

a ) We’ll help in our planet’s recovery if b ) If we want to stop deforestation, c ) If people waste too much energy,

Speaking up

/∫/ x /t∫/

Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a completarem as frases com suas próprias ideias. Você pode auxiliá-los com o vocabulário, caso seja necessário.

. .

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir as atividades deste boxe.

1. Listen to the sentences and repeat. track 23

a ) She wishes to change her habits, by consuming less. b ) Chuck owns an organic sugar refinery in Michigan. c ) Do you have a cheap recycled shopping bag? d ) This is our chance to find a solution for these environmental problems.

2. Unscramble the words and organize them in two groups.

Depois de os alunos formarem as palavras, eles devem classificá-las de acordo com o som.

ehars

yrhcer

irhac

phaec

epehs

oiantn

hucm

nceoa

share

sheep

cherry nation

/∫/ share, sheep, nation, ocean

3. Now, let’s pronounce them. track 24

108

chair

much

cheap ocean

/t∫/ cherry, chair, much, cheap

Sugerimos tocar o áudio novamente para que os alunos pronunciem as palavras da atividade anterior. É importante que pronunciem os sons de maneira clara e correta. Além disso, é necessário que percebam que o fonema /∫/ pode ser grafado tanto como -sh quanto -ti e -ce.

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Summing up

Nesta unidade, você...

Sugerimos levar os alunos a refletirem sobre as alternativas apresentadas no quadro abaixo e instruí-los a escrever no caderno as frases que se relacionam ao que leram, discutiram e estudaram nesta unidade.

conversou com seus colegas sobre os problemas ambientais e sobre a importância de preservar o meio ambiente; leu uma tirinha sobre problemas ambientais; estudou vocabulário relacionado aos problemas ambientais e às consequências desses problemas para o planeta; leu um pôster de uma campanha do Greenpeace; produziu um pôster de campanha sobre a preservação do meio ambiente; ouviu parte de uma palestra apresentada por uma professora e bióloga; Unit 5

fez uma mesa-redonda sobre problemas ambientais; estudou o futuro com will; estudou a first conditional; praticou a pronúncia correta dos sons representados pelos símbolos /∫/ e /t∫/.

Reading

Chronicle Bo

oks

Going further

The book Heroes of the Environment: true stories of people who are helping to protect our planet, by Harriet Rohmer, tells the story of twelve different people who are doing great things for the environment.

Heroes of the Environment: true stories of people who are helping to protect our planet, by Harriet Rohmer. Chronicle Books: [S.l.], 2009.

Fil me de Nadia Conners and Leila Conners Pe ter sen. The 11 th hour. EUA. 20 07

Watching The documentary The 11th hour is about the global environment, with practical solutions for restoring the planet’s ecosystems.

The 11th hour, by Leila Conners, Nadia Conners. Warner Independent Pictures: USA, 2007. Corbis/L atinst

Teens Turning Green <http://tub.im/ter9j8> is the website of a teen movement in the United States that promotes health in several aspects of our lives, such as cosmetics, cooking etc.

ock

Surfing the net

Singing The song Mercy mercy me, performed by Marvin Gaye and recorded on the album Inner city blues, is a criticism on how man is destroying the planet and how it is changing the environment.

Marvin Gaye (1973).

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Fotomontagem de JĂşnior Caramez formada pela imagen mimagephotography/ Shutterstock.com

unit

track 25

110

Roll up your sleeves


When you roll up your sleeves, you get ready for hard work. She works as a volunteer on the project. She really rolls up her sleeves to make a difference. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, as respostas e comentários referentes a esta atividade.

Exchanging ideas A

The picture on these pages shows people interacting with the environment and other people. Talk to your classmates about how these interactions happen and their importance to build a better world.

B

In your opinion, do we have to roll up our sleeves to protect the environment? Explain.

C

In your opinion, how can we make the world a better place to live in?

111


Contextualizing Warming up 1.

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

1. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a trabalharem em duplas para descrever quem eles acreditam que são as pessoas nas imagens e o que elas estão fazendo. É importante levá-los a perceber que estas pessoas estão trabalhando voluntariamente, atuando para a construção de um mundo melhor.

Look at the pictures below. Who are these people? What are they doing? Discuss with Respostas pessoais. Respostas esperadas: they are people who are helping to make the world a a classmate. better place. Some of them are serving food for homeless people, there’s a teacher teaching children

goodluz/Shutterstock.com Shehzad Noorani/Majority World/UIG/ Getty Images Mohammed Salem/Reuters/Latinstock

Joachim Wendler/Shutterstock.com

Masterfile/Latinstock

Ariel Skelley/Blend Images/Getty Images

in a poor school, there is a man and a woman working equally, there are people cleaning a park, there is a clown entertaining a sick child in a hospital, and some people are holding hands to show solidarity.

3. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a observarem a informação não verbal do cartaz na próxima página e comentarem o que cada uma das imagens representa. Por exemplo, no segundo quadrinho, o lápis está relacionado à escola ou à educação. Você pode aproveitar para fazer uma conexão com as fotografias da Discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates. The United Nations or UN is atividade 1, Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas pedindo que os an organization composed of a ) Have you seen pictures like these before? Orientações para o alunos as professor, como relacionem com a many countries that conduzir esta informação não b ) How do you feel after observing them? voluntarily work to promote atividade. verbal do cartaz. Por exemplo, no peace, security and economic c ) Do you think they have something in common? Explain. primeiro quadrinho do development through cartaz, há a d ) Do you identify yourself with any of the situations international cooperation. ilustração de um prato de comida, above? Explain. que está relacionado e ) Would you like to help these people? If so, how can you contribute? diretamente com a imagem de pessoas servindo f ) Have you heard of any organization that tries to improve the world for humanity? alimentos a Which one? pessoas carentes.

2.

3. 112

Take a look at the pictures on the next page. What do they represent?

one hundred and twelve

Resposta pessoal.


Learning vocabulary 4. O bserve

the pictures in the poster again. In your notebook, match them with their themes listed below. 1 - g; 2 - b; 3 - d; 4 - h; 5 - f; 6 - a; 7 - c; 8 - e. Ao incluir no material os

ONU

ODMs, cujo prazo final era 2015, espera-se que os alunos percebam como as ações conjuntas podem fazer a diferença, especialmente se tiverem o apoio da comunidade e de organizações e autoridades governamentais. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a relacionarem as ilustrações do cartaz, indicadas pelos números 1 a 8, com os temas listados abaixo. O objetivo é ajudá-los a fazer inferências sobre o conteúdo do texto.

a ) diseases

e ) partnership, cooperation

b ) education

f ) maternal health

c ) environmental sustainability

g ) poverty

d ) gender equality

h ) child mortality

Unit 6

Available at: <www. todaygh.com/columnmdgs-and-sdgspalaver>. Accessed on: November 10 th, 2015.

5. Read

the poster. Then, write the sentences below in your notebook using the most momento, sugerimos orientar os alunos a refletirem sobre o conteúdo appropriate answers to complete them. Neste texto e a escreverem as frases abaixo no caderno escolhendo as respostas a ) The best title for the campaign would be (The eight millennium development goals/ The eight objectives to stop global warming).

do

adequadas para completá-las.

b ) One of these goals is to fight against (colera and malaria/HIV, AIDS and malaria). c ) Men and women must be treated (differently/equally). d ) The campaign has objectives to safeguard (pregnant women’s health, children’s life and the environment/men, women and trees). e ) It is necessary to work (together/alone) to achieve the goals.

6. Match

the words with their definitions in your notebook.

a - III; b - VIII; c - VI; d - I; e - VII; f - V; g - IV; h - II.

a ) eradicate

c ) promote

e ) improve

g ) ensure

b ) achieve

d ) reduce

f ) combat

h ) partnership

I

diminish, minimize

IV

make certain

VII make

II

a cooperative relationship

V

fight against

VIII reach,

III

eliminate, extinguish

VI

encourage, contribute

7. Discuss these questions with a classmate. Respostas pessoais.

better, upgrade obtain

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a relerem o cartaz e pedir que relacionem, no caderno, as palavras com suas respectivas definições.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) The goals on the campaign poster were supposed to be achieved by 2015. In your opinion, have all of them been achieved? b ) In your opinion, what more could be done to achieve the goals mentioned in the Sugerimos discutir algumas ações que poderiam ter sido feitas para alcançar os objetivos listados no cartaz. campaign poster? Por exemplo, para garantir a sustentabilidade ambiental, pode-se dar destinação correta ao lixo, reciclar,

plantar árvores, ter leis mais rigorosas para punir aqueles que degradam o meio ambiente, e assim por diante.

c ) Which characteristics of the poster attracted your attention?

d ) Do you think these goals will ever be fully achieved? If so, when? Explain. e ) Do you believe you can contribute to achieving these goals? How? one hundred and thirteen

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Learning and acting

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Reading and reflecting Pre-reading 1.

Discuss the following questions with your teacher and Respostas pessoais.

Sugerimos verificar o que os alunos entendem por trabalho voluntário, se eles conhecem projeto e qual(is) tipo(s) de classmates. algum trabalho(s) voluntário(s) eles gostariam de realizar.

a ) Do you know what the word volunteer means? If so, explain. b ) Do you know any example of volunteer work?

c ) From the types of volunteer work below, which one would you prefer doing?

2.

I

volunteering in a hospital taking care of patients

II

volunteering in emergency situations, such as conflicts and natural disasters

III

volunteering in a shelter helping homeless people with meals, bathing and other services

IV

volunteering in an environmental project to help preserve forests and wild animals

Observe the images below and identify the ones that show volunteers working to preserve pedir aos alunos que observem as imagens e as descrevam, identificando the environment. A and D. Sugerimos quais delas mostram voluntários trabalhando para a preservação do meio ambiente. A

114

forestpath/Shutterstock.com

wavebreakmedia/Shutterstock.com

rainforest conservation

food production without having a negative effect on the environment D

Richard Ellis/Getty Images

C

Fabio Colombini

3. c) Whatever the topic of interest, joining a conservation project as a volunteer offers a great insight in the issues of concern and effective solutions for the preservation of nature and wildlife on the different environments on earth, air and water. Volunteers can join local campaigns and environmental education programs to raise awareness in local schools and at community events of the fragile ecosystems surrounding indigenous and rural communities. Volunteers can get involved in organising projects to educate against littering and polluting of local beaches and coastal areas, rivers, lakes and other vital water sources, with local initiatives like beach clean-ups, coral reefs watch, forest green days.

B

indigenous populations and their natural heritage safeguard

marine conservation

Reading 3.

On the next page, you are going to read a post from a blog. Read it briefly and write in ver, nas Orientações para o professor, informações sobre your notebook the lines in which... Sugerimos gênero textual.

o

Then join us today for International Day of Forests: to raise awareness of importance of all types of forests and of trees outside forests./...get inspired and start today!

a ) readers are invited to participate. the

b ) the importance of the forests is mentioned.

c ) it talks about the importance of volunteering.

3. b) Forests cover one third of the Earth’s land mass, performing vital functions around the world. Around 1.6 billion people – including more than 2,000 indigenous cultures – depend on forests for their livelihood.

one hundred and fourteen


International Day of Forests: Create a Climate Smart Future

Posted by TeamPV | March 21, 2015

Forests cover one third of the Earth’s land mass, performing vital functions around the world. Around 1.6 billion people – including more than 2,000 indigenous cultures – depend on forests for their livelihood. […] A volunteer placement or internship in environmental projects can give students and new graduates great opportunities for skills training and work experience in sustainable development work gaining in-depth understanding of the effects of human intervention on natural environments, highlighting the responsibility of local communities, national governments and corporations against the exploitation of natural resources, the effects of global consumption demand and the direct impact on the livelihood of local communities. Volunteering in environmental conservation projects is the perfect opportunity to see for real and understand the issues around conservation, ecology and sustainability for students and graduates from university courses like environmental sciences, biology and marine conservation, environmental politics, ecological studies, rural and sustainable development and many more environment related degrees. Many organisations committed to the protection of the local environment are working to help indigenous populations to safeguard their natural heritage and understand the consequences of their way of life impacting on the natural resources around them. […] Volunteers can join local campaigns and environmental education programs to raise awareness in local schools and at community events of the fragile ecosystems surrounding indigenous and rural communities. […] Volunteers can get involved in organising projects to educate against littering and polluting of local beaches and coastal areas, rivers, lakes and other vital water sources, with local initiatives like beach clean-ups, coral reefs watch, forest green days […]. Conservation efforts are not just for International Day of Forests but get inspired and start today!

Bárbara Sarzi

Unit 6

Are you concerned about the effects of climate change on our forests and you want to help preserve nature and the wildlife hosted within its fragile ecosystems on land and at sea? Are you passionate about our planet and our forests, the lungs of the Earth? And about our mountains and our lakes, our seas and rivers, the life blood for the environment, for animals and the human race? Then join us today for International Day of Forests: to raise awareness of the importance of all types of forests and of trees outside forests.

TEAM PV. International day of forests: create a climate smart future. Available at: <http://planetvolunteer.org/international-day-of-forests>. Accessed on: November 14th, 2015.

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4. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a relerem o texto para escrever no caderno as frases que são verdadeiras e a reescrever as falsas.

4.

Read the post again and decide if the sentences below are true or false. In your notebook, write down the true statements and rewrite the false ones using the correct information. a ) 2,000 people depend on forests to live. False.

Around 1.6 billion people – including more than 2,000 indigenous cultures – depend on forests for their livelihood.

b ) Being a volunteer in environmental projects is perfect for students and graduates of It is perfect for students and graduates from courses like degrees in the field of journalism. False. environmental sciences, biology and marine conservation, environmental politics, ecological studies, rural and sustainable development and other degrees.

c ) Environmental projects also help indigenous people to preserve their heritage and understand how their lifestyles can have an impact on the natural resources. True. d ) The text encourages readers to preserve the environment. True.

5.

Write down the appropriate answers for the following questions in your notebook. a ) What is a blog?

II

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a assinalarem as respostas adequadas para as perguntas, com o objetivo de checar o conhecimento deles sobre os conteúdos de um blog.

I

It’s an on-line gallery where you can share and download photos.

II

It’s a personal on-line journal or diary where you can publish texts to express your ideas and thoughts about a variety of topics.

b ) How do we call someone who has a blog and maintain it regularly? Você pode perguntar aos alunos quais blogueiros eles conhecem.

I

a blogger

II

I

a user

c ) How do we call the messages published on a blog? II I

a menu

II

posts or entries

d ) What is the name of readers’ answers or replies to a post?

I Sugerimos perguntar aos alunos se eles já comentaram os blogs que lêem.

I

comments

e ) Some posts have a hyperlink. What is it?

6.

II

archives

II

I

An element that gives you access to old posts. It’s normally red and underlined.

II

An element that links to another virtual place. It’s normally blue and underlined.

Read the characteristics below and, in your notebook, write down the ones that are part of a blog. a; b; c; d; e; g; h; i; j.

a ) Blogs have titles. b ) Blogs have posts/en tries. c ) Blogs have menus and you can click on them for more informati on. For example, in About us you learn about the bloggers or organizat ions they belong to. d ) Blogs have archive sections where the old posts can be accessed. e ) Blogs have search bars to look for posts related to a specific topic quickly. f ) Blogs have on-line games. g ) Posts can have texts and pictures. h ) Posts have the name of the publisher and the date. i ) Posts allow users to add commen ts. j ) Posts can be shared on your social networks .

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Post-reading 7. 8.

In pairs, go back to the text and identify all the characteristics from activity 6.

Sugerimos organizar os alunos em duplas e pedir que releiam o texto da página 115 para identificar as características do blog e da postagem listadas na atividade 6.

After reading the text, explain in your own words what you understand for volunteer work in pessoal. Sugerimos pedir aos alunos que expliquem com suas próprias palavras environmental projects. Resposta entenderam sobre trabalho voluntário de acordo com o texto que leram.

o que

Putting your ideas into words Before writing 9.

Think about the needs of your community. If possible, talk to your neighbors. In your notebook, make a list of things you want to change in your neighborhood. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

10.

Share your list with a classmate. Discuss some possible kinds of volunteer work that would help to change the things you listed. Resposta pessoal.

Create a blog with your class. Then, write a post suggesting some volunteer work that can ver, nas Orientações para o professor, transform your community into a better place to live. Sugerimos como conduzir esta atividade.

Anna Simonin

11.

Unit 6

Writing

After writing 12.

Read your classmates’ posts on the blog and comment on them. one hundred and seventeen

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Listening and understanding

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Listening 1.

Discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates.

Respostas pessoais.

a ) Which environmental issue are you the most concerned about? Why? b ) Do you know any non-governmental organizations that worry about environmental issues and work to protect the planet? c ) Would you like to participate in one of these NGOs’ actions? Why (not)?

2. track 26

3. Sugerimos aproveitar esse momento para conversar com os alunos sobre atitudes simples que qualquer um pode fazer em seu dia a dia para ajudar a preservar o meio ambiente. É importante explicar que as três ações mencionadas (reduzir, reutilizar e reciclar) são fáceis de serem colocadas em prática e podem contribuir muito para melhorar o mundo em que vivemos.

You are going to listen to the introduction of a podcast called Natures’s past. This episode is about a specific environmental non-governmental organization. Listen to the podcast once and answer the following questions in your notebook. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, a transcrição do áudio. a ) What country is this podcast from? Canada.

b ) What is the name of the host of this podcast? II I

Ryan O’Connor

II

Sean Kheraj

c ) What environmental non-governmental organization is this episode about?

3.

I

Conservation Ontario

II

Planet Friendly

III

Pollution Probe

The first sentence in the podcast is “Reduce, reuse and recycle”. In pairs, exchange some ideas with a classmate and write down in your notebook some actions to put this concept into practice. Resposta pessoal. Possíveis respostas:

REDUCE

Try to save water and energy at home, shop for products that last longer, choose electronics and appliances that consume less energy, take a reusable bag with you when you go shopping.

RE US E

CL CY RE

Make composts from food scraps, use empty containers for other purposes.

Don’t throw everything in the trash, separate the used containers.

E

4. track 26

4. Caso os alunos tenham dificuldade de compreender os detalhes, você pode tocar várias vezes apenas o trecho pedido em uma questão antes de passar para outra, e assim por diante.

Bárbara Sarzi

Listen to the podcast again and answer the following questions in your notebook. a ) Ryan O’Connor is going to be interviewed in this podcast. What is this interview going to be about? It’s going to be about Pollution Probe and the history of environmental activism in Ontario. b ) Is environmental activism new in Canada? No, it’s not. It has a long history there.

c ) When did Canadians become involved in ENGOs? In the late 1960s and early 1970s.

d ) What are some of the environmental problems mentioned by the host? Air pollution, water pollution, and solid waste disposal.

e ) When and where was Pollution Probe born? It was born at the University of Toronto in 1969.

f ) What was the focus of this organization?

It focused its efforts on new concerns regarding air pollution in Canada.

g ) What is the importance of this organization nowadays? It is one of the most influential environmental groups in Ontario.

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III

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Observe the webpage of Pollution Probe. Read the information about them briefly and discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates.

Unit 6

www.pollutionprobe.org

5.

a ) Explain, with your own words, what this ENGO does. Resposta

7. Para esta prática de produção oral, sugerimos orientar os alunos a escolherem uma organização não governamental e fazerem uma pesquisa sobre sua história, formas de atuação e detalhes que considerem interessantes. Depois, eles devem fazer uma apresentação para a turma. Se preferir, tanto a pesquisa quanto a apresentação podem ser feitas em grupos. Os alunos podem usar as expressões propostas como exemplos para organizarem suas falas.

pessoal.

b ) Read the following expressions. What do they mean? What is their importance for the work this kind of organization does?

• environmental problems

• environmental solutions

c ) In your opinion, is it important that some organizations try to find solutions for the environmental problems we face? Resposta pessoal.

Speaking

Oc

ea

ns

Wa

tch

The Green Belt Movement

World Wildlife Fund

7.

Wildlife & Environment Society

Now that you have learned about a Canadian environmental non-governmental organization, how about getting to know about other organizations with a similar objective? Among the options below, choose an ENGO that you would like to know more about. Resposta pessoal.

WWF

6.

5. b) Environmental problems are related to the harmful effects that human activities have on the planet. They are the problems this ENGOs are trying to find solutions for. Environmental solutions, which are proposed and put into practice by these ENGOs, are actions to avoid future environmental problems and minimize the consequences of the ones we already face. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre este item.

The Green Belt Movement in Kenya

Wildlife & Environment Society in South Africa

Do some research about the ENGO you chose and make a presentation to introduce it to your classmates. Make sure you mention aspects of the history of this organization, its mains objectives and some interesting facts that caught your attention. You can use the expressions on the right to guide your presentation.

OceansWatch in New Zealand

• The ENGO that I/we chose is... • It is an organization that takes care of... • Their website is... • They currently have a project about... • I/we chose this ENGO because... one hundred and nineteen

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Comprehending and using

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Learning about the language Future – be going to 1.

1. b) Ações variadas causam impacto positivo, desde ações do dia a dia, como separar o lixo reciclável e andar de bicicleta, até ações mais complexas.

Discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos questionar os alunos em relação a opinião deles sobre como indivíduos podem causar grande impacto no mundo por meio de ações positivas.

a ) In your opinion, can anyone change the world? Why (not)?

b ) Can you give some examples of things we can do that will help people and the planet? Resposta pessoal. Resposta esperada: recycling, buying less, riding a bike instead of driving a car etc.

2.

In your notebook, match the pictures with the actions.

a - III; b - V; c - I; d - VI; e - II; f - IV.

a ) teaching children b ) building wells c ) rescuing and adopting animals from the streets d ) donating food e ) cleaning natural areas f ) building houses for homeless people

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Dennis K. Johnson/Lonely Planet Images/Getty Images Steve Debenport/E+/Getty Images

VI

Marco vacca/Marka/Keystone

V

Hero Images/Getty Images

IV

III

wavebreakmedia/Shutterstock.com

II

Dipak Shelare/Shutterstock.com

I

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3.

Read the testimonial of a girl who wanted to change the world and answer the questions in your notebook. *É importante explicar aos alunos que o título do texto foi adaptado, pois, embora o texto original apresente dez maneiras de tornar o mundo um lugar melhor, aqui serão apresentadas apenas algumas. Se julgar apropriado, você pode pedir para acessarem o site do qual o texto foi extraído e lerem-no na íntegra.

x

http://tinybuddha.com/blog/10-simple-ways-to-make-the-world-a-better-place/

HOME

VIDEOS

NEWS

ABOUT

BLOG

Making the world a better place * By Samantha Hodder

Bárbara Sarzi

Unit 6

I have always wanted to change the world. I remember being four years old, sitting glued to the television on Sunday mornings, not watching cartoons, but utterly captivated by World Vision. I cried about the injustices in the world, and begged my mother to let me sponsor Maria, the girl with the large, sad eyes who was around my age. […] My heart broke for Maria, and all of the other children on the show. I vowed to myself that someday, I was going to help people like her. Throughout my childhood, I told everyone that I wanted to change the world. Many didn’t take me seriously. They’d say, “One person can’t change anything.” Still, I knew I wanted to make a positive difference by helping people, animals, and the environment. I started volunteering in elementary school, and became a vegetarian at the age of 13. People asked, “Why bother? You know, that cow isn’t going to come back to life because you aren’t going to eat it.” And they very often said, “It won’t make a difference.” I tried to explain that every action counted, and that we all had to make small efforts or nothing would ever change. [...] HODDER, Samantha. 10 simple ways to make the world a better place. Available at: <http://tinybuddha.com/blog/10-simple-ways-tomake-the-world-a-better-place/>. Accessed on: November 13 th, 2015.

a ) Who is the writer of the text?

Samantha Hodder.

Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que a referência do texto, indica a sua the internet. fonte de origem. As referências são sempre encontradas abaixo do texto e trazem informações como nome do autor, título, fonte e data de acesso. It is a testimonial posted on a blog.

b ) Where can you find this text? On c ) What kind of text is it?

4.

Read the text again and decide if the sentences below are true or false. In your notebook, write the true statements and rewrite the false ones using the correct information. 4. b) False. a ) Samantha’s goal is to change the world.

True.

b ) She used to watch a lot of cartoons on TV. c ) A girl called Maria was one of Samantha’s inspirations to change the world. d ) Samantha became a vegetarian when she was 14 years old. False. Samantha became a vegetarian when she was 13 years old.

e ) She believes that every action to help the planet counts. True.

She used to watch a show called World vision. World vision é um programa de televisão veiculado por uma organização humanitária que traz histórias de crianças e True. famílias carentes ao redor do mundo, com o objetivo de arrecadar doações para auxiliá-las e diminuir a pobreza e a injustiça social.

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5. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a retornarem ao texto, procurarem as palavras listadas nesta atividade para relerem as frases em que se localizam e relacioná-las aos seus significados.

5.

Match the words with their meanings.

a - III; b - II; c - V; d - VII; e - VIII; f - IV; g - I; h - VI.

a ) glued

d ) begged

g ) bother

b ) utterly

e ) sponsor

h ) efforts

c ) captivated

f ) vowed

I

worry

IV

promised

VII

asked, implored

6. Sugerimos comentar com os II completely V attracted by VIII support by giving alunos que eles lerão algumas das money ideias do blog da III fixed, attached VI attempts Samantha sobre como transformar o mundo em um In her blog, Samantha gives ten ideas of what we can do to make the world a better place. lugar melhor. Sugerimos Below, you are going to read about some of her ideas. Read and tell a classmate if you orientá-los a ler o texto com atenção have already done some of them. e compartilhar com um colega de classe se já realizaram alguma(s) das ideias e, em caso afirmativo, pedir que descrevam brevemente como foi.

6.

Volunt eering You aren’t going to be a voluntee r full time, but you can look for an organization in your commu nity to voluntee ring for a few hours.

Foster an anima l

Don ate bloo d

You are going to make a differen ce for an animal in need if you foster your next pet.

You are going to save some one’s life with just an hour if you donate blood.

Spread some kindne ss

Donate used clothin g

Chang e your diet

If you do someth ing unexpec ted and kind to someon e, this person is going to have a nicer and brighter day.

You can donate your used clothes to a homeles s shelter or organizations that are going to sell them to raise funds.

You are going to reflect your values if you buy more organic food and reduce the consum ption of meat.

9. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a analisarem a estrutura que utilizaram nas sentenças das atividades 7 e 8 para escrever no caderno a resposta adequada em cada questão. O objetivo desta atividade é levá-los a compreender que be + going to + verb in the base form indica uma ação planejada para o futuro. Você pode pedir que eles estudem a página 193 do Grammar appendix, caso seja necessário. 10. a) Você pode comentar com os alunos que, nesse contexto, glued não tem um significado literal. Ela não ficava literalmente grudada, mas passava muito tempo na mesma posição.

Source: HODDER, Samantha. 10 simple ways to make the world a better place. Available at: <http://tinybuddha.com/ blog/10-simple-ways-to-make-the-world-a-better-place/>. Accessed on: November 13 th, 2015.

7.

7. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a completarem as frases abaixo com suas próprias ideias sobre seus planos para transformar o mundo em um lugar melhor para todos.

Now, make plans about what you are going to do to make the world a better place for everybody. Write the following sentences in your notebook and complete them with your ideas. Respostas pessoais.

• I am going to 8. 9.

• I am not going to

.

Ask questions to a classmate about his/her plans to change the world into a better place. Based on your and your classmate’s ideas in activities 7 and 8, write in your notebook the appropriate answer for each question.

I

I

a decision, a plan for the future.

b ) What is the structure used to express a future plan? I

verb to be + going to + verb in the base form

II

something that is uncertain.

II

verb to go + verb with -ing

I

Discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates. a ) What did Samantha mean when she said she was sitting glued to the television? She spent a lot of time in front of TV.

pode comentar com os alunos que World vision era um programa b ) What program did she watch? Você TV exibido no país da autora, o Canadá, quando ela era criança.

de

She watched World vision.

c ) Why did she cry?

She cried because she saw some injustices of the world.

d ) How did people feel about Samantha’s actions? Indifferent. They said it wouldn’t make a difference.

Você pode comentar com os alunos que Samantha era desencorajada pelas pessoas que diziam que as ações dela não fariam diferença.

e ) What did Samantha say after being criticized by those people? She said that every small action counted.

122

.

Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) The sentences describe…

10.

because

one hundred and twenty-two

Segundo Samantha, ações menores também contavam ou trariam resultado.


Using the language 11. Draw

up the table in your notebook. Ask some classmates about their future plans and complete it with the names of those who answer yes. To make the questions, you have to start with Are you going to...?. Find someone who…

Classmate’s name

a ) is going to volunteer this year.

11. Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a circularem pela sala de aula fazendo perguntas com Are you going to...? Para exemplificar, você pode perguntar a um aluno Are you going to volunteer this year? e verificar se eles compreendem como devem elaborar as questões.

b ) is going to start a project to help people, animals and/or the environment. c ) is going to make an effort to help someone in need. d ) is going to look for a volunteer organization.

Unit 6

e ) is going to do on-line research about volunteer work. f ) is going to save water and energy.

12. Ask

a classmate about his/her plans and complete the table in your notebook. Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos realizar a atividade em duplas. Os alunos devem fazer as perguntas ao colega e completar a tabela com seus planos futuros. What are you going to do…

Plan

… tonight? … this weekend? … tomorrow? … next month? … next year? … in 10 years? … in 20 years? … in 40 years?

Remember Will and going to are used to talk about the future, but with some differences. Will is used to express something that is decided at the moment of speaking. Will is also used to express a prediction based on an opinion. I’ll reduce the use of water. People will save energy after listening to this. Will also expresses promises, requests, refuses and offers. Will you plant trees?

I will not consume unconsciously.

I will help you with this volunteer work. Going to is used to express something that was decided before the moment of speaking. Going to is also used to express a prediction based on evidence. I know that there is no water. I am going to buy some after lunch. The clouds are black, it is going to rain. one hundred and twenty-three

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13. C hoose

the appropriate answer to complete each sentence and write it in your notebook.

Você pode pedir aos alunos que releiam as informações sobre os usos de will e going to para realizarem a atividade.

a ) After reading the organization’s website, I decided that I (am going to/will) be a volunteer. b ) (Are you going to/Will you) help us to raise the funds? c ) Some people who don’t know too much about volunteering think it (will not/is not going to) make a difference. d ) ‘I (will/am going to) change the world!’, she said suddenly after reading the news. e ) He told me he is planning to be a volunteer next year. So, he (will not/is not going) to do it this year.

Speaking up 2. Sugerimos iniciar chamando a atenção dos alunos para as duas palavras: eat e each. Você pode tocar a faixa para que eles as ouçam novamente. É importante que consigam perceber a diferença entre os sons. Ao pronunciar o som /t/, a língua toca o céu da boca, enquanto que no som /t∫/ não há movimento da língua. O som /t∫/ é semelhante ao som de -ti quando pronunciamos a palavra “tia” como “tchia” em algumas regiões do Brasil.

/t/ x /t∫/

1. Listen to the dialog and repeat. track 27

Para introduzir o diálogo, você pode perguntar aos alunos se eles já reciclaram alguma mobília em casa e como foi essa experiência. Em seguida, sugerimos dizer que Jessica e Lara planejam uma reciclagem e tocar o áudio para que eles escutem o diálogo e descubram o que elas reciclarão e por qual motivo.

Jessica: Hm, we need a new table to eat our meals, but the chairs… Are you going to recycle them? Lara: Oh, yes, I am. I’m going to paint each of them in a different color.

2. What’s the difference in the pronunciation of these words? Listen and answer. eat

track 28

each a - cat; b - coach; c - watch;

3. Listen and write down the word you hear in your notebook. d - test; e - match. track 29

a ) cat - catch

c ) what - watch

b ) coat - coach

d ) test - chest

e ) mat - match

Learning more 1. Read and understand. Do/Make

••Do is used for general activities and actions. do the homework

do the gardening

do some research

do the dishes

make a cake

make a choice

make coffee

make a promise

••Make is used when we create or produce something.

2. There are many collocations with do and make. Read some of them below. Do

Make

a course

the cleaning

a cake

a phone call

a crossword

the dishes

a choice

a promise

a favor

the gardening

a decision

a suggestion

exercise

the laundry

a discovery

coffee

homework

the shopping

an effort

plans

research

work

an offer

the bed

3. To practice a little bit, choose the best options to complete these sentences and write them down in your notebook. a ) I’m going to (do/make) some volunteer work for the environment. b ) We’re going to (do/make) plans for next year. c ) The students are going to (do/make) some research about recycling. d ) Mary’s going to (do/make) an effort to save water.

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Summing up

Nesta unidade, você...

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a refletirem sobre as alternativas apresentadas no quadro abaixo e instruí-los a escrever no caderno as frases que se relacionam ao que leram, discutiram e estudaram nesta unidade.

estudou vocabulário relacionado a alguns temas globais e à preservação do meio ambiente; estudou alguns exemplos de trabalho voluntário; refletiu sobre a importância de trabalhos voluntários e suas consequências; leu e interpretou um cartaz de uma campanha; leu e interpretou uma postagem de um blog; criou um blog e escreveu uma postagem para ser publicada nele; ouviu e interpretou um podcast sobre uma organização não governamental canadense; fez uma apresentação sobre uma organização não governamental que luta pela preservação do meio ambiente; Unit 6

estudou e refletiu sobre os usos de going to; revisou duas formas de se referir ao futuro em inglês (will e going to) e as diferenças entre elas; praticou a pronúncia correta de palavras com os sons /t/ e /t∫/; estudou algumas collocations com os verbos do e make.

The book Martin Luther King Jr., full of pictures and illustrations, is a biography of Martin Luther King Jr., a man who changed the world by fighting for civil rights in the United States.

Watching The movie Mandela: long walk to freedom is a movie about Nelson Mandela’s life. He grew up in a rural village and had a long and difficult journey until becoming the first democratically elected president of South Africa.

Mandela: long walk to freedom, by Justin Chadwick. Sony Pictures: UK/South Africa, 2013. www. change.org

Reading

Fil me de Jus tin Chad wick. Ma ndela: long walk to fre edom . Áfr ica do Sul e Reino Unido. 20 13

Going further

Change. Available at: <www.change. org>. Accessed on: February 25th, 2016.

The website Change <http://tub.im/nemjgx> is a platform where you can make a petition to change something you think is wrong in your city, state or even in your country. People sign your petition and help you to make a difference where you live.

Singing No more trouble, performed by Bob Marley and recorded on the album Babylon by Bus, encourages people to look after each other and live in peace and harmony.

Bill Kennedy Bill Kenn edy/ Mirrorpix /New scom / Glow Images

Surfing the net

Bob Marley (1978).

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Choosing a career

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, mais informações sobre as profissões mencionadas nesta seção.

Degree

Biology

Job purpose

Study living things such as plants, animals and microorganisms, and the world they live in.

Usually hired by

Laboratories or industries.

Required skills

• Being able to concentrate for long periods. • Writing well. • Paying attention to details. • Being a team worker. • Being a good problem solver. • Speaking well in public.

• The fact that there are numerous career options.

Characteristics of the job In your opinion, is it a pro (an advantage) or a con (a disadvantage)? Resposta pessoal.

• Having a variety of specializations. • The fact that field work can be physically • • • •

challenging. Having pressure to meet deadlines. Having opportunities available in government, universities and private industry. Having high preparation requirements. The fact that it is a highly competitive job market.

Ao abordar as características do trabalho de um biólogo, sugerimos pedir aos alunos que as classifiquem em pró ou contra, de acordo com a visão e a personalidade de cada um.

If you like biology, you can also work as a nature conservation officer.

To work in the Biology field, you can also become a technician. You can find Biology technical courses at several institutions.

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1.

Do some research and find out other aspects related to the professions of biologist and vet, presented on the next page. Share your findings with your classmates.

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos chamar a atenção dos alunos para os textos nos post-its e a pesquisarem outros aspectos relacionados às profissões apresentadas, como média salarial, diferentes possibilidades de atuação e curiosidades. Em seguida, você pode pedir que formem pequenos grupos e compartilhem uns com os outros o que descobriram.


Degree

Veterinary Medicine

Job purposes

Diagnose and treat diseases and injuries in animals.

Usually hired by

Veterinarian hospitals, farms or zoos.

Choosing a career

Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que vet é a forma contraída de veterinarian.

• Being patient to deal with animals and their • • • •

Required skills

• •

Characteristics of the job

owners. Being careful. Being good at biology. Caring for animals. Having good communication skills to give the owners the instructions about the treatment. Being a good decision-maker. Being a good problem-solver.

• Working odd hours. • The opportunity to earn a good salary. • Having flexibility to work in a diverse set of environments. • Being stressful.

In your opinion, is it a pro (an advantage) or a con (a disadvantage)?

Resposta pessoal. Ao abordar as características do trabalho de um veterinário, sugerimos pedir aos alunos que as classifiquem em pró ou contra, de acordo com a visão e a personalidade de cada um.

2.

If you like veterinary medicine, you can also be a veterinarian medicine researcher.

Think about these professions and talk to a classmate. Resposta pessoal.

I would like to be a biologist/vet because… I wouldn’t like to be a biologist/vet because…

To work as a vet, you can also become a technician. You can find Veterinary Medicine technical courses at several institutions. Fotomontagem de Anna Simonin formada pelas imagens science photo, LiuSol, Maciej Czekajewski, Poprotskiy Alexey, Elnur e 135pixels/Shutterstock.com

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unit

track 30

128

All things are difficult before they are easy


The expression all things are difficult before they are easy means that you should be patient and never give up, because, at first, goals can seem harder to achieve than they really are. You should not worry so much. All things are difficult before they are easy.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, as respostas e comentários referentes a esta atividade.

Exchanging ideas Observe the picture on these pages. Talk to a classmate about what it represents.

B

Have you ever been in a situation in which everything was difficult before it was easy? Talk to your classmates about it.

Fotomontagem de Júnior Caramez formada pelaS imagens wavebreakmedia e effe45/Shutterstock.com

A

129


Contextualizing Warming up

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

1. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos promover uma discussão sobre os diferentes tipos de experiências que podem ser vivenciados. Algumas possibilidades são: experiências relacionadas a realizações pessoais, experiências relacionadas a perdas, experiências que geram aprendizado e conhecimento de mundo, e assim por diante.

1.

In this unit, we are going to talk about different experiences. On page 129, you and your classmates discussed about an experience of something that was difficult and then became easy. What are other kinds of experiences you can think of?

2.

Now, you are going to talk about an experience of traveling. Talk to your teacher and pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para classmates about the following questions. Respostas professor, comentários sobre esta atividade.

o

a ) Have you ever experienced an unforgettable trip? Where to? b ) Which of the following pictures best represents the most memorable trip you have ever had?

a family trip at the beach

a camping trip with friends

rmnoa357/Shutterstock.com

IV damircudic/E+/Getty Images

III oliveromg/Shutterstock.com

II bikeriderlondon/Shutterstock.com

I

a trip with a girlfriend/boyfriend

a trip to the farm

c ) Have you ever read texts about travel experiences? Where?

3.

You are going to read an article about some experiences a girl had while traveling to Ireland, in Europe. Read it and answer the questions in your notebook.

Ca Sh pt bl ut ack t er 7 s t o 6/ ck .co m

The Best Experience of My Life [...] Ireland is one of the prettiest places I’ve ever been to, and I can’t wait to go back. All the people I met, and the friends I made, have inspired me SO much. Since I’ve been back I have been writing tons of new material. When I go to sleep I think about the sheep and the rolling green hills of Ireland, and try to take myself back to the beautiful places I traveled to. [...] Here are my words of advice to everyone, if you’ve never been to Ireland, you must go before you die! It is the prettiest place in the world, and the kindest, coolest people live there. They LOVE music over in Ireland. It’s so nice to be appreciated and embraced. I can’t wait to go back. LANG, Nikki. The best experience of my life. Available at: <http://nikkilang.com/the-best-experience-of-my-life>. Accessed on: November 24th, 2015.

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a ) According to Nikki Lang, how did she feel about the people she met in Ireland? They have inspired her.

Since she’s back, she’s been writing tons of new material. pode explicar aos alunos que Nikki Lang é uma 5. Respostas cantora e compositora, portanto o material ao qual ela se refere são composições. pessoais. Os c ) What is the piece of advice Nikki gives to people? alunos “If you’ve never been to Ireland, you must go before you die!” sistematizarão o uso do Present d ) How about you? Have you ever experienced something similar? If so, how was it? Perfect na seção Resposta pessoal. e ) The best experience of Nikki’s life was traveling to Ireland. And you? What was the best Comprehending and using, mas, neste momento, é experience of your life? Resposta pessoal. importante orientá-los de forma sucinta quanto ao uso dessa estrutura, para que eles tenham condição de realizar a Discuss the questions below with your teacher and classmates. Respostas pessoais. atividade. Para isso, sugerimos a ) Is it important for you to live different kinds of experiences? Why (not)? exemplificar escrevendo uma frase na lousa, b ) From the experiences you have had in your life, which of them would you like to have por exemplo, se os alunos já again? Why? vivenciaram a experiência da imagem A, eles Observe the experiences below and identify the ones that you have had. Write them down deverão escrever no caderno I have in your notebook. talked to a foreign person. Have you ever...

b ) What has she been doing since she is back? Você

Learning vocabulary

talked to a foreign person?

posted about your experiences on the internet?

seen a whale?

Unit 7

taken the subway?

F

Adrin Shamsudin/Shutterstock.com

E

Jan Kratochvila/Shutterstock.com

D

6.

C

Popova Valeriya/Shutterstock.com

B

Fh Photo/Shutterstock.com

A

Christian Bertrand/Shutterstock.com

5.

MNBB Studio/Shutterstock.com

4.

studied a foreign language other than English?

Now, talk to your classmates about the experiences you have had from activity 5. Use the sentences given on the note. Respostas pessoais. Antes de os alunos iniciarem a atividade, sugerimos destacar as palavras already, never e yet e perguntar seus significados. Você pode pedir que eles as consultem no dicionário. Eles devem compreender que o significado de already é “já”, de never “nunca” e yet significa “ainda”. Dessa forma, sugerimos orientá-los a conversar com um colega de classe sobre experiências, da atividade 5, que já vivenciaram, nunca vivenciaram e que ainda não vivenciaram.

been to a live concert?

I have alre ady . I have ne ver .

I haven’t

ye t.

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131


Learning and acting

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Reading and reflecting Pre-reading 1. Discuss

these questions with your teacher and classmates.

Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) Do you share your life experiences with people? Why (not)? If so, with whom? b ) Have you ever learned from something people shared on the internet? If so, give examples of what you have learned. c ) Do you think the internet is a good way of sharing experiences? Talk about it.

2. Look

at the blog post below and read its title. What do you think it is about?

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade e informações sobre o gênero textual.

Reading 3. Basically,

it is possible to say that a blog is an on-line diary. In blogs, there may be different categories of posts, with different goals. Read the post below and identify the alternative that describes the author’s objective. b a ) to inform and convince people of the importance of writing about personal experiences b ) to share with readers her personal thoughts about what may be used as inspiration for writing

You Know More Than You Think - Content Writing About Life Experiences Posted on June 17, 2014 by April F

[…] When I first started out, I believed that I had little to offer to the writing world. After all, my life was pretty simple, and I’d never done anything “important”. However, the longer that I wrote, the more that I realized that the everyday experiences that I took for granted were valuable knowledge to someone, somewhere. […] • Relationships – […] Share what you know online. Someone may thank you for it someday. • Health – Have you had cancer or walked with someone through a bad diagnosis? Personally, the fact that I was born with terrible teeth and lived through years in braces has given me knowledge of orthodontia that I can use for inspiration. […] This is just the beginning. Whatever you have done in your life, wherever you have gone, use it as inspiration for your writing. [...]

F, April. You know more than you think – content writing about life experiences. Available at: <www.writeraccess.com/ blog/you-know-more-than-you-think-content-writing-about-life-experiences>. Accessed on: November 23 rd, 2015.

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cluckva/Shutterstock.com

3. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem o texto e identificarem o objetivo principal da autora ao publicar essa postagem em seu blog.


4.

Read the text again and check if your prediction about its content was correct. Then, write, in your notebook, the most appropriate sentence about it. b a ) The author suggests that people may publish books about their life experiences. b ) The author suggests that everyday experiences can be used as inspiration to write. What are the life experiences mentioned in the text? Talk to a classmate.

A; C; E. Nesta atividade, você pode pedir aos alunos que observem as imagens e identifiquem as que contêm experiências citadas no texto. Você pode perguntar aos alunos se já passaram por algumas dessas experiências e pedir que relatem brevemente como foi.

be in a relationship

D

be diagnosed with a disease

F

E

6.

Jason Stitt/Shutterstock.com

Andres Rodriguez/Alamy Stock Photo/Latinstock

move to a new house

Rommel Canlas/Shutterstock.com

BORODIN DENIS/Shutterstock.com

parachute

wear braces

adopt a dog

Read the sentences below to understand their meaning. Then, find in the text the ones that orientar os alunos a lerem express the same ideas and write them down in your notebook. Sugerimos as frases abaixo e a procurarem no a ) I thought I didn’t have much talent to write. I believed that I had little to offer to the writing world.

texto frases com o mesmo sentido. Você pode orientá-los a fazer uma nova leitura do texto, caso seja necessário.

b ) Each experience that I underestimated could be important to someone.

Everyday experiences that I took for granted were valuable knowledge to someone, somewhere.

c ) Your life experiences can be your inspiration to write.

Whatever you have done in your life, wherever you have gone, use it as inspiration for your writing.

7.

Discuss these questions with a classmate. a ) Do you agree with the title of the text? Do people know more than they think? Explain. b ) Have you ever had an important and meaningful experience in your life? Talk about it. c ) Have you ever shared an experience on-line? How have people reacted to it?

7. Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a discutirem as questões com um colega de sala. Em seguida, eles devem refletir sobre o significado do título do texto, relatando também uma experiência de vida significativa pela qual passaram e se já compartilharam uma experiência on-line e qual foi a reação de quem a leu.

4. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a relerem o texto e perguntar se suas inferências na atividade 2 puderam prever o conteúdo do texto. Em seguida, sugerimos orientá-los a escrever no caderno a frase mais adequada sobre o conteúdo do texto. O objetivo desta atividade é que eles compreendam sua ideia principal.

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133

Unit 7

C

B

wavebreakmedia/Shutterstock.com

A

Andy Katz/Demotix/ Corbis/Latinstock

5.


8. When

you post a text on the internet, people can reply. They can agree or disagree with your ideas and report their experiences or even post additional information. You are going to read a reply posted in response to the text you read. Read it and answer the questions in your notebook.

B. P. says:

June 19, 2014 at 4:39 pm

I can totally relate to your post. […] like you, I have found that life has taught me many lessons and given experience in so many categories. Thanks for sharing! Reply

Rogério Casagrande

8. Neste momento, sugerimos comentar com os alunos que o texto é um comentário postado para a mensagem do blog que leram. Você pode orientá-los a ler o comentário e identificar a resposta adequada para cada pergunta. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, mais informações sobre o gênero textual.

Available at: <www.writeraccess.com/blog/you-know-more-than-you-think-content-writing-about-lifeexperiences>. Accessed on: November 26 th, 2015.

a ) Who wrote the reply? I

April

II

B. P.

II

b ) When did she/he write the reply? I I

on June 19 th, 2014

II

on June 4th, 2014

c ) Why does B. P. relate to April’s post? I I

Because they both have learned from life.

II

Because they both like to write about life.

d ) What opinion do they share?

I

I

They have lived different and important experiences.

II

They have understood that life experiences are not valuable.

9. Have

you ever posted a reply on the internet? In pairs, identify what is true about replies.

A primeira parte da resposta é pessoal. a; b; d; e; f.

a ) A reply is a short message written in response to someone or something. b ) A reply can express an opinion. c ) A reply always has a title.

Sugerimos perguntar aos alunos se eles postam comentários na internet (em blogs, redes sociais ou websites). Você pode pedir que, tendo como base os comentários que já fizeram e observando o comentário que leram na atividade anterior, identifiquem as frases relacionadas a esse gênero textual, com o objetivo de perceberem suas características.

d ) You use a name, your initials or a nickname when posting a reply. e ) Replies have the date and sometimes the time they were posted. f ) Replies are commonly written in the first person singular.

Post-reading 10. After

reading April’s post and B. P.’s reply, organize the events in the order they occurred. In the notebook, number the events from 1 (first event) to 5 (last event).

1 - d; 2 - b; 3 - e; 4 - a; 5 - c.

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a organizarem os eventos na ordem em que ocorreram. O objetivo desta atividade é que eles compreendam as pelas quais April (autora do blog) e B. P. put her ideas into words and posted on a blog. etapas (autor/a do comentário) passaram com seus textos. Consideramos importante que os alunos wrote a comment and posted her reply. compreendam essas etapas para que possam criar seus próprios had ideas and thoughts she wanted to share with other people. comentários, pois esta será a produção escrita proposta na read the blog. próxima seção.

a ) B. P. related to the post and decided to reply. b ) April c ) B. P. d ) April e ) B. P.

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Putting your ideas into words Before writing 11.

What is your opinion about the text you read on page 132? Talk to a classmate. Use the expressions in pessoal. Nesta atividade, você the box. Resposta pode orientar os alunos a trabalharem em

Writing 12.

I agree with...

I don’t think... I think...…

I totally agree with...

I disagree with...

In my opinion,...

I’m not sure about that, because...

That’s exactly what I think.

duplas, pois compartilharão suas impressões e opiniões sobre a postagem do blog que leram. Sugerimos incentivá-los a utilizar as expressões de concordância e discordância apresentadas no quadro.

Using your impressions and opinion about the text, in your notebook, write a reply to April’s blog. Use the information below. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir atividade.

esta

Leave a Reply

Unit 7

Enter your comment here...

Rogério Casagrande

Name:

Anna Simonin

Email:

After writing 13.

Read your classmates’ replies on the blog. Analyze them and talk to your teacher and classmates about which of the following sentences is the most accurate for them.

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) Most of the replies are favorable to the author’s ideas.

b ) Most of the replies are unfavorable to the author’s ideas. one hundred and thirty-five

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Listening and understanding

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Listening 1. 2.

Do you like traveling? Who do you usually travel with?

• family

Respostas pessoais.

• friends

• school classmates

Look at the pictures below and choose the one that represents how you would like your pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a next trip to be. Talk to a classmate about it. Resposta conversarem com um colega de sala sobre qual das imagens

representa uma viagem que eles gostariam de fazer. Você pode pedir que eles justifiquem suas respostas e que planejem detalhes, como quanto tempo passariam viajando, por quais lugares passariam etc.

C

B

a trip with friends

a school’s tour

3. 4. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade e a transcrição do áudio.

4. track 31

Have you ever experienced a family trip? If so, how was it? Talk about it.

Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos perguntar aos alunos se já fizeram uma viagem em família. Caso eles respondam que sim, sugerimos pedir que eles comentem sobre ela.

You are going to listen to a podcast about family trips. Listen to it once and write the following information in your notebook. a ) The name of the podcast. Family Adventure podcast.

b ) The host’s name. Erik

Monkey Business Images/ Shutterstock.com

Popova Valeriya/Shutterstock.com

Denis Rozhnovsky/Shutterstock.com

A

a trip with family

The Hemingway family started traveling in 2008. They traveled by boat to 25 countries over 3 years. Their aim is to show people how travel experiences can change lives. During their adventures, they created the Family Adventure podcast to share other families’ stories and to inspire people to dream. Source: <www.familyadventurepodcast.com/about>. Accessed on: November 25th, 2015.

Hemingway.

c ) The subject of the interview.

Traveling families who dream big and live some epic adventures.

d ) According to the program, what are these families giving to their children? I

5. track 31

6. 136

I

education and experiment of a lifetime

II

many adventures

III

common experiences

Listen to the podcast again and identify the themes Erik asked Paige about. Write them in orientar os alunos a ouvirem o podcast mais uma vez e identificar os temas your notebook. a; b; d. Sugerimos perguntados por Erik. Eles deverão escrevê-los no caderno. a ) how long she has been married

c ) how she feels about being a mother

b ) what her family achieved

d ) how her kids are

Paige said she was shocked and horrified about something she hadn’t done for a long time. What was that? Traveling.

one hundred and thirty-six


7. Listen

again and identify the images that represent why Paige and her family started to tocar o áudio mais uma vez e, em seguida, pedir que os alunos travel. Talk to a classmate about it. B and C. Sugerimos conversem, em duplas, para identificar quais imagens representam os motivos

track 31

de Paige e sua família começarem a viajar.

B

She realized her passport had many stamps in it.

Chris Ison/Shutterstock.com

HomeStudio/Shutterstock.com

A

She realized her passport didn’t have any stamps in it.

Unit 7

HelpingHandPhotos/E+/Getty Images

D

charles taylor/Shutterstock.com

C

9. Resposta pessoal. É interessante levar os alunos a refletirem In your notebook, match the two parts of the sentences to complete the information. sobre atitudes e a - II; b - I. planos que devemos ter se a ) A passport is expired when desejamos que algo aconteça. b ) A passport doesn’t have stamps when Eles podem citar alguns exemplos I you don’t travel abroad, you don’t leave your country. de atividades que têm vontade de fazer, além II its not valid anymore and it can’t be used. de viagens. Caso o tema gire em torno de viagens, uma Paige said: “we realized that time was not gonna stand still for us and we had to really opção é pedir make a plan if we wanted to make it happen”. What do you understand by that? Do you que contem quais são as viagens que agree with her? Explain it with your own words to your teacher and classmates. sonham fazer e com quem gostariam de Do you think that traveling to other countries is something accessible to all social classes? realizá-las. Resposta pessoal. Espera-se que os alunos digam que as viagens internacionais não são muito acessíveis às classes menos favorecidas. Eles podem comentar se acham que no futuro essa situação irá se modificar ou não e por quê.

She realized her passport was expired.

She had applied for the passport recently.

8.

9.

10.

Speaking 11. Paige

said her empty passport was the kick-start to set off a journey with her family. How about you? Talk to your classmates about the question below. Use this dialog as an example. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade. Have you ever had an experience that was the kick-start to something you needed to do?

Yes, I have. Last year, my mother said I needed to help more in the house. Then, I started to wash the dishes.

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Comprehending and using

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Learning about the language Present Perfect 1.

1. Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos começar esta seção com uma discussão rápida sobre o que os alunos entendem por inspiração, o que os inspira e se alguém os inspira. Uma sugestão é levá-los à reflexão de que alguém que os inspira não necessariamente precisa ter feito algo grandioso ou extraordinário.

Discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates. a ) What comes to your mind when you hear the word inspiration? b ) What is your inspiration? c ) Who inspires you? Explain. When can you feel inspired by someone? Talk to a classmate.

2. Resposta pessoal. Uma sugestão para esta atividade é deixar que os alunos pensem em quem os inspira e pedir que comentem a(s) razão(ões) pela(s) qual(is) admiram essa pessoa e se sentem influenciados por ela. Caso nenhuma das razões listadas na atividade se encaixe em suas motivações, você pode pedir que escrevam suas próprias razões no caderno.

• has overcome a serious disease; • has gone through difficult situations in life; • has fought against prejudice; • has defended justice, freedom, human rights and equality; • has fought against war and violence; • has cared about others and helped the ones in need; • is authentic and accepts who he/she is; • has never given up on his/her beliefs and dreams; • has created something important to the world.

Observe the pictures below. Who are they? Do you think they are inspiration for other people? Why (not)?

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C

E

yakub88/Shutterstock.com

F Tim Graham/Alamy Stock Photo/Latinstock

D

JStone/Shutterstock.com

3. A - Nelson Mandela; B - Angelina Jolie; C - Nick Vujicic; D - Malala Yousafzai; E - Laverne Cox; F - Mother Teresa of Calcutta. A segunda parte da resposta é pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a observarem as imagens e dizerem quem estas pessoas são e a(s) razão(ões) pela(s) qual(is) eles acham que elas podem inspirar outras pessoas. Você pode solicitar que utilizem as razões da atividade anterior.

B Alessia Pierdomenico/Shutterstock.com

A

Featureflash Photo Agency/ Shutterstock.com

3.

When the person...

DFree/Shutterstock.com

2.


4.

Some students of the United Kingdom wrote texts about a person that inspired them. Read A - Malala Yousafzai; B - Angelina Jolie; C - the student’s mother. Sugerimos the texts. Who inspires them? explicar aos alunos que estes textos foram produzidos por alunos do Reino Unido. A

Jenny Samuels Langholm Academy [...] I have chosen Malala Yousafzai as my inspirational figure [...]. Malala makes me want to ‘fight’ for what I want, for what I believe in, to make the world a better place without war, no crime and to have happiness throughout this amazing world that we have. INSPIRED: global citizens in the making. [S.l.]: Career Studio, p. 36-37, 2015.

B

Unit 7

Davina Howatson Lockerbie Academy [...] Angelina Jolie is a hugely inspirational woman and deserves every single bit of recognition she gets. She has inspired me to fight for what is right and to keep battling on. INSPIRED: global citizens in the making. [S.l.]: Career Studio, p. 37, 2015.

C

Demmieleigh Anderson Wester Hailes Education Centre [...] My mum is my inspiration. She’s had such a tough life on her own but she’s always making other people happy. She always makes me laugh and tries to push me to my goals. [...] INSPIRED: global citizens in the making. [S.l.]: Career Studio, p. 62, 2015.

5.

Read the text again and verify if the statements below are related to Jenny, Davina or orientar os alunos a relerem Demmieleigh. Then, write the answers in your notebook. Sugerimos os textos e a escreverem em seus a ) She is inspired by her mother.

Demmieleigh

cadernos a quem pertence cada uma das informações abaixo.

b ) She is inspired to fight for what she wants and believes in. c ) She is inspired to pursue her goals.

Jenny

Demmieleigh

d ) The person that inspires her deserves all the recognition she gets.

6.

Davina

Keeping in mind what you read about the people described in the texts above, in your notebook, match them with their most appropriate definition. a - II; b - III; c - I. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) Malala Yousafzai

b ) Angelina Jolie

c ) the student’s mother

I

A woman who has given birth and brought up a child or children with care and affection.

II

She’s from Pakistan. She has been an activist for girl’s education for many years now. In 2012, she was shot by the Taliban. She won a Nobel Peace Prize in 2014.

III

She’s from the USA. She’s an actress and the ambassador for the UN Refugee Agency. She has worked to obtain aid for refugees in Cambodia, Darfur and Jordan, among other countries. one hundred and thirty-nine

139


7. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem as frases extraídas dos textos que leram anteriormente. Em seguida, após realizarem a atividade, você pode pedir que eles estudem a página 194 do Grammar appendix, para entenderem melhor o uso e a forma do Present Perfect.

7.

These are some extracts from the texts. Read them and write the adequate answers in your notebook. I have chosen Malala Yousafzai as my inspirational figure. She has inspired me to fight for what is right and to keep battling on. She’s had such a tough life on her own but she’s always making other people happy.

a ) The sentences describe actions that... I

II

make suggestions for the future.

happened at an unspecified past time.

II

b ) The structure in bold is formed by... II I

verb to be + have/has

II

have/has + verb in the past participle form

c ) What are the auxiliary verbs in those sentences? I

have or had

d ) What are the main verbs? I

II

II

have or has

II

have, has, is

I

chosen, inspired, had

e ) What are the infinitive forms of those main verbs? II I

chose, inspire, have/has

II

choose, inspire, have/has

Present Perfect and already, yet, just, never 8.

Music and lyrics can be source of inspiration. Read some extracts of lyrics below and explain to a classmate what you understand.

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos orientar aos alunos a lerem e explicarem o que entenderam de cada trecho das letras de música para um colega de classe. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, informações sobre o gênero textual.

I’ve just seen a face I can’t forget the time or place Where we just meet She’s just a girl for me And I want all the world to see We’ve met [...]. THE BEATLES. I’ve just seen a face. In: Help!. Parloph one, 1965.

[...] And I know someday that it’ll all turn out You’ll make me work So we can work to work it out And I promise you, kid, that I give So much more than I get I just haven’t met you yet [...] BUBLÉ, Michael. Haven’t met you yet. In: Haven’t met you yet. 143 Records/Reprise Records, 2009.

[...] Now that you saved me, baby That stupid part y talk outside Wal ked to your place stayed up ‘til 5 d change your life You’d never thin k a random night coul re I know now I’ve never been in love befo re you I know now I’ve never been in love befo [...]

In: Never been in love. COBR A STARS HIP. Never been in love. Warne r Music Benelu x, 2014.

[...] Do you remem ber The days we used to spend? Memories so strong It keeps me from movin g on [...] Somebody told me: “G et over it” It’s like water under bri dges That have already bu rned [...] PORTER, Gre gory. Wat er und er brid ges. In: Liqu id spir it. Blue Note, 2013.

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9. H ave

you noticed that there are some words in bold in the lyrics? Read them again and, in Sugerimos chamar a atenção dos alunos your notebook, match them with their definition. a - II; b - III; c - IV; d - I. para as palavras em negrito nos trechos das letras de música. Em seguida, você pode orientá-los a associar essas palavras aos seus significados.

a ) already

I

not ever; not at all

b ) just

II

before the present time

c ) yet

III

recently

d ) never

IV

until the present time

10. Look

for the complete lyrics on the internet. And, in your notebook, write the true orientar os alunos a lerem as letras completas das músicas na statements down and rewrite the false ones. Sugerimos internet para assinalar se as frases abaixo são verdadeiras ou falsas. O

objetivo desta atividade é que eles as interpretem e entendam algumas características desse gênero textual. Você pode pedir que eles tragam as letras completas para a sala de aula para identificarem essas características.

a ) They are written in lines. True. b ) They have rhymes.

True.

c ) They’re not organized in stanzas. d ) They don’t have rhythm.

False. They are organized in stanzas.

False. They have rhythm.

e ) They play with words, using repetition and other resources. True. f ) The lyrics talk about meeting someone and falling in love with her/him.

True.

11. According

Unit 7

to what you have seen in the examples in the lyrics, rewrite the sentences in your notebook choosing the appropriate answers to complete them. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) Just and already are used in (affirmative/negative) sentences. b ) Never is used in affirmative sentences, but it has (an affirmative/a negative) meaning. c ) Yet is used in (affirmative/negative and interrogative) sentences and it’s placed (in the beginning/at the end) of the sentence. d ) Just, already and never are placed (before/after) the main verb.

Using the language 12. The

Present Perfect is used to talk about life experiences. In your notebook, complete the sentences with the appropriate form of the verbs in the Present Perfect. Then, talk to a classmate about which of the experiences you have had. be

work

a ) He

eat

have

donate

hasn’t had

his visa approved.

has been

c ) I

as a volunteer in a social project abroad.

has donated

d ) John

blood in India.

e ) They

an exotic Cambodian dish.

have eaten

The past participle form of regular verbs are formed by adding -ed, -d or -ied to the base form of the verbs. I have never stayed in a five-star hotel. My sister has moved to another city.

abroad. She went to Canada on her last b ) She vacation. have worked

Remember

We haven’t studied abroad. The past participle form of irregular verbs do not follow any rules. Some of them are available in the List of irregular verbs on pages 204 to 206.

13. Now

that you talked about the experiences you’ve had in activity 12, choose one of them and answer the questions below in your notebook. Then, tell your classmates about it. Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) What has happened?

d ) Who was with you?

b ) Where did it happen?

e ) How did you feel?

c ) When did it happen? 12. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a completarem as frases com verbos no Present Perfect. Em seguida, sugerimos pedir que eles conversem sobre as experiências de vida pelas quais já passaram.

one hundred and forty-one

g18_ftd_lt_2noi_u07_128a143.indd 141

141

18/5/16 6:06 PM


Have you ever lost you r wallet?

C

D

G

ChameleonsEye/ Shutterstock.com

16. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem as notas de Marina sobre suas experiências de vida. As frases com ✓ indicam as experiências que ela já teve e as demais frases são aquelas pelas quais ela ainda não passou. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a completarem, em seus cadernos, as frases com os advérbios mais adequados.

142

15.

In pairs, ask and answer the questions from activity 14.

16.

Adverbs are common when using the Present Perfect form. They give more information about the action in the sentence. Read Marina’s notes about her life experiences. In your notebook, complete the sentences with already, just, yet or never.

Respostas pessoais. Após os alunos criarem as perguntas da atividade 14, sugerimos pedir que, em duplas, eles as perguntem e as respondam com o intuito de contar ao colega de sala se já passaram por essas experiências.

✓ travel to the Amazon climb a mountain ✓ take dance classes

✓ study English ✓ adopt a dog see my favorite band in a concert Rogério Casagrande

14. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a elaborarem perguntas de acordo com as imagens usando o Present Perfect conforme ilustra o exemplo.

Markus Gann/Shutterstock.com

F

lazyllama/Shutterstock.com

E

Dziurek/Shutterstock.com

IM_photo/Shutterstock.com

Izabela Habur/Vetta/Getty Images

B

A

Jozef Sowa/ Shutterstock.com

14.

14. B - Resposta It’s time to know a little bit more esperada: have you ever about your classmates’ life travelled by airplane? experiences. In your notebook, C - Resposta write questions according to the esperada: have you ever broken pictures. Follow the example. a bone? D - Resposta esperada: have you ever played handball? E - Resposta esperada: have you ever ridden a horse? F - Resposta esperada: have you ever been to Rio de Janeiro?/have you ever visited Christ the Redeemer? G - Resposta esperada: have you ever seen a wild animal?

✓ eat Mexican food make a new friend a ) Marina has b ) She has

just

already

eaten Mexican food.

c ) She hasn’t seen her favorite band in a concert

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never

d ) Marina has

studied English.

already

yet

.

e ) She has

climbed a mountain.

taken dance classes. yet

f ) She hasn’t made a new friend

.


Summing up

Nesta unidade, você...

Sugerimos levar os alunos a refletirem sobre as alternativas apresentadas no quadro abaixo e instruí-los a escrever no caderno as frases que se relacionam ao que leram, discutiram e estudaram nesta unidade.

conversou com seus colegas de classe sobre experiências de vida; leu e interpretou uma postagem de blog e um comentário sobre essa postagem; produziu um comentário para um blog; ouviu um podcast; conversou com seus colegas de classe sobre viagens ou acontecimentos vividos com suas famílias; estudou o tempo verbal Present Perfect; leu e interpretou trechos de letras de música; estudou o uso e o sentido dos advérbios already, yet, just e never com o Present Perfect.

Unit 7

Going further Reading

e b Reiner. Th Fil me de Ro EUA. 20 07 bucke t lis t.

The book Love is the Higher Law, by David Levithan, is about what happened on September 11th, 2001, and how this day changed Claire, Jasper, and Peter forever. They meet each other and start a new friendship that leads them to a new understanding of the world.

Watching The Bucket List is a movie about two men with terminal diseases who meet at the hospital and decide to go on a trip together with their bucket lists. They want to accomplish them before they die.

Surfing the net

The Bucket List, by Rob Reiner. Warner Bros: USA, 2007. www.purelifee xper ienc es.co

The website Pure Life Experiences <http://tub.im/6rojt7> is from a global community of people who travel to change the world with adventure, making personal connections and fighting for the environment.

The song Do life, performed by the Australian singer Guy Sebastian and available on the internet, is about a person who wishes that all the things that are difficult in life will become easier one day.

tterstock .com

Pure Life Experiences. Available at: <www. purelifeexperiences. com>. Accessed on: February 26th, 2016.

Hel ga Esteb/ Shu

Singing

m

Guy Sebastian (2011).

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143


unit

track 32

144

Actions speak louder than words


The idiom actions speak louder than words means that what people do is more important than what they say. You keep talking about all the amazing things you wanna do, but remember: actions speak louder than words.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, as respostas e comentários referentes a esta atividade.

Exchanging ideas The picture on these pages shows important experiences in a person’s life. Tell your classmates some of the most meaningful and important experiences in your life.

B

In your opinion, can we learn from our life experiences? If so, talk to your classmates about the lessons you have learned.

Fotomontagem de Estúdio Meraki formada pela imagem Pressmaster/Shutterstock.com

A

145


Contextualizing

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Warming up 1.

Discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates.

Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre o item b desta atividade.

a ) When you think about your life up to now, what are some important events that have happened or things you have done? b ) What are some things you have been doing for a long period of time? c ) Do you think that the experiences we have gone through can change our lives in some promover uma discussão sobre como nossas experiências podem mudar nossa forma de ver way? Sugerimos o mundo, nossas atitudes, opiniões, crenças, valores, nossos comportamentos, e assim por diante.

2.

Look at the cartoon below and write down in your notebook the answers that a realização desta atividade, sugerimos pedir aos alunos que observem a imagem make sense. Para sem ler o balão de fala.

do cartum,

a ) What do you see in the cartoon? II I

two dolphins

II

two whales

b ) What is unusual in the picture? II The fact that they are swimming side by side.

II

The fact that one of them is wearing glasses.

Read the cartoon and answer the questions below in your notebook. Frank & Ernest, Bob Thaves © 1993 Thaves/Dist. by Universal Uclick

3.

I

Frank & Ernest, by Thaves. Available at: <http://www.gocomics.com/frank-and-ernest/2010/7/31>. Accessed on: November 19 th, 2015.

a ) What is true? II I

The whale has been wearing glasses since it was born.

II

The whale has been wearing glasses since something important happened.

b ) Talk to a classmate and identify the picture that best represents what happened to the whale. I II

Ilustrações: Rogério Casagrande

I

146

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c ) What conclusion has the whale drawn from that experience? I

4.

I

That its vision was not good and it needed to wear glasses.

II

That it would look more attractive if it wore glasses.

Can you think of an experience you have gone through and that made you realize you needed a change in your life? Resposta pessoal.

Neste momento, você pode incentivar os alunos a compartilharem suas experiências com os colegas de classe. É importante anotar na lousa as experiências que eles mencionarem, aproveitando para ampliar o vocabulário da turma.

Learning vocabulary

In your notebook, write some sentences talking about what you have been doing. If none of the alternatives below apply, think of different options. Then, talk to classmate. Resposta pessoal. c ) I have been

b ) I have been

for a few years.

d ) I haven’t been

beerlogoff/Shutterstock.com

wizdata/Shutterstock.com

Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock.com

working out regularly

JAKKRIT SAELAO/Shutterstock.com

working part time

Iakov Filimonov/Shutterstock.com

watching a TV series

Michaelpuche/Shutterstock.com

studying English

reading mystery books

for a long time.

living in the same city

spaxiax/Shutterstock.com

practicing a sport

since the beginning of this year.

playing an on-line game

learning how to play a musical instrument

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147

Unit 8

since I was a kid.

Prasit Rodphan/Shutterstock.com

a ) I have been

Jacek Chabraszewski/Shutterstock.com

5.

5. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a, primeiramente, completarem as frases com uma alternativa que seja condizente com a realidade deles. Caso nenhuma das opções seja apropriada, eles podem pensar em outra atividade que eles tenham (ou não) feito. Por fim, você pode pedir que eles se organizem em duplas e conversem sobre suas respostas, trocando informações.


Learning and acting

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Reading and reflecting Pre-reading 2. Sugerimos perguntar aos alunos se eles leem reportagens de revista, aproveitando para saber quais revistas eles leem e por quais reportagens se interessam. É importante que eles pensem nas reportagens e nos artigos que já leram para decidir se as frases são verdadeiras ou falsas e para perceber as características do gênero textual. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, mais detalhes sobre esse gênero textual.

1.

1. Sugerimos informar os alunos de que eles lerão uma reportagem publicada em uma revista sobre a África. Com base nessa informação, você pode pedir que eles conversem, em duplas, e infiram quais os prováveis assuntos que a revista aborda e o conteúdo da reportagem.

Discuss these questions with a classmate.

Respostas pessoais.

a ) You are going to read an article published in a magazine from Africa called Inspire Afrika. What kind of article do you think this magazine publishes? b ) What do you expect this article to be about?

2.

Think about magazine articles you’ve read before. Then, read the following sentences and decide if they are true or false. In your notebook, write the true statements down and rewrite the false ones using the correct information. a ) There is a headline, which is a short sentence that indicates the content of the text. Headlines get the reader’s attention and arouse curiosity about the text. True. b ) There is usually a subheading, which is a sentence or paragraph that summarizes the story, letting the reader decide to read the article or not. True. c ) There is a byline, which is a short sentence that shows the date and/or the name of the writer. It can be placed between the headline (or the subheading) and the main text or at the bottom of the article. True. d ) It is usually written by the editor of the magazine.

False. Magazine articles are usually written by journalists or specialists.

e ) The text may be organized in columns. True.

f ) The text may be written in verses and with rhymes.

False. The text is not written in verses. It can contain narrative, descriptive and argumentative elements.

g ) The main purpose of an article is to inform and entertain readers. True. h ) It can have pictures with captions.

True.

i ) The language used is formal, but easy to read.

True.

j ) It can use colors and special word fonts. True.

3.

4. 5.

The title of the magazine article you are going to read is Awakening basketball dreams with Luc Mbah A Moute. Based on the title, make some notes in your notebook about what you think the text is about. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade.

Share your notes with a classmate. Explain your ideas. Resposta pessoal.

Sugerimos pedir aos alunos que troquem informações sobre o que inferiram com um colega de sala, justificando-as.

Look at the picture. This is Luc Mbah A Moute. Have you ever heard of him? Resposta pessoal.

6.

What do you think he has done to be in the article? Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos discutir para levar os alunos a uma reflexão sobre quem é Luc Mbah A Moute analisando sua fotografia. Você pode perguntar se os alunos já o viram, o que sabem sobre ele ou o que imaginam que ele fez para estar em uma reportagem de revista.

148

one hundred and forty-eight

Allen Fredrickson/Icon SMI/Corbis/Latinstock

k ) It can contain quotes of the interviewees or an expert on the subject. True.


Reading

Read the magazine article and compare your notes from activity 3 with the information momento, sugerimos pedir aos alunos que leiam a reportagem e analisem se suas inferências na presented in the text. Neste atividade 3 estavam corretas. Em seguida, você pode orientá-los a retornar à atividade 2 e verificar se a reportagem possui as características mais comuns do gênero.

AWAKENING BASKETBALL DREAMS WITH LUC MBAH A MOUTE By Amma OKOBEA and Louis Gilbert BISSEK

Humble Beginnings It all started at the age of 12; that’s when Luc Richard Mbah A Moute fell in love with basketball and his love for the game has taken him a long way. [...] At 14, he decided to up his game and join the basketball club of the city: ONYX International Basketball Academy of Yaoundé. [...] “I was discovered in 2003 and selected among the best junior players in Cameroon, and was sent to represent my country in South Africa at the Basketball Without Borders.” Basketball Without Borders [...] His performance earned him a scholarship at Montverde Academy in Florida and his passport to the USA, a giant leap closer to his firm ambitions. Mbah A Moute Basketball Camp At 22, A Moute became the second Cameroonian player to enter the league. Since, he is amongst the 33 African players or players of African origin to have evolved in the league since its creation in 1946. [...] Mbah A Moute brings this success back home through his own project: Mbah A Moute Basketball Camp started in 2010.

The goal? To prepare and train 50 young talents from Basketball Without Borders each year. [...] The top five players are then selected to be helped and sponsored to schools in the USA. [...] Africa and Basketball As for basketball on the African continent, Mbah A Moute thinks it is getting better: “African players are playing in the NBA and the European League more than ever before. “But the best part in this is the fact that many of these African players have the courage to return home and play for their home countries again.” [...] ** Mbah A Moute’s appreciation and love not just for basketball but for sports and his continent has pushed him forward: “Sport is a great way out of a whole lot of things, not just for Africans but anywhere in the world. It’s an important vehicle for brotherhood, peace and conflict resolution. There aren’t many events that can bring people together like sport events. We are blessed to be athletes and have influence, especially African athletes who know what their countries have been through. I want to use my role to impact and make a change.” [...]

Unit 8

Luc Mbah A Moute, a child of destiny. In other words, how does a desire in the heart of a man turn into an achievement? When does the need to reach one’s ambition translate into becoming one of the best in one’s field? The rise of Luc Mbah A Moute from the playgrounds of the city of Yaoundé*to the shiny grounds of one of the most prestigious leagues in the world, the Mecca of basketball: the NBA is quite an example of this possibility. Discover Luc’s beginnings in Yaoundé and the groundbreaking project he pioneers: MBAH A MOUTE BASKETBALL CAMP.

Fotomontagem de Rogério Casagrande formada pela imagem pikcha/Shutterstock.com

7.

*Se necessário, você pode explicar aos alunos que Yaoundé é a capital de Camarões. **Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que, além de jogar pelo time Los Angeles Clippers da Associação Nacional de Basquetebol dos Estados Unidos (NBA), Luc Mbah A Moute também joga pela seleção nacional de basquetebol de Camarões, seu país de origem.

OKOBEA, Amma; BISSEK, Louis Gilbert. Awakening basketball dreams with Luc Mbah A Moute. Inspire Afrika. [S.l.]: Aninka Media Group LLC, n.14, Mar.-Apr., 2015.

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8. O objetivo desta atividade é levar os alunos a entenderem de forma global os acontecimentos da vida de Luc Mbah A Moute. Portanto, caso necessário, você pode pedir que eles leiam novamente a reportagem para organizar os eventos na ordem em que eles ocorreram.

8.

Read the events below and write in your notebook the order of the sentences, from 1 to 6, according to the order they happened in Luc’s life. 1 - c; 2 - a; 3 - d; 4 - f; 5 - b; 6 - e. a ) He joined ONYX International Basketball Academy of Yaoundé. b ) He started playing in the NBA League when he was 22 years old. c ) He started to play basketball at the age of 12. d ) He played at the Basketball Without Borders representing South Africa. e ) He started his basketball camp project. f ) He earned a scholarship to play in the USA.

9.

In your notebook, answer these questions about the magazine article. a ) What happened with Luc in 2003?

He was selected among the best junior players in Cameroon and sent to represent his country in South Africa at the Basketball Without Borders.

b ) Why did he get a scholarship at Montverde Academy in Florida?

Because of his good performance representing his country in South Africa at the Basketball Without Borders.

c ) How old was he when he entered the NBA league? He was 22 years old.

d ) What is his opinion about sports?

10.

He believes sports are an important vehicle for brotherhood, peace and conflict resolution, because sport events bring people together.

Read the magazine article again. Then, decide if the sentences below are true or false. In your notebook, write the true statements down and rewrite the false ones using the Sugerimos pedir aos alunos que façam uma nova leitura da reportagem para verificar quais correct information. são as frases verdadeiras e quais são as falsas. Você pode pedir que reescrevam as frases falsas, corrigindo-as com as informações adequadas no caderno.

a ) Luc Mbah A Moute has been playing basketball since he was 10. False. Luc Mbah A Moute has been playing basketball since he was 12.

b ) Luc Mbah A Moute has been playing basketball in the European League. False. Luc Mbah A Moute has been playing basketball in the NBA League.

c ) Mbah A Moute’s camp has been working since 2010. True. d ) Mbah A Moute Basketball Camp has been training 5 young talents per year. False. Mbah A Moute Basketball Camp has been training 50 young talents per year.

e ) The number of African basketball players playing in the NBA and European League has been increasing. True. f ) Luc Mbah A Moute has been using his life story to make an impact and a change. True.

Post-reading 11.

After reading the magazine article about Luc’s life, how do you think the opportunity to be a professional basketball player has changed his life? Talk to a classmate about it. Then, share your ideas with your class. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

12.

Do you know anyone else who has been through a life change? Think about the questions below and write a short paragraph in your notebook about his/her story. Then, present it to your class. Resposta pessoal.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade.

What’s his/ her nam e? Where does he/she live? How old is he/she? What has he/she started doin g that chan ged his/ her life? How was his/ her life befo re? What has been happenin g in his/ her life since then?

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Putting your ideas into words Before writing

13. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a pesquisarem mais informações sobre a pessoa que apresentaram na atividade 12. Caso tenham escolhido falar sobre uma pessoa de seu convívio, eles podem entrevistar essa pessoa para coletar mais informações. Se tiverem preferido falar sobre uma personalidade famosa, podem fazer uma pesquisa na internet, no laboratório de informática (caso sua escola possua um) ou em casa. É importante pedir que eles façam anotações no caderno, pois utilizarão essas informações em uma atividade futura.

13.

Do more research about the person you presented to the class in activity 12. Make notes in your notebook.

14.

In pairs, analyze different magazine articles. Go back to activity 2 and discuss with a classmate if the articles have those characteristics. Then, observe how the magazine is put together and discuss the characteristics you noticed in each section.

Writing 15.

Sugerimos trazer revistas para a sala de aula ou pedir que os alunos as tragam de casa. O objetivo desta atividade é que eles observem e analisem outras reportagens de revista, ainda que em língua portuguesa, para que retomem as características do gênero. Para isso, você pode pedir que eles retornem à atividade 2. Sugerimos também que eles analisem as outras seções que compõem uma revista, como a capa, o expediente, o sumário, as propagandas e as páginas finais. Você pode pedir que identifiquem essas seções e observem as características de cada uma. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, mais informações sobre a composição e características de algumas seções de uma revista.

You and your classmates are going to produce your own magazine. First of all, choose a name for it. Then, work in groups to produce all the pages. You have to produce the cover, the masthead, the table of contents, and the articles about people who have had a life change. Also, create the advertisings and the back of the magazine.

Anna Simonin

Unit 8

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre como conduzir a produção da revista.

After writing 16.

After sharing the magazine with other students in your school, interview some of the readers to find out their opinion about the magazine and the article they liked best. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

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151


Listening and understanding

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Listening 1.

In the reading section, you read about a young African man who plays basketball 1. b) Caso os alunos professionally. Another sport many people have been practicing is running. Talk to your respondam afirmativamente, teacher and classmates about the following questions on this topic. Respostas pessoais. sugerimos pedir que citem a ) Do you like running? exemplos de pessoas que praticam corrida b ) Can you name anyone who has been running for a long period of time? há muito tempo. Você pode incentivá-los a dizer se essa You are going to listen to part of a podcast which features interviews with athletes. Who is atividade trouxe the runner that is going to participate in this episode of the podcast? Discuss it with your algum benefício para a vida track 33 classmates and identify the corresponding image. B dessas pessoas, como melhora Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, a transcrição do áudio. da saúde e mais disposição física e mental.

2.

B

3. track 33

4. track 33

Todd Sumlin/Charlotte Observer/TNS/Getty Images

Panayiotis Tzamaros/Demotix/ Corbis/Latinstock

A

What is amazing about this runner? Listen to the podcast and talk to a classmate. Harriette Thompson broke a world record at the age of 91.

Harriette Thompson was born in 1923. When this podcast was aired, she was 91 years old. Listen to the podcast again and write down the adequate statements in your notebook. a ) Harriette ran the... II I

New York City Marathon.

II

Suja Rock ‘n’ Roll Marathon in San Diego.

b ) Harriette broke the world record for...

Sugerimos explicar aos alunos que essa maratona acontece anualmente na cidade de San Diego, no estado da Califórnia, Estados Unidos.

I

I

fastest female over 90 to complete that marathon.

II

youngest women to run a marathon.

c ) Her finishing time was... I

7:07:42.

II

9:09:45.

I

d ) She ran the marathon for the first time in... I

1998.

II

1999.

II

e ) When Harriette started running, she was in her...

152

I

early fifties.

II

mid-seventies.

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II


5. track 33

Listen to the excerpt one more time and decide if the sentences below are true or false. Then, write the true statements down in your notebook. After that, listen again and rewrite importante incentivar os alunos a corrigirem as afirmações incorretas the false ones using the correct information. Écaderno. Para isso, você pode reproduzir o áudio quantas vezes julgar

no

necessário e fazer pausas, facilitando a compreensão.

a ) After breaking the world record, Harriette Thompson received a lot of attention from 5. d) Caso os alunos questionem, você pode explicar que the media. atletas voluntários, normalmente amadores, treinam para True.

b ) Harriette was an athlete when she was a teenager. False. Harriette wasn’t an athlete growing up.

c ) She started running when she was 76 years old. True.

completar provas de corrida, ciclismo, trilhas ou triatlo com o objetivo de angariar fundos para a Leukemia & Lymphoma Society (LLS). O dinheiro arrecadado pela participação em eventos esportivos de resistência é destinado a pesquisa sobre leucemia e outros cânceres sanguíneos.

d ) She started running to support the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society. True.

e ) The fact that Harriette had relatives who had leukemia motivated her to participate in the marathon. False. The fact that Harriette had friends who had leukemia motivated her to decide to participate in the marathon.

f ) She has already run many other marathons.

False. She never did other marathons besides Suja Rock ‘n’ Roll.

g ) She decided to run to break the world record. False. She didn’t know about the record for over nineties.

h ) Harriette has been participating in marathons for more than 10 years.

6.

7.

What does Harriette say about the city of San Diego? Talk to a classmate and exchange some ideas. a; b; c. a ) The city is terrific.

c ) The people there are nice.

b ) The climate is good for running.

d ) The streets are clean.

After listening to the podcast, discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates. Respostas pessoais. a ) Harriette started running at the age of 76 and continued until her early nineties. Do you know other elderly people who started a physical activity in the past and have been doing it until now? b ) Can you think of other examples of elderly people who are healthy and motivated to continue exercising, working and being socially active? c ) Harriette has been running marathons since she realized that it would be a good way to help other people. Do you know other people that have been doing something for a long time because they want to raise money for charity, help others or support an organization?

Speaking 8.

7. a) Sugerimos aproveitar para comentar com os alunos que, atualmente, a qualidade de vida entre os idosos tem aumentado. Muitos deles chegam nessa fase com saúde e disposição para continuar trabalhando e convivendo ativamente na sociedade. 7. b) Caso os alunos não tenham um familiar ou alguém do convívio próximo que se enquadre nessas características, você pode orientá-los a fazer uma pesquisa e a encontrar exemplos mencionados em reportagens ou blogs.

Do some research and find out other examples similar to Harriette Thompson’s experience. You can use the following ideas to guide your research.

Elderly people who have been…

• • • • 9. track 33

exercising for a long period of time; supporting a cause since they were young; participating in marathons for less than 20 years; raising money for charity since something happened in their lives.

Choose one interesting case from your research, organize the information you collected orientar os alunos a fazerem uma apresentação sobre um idoso and make a presentation to your class. Sugerimos história de vida se assemelha às experiências de Harriette Thompson. one hundred and fifty-three

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True.


Comprehending and using

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Learning about the language Present Perfect Continuous 1. L istening

to music is another activity people of all ages love to do in their free time. Do you agree that music is everywhere? Is it part of your life? Discuss the following questions with objetivo desta atividade é discutir sobre música e sua importância. Sugerimos a classmate. Respostas pessoais. O orientar os alunos a trabalharem em duplas para discutir as questões abaixo.

2. Sugerimos levar os alunos a inferirem a qual gênero os textos pertencem observando seus detalhes. A ideia desta atividade é mostrar que os textos são postagens de um fórum, o que pode ser observado nos apelidos dos usuários, nas datas e horários das postagens e também nas palavras que circulam nesse meio, como replies e says. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, informações sobre esse gênero textual.

a ) What’s your favorite kind of music? I

pop

III

electronic

V

rock

VII

classical

II

reggae

IV

country

VI

hip hop

VIII MPB

b ) How often do you listen to music? I

always

II

sometimes

III

never

c ) Can you sing well? If so, what and where do you sing? d ) Can you play any musical instrument? Which one? How long have you been playing it? e ) What’s your favorite singer or band? Explain.

2. Look

at the way the texts in activity 3 are organized. Where do you think they are from? Write the answer down in your notebook. b a ) a newspaper

b ) an on-line forum

c ) an e-mail

3. You

are going to read some posts from people who are learning how to sing or to play instruments.

Do you play musical instruments? How long have you been learning? Available at: <www. totallytween.co.uk/ trending/2015/april/ musical-instruments/>. Accessed on: November 19 th, 2015.

154

x

www.totallytween.co.uk/trending/2015/april/musical-instruments/

Do you play musical instruments? How long have you been learning? 29 replies Started on Wednesday, April 22nd, 2015 FloraRed87 would like to know if any of you play musical instruments, and if so, what? When did you start to learn? How often do you practise? […] larimarrose47 says... I play the Viola. I’ve been playing for 2.5 years. Friday, April 24, 2015 at 7:32 PM […] LilyRose85 says... I do singing lessons and am in all my school’s auditioning choirs. I’ve been doing this for 2 and a 1/2 years now. I practice on all week days. Xx Wednesday, April 29, 2015 at 5:31 PM […] OliveSunstone60 says... I have been playing the violin for 4 years, am grade 3.5 and can sing really well and am grade 3 Thursday, May 07, 2015 at 5:43 PM […]

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Rogério Casagrande

The spelling practise is used in British English. In American English, the word is spelled practice. A similar difference happens in other words, such as defence, licence and offence in British English, and defense, license and offense in American English.

3. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que os textos são postagens de um fórum sobre quais instrumentos musicais os usuários tocam ou estão aprendendo a tocar.

18/5/16 6:09 PM


After reading the texts, talk to a classmate and identify the pictures related to them. B; D; E.* *A viola e o violino são instrumentos de corda utilizados em orquestras e tocados com um arco. A principal diferença está no tamanho: a viola é ligeiramente maior que o violino e seu arco é um pouco menor. Além disso, é mais pesada e seu som é mais grave. C

violetblue/Shutterstock.com karelnoppe/Shutterstock.com

1000 Words/Shutterstock.com

orientar os alunos a lerem novamente os Read the posts again to answer the questions in your notebook. Sugerimos textos para responder às perguntas. Consideramos

a ) How long has larimarrose47 been playing the viola? She’s been playing the viola for two years and a half.

b ) Where has LilyRose85 been singing?

que os alunos podem compreender as perguntas no Present Perfect Continuous, uma vez que já leram os textos e tiveram contato com esse tempo verbal em diversos momentos desta unidade.

She’s been singing in the school’s auditioning choirs.

c ) How long has OliveSunstone60 been playing the violin?

5.

He’s been playing the violin for four years. Sugerimos discutir as questões desta atividade com os alunos para que eles compreendam o propósito e as características de um fórum. Você pode aproveitar para perguntar se eles acessam Discuss these questions. fóruns e por qual(is) tópico(s) se interessam. É uma boa ideia orientar os alunos a retornarem à atividade 3 e identificarem as características do gênero nos textos. a ) What’s the purpose of a forum? II

I

to inform people about the latest news

II

to debate a subject or question sent by someone

b ) Have you ever been a member of a forum? If so, what was the forum about? Resposta c ) What are the characteristics of a forum?

pessoal.

I; II; IV; VI.

I

A subject or question is posted by a member.

II

The members can send replies to the subject or question.

III

The members reply by e-mail.

IV

The members’ names or nicknames are on the replies.

V

The members’ cellphone numbers are on their replies.

VI

There is the date and time on each post. one hundred and fifty-five

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Unit 8

F

E

Borysevych.com/Shutterstock.com

D

4.

Vgstockstudio/Shutterstock.com

B

nata-lunata/Shutterstock.com

A


6.

The following sentences were extracted from the texts. What statement is correct about them? Write the answer down in your notebook. a

Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que as frases abaixo foram retiradas das postagens do fórum de internet. Você pode pedir a eles que as leiam e escrevam no caderno a afirmativa adequada sobre elas. O objetivo desta atividade é que eles compreendam que o Present Perfect Continuous é usado quando uma ação se iniciou no passado e continua acontecendo até o momento da fala.

How long have you been learning?

I have been playing the violin for 4 years.

a ) They’re talking about actions that started in the past and continue until now. b ) They’re talking about actions that did not happen in the past, but are happening now. 7. Após os alunos terem compreendido a ideia geral sobre o uso do Present Perfect Continuous, sugerimos orientar que eles estudem a página 197 do Grammar appendix.

7.

The Present Perfect Continuous is used to talk about things we’ve been doing recently. Read the sentences in activity 6 again and decide if the sentences below are true or false. In your notebook, write the true statements down and rewrite the false ones using the correct information. a ) The affirmative structure is formed by have/has + been + verb with -ing. True. b ) I haven’t been playing the guitar is an example of an interrogative sentence. False. I haven’t been playing the guitar is an example of a negative sentence.

c ) We can use the Present Perfect Continuous to talk about something that has just happened, for example, John has been running and his heart is still beating fast. True.

d ) The negative structure is formed by have not/has not (haven’t/hasn’t) + verb with -ing. False. The negative sentences are formed by have not/has not (haven’t/hasn’t) + been + verb with -ing. True.

e ) In questions, have or has come before the subject.

For and since 8.

The following texts are testimonials of people talking about the most difficult musical instruments to play. What instruments are mentioned? Read the texts briefly and answer. The violin and the oboe.

Hardest Instruments to Play I have been playing the wonderful and amazing violin since I was six. I am seventeen now. And I am nearly not as good as some amazing people out there like my favorite artist of all time. Lindsey Stirling, a girl who is just AMAZING at violin, she plays all of classical, fiddle if you please, and... Dubstep. [...] posted on november 2015

Reply

Hardest Instruments to Play I’ve been playing the oboe for almost 5 years and I can say from experience that it is an EXTREMELY difficult instrument to play and especially to master, which I myself have not even done yet. First off, the reed is a constant challenge. It is difficult to go from high to low notes or vice versa because the reed needs to be either more open (low) or closed/pinched (high) to have anything close to the right tone. [...] Reply

posted on november 2015

Rogério Casagrande

8. Sugerimos explicar aos alunos que ambos os instrumentos mencionados são utilizados em orquestras. O violino é um instrumento de cordas feito de madeira, tocado apoiado entre o pescoço e o ombro do instrumentista, tendo seu som originado pelo toque do arco nas cordas. O oboé é um instrumento de sopro, de madeira, de formato ligeiramente cônico; as notas são produzidas pelo sopro do instrumentista em seu interior.

Hardest instruments to play. Available at: <www.thetoptens.com/hardest-instruments-play>. Accessed on: November 19 th, 2015.

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After reading about some opinions on what the most difficult instruments to play are, read Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem novamente os textos, mas the testimonials again and answer in your notebook. com mais atenção aos detalhes, pois as respostas mais adequadas devem ser escritas no caderno.

a ) How long has the person in the first testimonial been playing the violin? II I

for two years

II

for eleven years

II

a guitar teacher

b ) Who’s Lindsey Stirling? I I

a violin player

c ) How long has the person in the second testimonial been playing the oboe? II I

since last year

II

for almost five years

d ) Has the person in the second testimonial mastered the oboe? II I

10.

yes

II

not yet

Did you notice the expressions highlighted in the text from activity 8? Write down in your notebook the adequate sentences about them. a and c. a ) For is used to describe an action’s length of time, showing how long it was. b ) For describes the place where the action happened. c ) Since is used to describe when an action started, showing the specific starting point in the past.

Remember You have seen that for is used with the Present Perfect Continuous to indicate that an action started in the past and continues until now. But it can also be used with the Simple Past to describe the duration of a finished past action.

d ) Since is used with adjectives to give more details about the action.

11.

10. Caso os alunos não tenham observado as duas expressões em negrito no texto da atividade 8, você pode sugerir que eles retornem aos textos para identificá-las. Em seguida, eles devem escrever as opções mais adequadas sobre elas no caderno. O objetivo desta atividade é que eles compreendam o uso de for e since. For é utilizado para descrever a duração de uma ação, e since acompanha um tempo específico do passado para apontar quando a ação se iniciou. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que as duas palavras estão comumente presentes em sentenças com o Present Perfect Continuous.

I studied French for three years.

Sugerimos revisar os nomes dos instrumentos musicais em inglês, Respostas pessoais. escrevendo-os na lousa. Você pode pedir aos alunos que digam In your opinion, what’s the most difficult instrument to play? Explain. os que conhecem. Alguns exemplos são: guitar, drums, electric guitar, piano, violin, What do you think is needed to master a musical instrument? keyboard, saxophone, flute.

Discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates. a) b)

c ) How long does someone have to study and practice an instrument to master it? d ) Is there any musical instrument you would like to learn how to play? If so, which one and why?

Using the language 12.

Do you know what your classmate has been doing recently? Follow the examples and ask him/her questions. Respostas pessoais. Have you been reading a book lately?

Yes, I have.

I’ve been reading it since last week.

How long have you been reading it?

Som e idea s...

• read a book; • • watc h a movie or serie s; • • play a spor t; • • danc e;

stud y a forei gn langu age; play a musi cal instr ume nt; work out.

12. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a trabalharem em duplas para perguntar a um colega de sala sobre possíveis atividades que ele/ela tem feito, utilizando o Present Perfect Continuous e as ideias apresentadas. Você pode estimulá-los, quando a resposta for afirmativa, a perguntar há quanto tempo seu colega tem feito aquela atividade, pois dessa forma é possível praticar as preposições for e since.

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Unit 8

9.


13. Você pode comentar que os textos abaixo são relatos ou postagens em fóruns sobre o que algumas pessoas têm feito ultimamente. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a completarem cada texto com a forma do Present Perfect Continuous dos verbos do quadro. Em seguida, eles devem escolher a preposição mais adequada.

13.

You are going to read about more people describing what they’ve been doing. In your notebook, write down the sentences choosing the adequate words to complete them and completing the gaps with the Present Perfect Continuous form of the verbs below. climb (neg.)

learn

practice

X Posts: 1,501  March 2014 I’ve been learning I English (since/for) 2007. Before that, in junior school, I was taught English. This doesn’t count, does it? How long have you been learning English? Available at: <http://learn-english-forum.org/discussion/129/how-long-have-you-beenlearning-english>. Accessed on: November 20 th, 2015.

Erin Sanders has been practicing Erin Sanders yoga (since/for) over 16 years. [...] Erin is on a mission to bring the beauty and serenity of yoga to as many people as possible. [...] Meet the Yoga Digest 2015-2016. Yoga Digest. Southlake: Shweiki Media, Nov.-Dec., 2015.

Re: climbing partner haven’t been climbing I would also be interested in joining, I (since/for) a while due to an injury, but I really want to get back into it and need a climbing partner for that. Climbing partner. Available at: <www.englishforum.ch/sports-fitness-beauty-wellness/228815-climbing-partner.html>. Accessed on: November 20 th, 2015.

Speaking up

Linking Sounds

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir as atividades deste boxe.

1. Some sounds are linked when you speak. Do you know how to do that in the English language? Pay attention to the text below. track 34

I’ ve been thinking about my career for years. I’ ve talked to many friends about what ͝ ͝ ͝ ͝ they want to do in the future, and some of them have been thinking about it often. ͝ ͝ ͝ ͝ Others have already decided, because they have wanted a specific occupation since ͝ they were young. Pedro, my older brother, has just decided to be a veterinarian. He is ͝ ͝ ͝ very excited about it. ͝

2. Listen to the sentences below. track 35

a ) I need it now! (consonant + vowel) (C+V) ͝ b ) It is the best time of our lives. (consonant + consonant) (C+C) ͝ c ) Finally, this is the end! This movie is so old. (vowel + vowel) (V+V) ͝ ͝

3. Write down the following dialog in your notebook. Then, listen to the track and circle the linking sounds. track 36

A: How long has it been since you started to study English? B: It has been five years. I’ve been practicing as a student here and listening to music whenever possible. A: Cool! So do you like it? B: I really like it. It’s an amazing subject. A: Nice. I gotta go. See you!

4. Practice the dialog above in pairs. Exchange roles.

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Summing up

Nesta unidade, você...

Sugerimos levar os alunos a refletirem sobre as alternativas apresentadas no quadro abaixo e instruí-los a escrever no caderno as frases que se relacionam ao que leram, discutiram e estudaram nesta unidade.

conversou com seus colegas de classe sobre acontecimentos que modificaram suas vidas e sobre atividades que você tem feito há algum tempo; leu e interpretou um cartum; leu uma reportagem de uma revista publicada para abordar assuntos do continente africano apresentando um jogador de basquete africano que correu atrás de seus sonhos; produziu uma revista; ouviu trechos de um podcast sobre uma maratonista de mais de 90 anos de idade; pesquisou casos de idosos saudáveis e ativos; fez uma apresentação oral sobre um dos idosos pesquisados; estudou o tempo verbal Present Perfect Continuous; estudou os usos e sentidos das preposições for e since; praticou a pronúncia correta de sons que se ligam na fala.

The movie The Imitation Game tells Alan Turing’s story, a mathematician who needed to try to crack a code during World War II. It’s a race against time for Turing and his brilliant team. He spends his life on this project, even after breaking the code.

Singing The song What have you been doing lately, performed by the band Relient K and recorded on the CD The anatomy of the tongue in cheek, is about changes that have happened in the life of a group of friends who haven’t seen each other for some time.

The Imitation Game, by Morten Tyldum. StudioCanal/ The Weinstein Company: USA, 2014.

ett y Image s

Watching

Jurassic Park 3, adapted by Scott Ciencin. Pearson: [S.l.], 2011.

Joe y Foley/G

The book Jurassic Park 3 tells the story of Dr. Alan Grant, who studied dinosaurs for several years and, now that Eric Kirby is lost in Jurassic Park, he needs to help his parents to get him out of there. He is also sure that he doesn’t want to visit Jurassic Park again.

Filme de Morten Tyldum. The imitation game. EUA e Reino Unido. 2014

Reading

Editora Pears

on

Unit 8

Going further

Relient K (2013).

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Thinking cross-curricularly

In this section of the book, you are going to read texts related to some of the topics you have discussed in the previous units. Here, you are going to have the opportunity to reflect on various themes and their relation with other subjects, such as Sociology, Chemistry and History. The activities follow the same structure you have worked with in the units, including the stages of pre-reading, reading and post-reading.

1. c) Sugerimos levar os alunos a pensarem se a vida de pessoas que vivem em regiões onde há pouco ou nenhum acesso à tecnologia (ou que viveram em épocas passadas) é melhor do que a vida de grande parte da sociedade atual. Uma opção é pedir que imaginem suas vidas sem as facilidades de hoje e que se lembrem de eventuais conversas com pessoas mais velhas que não tinham acesso às tecnologias que existem atualmente.

1.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir o item a desta atividade.

Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) was a North-American author, poet and philosopher. One of the most famous writers from the USA, he is considered the father of environmentalism because of his writings about nature. He was also an abolitionist and pacifist.

[…] a man is rich in proportion to the number of things which he can afford to let alone. THOREAU, Henry. Walden, and on the duty of civil disobedience. Available at: <www.gutenberg.org/ files/205/205-h/205-h.htm>. Accessed on: November 30 th, 2015.

[...] Um homem é rico em proporção ao número de coisas de que ele é capaz de abrir mão.

a ) In your opinion, what is the meaning of the quote? Resposta

pessoal.

b ) In your opinion, are all the advances of modern life good and useful? Why (not)? Resposta pessoal.

c ) Do you think people without access to technology have better or worse lives? Why? Resposta pessoal.

2.

2. O texto que fala sobre o estilo de vida minimalista, possibilita o trabalho com conteúdos de Sociologia. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre o tema do texto.

Minimalism means to simplify things to their essential characteristics. It is usually related to painting, music, design and architecture movements.

160

Read the following quote and discuss the questions with your teacher and classmates.

Read the following text. Then, discuss with your teacher and classmates the connection between Thoreau’s quote and the text. They are both about having less stuff and living with the necessary. x

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Minimalists find happiness living with less We’ve all heard the saying, “money can’t buy happiness”, but is the opposite true? Could happiness be as simple as living with less? There’s a growing minimalist movement and it might be right for you. If you are feeling like your garage looks more like a storage unit than a place to park your car, you are not alone. Americans love to buy “stuff”. We spend $380 billion each year on clothes, shoes, cars, gadgets, and odds and ends. To pay for it all, we work long hours, and buy big houses to store it all. But is all that stuff making you happy? Ryan Nicodemus and Joshua Millburn don’t think so. […] The childhood friends are now leaders of the growing “minimalist movement”. They are encouraging other people to get rid of all that stuff in their lives that isn’t making them happy. […] Millburn and Nicodemus are excited about the huge response. As the minimalists movement grows, they hope others will find happiness from letting go of stuff. “If we could convey one message to everyone who comes to our events”, said Nicodemus, “we really want to leave this behind: to love people, and use things, because the opposite never works.”

one hundred and sixty

MIGUEL, Ken. Minimalists find happiness living with less. Available at: <http://abc7news.com/archive/9507946/>. Accessed on: November 4th, 2015.

Bárbara Sarzi

1. b) Você pode questionar os alunos sobre até que ponto os avanços tecnológicos tornam a vida melhor, se novas tecnologias, como celulares e computadores, solucionam problemas, mas ao mesmo tempo criam complicações, entre outras perguntas que julgar relevantes.

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.


Discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates. a ) What is the objective of the minimalist movement? To b ) What do you understand by the word stuff? Resposta

live a simple life with less stuff.

pessoal. Resposta esperada: it means things.

c ) What do you understand by the expression odds and ends in the sentence: “We spend $380 billion each year on clothes, shoes, cars, gadgets, and odds and ends.”? Resposta pessoal. Resposta esperada: it means stuff, miscellaneous things.

d ) What do Millburn and Nicodemus believe that people should do to find happiness? They believe that eliminating stuff will make people happier.

e ) What do you think about the sentence “To love people, and use things, because the opposite never works.”? Resposta pessoal. f ) The text says that “Americans love to buy ‘stuff’”. What about Brazilians? Do you think people in Brazil are buying too much? Why (not)? Resposta pessoal.

4.

Sugerimos promover uma discussão com a turma abordando a questão do consumismo em nossa sociedade, bem como os prós e contras de nossos hábitos.

The words below were mentioned in the text on page 160. In your notebook, match them with their meanings. a – IX; b – I; c – IV; d – II; e – VII; f – III; g – VIII; h – VI; i – V. a ) garage b ) storage c ) to park

5.

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a associarem os termos com seus significados. Para isso, você pode instruí-los a usar o glossário e/ou um dicionário.

d ) gadgets

g ) huge

e ) to encourage

h ) to let go

f ) to get rid of

i ) to convey

I

a place for storing things

VI

to leave behind

II

devices, equipment

VII

to inspire, to give confidence

III

to eliminate

VIII

very big

IV

to leave a car in a place for some time

IX

a place for parking a vehicle

V

to express

Do you think you buy too many things? Make a list with information about yourself in your notebook. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a fazerem duas listas com objetos que

3. a) Você pode conversar com os alunos sobre o texto lido e verificar se, pelo que leram, foi possível compreender que o propósito do movimento minimalista é buscar uma vida mais simples. 3. b) De acordo com o texto, as pessoas tendem a comprar e acumular objetos desnecessários. A palavra stuff é utilizada para descrever esses objetos variados no texto.

3. c) Sugerimos verificar se os alunos compreendem que, inicialmente, a frase lista uma série de produtos e bens de consumo e essa linha de raciocínio termina na expressão citada, designando todos os outros objetos que, se fossem listados, tornariam a lista muito longa.

eles compraram recentemente e quais objetos eles pretendem comprar.

Five things I am going to buy

Rogério Casagrande

Five things I have bought recently

6.

7.

3. e) Sugerimos promover uma reflexão com a Discuss the following questions with a classmate. Respostas pessoais. turma sobre a ideia expressa na frase, que a ) Compare your lists. How similar or different are they? fala sobre a importância de b ) What things from your classmate’s list would you never buy? Why? amar pessoas e usar coisas e c ) Are there things in your list that you could give up on buying? Why (not)? não o contrário, Você pode perguntar os alunos se todos os itens da lista são necessários ou se eles poderiam abrir mão de alguns. que seria amar as coisas e usar as pessoas.

You are going to read about a man who, instead of consuming excessively, decided to use his time and money to help others. Read the text on the next page and find out what Ryan Hreljac’s achievements are. He helped to build many wells and latrines around the world and also founded

an association. Sugerimos conversar com os alunos sobre os feitos de Ryan que são descritos no texto. Você pode dizer que, após o primeiro poço, ele continuou a investir em novos poços, por meio da associação Ryan’s Well Foundation. 7. O texto da página seguinte contém a história de Ryan Hreljac, um jovem ativista canadense responsável pela construção de centenas de poços em dezesseis países diferentes, ajudando mais de 700 mil pessoas. A internet possui one hundred and sixty-one bastante material sobre o ativista, incluindo entrevistas, vídeos e fotos.

161

Thinking cross-curricularly

3.


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Bárbara Sarzi

Ryan Hreljac, founder of Ryan’s Well Foundation

CONTACT

A+a-

[…] In 1998, then-six-year-old Ryan Hreljac spoke a wish: that he be able to raise enough money to help build a well in Uganda so that other children his age would have easy access to clean water. The following year, his wish was granted; a well was built at Angolo Primary School in northern Uganda, and it continues to serve thousands of people to this day. That one wish caused a ripple effect around the world, and its effects have continued to reach far and wide. […] Inspiration struck when Ryan was a Grade 1 student at Holy Cross Catholic School. His teacher Mrs. Prest told the class that people around the world were dying because they didn’t have clean water to drink. “We didn’t understand why other people didn’t have water”, says Ryan. “So our teacher explained to us that other people had to walk five kilometres for clean water.” […] When Ryan got home from school that day, he announced to his parents, Mark and Susan Hreljac, that he wanted to raise money to build a well in Africa. He spent the next four months earning money by doing extra chores around the house. But after saving the grand sum of $70, he discovered he’d need $2,000 for the well. That meant doing more than household chores; that meant giving talks to raise awareness of his initiative. The idea would be daunting to almost any six-year-old. It was especially intimidating to Ryan, who was in speech therapy at the time for a speaking impediment. Still, he didn’t let that stand in his way. First, he gave a presentation to his class [...]. Then an opportunity arose to speak in front of the Rotary Club of Kemptville. “I did it, and the words might not have come across at all because I had a speech impediment and I was seven”, says Ryan. “But the message did.” […] As someone who sees himself as “regular”, he encourages others to believe that everyone can make a difference. He remembers feeling discouraged as a youngster by the idea that, to do good in the world, he had to virtually become a saint. “Growing up, I felt like activism was put up on this pedestal as something that only selfless people can do”, he says. “I felt really discouraged by that, because I love to play video games and hang out with my friends. So I felt like I eventually needed to make this choice in my life. I could either be this person who (devoted himself to) volunteer work, or I could stay at home and sleep.” Through his work with Ryan’s Well, he realized that the world is made up of mostly “regular” people, but that “everyone has the ability to make a profound impact on the lives of others. That’s the message I try to get other people to realize. Whether the cause is water or something else, just be naïve enough to think like a First Grader.” […] SAGE, Amanda. Ryan Hreljac, founder of Ryan’s Well Foundation. Available at: <http://kickasscanadians.ca/ ryan-hreljac/>. Accessed on: November 5th, 2015.

The organization funded by Ryan Hreljac has an interesting website. To get to know more about it, access Ryan’s Well Foundation <http://tub.im/dxrxey>. Accessed on: February 26 th, 2016.

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8.

9.

8. b) Ripple effect refere-se ao efeito cascata, no qual uma ação gera outras iguais ou similares. É interessante pedir que releiam o trecho do texto His first wish was to build a well for children em que a expressão aparece e verifiquem seu a ) What was Ryan’s first wish? who did not have access to clean water. sentido no contexto. 8. f) É esperada: it is when an action causes an impact that importante b ) What do you think a ripple effect is? Resposta disseminates and creates new actions. perguntar se os alunos c ) When Ryan was in first grade, his teacher told the class something that shocked him. concordam que There were people dying because they didn’t have também What did she say? Why was it shocking for him? clean water to drink. It was shocking because Ryan eles podem trabalhar always had water, so he couldn’t understand this situation. por uma causa d ) Ryan said that in his first speech the words didn’t come across but the message did. In em que acreditem e your opinion, what did he mean? Resposta pessoal. Resposta esperada: he meant that even though he realizar feitos couldn’t speak properly, his message reached people. His opinion was that activism importantes e ) What was his opinion about activism? Why did he feel discouraged? was for selfless people. He para si próprios e para a was discouraged because he felt that he would need to choose between being an activist or being a regular teenager. comunidade f ) Ryan said that “everyone has the ability to make a profound impact on the lives of onde vivem. O objetivo desta atividade é mostrar aos alunos others”. Do you agree with him? Resposta pessoal. 9. como a filtragem de água, elemento extremamente importante, pode ser relativamente simples e acessível, assim como o trabalho desenvolvido por Hreljac, que começou de maneira muito simples. Além disso, é uma oportunidade de observarem a ciência sendo aplicada. Apesar de o resultado ser um filtro de água, recomendamos que os alunos não bebam a água Follow the instructions and build a water filter. filtrada. É interessante que o trabalho seja relacionado aos conteúdos de Química, permitindo um detalhamento maior do processo de filtragem da água, bem como mostrar como a disciplina é acessível e importante para a sociedade.

Discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates.

Objective

Material

• two-liter plastic bottle • round-nosed scissors • cotton • hammer • charcoal • sand 8. d) Sugerimos orientar• osnailalunos a relerem o e identificarem que os primeiros discursos • gravel texto de Ryan não foram muito bons, pois ele tinha problemas de fala e tratava-se com um fonoaudiólogo. Mesmo com essa dificuldade, ele acredita que a mensagem foi transmitida.

10. c) Caso ache necessário, você pode orientar uma pesquisa para que conheçam os grupos étnicos que habitam nosso país. Algumas informações estão disponíveis no site do IBGE <http://tub.im/74vmo6>. Acesso em: 3 mar. 2016.

Ilustrações: Bárbara Sarzi

Instructions

8. c) Sugerimos promover uma discussão que leve os alunos a refletirem sobre como Ryan, na época uma criança, não tinha a percepção de que havia pessoas no mundo sem acesso a água potável, e saber que pessoas precisavam andar cinco quilômetros para conseguir água o espantou mais ainda.

Make it happen!

• Make a hole in the cap using the

• Fill the bottle with some

• Warning: do not drink the

• •

nail and the hammer. Cut the top of the plastic bottle and turn it upside down inside the bottom of the plastic bottle. Fill the bottle with cotton, charcoal, sand and gravel. Leave around 3 cm of empty space between the cut-off part of the bottle and the gravel.

water and see how it works. water. Even though it is a water filter, it will not filter all the impurities. This water can be used to water your garden or to clean your house.

10. a) Sugerimos explicar que o Brasil recebeu diferentes povos (africanos, As you have learned, buying less and saving water can shape the way we live and the europeus e asiáticos), vindos society that we are in. However, there are other aspects that are very important when we por diferentes motivos e em talk about society. Some of them are the processes of emigration, immigration and diferentes atividade e o texto seguinte apresentam aspectos relacionados à colonização e imigração do Brasil, épocas. migration. Esta possibilitando o trabalho interdisciplinar com História. 10. b) Sugerimos comentar que a a ) What comes to your mind when you think about the colonization of Brazil? América do Sul já era povoada pelos povos indígenas antes dos Resposta pessoal. europeus chegarem. b ) Who was here before the first colonizers? The indigenous peoples. Portuguese, African, Italian, Japanese, Spanish, Dutch, English, French, German, and c ) What were the nationalities of people that immigrated to Brazil? many other nationalities. Resposta esperada: to colonize, to find new opportunities of work in agriculture and industries d ) Why have they moved to Brazil? and many other reasons. In the case of enslaved Africans, they were forced to move to Brazil. 10. d) Você pode comentar que muitas pessoas que vieram para o Brasil estavam ligadas ao processo de colonização, ao tráfico de escravos e, depois, à necessidade de mão de obra one hundred and sixty-three (europeia e, depois, japonesa). Hoje, diversos imigrantes vêm ao Brasil para trabalhar e estudar.

10.

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• Learn how to separate the water impurities.


11.

You are going to read a text about the migration to Brazil. What are the peoples Portuguese, Spaniard, Dutch, English, French, African, Ukrainian, Polish, mentioned in the text? The Korean, Japanese, Syrian and Lebanese peoples.

Russian,

Migrate means to move to another place, region or country. Emigrate means to leave your own country probably to live in another one. Immigrate means to enter and live in a foreign country. Alguns conceitos-chave para o entendimento da atividade são: colonizador (colonizer) ou settler, aquele que parte para uma região pouco povoada, nacional ou estrangeira, para povoá-la; escravo (slave) e escravizado (enslaved), pessoa dominada e forçada a servir aos interesses de terceiros e, no Brasil, podem ser oriundos de terras distantes; refugiado (refugee), aquele que sai de seu país devido a guerras, conflitos ou catástrofes naturais.

Immigration Brazil is characterised by centuries of immigration from all parts of the world: the systematic settlement of European invaders, in particular the Portuguese, but also Spaniards, the Dutch, the English and the French, began more than three hundred years ago. Initially, numerous indigenous Indians were enslaved, predominantly to work on the sugar cane plantations. Enslavement, displacement and extermination led to the annihilation of many Indian peoples: of an estimated five to six million indigenous people at the time of the arrival of the first Europeans, only about 600,000 remained by the end of the colonial period. In the 16th century, Portuguese colonialists began to bring slaves from Africa to Brazil. […] The time of the so-called “big migration” to Brazil began in the second half of the 19 th century. The first of three phases of mass immigration (1880 to 1909) lasted until the early years of the 20 th century. The immigrants in this phase originated primarily from Europe. The strongest increase was firstly among the Italians with 1,188,883 immigrants. However, immigrants also came from Portugal (519,629), Spain (307,591), Germany (49,833), the Middle East (31,061) and, in smaller numbers, from various other countries such as Ukraine, Poland, Russia and Korea. The total number of immigrants in the period after the abolition of slavery was between 50,000 and over 200,000 per year. In this first phase of mass immigration, European migrants were needed above all as workers in the agricultural sector […]. In a second wave of immigration between 1910 and 1929 more than one and a half million migrants entered the country to be employed, once again, in agriculture. The immigrants again originated primarily from Portugal, Italy, Spain, Russia and Germany, many of them looking for a fresh start after the First World War. However, emigration to Brazil has also increased from Syria and Lebanon since the beginning of the 20 th century. After Canada, the USA, Mexico and Argentina had tightened up their immigration conditions in the mid 1920s, Brazil became the main migration destination for the Japanese. […] The third wave of immigration (1930 – 1969) turned out smaller than those in the preceding decades. The largest group of new immigrants comprising 160,735 persons originated from Japan. For the newly emerged industrial sector, migrants were recruited from Syria and Lebanon in particular. The recruitment of foreign workers ended with the military coup in 1964. […] STELZIG, Sabina. Immigration. In: Brazil. Available at: <http://focus-migration.hwwi.de/Brazil.5879.0.html?&L=1>. Accessed on: November 18 th, 2015.

Você pode comentar com os alunos que certas palavras têm diferentes grafias na variação norte-americana. Alguns exemplos são os termos realize, finalize e organize. Na variação britânica, essas palavras são escritas como realise, finalise e organise.

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In American English, the spelling is characterize. In British English, it is spelled characterise.


12.

Discuss the questions below with your teacher and classmates.

Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre alguns dos itens desta atividade.

a ) Where can you see the influence of all those immigrants in our country?

b ) What are the nationalities that most influenced the region where you live? c ) Did your ancestors come from other countries? If so, from where? d ) Is there any cultural influence from your ancestors in your life? e ) Do you know how their trip to Brazil was?

12. a) Você pode dizer que, em praticamente todos os aspectos da sociedade, é possível ver esses traços culturais, mas alguns podem ser mais marcantes, como no caso da linguagem (sotaques e estrangeirismos) ou da culinária.

12. e) Sugerimos perguntar aos alunos se sabem se seus ancestrais vieram de outros países e, caso digam que sim, como e quando chegaram ao Brasil. Dessa forma, você pode introduzir o tópico processos migratórios.

In our times it is possible to see different processes of migration. A lot of people from South and Central America, looking for better opportunities in the USA, try to cross the border illegally, which requires them to cross a desert or the sea in ways that are arduous and risky. As a result, many of them die during this journey. Another notable process of migration is Haitians immigration to Brazil after an earthquake in Haiti in 2010. In 2015, the influx of people, trying to escape from economic crisis and wars, from African and Middle East countries, reached a critical point: millions entered the European continent, many of them died when boats sank before reaching the coastline. It was called the European migrant crisis.

Look at the painting on the right and discuss the questions with your teacher and classmates.

Lasar Segall. 1939-41. Óleo com areia sobre tela. 230 x 275 cm. Acervo do Museu Lasar Segall, São Paulo (SP) - IBRAM/MinC

13.

a ) What is your first feeling when you see this painting? Resposta pessoal.

b ) Describe the painting in one sentence. Resposta pessoal. c ) What is the mood of the painting? How are the people in the painting depicted? d ) Why do people leave their homeland? Can you give real-life examples? The most common reason is to look for a new life and work opportunities. People also leave their countries to avoid war and natural disasters. Those people are called refugees. 13. b) Possível Lasar Segall - Ship of resposta: it’s a emigrants. Lasar Segall group of people traveling by ship. Museum, São Paulo. 1939-1941.

14.

In groups, research more paintings that represent the idea of immigration and present it to the class.

15.

Follow the instructions and draw a map to indicate your ancestors’ process of immigration to Brazil.

*

Lasar Segall (1891–1957) was a painter, sculptor and engraver. He was born in Lithuania and became a Brazilian citizen later. He is known for his works which represent suffering.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade.

Print out a world map, research about the origins of your ancestors, then find and highlight these places on the map. If possible, glue pictures of your ancestors and, draw lines showing where they have been. You can set up an exhibition with the projects of the class. *Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que Lasar Segall foi um artista lituano, naturalizado brasileiro. Ele produziu pinturas, esculturas e gravuras. Seus trabalhos abordam diferentes temas sendo que o retrato do sofrimento é um dos mais notáveis.

14. Você pode sugerir aos alunos que façam uma busca na internet para encontrar as pinturas. Uma opção é consultar o professor de Arte e convidá-lo para participar desta atividade. Exemplos notáveis incluem Os retirantes, de Candido Portinari e as pinturas da Migration series, de Jacob Lawrence.

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Thinking cross-curricularly

13. c) There is a melancholic mood. People look desolated. Você pode pedir aos alunos que estudem a pintura detalhadamente, observando os detalhes para construírem sua própria interpretação do clima.

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Choosing a career

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, mais informações sobre as profissões mencionadas nesta seção.

Degree

Languages

Job purpose

Convert written materials from a language into another one, ensuring that the translated version conveys the meaning of the original as clearly as possible.

Usually hired by

Translation agencies.

Required skills

• Writing well. • Having excellent reading and comprehension skills. • Knowing how to deal with people. • Having good communication skills. • Being organized and disciplined.

• The fact that the work hours are flexible. • Being pressured to make sure translations are

Characteristics of the job

accurate.

In your opinion, is it a pro (an advantage) or a con (a disadvantage)? Resposta pessoal.

• Constantly working on a deadline. • The possibility of specializing in various types of documents.

• The opportunity to connect people to new •

languages and knowledge. The possibility of having irregular and infrequent work schedule.

Ao abordar as características do trabalho de um tradutor, sugerimos pedir aos alunos que as classifiquem em pró ou contra, de acordo com a visão e a personalidade de cada um.

If you like languages, you can also work as an interpreter.

1.

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Do some research and find out other aspects related to the professions of translator and astronomer, presented on the next page. Share your findings with your classmates.

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos chamar a atenção também para os textos nos post-its e incentivar os alunos a pesquisarem outros aspectos relacionados às profissões apresentadas, como média salarial, diferentes possibilidades de atuação e curiosidades. Em seguida, você pode pedir que formem pequenos grupos e compartilhem uns com os outros o que descobriram.


Degree

Astronomy

Job purpose

Use ground-based and space-based equipments to make observations and collect data about space.

Usually hired by

Universities or development industries.

Required skills

• Being good at math. • Being a team worker. • Being patient. • Having good observation skills. • Being a critical thinker. • Being a good problem-solver and decision-maker. • Speaking and writing well.

Choosing a career

Fotomontagem de Anna Simonin formada pelas imagens Stacey Newman, Alfredo Ragazzoni, Lucas Photo, satit, Thanapun e muratart/Shutterstock.com

• The flexibility to work on a variety of interesting projects on

Characteristics of the job

a daily basis.

• The fact that, sometimes, astronomers are employed for

In your opinion, is it a pro (an advantage) or a con (a disadvantage)?

seasonal and temporary positions.

• Contributing to human knowledge. • Working irregular hours in order to observe certain phenomena.

Resposta pessoal. Ao abordar as características do trabalho de um astrônomo, sugerimos pedir aos alunos que as classifiquem em pró ou contra, de acordo com a visão e a personalidade de cada um.

If you like astronomy, you can also be a Physics, Math or Astronomy teacher.

2.

Think about these professions and talk to a classmate. I would like to be a translator/an astronomer because… I wouldn’t like to be a translator/an astronomer because… Resposta pessoal.

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Getting ready for exams

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

In this section of the book, you are going to study universities entrance examinations from all over the country. This means that you are going to have the opportunity to learn and have more information about the different styles of exams and prepare yourself for when your time to take the examinations comes. The universities entrance examinations have, in most cases, objective questions. The English exams questions usually offer four or five alternatives. They can demand from the students the ability to interpret a text or to use a grammatical and linguistic knowledge. Moreover, some exams ask the questions in English, while others ask them in Portuguese.

(UNISFESP - 2014)

Unifesp stands for Universidade Federal de São Paulo.

As atividades 1 a 4 referem-se ao tema e/ou conteúdos da unidade 5.

Climate change: warm words and cool waters There is a serious debate about why observed temperatures have not kept pace with computer-modelled predictions September 1, 2013 Editorial The Guardian

Last week’s report that the current “pause” in global warming could be linked to cyclic cooling in the Pacific will be interpreted by climate sceptics as evidence that global warming isn’t happening, and by politicians as a reason to forget about climate change and carry on with business as usual. Both responses would be dangerously wrong. There is no serious argument within climate science about the link between carbon dioxide levels and temperature. Between 1970 and 1998 the planet warmed at an average of 0.17C per decade, and from 1998 to 2012 at 0.04C per decade. Carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere, however, continued to rise and are now higher than at any time in the last 800,000 years. Twelve of the 14 warmest years on record have occurred since 2000; the last two years have been marked by catastrophic floods in Australia and recordbreaking temperatures in the US; and the loss of north polar ice has accelerated at such a rate that climate modellers expect the Arctic Ocean to be routinely ice-free in September after 2040. There is, however, a serious debate about why the observed temperatures have not kept pace with computermodelled predictions and where the heat that should have registered on the global thermometer has hidden itself. One guess – supported by some sustained but still incomplete research – is that the deep oceans are warming: that is, the extra heat that should be measurable in the atmosphere has been absorbed by the sea. This is hardly good news: atmosphere and ocean play on each other, and any stored heat is likely to be returned to the atmosphere sooner or later, in unpredictable ways. The real lesson from the latest finding is that there is a lot yet to be understood about how the planet works, and precisely how ocean and atmosphere distribute warmth from the equator to the poles. Climate change: warm words and cool waters. Available at: <www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/sep/01/climate-change-warm-words-coolwaters>. Accessed on: March 8 th, 2015.

1. As informações apresentadas no segundo parágrafo apoiam a ideia, presente no texto, de que c a ) os políticos já podem relaxar as medidas que visam evitar o aquecimento global. b ) a pausa no aquecimento global também pode desencadear mudanças climáticas. c ) o aquecimento global não está em desaceleração, apesar do esfriamento do oceano Pacífico. d ) o ciclo de resfriamento do clima já começou, exemplificado pelas enchentes na Austrália. e ) o derretimento das calotas polares esfriou os oceanos, que, por sua vez, interromperam o aquecimento global.

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(UEL - 2010)

UEL stands for Universidade Estadual de Londrina.

Britain worst in Europe for electrical recycling Britain has picked up the wooden spoon in a recent survey looking into the electrical recycling habits of Europeans. According to the results of the new research, we are apparently the worst in Europe when it comes to recycling WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment). WEEE comprises such devices as mobile phones, PCs, laptops and games consoles, and the research carried out by Dell suggests that we are falling way behind the rest of the continent when it comes to recycling these products. The survey questioned 5,000 people across Europe regarding their recycling habits when it comes to old electronic products, and found that in Britain only half of consumers take appropriate recycling steps, compared to an impressive 80% of Germans. Indeed, Germany, Spain, France and Italy all out-perform us when it comes to having a greater awareness of recycling initiatives, which is the root of the problem. Greater awareness leads to a greater level of recycling, so we still have a long way to go.

There was also confusion between standard recycling and the recycling of electronic products. In the north east of England, almost three quarters of people claim to do what they can to recycle, but less than 1% recycle their electronic products. There is also little knowledge across the country of exactly what the WEEE initiative is, which all paints a rather depressing picture of recycling in the UK. Britain worst in Europe for electrical recycling. Available at: <www.recycling-guide.org.uk/blog-britain-worst-in-europe-for-electrical-recycling.html>. Accessed on: March 8 th, 2016.

2. Com base no texto, é correto afirmar que fatores associados à pouca reciclagem estão ligados:

I ) Ao pouco discernimento sobre as diferentes formas de reciclagem.

II ) Ao conhecimento limitado sobre reciclagem de produtos eletroeletrônicos.

III ) À falta de consciência sobre procedimentos de reciclagem.

IV ) Ao pouco espaço para armazenar produtos para reciclagem.

Assertive questions, like this one, have true and false statements related to the text you read. You have to read these statements to check the alternative that presents the correct answer according to what the question requires.

Assinale a alternativa correta. d a ) Somente as afirmativas I e IV são corretas. b ) Somente as afirmativas II e III são corretas. c ) Somente as afirmativas III e IV são corretas. d ) Somente as afirmativas I, II e III são corretas. e ) Somente as afirmativas I, II e IV são corretas.

3. Com

base no texto, é correto afirmar que os resultados da pesquisa realizada indicam que

d

a ) a Alemanha recicla 80% dos produtos eletroeletrônicos. b ) a Espanha recicla menos que a Inglaterra. c ) a Europa tem aproximadamente 5.000 recicladores. d ) o País de Gales é o que menos recicla no Reino Unido. e ) o Reino Unido deixa de reciclar 19% do que consome. one hundred and sixty-nine

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Getting ready for exams

Within the UK, it was the Welsh who performed the worst, with 19% of people admitting that they had never recycled any of their technology products. This was followed closely by people living in the north of England.


(UFPA - 2014)

UFPA stands for Universidade Federal do Pará.

As countries’ human life expectancy grows, so do their numbers of endangered species, according to a new study by University of California, Davis researchers. The researchers examined social, economic and ecological information for 100 countries to determine which factors are most strongly linked to endangered birds and mammals. Human life expectancy is rarely included in such studies but turned out to be the best predictor of endangerment in these countries, according to the study published in Ecology and Society. “Increased life expectancy means that people live longer and affect the planet longer; each year is another year of carbon footprint, ecological footprint, use of natural resources, etc. The magnitude of this impact is increased as more people live longer,” the authors wrote. Available at: <www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=as-people-live-longer-threats-to-wildlife-increase>. Accessed on: December 17th, 2013.

4. Segundo

o estudo feito pela Universidade da Califórnia, ameaças a espécies da vida animal crescem na medida em que aumenta o(a) c a ) economia dos países.

d ) população de aves e mamíferos.

b ) produção de carbono.

e ) desequilíbrio ecológico do planeta.

c ) longevidade do homem.

(UFG - 2014/2)

UFG stands for Universidade Federal de Goiás.

As atividades 5 e 6 referem-se ao tema e/ou a conteúdos da unidade 6.

ELIF BILGIN GOES BANANAS Sep 25 2013 Bloggers, People By Chiara Spagnoli Gabardi

Turkish teen Elif Bilgin has thrilled her teachers, parents and those who care about the planet by discovering a way to make bio-plastic from an item commonly found in our waste bins: banana peels. The 16 year old prodigy always showed promise academically. From the 4th grade, she was put into a school for gifted children, where she was encouraged to develop her already advanced skills and talents. Since then, the teen has excelled at her studies and learned more about climate change and the environment. Somewhat alarmed at what she was discovering, she was determined to find an alternative to petroleum produced plastics. When Elif found that potatoes and mango peels are already used to make bio-plastic, that fact, combined with the knowledge that Thailand alone discards 200 tons of banana peels per day motivated Elif to work on extracting the starch and cellulose needed for bio-plastic production out of banana peels.

has thrilled: emocionou peels: cascas environment: meio ambiente starch: amido decayed: deterioraram paid off: compensou range of use: gama de uso

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Elif’s research took a couple of years, and her trials initially failed: the plastics created weren’t strong enough and decayed too quickly. But her persistence paid off, since she obtained the result she was pursuing and this discovery made her win the 2013 Science in Action award, Google’s third $50,000 annual competition. Now she’ll continue competing as a finalist in the Google Science Fair for the 15-16-year-old category, and will travel, along with 14 other contenders, to the company’s Mountain View campus in California. She is enthusiastic that her discovery will make a difference to the planet: “The reason why I chose this particular aspect of science is that the bio-plastic is such a new concept and its range of use has been widening ever since it has been discovered (especially in the 21st century).” The young inventor’s dream is to attend medical school in the US and continue with projects concerning the environment, such as building a greenhouse made of waste materials. No doubt whatever Elif does, future generations will thank her. Adapted from: GABARDI, Chiara Spagnoli. Elif Bilgin goes bananas. Available at: <http://eluxemagazine.com/people/elifbilgin/#sthash.kWg4Muw3. dpuf>. Accessed on: February 18 th, 2014.

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5. In the introductory paragraph, readers are given an overview of Elif Bilgin’s story. Regarding the information given, it is understood that she

e

a ) was born in an Eastern European country. b ) could improve her already outstanding abilities at the new school. c ) was more intelligent than her 4th grade colleagues. d ) was concerned about the food waste in her country. e ) got interested in environmental issues through her parents’ influence.

6. The

second and third paragraphs present some information about the research conducted by Elif Bilgin. Among the facts presented, it is learned that b a ) besides banana peels, two other fruit peels had already been used to make bio-plastic. b ) there were some unsuccessful attempts before Elif succeeded in creating resistant bio-plastic. c ) the girl was one among the 14 other finalists in the 2013 Science in Action contest. d ) the girl’s research project received a $50,000 budget to help her with the expenses. e ) Google’s Mountain View campus in California was the place where Elif developed her research.

(ENEM - 2014)

Enem stands for Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio. Getting ready for exams

A atividade 7 refere-se ao tema e/ou conteúdos da unidade 7.

The Road Not Taken (by Robert Frost) Two roads diverged in a wood, and I — I took the one less traveled by, And that has made all the difference. FROST, Robert. The road not taken. Available at: <www.poetryfoundation.org/ poem/173536>. Accessed on: March 8 th, 2016.

7. Estes

são os versos finais do famoso poema The Road Not Taken, do poeta americano Robert Frost. Levando-se em consideração que a vida é comumente metaforizada como uma viagem, esses versos indicam que o autor a a ) festeja o fato de ter sido ousado na escolha que fez em sua vida. b ) lamenta por ter sido um viajante que encontrou muitas bifurcações. c ) viaja muito pouco e que essa escolha fez toda a diferença em sua vida. d ) reconhece que as dificuldades em sua vida foram todas superadas. e ) percorre várias estradas durante as diferentes fases de sua vida. Enem, The National High School Examination, is an exam that takes place every year and is organized by the Brazilian Department of Education. The exam has a total of 180 objective questions which are divided in four areas. It also has a writing question. The foreign language exam has five questions. You have to answer only the questions in the foreign language that you chose when you enrolled. Enem has the objective to evaluate the quality of the Brazilian high school education and it is also a tool to get access to a university. To see the Enem exams, you can access INEP’s website on <http://tub.im/fjoj8r>. one hundred and seventy-one

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(PUC-RIO - 2003)

PUC-Rio stands for Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro.

As atividades 8 e 9 referem-se ao tema e/ou conteúdos da unidade 8.

CLICK BY CLICK, TEENS IMPROVE THEIR WRITING Instant messaging and e-mail are creating a new generation of teenage writers, accustomed to translating their every thought and feeling into words. They write more than any generation has since the days when telephone calls were rare and the mailman rounded more than once a day. Some grammarians fear the rule-free nature of online correspondence - not to mention use of teen code, such as shortening “you” to “u” and typing “ttyl” for “talk to you later” - will flow into their students’ formal writing. But more and more teachers are concluding that kids’ comfort with language actually might improve their writing, if that interest can be exploited in the right way. “These kids are very aware of the power of the written word,” said Gloria Jacobs, who is writing her doctoral thesis at the University of Rochester on teenagers and instant messaging. “They have this fluency with writing online. They are practically attached to their keyboard, and I think that will help their writing skills.” More than half of teenagers 17 and younger who have access to the Internet at home send e-mail or instant messages at least once a week, according to a study by a California research firm and the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. Many kids spend hours each night sending messages to friends and strangers. In the process, they are creating a new social world online, one that often excludes parents. That has brought with it well-known worries about online predators and concerns that children spend too much time on the computer, at the expense of schoolwork, sports or socializing face to face. The positive side, researchers and teachers say, is that e-mail presents a new chance for teenagers to develop some skills needed for effective writing learning to pick their words and tone carefully to communicate their message. Naomi S. Baron, a professor of linguistics at American University, has researched college students’ electronic messaging and found that many consider abbreviations babyish. Younger children, she said, “try to show that they are smart. One way to do that is to come up with clever abbreviations and use acronyms that others may not know.” What kids might not lose, however, is an intuitive understanding that writing has a purpose and an audience. Kids learn that how they write will determine whether their meaning is received correctly, the researchers said. “Writing is about communicating with others. This is a very important insight to learn. So often in classrooms students fail to understand that they are actually writing for someone”, said David Bloome, a professor of education at Vanderbilt University and the president of the National Council of Teachers of English. Students also love writing online, seeing it as recreation rather than schoolwork. That opens up possibilities for teachers to exploit the medium. “For a while, people were not writing anything,” said Barbara Bash, the director of the Maryland Writing Project (where she works with public school teachers from across the state to improve writing instruction) “Now, people are actually seeing words on paper. And that’s good.” HELDERMAN, Rosalind. Click by click, teens improve their writing. Available at: <www.washingtonpost.com/archive/ local/2003/05/20/click-by-click-teens-polish-writing/bb4e85e1-e6c9-491c-a275-ed1548224ffe/>. Accessed on: March 8th, 2016.

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8. According

to the teachers and researchers mentioned in the text, e-mails have been improving teenage writing because: e a ) nowadays kids are more talented than those from previous generations. b ) teenagers have been spending more time doing their school assignments. c ) youngsters have been learning the importance of face-to-face interaction. d ) kids are becoming more skilled in writing to please their teachers and parents. e ) teens are writing more and becoming more conscious of the strength of words in a text.

(CEDERJ - 2014/1)

Cederj stands for Centro de Educação a Distância do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

Why I took up the cello in my 60s Michelle Hanson

Learning to play a musical instrument at any point in life is good for the brain. Who cares if I sound like a ‘sick cow’?

Getting ready for exams

It’s exciting to know that I have done something right and rewarding – taking up the cello in my 60s. A new study from St. Andrew’s University proves it. Taking up a musical instrument, even late in life, is good for the brain, and “can slow, stop, or even reverse, age or illness-related decline in mental functions”. Hurrah! My efforts have been rewarded, because starting the cello was a bit of a struggle, physically and mentally. Back then, my mother was alive, and rather critical: “You sound like a sick cow,” she would cry out in a tormented way, but I persisted, joined an orchestra, and now here I am, with a bigger frontal cortex area than I might have otherwise had, and able to “adjust my behaviour more effectively in conflict-rich situations”. The more you practise the better, suggests the research. Good. It will spur me on, sick cow or not. Because I desperately need to keep my brain in order. Don’t we all, if we’re going to live to over 100? Last week I went for a walk with an old friend of mine and her dog. She is 92 and browned off. “How are you?” I asked. “Fed up. I want to die.” This was my mother’s primary aim once she hit 96. “What do you want for your birthday?” we would ask. “To be dead!”, she would say. No wonder. What else did life offer? At least my old friend could walk about. My mother could hardly walk, talk or eat. If only they had played a musical instrument. You can do it sitting down, on your own, with friends, cheer yourself up, be in control, or wildly emotional. I cannot recommend it highly enough. Source: HANSON, Michele. Why I took up the cello in my 60s. Available at: <www.theguardian.com/ lifeandstyle/2013/sep/30/why-i-took-up-cello-in-60s/>. Accessed on: March 8 th, 2016.

took up: aprendi struggle: luta/ muito esforço spur me on: encorajar/ estimular browned off: sem entusiasmo

9. Entre

os adjetivos abaixo, retirados do texto, marque aquele que expressa o modo com que a autora avalia sua experiência de tocar o violoncelo d a ) tormented. b ) emotional. c ) conflict-rich. d ) rewarding. one hundred and seventy-three

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Going out there

How does recycling work? Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

O tempo estimado para a realização desta seção é de quatro semanas. O processo de avaliação deve ser contínuo, portanto, sugerimos promover momentos de pausas, reflexões e correções do que já foi feito durante todo o desenvolvimento da seção.

How much do you know about recycling? Did you know that if you recycle paper you can save trees? Studies have proven that one ton of paper is equivalent to seventeen fully grown trees. Isn’t it amazing? We can protect the environment by recycling. Now, read the text below to find out more about recycling. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir as atividades desta seção.

Recycling 101: what to recycle, what not to recycle, and does it even matter? [...] Recycling clean waste does save resources. Certain materials help your city break even on its money-losing curbside program too. If the following are clean, and if you’re not going out of your way (which could create more pollution than saved), you should toss them into a recycling bin: • aluminum cans • any clean metal waste • clean newspapers • clean magazines • unshredded mail Don’t bother recycling the following. Experts say it either clogs the machines at the recycling facility or is not worth the effort: • shredded paper • plastic grocery bags • jars with lids screwed on • jars with significant food inside. Washing them with water wastes a far more valuable resource than landfill space. • anything that’s been soiled by wet food or waste; even the napkin you wiped your mouth with after a hot dog with mustard, for example • dirty diapers (duh!) [...] The chief factors in determining which materials to lob into your recycling bin are cleanliness and value of material. Ultimately, recycling is a business, and clean, high-value materials fetch the highest prices. Aluminum is, by far, the most valuable because it’s the scarcest. If you recycle only one product in your lifetime, make it aluminum cans. Aluminum sells for as much as $2,000 per ton. Other recyclables sell between $50 and $175 per ton. To melt and reform aluminum from leftover cans takes only 5 percent of the energy needed to mine bauxite ore out of the Earth and create new aluminum. [...] Recycling paper saves significant landfill space, too. Archaeologist William L. Rathje spent decades digging through U.S. landfills to see what they’re made of and how they biodegrade. In his excavation project with University of Arizona students, Rathje learned that paper occupies 40 percent to 50 percent of landfills. [...] Recycling 101: what to recycle, what not to recycle, and does it even matter? Available at: <www.phoenixnewtimes. com/news/recycling-101-what-to-recycle-what-not-to-recycle-and-does-it-even-matter-6445735>. Accessed on: March 9 th, 2016.

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1.

Talk to your classmates and answer the following questions.

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos incentivar os alunos a ao texto para obter esta informação. Além disso, eles podem trazer seu conhecimento de mundo para discutir o que entendem por reciclagem.

a ) After reading the text, what do you understand by recycling? voltarem b ) Do you feel motivated to recycle? Why (not)? Resposta

pessoal.

c ) Do people recycle in your house? And in your school? If so, since when?

Resposta pessoal.

d ) Give examples of materials that can be recycled.

Resposta esperada: aluminum cans, any clean metal waste, clean newspapers, clean magazines, unshredded mail. esperada: shredded paper, plastic grocery bags, jars with lids screwed on, jars with significant food inside, anything that’s been soiled by wet food or waste.

e ) Give examples of materials that don’t need to be recycled. Resposta

f ) According to the text, why is there no need to bother recycling these materials?

Because they either clog the machines at the recycling facility or is not worth the effort, and also because washing them with water wastes a far more valuable resource than landfill space.

Getting down to work Now, it’s time to think about how the process of recycling happens. Work in groups of four to come up with some questions that involve the process of recycling materials. First, you are going to check how the companies that recycle work. You are going to visit one of these companies to learn how the recycling process happens. After that, you need to present the information you have collected to your school community.

With your teacher and classmates, research some websites that show how recycling works. You can also use books and magazines. During the research, write in your notebook some questions about the process. Read some examples on the right. After doing the research, schedule a visit to a recycling company so you can observe the process and ask the questions you wrote down.

• What is recycled? • How is the process of sorting out the recyclable materials? • How are they recycled? • Which companies buy the recyclable materials? What do they use these items for?

• Where do things that are not recycled go to? • Are any of the non-recyclable items thrown away? If so, how

Going out there

Researching

are they discarded?

• Do the non-recyclable items have any use?

During this visit, it’s important to observe the process and ask them the questions you wrote in class. You can also ask the company permission to take pictures to illustrate the process or even if you can record some explanations to show to your school.

Going further

Caso disponha de tempo hábil, sugerimos incentivar os alunos a visitarem outros sites sobre reciclagem. Alguns exemplos são: United States Environmental Protection Agency <http://tub.im/ifw4r5>, Recycling Guide <http://tub. im/3s74q2> e The Swedish recycling revolution <http://tub.im/s3sm9f>. Acesso em: 8 mar. 2016.

Surfing the net On the websites Ecocycle <http://tub.im/qnutwb> and Recycle Now <http://tub.im/25m38y>, you will have access to information about recycling, including how it works, what can or can’t be recycled and some tips to reduce, reuse and recycle. You can also access the website Bryson Charitable Group <http://tub.im/we5fyn>, which has a quiz to test your knowledge about recycling.

The movie Waste Land, by Lucy Walker, analyses the work of the Brazilian artist Vik Muniz in one of the biggest landfill in the world. It’s a documentary which also analyzes the people who work in a landfill outside Rio de Janeiro. Incredibly poor – but incredibly resilient – these folks let viewers see the dignity of people living in poverty. The movie WALL-E, by Andrew Stanton, is about a garbage collector robot whose goal is to clean up the waste humans produced. Wall-E is alone on Earth when he meets Eve, another robot. Watching

n. dre w Stanto Fil me de An 20 08 Wall-E. EUA.

These are some suggestions of websites, books and movies you can use for your research.

WALL-E, by Andrew Stanton. Disney Pixar: USA, 2008. Reading The book 47 Things You Can Do for the Environment, by Lexi Petronis and Jill Buck, shows that it is not complicated to reduce the amount of trash and that it can start with us. This book shows examples of big and small actions such as eating less and other actions that can motivate adolescents to behave in a conscious way.

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O tempo estimado para a realização das etapas seguintes é de duas semanas.

Analyzing and organizing the results Now, you are going to present your ideas to your teacher and he/she will check if you are ready to present it to your school community. In your presentation, explain what you understood from the observation. Your goal is to describe the steps of the recycling process to your school community.

Talking about the recycling process Write a short text using the collected information. This text will help you organize your research, providing you with notes to explain the recycling process in your oral presentation. Then, to give your oral presentation, first, organize the information you have collected during your research. You can think of some aspects such as:

It may be a good idea to exhibit or give examples of recycled products or materials demonstrating how the process occurs.

Decide what part of your research is the most important to share with your classmates.

Organize the selected information in a logical way.

Presenting the results Now, let’s present what you learned about recycling to your school! Your teacher is going to choose a day and a place, and you can invite other students to see what you have learned. Each group will be responsible for explaining to the visitors how the process of recycling occurs.

During the presentation You can start your presentation explaining that the goal is to show your school community how recycling happens. Another important point to consider is that you are doing it to explain to people the importance of recycling and to encourage them to practice it at school, at home, and in your city. Antes da apresentação oficial, sugerimos ensaiar os alunos para que estejam preparados para a apresentação, corrigindo possíveis falhas e aperfeiçoando a habilidade de falar em público.

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All the members of your group should participate in the presentation. If you have doubts during the presentation, ask your teacher.

You can write down on a cardboard* the names of the steps to recycle materials. *Uma sugestão é que o material utilizado pelos alunos seja reciclável, assim eles podem pôr em prática o que estão estudando. Por isso, verifique antecipadamente com o professor de Arte o verso de algum material que utilizaram anteriormente ou algo que seria descartado na escola em que estudam.

Evaluating the process You are going to think about the steps taken by your group while giving your presentation, from the conception of ideas to the final exhibition. Establish the ups and downs of this assignment. You can use the questions below to guide your discussion.

What was my role in my group’s work? Did I participate in all the steps?

Which step was the most difficult for me? Why?

Did I respect my group’s ideas, dates and organization? How?

What did I learn from this assignment? Have my opinions changed since the beginning of it?

Going out there

Camila Ferreira

Materials, such as videos, pictures and objects you saw during the visit, may help you to explain your speech and may also capture the listeners’ attention. Select them carefully.

É interessante que os alunos percebam que o processo pelo qual passaram os fez reconhecer e produzir textos expositivos, ampliando seu conhecimento e dos demais alunos. Além disso, as atividades desenvolvidas tiveram como propósito motivar os alunos a conhecer e praticar a reciclagem nos ambientes em que convivem.

Could the knowledge I shared with my classmates be acquired by them? How?

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Understanding literature Women writers 1.

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

1. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que muitos livros famosos foram escritos por mulheres, desde os clássicos como Orgulho e Preconceito (Pride and Prejudice), de Jane Austen e O Morro dos Ventos Uivantes (Wuthering Heights), de Emily Brontë, até os contemporâneos, como a série Harry Potter, de J.K. Rowling. De autoras brasileiras, podemos citar Ou Isto ou Aquilo, de Cecília Meireles; Bagagem, de Adélia Prado; A Hora da Estrela, de Clarice Lispector, entre outros.

Discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates. a ) Can you name some books written by women? Resposta

pessoal.

Resposta pessoal. Caso os alunos respondam afirmativamente, b ) Have you read any of these books? sugerimos pedir-lhes que contem a história de forma resumida e digam se gostaram dos livros. c ) In your opinion, is it easy for a woman to publish a book? Why (not)? Resposta pessoal. Possível resposta: no, it is not. Male writers have more chances to publish books, because many people, including editors and readers, believe that male writers d ) In your opinion, why do some female writers choose to use male pseudonyms? are better than Resposta esperada: because it is easier to publish as a male writer. female writers.

Read the text and answer in your notebook the questions that follow.

Após a leitura, sugerimos comentar com os alunos que autores e autoras podem preferir assinar seus trabalhos com nomes fictícios. Isso acontece por diferentes razões: muitas autoras utilizam nomes masculinos para terem mais chances de publicação; outros usam pseudônimos para esconder sua identidade; autores consagrados podem usar um pseudônimo para lançar um livro que difere de seu estilo mais conhecido; autores que escrevem coletivamente a mesma obra e preferem assinar o trabalho com um único nome podem optar por um pseudônimo.

x http://destinationfemme.com/famous-female-authors-who-used-male-pen-names-sd/

Famous female authors who have used male

Famous Female Authors Who Have Used Male Pen Names pen names Throughout many female writers have felt the need to Throughouthistory, history, many female writers have felt the need to write write under male pseudonym. The they main reason they resort to a maleapseudonym. The main reason resort to using a male under is topen maskname their identity order to be taken more seriously pen name using a male is to inmask their identity in orderinto be thanksin to age-old stereotypes about what women are the literary taken moreworld, seriously the literary world, thanks to age-old capable of writing. The practice of adopting a male nom de plume is stereotypes about what women are capable of writing. The prevalent even today when it comes to genres such as science fiction practice of adopting a male nom de plume is prevalent even and crime thrillers. From historical authors such as Mary Ann Evans and today comes to genres such as fictionandand Alice when Bradley it Sheldon to present day authors suchscience as J.K. Rowling Roberts, theFrom practice of women taking up such a male as penMary name has Nora thrillers. crime historical authors Ann certainly lasted. Evans and Alice Bradley Sheldon to present day authors such […] as J.K. Rowling and Nora Roberts, the practice of women Famous female authors who have usedlasted. male pen names. Available A at: at: taking up a male pen name has certainly <http://destinationfemme.com/famous-female-authors-who-used-male-pen-names-sd/> […] Accessed on: November 24th, 2015.

Rogério Casagrande

2.

Famous female authors who have used male pen names. Available at: <http://destinationfemme.com/famousfemale-authors-who-used-male-pen-names-sd/>. Accessed on: November 24th, 2015.

2. b) Sugerimos pedir aos alunos que comentem sobre as informações apresentadas no texto, dizendo se já conheciam essa prática ou não.

a ) What is the main topic of the text?

The use of male pen names by female writers.

b ) Did you know that women writers sometimes use male pseudonyms to publish their books? Resposta pessoal.

They use a pen name to mask their identity to taken more seriously in the literary world. Female writers have felt the need to use a male name throughout history.

c ) Why do many female writers use a male pen name? be

d ) What questions do you still have about what was discussed in the text?

3.

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a exporem dúvidas surgidas a partir da leitura do texto. Você pode instruí-los a trocar informações com os outros alunos e tentarem encontrar as respostas para os questionamentos levantados, recorrendo, se necessário, a pesquisas em livros ou na internet.

Are the following sentences true or false? In your notebook, write down the true statements and rewrite the false ones. a ) In the past, female writers had to use a pseudonym because there was a lot of prejudice against them. True. b ) Female writers have been using male pseudonyms throughout history. True. c ) Female writers don’t face any problems to Female writers face age-old publish books. False. stereotypes about their capability of

writing.

d ) Nowadays, there are female writers of science fiction and crime thrillers that choose to adopt a male name. True. e ) Present day female authors do not use male Present day authors J.K. Rowling and Nora pen names. False. Roberts are examples of female writers who used a

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male pen name.

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A fake name used by an author is called pen name or nom de plume. In the past, especially from 17th to 19 th century, women used male pen names to gain space in the literary world, which was dominated by men. Nowadays, famous writers may use male pen names to hide their identities.


Novels written by women 4.

Discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates. pessoal. Resposta esperada: it is a long narrative, usually fictitious, portraying a ) Do you know what a novel is? Resposta characters and often as a sequential story. Sugerimos explicar aos alunos que novel (em

c ) What novels have you read that were written by women?

5.

Resposta pessoal.

Resposta pessoal.

You are going to read an excerpt from Wuthering Heights, which is considered one of the greatest works of fiction ever written. In this excerpt, Heathcliff talks about when he visited Catherine’s grave. Read it and answer the following questions in your notebook. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, informações sobre a obra.

Wuthering Heights […] You know I was wild after she died; and eternally, from dawn to dawn, praying her to return to me her spirit! I have a strong faith in ghosts: I have a conviction that they can, and do, exist among us! The day she was buried, there came a fall of snow. In the evening I went to the churchyard. It blew bleak as winter—all round was solitary. I didn’t fear that her fool of a husband would wander up the den so late; and no one else had business to bring them there. Being alone, and conscious two yards of loose earth was the sole barrier between us, I said to myself, ‘I’ll have her in my arms again! If she be cold, I’ll think it is this north wind that chills me; and if she be motionless, it is sleep.’ I got a spade from the tool-house, and began to delve with all my might—it scraped the coffin; I fell to work with my hands; the wood commenced cracking about the screws; I was on the point of attaining my object, when it seemed that I heard a sigh from someone above, close at the edge of the grave, and bending down. ‘If I can only get this off,’ I muttered, ‘I wish they may shovel in the earth over us both!’ and I wrenched at it more desperately still. There was another sigh, close at my ear. I appeared to feel the warm breath of it displacing the sleet-laden wind. I knew no living thing in flesh and blood was by; but, as certainly as you perceive the approach to some substantial body in the dark, though it cannot be discerned, so certainly I felt that Cathy was there: not under me, but on the earth. A sudden sense of relief flowed from my heart through every limb. I relinquished my labour of agony, and turned consoled at once: unspeakably consoled. Her presence was with me: it remained while I refilled the grave, and led me home. You may laugh, if you will; but I was sure I should see her there. I was sure she was with me, and I could not help talking to her. [...]

português, romance) se refere ao gênero literário cuja trama é narrada de maneira sequencial, com personagens, narrador e cenário, apresentados por meio da prosa ficcional.

4. b) Você pode comentar com os alunos que o romance é um gênero literário bastante popular e muitas pessoas os leem por prazer. Entre os romances contemporâneos estão, por exemplo, as séries Harry Potter, de J.K. Rowling, e a Saga Crepúsculo (The Twilight Saga), de Stephanie Meyer.

Understanding literature

b ) Do you like reading novels? If so, what are your favorite ones?

BRONTË, Emily. Wuthering heights. Penguin Books: London, 1994. p. 241-242.

a ) What is the tone, the mood of the narrative? Resposta esperada: it’s dark, gloomy and supernatural.

b ) What was Heathcliff doing?

He was trying to dig up Catherine’s dead body.

c ) What happened that made him stop? He felt a presence near him.

d ) How did he react to the presence that he felt at the grave? He felt relieved and consoled.

e ) What did he do next?

He refilled the grave and went back home.

f ) The excerpt is narrated by Heathcliff. Do you think he is a reliable narrator? Can you Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que o trecho, narrado believe everything he said? em primeira pessoa, apresenta a visão de Heathcliff sobre os fatos e, por isso, a veracidade e imparcialidade do acontecimento pode ser questionada. pessoal. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que Emily Brontë e suas irmãs, Anne e Charlotte, foram escritoras cujas obras são consideradas clássicos da literatura em língua inglesa. As três usaram pseudônimos masculinos na carreira.

g ) In your opinion, was it a ghost or his imagination? Resposta

The sisters Charlotte Brontë (1816–1855), Emily Brontë (1818–1848) and Anne Brontë (1820–1849) were known as the Brontës. All of them were writers and used male pen names. Emily first published her only novel, Wuthering Heights, using the name Ellis Bell. She also wrote poetry. She died from tuberculosis at the age of 30.

5. g) Você pode incentivar os alunos a criarem suposições sobre o que aconteceu com Heathcliff. O trecho é marcado pela estranheza da fala do personagem, que, além de tentar abrir um caixão, sente prazer com a suposta presença da alma da amada.

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6. Discuss

6. a) Resposta pessoal. Resposta esperada: it is a literary genre that deals with speculations about future science, technology, robots, time travel, space travel, paranormal activities, aliens, mutants, robots, androids. Sugerimos explicar que, além das obras literárias, podemos encontrar produções de ficção científica no cinema, em histórias em quadrinhos, entre outros.

the following questions with your teacher and classmates.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, informações sobre o item c desta atividade.

a ) Do you know what science fiction is?

pessoal. Em caso de resposta afirmativa, sugerimos b ) Do you like science fiction? Resposta que comentem sobre suas obras de ficção científica favoritas.

c ) Can you give some examples of science fiction books and movies?

7. In

pedir aos alunos

Resposta pessoal.

groups, think about words related to monsters. Write them down in your notebook.

Resposta pessoal. Possível resposta: vampire, ghost, alien, giants, troll, zombies, Frankenstein, creature, werewolf, robot.

8. Now,

you are going to read an excerpt from Frankenstein; or, the Modern Prometheus, published in 1818 by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley. The excerpt below describes how Victor felt when he gave life to the creature. After reading, write down in your notebook... Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, informações sobre a obra.

a ) one word to describe the excerpt. Resposta esperada: birth, horror, surprise.

b ) two facts that you already knew about the book. Resposta pessoal.

c ) three words related to the main idea.

Resposta esperada: horror, catastrophe, creature.

d ) four words that you didn’t know. Resposta pessoal.

7. Você pode pedir aos alunos que pensem em monstros da literatura, do cinema e de outras mídias. As próprias obras levantadas na atividade 6 podem fornecer ideias. Caso o nome Frankenstein não seja mencionado pelos alunos, sugerimos comentar que um dos monstros mais clássicos da ficção, juntamente com o vampiro e lobisomem, é a criatura criada por Frankenstein.

Frankenstein; or, the Modern Prometheus Chapter 5

Art Capri

It was on a dreary night of November that I beheld the accomplishment of my toils. With an anxiety that almost amounted to agony, I collected the instruments of life around me, that I might infuse a spark of being into the lifeless thing that lay at my feet. It was already one in the morning; the rain pattered dismally against the panes, and my candle was nearly burnt out, when, by the glimmer of the half-extinguished light, I saw the dull yellow eye of the creature open; it breathed hard, and a convulsive motion agitated its limbs. How can I describe my emotions at this catastrophe, or how delineate the wretch whom with such infinite pains and care I had endeavoured to form? His limbs were in proportion, and I had selected his features as beautiful. Beautiful! Great God! His yellow skin scarcely covered the work of muscles and arteries beneath; his hair was of a lustrous black, and flowing; his teeth of a pearly whiteness; but these luxuriances only formed a more horrid contrast with his watery eyes, that seemed almost of the same colour as the dun-white sockets in which they were set, his shrivelled complexion and straight black lips. [...] Oh! No mortal could support the horror of that countenance. A mummy again endued with animation could not be so hideous as that wretch. I had gazed on him while unfinished; he was ugly then, but when those muscles and joints were rendered capable of motion, it became a thing such as even Dante could not have conceived. […]

SHELLEY, Mary. Frankenstein; or, the modern Prometheus. Penguin Books: London, 1994. p. 55-56.

Você pode comentar com os alunos que Mary Shelley foi uma escritora britânica, cuja obra mais famosa é Frankenstein, escrita quando tinha apenas 19 anos.

Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (1797–1851) was a British writer. Her most famous work, Frankenstein; or, the Modern Prometheus, was written when she was 19 years old. Her mother, Mary Wollstonecraft (1759–1797) was also a writer. She published A Vindication of the Rights of Woman: with Strictures on Political and Moral Subjects (1792), considered one of the earliest books of feminist philosophy.

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the following questions with your teacher and classmates.

a ) Did you know that Frankenstein was not the name of the monster, but the name of the scientist? Resposta pessoal. b ) How was the night when the creature came to life? It was a dreary and rainy night.

c ) What time was it when Victor Frankenstein was working in the creature? It was already one in the morning.

d ) How did Victor Frankenstein describe the creature? e ) In your opinion, is it possible to say that Mary Shelley was criticizing science in her book? Why (not)? f ) In your opinion, what was the intention of Frankenstein when he gave life to that creature? Resposta pessoal. g ) In groups, research books, animations and movies based on Frankenstein and present it to the class. Remember to mention how the creature’s appearance changed in the movies.

In 1816, Mary Shelley, her husband and friends spent a summer near Lake Geneva, Switzerland. It was a rainy summer, so, one of the writers there, the famous Lord Byron (17881824), proposed that everybody should write a ghost story. Shelley wrote a tale that would become Frankenstein.

10. The

author chooses words and expressions that contribute to the dark gothic atmosphere of the narrative. Find the following words in the text and look at them in context. Then, associate the words with their meanings. a - III; b - V; c - I; d - IV; e - II; f -, VI. a ) dreary night b ) lifeless thing c ) pattered dismally d ) half-extinguished light e ) dull yellow eye f ) wretch

11. Wuthering

9. g) Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que inúmeras obras utilizaram a figura do monstro de Frankenstein como inspiração. No filme Frankenstein, de 1931, por exemplo, o ator Boris Karloff consagra a imagem da criatura como um homem enorme, com movimentos lentos e enrijecidos, cabelos curtos, feições retangulares e parafusos no pescoço.

I

made gloomy sounds

II

not bright eye

III

tedious, depressing night

IV

almost burnt-out light

V

something inanimate, inert

VI

a despicable person

Heights and Frankenstein are considered gothic fiction, which mixes feelings of love, terror and fear and the stories happen in ancient places such as old houses and castles. It may also feature monsters, like vampires. The words below show some of the most common elements in gothic fiction. Which ones are related to each book and which to both of them? Draw up the chart in your notebook and write down the words that are related specifically to one of the books or to both. relief

lonely

consolation

life

churchyard

death

fear

panic

rain

ghost

monster

insanity

night

cold wind

spirit

dead body

Wuthering Heights

Resposta esperada: spirit, ghost, churchyard, cold wind, relief, consolation.

Resposta esperada: night, lonely, insanity, dead body, death.

Resposta esperada: rain, monster, fear, panic, life.

9. a) Sugerimos explicar que a criatura criada por Victor Frankenstein não tem nome, mas se popularizou a ideia de que seu nome é Frankenstein. 9. d) He said it was a beautiful creature, but when it became alive it was hideous. The monster had a yellow skin, lustrous black hair, teeth of a pearly whiteness, watery eyes and black lips. 9. e) Resposta esperada: yes, she was. One of the main themes of the book is the dangers of going too far in science experiments. Sugerimos explicar que, na época em que a obra foi escrita, as Ciências evoluíam rapidamente e Mary Shelley expressou a possibilidade de um experimento sair do controle devido à arrogância de seu criador, como no caso de Victor, que preferiu fugir a assumir a consequência de seus atos.

Frankenstein; or, the Modern Prometheus 9. f) Um dos temas principais na obra são as consequências de se levar a Ciência ao extremo. Desse modo, seria interessante conduzir uma discussão crítica sobre a postura do cientista, que, de maneira irresponsável, deu vida a uma criatura artificial que abandona logo depois.

12. In

groups, research more female novel writers and present it to the class. Your research should include the author’s biography, the literary themes she wrote about, and some of the books published by her. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade. one hundred and eighty-one

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9. Discuss


Poems written by women 13.

Discuss these questions with your teacher and ver, nas Orientações para o classmates. Sugerimos professor¸ comentários sobre esta atividade.

Sonnets are poems that are usually composed of fourteen lines which are rigidly structured. Sonnets also contain a fixed rhyme structure. Sonnets are originally from Italy and later became popular in England.

a ) Do you like poems? Resposta pessoal.

b ) Can you give some examples of famous poems or poets? Resposta pessoal. 15. O objetivo desta atividade é preparar os alunos para a leitura do soneto, pelo processo de inferência. Inicialmente os alunos podem ler a frase destacada e, a partir dela, fazer suposições sobre o restante do poema. É importante que eles não leiam o restante do poema antes de completarem a atividade. 16. Sugerimos que a leitura do poema seja individual e silenciosa e uma segunda leitura seja feita pelos alunos e o professor, buscando uma compreensão geral do poema. Após a leitura, você pode perguntar aos alunos se suas inferências em relação ao texto estavam corretas.

Você pode pedir aos alunos que citem exemplos de poetas ou poemas famosos ou que eles apreciem.

Resposta esperada: you can find many subjects in a poem, such as nature or pain. Sugerimos explicar aos alunos que os poemas podem falar de diferentes assuntos, desde declarações de amor, reflexões sobre a vida e a natureza até homenagens a pessoas ou nações.

c ) What are the possible themes that you can find in a poem? love,

14.

In your notebook, associate the characteristics with the appropriate genre.

a – I; b – II. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, informações sobre os gêneros romance e poema.

a ) novel I

b ) poem

long length

• plot • narrator • characters and places, usually organized in chapters

15.

II

short length

• capture a moment or experience • persona • usually structured with lines, stanzas, rhymes, and rhythm

In pairs, read the sentence below. It is the first line of a poem written by Toru Dutt, an Indian female poet. After you read this line, make predictions about the rest of the content of the poem and answer the questions that follows.

A sea of foliage girds our garden round. DUTT, Toru. Sonnet. Available at: <www.gutenberg.org/files/13268/13268h/13268-h.htm#BALLADS_OF_HINDOSTAN_a>. Accessed on: November 27th, 2015.

Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que a frase fala de um mar de folhagem que circunda um jardim. Resposta pessoal. Resposta esperada: it’s about a garden, flowers, trees and plants. Sugerimos questionar os alunos sobre o que o verso destacado indica sobre o poema que será lido. Explain your prediction. Resposta esperada: the words in the sentence are related to plants. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a procurarem elementos na frase que justifiquem a resposta do item a.

a ) What do you think the poem is about? b)

16.

Read the sonnet and check if your prediction was correct.

Resposta pessoal.

Sonnet

Art Capri

A sea of foliage girds our garden round, But not a sea of dull unvaried green, Sharp contrasts of all colors here are seen; The light-green graceful tamarinds abound Amid the mango clumps of green profound, And palms arise, like pillars gray, between; And o’er the quiet pools the seemuls* lean, Red—red, and startling like a trumpet’s sound. But nothing can be lovelier than the ranges Of bamboos to the eastward, when the moon Looks through their gaps, and the white lotus changes Into a cup of silver. One might swoon Drunken with beauty then, or gaze and gaze On a primeval Eden, in amaze. DUTT, Toru. Sonnet. Available at: <www.gutenberg.org/files/13268/13268h/13268-h.htm>. Accessed on: November 27th, 2015.

*silk cotton trees

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Toru Dutt (1856-1877) was an Indian poet, writer and translator. During her teen years, she traveled to Europe. She was fluent in English, French and Sanskrit. Her works consist of poems, sonnets, novels and translations, which were written in English and French. Sanskrit is an ancient language from India. Being the language of Hinduism, it is considered sacred. Although it is considered official in India, today it is only used for religious purposes.

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17. Rhymes

are an important characteristic of sonnets. They are the repetition of similar or identical sounds in the final syllables of words at the end of each sentence. Read the sonnet aloud and use letters to represent the repetition of rhymes.

Resposta esperada: a, b, b, a, a, b, b, a, c, d, c, d, e, e. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade. ver, nas Orientações para o Answer in your notebook the following questions about the sonnet. Sugerimos professor, como conduzir alguns dos itens desta atividade.

18.

a ) What are the elements in the garden?

Tamarinds, mango clumps, palms, seemuls (silk cotton trees), bamboos, white lotus.

b ) The poet who wrote this sonnet was Indian. What is the relation between her country of origin and the elements mentioned in the poem?

The presence of fruits, plants and trees that are common in India expresses the writer’s love for her homeland. esperada: it’s a garden with tamarinds, mango clumps, palms, quiet pools, silk cotton trees, bambu and a white lotus. It’s a pleasant place. d ) What are the colors in the sonnet? What are your impressions about them? Resposta esperada: the garden has different shades of green. Red appears and then, white and silver. In the sonnet, the colors are used to show how exuberant the garden is.

c ) What is the place described in the poem like? Is it a pleasant place? Resposta e ) In your opinion, why is red mentioned twice?

Resposta esperada: red is mentioned twice to highlight the contrast between red and green. Red breaks the coolness of green. Resposta esperada: white and silver come after red, which is the climax of the sonnet. White is usually related to pureness and calmness, which is in contrast to the warmness of red. g ) What would happen to someone looking at this garden? Resposta esperada: a person would swoon or be amazed. De acordo com o eu lírico, a visão do jardim é tão bela que um espectador poderia desmaiar ou ficar perplexo enquanto o admira. h ) Did you like the sonnet? Why (not)? Resposta pessoal.

f ) What is the sensation provoked by white and silver at the end of the sonnet?

19. Have

you ever seen the trees and flowers found in the garden of the poem? In groups, make a photo collage with all the elements mentioned in the sonnet. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

20. Emily

Dickinson also wrote some poems about nature. In groups, choose one of them and present it to the class. Your research has to present the structure and the themes of the poem.

There is another sky

A Bird came down the Walk

There is another sky, Ever serene and fair, And there is another sunshine, Though it be darkness there; Never mind faded forests, Austin, Never mind silent fields— Here is a little forest, Whose leaf is ever green; Here is a brighter garden, Where not a frost has been; In its unfading flowers I hear the bright bee hum: Prithee, my brother, Into my garden come!

A Bird came down the Walk: He did not know I saw; He bit an Angle-worm in halves And ate the fellow, raw.

DICKINSON, Emily. There is another sky. Available at: <www.poemhunter.com/poem/there-is-another-sky/> Accessed on: March 11th, 2016.

Emily Elizabeth Dickinson (1830-1886) was an American poet. She wrote 1800 poems during her lifetime, but few were published since she didn’t write using the conventional rules. Most of her work was published after her death.

20. Sugerimos organizar os alunos em grupos e orientá-los a escolher um dos poemas abaixo para fazer uma análise dos elementos textuais, como rimas, temas e ideias expressas pela autora e as metáforas utilizadas.

He glanced with rapid eyes That hurried all abroad,— They looked like frightened Beads, I thought He stirred his velvet head Like one in danger; Cautious, I offered him a Crumb, And he unrolled his feathers And rowed him softer home Than Oars divide the ocean, Too silver for a seam, Or Butterflies, off Banks of Noon, Leap, plashless, as they swim. DICKINSON, Emily. A bird came down the walk. In: LINSCOTT, Robert (Ed.). Selected poems and letters of Emily Dickinson. Anchor Books: the USA, 1959. p. 103-104.

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Understanding literature

And then he drank a Dew From a convenient Grass, And then hopped sidewise to the Wall To let a Beetle pass.

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Feminist literature 21.

You are going to read an excerpt of one of Virginia Woolf’s books, entitled A Room of One’s Own, which is about an imaginary Shakespeare’s sister. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, informações sobre a obra.

Virginia Woolf (18821941) was an English writer. She is also one of the most prominent modernist authors from the 20 th century. Her books are considered very innovative due to the use of writing techniques, such as stream of consciousness and deep characters.

Stream of consciousness is a narrative device used to express the flow of thoughts of a character, usually marked by the absence of punctuation.

In American English, the spelling is theater. In British English, it is spelled theatre.

22. 22. a) Resposta pessoal. Resposta esperada: yes, it is hard. Because, even today, women writers face difficulties to enter the literary world.

A Room of One’s Own […] Let me imagine, since facts are so hard to come by, what would have happened had Shakespeare had a wonderfully gifted sister, called Judith, let us say. Shakespeare himself went, very probably, — his mother was an heiress — to the grammar school, where he may have learnt Latin — Ovid, Virgil and Horace — and the elements of grammar and logic. […] That escapade sent him to seek his fortune in London. He had, it seemed, a taste for the theatre; he began by holding horses at the stage door. Very soon he got work in the theatre, became a successful actor, and lived at the hub of the universe, meeting everybody, knowing everybody, practising his art on the boards, exercising his wits in the streets, and even getting access to the palace of the queen. Meanwhile his extraordinarily gifted sister, let us suppose, remained at home. She was as adventurous, as imaginative, as agog to see the world as he was. But she was not sent to school. She had no chance of learning grammar and logic, let alone of reading Horace and Virgil. She picked up a book now and then, one of her brother’s perhaps, and read a few pages. But then her parents came in and told her to mend the stockings or mind the stew and not moon about with books and papers. They would have spoken sharply but kindly, for they were substantial people who knew the conditions of life for a woman and loved their daughter — indeed, more likely than not she was the apple of her father’s eye. Perhaps she scribbled some pages up in an apple loft on the sly but was careful to hide them or set fire to them. Soon, however, before she was out of her teens, she was to be betrothed to the son of a neighbouring wool-stapler. She cried out that marriage was hateful to her, and for that she was severely beaten by her father. […] How could she disobey him? How could she break his heart? The force of her own gift alone drove her to it. She made up a small parcel of her belongings, let herself down by a rope one summer’s night and took the road to London. She was not seventeen. [...] Like him, she had a taste for the theatre. She stood at the stage door; she wanted to act, she said. Men laughed in her face. […] That, more or less, is how the story would run, I think, if a woman in Shakespeare’s day had had Shakespeare’s genius. […] WOOLF, Virginia. A room of one’s own. Available at: <http://gutenberg.net.au/ ebooks02/0200791.txt>. Accessed on: November 30 th, 2015.

Discuss the following questions after reading the text.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) Do you think it is hard for women to write and publish their works? Why (not)? b ) In your opinion, why does a woman writer need money and a room of her own? c ) In your opinion, why would have been impossible for women to write in the age of pessoal. Resposta esperada: because women weren’t allowed to study and, Shakespeare? Resposta therefore, they couldn’t publish or even write books or plays.

Resposta d ) In your opinion, is education a key to develop literary capacities? Why (not)? pessoal. 22. b) Resposta pessoal. Resposta esperada: a woman writer needs money and a room of her own to support herself as a writer, to have time and a private space to work.

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e ) Who are the following characteristics related to: Shakespeare or his imaginary sister, Judith?

• was gifted • studied grammar and logic • remained at home • was adventurous • enjoyed theater • was not allowed to write • was imaginative 23.

Many Brazilian writers have written stories about women and their struggles to overcome limitations imposed by society. Clarice Lispector, Lya Luft and Nélida Piñon are just a few of them.

• became an actor/actress • was able to read • had to do housechores • was refused in the theater • became successful and famous • was obligated to marry • ran away from home

Discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) Why couldn’t Judith follow her desire as her brother could? Because she was a woman.

22. e) Shakespeare: was gifted, Resposta pessoal. Resposta esperada: she was very precious to her father. studied c ) How did her parents make her give up on her dreams? They wanted to force her to marry grammar and the son of a neighbouring wool-stapler and her father beat her after she said the marriage was hateful to her. logic, was d ) What happened when she tried to act? When she arrived in London she tried to act, but was not adventurous, enjoyed theater, allowed because she was a woman. The men from the theater laughed at her face. was imaginative, e ) In your opinion, why did Woolf write this text? Resposta esperada: she wanted to express how women were not allowed by society to pursue their intellectual ambitions. became an actor/actress, f ) Nowadays do women face the same problems as Judith did? Why (not)? Resposta pessoal. was able to read, became successful and famous; Judith: In groups, do some research about feminism in literature. Then, associate the authors with was gifted, remained at home, was adventurous, the information about their work. A – III; B – II; C – I. was not allowed to write, was Sugerimos orientar os alunos a fazerem uma pesquisa sobre a literatura feminista, imaginative, had to do housechores, was para que possam relacionar as autoras e as informações apresentadas. refused in the theater, was obligated to marry, ran away from home.

b ) What do you understand by “she was the apple of her father’s eye”?

B

Virginia Woolf (1936) I

II

III

jeremy sutton-hibbert/Alamy/Latinstock

Hulton-Deutsch Collection/Corbis/Latinstock

C

Toni Morrison (2004)

Understanding literature

A

Michel Philippot/Sygma/Corbis/Latinstock

24.

Simone de Beauvoir (1983)

French writer and philosopher who wrote novels and essays about social and political issues, including The Second Sex, a book about the position of women throughout history.

American writer, winner of a Nobel Prize in Literature in 1993, her books deal with highly detailed characters and issues related to race and gender.

English writer whose books explored the position of women in society and also mental illness issues. one hundred and eighty-five

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Contemporary women writers 25.

Discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) How much do you think life has changed for female writers? Resposta b)

pessoal. Resposta esperada: although female writers have more opportunities to publish their works, sometimes they still face some difficulties. What are the characteristics of the contemporary literature? Resposta esperada: it is very diverse in relation to the themes, ideas and literary techniques; it reflects the changes and trends in the real world.

c ) Have you ever read any book from the Harry Potter series? Resposta d ) Do you know any other fantasy books? Which one(s)? Resposta

26.

pessoal.

You are going to read an excerpt from Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone. It describes when Hagrid tells Harry Potter that he is a wizard.

Fantasy is a literary genre characterized by the presence of supernatural and magical elements, and also imaginary cities, countries or even worlds.

Harry Potter and the sorcerer’s stone Chapter four: The keeper of the keys […] Hagrid spoke, his every syllable trembled with rage. “You never told him? Never told him what was in the letter Dumbledore left fer him? I was there! I saw Dumbledore leave it, Dursley! An’ you’ve kept it from him all these years?” “Kept what from me?” said Harry eagerly. “STOP! I FORBID YOU!” yelled Uncle Vernon in panic. Aunt Petunia gave a gasp of horror. “Ah, go boil yer heads, both of yeh,” said Hagrid. “Harry – yer a wizard.” There was silence inside the hut. Only the sea and the whistling wind could be heard. “I’m a what?” gasped Harry. “A wizard, o’ course,” said Hagrid, sitting back down on the sofa, which groaned and sank even lower, “an’ a thumpin’ good’un, I’d say, once yeh’ve been trained up a bit. With a mum an’ dad like yours, what else would yeh be? An’ I reckon it’s abou’ time yeh read yer letter.” Harry stretched out his hand at last to take the yellowish envelope, addressed in emerald green to Mr. H. Potter, The Floor, Hut-on-the-Rock, The Sea. He pulled out the letter and read:

Poliana Garcia

Joanne “Jo” Rowling (1965-) is an English writer, famous for her Harry Potter fantasy series. Her pen names are J. K. Rowling and Robert Galbraith. She is considered one of the most influential women of her time and she has received many awards for her literary works. She is also known for her donations to fight poverty and other social issues.

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pessoal.

HOGWARTS SCHOOL of WITCHCRAFT and WIZARDRY Headmaster: Albus Dumbledore (Order of Merlin, First Class, Grand Sorc., Chf. Warlock, Supreme Mugwump, International Confed. of Wizards) Dear Mr. Potter, We are pleased to inform you that you have been accepted at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. Please find enclosed a list of all necessary books and equipment. Term begins on September 1. We await your owl by no later 26. Sugerimos dizer aos alunos que eles lerão um trecho do primeiro than July 31. livro da série Harry Potter, Harry Potter e a Pedra Filosofal (Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone). O trecho selecionado trata do Yours sincerely, momento em que Hagrid, um gigante, vai à casa dos tios que cuidam Harry e lhe conta que ele é um bruxo. Os tios de Harry, que Minerva McGonagall, de deveriam ter lhe contado a história, na verdade a omitiram, causando a ira de Hagrid. O trecho fala também sobre a carta que informa Deputy Headmistress Harry sobre sua aceitação em Hogwarts, a escola para bruxos e bruxas. A carta cita o diretor da escola, Albus Dumbledore, um dos […] maiores feiticeiros do universo de Harry Potter.

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ROWLING, J.K. Harry Potter and the sorcerer’s stone. Scholastic Press: New York, 1998. p. 50-51.


27.

Read the text again and discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a relerem o texto e responderem às questões.

a ) Who are the characters mentioned in this excerpt of the book? b ) What is the most important object of the scene? The c ) What emotions does Hagrid show? He

Uncle Vernon, aunt Petunia, Harry Potter, Hagrid, Albus Dumbledore and Minerva McGonagall.

letter.

is furious and angry.

d ) What emotion does uncle Vernon show? Panic. e ) Which of the following pictures represent the scene you read? II

Ilustrações: Art Capri

I

II

The character Hagrid speaks in an accent similar to a region in the southeast of England. In your notebook, match the words with their corresponding words in standard English. a – III; b – V; c – II; d – IV; e – VI; f – I.

a ) an’ b ) fer

29.

Sugerimos mostrar para os alunos que o personagem Hagrid fala com um sotaque diferente, que se refere a uma das variedades encontradas no sudoeste da Inglaterra, expresso na escrita pela grafia diferenciada de I your algumas palavras. No entanto, as palavras podem ser facilmente associadas com as correspondentes em sua grafia padrão. II you

c ) yeh

III

and

d ) o’ course

IV

of course

e ) abou’

V

for

f ) yer

VI

about

Discuss the questions with your teacher and classmates.

29. a) Você pode comentar com os alunos que os tios de Harry guardaram segredo sobre sua real identidade, pois eles não queriam que Harry seguisse a carreira de bruxo, pois seus pais, também bruxos, morreram.

a ) What is the secret that Uncle Vernon and Aunt Petunia kept from Harry? That

he is a wizard.

b ) How does Hagrid react to the fact that Harry didn’t know about his identity?

He gets furious. Hagrid ficou extremamente irritado com o fato de os tios de Harry terem guardado segredo sobre sua identidade.

c ) What is Harry’s address written on the letter? The Floor, Hut-on-the-Rock, The Sea.

d ) Who sent him the letter? e)

30.

29. c) Você pode comentar com os alunos que o endereço de Harry está escrito de maneira pouco convencional. Depois de seu nome, há informações que se referem a uma casa simples perto de um penhasco, próximo ao mar.

Minerva McGonagall. A carta foi enviada por Minerva McGonagall, vice diretora de Hogwarts. is a letter of acceptance to Hogwarts What is the content of the letter? Itschool of witchcraft and wizardry. A carta é o anúncio de que Harry foi aceito em Hogwarts e contém as informações necessárias para seu ingresso na escola.

Imagine that you are writing a short letter to Minerva McGonagall, Deputy Headmistress of Hogwarts after receiving an acceptance letter to study there. What would your reply be? Write it in your notebook. Resposta pessoal.

Sugerimos que os alunos imaginem uma resposta para a carta enviada por Minerva. Você pode sugerir que eles escolham aceitar ou recusar o ingresso na escola de magia. Seria interessante que eles usassem a carta do trecho como modelo.

31.

Think about a book you read that was written by a contemporary female writer and present it to the class. Talk about the author, plot, characters and what you liked or disliked. Resposta

pessoal. Sugerimos que os alunos pensem nos livros escritos por autoras contemporâneas que já leram e escolham um para apresentar para a turma. Eles podem fazer painéis ou apresentações de slides contendo informações como a biografia da autora, o enredo, os personagens e os aspectos de que gostaram ou não gostaram no livro.

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Understanding literature

28.


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Grammar appendix 1

Comparatives Comparatives are used to establish comparisons between people, things or places. It is possible to have: comparatives of equality and comparatives of superiority. Comparatives of equality express that things, people or places are equal. They are formed by as + adjective + as. Note that the adjective doesn’t change its form. Igor is as sociable as I am. We have interpersonal intelligence. You are as shy as Joshua.

Comparatives of equality can also be in the negative form. In this case, we are expressing that the people, things or places are not equal in some way. Lucia isn’t as logical as Marco. I’m not as intelligent as you are. You have better grades.

Differently from the comparatives of equality, the comparatives of superiority are used to highlight the superiority of one person, thing or place compared to another. In this case, we use the word than after the adjective, which is modified depending on the number of syllables. Spelling

••In adjectives with one or two syllables, we add -er. smart - smarter than 

cold - colder than   strong - stronger than

Do you think he’s smarter than she is? When adjectives with one or two syllables end in -e, we just add -r. nice - nicer than   large - larger than   simple - simpler than Studying in a group is nicer than studying alone.

••When adjectives with one or two syllables end in -y, we change the -y for -i and add -er.

easy - easier than   happy - happier than   pretty - prettier than It’s much easier to learn through music than through texts and reading.

••When the adjective ends in consonant + vowel + consonant, we double the last letter and add -er.

Monkey Business Images/ Shutterstock.com

big - bigger than   hot - hotter than   thin - thinner than My ability to speak in public is bigger than yours.

••Some adjectives are irregular. They don’t follow the rules. They change their form completely.

good - better than  bad - worse than  far - farther/further than In my opinion, it’s better to be visual than a naturalist person. For me, Math is worse than Portuguese. I definitely don’t have mathematical intelligence.

••Adjectives that have more than two syllables are not modified. In this case, we use the word more before the adjective.

intelligent – more intelligent than  important – more important than beautiful – more beautiful than Women aren’t more intelligent than men. I think they are equally intelligent.

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The word than is used to compare the two terms. When Marcela is running, she is much faster than her classmates. She has bodily-kinesthetic intelligence.

hu

t te

rst

oc

k .c

om

Sometimes, than can be omitted because its meaning is implicit in the sentence or can be understood by context.

Jac

Modal verbs Some modal verbs are must, can, could, may, might and should. They are used with other verbs to express different ideas, such as obligation, permission, ability, probability, advice, among others.

Must mi c t er hae s t o l ju ck ng / .co m

Must is usually used to express necessity or obligation. Students must wear uniforms at school.

ut

They must study English at school.

Sh

Must not (mustn’t) is the negative form. It expresses a prohibition. You must not disrespect a foreign culture. We mustn’t chew gum in class.

Can/Could Can or could are used to ask for a permission or make a request. Can I lend your book, please? Could you open the door, please?

Could also expresses possibility. I could go to the USA or Australia to learn English.

.co

m

May/Might Sh

ut

t er

s to

ck

May and might express the probability of something to happen. ha

k/

She studied a lot. She may get a good mark. I might study Spanish or French. I’m not sure yet.

The negative forms may not and might not are used to talk about an improbability. If he doesn’t study a foreign language, he may not have good job opportunities. I’m not feeling well. I might not go to class.

In formal situations, may is used to ask for permission. May I give my opinion? May we go now? one hundred and eighty-nine

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Grammar appendix

She’s not in the class. She could be in the restroom.

t ic

2

Su

unit

ob

Lu

nd

/S

Jonas is fast, but Marcela is faster.


Should Should is used to give advice. Its negative form is should not (shouldn’t). You should study a foreign language. John should do his homework after dinner. She should not travel abroad to study.

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They shouldn’t play soccer today. They have a test tomorrow.

3

Superlatives Superlatives are used to say that a thing, a person or a place is superior to all others it is compared to. To make superlatives, we use the article the before adjectives, which are modified depending on the number of syllables. Spelling

••In adjectives with one or two syllables, we add -est. small - the smallest   tall - the tallest   old - the oldest That is the smallest car in the world.

••When adjectives with one or two syllables end in -e, we just add -st. simple - the simplest    wise - the wisest   safe - the safest ut Spee t er s t o dK in ck g z / .co m

She has the simplest DVD player available in the market. She’s not a big fan of technology.

••When adjectives with one or two syllables end in -y, we change the -y for

Sh

-i and add -est.

funny - the funniest   lucky - the luckiest   heavy - the heaviest I watched a video on her cell phone. It was one of the funniest videos I’ve ever seen.

••When the adjective ends in consonant + vowel + consonant, we double the last letter and add -est.

sad - the saddest    big - the biggest   fat - the fattest John thinks he is the saddest guy on Earth. He broke his smartphone.

••Some adjectives are irregular. They don’t follow the rules. They change their form completely.

good - the best   bad - the worst   far - the farthest/the furthest

Sh ut t er s to ck .co m

expensive – the most expensive   careful – the most careful

k/

we use the words the most before the adjective.

oc

••Adjectives that have more than two syllables are not modified. In this case,

t sh

I don’t think this is the worst app. I use it regularly.

do

In my opinion, tablets are the best thing since sliced bread.

enjoyable – the most enjoyable They bought the most expensive computer in the store.

That was the least difficult question in the test. He was the least happy with the performance of his computer.

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Ro

This is the least comfortable chair in the room.

sti Sh sl av_ ut t er S e d s to l ac c k ek / .co m

There are also superlatives of inferiority to say that a thing, a person or a place is inferior to all others it is compared to. In this case, we use the words the least before the adjective.


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4

Simple Past x Past Continuous The Simple Past The Simple Past describes an action that happened and ended at a specific time in the past. The verbs in the Simple Past form can be regular or irregular. To form the Simple Past form of regular verbs, we add -ed, -d or -ied to the verbs. watch - watched

agree - agreed

study - studied

cook - cooked

like - liked

carry - carried

The irregular verbs change their forms completely. send - sent

make - made

run - ran

go - went

think - thought

take - took szefei/Shutterstock.com

For negatives, we use did not (didn’t) + verb in the base form. In questions, we use did in the beginning of the sentence and the verb in the base form after the subject. Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I watched a movie on the computer.

I didn’t watch a movie on the computer.

Did you watch a movie on the computer? Yes, I did./No, I didn’t.

She sent you an e-mail last weekend.

She didn’t send you an e-mail last weekend.

Did she send you an e-mail last weekend? Yes, she did./No, she didn’t.

When we use verb to be in the past, we use was/were, and was not/were not (wasn’t/ weren’t) in negative sentences. In questions, we use was/were in the beginning of the sentence. Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

He was at home last night.

He wasn’t at home last night.

Was he at home last night? Yes, he was./No, he wasn’t.

You were on-line yesterday.

You weren’t on-line yesterday.

Were you on-line yesterday?

The Past Continuous

hu

t te

rst

oc

k .c

om

The Past Continuous expresses the idea that something was in progress at a particular time in the past. The Past Continuous is formed by was/were followed by a verb with -ing.

lju

ng

/S

I was surfing the web yesterday.

Grammar appendix

Yes, I was./No, I wasn’t.

mi

ch

ae

They were busy this morning. They were installing a new program.

To form negative sentences in the Past Continuous, we use was not/were not (wasn’t/ weren’t) + verb with -ing. He wasn’t using his computer this morning. This time last week, we weren’t having computer class. We were on vacation. one hundred and ninety-one

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In questions, was or were comes before the subject of the sentence and the verb with -ing after the subject. Was she chatting with her friends yesterday?

Were they using the cafeteria’s wi-fi?

Yes, she was.

Yes, they were.

No, she wasn’t.

No, they weren’t. What were you doing last weekend? I was playing some new games on the computer.

The Simple Past X The Past Continuous Observe the two sentences and their differences. I sent an e-mail to you.

The action happened in the past. The action started and finished.

I was sending an e-mail to you.

The action was happening in the past. The action started and was in progress. It wasn’t finished yet.

The Past Continuous can also be used to describe an action that was happening when another one interrupted it. In this case, when we talk about the action that interrupted what was happening, we use the Simple Past. To join both ideas, we use the word when. I was buying a T-shirt on-line when the internet crashed. We were downloading a file when there was a blackout.

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When I was doing a research on-line, the lights went out.

5

Future – will There are different ways to talk about the future in English. One possibility is to use will + verb in the base form. The future with will (or the contraction ’ll) is usually used at the moment we make a decision about the future. It started to rain. I’ll take my umbrella.

We also use will to make predictions, promises and offers. In a few years, people will waste less and save more water. I promise I’ll do everything I can to help protect the environment. I will separate the recyclable materials, if you want.

To form negative sentences, we use will not (won’t) + verb in the base form. In questions, we use will before the subject of the sentence.

auremar/Shutterstock.com

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I will plant some trees in the park.

I won’t use pesticides in my home garden.

Will you plant some trees in the park?

You will recycle plastic bottles.

You won’t throw plastic bottles in the street.

Will you recycle plastic bottles?

Yes, I will./No, I won’t.

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Yes, I will./No, I won’t.

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Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

He will go to work by bike.

He won’t use his car every day.

Will he go to work by bike?

She will go shopping with an eco-bag.

She won’t use plastic bags.

Will she go shopping with an eco-bag?

It will be extinct.

It won’t be endangered.

Will it be extinct?

Yes, he will./No, he won’t.

Yes, she will./No, she won’t. Yes, it will./No, it won’t. We will protect the environment.

We won’t pollute the environment.

Will we protect the environment?

You will have shorter showers to save energy.

You won’t waste water.

Will you have shorter showers to save energy?

They will use less chemical products.

They won’t cut down the trees.

Will they use less chemical products?

Yes, we will./No, we won’t.

Yes, we will./No, we won’t.

Yes, they will./No, they won’t.

First conditional The first conditional is used to talk about something that can happen in the future if the condition is fulfilled. If we don’t stop deforestation, more animals will be endangered. We won’t have food if bees disappear.

Bu Sh sines ut t s er s Im a t o c ge k . c s/ om

First conditional sentences have two clauses: the if clause and the main clause. We use the Simple Present in the if clause, and the Simple Future in the main clause.

6

nk ey Mo

If clause

Main clause

Main clause

If clause

If you switch traditional light bulbs for LED ones,

you will save energy.

You will save energy

if you switch traditional light bulbs for LED ones.

If they share the car to go to work,

they will pollute less.

They will pollute less

if they share the car to go to work.

Future – be going to To talk about a plan for the future, we use the verb to be + going to + verb in the base form. At the end of this year, I’m going to travel to Africa to do volunteer work.

We can also use this future form to make a prediction if there is evidence. Can you hear the thunder? It’s going to start raining soon.

To form negative sentences, we use the verb to be + not + going to + verb in the base form. In questions, the verb to be comes before the subject of the sentence and going to + verb in the base form after the subject. one hundred and ninety-three

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Grammar appendix

unit

When the if clause comes first, use a comma before the main clause. But when the main clause comes first, don’t use the comma.


Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I’m going to work as a volunteer.

I’m not going to be selfish.

Are you going to work as a volunteer?

You’re going to build houses for homeless families.

You aren’t going to close your eyes to people in need.

Are you going to build houses for homeless families?

Yes, I am./No, I’m not.

Yes, I am./No, I’m not. He’s going to donate food to a shelter.

He isn’t going to waste food.

Is he going to donate food to a shelter?

She’s going to adopt a rescued cat.

She isn’t going to abandon her pet.

Is she going to adopt a rescued cat?

It’s going to make the world a better place.

It isn’t going to be difficult to save the planet.

Is it going to make the world a better place?

Yes, he is./No, he isn’t.

Yes, she is./No, she isn’t.

Yes, it is./No, it isn’t. We’re going to help people.

We aren’t going to stop helping people.

Are we going to help people?

You’re going to get involved in a social project.

You aren’t going to refuse to help.

Are you going to get involved in a social project?

They’re going to clean the park to preserve the environment.

They aren’t going to throw garbage in the street.

Are they going to clean the park to preserve the environment?

Yes, we are./No, we aren’t.

Yes, we are./No, we aren’t.

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Yes, they are./No, they aren’t.

7

Present Perfect We use the Present Perfect to talk about something that happened at an unspecified time in the past. It means that we don’t know or it’s not important to say when the action happened. The Present Perfect is commonly used to talk about life experiences, accomplishments or uncompleted actions and changes over the time. I have been to South Africa. She has learned a foreign language. They haven’t finished their homework. My reading skills have improved. / it a qu es m e M k . co er m o c ilh rst Gu u t te Sh

We can talk about life experiences using the Present Perfect and the adverb ever. Have you ever eaten exotic food? Have you ever traveled by train?

This tense is also used to describe actions that started in the past and continue until the present, or something that happened in the past, but has a consequence at the time of speaking. We have been friends since we were 10 years old.

C S h ar l o s ut t er A m sto aril ck lo/ . co m

That was the most beautiful place I have ever visited.

Jake has lost his wallet.

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To form the Present Perfect, we use two types of verbs: an auxiliary (have or has) and a main verb in the past participle form. We can contract the auxiliary verb using ’ve or ’s. Laura’s just arrived from her trip. They’ve studied a lot for the test.

The verbs in the past participle form can be regular or irregular. The past participle form of regular verbs are formed by adding -ed, -d or -ied to the verbs. travel - traveled

dance - danced

try - tried

visit - visited

hope - hoped

cry - cried

The past participle form of irregular verbs change their forms completely. In the list of irregular verbs, the past participle is usually displayed in the third column. go - went - gone

eat - ate - eaten

think - thought - thought

write - wrote - written

know - knew - known

ride - rode - ridden

To make negative sentences in the Present Perfect, we use have not (haven’t)/has not (hasn’t) + a main verb in the past participle form. In questions, the auxiliary verb, have or has, is used before the subject of the sentence. Both in negative sentences and questions, the main verb is in the past participle form. Suzanne Tucker/ Shutterstock.com

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I have made a donation at the hospital.

I haven’t donated blood at the hospital.

Have you made a donation?

You’ve played golf for the first time.

You have not played tennis at school.

Have you played golf?

He’s broken his arm.

He has not broken any bones.

Has he broken his arm?

She has been to Paris.

She hasn’t been to England.

Has she been to Paris?

It has happened quickly.

It hasn’t happened to us.

Has it happened quickly?

We have traveled by train.

We haven’t traveled by airplane.

Yes, I have./No, I haven’t. Yes, I have./No, I haven’t. Yes, he has./No, he hasn’t. Yes, she has./No, she hasn’t. Yes, it has./No, it hasn’t. Have you traveled by train?

You haven’t seen any wild animals.

Have you seen an elephant?

They’ve eaten Indian food.

They have not eaten exotic food.

Have they eaten Indian food?

Yes, we have./No, we haven’t. Yes, they have./No, they haven’t.

bi Sh kerid ut t er er l o s t o ndo ck . co n / m

Sh Ma t e ut t er j K a s s to te c k l ic / . co m

You have seen an elephant on the safari.

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195

Grammar appendix

Yes, we have./No, we haven’t.


Already/yet/just/never We usually use the adverbs already, just, yet and never with the Present Perfect. They are indefinite time adverbs and suggest the idea of at any time up till now. Already is used in affirmative or interrogative sentences and it means that the action has been done before now or earlier than we expected. This word is usually placed before the main verb. I have already visited Brasília. The students have already finished their project. I can’t believe he has already eaten everything. Have you already read that book?

It is also possible to use already at the end of the sentence. Have you read that book already?

Just can be used in affirmative sentences. It means that the action has finished a short time before now. Just is also placed before the main verb.

Dragon Images/Shutterstock.com

I’ve just seen Mike. We’ve just had an accident. She has just met a famous actor. They have just entered the classroom.

Yet is used in negative and interrogative sentences. It is used to talk about things we expect to happen soon. This word is placed at the end of the sentence. He hasn’t played baseball yet. I haven’t finished my homework yet. Have you found your glasses yet? Iakov Filimonov/Shutterstock.com

Has he arrived yet?

Never is used in affirmative sentences, but it has a negative meaning. This word is used to express that the action hasn’t happened. Never is placed before the main verb. You have never gone skiing. They’ve never been in Korea before.

Remember not to use never and not in the same sentence. F ir ma

We mustn’t say, for example:

S V/ hu t te rst oc

We haven’t never traveled abroad.

k .c om

We must say: We have never traveled abroad.

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Present Perfect Continuous The Present Perfect Continuous describes actions that started in the past and still continue until the present. I have been learning how to play the piano.

We can also use the Present Perfect Continuous tense to talk about an activity that has recently stopped. You look tired! What have you been doing?

To form the Present Perfect Continuous, we use have/has + been + verb with -ing. We can contract the auxiliary verbs have (’ve) and has (’s). co Sh w ard ut t er l ion s to / ck .co

m

The negative sentences are formed by have not/has not (haven’t/hasn’t) + been + verb with -ing. In questions, we use have/has before the subject of the sentence and been + verb with -ing after it. Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I’ve been playing the guitar.

I haven’t been playing the guitar.

Have you been playing the guitar?

You have been working part time at a bookstore.

You have not been working part time at a bookstore.

Have you been working part time at a bookstore?

Yes, I have./No, I haven’t.

Yes, I have./No, I haven’t. She’s been watching that TV series.

She has not been watching that TV series.

Has she been watching that TV series?

He has been learning how to play the flute.

He hasn’t been learning how to play the flute.

Has he been learning how to play the flute?

It has been raining every day since last week.

It hasn’t been raining every day since last week.

Has it been raining every day since last week?

We’ve been studying Chinese.

We haven’t been studying Chinese.

Have you been studying Chinese?

You have been reading mystery books.

You haven’t been reading mystery books.

Have you been reading mystery books?

Yes, she has./No, she hasn’t.

Yes, he has./No, he hasn’t.

Yes, it has./No, it hasn’t. Yes, we have./No, we haven’t.

Yes, we have./No, we haven’t. They haven’t been playing volleyball.

Have they been playing volleyball? Yes, they have./No, they haven’t. Grammar appendix

They have been playing volleyball.

For/since For and since are usually used with the Present Perfect and Present Perfect Continuous. They differ in meaning.

I have been playing the violin for five years.

I have been playing the violin since 2013.

She’s been doing karate for three weeks.

She’s been doing karate since last month.

You have been learning English for a long time.

You have been learning English since you were a child.

They’ve been practicing the oboe for hours.

They’ve been practicing the oboe since 2 o’clock. one hundred and ninety-seven

om

For is used to talk about the duration of the action. Since refers to a point in the past to detail when the action started.

ro m Sh ul0 ut t e r 1 4/ s to ck .c

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Glossary

In this section, you can find the meaning and the classification of several words. All the meanings presented are from the uses in the specific situations of this book. The meanings and classifications of these words may vary depending on their use.

adj. = adjective

c. = conjunction

pron. = pronoun

adv. = adverb

n. = noun

prep. = preposition

A

arrival (n.): chegada

bottom (n.): fundo

article (n.): artigo

braces (n.): aparelho ortodôntico

abolitionist (n.): abolicionista

asleep (adj.): adormecido

brainy (adj.): inteligente, esperto

abound (v.): existir em quantidade grande

attachment (n.): ligação, conexão

branch (n.): ramo

above (adv.): acima

attain (v.): atingir

abroad (adv.): no exterior

attend (v.): frequentar

accomplishment (n.): realização

aware (adj.): consciente

account (n.): conta

awareness (n.): consciência, conscientização

abolition (n.): abolição

act (v.): agir

breath (n.): fôlego breathe (v.): respirar bright (adj.): esperto, inteligente broadcaster (n.): apresentador brotherhood (n.): fraternidade, irmandade

away (adv.): distante

addiction (n.): vício

buried (adj.): enterrado

addition (n.): adição adopt (v.): adotar advance (n.): avanço afford (v.): dispor, permitir

B babyish (adj.): infantil, imaturo

C

barrier (n.): barreira

calligraphy (n.): caligrafia

age-old (adj.): antiquíssimo

bauxite ore (n.): minério de bauxita

candle (n.): vela

agog (adj.): curioso

beauty (n.): beleza

aid (n.): auxílio, ajuda air (v.): ir ao ar

beginning (n.): princípio, começo, início

allow (v.): permitir

behaviour (n.): comportamento

carefully (adv.): cuidadosamente

almost (adv.): quase

behind (adv./prep.): atrás

caregiver (n.): cuidador

alone (adj./adv.): só

behold (v.): observar

century (n.): século

afraid (adj.): com medo

although (c.): embora amaze (n.): estupefação amid (prep.): entre (várias pessoas ou coisas) among (prep.): entre (várias pessoas ou coisas) amongst (prep.): entre amount (v.): tornar(-se) ancestor (n.): antepassado anger (n.): raiva annihilation (n.): aniquilação app (n.): aplicativo appointment (n.): compromisso appreciate (v.): apreciar arise (v.): emergir [p. arose/pp. arisen]

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v. = verb

[p. beheld/ pp. beheld] belonging (n.): objeto, pertence bend (v.): dobrar [p. bent/pp. bent] beneath (adv.): abaixo betrothed (adj.): noiva biologist (adj.): biólogo birth (n.): nascimento bleak (adj.): gelado blood (n.): sangue boarding school (n.): internato boring (adj.): entediante borrow (v.): emprestar bother (v.): incomodar, preocupar-se

cap (n.): tampa captivated (adj.): cativado carbon (n.): carbono

charcoal (n.): carvão vegetal charity (n.): caridade cheapen (v.): baratear, pechinchar childhood (n.): infância chill (v.): esfriar chore (n.): tarefa citizen (n.): cidadão claim (n.): reivindicação claim (v.): reivindicar clever (adj.): inteligente, esperto clog (v.): travar, entupir closely (adv.): muito próximo cloth (n.): roupa clump (n.): arvoredo

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coast (n.): litoral

deserve (v.): merecer

enclosed (adj.): anexo

coastline (n.): litoral

desire (n.): desejo

encompass (v.): envolver

coat (n.): casaco

desktop publishing (n.): editoração eletrônica

endangered (adj.): em extinção

develop (v.): desenvolver

endeavour (n.): esforço

development (n.): desenvolvimento

endue (v.): dotar, possuir

coffin (n.): caixão colonialist (n.): colonialista colonization (n.): colonização colonizer (n.): colonizador

endangerment (n.): perigo, risco

engraver (n.): gravurista

device (n.): dispositivo, aparelho

complain (v.): reclamar

enough (adj./adv.): suficiente

devote (v.): dedicar

compression (n.): compressão

enslave (v.): escravizar

diaper (n.): fralda

comprise (v.): consistir

enslavement (n.): escravidão

discard (v.): descartar

compulsory (adj.): obrigatório

enterprise (n.): projeto, empreendimento

concern (n.): preocupação

discouraged (adj.): desencorajado

concerned (adj.): preocupado

dishwasher (n.): lava-louças

conjecture (n.): suposição consciousness (n.): consciência

dismally (adv.): melancolicamente

consoled (adj.): consolado

disobey (v.): desobedecer

convey (v.): transmitir

displacement (n.): deslocamento

coral reef (n.): recife de corais

diverge (v.): divergir

cotton (n.): algodão

divert (v.): desviar, distrair

counselor (n.): conselheiro

dozen (n.): dúzia

excited (adj.): animado, entusiasmado

count (v.): somar valor

dreary (adj.): sombrio

exhibit (v.): exibir

countenance (n.): semblante

drunken (adj.): embriagado

exhibition (n.): exibição

coup (n.): golpe

dryer (n.): secadora

expectancy (n.): expectativa

crack (v.): quebrar

dubstep (n.): gênero musical eletrônico

exploit (v.): explorar, abusar

crash (v.): travar, parar de funcionar

dull (adj.): enfandonho

curbside (n.): calçada

dun-white (n.): branco acastanhado

cut (adj.): cortado

duty (n.): dever Dutch (n.): holandês, holandesa

D

dawn (n.): amanhecer deal (v.): lidar death (n.): morte decade (n.): década decline (n.): declínio decrease (v.): diminuir deforestation (n.): desmatamento

environmental (adj.): ambiental environmentalism (n.): ambientalismo escapade (n.): aventura evolve (v.): evoluir, desenvolver

extermination (n.): exterminação eye (n.): olho

F fable (n.): fábula faith (n.): fé far (adj./adv.): distante

E each (adj./adv./pron.): cada eagerly (adv.): avidamente early (adj.): inicial earn (v.): ganhar Earth (n.): planeta Terra earth (n.): terra, solo eastward (n.): lado leste edge (n.): borda, beira, margem

far and wide (adv.): em toda parte fate (n.): destino father (n.): pai fear (v.): temer feature (n.): características feature (v.): caracterizar

Glossary

daunting (adj.): intimidador

environment (n.): meio ambiente

due to (prep.): devido a

cup (n.): xícara

data (n.): dados

enthusiastic (adj.): entusiasmado

feeling (n.): sentimento fetch (v.): alcançar

deity (n.): divindade

effort (n.): esforço

fiddle (n.): violino especial para músicas folk ou country

delve (v.): escavar

elderly (adj.): idoso

field (n.): campo

depletion (n.): redução

emerge (v.): surgir

fill (v.): preencher

depressing (adj.): depressivo

empty (adj.): vazio

flesh (n.): carne one hundred and ninety-nine

g18_ftd_lt_2noi_u08_198a203_glossary.indd 199

199

18/5/16 7:05 PM


flow (v.): fluir foliage (n.): folhagem

indeed (adv.): na verdade

H

follow (v.): seguir following (adj.): seguinte forbid (v.): proibir

Indian (n.): índio, indiano half (adj.): metade

in-depth (adj.): profundo

half-extinguished (adj.): quase extinto

indigenous (adj.): nativo infuse (v.): infundir

hammer (n.): martelo

[p. forbid/forbade/ pp. forbidden]

injury (n.): ferimento, lesão

hand (v.): entregar

ink brush (n.): pincel

handwriting (n.): caligrafia happiness (n.): felicidade

insight (n.): percepção, compreensão

fret (v.): preocupar(-se)

hard-working (adj.): trabalhador, esforçado

instead (adv.): em vez

friend (n.): amigo

hateful (adj.): detestável

friend (v.): adicionar alguém em sua lista de contatos

headline (n.): manchete

foreign (adj.): estrangeiro fresh (adj.): fresco, novo

internship (n.): estágio island (n.): ilha issue (n.): assunto, questão

headmaster (n.): diretor

fund (n.): capital disponível

health (n.): saúde heart (n.): coração

G gadget (n.): aparelho, dispositivo gap (n.): lacuna garbage (n.): lixo

J

heat (n.): calor

jeep (n.): jipe

heiress (n.): herdeira

job (n.): emprego

heritage (n.): herança

join (v.): entrar (para)


hideous (adj.): hediondo

joint (n.): articulação

hieroglyph (n.): hieróglifo

gardening (n.): jardinagem

highlight (v.): enfatizar

gasp (v.): ofegar

K

hill (n.): colina, morro

gaze (v.): olhar fixamente

keyword (n.): palavra-chave

hive (n.): colmeia

general (adj.): geral

kid (n.): criança

hole (n.): buraco, furo

gift (v.): presentear

kindly (adv.): gentilmente

homeland (n.): pátria

gifted (adj.): talentoso

knowledge (n.): conhecimento

homeless (adj.): sem abrigo

gird (v.): cercar

horrifying (adj.): horripilante

[p. girded/girt/ pp. girded/girt]

host (n.): anfitrião

L

glen (n.): vale estreito

household chore (n.): tarefas domésticas

labour (n.): trabalho

glimmer (n.): vislumbre

however (adv.): porém

landscape (n.): paisagem

glue (v.): colar

hub (n.): ponto central

last (v.): durar

glued (adj.): colado, fixado

huge (adj.): enorme

laugh (v.): rir

graceful (adj.): gracioso

humble (adj.): humilde

layer (n.): camada

grade (n.): grau, série

hunting ground (n.): território de caça

leader (n.): líder

grand (adj.): grande

hut (n.): cabana

grant (v.): realizar, conceder grave (n.): túmulo gravel (n.): cascalho greenhouse effect (n.): efeito estufa groan (v.): gemer groundbreaking (adj.): inovador

I

lean (v.): inclinar leftover (adj.): sobra

illness (n.): doença immigrant (n.): imigrante immigration (n.): imigração

growing (adj.): crescente gum (n.): chiclete

increase (v.): aumentar

two hundred

leaf (n.): folhagem leap (n.): salto

impediment (n.): dificuldade, entrave

200

landfill (n.): aterro sanitário

length (n.): comprimento lid (n.): tampa lifeless (adj.): sem vida light bulb (n.): lâmpada likely (adv.): provável, possível limb (n.): membro


lips (n.): lábios

moor (n.): brejo, pântano

owl (n.): coruja

litter (v.): sujar, jogar lixo

motionless (adj.): imóvel

own (adj.): próprio, sozinho

livelihood (n.): sustento, meio de vida

move (v.): mudar mug (n.): caneca

lob (v.): jogar loft (n.): sótão long (adj.): longo, extenso longer (adj.): mais um pouco loose (adj.): movediço loss (n.): perda

mugwump (n.): neutro especialmente em relação a política

packaging (n.): embalagem

mummy (n.): múmia

palm (n.): palmeira

muscle (n.): músculo

parcel (n.): pacote

mutter (v.): murmurar

park (v.): estacionar

N

pasture (n.): pasto patter (v.): tamborilar

nail (n.): prego naive (adj.): ingênuo

M

nationwide (n.): em todo o território nacional

mailman (n.): carteiro main (adj.): principal mammal (n.): mamífero manage (v.): administrar, gerenciar

nearby (adj.): perto, próximo

people (n.): pessoas, povo

need (n.): necessidade, falta, carência

perceive (v.): perceber

net (n.): rede

marriage (n.): casamento marry (v.): casar

network (n.): sistema de coisas ou pessoas conectadas

master (v.): alcançar maestria ou proficiência

newly (adv.): recentemente news (n.): notícia

mean (v.): significar

nut (n.): noz

meaningful (adj.): significativo

meanwhile (adv.): enquanto isso

melt (v.): derreter

odds and ends (n.): miudezas

member (n.): membro

order (v.): pedir comida ou bebida em um restaurante

mid (adj.): em meados

otherwise (adv./c.): caso contrário, de outro modo

Middle East (n.): Oriente Médio

outright (adj.): completo

might (n.): força

outside (adj./n.): externo

migrate (v.): migrar

outsider (n.): intruso, de fora

migration (n.): migração

overcome (v.): superar

mind (v.): prestar atenção

person (n.): pessoa phase (n.): fase pictorial (adj.): ilustrado, pictórico picture (n.): imagem pillar (n.): pilar pinched (adj.): apertado, pressionado

pioneer (v.): ser pioneiro o’er (adv.): acima

mind (n.): mente

perhaps (adv.): talvez

pioneer (n.): pioneiro

O

measurable (adj.): mensurável

mend (v.): remendar

peel (n.): casca penmanship (n.): caligrafia

neighbouring (adj.): vizinho

marine (adj.): marinho

pearly (adj.): perolado

native (adj.): nativo

need (v.): precisar

mandate (n.): lei

pattern (n.): padrão, modelo

[p. overcame/ pp. overcome]

mix (v.): misturar

overconsumption (n.): consumo excessivo

mobile (adj.): móvel

overfishing (n.): sobrepesca

mood (n.): tom emocional predominante

overpopulation (n.): superpopulação

pitch (n.): intensidade de uma nota musical plantation (n.): plantação poorer (adj.): mais pobre powerful (adj.): poderoso pray (v.): rezar preceding (adj.): anterior prediction (n.): previsão Glossary

luxuriance (n.): exuberância

means (n.): meio

pain (n.): dor

partnership (n.): parceria

lower (adv.): mais baixo lung (n.): pulmão

P

predictor (n.): indicador prejudice (n.): preconceito pretty (adj.): bonito pretty (adv.): bem, bastante primarily (adv.): principalmente primary (adj.): primário, básico print (v.): imprimir two hundred and one

201


printing press (n.): prensa móvel, máquina de impressão prominent (adj.): proeminente prose (n.): prosa pseudonym (n.): pseudônimo psychological (adj.): psicológico psychologist (n.): psicólogo psychology (n.): psicologia pupil (n.): aluno pursue (v.): dedicar(-se), perseguir push (v.): mover, incentivar

Q

resort (v.): recorrer

shape (n.): formato

resource (n.): recurso

shape (v.): configurar

rest (n.): descanso

share (n.): porção, medida

revenge (n.): vingança

share (v.): compartilhar

rewarding (adj.): recompensável

sharp (adj.): agudo

ripple effect (n.): efeito cascata

sharply (adv.): nitidamente

rise (n.): ascensão

sheep (n.): ovelha

role (n.): função, papel

shiny (adj.): brilhante

root (n.): raiz, origem

shock (v.): chocar

rope (n.): corda

shocking (adj.): chocante

roughly (adv.): aproximadamente

shoe (n.): calçado

round (v.): circular

short (adj./n.): curto

round-nosed (adj.): ponta arredondada, sem ponta

shorten (v.): encurtar

quaile (v.): intimidar(-se) quarter (n.): um quarto quickly (adv.): rapidamente quote (n.): citação

R rage (n.): raiva raise (v.): arrecadar, aumentar range (n.): extensão, fileira reach (v.): alcançar reader (n.): leitor realize (v.): perceber reckon (v.): considerar recognition (n.): reconhecimento recognize (v.): reconhecer recruit (v.): recrutar recruitment (n.): recrutamento reed (n.): sopro (parte do instrumento na qual o ar é soprado e produz o som)

shredded (adj.): picado

S

shrivelled (adj.): atrofiado sacred (adj.): sagrado

sigh (n.): suspiro

sad (adj.): triste

silver (n.): prata

safeguard (v.): proteger

skill (n.): habilidade

saint (n.): santo

skillful (adj.): hábil

sand (n.): areia

skin (n.): pele

scarcely (adv.): escassamente

slave (n.): escravo

scarcest (adj.): mais escasso

slavery (n.): escravidão

sceptic (n.): cético

sleet-laden (adj.): cheio de neve

schedule (n.): horário

so-called (adj.): assim chamado

scheme (n.): método, esquema

socket (n.): encaixe, soquete

scholarship (n.): bolsa de estudos

soil (v.): sujar

scissors (n.): tesoura scrape (v.): arranhar screen (n.): tela screw (n.): prego

remain (v.): permanecer

seamlessly (adv.): sem problemas seek (v.): procurar [p. sought/ pp. sought]

report (v.): relatar

selfless (adj.): altruísta, generoso

research (n.): pesquisa

self-report (v.): autodeclarar

researcher (n.): pesquisador

settlement (n.): colonização

reside (v.): residir

settler (n.): colono, colonizador

202

source (n.): fonte

Spaniard (n.): espanhol, espanhola

sculptor (n.): escultor

report (n.): relatório

sort (n.): tipo

scribble (v.): rabiscar

relinquish (v.): renunciar

reply (n.): resposta

soothing (adj.): suave, brando

spade (n.): pá

script (n.): escrita

render (v.): transmitir

somewhat (adv.): em certo grau

screwed (adj.): parafusado

relief (n.): alívio

removal (n.): remoção

shovel (v.): enterrar

spark (n.): faísca speaker (adj.): falante speaking (n.): ato de falar speech (n.): discurso, fala split (v.): dividir sponsor (v.): providenciar dinheiro e recursos, patrocinar spread (v.): espalhar [p. spread/ pp. spread] stage (n.): palco

two hundred and two

g18_ftd_lt_2noi_u08_198a203_glossary.indd 202

18/5/16 7:07 PM


stanza (n.): estrofe

thrill (v.): estremecer

volunteer (v.): voluntariar

starch (n.): goma

through (prep.): através

vow (v.): jurar, prometer

startle (v.): agitar(-se) repentinamente

throughout (prep.): ao longo de

starve (v.): passar fome, morrer de fome

toil (n.): trabalho

thus (adv.): portanto

warm (v.): aquecer

ton (n.): tonelada

step (n.): passo

warmth (n.): calor

tone (n.): tom, timbre

stew (n.): ensopado (comida) storage unit (n.): armazém

tool-house (n.): casa de ferramentas

store (v.): armazenar

toucan (n.): tucano

straight (adj.): reto

tough (adj.): difícil, duro

stream (n.): fluxo

trap (v.): prender

strength (n.): força

tremble (v.): tremer

stress (v.): dar ênfase

trend (n.): tendência

struggle (n.): luta

truly (adv.): realmente, verdadeiramente

struggle (v.): lutar

waste (v.): desperdiçar waste bin (n.): lixeira watery (adj.): lacrimoso, aguado wave (n.): onda wealthy (adj.): rico wearable (adj.): prático, usável well-being (n.): bem-estar whether (c.): se whistling (adj.): sibilante whiteness (n.): brancura

tuna (n.): atum

stuff (n.): material, coisa

whole (adj.): todo, inteiro

typeface (n.): tipo de fonte (letra)

successful (adj.): bem-sucedido

suffering (n.): sofrimento

warm (adj.): morno

toll (n.): dano

state (n.): estado

sudden (adj.): repentino, súbito

W

widely (adv.): amplamente widen (v.): alargar, ampliar

U

wild (adj.): selvagem

sugar cane (n.): cana-de-açúcar

uncertainty (n.): incerteza

wildlife (n.): fauna

suit (v.): adequar

unforgettable (adj.): inesquecível

wind (n.): vento

sure (adv.): certamente

unfriend (v.): excluir alguém em sua lista de contatos

wish (n.): desejo

sure (adj.): certo, confiante, seguro

unimaginative (adj.): sem imaginação

wit (n.): talento

surrounding (adj.): circundante, dos arredores

uniqueness (n.): unicidade, singularidade

within (adv.): dentro, interno

sustainable (adj.): sustentável

unspeakably (adv.): indizivelmente, indescritivelmente

wood (n.): madeira, árvore

swoon (v.): desmaiar

wipe (v.): limpar

witchcraft (n.): bruxaria wizardry (n.): feitiçaria wool-stapler (n.): trabalhador cuja matéria-prima é a lã

unvaried (adj.): monótono upper secondary education (n.): ensino secundário

T

upside down (adv.): de ponta cabeça

tag (v.): etiquetar talk (n.): palestra task (n.): tarefa

upstate (adj.): a parte ao norte de um lugar

teen (n.): adolescente

useful (adj.): útil

telecom (n.): telecomunicações

utterly (adv.): completamente

term (n.): prazo theme (n.): tema therefore (adv.): portanto third (n.): terça parte thought (n.): pensamento thoughtful (adj.): atencioso, solícito

wrench (v.): balançar bruscamente wretch (n.): miserável writing (n.): escrita, composição literária

Y

Glossary

sum (n.): montante

year (n.): ano

V

yell (v.): gritar valuable (adj.): valioso

yellowish (adj.): amarelado

vanish (v.): sumir, desaparecer

youngster (n.): jovem

virtually (adv.): praticamente volunteer (n.): voluntário two hundred and three

203


List of irregular verbs

track 37

204

Infinitive

Simple Past

Past Participle

Translation

be

was/were

been

ser, estar

become

became

become

tornar(-se)

begin

began

begun

comeรงar

bite

bit

bitten

morder

blow

blew

blown

soprar, assoprar

break

broke

broken

quebrar

bring

brought

brought

trazer

build

built

built

construir

buy

bought

bought

comprar

catch

caught

caught

pegar, agarrar

choose

chose

chosen

escolher

come

came

come

vir

cost

cost

cost

custar

cut

cut

cut

cortar

dig

dug

dug

cavar

do

did

done

fazer

draw

drew

drawn

desenhar

drink

drank

drunk

beber

drive

drove

driven

dirigir

eat

ate

eaten

comer

fall

fell

fallen

cair

feed

fed

fed

alimentar

feel

felt

felt

sentir(-se)

fight

fought

fought

lutar, brigar

find

found

found

encontrar

fly

flew

flown

voar

forbid

forbade

forbidden

proibir

forget

forgot

forgotten

esquecer

forgive

forgave

forgiven

perdoar

freeze

froze

frozen

gelar, congelar

get

got

gotten

conseguir, obter, ganhar, chegar, pegar etc.

give

gave

given

dar

go

went

gone

ir

two hundred and four


track 38

Infinitive

Simple Past

Past Participle

Translation

grow

grew

grown

crescer

have/has

had

had

ter

hear

heard

heard

ouvir

hide

hid

hidden

esconder

hit

hit

hit

bater, atingir, acertar

hold

held

held

segurar, pegar

hurt

hurt

hurt

doer, ferir

keep

kept

kept

manter

know

knew

known

saber, conhecer

lay

laid

laid

pĂ´r, colocar, botar

lead

led

led

liderar, guiar, conduzir

learn

learned/learnt

learned/learnt

aprender

leave

left

left

sair, partir

lend

lent

lent

emprestar

let

let

let

deixar, permitir

lie

lay

lain

deitar

lose

lost

lost

perder

make

made

made

fazer

mean

meant

meant

significar

meet

met

met

pay

paid

paid

pagar

put

put

put

pĂ´r, colocar

quit

quit

quit

largar (o emprego), parar (de fazer algo)

read

read

read

ler

ride

rode

ridden

andar (de bicicleta, a cavalo etc.)

ring

rang

rung

rise

rose

risen

subir, aumentar, levantar(-se), nascer (o Sol)

run

ran

run

correr

say

said

said

dizer

encontrar, conhecer

tocar (campainha, telefone)

two hundred and five

205


track 39

206

Infinitive

Simple Past

Past Participle

Translation

see

saw

seen

ver

sell

sold

sold

vender

send

sent

sent

enviar

set

set

set

marcar (uma data), pôr-se (o Sol), ajustar, programar etc.

shake

shook

shaken

sacudir, tremer, apertar as mãos

sing

sang

sung

cantar

sink

sank

sunk

afundar

sit

sat

sat

sentar

sleep

slept

slept

dormir

speak

spoke

spoken

falar

spend

spent

spent

stand

stood

stood

levantar(-se), ficar de pé

steal

stole

stolen

roubar

swear

swore

sworn

jurar

swim

swam

swum

nadar

take

took

taken

teach

taught

taught

ensinar

tell

told

told

dizer

think

thought

thought

pensar

throw

threw

thrown

jogar, arremessar

understand

understood

understood

entender

wake

woke

woken

despertar, acordar

wear

wore

worn

vestir

weep

wept

wept

chorar, derramar lágrimas

win

won

won

vencer, ganhar

write

wrote

written

escrever

two hundred and six

gastar, passar (tempo)

tomar, pegar, segurar etc.


List of phrasal verbs track 40

Phrasal Verb

Translation

act out

atuar, interpretar

back up

copiar/salvar as informações (de um computador)

burn out

esgotar(-se)

carry out

cumprir, pôr em prática

catch up

pôr em dia

cheer up

animar(-se), alegrar(-se)

come in

entrar, chegar

come up with

surgir (uma ideia, um plano)

cry out

gritar

get off

descer

get over

superar, recuperar

go away

desaparecer, ir embora

go back

voltar, regressar

go down

descer

go over

revisar

look at

examinar, olhar

look into

investigar, averiguar

look up

procurar

make up

compor, constituir

moon about

desperdiçar o tempo

pair up

juntar(-se) em par

pop in/into

passar por, aparecer

pull out

arrancar, retirar

push forward

prosseguir, impulsionar

put in/into

pôr

put up

valorizar

set off

partir

ship off

enviar

sit back

relaxar

sit down

sentar

squeeze out

impedir

start out

começar

stay in

ficar em casa

stay up

ficar acordado

stretch out

esticar

think about/of

pensar

toss into

jogar, colocar

turn off

desligar

wander up

vaguear

work on

trabalhar

write down

escrever two hundred and seven

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