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Rosana Amancio Mariana Killner

Ensino Médio Componente curricular Língua Estrangeira Moderna – Inglês Ensino Médio Componente Língua Estrangeira curricular Moderna – Inglês

Manual do Professor

Inglês

Inglês

Manual do Professor

ISBN 978-85-8392-094-6

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Manual do Professor

Inglês Ensino Médio Componente curricular Língua Estrangeira Moderna Inglês

Rosana Gemima Amancio

Mariana Killner

Professora graduada em Letras Anglo-Portuguesas pela Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL-PR).

Licenciada em Letras Anglo-Portuguesas pela Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL-PR).

Especialista em Língua Portuguesa pela Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL-PR). Especialista em Língua Inglesa pela Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL-PR). Mestre em Linguística pela Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp-SP).

Bacharel em Letras, Língua e Cultura Francesas pela Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL-PR). Especialista em Língua Inglesa pela Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL-PR). Atuou como professora de Inglês em escolas da rede particular de ensino.

Atuou como professora de Inglês em escolas da rede particular de ensino.

1a. edição

São Paulo

2016


Copyright © Rosana Gemima Amancio, Mariana Killner, 2016

Diretor editorial Gerente editorial Coordenadora editorial Assessoria Gerente de produção editorial Coordenador de produção editorial Coordenadora de arte Coordenadora de preparação e revisão Supervisora de preparação e revisão Revisão Coordenador de iconografia e licenciamento de textos Surpevisora de licenciamento de textos Iconografia Coordenadora de ilustrações e cartografia Diretor de operações e produção gráfica

Lauri Cericato Cayube Galas Ana Carolina Costa Lopes Lidia Furusato Mariana Milani Marcelo Henrique Ferreira Fontes Daniela Máximo Lilian Semenichin Viviam Moreira Julia Siqueira Expedito Arantes Elaine Bueno Ana Paula de Jesus Marcia Berne Reginaldo Soares Damasceno

Produção editorial Scriba Projetos Editoriais Edição Mariana Cavalcante Diamante Assistência editorial Isabela Ventura Silvério Biz, Ruth Carvalho da Silva, Jefferson de Moura Saraiva, Karina Otsuka Nihonmatsu Assessoria Renata Quirino Projeto gráfico Laís Garbelini e Hatadani Capa Marcela Pialarissi e Hatadani Imagens de capa Fotomontagem formada pelas imagens Iceink/Chromake/Alendrka/ Viktor1/Lightspring/HomeArt/exopixel/Shutterstock.com Edição de ilustrações Natanaele Bilmaia Diagramação Ana Maria Puerta Guimarães Tratamento de imagens José Vitor Elorza Costa Ilustrações Anna Simonin, Art Capri, Bárbara Sarzi, Camila Ferreira, Júnior Caramez, Marcela Pialarissi, Natanaele Bilmaia, Poliana Garcia Preparação de texto Laís Morais Canonico Metz Revisão técnica Theo E. Kleinhans Assistência de produção Denise A. Santos, Daiana Melo e Tamires Azevedo Autorização de recursos Erick L. Almeida Pesquisa iconográfica Alaíde França Editoração eletrônica Luiz Roberto L. Correa (Beto) Dados Internacionais de Catalogação na Publicação (CIP) (Câmara Brasileira do Livro, SP, Brasil) Amancio, Rosana Gemima #Contato inglês, 1o ano / Rosana Gemima Amancio, Mariana Killner. – 1. ed. – São Paulo : Quinteto Editorial, 2016. – (Coleção #contato inglês) “Componente curricular: inglês” ISBN 978-85-8392-093-9 (aluno) ISBN 978-85-8392-094-6 (professor) 1. Inglês (Ensino médio) I. Killner, Mariana. II. Título. III. Série.

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      CDD-420.7

Índices para catálogo sistemático: 1. Inglês : Ensino médio

Reprodução proibida: Art. 184 do Código Penal e Lei 9.610 de 19 de fevereiro de 1998. Todos os direitos reservados à QUINTETO EDITORIAL LTDA. Rua Rui Barbosa, 156 – Bela Vista – São Paulo-SP CEP 01326-010 – Tel. (11) 3598-6000 Caixa Postal 65149 – CEP da Caixa Postal 01390-970

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Em respeito ao meio ambiente, as folhas deste livro foram produzidas com fibras obtidas de árvores de florestas plantadas, com origem certificada.

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9/6/16 11:19 AM


Para conhecer seu livro Hot dog, self-service, e-mail, blog, game... você já percebeu quantas palavras em Inglês usamos diariamente? Essas relações de palavras são bastante interessantes, pois nos mostram a importância da língua inglesa dentro da nossa cultura. E estudar uma língua estrangeira é uma maneira de termos acesso a uma imensidão de novas informações, de nos preparar para desafios, de conhecermos outras culturas, e é, sobretudo, uma forma de conhecermos melhor a nossa própria cultura. Pensando nisso, preparamos para este livro uma seleção de conteúdos contemporânea e consistente, textos atuais e diversificados, além de recursos atraentes, como fotografias, ilustrações, mapas, tabelas e quadros, que possibilitam a você ter um contato envolvente com a informação. Esperamos que você se identifique com este material e encontre nele o prazer de estudar outra língua, e que ele seja um incentivo para você buscar cada vez mais conhecimento.

Abertura

Nas páginas de abertura, você encontrará uma montagem de imagens relacionada ao tema da unidade e um texto introdutório explicando o significado da expressão idiomática ou do provérbio usado como título. Além disso, apresentamos algumas questões para que você e os seus colegas troquem ideias e entrem no clima da unidade.

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baby [ beibi] - plural babies - noun 1 a very young child: Some babies cry during the night; (also adjective) a baby boy. bebê 2 (especially American, often babe) a girl or young woman. garota babyish adjective like a baby; not mature: a babyish child that cries every day at school. pueril baby buggy/carriage (American) a pram. carrinho baby grand a small grand piano. piano meia-cauda baby-sit verb to remain in a house to look after a child while its parents are out: He baby-sits for his friends every Saturday. ficar de baby-sitter baby-sitter noun. baby-sitter baby-sitting noun. serviço de baby-sitter

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bachelor [ bat∫ l ] noun an unmarried man: He’s a confirmed bachelor (= he has no intention of ever marrying); (also adjective) a bachelor flat (= a flat suitable for one person). solteiro back [bak] noun 1 in man, the part of the body from the neck to the bottom of the spine: She lay on her back. costas 2 in animals, the upper part of the body: She put the saddle on the horse’s back. lombo 3 that part of anything opposite to or furthest from the front: the back of the house; She sat at the back of the hall. fundos 4 in football, hockey etc a player who plays behind the forwards. defesa adjective of or at the back: the back door. dos fundos adverb 1 to, or at, the place or person from which a person or thing came: / went back to the shop; She gave the car back to its owner. de volta 2 away (from something); not near (something): Move back! Let the ambulance get to the injured man; Keep back from me or I’ll hit you! para trás 3 towards the back (of something): Sit back in your chair. para trás 4 in return; in response to: When the teacher is scolding you, don’t answer back. de volta 5 to, or in, the past: Think back to your childhood. para trás verb 1 to (cause to) move backwards: He backed (his car) out of the garage. dar marcha à ré 2 to help or support: Will you back me against the others? apoiar 3 to bet or gamble on: I backed your horse to win. apostar em backer noun a person who supports someone or something, especially with money: the backer of the new theatre. patrocinador

acúmulo back- number noun an out-of-date copy or issue of a magazine etc: She collects back-numbers of comic magazines. número atrasado backside noun the bottom or buttocks: He sits on his backside all day long and does no work. traseiro backstroke noun in swimming, a stroke made when lying on one’s back in the water: The child is good at backstroke. nado de costas backwash noun 1 a backward current eg that following a ship’s passage through the water: the backwash of the steamer. ressaca 2 the unintentional results of an action, situation etc: The backwash of that firm’s financial troubles affected several other firms. repercussão backwater noun 1 a stretch of river not in the main stream. braço, esteiro 2 a place not affected by what is happening in the world outside. That village is rather a backwater. fim

3 Phonetic symbols They show how the word is pronounced. Some dictionaries have a guide which helps you to understand and use the pronunciation symbols presented in them.

Na seção Looking words up, você encontrará orientações sobre como usar o dicionário de uma maneira mais ef iciente.

Monolingual dictionaries

4 Parts of speech It indicates if the word is a noun, a verb, an adjective, an adverb, etc. It can be abbreviated (n./noun; v./ verb; etc.)

5 Definition The definition and meaning of the word. On-line dictionaries

6 Example sentence

6

An example of how the word is used in a sentence. It can provide more context and relevance.

Learning strategies 7 Translation

The word changed into Portuguese.

8 Syllables

7

If you want to be a good learner of English, there are many strategies you can use. These are some suggestions:

Some dictionaries show you how to break the word into syllables.

de mundo back yard noun (especially American) a garden at the back of a house etc: He grows vegetables in his backyard. quintal

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Bilingual dictionaries

The word to be defined. Dictionary entries are arranged in alphabetical order. Nouns are usually in the singular form. Verbs are usually in the base form (not in the past or past participle).

Concise Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press, 2010

baboon [b bu n, (American) ba-] noun a kind of large monkey with a dog-like face. babuíno

There are different types of dictionaries. For example:

They indicate the first and the last words on the page.

2 Entry

Password: English dictionary for speakers of Portuguese. São Paulo: Martins Fontes, 1995. p. 30.

Macmillan Dictionary. Available at: <www. macmillandictionary.com>. Accessed on: March 31st, 2016

3

babe [beib] noun 1 a baby: a babe in arms (= a small baby not yet able to walk). bebê 2 see baby.

Merriam-Webster. Available at: <www.merriam-webster.com>. Accessed on: March 31st, 2016

eleven

ten

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Na seção Learning strategies, você encontrará diferentes estratégias de aprendizado que poderão auxiliá-lo em seu estudo.

Marcela Pialarissi

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1 Guide words

backbite verb to criticize a person when he is not present. falar mal (pelas costas) backbiting noun: Constant backbiting by her colleagues led to her resignation. maledicência backbone noun 1 the spine: the backbone of a fish. espinha dorsal 2 the chief support: The older employees are the backbone of the industry. sustentáculo backbreaking adjective (of a task etc) very difficult or requiring very hard work: Digging the garden is a backbreaking job. pesado back date verb 1 to put an earlier date on (a cheque etc): She should have paid her bill last month and so she has backdated the cheque. antedatar 2 to make payable from a date in the past: Our rise in pay was backdated to April. retroagir back fire verb 1 (of a motor-car etc) to make a loud bang because of unburnt gases in the exhaust system: The car backfired. estourar 2 (of a plan etc) to have unexpected results, often opposite to the intended results: His scheme backfired (on him), and he lost money. dar um revertério background noun 1 the space behind the principal or most important figures or objects of a picture etc: She always paints ships against a background of stormy skies; trees in the background of the picture. fundo 2 happenings that go before, and help to explain, an event etc: the background to a situation. pano de fundo 3 a person’s origins, education etc: He was ashamed of his humble background. antecedentes backhand noun 1 in tennis etc, a stroke or shot with the back of one’s hand turned towards the ball: a clever backhand; His backhand is very strong. backhand 2 writing with the letters sloping backwards: I can always recognize her backhand. grafia inclinada à esquerda adverb using backhand: She played the stroke backhand; She writes backhand. de revés backlog noun a pile of uncompleted work etc which has collected: a backlog of orders because of the strike.

Dicionário Oxford escolar. Oxford University Press, 2013

Bb

Babble / back

babble [ babl] verb 1 to talk indistinctly or foolishly: What are you babbling about now? tagarelar 2 to make a continuous and indistinct noise: The stream babbled over the pebbles. murmurar noun such talk or noises. tagarelice, murmúrio

Password. São Paulo: Martins Fontes, 2010

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2

Fotomontagem formada pelas imagens J. Helgason e LOGVINYUK YULIIA/ Shutterstock.com

Looking words up

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twelve

thirteen

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A seção Contextualizing inicia o estudo por meio de atividades relacionadas ao tema das unidades e ao vocabulário que será ensinado. Essa contextualização será feita, também, muitas vezes, com base na leitura e análise de diversos gêneros textuais.

Contextualizing

Observe the following pictures. Which one(s) do you relate to? Why?

A

B

a ) Do you think you have already developed your identity? b ) If so, in what period of your life did it happen? c ) If not, what are your doubts? In your notebook, match the beginning with the end of the sentences. Do you agree or disagree with these statements? Talk to a classmate. I

b ) Teens c ) When you are a teen, d ) During adolescence, it’s important to

3.

II

are trying to develop their personal identity.

III

learn ways of self-expression.

IV

c ) Does the campaign have a website? What is it? d) On this website, what country does the acronym au refer to?

to try a new way of doing something to try very hard to do something difficult

c ) to experiment

III

to think about someone or something in a particular way

IV

.

d ) Many teens struggle to

.

to try to understand the reason for something

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Mental health month art and resources. Available at: <www.mentalhealth.asn.au/our-resources/ mental-health-month-art-and-resources>. Accessed on: October 4th, 2015.

Listening

.

.

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1.

What does self-expression mean to you? Talk to a classmate.

2.

Read the following definition of self-expression. How is that similar to or different from your own definition?

[...] Self-expression is a display of individuality whether it’s through words, clothing, hairstyle, or art forms such as writing and drawing. Being self-expressed means that people will see your spirit and true character; they will see the totality of who you are. […]

a ) one’s sense of self

I

disorientation

b ) development

II

long search

c ) confusion

III

to continue

d ) to lead to

IV

your self-image, the way you see yourself

V

change, growth, improvement

3.

to cause

VII

attempt to find something

h) to move on

VIII

to give your support to something or someone you think is right and important

imagen ntagem de Anna Simonin BestPh s Brian Chase, formad ayakov Tofude otoStudio, Chuck a pelas levcom vil/Shu , Rausin, ttersto Goodlu ck.com ze

eighteen

As atividades de compreensão oral e o número das faixas no CD de áudio são indicados por esse ícone.

Fotomo

4. track 3

You are going to listen to an excerpt of an interview broadcast on a web-based radio show called Teen talk. This show has teen hosts and features interviews with a number of different teen guests. What form of self-expression is the girl talking about? a ) dancing

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b) dressing

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A seção Listening and understanding está divida em Listening, em que se privilegia a compreensão de áudios autênticos, e Speaking, que busca contemplar situações de uso real da língua para você praticar o que aprendeu.

How to live with full self-expression. Available at: <www.virtuesforlife.com/how-to-live-with-full-self-expression>. Accessed on: September 1st, 2015.

Observe the pictures below and talk to your classmates about how these teens are expressing themselves.

VI

g ) quest

f ) search

Australia

h) What is the objective of the campaign?

Listening and understanding

In your notebook, match the following expressions with their meanings.

e ) to stand for

Canada

f ) What animal is on the poster? Do the animals all look the same? Why (not)?

Write down the sentences below in you notebook and complete them using your ideas.

c ) Teens experiment with

I II

e ) Who is organizing the campaign? Does the poster give their contact information?

g) What’s the different bird saying? Why is it saying that?

I II

b ) Some teens perceive themselves as

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b) When is the campaign taking place?

a challenging phase of people’s lives.

a ) to wonder b ) to perceive

a ) In adolescence, teens begin to wonder about

5.

a ) What is the poster about?

In your notebook, match the following verbs with their definitions.

d ) to struggle

4.

you watch others and try to find models of behaviors.

Read the poster below. Then, answer the questions in your notebook.

Way Ahead - Mental Health Association NSW

Think about the questions below. Then, discuss with a classmate.

a ) Adolescence is

Monkey Business Images/ Shutterstock.com

g-stockstudio/Shutterstock.com

2.

A seção Learning and acting foi proposta para unir o trabalho com as habilidades de leitura e de escrita. Ela está dividida em Reading and reflecting, momento em que a leitura e compreensão textual são estudadas, e Writing, em que se realiza a produção textual.

Pre-reading

2.

D

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Reading and reflecting

1.

C

CandyBox Images/Shutterstock.com

1.

freya-photographer/Shutterstock.com

Learning and acting

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Warming up

Comprehending and using

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Learning about the language Verb to be

c ) hairstyle

1.

twenty-two

Read and analyze the texts below. Then, write down the statements that are true and rewrite the false ones. To be or not to be, that is the question.

Peça teatral de Arielle Tepper Madover. Hamlet. Estados Unidos. 2009. Foto: Johan Persson/ArenaPAL/Topfoto/Keystone

A

I

In both texts, the characters are questioning their existence.

II

Both texts are funny.

III

In text A, the character is not sure if being alive is a good thing.

IV

In text B, the character is satisfied with himself.

Prince Hamlet portrayed by the British actor Jude Law in 2009.

B Frank & Ernest, Bob Thaves © 1999 Thaves/Dist. by Universal Uclick

A seção Comprehending and using está divida em duas partes. A primeira, Learning about the language, apresenta estruturas linguísticas e suas regras. Na segunda, Using the language, você encontrará atividades para praticar o uso dessas estruturas em situações próximas do uso real da língua.

Frank & Ernest, by Bob Thaves. Available at: <http://amureprints.com/reprints/results?commit=Search&page=4&relea se_date_from=&release_date_to=&terms=Identity>. Accessed on: September 16 th, 2015.

2. track 4

Study page 188 and rewrite the following dialog in your notebook. Then, listen to the track and complete the gaps.

Teacher: So,

you ready to

yourselves?

Sandra: I . I can go first. Well... my name 15. I’m a very responsible and Sandra and I teachers, so I organized . My parents always have to study a lot. you into sports?

Sandra: Humm… I

crazy about it. And

?

Mike: I Mike. I sports... Soccer my favorite. I determined and creative. My best friend is Lucas. He a very patient person and he a little stubborn, but he’s really nice and .

24 Nesta unidade, você...

Unit 1

Summing up

conversou com seus colegas de classe sobre a descoberta da identidade na fase da adolescência; leu textos sobre identidade e autoexpressão; estudou adjetivos que descrevem personalidade; estudou como se apresentar, destacando suas qualidades e/ou defeitos; ouviu parte de um programa de rádio no qual uma adolescente relata uma forma de autoexpressão;

Dr Sh agon ut ter Imag sto es ck / .co m

Mike:

twenty-four

No Summing up, você poderá autoavaliar seu aprendizado, verificando quais conteúdos da unidade precisam ser revistos.

produziu um pôster sobre o processo de descoberta da identidade na adolescência; conversou com seus colegas sobre como você se expressa; estudou como utilizar o verbo to be; estudou como as tag questions são formadas e utilizadas; estudou os usos e significados das palavras so e such.

Reading “Hank” lost his memory and now he doesn’t know who he is, where he came from and why he is running away. The book Being Henry David tells the story of when he decides to become Henry David (or “Hank”) because of the only thing he owns – a copy of the book Walden by Henry David Thoreau. In order to search for himself and find the story of his past, Hank needs to face his own tragedy and find his way back to who he really is.

Whitman Editora Albert & Company

Going further

Being Henry David, by Cal Armistead. Albert Whitman & Company: USA, 2014.

EUA. 2012

om tterstock.c

Singing The song Firework, performed by the singer Katy Perry and recorded on the CD Teenage Dream, is about accepting who you are and revealing your true self to the world. Basically, the meaning of this song is: don’t worry about what others want you to be. Instead, show your true colors and embrace your uniqueness.

The perks of being a wallflower, by Stephen Chbosky. Paris Filmes: USA, 2012.

Dfree/Shu

Surfing the net The website HelpingTeens.org <http://tub.im/uff28r> offers support, groups forums, articles and different resources to help teenagers in different areas of their lives.

Filme de Stephen Chbosky. The perks of being a wallflower.

Watching The movie The perks of being a wallflower is about Charlie, a teenager who belittles himself. When he discovers true friendship with Patrick and Sam, he starts to feel the desire of living his life and, at the same time, of running away from it.

No Going further, você encontrará sugestões de livros, filmes, sites e músicas referentes ao tema da unidade. Vale a pena conferir algumas dessas sugestões!

Katy Perry (2015).

twenty-nine

Choosing a career

29

Essa seção apresenta diferentes profissões e informações sobre o mercado de trabalho. Por meio de uma lista com as principais características dessas profissões, propomos que você avalie os prós e os contras de cada carreira, com o objetivo de auxiliá-lo em sua escolha profissional.

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Thinking cross-curricularly

A seção Thinking cross-curricularly retoma alguns dos temas abordados em unidades anteriores, estabelecendo uma relação entre esses temas e outras disciplinas do currículo escolar. O objetivo é ampliar as propostas de discussão feitas nas unidades, proporcionando mais oportunidades de leitura e compreensão de textos variados.

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

In this section of the book, you are going to read texts related to some of the topics you have discussed in the previous units. Here, you are going to have the opportunity to reflect on various themes and their relation with other subjects, such as Biology and Geography. The activities follow the same structure you have worked with in the units, including the stages of pre-reading, reading and post-reading.

1.

Defining identity is a lifetime process. And for teens, who are experiencing it for the first time, it can be a big challenge. Look at the image and match the sentences in your notebook. a ) This boy… I

is secure about his identity.

II

doesn’t know who he is.

I

confused and overwhelmed.

II

oriented and relaxed.

Art Capri

b ) He looks…

2.

In your opinion, which personality adjectives describe him?

3.

Discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates. In this section of the book, you are going to study universities entrance examinations from all a ) Do you know what puberty is? over the country. This means that you are going to have the opportunity to learn and have more information about the different styles of exams and prepare yourself for when your time to take b ) Do you know when puberty happens? the examinations comes. c ) Can you give some examples of changes in puberty? The universities entrance examinations have, in most cases, objective questions. The English exams questions usually offer four or five alternatives. They can demand from the students the As boys and girls reach puberty, they face physical, emotional and social changes. In ability to interpret a text or to use a grammatical and linguistic knowledge. Moreover, some groups, match the physical changes with their descriptions. exams ask the questions in English, while others ask them in Portuguese. I related to the menstrual cycle, which is a process that happens in a ) height the uterus and ovaries and makes pregnancy possible and weight gain 2011)and EEWB II the same as an increase(EEWB in body- mass staturestands for Escola de Enfermagem Wenceslau Braz. b ) genital growth

4.

independent

nervous

easygoing

determined

c ) hair growth d ) voice change e ) period f ) period pain

III

arrogant

moody

courageous

Getting ready for exams careless sensitive impatient

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

the growth of the penis and the testicles

IV

pain and cramps related to the menstrual cycle It All Begins

V

“Knowing others is wisdom, knowing yourself is enlightenment.” breasts get bigger and accumulate fat

VI

growing of body hair, including in the pubic region and armpits

With Awareness

A seção Getting ready for exams é uma oportunidade para se preparar para avaliações oficiais, como ENEM e vestibulares de diversas regiões do Brasil, e com questões de diferentes formatos.

Lao Tzu

Awareness is the first step in the creation process. As you grow in self awareness, you will better understand why you feel what you feel and why you behave as you behave. That understanding then gives you the opportunity and freedom to change those things you’d like to change about 5. In your notebook, write which physical changes are related toyourself boys, girls or both. Then, in want. Without fully knowing who you are, and create the life you pairs, research, at least, two more physical changes and present them to theand class. self acceptance change become impossible. g ) breast growth

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VII

the deepening of the tone of the voice

Having clarity about who you are and what you want (and why you want it), empowers you to consciously and actively make those wants a reality. Otherwise, you’ll continue to get “caught up” in your own internal dramas and unknown beliefs, allowing unknown thought processes to determine your feelings and actions.

eighty

Going out there

If you think about it, not understanding why you do what you do, and feel what you feel is like going through your life with a stranger’s mind. How do you make wise decisions and choices if you don’t understand why you want what you want? It’s a difficult and chaotic way to live never knowing what this stranger is going to do next. Who’s the expert? When we want good, solid information, we turn to the experts. So, who are you going to turn to for information about yourself? Who’s the expert? You. Does a friend, a therapist, a minister, your hero, your spouse, your parents know more about you than you? They can’t. You live in your skin and mind 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 52 weeks a year. Day in and day out. No one’s closer to you than you! The answers are in there, perhaps all you’ve needed to solve your riddles is a useful question. It all begins with awareness. Available at: <www.selfcreation.com/awareness/index.htm>. Accessed on: September 17th, 2010.

1.

Considere as seguintes afirmações: I) O primeiro passo no processo de criação é o acordar. II) Compreender porque você sente como sente e porque age da maneira que age pode significar a possibilidade de criar a vida que você deseja ter.

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eighty-eight

Essa seção propõe um processo investigativo de trabalho e pesquisa, com uma ação voltada para a prática.

Understanding literature

Nessa seção propomos a leitura e a interpretação de textos literários, para que você conheça a produção literária de alguns países onde o inglês é língua oficial.

unit

Grammar appendix

adj. = adjective

c. = conjunction

pron. = pronoun

adv. = adverb

n. = noun

prep. = preposition

attempt (n.): tentativa attempt (v.): tentar

bid (n.): oferta, proposta

attend (v.): frequentar

bike-friendly (adj.): estruturado para receber ciclistas

attentive (adj.): atencioso avoid (v.): evitar award (n.): prêmio award (v.): premiar

achieve (v.): conquistar

aware (adj.): consciente

acknowledge (v.): confirmar

awareness (n.): consciência

across (adv.): através de

awkward (adj.): desajeitada

advice (n.): conselho

allow (v.): permitir allowed (adj.): permitido along (prep.): ao longo de, juntamente alongside (prep.): junto (a)

198

Contracted form

I am not

I’m not

You are not

You’re not/You aren’t

He is not

He’s not/He isn’t

She is not

She’s not/She isn’t

It is not

It’s not/It isn’t

You aren’t selfish. You aren’t a selfish person.

We’re not/We aren’t You’re not/You aren’t

They aren’t funny.

They are not

They’re not/They aren’t

They aren’t funny boys.

bossy (adj.): mandão, autoritário

banished (adj.): banido bark (v.): latir

beeping (n.): som geralmente agudo emitido como aviso ou sinal beg (v.): mendigar, implorar behave (v.): comportar(-se) behavior (n.): comportamento behind (adv.): atrás bell (n.): campainha, sinal

Questions

sto

ck

.co

m

In questions, put verb to be before the subject. Short answers

ter

borrow (v.): pedir emprestado

balloon (v.): aumentar

apologise (v.): desculpar

assessment (n.): avaliação

Full form

We are not

balloon (n.): balão

beauty (n.): beleza

asleep (adj.): adormecido

KPG Payless2/ Shutterstock. com

You are not

boombox (n.): rádio portátil

basin (n.): bacia

assertive (adj.): seguro, autoconfiante

She’s a sensible girl.

blush (v.): ruborizar

boring (adj.): chato

bear (v.): suportar, aguentar, tolerar [p. bore/pp. born/ borne]

ashamed (adj.): envergonhado

She’s sensible.

They’re

board game (n.): jogo de tabuleiro

balance (n.): equilíbrio

anxiety (n.): ansiedade

armpit (n.): axila

blow (n.): soco, golpe

balcony (n.): varanda

anger (n.): raiva

armor (n.): armadura

You’re

In negative sentences, use not.

bond (n.): elo, vínculo

amount (n.): quantidade

appreciate (v.): apreciar, avaliar

I’m studious. I’m a studious person.

We’re

They are

bodily (adj.): físico, corpóreo

B

although (c.): embora

ancient (adj.): antigo

It’s

We are You are

ut

alive (adj.): vivo, vívido, vibrante

It is

both (adj./c.): ambos both (prep.): igualmente, tanto bottom (adj.): último bottom (n.): nível mais baixo, fundo bow (v.): curvar(-se), fazer uma reverência bowl (n.): tigela breakout (adj.): bem-sucedido breast (n.): seio, peito broader (adj.): mais amplo

Sh

age (v.): envelhecer

She’s

Am I funny?

No Glossary, você encontrará, em ordem alfabética, vocabulário de textos e atividades de todas as unidades, com as respectivas traduções em língua portuguesa.

Yes, you are.

No, you aren’t.

Are you intelligent?

Yes, I am.

Is he/she/it impolite?

Yes, he/she/it is.

No, he/she/it isn’t.

Are we/you/they nice?

Yes, we/they are.

No, we/they aren’t.

No, I’m not.

g/

affectionate (adj.): afetuoso, carinhoso

blood (n.): sangue blood pressure (n.): pressão sanguínea

He’s

rom

account (v.): ser a causa

birth (n.): nascimento

You’re

ve

account (n.): relato

Contracted form I’m

You are He is She is

oli

accomplished (adj.): realizado, talentoso

Full form I am

Tag questions Tag questions turn a statement into a question. They are used to ask for confirmation.

188

Positive statement

Negative question

You are tired,

aren’t you?

It is a beautiful day,

isn’t it?

one hundred and eighty-eight

m

accomplish (v.): realizar, alcançar

beyond (prep.): além de

Verb to be (Simple Present)

.co

A

v. = verb

1

The Simple Present form of verb to be is used to express many different ideas in English. It is used for personal introductions, with adjectives to express qualities of someone, to talk about time, weather, and prices, to indicate location, and more. It can be used with an adjective or with a noun.

No Grammar appendix, você encontrará um resumo, apresentado de forma sistemática, dos pontos gramaticais estudados ao longo do livro. Sugerimos que você recorra a essa seção para estudar em casa ou para solucionar dúvidas em sala de aula.

Su Sh saZo ut ter om/ sto ck

Glossary

In this section, you can find the meaning and the classification of several words. All the meanings presented are from the uses in the specific situations of this book. The meanings and classifications of these words may vary depending on their use.

budget (n.): orçamento buffer (v.): amortecer, proteger bullet (n.): bala, projétil

besides (adv./prep.): além de

bulletproof (adj.): à prova de balas

beyond (adv.): além

bullying (n.): ato de intimidar,

one hundred and ninety-eight

g18_ftd_lt_1noi_003a005_conheca.indd 5

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Contents Looking words up. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Learning strategies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Show your true colors unit

.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

Contextualizing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Personality adjectives

Learning and acting.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Reading about the development of identity during adolescence Making a poster

Listening and understanding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Listening to an interview Role-playing a radio show

Comprehending and using. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Verb to be Tag questions

Summing up.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

unit

Going further. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

When in Rome, do as Romans do

.............................

30

Contextualizing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Countries and nationalities

Learning and acting.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Zarya Maxim Alexandrovich/ Shutterstock.com

Reading about table manners in Korea Writing a set of rules for a travel guide

Listening and understanding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Listening to a podcast Talking about who you are

Comprehending and using. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Imperatives There is/There are

Summing up.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Going further. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Choosing a career. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46


unit

No pain, no gain

........................................................................................

48

Contextualizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Physical activities

Learning and acting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Reading a self-help article Writing a self-help article

Listening and understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Listening to a radio program Talking about the benefits of exercising

Comprehending and using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Present Continuous Can/Canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t

Summing up. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

.........

64

Contextualizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Food

Learning and acting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Reading about the consumption of sodium Writing a food diary

Listening and understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Listening to a podcast Role-playing an interview

Comprehending and using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Simple Present Adverbs of frequency Countable and uncountable nouns Quantifiers

Summing up. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Going further . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Thinking cross-curricularly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Choosing a career . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Getting ready for exams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

Valentina Razumova/ Shutterstock.com

unit

An apple a day keeps the doctor away

Eugene Onischenko/ Shutterstock.com

Going further . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63


unit

Like father, like son

...........................................................................

94

Contextualizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Family members

Learning and acting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Reading a poem Writing a poem

Listening and understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Listening to a podcast Creating a podcast

Comprehending and using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Subject pronouns Object Pronouns Posssessive adjectives Possessive pronouns

Summing up. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Going further . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

unit

Ruslan Guzov/ Shutterstock.com

Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ll be there for you

...........................................................................

110

Contextualizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Relationships

Learning and acting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Reading a short story Rewriting the end of a short story

Listening and understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Listening to a podcast Talking about the characteristics of an attentive friend

Comprehending and using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Phrasal verbs Simple Past-Verb to be There was/There were

Summing up. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Going further . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Choosing a career . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126


unit

This is music to my ears

.......................................................

128

Contextualizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Music styles

Learning and acting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Reading a review Writing a review about a singer or band

Listening and understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Listening to an interview Talking about a famous singer or band

Comprehending and using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 st Sh ock u t y im te r s age t o s/ ck .co m

Simple Past Passive voice

Summing up. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

With time on your hands

.....................................................

144

Contextualizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Free-time activities

Learning and acting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Reading a newspaper article Writing the title and the subheading for an article

Listening and understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Listening to a public reading Talking about childhood hobbies and adventures

Comprehending and using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Zero conditional Likes and dislikes Adverbs of manner

Summing up. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Going further . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Thinking cross-curricularly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Choosing a career . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Getting ready for exams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Going out there . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Understanding Literature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Grammar appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 List of irregular verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 List of phrasal verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208

artjazz/Shutterstock.com

unit

Going further . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143


Looking words up

1

2

Bb

Babble / back  backbite verb to criticize a person when he is not present. falar mal (pelas costas)  backbiting noun: Constant backbiting by her colleagues led to her resignation. maledicência  backbone noun 1 the spine: the backbone of a fish. espinha dorsal 2 the chief support: The older employees are the backbone of the industry. sustentáculo  backbreaking adjective (of a task etc) very difficult or requiring very hard work: Digging the garden is a backbreaking job. pesado  back  date verb 1 to put an earlier date on (a cheque etc): She should have paid her bill last month and so she has backdated the cheque. antedatar 2 to make payable from a date in the past: Our rise in pay was backdated to April. retroagir  back  fire verb 1 (of a motor-car etc) to make a loud bang because of unburnt gases in the exhaust system: The car backfired. estourar 2 (of a plan etc) to have unexpected results, often opposite to the intended results: His scheme backfired (on him), and he lost money. dar um revertério  background noun 1 the space behind the principal or most important figures or objects of a picture etc: She always paints ships against a background of stormy skies; trees in the background of the picture. fundo 2 happenings that go before, and help to explain, an event etc: the background to a situation. pano de fundo 3 a person’s origins, education etc: He was ashamed of his humble background. antecedentes  backhand noun 1 in tennis etc, a stroke or shot with the back of one’s hand turned towards the ball: a clever backhand; His backhand is very strong. backhand 2 writing with the letters sloping backwards: I can always recognize her backhand. grafia inclinada à esquerda adverb using backhand: She played the stroke backhand; She writes backhand. de revés  backlog noun a pile of uncompleted work etc which has collected: a backlog of orders because of the strike.

babble [  babl] verb 1 to talk indistinctly or foolishly: What are you babbling about now? tagarelar 2 to make a continuous and indistinct noise: The stream babbled over the pebbles. murmurar noun such talk or noises. tagarelice, murmúrio

3

babe [beib] noun 1 a baby: a babe in arms (= a small baby not yet able to walk). bebê 2 see baby. baboon [b   bu n, (American) ba-] noun a kind of large monkey with a dog-like face. babuíno

4

baby [  beibi] - plural  babies - noun 1 a very young child: Some babies cry during the night; (also adjective) a baby boy. bebê 2 (especially American, often babe) a girl or young woman. garota  babyish adjective like a baby; not mature: a babyish child that cries every day at school. pueril baby buggy/carriage (American) a pram. carrinho baby grand a small grand piano. piano meia-cauda  baby-sit verb to remain in a house to look after a child while its parents are out: He baby-sits for his friends every Saturday. ficar de baby-sitter  baby-sitter noun. baby-sitter  baby-sitting noun. serviço de baby-sitter

5

bachelor [  bat∫ l ] noun an unmarried man: He’s a confirmed bachelor (= he has no intention of ever marrying); (also adjective) a bachelor flat (= a flat suitable for one person). solteiro back [bak] noun 1 in man, the part of the body from the neck to the bottom of the spine: She lay on her back. costas 2 in animals, the upper part of the body: She put the saddle on the horse’s back. lombo 3 that part of anything opposite to or furthest from the front: the back of the house; She sat at the back of the hall. fundos 4 in football, hockey etc a player who plays behind the forwards. defesa adjective of or at the back: the back door. dos fundos adverb 1 to, or at, the place or person from which a person or thing came: / went back to the shop; She gave the car back to its owner. de volta 2 away (from something); not near (something): Move back! Let the ambulance get to the injured man; Keep back from me or I’ll hit you! para trás 3 towards the back (of something): Sit back in your chair. para trás 4 in return; in response to: When the teacher is scolding you, don’t answer back. de volta 5 to, or in, the past: Think back to your childhood. para trás verb 1 to (cause to) move backwards: He backed (his car) out of the garage. dar marcha à ré 2 to help or support: Will you back me against the others? apoiar 3 to bet or gamble on: I backed your horse to win. apostar em  backer noun a person who supports someone or something, especially with money: the backer of the new theatre. patrocinador

acúmulo  back-  number noun an out-of-date copy or issue of a magazine etc: She collects back-numbers of comic magazines. número atrasado  backside noun the bottom or buttocks: He sits on his backside all day long and does no work. traseiro  backstroke noun in swimming, a stroke made when lying on one’s back in the water: The child is good at backstroke. nado de costas  backwash noun 1 a backward current eg that following a ship’s passage through the water: the backwash of the steamer. ressaca 2 the unintentional results of an action, situation etc: The backwash of that firm’s financial troubles affected several other firms. repercussão  backwater noun 1 a stretch of river not in the main stream. braço, esteiro 2 a place not affected by what is happening in the world outside. That village is rather a backwater. fim

6

7

de mundo  back  yard noun (especially American) a garden at the back of a house etc: He grows vegetables in his backyard. quintal

30

10

ten

Password: English dictionary for speakers of Portuguese. São Paulo: Martins Fontes, 1995. p. 30.


Fotomontagem formada pelas imagens J. Helgason e LOGVINYUK YULIIA/ Shutterstock.com

They indicate the first and the last words on the page.

There are different types of dictionaries. For example: Bilingual dictionaries DicionĂĄrio Oxford escolar. Oxford University Press, 2013

1 Guide words

2 Entry The word to be defined. Dictionary entries are arranged in alphabetical order. Nouns are usually in the singular form. Verbs are usually in the base form (not in the past or past participle).

They show how the word is pronounced. Some dictionaries have a guide which helps you to understand and use the pronunciation symbols presented in them.

Monolingual dictionaries Concise Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press, 2010

Password. SĂŁo Paulo: Martins Fontes, 2010

3 Phonetic symbols

4 Parts of speech It indicates if the word is a noun, a verb, an adjective, an adverb, etc. It can be abbreviated (n./noun; v./ verb; etc.)

5 Definition The definition and meaning of the word.

An example of how the word is used in a sentence. It can provide more context and relevance.

7 Translation The word changed into Portuguese.

8 Syllables Some dictionaries show you how to break the word into syllables.

On-line dictionaries Macmillan Dictionary. Available at: <www. macmillandictionary.com>. Accessed on: March 31st, 2016

6 Example sentence

Merriam-Webster. Available at: <www.merriam-webster.com>. Accessed on: March 31st, 2016

eleven

11


Learning strategies If you want to be a good learner of English, there are many strategies you can use. These are some suggestions:

12

twelve


Marcela Pialarissi

No início do ano letivo, é interessante certificar-se de que os alunos conheçam algumas estratégias que os ajudarão a estudar e aprender a língua estrangeira. Sugerimos dizer aos alunos que se organizem para estudar um pouco todos os dias, trinta minutos podem ser suficientes, pois o hábito de estudar de forma regular por períodos curtos pode trazer mais resultados que estudar por várias horas uma vez na semana. É importante comentar com os alunos que as estratégias listadas nestas páginas poderão ajudá-los a aprender novas palavras, revisar e a internalizar o vocabulário aprendido na sala de aula.

thirteen

13


unit

track 2

14

Show your true colors


When you show your true colors, you reveal your true character and show who you really are. We thought he was quiet and shy, but, after some time, he showed his true colors: he’s actually a very talkative person. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, as respostas e comentários referentes a esta atividade.

Exchanging ideas A

Talk to a classmate and introduce yourself.

B

What words and expressions did you use to describe who you are?

C

What words and expressions did your classmate use to describe who he/she is?

D Observe the images on these pages and identify the statement that best explains them. I ) The images show a teenager who is sure about his decisions for his life.

Fotomontagem de Júnior Caramez formada pela imagem Samuel Borges Photography/ Shutterstock.com

II ) The images show a teenager in the process of developing his identity, and who is considering different possible ways of self-expression.

15


Contextualizing

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Warming up Observe the following pictures. Which one(s) do you relate to? Why?

Way Ahead - Mental Health Association NSW

B

C

D

Monkey Business Images/ Shutterstock.com

g-stockstudio/Shutterstock.com

freya-photographer/Shutterstock.com

A

2.

Resposta pessoal.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

CandyBox Images/Shutterstock.com

1.

Read the poster below. Then, answer the questions in your notebook. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) What is the poster about? It’s about a campaign called Mental Health Month.

b ) When is the campaign taking place? October, 2014. c ) Does the campaign have a website? What is it? Yes, it does. The website is <www.mentalhealth.asn.au>.

d ) On this website, what country does the acronym au refer to? II I

Canada

II

Australia

e ) Who is organizing the campaign? Does the poster give their contact information? f ) What animal is on the poster? Do the animals all look the same? Why (not)? 2. f) A bird. No, they don’t. One of the birds has a different color and is wearing a necklace and a head accessory, in order to visually represent what it’s saying. g) It’s saying “Be younique”. Because it wants to motivate people to accept and be proud of who they are.

16

sixteen

g ) What’s the different bird saying? Why is it saying that? h ) What is the objective of the objective is to campaign? Its promote good mental

health and well-being.

2. e) The Mental Health Association. Yes, it does. There’s the association’s phone number, which is 1300 794 991. Mental health month art and resources. Available at: <www.mentalhealth.asn.au/our-resources/ mental-health-month-art-and-resources>. Accessed on: October 4th, 2015.


Do you feel unique? Explain.

4.

In your opinion, what’s the relation between the images from activity 1 and the poster?

5.

Do you think teens can get confused at this stage of life?

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade.

Resposta pessoal.

Resposta pessoal. Resposta esperada: yes. Os alunos podem ficar em dúvida em relação a quem realmente são ao agirem de maneiras diferentes dependendo da companhia e da situação. É importante que expressem as suas realidades, dizendo se passaram por situações em que se sentiram em dúvida.

Learning vocabulary 6.

When you think about who you are, what words come to your mind?

7.

From the list below, what are the adjectives that describe yourself? And what adjectives express the characteristics you would like to improve in the future?

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos permitir aos alunos que respondam à pergunta oralmente e, durante a interação, anotar na lousa os adjetivos mencionados por eles.

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

8.

affectionate

creative

friendly

bossy

determined

impolite

careless

dishonest

independent

courageous

easygoing

intelligent

jealous

nervous

sincere

moody

sensitive

stubborn

Talk to a classmate and introduce yourself.

4. É possível que os alunos digam que a fase na qual se encontram, a adolescência, é quando o ser humano começa a se questionar em relação a quem ele é e como é visto pelos outros, por isso as fotografias podem expressar diferentes adolescentes, mas cada um com sua personalidade, o que os torna únicos, ideia expressa pelo cartaz, que os instiga a pensar que podemos ser singulares, sendo quem somos.

Remember Use an before words that start with a vowel sound.

Hi. My name is . I'm and . / person. And, in the future, I'm a/an and . I would like to be more

I’m an affectionate person. Use a before words that start with a consonant sound. I’m a bossy person.

I

selfish

b ) funny

II

impatient

c ) proactive

III

pessimistic

d ) generous

IV

impulsive

e ) patient

V

lazy

f ) shy

VI

sociable

g ) reliable

VII

irresponsible

h ) sensible

VIII

boring

Read the words from activity 9 again. Think about the characteristics you don’t have and the ones you do have. Follow the example and talk to a orientar os alunos a serem sinceros ao classmate. Sugerimos falarem de suas características com o colega. Eles podem usar também outros adjetivos opostos que conheçam em inglês.

Actually is a false cognate. It doesn’t mean nowadays. It means in fact, in reality.

I’m not a selfish person. I’m actually very generous.

hy /

10.

a ) optimistic

alunos

adjetivos são antônimos e outros apenas expressam ideias diferentes.

ap

a - III; b - VIII; c - V; d - I; e - II; f - VI; g - VII; h - IV.

gr

In your notebook, match the personality adjectives Sugerimos comentar com os with their opposite ideas. que alguns desses pares de

Sa Sh mu u t el te Bo r s rg to e ck s P .co h m oto

9.

seventeen

17

Unit 1

3.


Learning and acting

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Reading and reflecting Pre-reading 1. Think

about the questions below. Then, discuss with a classmate. Respostas

pessoais.

Sugerimos orientar a turma a refletir sobre as perguntas e fazer algumas anotações no caderno (ideias, palavras etc.) antes de formar as duplas para discussão. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade.

a ) Do you think you have already developed your identity? b ) If so, in what period of your life did it happen? c ) If not, what are your doubts?

2. In

your notebook, match the beginning with the end of the sentences. Do you agree or Sugerimos disagree with these statements? Talk to a classmate. a - IV; b - II; c - I; d - III. pedir que, após a ) Adolescence is b ) Teens c ) When you are a teen, d ) During adolescence, it’s important to     

3. In

a reescrita das frases no caderno e a conversa com o colega, os II are trying to develop their personal identity. alunos digam se concordam III learn ways of self-expression. com as afirmações ou não, e IV a challenging phase of people’s lives. por quê.

I

you watch others and try to find models of behaviors.

your notebook, match the following verbs with their definitions.

a ) to wonder

I

to try a new way of doing something

b ) to perceive

II

to try very hard to do something difficult

c ) to experiment

III

to think about someone or something in a particular way

IV

to try to understand the reason for something

d ) to struggle         

4. Write

down the sentences below in you notebook and complete them using your ideas.

Respostas pessoais.

a ) In adolescence, teens begin to wonder about b ) Some teens perceive themselves as c ) Teens experiment with

.

d ) Many teens struggle to

.

5. In

eighteen

.

.

Após a leitura dos textos na página 19, sugerimos retomar esta atividade e pedir aos alunos que comparem as frases criadas por eles e as que aparecem nos textos.

a - IV; b - V; c - I; d - VI; e - VIII; f - VII; g - II; h - III. Para a realização desta atividade, você pode fazer um levantamento de conhecimento prévio de língua dos alunos e, se necessário, orientá-los a consultar um dicionário.

your notebook, match the following expressions with their meanings.

a ) one’s sense of self

I

disorientation

b ) development

II

long search

c ) confusion

III

to continue

d ) to lead to

IV

your self-image, the way you see yourself

e ) to stand for

V

change, growth, improvement

f ) search

VI

to cause

g ) quest

VII

attempt to find something

h) to move on

18

a - IV; b - III; c - I; d - II.

       

VIII to

give your support to something or someone you think is right and important


6.

Unit 1

Reading You are going to read some excerpts of texts about the development of identity during adolescence. Read them briefly and verify if your answers to activity 5 make sense. Sugerimos instruir os alunos a fazerem uma leitura rápida do texto com o objetivo de conferir se suas respostas da atividade anterior fazem sentido ou não. Para isso, você pode pedir que prestem atenção ao contexto em que as palavras e expressões são utilizadas.

A

or one’s sense of self The development of identity the . However, for teens, for occurs throughout a lifetime who ut abo der won to begin first time in their life, they that. Identity also involves for s son rea the they are and ceives him/herself, and thinking about how a teen per ceive them as well. thinking about how others per ing differently according Teens will see themselves act what the situation is. That to whom they are with and e it adds to their questions can lead to confusion becaus of who they really are. [...]

you are. Avail able at: <ww w. A. Iden tity...figu ring out who orma l-for-teenUNIV ERSI TY OF MINN ESOT with-teens /fact-sheets/wh ats-n iliesth y/fam famil edu/ umn. extension. on: Augu st 25 , 2015. deve lopm ent.p df> Acce ssed

C

[…]

isy shaved heads, no e, dy irha s, ng Pierci mpt s at nge of other at te music , and a ra dr ive us mad! self-expre ssion s 14 our adolescent of e ag e th nd From arou ess of challenging proc a n gi be lly ua us , wor king entity – that is id an ng ti uc tr cons d for. d wha t they stan an e ar ey th ho ou t w […]

d ta tto os: ie rc in gs , an ab le at: ha ir, bo dy-p Avail ue n. Bl sio n. es sti pr Ju tto osen’s se lf- ex CO ULSO N, cin gs-a nd-ta on: ag e yo ur te how to m an .a u/ blu e-ha ir-bo dy-p ier ss ed om sio n>. Ac ce th 2016. t.c es po pr ex ids lf.k ens-se <w ww M arch 10 , ag e-yo ur-te how-to -m an

7.

[...] MILLER, Renee. Importan ce of expressiveness in teenager s. Available at: <ww w.livestron g.com/ar ticle/1006622-impo rtanceexpressiveness-teenagers>. Accessed on: September th 4 , 2015.

Read the texts again and link the excerpts with their main idea.

Anna Simonin

B

[...] the teenage yea rs are mar ked by the sea rch for a person al identi ty. Teens experiment with dif fer ent loo ks, beh avio rs and peer gro ups in the qu est to fin d wh at wo rks for them. Person al expres sio n is a key compon ent in thi s sea rch, yet man y teens struggle to expres s their deepest tho ugh ts and em oti on s. Lea rni ng to expres s thems elves in a var iet y of ways mak es tee ns mo re lik ely to succes sfu lly com ple te this stage of develo pment and mo ve on to the nex t.

I - B; II - A; III - C.

I

Around the age of 14, teenagers start to discover who they are and what they believe in. That’s why it’s common to change appearance and attitudes as a way of expression.

II

Teens can act in different ways according to their company and situations in the moment. This may cause confusion about their identities, because the questions about who they are start to appear at this age.

III

During adolescence, there is a search for personal identity. This is usually when teens try out new things to learn how to express themselves. Their chances of becoming happier adults are proportional to the variety of ways they found of expressing themselves. nineteen

19


Think about the texts you read and write in your notebook the correct answers. a ) These texts are written for…

II

I

teenagers who are facing difficulties with figuring out who they are.

II

parents or other adults who have to understand how difficult it is for teens to figure out who they are.

b ) What elements of the text confirm this? I

The use of pronouns of the 3 person plural (they, them) to refer to teens. It suggests the author is not talking directly to teenagers, but about them.

II

The use of pronouns of the 1st person plural (us, our) in excerpt B. It suggests that this excerpt addresses how parents feel about this process in their children’s life.

III

The use of certain words, such as “challenging” and “successfully”. They suggest that these texts are written by adults for adults.

What are the forms of self-expression mentioned in excerpt B? Tell a classmate. A; C; D; E.

B

C

Pavel Ilyukhin/Shutterstock.com

Maria Sbytova/Shutterstock.com

A

shaved head

hair-dye

E

noisy music

10. b) False. Piercings, hair-dye, shaved heads, and noisy music are some ways of self-expression. There is a range of ways to express oneself.

F

Eugenio Marongiu/Shutterstock.com

Edyta Pawlowska/Shutterstock.com

D

10.

Vladimir Demin/Shutterstock.com

9.

9. Em duplas, sugerimos orientar os alunos a identificarem as formas de autoexpressão mencionadas no texto e dizerem ao colega quais são elas.

I and II.

rd

Lucky Business/Shutterstock.com

8.

piercing

Decide if the sentences below are true or false according to the texts. In your notebook, write down the true statements and rewrite the false ones using the correct information. a ) Adolescence is an easy and simple stage of life. False. Adolescence is a confusing stage of life.

b ) Piercings, hair-dye, shaved heads, and noisy music are the only ways of self-expression. c ) For teens, it is easy to express their deepest thoughts and emotions. False. Many teens struggle to express their deepest thoughts and emotions.

d ) Teens who learn to express themselves have more chances to be happier adults. True.

Post-reading 11.

Think about the ideas expressed in the texts and talk to a classmate. Resposta a ) Do you relate to the ideas in the text?

pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a refletirem sobre o texto lido para depois conversarem com os colegas, respondendo às questões ao lado.

b ) How is it similar to or different from your personal quest for identity?

20

twenty


12. a) Yes, it is./No, it isn’t. Resposta pessoal. É importante retomar com os alunos o que pensam sobre cada um ter sua própria identidade e sobre o fato de ser necessário respeitar pessoas diferentes, pois a identidade é o que as torna únicas.

Unit 1

Putting your ideas into words Before writing 12.

Based on everything you read and discussed so far, answer the following questions in your notebook. a ) Is it important for teens to develop their personal identity? If you think so, explain why. b ) Is it easy for teens to figure out who they are and learn how to express themselves?

Resposta pessoal. Nesse momento, você pode levar os alunos a pensarem que pode não ser uma tarefa fácil, na adolescência, descobrir quem são, mas que esta descoberta se concretiza com o passar do tempo.

Writing 13.

Suppose you are responsible for organizing a seminar in your school about teens’ identity and self-expression. As part of the event, you have to create a poster that mentions the topic and offers some help to teenagers who are struggling with this process.

Anna Simonin

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, informações sobre o gênero textual pôster.

After writing 14.

Read and appreciate the posters you and your classmates produced. Then, rewrite in your pessoal. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações notebook the statement that best represents your opinion. Resposta professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

para o

a ) In my opinion, all the posters are interesting and creative. b ) The messages in the posters are clear and simple. c ) Some posters are not so clear, so I think they could be improved.

15.

Do you think your poster will cause an impact on students beliefs? Does it invite students to reflect on their identities? Why? Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir essa atividade.

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21


Listening and understanding

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Listening 1.

What does self-expression mean to you? Talk to a classmate.

2.

Read the following definition of self-expression. How is that similar to or different from your own definition? Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos pedir aos alunos que leiam a definição abaixo e que a comparem

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a discutirem essa questão em duplas para chegar a uma definição do que seja self-expression.

com o que discutiram na atividade 1.

[...] Self-expression is a display of individuality whether it’s through words, clothing, hairstyle, or art forms such as writing and drawing. Being self-expressed means that people will see your spirit and true character; they will see the totality of who you are. […] How to live with full self-expression. Available at: <www.virtuesforlife.com/how-to-live-with-full-self-expression>. Accessed on: September 1st, 2015.

3.

Observe the pictures below and talk to your classmates about how these teens are pessoais. Neste momento, você pode comentar com expressing themselves. Respostas os alunos que, entre as diversas maneiras de autoexpressão,

Fotomon imagen tagem de A B es tPhos Brian Chase,nna Simonin fo Tofude toSt udio, Ch ay akov le vcomrmada pelas vil/ Shut uc ters tockk Rausin, G oo , dl uz e .com

estão a dança, a música, a escrita, os desenhos, a pintura, a maneira de se vestir, o corte de cabelo, entre outras.

4. track 3

You are going to listen to an excerpt of an interview broadcast on a web-based radio show called Teen talk. This show has teen hosts and features interviews with a number of different teen guests. What form of self-expression is the girl talking about? c Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre o gênero entrevista e a transcrição do áudio.

a ) dancing

22

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b ) dressing

c ) hairstyle


5.

Talk to a classmate and exchange some ideas about what you listened to.

6.

Listen to the excerpt again and identify the correct answers.

track 3

Unit 1

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a trocarem informações com um colega de classe sobre o que compreenderam na primeira audição do texto.

a ) The girl… II I

dyed her hair.

b ) Why did she do that? I

II

got a colored streak in her hair.

II

Because her friends also have blue streaks in their hair.

II

in the beginning of last year

II

blue

II

a thick piece of her hair.

I

For attention and to be noticed by other people.

c ) When did it happen? I I

in the beginning of this year

d ) What color of streak did she have in her hair? II I

blond

e ) It was… II I

a thin piece of her hair.

f ) After some time, what color did the streak turn into? I I

a purplish-green color

II

a greenish-purple color

II

really nice and fun.

g ) In her opinion, this phase was… II I

7.

not fun.

Listen to the excerpt one more time and, in your notebook, match the expressions with their meanings. a - III; b - V; c - I; d - II; e - IV.

track 3

a ) Not because I’m an attention hog.

I

She didn’t like it very much.

b ) It made me kind of stand out from a lot of other people.

II

My mother was not easily convinced.

III

Not because I want other people’s attention.

d ) It took a while for me to convince my mom.

IV

The only problem is that the streak lost its color.

e ) The only downside was that it faded.

V

It made me different, so other people would notice me.

c ) She wasn’t so thrilled.

8.

How about you? Have you ever done something just for attention or do you know someone who has? What was it? Give some examples. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

9.

Imagine you are one of the guests on Teen talk. Today’s topic is self-expression. Discuss the question in the balloon.

Sugerimos orientar a turma a trabalhar em grupos de três ou quatro alunos, no qual um deles deverá representar o papel do apresentador e fazer a pergunta aos outros alunos, e os outros responderão à questão, dizendo de que forma manifestam sua autoexpressão.

What is your personal form of self-expression?

Art Capri

Speaking

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Comprehending and using

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Learning about the language Verb to be 1.

Read and analyze the texts below. Then, write down the statements that are true and orientar os alunos a primeiro observarem e lerem os textos. Depois, eles rewrite the false ones. Sugerimos devem ler as afirmações e identificar se elas são verdadeiras ou falsas. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade.

To be or not to be, that is the question.

Peça teatral de Arielle Tepper Madover. Hamlet. Estados Unidos. 2009. Foto: Johan Persson/ArenaPAL/Topfoto/Keystone

A

I

In both texts, the characters are questioning their existence. True.

II

Both texts are funny.

III

In text A, the character is not sure if being alive is a good thing. True.

IV

In text B, the character is satisfied In text B, the with himself. False. character isn’t satisfied with

himself. 1. II) False. The comic strip is a funny text. The first text is an excerpt from a tragedy.

Prince Hamlet portrayed by the British actor Jude Law in 2009.

Frank & Ernest, Bob Thaves © 1999 Thaves/Dist. by Universal Uclick

B

Frank & Ernest, by Bob Thaves. Available at: <http://amureprints.com/reprints/results?commit=Search&page=4&relea se_date_from=&release_date_to=&terms=Identity>. Accessed on: September 16 th, 2015.

2. track 4

Study page 188 and rewrite the following dialog in your notebook. Then, listen to the track and complete the gaps. Neste momento, você pode pedir aos alunos que estudem a página 188 do Grammar

appendix. Em seguida, sugerimos tocar o áudio para que eles ouçam e completem com as palavras e expressões que estão faltando.

are

Teacher: So, am

introduce

you ready to

yourselves?

’s

Sandra: I . I can go first. Well... my name ’m 15. I’m a very responsible and Sandra and I teachers, so I organized . My parents person are always have to study a lot. Are

you into sports? ’m not

Sandra: Humm… I ’m

love

you

crazy about it. And

?

is

Mike: I Mike. I sports... Soccer my favorite. I determined and creative. My best ’m friend is Lucas. He a very patient person and he isn’t a little stubborn, but he’s really nice and . funny

24

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Dr Sh agon ut t er Ima s to ge s ck / .co m

Mike:

’s


Talk to a classmate and answer. a ) Was it hard or difficult to complete the gaps in activity 2 by listening? Resposta

Unit 1

3.

pessoal.

b ) Did you understand all the words the second or third time you heard them?

Resposta pessoal.

c ) What can we use the verb to be to talk about? Write the answer(s) in your notebook. I; I

introductions

III

occupations

II

ages

IV

feelings and states

Tag questions Read the following sentences and answer.

Sugerimos instruir os alunos a estudarem a página 188 do Grammar appendix.

Anna Simonin

4.

II; III; IV. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que, além dos usos indicados ao lado, o verbo to be pode ser utilizado para falar sobre preços (How much is it?/It’s $20.), país de origem e nacionalidade (Where are you from?/I’m Brazilian.), horas (What time is it?/It’s 2 o ‘clock.) e cores (Her eyes are green.).

a ) These tag questions are used to… I I

check if some information is true.

II

ask for personal information.

b ) When the sentence is affirmative, the tag question is… I

affirmative.

II

negative.

c ) When the sentence is negative, the tag question is… I

5.

affirmative.

II

II

I

negative.

The meaning of a tag question is similar to “Is that right?” or “Do you agree?”.

Now, what about using tag questions in communication? They are very much used in everyday life. To start practicing, in your notebook, match the sentences with the Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que as appropriate tag questions. a - III; b - IV; c - I; d - VI; e - VII; f - V; g - II. tag questions são bastante utilizadas em a ) Your father is a very reliable person,

I

are they?

b ) I’m a bit boring,

II

are you?

c ) It seems they aren’t very sincere,

III

isn’t he?

d ) Jenny isn’t a shy girl,

IV

aren’t I?

e ) We are awesome,

V

aren’t they?

f ) The students are really interested,

VI

is she?

g ) You aren’t very patient,

VII

aren’t we?

conversas do dia a dia e é possível convidá-los a praticar oralmente após relacionar as frases e as tag questions correspondentes.

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25


Using the language

One of my best friends likes to do volunteer work and help other people. She (is/isn’t) a very generous person.

B

Phase4Studios/Shutterstock.com

I love to be around people and to talk to them. I have a lot of friends. I (am/am not) really easygoing and friendly.

kawing921/Shutterstock.com

A

As you have noticed, the verb to be is extremely important in everyday life conversations, because it is used to express states, feelings, facts and locations, among other ideas. To understand it a little bit more, read and rewrite the sentences choosing the correct verb form to complete them.

We are always on the move. We study, play sports, sing in a band, go out and many other things. Definitely, we (are/aren’t) lazy guys.

D

My parents are very modern and open-minded. They (are/aren’t) intolerant at all.

I like to hang out with my friends and I’m quite sociable. But I (am/am not) a very talkative person. I’m actually very quiet.

michaeljung/Shutterstock.com

E

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wavebreakmedia/Shutterstock.com

Dragon Images/Shutterstock.com

C

I cannot count on my brother. He never does what he promises me. I hate to say that, but he (is/isn’t) a little irresponsible.

F

Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock.com

6.

Sugerimos relembrar os alunos dos usos do verbo to be e, consequentemente, de sua importância na língua inglesa. Em seguida, eles podem praticar escolhendo a opção mais adequada para completar as frases propostas.


Answer the following questions about yourself and people you know. When you want to give more information, you can use a complete answer. When you think it is not necessary, you can use a short answer. In the example, you will find the two types of pessoais. Possíveis respostas. Sugerimos explicar answers. Choose one of them to answer each question. Respostas aos alunos que há diversas possibilidades de respostas e que

Unit 1

7.

eles devem escolher quando usar a forma curta ou completa. Você pode ajudar tirando dúvidas em cada caso.

Are you a selfish person? No, I’m not. No, I’m not selfish. I’m actually very generous. a ) Are you an impatient person? Yes,

d ) Are you impulsive?

b)

e)

c)

9.

f)

Yes, I am./No, I’m not. Yes, I am an impulsive person./No, I’m not impulsive. I’m a sensible person. Yes, he/she is./No, he/she Is your teacher funny? isn’t. Yes, he/she is a funny person./No, he/she isn’t funny. He/she is actually very serious. Is your pet affectionate? Yes, it is./No, it isn’t./ I don’t have a pet. Yes, it is a very affectionate pet./No, it isn’t affectionate.

Now that you have written your answers to the questions in activity 7, walk around the classroom and interview your classmates. You can ask the same questions from that activity and others you can think of. Sugerimos chamar a atenção dos alunos para a entonação correta nas perguntas e respostas.

To have a little more practice when using tag questions, write the correct ending in each case. a ) Meg is a very nice person, b ) You aren’t optimistic,

isn’t she?

are you?

c ) Your friends are a bit lazy,

Camila Ferreira

8.

I am./No, I’m not. Yes, I am impatient./No, I’m not impatient. I’m actually a very patient person. Is your best friend talkative? Yes, he/she is./No, he/she isn’t. Yes, he/she is talkative./No, he/she isn’t talkative. He/she is a quiet person. Are your parents nervous? Yes, they are./No, they aren’t. Yes, they are nervous./No, they aren’t nervous. They are actually calm people.

aren’t they? is he?

d ) Jonathan isn’t the best student in class, e ) I’m quite bossy,

aren’t I?

f ) Mark and I are not boring,

are we?

g ) Your sister isn’t irresponsible, h ) You are a little moody today,

is she? aren’t you?

When we ask a tag question, the voice can go up (rising intonation) or down (falling intonation). A rising intonation expresses a real question. A falling intonation means the speaker is almost sure about the answer and just wants to check the information or make conversation. Meg is a very nice person, isn’t she? Meg is a very nice person, isn’t she? track 5

10.

Practice with a partner asking and answering the questions from the previous activity. Replace the names given with your classmates’ names. Make sure you use the appropriate intonation. Sugerimos relembrar os alunos de que as tag questions são usadas com o objetivo de confirmar uma informação que se acredita ser verdadeira. É importante orientá-los a variar a entonação, exercitando tanto a rising quanto a falling intonation.

g18_ftd_lt_1noi_u01_022a029.indd 27

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17/5/16 10:08 AM


11.

Sugerimos The following quotes are about self-expression. To understand them explicar aos alunos o que são better and be able to say if you agree or not with each of them, you quotes (citações). Em seguida, você pode have to write the sentences in your notebook and complete them pedir que eles as leiam e escrevam em seus with the most suitable form of the verb to be. cadernos, completando-as com a A forma correta do verbo to be.

an infin itely Painting minu te part of my pers ona lity.

Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Ben Harper is an American singer.

C

B

is

Helga Esteb/Shutterstock.com

As long as the song s stro ng, I think are you can express your self in any style and have it be soul ful and have it be your own voic e.

A quote is a statement that someone else has said or written.

Salvador Dalí was a Spanish surrealist painter. D are not

Novels abo ut expressi ng your self, they abo ut som ethin g are beautifu l, funny, clever and orga nic.

Dimitrios Kambouris/Getty Images

Featureflash/Shutterstock.com

I think that, like any art, fashion is about expression. It allows you to express yourself and your identity through what you choose to wear.

Self-exp ress ion? Go and ring a bell in a yard if you want to express your self.

Erin Heatherton is an American fashion model and actress.

Zadie Smith is an English writer.

Express yourself quotes. Available at: <www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/express_yourself.html>. Accessed on: September 3 rd, 2015.

12.

What form of self-expression is each quote about? I I

13.

art

II

dressing

Read the quotes again and talk to a classmate.

III

- B; II - C; III - A; IV - D.

music

IV

writing

Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a refletirem sobre as citações lidas na atividade 11 antes de conversarem entre si expressando suas opiniões sobre elas.

a ) What is each person’s opinion about self-expression? Use your own words to explain what they say. b ) Do you agree with these quotes? Explain your point of view.

Learning more 1. Read and understand. So/Such So and such are intensifiers. They mean very.

• So is used before adjectives: He’s so funny!

She’s so intelligent!

He’s such a funny guy!

She’s such an intelligent woman!

• Such is used before an adjective and a noun. It’s necessary to use an article (a/an) after the word such:

2. Rewrite these sentences by choosing the correct options. a ) I’m (so/such) interested in Arts. I love paintings and sculptures. b ) She has a lot of friends. She’s (so/such) a friendly person. c ) He is (so/such) a responsible student. He never misses a class.

Sugerimos solicitar aos alunos que comentem com seus colegas de sala sobre essas frases, aplicando-as a fatos que dizem respeito a suas vidas.

d ) My best friends are (so/such) talkative. They chatter for hours.

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Nesta unidade, você...

Sugerimos levar os alunos a refletirem sobre as afirmativas apresentadas no quadro abaixo e instruí-los a escrever no caderno as frases que se relacionam ao que leram, discutiram e estudaram nesta unidade.

Unit 1

Summing up

conversou com seus colegas de classe sobre a descoberta da identidade na fase da adolescência; leu textos sobre identidade e autoexpressão; estudou adjetivos que descrevem personalidade; estudou como se apresentar, destacando suas qualidades e/ou defeitos; ouviu parte de um programa de rádio no qual uma adolescente relata uma forma de autoexpressão; produziu um pôster sobre o processo de descoberta da identidade na adolescência; conversou com seus colegas sobre como você se expressa; estudou como utilizar o verbo to be; estudou como as tag questions são formadas e utilizadas; estudou os usos e significados das palavras so e such.

“Hank” lost his memory and now he doesn’t know who he is, where he came from and why he is running away. The book Being Henry David tells the story of when he decides to become Henry David (or “Hank”) because of the only thing he owns – a copy of the book Walden by Henry David Thoreau. In order to search for himself and find the story of his past, Hank needs to face his own tragedy and find his way back to who he really is.

Editora Alb

Reading

ert Whitman & Comp any

Going further

Being Henry David, by Cal Armistead. Albert Whitman & Company: USA, 2014.

Singing The song Firework, performed by the singer Katy Perry and recorded on the CD Teenage Dream, is about accepting who you are and revealing your true self to the world. Basically, the meaning of this song is: don’t worry about what others want you to be. Instead, show your true colors and embrace your uniqueness.

m

The website HelpingTeens.org <http://tub.im/uff28r> offers support, groups forums, articles and different resources to help teenagers in different areas of their lives.

The perks of being a wallflower, by Stephen Chbosky. Paris Filmes: USA, 2012. ter stock .co

Surfing the net

Df re e/ Shut

The movie The perks of being a wallflower is about Charlie, a teenager who belittles himself. When he discovers true friendship with Patrick and Sam, he starts to feel the desire of living his life and, at the same time, of running away from it.

Filme de Stephe n Chbosk y. The per ks of being a wallfl ower. EUA. 2012

Watching

Katy Perry (2015).

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17/5/16 10:13 AM


unit

track 6

30

When in Rome, do as the Romans do


The expression when in Rome do as the Romans do means that if you are in a foreign country, you should behave as local people do. I don’t usually eat pasta. But, when I traveled to Italy... You know, when in Rome, do as the Romans do. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, as respostas e comentários referentes a esta atividade.

Fotomontagem de Júnior Caramez formada pelas imagens Blend RF/Dave and Les Jacobs/Diomedia, John Birdsall Library/Diomedia, YAY Media AS/ Alamy Stock Photo/Latinstock, Design Pics Inc/Alamy Stock Photo/ Latinstock, S_L/Shutterstock.com e imagedb.com/Shutterstock.com

Exchanging ideas A

What can you see in the pictures on these pages? And what is the relation between these images and the title of the unit?

B

Do you know any customs of a foreign country? Talk to your classmates about it.

C

It is not possible to generalize the customs of a country because there are differences according to the region, the religion, the generation etc. Think about Brazil and give some examples of customs that are typical of one state and not typical of others.

D

Talk to your classmates and teacher about the importance of respecting other people’s customs and culture. Give some examples of how people can behave.

31


Contextualizing

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Warming up 1.

Talk to your teacher and classmates.

Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, informações sobre esta atividade.

a ) Would you like to visit a different country and learn about its people’s customs? If so, which one? b ) What language would you speak to interact with the local people in that country?

2.

2. Possível resposta: first paragraph: 1/4 of the world’s population can use English; second paragraph: English is the common language in different fields of work and study; third paragraph: English is not the most spoken language by native speakers, but it is the global choice to communicate with other cultures.

32

Read the following excerpt of an article about the use of English in interactions among speakers from different cultures.

[...] As a new millennium begins, scholars say that about one-fourth of the world’s population can communicate to some degree in English. It is the common language in almost every endeavor, from science to air traffic control [...]. There may be more native speakers of Chinese, Spanish or Hindi, but it is English they speak when they talk across cultures, and English they teach their children to help them become citizens of an increasingly intertwined world. [...] MYDANS, Seth. Across cultures, English is the word. Available at: <www.nytimes.com/2007/04/09/world/asia/ 09iht-englede.1.5198685.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0>. Accessed on: November 6 th, 2015.

• Now, summarize, in your own words, the ideas presented in each paragraph of the text.

Número da página thirty-two


Learning vocabulary

track 7

To learn more about English-speaking countries, look at the list below and, in your notebook, match each country with their respective nationality. Then, listen to the track to ver, nas check your answers. a - III; b - VIII; c - XI; d - V; e - VII; f - IX; g - XII; h - VI; i - X; j - IV; k - I; l - II. Sugerimos Orientações para o a ) South Africa

e ) Jamaica

i ) England

b ) Ireland

f ) Nigeria

j ) Guyana

c ) Kenya

g ) New Zealand

k ) India

d ) Canada

h ) The United States

l ) Australia

Unit 2

3.

professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

I

Indian

V

Canadian

IX

Nigerian

II

Australian

VI

(North) American

X

English

III

South African

VII

Jamaican

XI

Kenyan

IV

Guyanese

VIII

Irish

XII

New Zealander

Some countries speak two or more languages. In South Africa, for example, there are 11 official languages. English is the language of business, politics and the media. The same thing happens in countries like India and The Philippines.

Fotomontagem de Anna Simonin formada pelas imagens Carsten Reisinger, Ford Prefect, Alhovik, ayzek, Digital Media Pro e FreshStock/Shutterstock.com

Número thirty-three da página

33


Learning and acting

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Reading and reflecting Pre-reading 1.

Talk to your teacher and classmates. Respostas

pessoais.

a ) Do you know the expression “culture shock”? Talk to a classmate and explain it. After that, think about examples of it. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta discussão.

b ) In your opinion, is it important to know about a country’s habits and customs before visiting it? Justify. c ) What are some cultural aspects that, in your opinion, may vary from one country to Após a correção, sugerimos another? pedir aos alunos que

2.

I

eating habits

II

how to greet people

justifiquem suas respostas e perguntar se eles conseguem pensar em outros aspectos que podem ser diferentes de uma cultura para outra.

III

how to dress

IV

facial expressions and gestures

Associate the customs and habits with the pictures.

a - II; b - IV; c - III; d - I. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) In India, women usually wear saris, especially for important ceremonies, such as weddings. b ) In Japan, people usually bow to greet or thank someone, among other things. c ) In some countries, such as Iraq, the “thumbs up” gesture is considered an offensive insult.

II A.M. Ahad/AP Photo/Glow Images

I

Christophe Boisvieux/Corbis/Latinstock

d ) In Bangladesh, food is eaten with the right hand.

IV

3.

Jennifer Lam/Shutterstock.com

Denis Kuvaev/Shutterstock.com

III

You are going to read an extract of a document called Passport to Korean Culture, published by the South Korean government. This part of the document presents some etiquette rules that visitors to that country should be aware of. Read the title of the text and the first paragraph to answer the following questions in your notebook. a ) What kind of etiquette rule does the text focus on? I I

how to behave at the table

II

how to behave in business meetings

b ) In South Korea, it is especially important to respect these rules when… II I

34

thirty-four

interacting with important people.

II

interacting with older people.


Reading Read the text and identify the missing subtitle. Write it in your notebook. b ) Dining with elders

c ) Eating out with friends Unit 2

a ) Being a perfect host

b

pela Fotomon tagem de Bárbara Sarzi formada imagem pikcha/Shutterstock.com

4.

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem o texto na íntegra e a escolherem, dentre as opções abaixo, o subtítulo mais apropriado para o texto.

before you than k the host st ar ting and af ter nior, you finishing. As a ju ep your ke to are ex pected d an ct rre posture co ur shou ld not place yo icks on st op ch d an n oo sp g that the ta ble (indicatin ting) ea ed ish fin you have do s ne until the eldest ha o first als so. The eldest is . ble to leave the ta n to Do not use a spoo shes di e ta ke from the sid all), by ed ar (which are sh e sid e th g ho t , and do no In traditiona l times In t. os m e lik u yo re we dishes upper-class people silence al du the past, keeping vi di in at ed serv s wa w ith at the ta ble ta bles, begi nning e, but r, ve we ho considered a vi rtu w, No the eldest. sation is sa me now polite conver Koreans share the your e sa me normal. Tr y to us side dishes on the s ick st op spoon and ch ta ble together. ld ho t no do d quiet ly an the at The senior-most nd ha ur yo in both m iddle e th at is you se ion ur sit po sa me time. Of co e side g tin of the ta ble, on th ea shou ld avoid room noisi ly fa rthest from the noisi ly or blow ing t es eld e Th e. ol it of f. entra nc on your soup to co allowed s ay alw is on rs pe d st ar t […] to sit dow n first an t, es gu a As . st eating fir that etiq uette dict ates

Sometimes we ex perience en we em ba rrassment wh er op do not know the pr en wh ta ble man ners w ith drin ki ng or di ni ng n eig for in people se countries. Of cour r ow n ei th Koreans have are ich wh , sets of ru les nt rta po im ly lar pa rticu g or when we are eatin elderly. e th drin ki ng w ith

an ners. In: Pass port to Kore ts and Tour ism. Table man ice, 2009. p. 39-40. Serv MINISTRY of Cultu re, Spor on mati Infor and re cultu re. Seou l: Kore an Cultu

5.

Read the text again and find the words and expressions that correspond to the b - elderly; c - side dishes; d - farthest; e - host; f - junior; g following meanings. ah -- embarassment; virtue; i - noisily; j - avoid.

- chopsticks;

a ) nervous and uncomfortable feeling (paragraph 1) b ) old people (paragraph 1) c ) small servings of food, served in addition to the main dish (paragraph 2) d ) most distant (paragraph 3) thirty-five

35


e ) someone who invites people to a meal in their home (paragraph 3) f ) a young person (paragraph 3) g ) thin, narrow sticks used for eating food in East Asian cultures (paragraph 3) h ) a good quality (paragraph 4) i ) making a lot of noise (paragraph 4) j ) choose not to do something (paragraph 4)

6.

In your notebook, answer these questions about the text. a ) What was the dining etiquette in South Korean traditional times? Upper-class people were served at individual tables, beginning with the eldest.

b ) How is it now?

Now, Koreans share the same side dishes on the same table together.

c ) Where does the eldest person sit?

At the middle of the table, on the side farthest from the room entrance.

d ) What are the privileges of the eldest person?

The eldest person is always allowed to sit down first and start eating first. And he or she is also first to leave the table.

e ) In South Korea, what does placing your spoon and chopsticks on the table indicate? It indicates that you have finished eating.

f ) In South Korea, are side dishes eaten individually? No, they aren’t. They are shared by everybody.

g ) Is it permitted to talk during meals?

Yes, it is. It is considered normal to have polite conversation.

h ) How is it different from the past?

In the past, keeping silence at the table was considered a virtue.

7.

The text presents some of the South Korean dining etiquette rules. In order to revise them, use the verbs from the box to complete the instructions. If the instruction is negative, use don’t before the verb. blow

eat

hold

keep

place thank

a ) If you are a guest in a South Korean home, the meal. b) c)

Keep

use

the host before starting and after finishing

your spoon and chopsticks on the table before the eldest

Don’t use

a spoon to take food from the side dishes. don’t eat

Don’t hold

f)

try

don’t place

your posture correct and family member.

d ) Even if you really like a side dish, e)

thank

Try

too much of it.

your spoon and chopsticks in your hand at the same time. don’t blow

to eat quietly, and

noisily on your soup to cool it off.

Post-reading 8.

Reflect on the text you read and discuss the following questions with your teacher and pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como classmates. Respostas conduzir esta atividade. a ) Read the following information and say if you agree with it. Justify your answer with examples.

Sometimes we experience embarrassment when we do not know the proper table manners when drinking or dining with people in foreign countries. b ) It is possible to infer from the text that South Koreans pay older people a lot of respect. Think about how Brazilians treat and interact with the elderly. In Brazil, do people usually treat older people respectfully?

36

thirty-six


Putting your ideas into words

9.

Unit 2

Before writing In pairs, read the text on page 35 again and talk about how different South Korean dining customs are from eating etiquette rules in Brazil. Make notes in your notebook.

Sugerimos levar os alunos a compararem as regras de etiqueta à mesa na Coreia do Sul com os costumes considerados bem-educados no Brasil. Você pode orientá-los a fazer uma lista dos hábitos sul-coreanos mencionados no texto e, à frente deles, anotar os hábitos brasileiros correspondentes.

Writing 10.

Imagine you were asked to write a set of rules about Brazilian habits and customs that will be part of a travel guide. You have to write it to help foreigners who intend to come visit our country. Consider the following aspects.

• Think not only about eating etiquette rules, but also how to dress, how to behave, how to greet people and so on.

• Think about the different habits and customs that vary from one state to another. You

can write instructions considering the habits and customs of the region of the country where you live. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a escreverem dicas de como um estrangeiro deve se comportar

Anna Simonin

em diferentes regiões do Brasil, dizendo a eles o que pode ser considerado rude ou inadequado em cada situação. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, informações sobre esta atividade.

After writing 11.

What is your opinion about the sets of rules you and your classmates have written? Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) I think they do not show stereotypes about the Brazilian people.

b ) I think they show some stereotypes about the Brazilian people. For example,

.

c ) I think these texts would help a foreigner who wants to visit Brazil. d ) I don’t think these texts would help a foreigner who wants to visit Brazil, because

. thirty-seven

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Listening and understanding

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Listening Answer the following questions. a ) Do you know what the word Latino means?

B

Hugh Jackman is an Australian actor.

A Latino is someone from Mexico, Central America, or South America who mostly speaks either Spanish or Portuguese.

Mario Vargas Llosa is a Peruvian writer.

3.

C

Fernando Meirelles is a Brazilian movie director. Eventpress Hoensch/DPA/ Corbis/Latinstock

D

E

Ai Weiwei is a Chinese artist and activist.

MARKA/Alamy Stock Photo/Latinstock

A

Avener Prado/Folhapress

B; C; D; F.

Ricky Martin is a Puerto Rican singer. 360b/Shutterstock.com

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem o boxe para realizar esta atividade.

Yes, I am. Espera-se que os alunos compreendam que nós, brasileiros, fazemos parte da América Latina e, por isso, também somos latinos.

Observe the pictures. Which ones show Latino people? Tinseltown/Shutterstock.com

2.

b ) Are you a Latino?

Resposta pessoal. Caso os alunos não saibam o que a palavra significa, é possível pedir que consultem o dicionário.

F

Celso Pupo/Shutterstock.com

1.

Lionel Messi is an Argentinian soccer player.

Read the information below and discuss the following questions with your teacher and pessoais. Você pode aproveitar as questões propostas para conversar com os alunos sobre classmates. Respostas que motiva os imigrantes latinos a abandonarem suas terras natais e partirem para viver em um país

o

estrangeiro. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

A large number of Latinos leave their home countries and immigrate to the United States. They say they do that to escape from poverty, political instability and financial crises, and because they believe that in a wealthy country they will have more job opportunities and live a better life.

a ) How do you think Latinos feel like when they leave their countries to immigrate to the United States? b ) How do you think they are received and treated by Americans?

Júnior Caramez

c ) Do you believe that Latinos and Hispanics have somehow contributed to the United States?

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track 8

5.

You are going to listen to part of a podcast. Listen to the introduction of the podcast once ver, nas Orientações para o professor, a to identify what the subject of the interview is. b Sugerimos transcrição do áudio. a ) young people in the USA

b ) Hispanic heritage month

c ) adults in Latin America Unit 2

4.

Rewrite the following excerpt in your notebook. Then, listen to the track again and complete the gaps using the words you hear.

track 8

Today we’re gonna talk a little bit about Hispanic Heritage Month. Hispanic Heritage We’re gonna talk a few points today and those include what means to myths stereotypes us, some , and , and , and also what can we do to encourage other misconceptions Latino youth to make a big difference in today’s world.

6. track 9

Now, you are going to listen to an excerpt of an interview that is part of the same podcast. One of the people you hear is the interviewer, Yanira, and the other, the interviewee, Suzy. Listen and take notes of the words you hear in the interview. youth

X

passport

jokes

X

misconceptions

heritage X visa

7. track 9

X

community

X

prejudice

X

adolescence Brazil

X

stereotypes

X

teachers

X

Listen to the track again and decide if the following statements are true or false. In your notebook, write down the true statements and rewrite the false ones using the correct information. a ) Suzy thinks the Latino immigration is a serious thing. True.

Após os alunos ouvirem o áudio pela primeira vez, você pode explicar que, por se tratar de um exemplo de fala informal entre jovens, há certas marcas linguísticas recorrentes, tais como a repetição das expressões you know e like. Você pode dizer que em uma entrevista formal essas expressões deveriam ser evitadas.

b ) American people make fun of Hispanics. True. c ) People give lots of attention to the Latinos. False. d ) Latino’s children will be the future of America.

People treat this minority like it is a joke.

True.

e ) People act like they know Latinos will be the future of America.

8.

False. People act like they will never be the future of America.

What does Suzy believe? b a ) The Latino community should go back to their home countries. b ) The Latino community should be excited to be who they are.

9.

After listening to the interview, discuss these questions. Respostas

pessoais.

a ) Does the interview change your opinion about Latino immigrants? b ) What is your opinion about locals making fun of immigrants?

Speaking How about you? Are you excited to be who you are? Talk to a classmate about it. Then, explain it to the class. You can use the sentences below to justify your point of view. m

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

Yes, I’m excited to be who I am, because...

No, I’m not very excited to be who I am, because...

Ty l e Shu r Ol s t te on/ rst ock .co

10.

thirty-nine

39


Comprehending and using

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Learning about the language Imperatives 1.

Talk to a classmate about the following questions.

Respostas pessoais.

a ) Have you ever traveled to a different place in Brazil or to another country? b ) If so, did you notice any difference(s) there? What difference(s)? c ) Is there a place you would like to visit? Which one? d ) What do you have to know about this place before visiting it? Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre este item.

2.

Read the title of the text and take a look at the pictures. What countries will the text talk about? How do you think someone has to behave in those countries?

*É importante explicar aos alunos que o título do texto foi adaptado, pois, embora o texto original apresente dezessete países e guias em forma de cartazes, aqui serão apresentados apenas quatro países. Se julgar apropriado, peça-lhes que acessem o site do qual o texto foi extraído e leiam-no na íntegra.

Guide on how to behave in different countries * […] When travelling somewhere new, it helps to be aware about their local customs and rules to avoid offending people and the law. Just like India is not very tolerant of public display of affection, there are other countries which have similar prohibitions. Croatia Give Chrysanthemums only at funerals. Flowers bouquets must have an odd number of stems. Don’t raise your thumb, middle and index finger all at once in Croatia. [...] Singapore Chewing gum is banned in Singapore. Do not tip. [...] Turkey Stay off alcohol in public. Skip PDA*. Don’t wear bikinis. [...] Canada Don’t drink alcohol in public places unless allowed. Note the car number before boarding a taxi. [...] *Public Display of Affection VERMA, Shraddha. These posters are your guide on how to behave in different countries. Available at: <www.scoopwhoop.com/inothernews/how-to-behave-incountries/>. Accessed on: August 24th, 2015.

40

forty

Fotomon tag em pelas imagen for mada s andras_ cson tos , As if Isl am, Viacheslav Lopatin, androver, An dre y_Kuzm in/ Shutters toc k.com

Croatia, Singapore, Turkey and Canada. A segunda parte da resposta é pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem o título do texto e observarem as imagens para inferir o possível assunto do texto e os países que serão mencionados.


Read the text and decide if the sentences below are true or false. In your notebook, write down the true statements and rewrite the false ones using the correct information. a ) Be aware of local customs and avoid breaking the law when you travel.

True.

b ) Hug and kiss people in public in India. It’s a pretty common custom.

False. Don’t hug and kiss people in public in India. This country is not very tolerant of public display of affection.

c ) Don’t give Chrysanthemums to someone unless you are at a funeral in Croatia. True. d ) Don’t tip in Singapore. True. e ) Wear bikinis when you go to the beach in Turkey. False. Don’t wear bikinis when you go to the beach in Turkey.

f ) Don’t drink in public in Croatia and Turkey. False. Don’t drink in public in Canada and Turkey.

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem o texto rapidamente para checar se as inferências da atividade 2 estavam corretas. Em seguida, você pode pedir que leiam o texto novamente com mais atenção para identificar se as frases ao lado são verdadeiras ou falsas.

g ) Take a picture before boarding a taxi in Canada. False. Note the car number before boarding a taxi in Canada.

4. 5.

Do you think it is important to know about these kinds of tips before visiting a country? Why (not)? Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade. Read the conversations. Answer the questions. Primeiramente, você pode pedir aos alunos que tampem os balões de fala e observem as imagens para inferirem ou criarem as falas das personagens. Em seguida, sugerimos deixar que leiam as falas e respondam às perguntas. Se necessário, você pode auxiliá-los na elaboração das respostas.

Bow to greet someone in Japan.

The Eiffel Tower? Turn right and go straight two blocks.

Ilustrações: Art Capri

Don’t chew gum here.

a ) Who are the people in the pictures?

Tourists and local people.

b ) Which countries are the tourists visiting? They’re

visiting Singapore, Japan and France.

c ) What’s the problem with the tourist in Singapore? d ) What’s the tourist doing with the Japanese?

He’s greeting the Japanese.

e ) What does the tourist want to visit in France?

6.

He’s chewing gum, which is not allowed in that country.

She wants to visit the Eiffel Tower.

Read the speech balloons again and identify what is correct.

b; c; d. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade.

a ) The sentences are expressing a favor, an invitation and a question. b ) The sentences are expressing a warning, a piece of advice or an instruction. c ) The sentences use the verbs in the infinitive without to. d ) The auxiliary verb don’t expresses a negative. forty-one

41

Unit 2

3.


7.

7. Sugerimos Read the text on page 40 again. Identify the sentences orientar os Remember alunos a that express a warning, a piece of advice or an instruction. retornarem ao As respostas estão sublinhadas no texto. If you want to be polite, texto da página 40. Você pode use the word please. pedir que eles o Can you think of other similar sentences? In your notebook, leiam novamente Resposta pessoal. É importante Please, come here. e identifiquem as write down three or more examples. relembrar os alunos de outras sentenças que ações que podem ser usadas na sala de aula, como Open your book, Go to page 21, Write in your notebook, e assim por diante. indicam uma Sugerimos escrever essas frases na lousa e, se julgar necessário, dizê-las em voz alta para que os alunos realizem essas ações. ordem, uma advertência ou In your notebook, make a list of tips to foreigners who are visiting Brazil for the first time. uma instrução.

8. 9.

Follow the example. Then, in groups, share your tips and compare them to check if they are similar. In the end, you will vote for the best tips in the group.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

Visit and enjoy nature and the beautiful landscapes. Don’t carry what you’re not going to use when you go on an excursion.

There is/There are 10.

Read the sentences below and write down the correct statements about them. a;

There is so much to being Hispanic.

b; c.

Just like India is not very tolerant of public display of affection, there are other countries which have similar prohibitions.

a ) There is and there are are used to talk about the existence of something. b ) There is is used with singular nouns. c ) There are is used with plural nouns.

11.

What do you know about customs of foreign countries or some regions in Brazil? Talk to your classmates about some customs that you know. Then, do some research and write a few sentences about these customs. Follow the example. Resposta pessoal.

at Islamic weddings there’s the tradition to paint some parts of the bride’s body with henna to symbolize her entrance to womanhood. There are some countries, like Greece and Mauritania, where kids throw the baby teeth on their house’s roof.

Using the language 12.

42

forty-two

In your notebook, number the sentences below using 1 for imperatives used at school, 2 3; d - 1; e - 2; for imperatives used in recipes and 3 for imperatives used at home. af -- 1;1; gb -- 2;3; hc -- 1/3; i - 2; j - 1. a ) Open your book on page 20.

f ) Close your notebook.

b ) Wash the dishes.

g ) Stir the eggs and the milk.

c ) Make your bed.

h ) Don’t close the door.

d ) Skip this page.

i ) Bake in preheated oven.

e ) Mix the ingredients.

j ) Work in groups.


a - II; b - IV; c - III; d - V; e - I; f - VI.

d ) Wait for the traffic light.

b ) Turn left.

e ) Respect the speed limit.

c ) Turn right.

f ) Don’t ride a bike in this area.

III

II

IV

pockygallery/ Shutterstock.com

I

northallertonman/Shutterstock.com

Eddie J. Rodriquez/Shutterstock.com

a ) Don’t walk in this area.

Unit 2

Which image is each imperative related to?

VI

pockygallery/ Shutterstock.com

Marukosu/ Shutterstock.com

V

pockygallery/ Shutterstock.com

13.

Speaking up

/h/ x /r/

1. Listen and repeat. track 10

Rome is my home.

2. Listen and say what differs in these words. track 11

Rome

home

3. Listen and write down the words you hear. a - habit; b - red; c - rat; d - hope; e - right; f - hair. track 12

a ) habit – rabbit

c ) hat – rat

e ) height – right

b ) head – red

d ) hope – rope

f ) hair - rare

forty-three

43


14.

Match the sentences with their meaning. A

A - III; B - I; C - II; D - IV.

B

C

Ilustrações: Júnior Caramez

D

I

This expression is used to tell someone who has finished a romatic relationship that there are other people with whom they may have a successful relationship in the future.

II

It means that you can achieve what you want if you are determined.

III

It is a metaphor to illustrate how our house is the best place ever.

IV

It means “If you are in a difficult situation, use your strength to overcome it”.

Learning more 1. Read and understand. How/Like/As

• How is normally used to ask questions. How are you?

• Like means “similar to” and is used to compare things.

How do you go to school?

My friends love travelling, like me.

• Like is used with the verbs look, sound, taste, smell and feel to express similarity. He sounds like a foreigner.

You look like an American.

• As refers to a job or a function someone or something has.

Laura works as a waitress. That travel guide is regarded as the most dependable.

2. Now, to check your understanding and your ability to use these words correctly in the future, rewrite these sentences in your notebook and complete them using how, like or as. a ) John works

as

a tour guide. like

b ) Europeans are not introspective. c)

44

forty-four

How

South Americans. They are usually more serious and

do you like to travel?


Summing up

Nesta unidade, você...

Sugerimos levar os alunos a refletirem sobre as afirmativas apresentadas no quadro abaixo e instruí-los a escrever no caderno as frases que se relacionam ao que leram, discutiram e estudaram nesta unidade.

Unit 2

conversou com seus colegas de classe sobre diferentes costumes em diferentes áreas de um mesmo país e em diferentes países; revisou vocabulário relacionado a alguns países e nacionalidades; refletiu sobre o uso do inglês como língua global; leu textos sobre comportamentos e hábitos em diferentes países e continentes; discutiu sobre a importância de conhecer hábitos de outros lugares antes de visitá-los; escreveu instruções para um guia de viagem sobre como estrangeiros podem se comportar no Brasil; ouviu parte de uma entrevista sobre o mês dedicado à herança hispânica nos Estados Unidos; viu que os imperativos podem ser usados para alertar, aconselhar e dar instruções; estudou o uso das estruturas there is e there are; praticou a pronúncia correta dos sons /h/ e /r/;

Going further

Penguin Books

estudou os significados e usos das palavras how, as e like.

Reading The book Around the world in eighty days tells the story of Phileas Fogg, an Englishman who abandons his fortune to travel around the world in 80 days with his servant, Passepartout. They experience lots of adventures visiting places like India, Japan and China. This is one of the most popular of Jules Verne’s books.

Fil me de Ry an Murphy. Eat, pray, love. EU A. 20 10

Around the world in eighty days, by Jules Verne. Penguin Books: UK, 2010.

Watching The movie Eat, pray, love tells the story of Liz Gilbert, who is unhappy with her marriage. She feels the need of traveling and she goes on a round-the-world journey.

Eat, pray, love, by Ryan Murphy. Sony Pictures: USA, 2010.

Singing The song We’re one, performed by Pitbull and recorded on the CD Globalization, motivates people to be happy and proud of being who they are, and to show off their origins and nationality. It proposes that people think as if we were one and that we’re all together, on the same side.

/Shu tterstoc Nick Biemans

The Australian website Global kids oz <http://tub.im/utnkmx> provides games, tests and a variety of resources to help teenagers see the world through a multicultural point of view.

k.com

Surfing the net

Pitbull (2012).

forty-five

45


Choosing a career

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, mais informações sobre as profissões mencionadas nesta seção.

Degree

Tourism

Job purpose

Guide groups of tourists on sightseeing tours or on visits to museums, art galleries, and other places of interest.

Usually hired by

Travel companies or travel agencies.

Required skills

• Getting on well with people. • Speaking well in public. • Being good at languages. • Being a good problem solver. • Being organized. • Having leadership skills.

• The opportunity to travel to many interesting places. • Having to deal with tired passengers’ mood swings • •

Characteristics of the job In your opinion, is it a pro (an advantage) or a con (a disadvantage)?

• • •

Resposta pessoal. Ao abordar as características do trabalho de um guia de turismo, sugerimos pedir aos alunos que as classifiquem em pró ou contra, de acordo com a visão e a personalidade de cada um.

• • •

and stress. Learning about different cultures. Having to express excitement and enthusiasm, even though the tours can become boring as you visit the same place over and over again. Making new friends. Being away from home for long periods. Always having different things to do, since the profession is so dynamic. Working on weekends. Meeting lots of different people. The fact that, sometimes, tour guides are employed for seasonal and temporary positions.

If you like tourism, you can also work as a travel agent or as a hotel manager.

To work as a tour guide, you can also become a technician. You can find Tour Guide or Tourism technical courses at several institutions.

46

forty-six

1.

Do some research and find out other aspects related to the professions of tour guide and historian, presented on the next page. Share your findings with your classmates.

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos chamar a atenção também para os textos nos post-its e incentivar os alunos a pesquisarem outros aspectos relacionados às profissões apresentadas, como média salarial, diferentes possibilidades de atuação e curiosidades. Em seguida, você pode pedir que formem pequenos grupos e compartilhem uns com os outros o que descobriram.


Choosing a career

Degree

History

Job purposes

Research, document, analyze, and interpret historical documents and sources in order to understand the past and how it affects the present. Maintain and safeguard collections in order to preserve historical memories.

Usually hired by

Required skills

Universities, museums and corporations.

• Having good research skills. • Being good at examining and processing information. • Having good memory. • Writing well. • Speaking well in public, as you may need to give •

Characteristics of the job In your opinion, is it a pro (an advantage) or a con (a disadvantage)?

presentations to the public. Being a good problem solver.

• The opportunity to research topics you are interested in. • Traveling for fieldwork. • Learning different things. • Working on your own.

Resposta pessoal. Ao abordar as características do trabalho de um historiador, sugerimos pedir aos alunos que as classifiquem em pró ou contra, de acordo com a visão e a personalidade de cada um.

If you like history, you can also be a History teacher or a museum guide.

2.

Think about these professions and talk to a classmate. Resposta pessoal.

I would like to be a tour guide / a historian because… I wouldn’t like to be a tour guide / a historian because…

Fotomontagem de Anna Simonin formada pelas imagens bodrumsurf/Shutterstock. com, ChameleonsEye/Shutterstock.com, Juan Aunion/Shutterstock.com, David L Ryan/The Boston Globe/Getty Images, Nitr/Shutterstock.com, Joe Santa/ Encyclopedia/Corbis/Latinstock, photogl/Shutterstock.com

forty-seven

g18_ftd_lt_1noi_u02_046a047_choosing1.indd 47

47

18/5/16 2:33 PM


track 13

unit

No pain, no gain

48


The expression no pain, no gain means that if you don’t try hard, you won’t succeed in something. Robert works out at the local gym every day to lose weight. You know, no pain, no gain. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, as respostas e comentários referentes a esta atividade.

Exchanging ideas A

The images on these pages show some people exercising. What kind of sports are they doing?

B

Can you name the benefits of exercising regularly?

C

Do you exercise regularly? What activities do you do?

ne m ge .co Eu ck ns r s to e ag te im hu t as S el sk i/ p v a a d o ko rm m fo o S e z up c m Lj ra Ca gn e io r si ún S D e J de CL m s, ge el i ta , m n o o m nk to he Fo is c On

49


Contextualizing

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Warming up 1. Talk

to your teacher and classmates. Respostas

pessoais.

a ) How many hours do you spend sitting in a day? b ) Do you think people spend a lot of time sitting? c ) Have you ever been advised by a doctor to do regular physical activities in order to improve your health? Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que, no mundo contemporâneo, as pessoas tendem a passar grande parte do tempo realizando atividades sentadas, devido tanto às rotinas de trabalho quanto às facilidades tecnológicas.

2. Read

Heart Foundation

the following campaign poster and discuss the questions on page 51 with your teacher and classmates.

HEART FOUNDATION. Sit less, move more. Available at: <http://heartfoundation. org.au/images/uploads/ main/Active_living/Sit_ less__move_more.jpg>. Accessed on: February 14th, 2016.

50

fifty


a ) What is the main goal of the poster?

Make people aware of their sitting time.

b ) According to the poster, how much time do people spend sitting?

Around 15 hours a day.

c ) According to the poster, what happens to adults who sit less during the day? Sitting less decreases the risk of early death.

d ) After reading the poster, what would you do to sit less?

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos questionar os alunos sobre a quantidade de tempo que permanecem sentados e que tipo de atividades podem realizar para mudar seus hábitos.

From the physical activities below, which of them is mentioned in the poster? C B Monkey Business Images/ Shutterstock.com

A

Monkey Business Images/ Shutterstock.com

3.

BRG.photography/Shutterstock.com

D holbox/Shutterstock.com

C

4.

Unit 3

Learning vocabulary

Match the sports with the pictures from exercise 3. I

martial arts

II

volleyball

III

I - D; II - B; III - A; IV - C.

basketball

IV

weightlifting

5.

Do you do any sport? Which?

6.

Doing physical activities is a good way to make your body move. Observe the following Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos ver, pictures of sports and talk to a classmate about the ones you like to do. Orientações para o professor,

Resposta pessoal.

nas

7.

EpicStockMedia/Shutterstock.com

E

wonderisland/Shutterstock.com

surfing

bowling Michaelpuche/Shutterstock.com

running a marathon

C

doing yoga

Andrey Yurlov/Shutterstock.com

Juan Novakosky/Shutterstock.com

B

skateboarding D

Africa Studio/Shutterstock.com

comentários sobre esta atividade.

A

F

swimming

Do some research and make a list of other sports in your notebook. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a trabalharem em duplas para pesquisar e fazer uma lista sobre outros esportes em inglês. Uma opção é orientá-los a pesquisar exemplos para as seguintes categorias: team sports, individual sports, water sports, Olympic sports, winter sports, entre outras que julgar relevantes.

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51


Learning and acting

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Reading and reflecting Pre-reading 1.

Discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates.

Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) Do you know what a marathon is?

Caso julgue necessário, você pode pedir aos alunos que consultem o dicionário para conferir a definição da palavra.

b ) Do you know someone who has run a marathon? How was the experience? c ) Would you like to participate in a marathon? Why (not)? É importante pedir aos alunos que justifiquem suas respostas.

d ) Have you heard of any marathons in your city or country? If so, give examples.

2.

Running is a very good exercise and there are different ways of doing it. Match the following expressions with the pictures. a - III; b - IV; c - V; d - I; e - II. a ) work out on a treadmill

d ) sprint on the track

b ) go jogging in the park

e ) run a cross-country race

c ) run a marathon II

III

3.

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Aleksandr Markin/Shutterstock.com Abel Tumik/Shutterstock.com

dotshock/Shutterstock.com

IV

52

Shawn Pecor/Shutterstock.com

Hurst Photo/Shutterstock.com

I

V

You are going to read a text entitled Important lessons I learned during my first marathon. Based on the title of the text, write, in your notebook, the words that you expect to see in it. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade. dream

medal

training

marathoner

encouragement

fuel

contest

running

hobby


Reading Read the text briefly and write down the right answers in your notebook. a ) The structure of this text is similar to...

III

I

poems.

III

self-help articles.

II

newspaper articles.

IV

letters.

b ) What characteristics justify your answer in activity a?

III; IV; V.

I

the organization in paragraphs

II

the use of rhymes and metaphors

III

the direct reference to the reader

IV

the use of motivating sentences, such as “Don’t waste any more time” and “Stay positive and confident”

V

the tone of encouragement as well as the advice presented in the text

Unit 3

4.

Caso os alunos tenham dificuldade em compreender essa referência, sugerimos explicar que o autor se dirige ao leitor usando os pronomes you e your, além de instruções diretas, como Don’t waste any more time, Remember e Run with your head up. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, mais informações sobre o gênero textual artigo de autoajuda.

*

Written by Joshua Becker

[...] 1. We all dream of things that we want to accomplish in life. And they all have the same thing in common: They begin by taking one small step. […] Don’t waste any more time. Your dreams can be accomplished – one small step at a time. 2. You can’t complete a marathon without fueling your body correctly. Remember, your body is your home base for life. So fuel it properly by eating healthy. You only get one life and one body to live it in – take good care of it. 3. Marathon runners are notorious for offering encouragement to one another. They understand an important race principle: there is room at the finish line for all of us. It isn’t all about winning or losing, it’s about the experience and being in it together. […] Anna Simonin

7. Hobbies give us things in common with others. They help form the foundation for new conversations and relationships. If you are looking for new friends, I recommend jumping into a new hobby [...]. 8. Not just as an instruction for proper running technique, but as a metaphor for life. Stay positive and confident. Look where you are going. […] Your dreams are far too valuable to be wasted. If you’ve got one, start realizing it today. You have no idea how it may change your life for the better.

BECKER, Joshua. 12 lessons for life from my first marathon. Available at: <www.becomingminimalist.com/12-lessons-for-life-from-my-first-marathon/>. Accessed on: September 8 th, 2015.

*É importante explicar aos alunos que o título do texto foi adaptado, pois, embora o texto original apresente doze lições, aqui são apresentadas apenas cinco delas. Se julgar apropriado, peça-lhes que acessem o site do qual o texto foi extraído e leiam-no na íntegra.

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53


5.

In your notebook, match the following topics with the corresponding paragraphs.

a - 3; b - 7; c - 1; d - 8; e - 2.

a ) Compete less. Encourage more.

Sugerimos pedir aos alunos que voltem ao texto da página anterior e leiam os parágrafos novamente antes de relacionarem os títulos.

b ) If you want to make new friends, get a new hobby. c ) Dreams are not meant to be wasted. d ) Run with your head up. e ) Fuel properly.

6.

In your notebook, write the sentences from the text in which the author… a ) suggests that we eat healthy food so that we have energy to run. So fuel it properly by eating healthy.

b ) says that it is important to participate in competitions. The results don’t matter. It isn’t all about winning or losing, it’s about the experience and being in it together.

7. b) Espera-se que, pelas ideias apresentadas no texto, os alunos percebam que o autor não é um especialista em preparação física, e sim um escritor com o objetivo de motivar seus leitores a adotarem um estilo de vida melhor. Além disso, eles deverão se lembrar de que se trata de um artigo de autoajuda.

c ) states that hobbies are good opportunities to make friends and to connect with people. They help form the foundation for new conversations and relationships.

d ) invites the readers to believe in good things and trust in their own abilities. Stay positive and confident.

7.

Answer, in your notebook, the following questions about the author of the text. a ) What is his name?

Joshua Becker.

b ) Which of the following descriptions do you think applies to him?

II

I

He is a well-known personal trainer. He helps people who want to be healthier and in shape. He is also a columnist in the magazine Muscle & Fitness.

II

He is a bestselling writer, author of Simplify. He runs a blog called Becoming minimalist, in which he inspires people to live a better life by owning less possessions.

Post-reading 8.

How do you feel about the following excerpts from the text? Read them and share some Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a refletirem sobre os seguintes ideas with your classmates. trechos extraídos do texto lido e a discutirem seus pontos de vista em relação a eles.

Your dreams can be accomplished, one small step at a time.

Your body is your home base for life.

It isn’t all about winning or losing, it’s about the experience and being in it together.

If you are looking for new friends, I recommend jumping into a new hobby.

Stay positive and confident.

9.

Does the text focus on the physical benefits or on the mental and emotional benefits of The text focuses on the mental and emotional benefits of running a marathon? Talk to your classmates. running a marathon. É importante verificar se os alunos

percebem que, em vez de apontar os benefícios que a prática da corrida pode ter para a saúde física de quem a pratica, o autor discute como a prática dessa atividade física pode ajudar as pessoas a se sentirem melhor, seja pelo fato de ter realizado o sonho de fifty-four participar de uma maratona, ou pelo prazer de fazer parte de uma competição com outras pessoas.

54


Putting your ideas into words Before writing 10.

Talk to your teacher and classmates.

Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade.

a ) How important is it for you to do some kind of physical activity?

11.

Unit 3

b ) In your opinion, what is the relation between being physically active and being happy? Read the self-help article on page 53 again and write, in your notebook, examples of the following characteristics of this text genre. Possíveis respostas. a ) The use of imperatives to instruct readers on how to live a better life.

Don’t waste any more time./Fuel it properly./Take good care of it./Stay positive and confident./Look where you are going.

b ) A direct reference to the reader, in order to make them feel as if the comments apply dreams can be accomplished./You can’t complete a marathon without fueling your specifically to them. Your Your body is your home base for life/You only get one life and one body to live it in.

body correctly./

c ) The use of sentences with the purpose of advising and instructing the reader.

Remember, your body is your home base for life./If you are looking for new friends, I recommend jumping into a new hobby.

d ) The use of sentences with the purpose of encouraging and motivating the reader.

You only get one life and one body to live it in – take good care of it./Stay positive and confident./You have no idea how it may change your life for the better.

Writing You were invited to write a self-help article to motivate and advise readers about the benefits and advantages of having a physically active life.

Anna Simonin

12.

After writing 13.

Read the articles posted on your class’s virtual private group and identify the option that Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos pedir aos alunos que leiam os artigos de autoajuda escritos best represents what you think. por seus colegas. Em seguida, sugerimos discutir com a turma suas impressões sobre os artigos lidos e pedir que eles identifiquem qual das alternativas melhor as representam.

a ) All articles fulfilled the proposed objective.

b ) Some articles fulfilled the proposed objective. fifty-five

55


Listening and understanding

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Listening 1.

In your opinion, how much time a day should people exercise? Talk to your classmates about it. Resposta pessoal. Resposta esperada: it is usually recommended that people exercise 30 minutes a day.

2. Sugerimos explicar aos alunos que, embora a locutora utilize a forma more happy, gramaticalmente seria mais correto dizer happier.

Before listening to the track, match the expressions with the pictures. a - III; b - II; c - IV; d - I.

a ) to get in good shape b ) muscle strengthening exercises

Caso perceba que os alunos não conhecem as expressões, uma opção é pedir que utilizem um dicionário.

c ) to feel happier and peaceful d ) aerobic exercise

II

mimagephotography/Shutterstock.com

IV

Syda Productions/Shutterstock.com

III

Peter Bernik/Shutterstock.com

Stefano Ember/Shutterstock.com

I

During the audio, they use the expression more happy. But, according to the rules of grammar, it is more correct to say happier.

3. Esta atividade de vocabulário tem o objetivo de preparar os alunos para o texto que irão ler. Sugerimos orientá-los a pensar nas palavras cognatas e a buscar as palavras que não conhecem no glossário ou no dicionário e a escreverem suas respostas no caderno.

3.

4.

fifty-six

- II; b - I; c - III.

a ) to work your way up

I

b ) to get the most from your exercise plan

to make sure your exersice plan gives you maximum benefits

II

to improve your abilities over time

III

to have the intention of intensifying your training

c ) to aim to increase the intensity of your workout

track 14

56

Match the sentences with their meaning. a

You are going to listen to part of the program Science in the news about why exercising is so important. Listen to the track once and verify your answers from activities 2 and 3. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, a transcrição do áudio.


track 14

again and write the requested information in your notebook.

a ) the presenters’ names

Bob Doughty and Shirley Griffith.

b ) the subject of the program c ) the benefits of exercising

Why exercise is so important and some popular ways to get in good shape.

It improves your appearance and health and helps to reduce the risk of some diseases.

d ) one of the main reasons why people exercise

To control or reduce their weight.

e ) some examples of more intense aerobic activities

Playing basketball, swimming and distance running.

f ) how often people should exercise during the first weeks

Unit 3

5. Listen

Ten minutes a day two times a week.

6. Listen track 14

to the track one more time. Then, decide if the following sentences are true or false. Sugerimos tocar a faixa In your notebook, write down the true statements and rewrite the false ones. novamente e orientar os a ) If you exercise regularly, you have less chances of getting sick. True. Exercise helps to reduce the risk of some diseases.

b ) People who exercise regularly are usually bored and moody. False. Exercise helps people feel more happy and peaceful.

c ) If you want to lose weight, exercising will help you burn calories.

alunos a ouvirem para verificar se as afirmações são verdadeiras ou falsas. É importante incentivá-los a identificar os trechos do áudio que os levaram às suas respostas, tanto as verdadeiras quanto as falsas.

True. Physical activity burns calories.

d ) It is recommended that adults get at least two and a half hours of aerobic exercise a day. False. Experts say adults should get at least two and a half hours of aerobic exercise each week.

e ) If you want to take up some kind of physical activity, you shouldn’t start with intense exercises. It’s better to start small and increase the intensity little by little. True. Whatever kind of exercise you choose, experts agree that you should start small and work your way up.

7. After

listening to this program, discuss the questions below with your teacher and classmates. Resposta pessoal. Resposta esperada: yes, because the program talks about the importance of exercising. Does it help people to exercise correctly? Explain. Resposta esperada: yes, because it mentions how often people should exercise during the first weeks and instructs them to increase the intensity of the exercises after a few weeks.

a ) In your opinion, does the program motivate people to exercise? b )

c ) After listening to the program, do you think you are more conscious of the importance Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos deixar vários alunos dizerem se o áudio os motivou a of doing sports? Justify your answer. praticar atividades físicas. Você pode aproveitar para perguntar sobre seus gostos, que tipos de esportes praticam na escola ou em seus bairros e se pretendem motivar seus pais ou responsáveis a praticar atividades físicas.

d ) Would you like to follow this program on the radio? Why?

Resposta pessoal. É possível que alguns alunos digam que não o ouviriam. É importante respeitar a opinião de todos e pedir que as justifiquem.

Speaking 8. Do

some research about the importance of exercising and record a radio program with a classmate talking about its benefits. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta

Speaking up

/i:/ x /I /

atividade.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir as atividades deste boxe.

1. Listen and repeat. These running shoes don’t fit my feet well.

track 15

2. Listen and answer: What’s the difference in these words pronunciation? fit

track 16

feet

3. Let’s pratice! Listen to the words below and practice the pronunciation in pairs. track 17

a ) /i:/ feet eat seek seat b ) /I/ fit it sick sit

4. Listen and write the words you hear in your notebook. a - fit; b - chip; c - peak; d - least; e - ship; f - heel.

track 18

a ) feet - fit

d ) least - list

b ) cheap - chip

e ) sheep - ship

c ) peak - pick

f ) heel - hill

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57


Comprehending and using Learning about the language Present Continuous

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

1. É importante orientar os alunos a analisarem a imagem e o texto para responder à atividade em seus cadernos. Sugerimos chamar a atenção dos alunos para o verbo lap, que tem vários significados (como lamber, agitar e sobrepor-se), mas neste contexto tem o sentido de estar uma volta à frente.

*Sugerimos perguntar aos alunos por que eles imaginam que a propaganda utilizou a palavra couch, levando-os a inferir que se trata de um site britânico. Você pode chamar a atenção deles para o quadro, fazendo-os observar a mesma palavra em duas variantes da língua.

1. Analyze

In British English, we say couch.* In American English, we say sofa.

Sport England/The National Lottery

the poster. Then, write down the correct statements in your notebook. a; d; e; g.

This girl can. Available at: <www.sportengland.org/our-work/national-work/this-girl-can/>. Accessed on: September 24th, 2015.

a ) The picture shows an action that is happening at the moment.

2. b) No, she isn’t. É importante verificar se os alunos percebem que a mulher está andando de bicicleta mais vagarosamente por possivelmente estar iniciando a prática do esporte. Eles podem perceber isso pela sua expressão e pelo texto da campanha. 2. d) Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos enfatizar que uma vida saudável não inclui somente a prática regular de exercícios físicos, mas também boa alimentação, dormir o necessário, não ter hábitos como fumar ou consumir bebidas alcóolicas e não estar sob pressão ou estresse.

b ) The picture shows an action that is going to happen in the future. c ) The picture shows a woman that is learning how to ride a bicycle. d ) The picture shows a real woman that can’t ride the bicycle fast, but is more active than sedentary people. e ) The picture aims to motivate people to do sports. f ) The picture aims to motivate people to buy a car. g ) This is a campain published on the internet. h ) This is a magazine cover.

2. Read

58

the campaign again. Discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates.

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a discutirem as questões em grupo primeiramente. Depois, você pode finalizar com uma discussão geral, levantando os principais pontos a ) What is the woman in the image doing? que cada grupo discutiu. She’s riding a bike.

b ) Is she a professional athlete?

c ) Do you think that doing sports is important to have a healthy life? Resposta

pessoal.

d ) Do you think you have a healthy lifestyle? Why (not)? Resposta pessoal. Nesse momento, você pode levar os alunos a refletirem sobre o estilo de vida que levam. Caso digam que não o consideram saudável, é uma boa ideia pedir a eles que apontem o que podem fazer por si mesmos para mudar seu estilo de vida e tomar atitudes mais saudáveis. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre a discussão deste item.

e ) What do you do to be healthy?

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17/5/16 10:22 AM


3. Analyze

Josh and Sarah’s schedule for the week and decide if the sentences below are comentar com os alunos que schedule é um planejamento semanal ou mensal de true or false. Sugerimos atividades a serem realizadas.

Monday 8:00

Tuesday 10:00

Yoga

Go running

Wednesday 12:00

Thursday 14:00

Friday 18:00

Play soccer

Swim

Sarah’s Schedule  April Monday 8:00

Tuesday 10:00

Yoga

Aerobics

Wednesday 12:00

Thursday 14:00

Friday 18:00

Dance class

Swim

a ) It’s 8 o’clock on Monday morning. Josh and Sarah are doing yoga. True.

b ) It’s 10:00 on Tuesday morning. Josh is not running. He is playing soccer. False. c ) It’s midday on Wednesday. Is Sarah doing aerobics? No, she isn’t.

Remember We use different verbs, such as play, go and do, with sports. He is playing golf.

True.

d ) It’s 6 o’clock on Friday afternoon. Are they swimming? Yes, they are. True.

4. Now

it’s your turn. In your notebook, write down your activity schedule including your name, the sports you play, the day of the week and the time. Then, make sentences about it. It’s Friday. I am playing soccer.

4. Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a montarem suas agendas no caderno e a imaginarem alguns esportes que poderiam realizar, mesmo que eles não pratiquem esportes. Nesse caso, você pode incentivá-los a escrever atividades físicas que eles gostariam de realizar rotineiramente.

They are not going scuba diving. She is doing karate. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, mais informações sobre estes verbos.

It’s Friday. I am not playing volleyball.

It’s ten o’clock. Are you swimming?

Yes, I am./ No, I am not.

5. Read a classmate’s schedule. Then, ask and answer questions about it. Respostas pessoais.

6. Read

the sentences and write, in your notebook, the alternative that Sugerimos instruir os alunos a estudarem a página 190 do Grammar describes them. appendix para auxiliá-los nesta atividade. Nem todos os verbos terminados

Ale x Shu ande r t te r s t Ra t hs ock .co / m

em -e terão essa letra omitida ao adicionarmos o -ing. São exceções a essa regra os verbos be II - being e see - seeing.

a ) The children are playing soccer on the court. I

The Present Continuous is formed by verb with -ing.

II

The Present Continuous is formed by verb to be + verb with -ing.

b ) I am not riding my bike now. I I

To form the Present Continuous in the negative form we use verb to be + not + verb with -ing.

II

To form the Present Continuous in the negative form we add no after the verb.

c ) Is Jonas doing kung fu?

II

I

In questions, the verb to be goes to the end of the sentence.

II

In questions, the verb to be comes before the subject.

d ) Suzanne is exercising in the park. I I

When the verb ends with -e, we usually omit this letter and add -ing.

II

When the verb ends with -e, we usually add one more -e and the -ing.

e ) They are swimming in the pool. I I

When the verbs end in consonant + vowel + consonant, and the last syllable is stressed, we double the last consonant and add -ing.

II

When the verbs end in consonant + vowel + consonant, and the last syllable is stressed, we omit the last consonant and add -ing. fifty-nine

59

Unit 3

Josh’s Schedule  April


Can/Can’t 7.

Read the poster on page 58 again and write down the answers in your notebook. a ) What is the name of the campaign? This

girl can.

b ) In the sentence “This girl can”, can refers to… I

8.

I

the woman’s ability to ride a bike.

II

the woman’s dislikes for sports.

Look at the pictures of some athletes. Discuss the following questions with a classmate. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a observarem as fotografias e inferirem as repostas para as perguntas.

B Ian Kington/AFP Photo

Philippe Desmazes/AFP Photo

A

Matt Stutzman

Terezinha Guilhermina

8. VII Resposta pessoal. O importante é os alunos perceberem que a força de vontade e a tenacidade das pessoas tornam possível atingir os objetivos estabelecidos, seja nos esportes ou em outras atividades. Por outro lado, não se pode esperar que todos possam fazer de tudo. Deve-se respeitar as particularidades de cada um.

60

Adrian Dennis/AFP Photo

8. V Resposta pessoal. Se julgar necessário, é possível fazer referência à mulher andando de bicicleta na atividade 1 da página 58. A mulher não possui forma atlética, mas se esforça para ser ativa em busca de uma vida mais saudável.

D Julian Finney/Getty Images

C

Jonnie Peacock

9.

Esther Vergeer

I

Do you know any of these people? Resposta

II

Where are they from?

III

What do they do?

IV

Do you think they have difficulties to practice sports?

V

Do you think someone needs to be athletic to do sports?

VI

What is the particular characteristic these athletes have in common?

VII

In your opinion, can Paralympic athletes do any kind of sports? Why (not)?

pessoal. Matt Stutzman is from The United States, Terezinha Guilhermina is from Brazil, Jonnie Peacock is from England, Esther Vergeer is from the Netherlands. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a observarem os uniformes e suas cores para inferirem o país de origem de cada atleta.

They are Paralympic athletes.

Resposta pessoal. Possível resposta: no, they are professional athletes who train every day to get better.

Possível resposta: they have abilities to do sports using strength, speed, high concentration and so on.

Observe the pictures again and rewrite, in your notebook, the sentences below completing Sugerimos ver, nas them with the name of each athlete, according to the descriptions. Orientações para o I II

Esther Vergeer.

is a wheelchair tennis player.

Matt Stutzman.

does archery.

III IV

Terezinha Guilhermina. professor, informações is a sprinter. sobre os atletas. Jonnie Peacock.

is a runner.

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17/5/16 10:26 AM


Read the sentences and match the statements. Jonnie Peacock can run. Matt Stutzman can do archery, but Esther Vergeer can’t.

a - II; b - I.

Can Terezinha Guilhermina play wheelchair tennis?

Can Jonnie Peacock run?

No, she can’t.

Yes, he can.

a ) Can is used to talk about…

I

a lack of ability.

b ) Can’t is used to talk about…

II

an ability.

Unit 3

10.

Using the language Look at the pictures. What are these people doing? In your notebook, write sentences for each image. B

C

He’s doing karate.

E

F

They’re doing scuba diving.

12.

She’s playing golf.

They’re doing aerobics.

Go back to activity 11 and work with a partner. Point to a picture, ask and answer questions. Is she playing soccer?

13.

risteski goce/Shutterstock.com

Richard Whitcombe/Shutterstock.com

D

They’re riding bikes.

Andresr/Shutterstock.com

She’s dancing ballet.

maxpro/Shutterstock.com

Igor Bulgarin/Shutterstock.com

A

Vgstockstudio/Shutterstock.com

11.

No, she’s not. She’s dancing ballet.

Sugerimos instruir os alunos a trabalharem em duplas. Você pode pedir que observem as imagens da atividade anterior e chamar a atenção deles para o exemplo nos balões de fala.

Look at the sports below. Working in groups, mime a sport and let your classmates guess. play soccer

play tennis

go swimming

do aerobics

play volleyball

play golf

ride a bike

do karate

play basketball

go running

do yoga

dance ballet

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a trabalharem em grupos. Um dos alunos fará a mímica de um dos esportes da lista para o grupo. É importante incentivá-los a utilizar a frase no presente contínuo quando desvendarem a mímica.

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14.

Study the table and read what each person can (✓ ) or can’t (X) do. In your notebook, sport when necessary. Then, in your

Sugerimos orientar write the sentences using can or can't and the os alunos a observarem a tabela notebook, write a sentence about your abilities. e completarem as frases em seus cadernos usando can ou can't e o esporte, quando necessário. Você pode comentar que o sinal ✓ indica a habilidade para o esporte e o sinal X Play soccer Play volleyball indica a inabilidade. Depois, sugerimos orientá-los a completar o último Carlos ✓ ✓ item com suas próprias habilidades.

Swim

Ride a bicycle

Do yoga

X

X

Monica

X

X

Andrew

X

X

X

You

a ) Carlos

can

play soccer.

c ) Carlos and Andrew

can play volleyball/can . swim/can’t play soccer/ can’t ride a bicycle play volleyball/can’t . can do yoga

d ) Monica and Carlos

.

b ) Monica and Andrew

15.

can swim

, but Carlos

f ) Andrew

, but Monica

can't do yoga

g) I

.

.

can

.

Resposta pessoal

can play volleyball

Now, describe people’s abilities, writing in your notebook sentences with can and can’t. dos alunos escreverem as Follow the example. Antes frases, sugerimos pedir que eles

identifiquem os esportes praticados em cada imagem.

A

can’t

e ) Andrew

As you have seen, everybody has things they can do and things they can’t do. And it is ok, because it is impossible to have all abilities at the same time.

B

He can play volleyball. He can’t play basketball.

D

Ilustrações: Júnior Caramez

C

They can play basketball. They can’t play soccer.

He can do karate. He can’t do judo.

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sixty-two

She can swim. She can’t surf.


Summing up

Nesta unidade, você...

Sugerimos levar os alunos a refletirem sobre as afirmativas apresentadas no quadro abaixo e instruí-los a escrever no caderno as frases que se relacionam ao que leram, discutiram e estudaram nesta unidade.

conversou com seus colegas de classe sobre a importância da prática de atividades físicas para se ter uma vida saudável;

Unit 3

leu e interpretou um infográfico sobre a quantidade de calorias gastas em diferentes esportes; leu e interpretou um artigo de autoajuda; refletiu sobre como as atividades físicas podem contribuir para o bem-estar físico e emocional; produziu um artigo de autoajuda; ouviu parte de um programa de rádio falando sobre os benefícios da prática de esporte; gravou um programa de rádio e conversou com seus colegas sobre os benefícios da prática de exercícios; estudou o Present Continuous para falar de ações que estão acontecendo no momento da fala; estudou o modal can para designar a habilidade ou inabilidade (can’t) de realizar atividades;

Reading The book The story of the Olympics: an unofficial history is about The Olympic Games, one of the world’s most important sport events. In this book, the author Rachel Bladon writes about its beginning in Ancient Greece to what we know today.

The story of the Olympics: an unofficial history, by Rachel Bladon. MacMillan: UK, 2012. Filme de Clin t Eas twood. Invictus. EUA . 200 9

Going further

Editora MacMillan

praticou a pronúncia correta dos sons representados pelos símbolos /i:/ e /I/.

Watching The film Invictus shows the true story of Nelson Mandela, the then president of South Africa, who helped to establish unity in the country by inspiring the rugby team. The country was divided by the Apartheid, a system of racial segregation, from 1948 to 1994.

Invictus, by Clint Eastwood. Warner Bros. Pictures: USA, 2009.

He

Singing

utters tock.c lga Esteb/ Sh

The website Paralympic <http://tub.im/ds5cz3> gives information about the last and the next Paralympic games, the athletes and the names of the sports in the competition. It also shows results, rankings and records for all the sports.

om

Surfing the net

The song Waka waka, performed by Shakira and recorded on the CD Shakira: live from Paris, aims to encourage people to do what they have to do, in a competition or in a difficult situation. It was made for the Soccer World Cup in South Africa in 2010.

Shakira (2014).

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unit

track 19

64

An apple a day keeps the doctor away


There is no scientific study that definitely proves that an apple a day keeps the doctor away, but this proverb reminds you that if you include fruit and vegetables in your diet, you will have a better chance to be healthy and, therefore, may not need to go to the doctor. Eat a lot of fruit and vegetables. Remember that an apple a day keeps the doctor away.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, as respostas e comentários referentes a esta atividade.

Exchanging ideas A

The image on these pages show attitudes that are important to have a healthy life. What are they?

B Can you name some of the food in the picture? C How is your diet? Talk to your classmates about your eating habits.

Fotomontagem de Júnior Caramez formada pela imagem Studio 52/Shutterstock.com

D What are the benefits of a healthy and balanced diet?

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Contextualizing

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Warming up 1. Talk

to your classmates

Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a justificarem suas respostas e comentarem detalhes sobre seus hábitos alimentares.

a ) Do you usually worry about what you eat? Do you think about the amount of nutrients and calories in products before eating? b ) Do you normally read the nutrition facts label of products before buying them?

A nutrition facts label contains information about the nutritional content inside the food packaging.

c ) In your opinion, what are smart food choices?

2. Read Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem o texto e a conversarem com um colega de classe sobre os principais pontos levantados nele. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade.

Nutrition facts label: read the label youth outreach campaign. Available at: <www.fda.gov/Food/ IngredientsPackaging Labeling/LabelingNutrition/ ucm281746.htm>. Accessed on: September 23 rd, 2015.

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FDA/U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

the text below. After that, discuss with a classmate and summarize what you learned about how to use the nutrition facts label. Resposta pessoal.


Learning vocabulary

I

tomato sauce

b ) a carton of

II

orange juice

c ) a can of

III

cookies

d ) a bottle of

IV

milk

In your notebook, write down the expressions you matched in activity 3 according to the appropriate pictures. B

a can of tomato sauce

C

a carton of milk

D

a package of cookies

Mathee saengkaew/ Shutterstock.com

a bottle of orange juice

Coprid/Shutterstock.com

A

5.

Unit 4

a ) a package of

Gts/Shutterstock.com

4.

We can find a nutrition facts label on different food packages. In your notebook, match the two columns and name some of them. a - III; b - IV; c - I; d -II.

s-ts/Shutterstock.com

3.

Do some research and, in your notebook, make a list of other food packages on which you respostas: a bar of chocolate, a bag of potato chips, a bottle of mineral water, a can of find a nutrition facts label. Possíveis green peas, a jar of mayonnaise, among others. Uma opção de condução deste trabalho é orientar

os alunos a pesquisarem outras expressões relacionadas a embalagens de alimentos com rótulos de informação nutricional.

6.

Making smart food choices means eating different types of food rich in important nutrients. In your notebook, organize the following words according to their types of food. basil

butter

cheese

mango

parsley

rice

beef

cabbage

chicken

milk

pear

strawberry

broccoli

carrot

cinnamon

oats

pork

wheat

meat beef, chicken, pork

dairy products butter, cheese, milk

fruit mango, pear, strawberry

vegetables broccoli, cabbage, carrot

herbs and spices basil, cinnamon, parsley

grains

oats, rice, wheat

7. As respostas podem variar. Possíveis respostas: meat: fish, bacon, sausage; dairy products: yogurt, margarine, ice cream; fruit: banana, apple, peach; vegetables: tomato, onion, pepper; herbs and spices: curry powder, nutmeg, rosemary; grains: quinoa, lentils, chickpeas. Se possível, você pode levar alguns picture dictionaries para a sala de aula para que os alunos possam realizar esta atividade.

7.

In your notebook, add other words to each type of food from activity 6.

8.

We should consume more of some important nutrients (such as potassium, fiber, vitamins A and C, iron and calcium) and less of other nutrients that are not so good for us (such as trans fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium and sugars). Do some research and find out respostas: a) potassium: what foods have the following nutrients. Write them down in your notebook. Possíveis banana, avocado, yogurt;

b) iron: liver, chickpeas, beans; c) calcium: cheese, milk, sardines; d) satured fat: butter, chocolate, animal fats; e) sodium: pickles, fast canned vegetables; a ) potassium b ) iron c ) calcium foods, f) sugars: soft drinks, candy, cookies.

d ) satured fat

e ) sodium

f ) sugars

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Learning and acting Reading and reflecting Pre-reading 1.

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

2. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem as afirmações e, de acordo com seus conhecimentos prévios, decidirem se elas são verdadeiras ou falsas. Em seguida, você pode fazer uma correção comentando as respostas dos alunos e apresentando algumas informações importantes sobre o sódio. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, informações sobre o sódio.

Discuss the questions below with your classmates and brainstorm some ideas. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade. pessoal.

a ) What do you know about sodium? Resposta

b ) Do you know what the chemical element symbol for sodium is? Na. c ) Do you know how much sodium you need in your diet per day? Talk to your Chemistry teacher and do some research about it. A healthy diet should include about 2300 mg of sodim per day./Less than 2400 mg per day.

3. Sugerimos ler os alimentos apresentados nesta atividade com os alunos e sanar suas dúvidas com relação aos seus significados. Em seguida, sugerimos comentar que, em geral, os alimentos frescos e preparados em casa contêm menos sódio que os alimentos processados, industrializados ou preparados em restaurantes. Você pode orientá-los a fazer no caderno uma lista ou um quadro com dois gr upos: low-sodium e hig h-sodium e clas sif ic a r os alime ntos de acordo com o gr upo a que pe r te nce m.

2.

Decide if the statements about sodium are true or false. In your notebook, write down the true statements and rewrite the false ones. a ) Our body needs sodium to work properly. But it must be consumed in small amounts. True.

b ) The only food that contains sodium is the table salt.

False. Other food also contain sodium, such as pickles, fast foods, canned vegetables.

c ) Fast foods are usually very high in sodium. True.

d ) Foods we eat in restaurants do not contain sodium. False. You should consider sodium when eating out.

e ) Consuming too much sodium can lead to fluid retention and increased blood pressure. True.

f ) Consuming less sodium at a young age does not reduce your chances of having health problems when you get older. False. Consuming less sodium at a young age reduce your chances of having health problems when you get older.

3.

Are the foods below high-sodium or low-sodium alternatives? In your notebook, write down High-sodium: processed meat, bacon, pizza; low-sodium: if they are high or low-sodium. eggs, fresh vegetables, dried fruit. Eggs

4.

Fresh vegetables

PROCESSED meat

Bacon

Pizza

Dried Fruit

Compare the nutrition facts labels of the two products below. Considering what you discussed in the previous activities, which one do you think is healthier? Why? Resposta esperada: B. Because it has less sodium and no fat.

68

Fotomontagem de José Vitor E. C. formada pelas imagens Charles Knowles/Shutterstock.com e Pack/Shutterstock.com

Você pode pedir aos alunos que comparem os rótulos nutricionais dos dois produtos para analisar as diferenças nas quantidades de sódio presentes em cada um deles. Uma boa ideia é aproveitar para apresentar os termos low-sodium, sodium-free, reduced sodium e no salt added, que podem aparecer nas embalagens de produtos com menos sódio ou sem esse mineral.

B Fotomontagem de José Vitor E. C. formada pelas imagens Charles Knowles/Shutterstock.com e Pack/Shutterstock.com

A

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g18_ftd_lt_1noi_u04_064a079.indd 68

17/5/16 10:35 AM


Reading 5. You

Unit 4

FDA/U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

are going to read a text about the consumption of sodium. Read it and answer the following questions in your notebook.

Choose less sodium. Available at: <www. multivu.com/mnr/65492u-s-fda-reduce-sodiumintake-by-using-thenutrition-facts-label>. Accessed on: September 17th, 2015.

a ) What are the percentages below referring to? I

over 75%

II

5% or less

III

20% or more

IV

100% 2400

The amount of sodium that comes from packaged food or foods we eat in restaurants. The amount of sodium that is considered low. The amount of sodium that is considered high.

mg (the amount of sodium recommended per day).

b ) How does the text suggest to eat less sodium?

Use the nutrition facts label and choose products with 5% DV or less of sodium.

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6.

Read the text again and write down in your notebok the information that is true. A - II; B - I; C - II; D - II; E - I.

A

B

C

D

E

7.

I

Only foods that taste salty contain sodium.

II

Some foods donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t taste salty, but contain high levels of sodium.

I

480 mg per serving is a high amount of sodium.

II

480 mg per serving is the recommended amount of sodium.

I

The percent daily value (%DV) does not convey any important information.

II

The percent daily value (%DV) helps you understand the amount of a nutrient you should consume in a day.

I

The percent daily value (%DV) is based on 100% of the recommend amount of the nutrients per package.

II

The percent daily value (%DV) is based on 100% of the recommend amount of the nutrients per day.

I

When you eat out, you should ask about the nutrition information of the food on the menu.

II

When you eat out, you can consume as much sodium as you want.

Eating too much sodium can make you sick. In your notebook, write down and complete the diagram about the diseases that can be caused by the consumption of sodium.

Sodium can cause high blood pressure

...

...which can increase your chances of having...

heart disease, kidney disease, stroke.

Post-reading 8.

Considering everything you have discussed so far, talk to your classmates.

Respostas pessoais.

a ) Is it important to worry about the amounts of sodium you consume? b ) Is it important to read the nutrition facts labels of products? Why?

9.

What can you do to lower the amount of sodium in your diet? Write down the true statements in your notebook. a; c; e; f. a ) eat more homemade meals b ) eat out more often c ) whenever possible, choose fresh food instead of processed products d ) eat a lot of fast food e ) use spices, herbs, lemon, garlic, ginger, vinegar and pepper to season your foods f ) do not take the salt shaker to the table

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seventy


Putting your ideas into words

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir as atividades desta seção.

Before writing At home, select three packages of food you usually eat every day or, at least, three times a week. Read the nutrition facts labels on these products and draw up the table below, completing it in your notebook. Resposta pessoal.

Product 1:

Product 2:

Product 3:

Serving size:

Serving size:

Serving size:

Servings per container:

Servings per container:

Servings per container:

Amount per serving

Amount per serving

Amount per serving

Writing

Sugerimos explicar aos alunos que food diary é uma tabela a ser preenchida diariamente. Se achar apropriado, você pode distribuir para eles algum dos modelos de food diary disponíveis nos seguintes links: Center for Disease, Control and Prevention < http://tub.im/p9uucy > e NHS Direct Wales < http://tub.im/c8z7mj >, acessados em 14 de março de 2016. Dependendo do modelo escolhido, sugerimos providenciar cópias na quantidade de dias em que os alunos farão o acompanhamento.

In order to have a healthy diet, it is important to keep track of what you eat. Analyze the data you collected in activity 10 and write a food diary about your eating habits.

Anna Simonin

11.

Unit 4

10.

After writing 12.

Based on your food diary, discuss the following questions with a classmate. I eat

% of

every day.

a ) Do you consume nutrients that are good for your health?

I usually eat a high quantity of

b ) Do you think you have healthy eating habits? Explain.

I consume too much

c ) If not, what could you change to have a healthier diet?

I don’t consume too much

.

. .

As respostas dependerão das escolhas dos alunos. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a fazerem uma reflexão sobre seus hábitos alimentares com base no registro que fizeram na atividade anterior. É importante comentar que manter um food diary é uma forma de identificar os bons e maus hábitos de alimentação. seventy-one

71


Listening and understanding

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Listening 1. Talk

to your classmates.

Respostas pessoais.

a ) What time do you have your break at school? b ) What do you usually eat at school? c ) Do you have more than one meal at school?

2. You

are going to listen to a Youth radio podcast. They are talking about eating habits. Listen and answer the questions. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, a transcrição do áudio.

track 20

Youth Radio operates in Atlanta, Los Angeles and Washington, in the United States. It is an award-winning media production company training young people in digital media and technology. Partnering with industry professionals, it teaches students to produce media for massive audiences and it brings youth perspectives to issues of public concern.

a ) What meals are mentioned in the podcast?

Breakfast, lunch and dinner.

b ) Which foods are mentioned? Observe the images below and write down the ones that were mentioned in your notebook. I; III; V; VI. III

Jacek Chabraszewski/ Shutterstock.com

Danny Smythe/ Shutterstock.com

II Joe Gough/ Shutterstock.com

I

spaghetti

chips and salsa

VI Nattika/ Shutterstock.com

Valentyn Volkov/ Shutterstock.com

V

Natalia Mylova/ Shutterstock.com

IV

salad

rice and beans

granola bar

apple

3. Whose track 20

4. b) Nesse momento, você pode deixar que os alunos se expressem sobre quantas refeições fazem por dia. É importante que respeitem as respostas dos colegas, mas que percebam que é recomendado fazer no mínimo três (principais) a seis refeições por dia, para uma alimentação saudável.

ideas are these? Listen again and organize in your notebook if they were said by a orientar os alunos a identificarem quem disse cada uma das frases expressas nas boy or a girl. Sugerimos alternativas a seguir. A

Boy.

E Girl.

4. In

72

seventy-two

I can eat so much food.

B Girl.

Lunch school is at 10:30.

C

The lunch time is too early. F Boy.

Boy.

I don’t really eat breakfast ever.

pairs, discuss these questions. Respostas

I eat little for dinner. G Boy.

D Girl.

I tend to eat something small at lunch.

I often eat so much food.

pessoais.

a ) How many meals do you have per day? b ) Do you think it is important to have three meals every day? Why? Quando discutirem esta questão, sugerimos orientar os alunos utilizarem algumas expressões de quantidade, como Yes, I eat a lot of food, No, I eat a little food e assim por diante.

c ) Do you usually eat large amounts of food? a


5. track 21

Now, you are going to listen to another part of the same podcast. Listen and write down the right answers in your notebook. a ) Who’s Debra talking about? III I

one of her students

one of her friends

III

her son

II

He adapted it.

III

He followed it.

II

Don’t eat carbs!

III

Watch your fats!

II

b ) What did Dante do to Debra’s diet? I I

He really changed it.

I

6.

Eat more carbs!

Do you know the following expressions? Match them with their meanings. a ) fussy b ) flawless c ) carbs d ) diabetes

7. track 21

Unit 4

c ) What does he say to her? III

a - II; b - IV; c - III; d - I.

I

a serious medical condition in which your body cannot control the amount of sugar in your blood

II

someone who does not like many foods

III

abbreviation for carbohydrates

IV

something that is perfect

Listen again and write down the sentences in your notebook. Complete them with the words you hear. a ) Dante is a

fussy

healthy

eater, but he eats

.

better

b ) He has influenced his mother on eating

.

flawless

c ) Debra thinks her son’s eating habits are diabetes

d ) Debra has

8.

, so she needs to eat

right

.

.

And you? Do you eat a lot of junk food?

Resposta pessoal.

Speaking Suppose you are participating in this Youth radio podcast. Role-play with a classmate: one of you is the interviewer and the other one is the interviewee. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a trabalharem

em duplas. Um deles deverá desempenhar o papel do entrevistador e fazer as perguntas abaixo. O outro deverá respondê-las, comentando sobre seus hábitos alimentares. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, informações sobre o gênero entrevista.

Do you think there’s a difference between what your parents think you eat and what you actually eat? What do you usually eat for breakfast, lunch and dinner?

Art Capri

9.

seventy-three

73


Comprehending and using

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Learning about the language Simple Present 1.

1. Antes de os alunos iniciarem a leitura, sugerimos perguntar o que eles sabem sobre o Marrocos, o Vietnã, Gana e Etiópia. Você pode questioná-los sobre quais comidas e bebidas são consumidas nesses países. Foram apresentados somente três hábitos alimentares de países estrangeiros e, caso os alunos tenham curiosidade, você pode orientá-los a acessar a página de onde os trechos foram extraídos para ler os demais hábitos alimentares.

Read the text about eating habits in the world and match the summaries with the countries. a - III; b - II; c - I.

x https://www.globalcitizen.org/en/content/please-slurp-your-soup-11-shocking-food-habits-fro/

Please slurp your soup: 11 shocking food habits from around the world By Alex Vinci on Sept. 12, 2014 Let’s take a trip around the world and see how food norms differ from place to place.

1. Morocco [...] in some places in Morocco, food is eaten with your hands but you’re not supposed to wipe them on a napkin. Instead, a basin of water is passed around before and after a meal to wash your hands. Morocco might not be using napkins, but they’re certainly wiping their hands clean of hunger. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization recognized Morocco as one of the countries achieving the MDG objectives in advance regarding the fight against hunger. [...]

MDG or Millenium Development Goals was a global partnership, proposed by the United Nations, that aimed to combat poverty, hunger, illiteracy, environmental degradation and discrimination against women. In 2015, it gave place to the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), or Global Goals, that aim to end poverty and fight inequality, injustice, and climate change by 2030.

2. Vietnam If you ever happen upon Vietnam during their new year celebration, Tet, you’ll run into these big cakes of rice wrapped in bamboo leaves called Banh Chung. They are square-shaped to symbolize thankfulness. Tet is one of the biggest celebrations in Vietnam, so you can imagine how much rice you’d need to accommodate a whole nation of Banh Chung cakes. In fact, 94 percent of farmable land in the country is occupied by rice paddies. [...] What’s mine is yours is the motto in these two countries when it comes to dinner time. It is custom in both Ghana and Ethiopia to share food from a communal bowl and to eat the food that is closest to you. [...] If you’re traveling abroad it’s important to make sure you stick to the cultural norm so you don’t step on anyone’s toes. And of course show your gratitude! [...] The fact is that there still too many people around the world without enough to eat. The bottom line is this doesn’t have to be. There is more than enough food in the world to feed everyone. [...] We don’t need a an increase in food production, instead we need to address the systems that keep people poor.

Camila Ferreira

5. Ghana and Ethiopia

Global citizen. Available at: <www.globalcitizen.org/en/content/please-slurp-your-soup11-shocking-food-habits-fro/>. Accessed on: November 30 th, 2015.

a ) Morocco

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seventy-four

b ) Vietnam

c ) Ghana and Ethiopia

I

In these countries, you share the food which is served in a bowl.

II

The typical food during new years celebration in this country is a rice cake wrapped in bamboo leaves.

III

In this country, you use your hands to eat and you wash them before and after the meal.


2.

Discuss the questions with a classmate. Then, share the answers with your class. a ) Where does this text come from? It

comes from the internet.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

b ) Vietnam has a traditional dish called Banh Chung. Do you know some of the traditional dishes from our country? Which one(s)? Resposta pessoal. Brazilians eat for breakfast: bread, butter, milk c ) Does Brazil have any particular eating habits? Which one(s)? Many or coffee. For lunch and dinner, many of them also

d ) Most of the countries mentioned in text have been fighting against hunger. Is Brazil also fighting against hunger? In your opinion, has our country achieved the MDG goals for hunger? Yes, it is. A segunda parte da resposta é pessoal. Complete the sentence below writing it in your notebook. b

Unit 4

3.

eat rice, beans, meat, salad or vegetables. Fruits and juice are present in their eating habits too.

The main idea of the text is to describe...

a ) things that happened last year in Morocco, Vietnam, Ghana and Ethiopia. b ) habits from countries around the world. c ) habits that are unhealthy.

4.

Study page 191 and decide if the sentences below are true or false. In your notebook, write down the true statements and rewrite the false ones using the correct information. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a estudarem a página 191 do Grammar appendix para realizar esta atividade.

a ) The Simple Present tense describes an action that is regular, a habit and or fact. True. b ) In affirmative sentences, for he, she and it, we add -s, -es or -ies to the verb.

True.

c ) In negative sentences, we use not after the verb. False.

In negative sentences, we use do not/does not or don’t/doesn’t before the verb.

d ) For questions, we use do or does at the beginning of the sentence. True. e ) For verbs that end in -o, -ch, -sh, -ss, -x or -z, we add -is. False.

For verbs that end in -o, -ch, -sh, -ss, -x or -z, we add -es.

f ) If the verb ends in consonant + y, we omit the -y and add -is. False. g ) If the verb ends in vowel + y, we just add -s to the verb. True.

5.

If the verb ends in consonant + y, we omit the -y and add -ies.

Read the text again to find sentences in the Simple Present. Share these sentences with a frases no Simple Present estão sublinhadas no texto. classmate and check if they follow the rules from activity 4. As Você pode orientar os alunos a lerem o texto novamente

e procurarem por sentenças no presente simples. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir pedir aos 3rd person singular Sugerimos alunos que as atividades deste boxe. escrevam essas frases no Listen to the following sentences and repeat. caderno. Em seguida, eles a ) Margaret drinks at least two liters of water and eats a lot of fiber every day. podem compartilhar b ) Patty loves exercising. She goes to the gym five times a week. com um colega de sala as c ) My mom watches a lot of cookery shows and memorizes all the recipes. frases que encontraram no texto e analisar Listen and notice how the verbs are pronounced. se as frases seguem as a ) drinks - eats b ) loves - goes c ) watches - memorizes regras desse tempo verbal, Listen to the verbs below and classify them according to their final sound. Draw up the table as quais foram expostas na and organize the words in your notebook. atividade anterior.

Speaking up 1. track 22

2. track 23

3.

track 24

believes

enjoys

kisses

tells

closes

hopes

sees

thinks

coughs

judges

talks

wishes

/s/

/z/

/iz/

coughs, hopes, talks, thinks

believes, enjoys, sees, tells

closes, judges, kisses, wishes

seventy-five

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Adverbs of frequency 6.

In your notebook, write down the most appropriate answers for you.

Respostas pessoais.

a ) How often do you eat fruits and vegetables? I

every day

II

sometimes

III

rarely

III

never

often

III

seldom

three times a week

III

once in a while

b ) How often do you consume high-fiber products? I

usually

II

occasionally

c ) How often do you buy processed food? I

always

II

d ) How often do you drink fruit juice? I

II

In your notebook, complete the following sentences so that they are true for you.

Respostas pessoais.

a ) During the week, I usually

b ) In the morning, I always c ) I don’t usually

. .

after dinner.

d ) On weekends, my friends and I often e ) My parents hardly ever

.

on Saturday nights.

Countable and uncountable nouns 8.

Read the sentences below. What is the difference between them? Talk to a classmate about it. a ) How many bananas do you have? I have one banana./I have two bananas. b ) How much sugar do you eat every day?

8. Resposta esperada: Banana can be counted, so it has a singular and plural form, but sugar can’t be counted, so it has only a singular form. To ask about the quantity of these words we have to consider if they can be counted or not, since there are expressions that fits one or another, for example, How many is used when we can count the noun and How much when we can’t.

I eat a little sugar every day. Uncountable nouns are usually words that refer to abstract nouns (for example, feelings and qualities), things that are too small or difficult to count (liquids, powders, gases), words related to weather conditions (rain, snow), sports (soccer, tennis) and languages.

9.

Read the examples and decide if the sentences below them are true or false. In your notebook, write down the true statements and rewrite the false ones using the correct information.

I need to add salt and oil to the salad. How many carrots do you use in this recipe? Is there any sugar in the kitchen? I need to buy some eggs and apples.

a ) Salt and sugar are uncountable words because you can’t separate them in units. True.

b ) Carrot and egg are uncountable words because they only have a singular form. False. Carrot and egg are countable words because they have singular and also plural form.

c ) Oil is an uncountable word because liquids are uncountable. True.

d ) Apple and tomato are countable words because they are easy to count. True.

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seventy-six

Spotmatik Ltd/Shutterstock.com

7.

normally


Quantifiers 10.

pedir aos alunos Read the nutrition information of the food below and answer the questions orally. Sugerimos que analisem a imagem e

comparem os nutrientes do abacate e da maionese. É importante relembrar que 38% How many é usado para perguntas com substantivos contáveis e How much é usado para os incontáveis. How much vitamin C does one cup of mayonnaise have? Se necessário, você pode explicar que, 0% diferentemente do Brasil, muitos países consomem o How many avocados can you eat? abacate em pratos salgados, e a imagem, por exemplo, sugere a Resposta pessoal. substituição da How many spoons of mayonnaise do you put in your sandwich? maionese por abacate. Resposta pessoal. Avocado is the healthier choice, because it has less sodium, Which one is a healthier choice? fat and calories, and more vitamins and magnesium.

c) d)

1 cup of avocado calories: 368 fat: 34g sodium: 16mg vitamin C: 38%DV vitamin B: 30%DV magnesium: 16%DV

donatas1205/ Shutterstock.com

e)

1 cup of mayonnaise calories: 1495 fat: 165g sodium: 1397mg vitamin C: 0%DV vitamin B: 0%DV magnesium: 0%DV

Nataliia K/ Shutterstock.com

b)

Unit 4

a ) How much vitamin C does one cup of avocado have?

Source: CORWIN, Jessica. Hold the mayo! Save calories and add nutrients: opt for avocado! Available at: <www.smartlivingnetwork.com/ nutrition/b/hold-the-mayo-save-calories-and-add-nutrients-opt-for-avocado/>. Accessed on: September 21st, 2015.

11.

Read and analyze questions a to d in activity 10. Then, write the true sentences in your É importante pedir aos alunos que olhem as perguntas nas atividades 9 e 10 para inferirem as notebook. a; c; d. respostas. Espera-se que eles observem que How many é usado para perguntas com substantivos contáveis e How much para os incontáveis.

a ) Many is used for countable words.

b ) It’s always possible to change many for much. c ) Much is used for uncountable words. d ) To ask about quantities, we use How many or How much.

Remember A lot of and lots of express the opposite idea of a little, a few, little and few. A lot of and lots of indicate a large amount of something. I drink a lot of water during the day. I eat a lot o f carrots at lunch. A little and a few indicate a small amount of something. A little is used with uncountable nouns and a few is used with countable ones. There’s a little milk in the fridge.

I’m going to boil a few eggs for dinner.

Little and few indicate a small amount, but with a negative idea. They mean almost nothing or almost none. Little is used with uncountable nouns and few is used with countable ones. I can’t make the cake because there’s little milk. We only have few eggs for everybody. We need to buy some more.

Using the language 12.

Write down the sentences below and complete them using your own ideas. Respostas pessoais.

I don’t eat I drink

My eating habits are

.

I dislike drinking

every day.

My father doesn’t like

.

.

.

My family thinks healthy foods are

.

seventy-seven

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13.

Working in pairs, ask and answer questions about eating habits. Follow the examples.

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a trabalharem em duplas. Eles devem perguntar e responder sobre os hábitos alimentares do colega de sala, como exemplificado. Sugerimos orientá-los também a fazer perguntas sobre frequência para que utilizem os advérbios de frequências nas respostas.

Do you consume a lot of sodium?

14. Sugerimos explicar aos alunos que a primeira atividade listada é a que acontece com maior frequência, enquanto a última é a que acontece com menos frequência. Então, você pode explicar que a lista apresenta diferentes graus de frequência, sendo que always seria 100% de frequência e never seria 0%. Portanto, sometimes, por estar no meio da lista, seria algo em torno de 50%.

How often do you eat fast food?

I eat fast food once a month.

Paty is a very active and busy girl! Check her list of activities.

• Now it is your turn. In your notebook,

write a list of your activities, including sports, games and habits.

15. Countable nouns: onions, pineapples, bananas, grapes, mushrooms, carrots, potato chips; uncountable nouns: oil, salt, sugar, water, soup, coffee, tea, cheese, butter. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a desenharem uma tabela em seus cadernos. Essa tabela deve ter duas colunas, uma com o título countable e outra com o título uncountable. Em seguida, sugerimos orientá-los a separar os alimentos nesses dois grupos. É importante relembrá-los de que, em geral, uncountable nouns representam coisas difíceis de serem divididas, como pós, grãos e líquidos. É importante que os alunos discutam em duplas sobre os critérios que os levaram a definir as palavras em contáveis e incontáveis. Para isso, sugerimos pedir a eles que retornem às páginas anteriores para relembrarem o que já estudaram.

78

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a usarem a atividade anterior como base para esta atividade.

Blend Images/Shutterstock.com

14.

Yes, I do./No, I don’t.

Yes, I consume a lot of sodium.

No, I consume little sodium.

Sometimes.

Paty’s list of activiti es I always play volleyball. I sometim es work out.

My list of activities

I never skip a meal.

I always…

I play soccer four times a week.

I sometimes… I never… I…

15.

16. 17.

…once a week.

In your notebook, separate the words into countable and uncountable. Then, explain to a classmate why they belong to that group. onions

bananas

sugar

coffee

grapes

potato chips

bread

oil

water

tea

mushrooms

butter

pineapples

salt

soup

cheese

carrots

Use the words from the last activity to write true sentences about your experience with these itens. You also have to use quantifiers. Write the sentences in your notebook. Read and choose the best option to complete the sentences. Write them down in your notebook.

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a escreverem em seus cadernos as frases abaixo completando-as com a opção correta. a week. II a ) Mary goes jogging

I

two times

b ) I have I

a few

I

soup.

seventy-eight

times two

III

II

little

III

few

II

some

III

much

II

a piece of

III

a bowl of

II

slices of bread

III

bread

III

a pack of

e ) How many I

III

cake in the fridge? I

any

d ) I want

twice

bananas. I can’t make a cake!

c ) Is there I

II

sugar

does Jude want?

II

16. Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a criarem frases usando palavras da atividade anterior, as quais podem ser afirmativas, negativas ou interrogativas. Além disso, eles devem usar quantifiers, tais como much, a little, many, a lot, few, lots of, a few, little. Você pode orientá-los a usar também advérbios de frequência nas frases.


Summing up

Nesta unidade, você...

Sugerimos levar os alunos a refletirem sobre as alternativas apresentadas no quadro abaixo e instruí-los a escrever no caderno as frases que se relacionam ao que leram, discutiram e estudaram nesta unidade.

conversou com seus colegas de classe sobre seus hábitos alimentares; leu textos sobre a importância de observar e ler os rótulos nutricionais dos produtos antes de comprá-los e consumi-los; estudou vocabulário relacionado a diferentes tipos de alimentos; aprendeu sobre alguns dos nutrientes presentes nos alimentos; Unit 4

estudou por que é importante consumir menos sódio; escreveu um diário de alimentação; ouviu parte de um podcast sobre hábitos alimentares; estudou o tempo verbal Simple Present e os advérbios de frequência; praticou a pronúncia correta dos verbos conjugados na terceira pessoa do singular no tempo presente; estudou os substantivos contáveis e incontáveis e como quantificá-los.

Watching The movie Fat, sick and nearly dead is a documentary about Joe Cross. He was overweight and had many health problems when he decided to change his lifestyle. Following the “juice fast” for 60 days, he lost weight and started living a healthier life.

Surfing the net On the website Healthy eating <http://tub.im/23jsck> you can read about how to eat well, learn healthy recipes, have information about school eating and more.

Singing The song Savoy truffle, performed by The Beatles and recorded on the CD The white album, was written by George Harrison in a tribute to Eric Clapton, who loves candies and sweets. He quotes a lot of candy names through the song, but Eric’s favorite was the savoy truffle.

Milkweed

Perfect, by Natasha Friend. Milkweed Editions: USA, 2004.

Filme de Joe Cro ss e Kur t Eng fehr. Fat , sick and nearly dead. EUA . 2010

The book Perfect tells the story of Isabelle, a girl who just lost her father and now her family is falling apart, with her mother crying all night. On the outside, everything seems normal, but Isabelle has a secret, which her sister told their mother: bulimia. Going to group therapy, she discovers another girl has the same problem as her – Ashley Barnum, the prettiest, most together and popular girl in school. Quickly they start joining together for lunch and sleepovers. Will this turn into a friendship or is it just for convenience?

Fat, sick and nearly dead, by Joe Cross, Kurt Engfehr. Gravitas Ventures: USA, 2010. Archives/ Michael Ochs s Ge tty Image

Reading

Editions

Going further

The Beatles (1965).

seventy-nine

79


Thinking cross-curricularly

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

In this section of the book, you are going to read texts related to some of the topics you have discussed in the previous units. Here, you are going to have the opportunity to reflect on various themes and their relation with other subjects, such as Biology and Geography. The activities follow the same structure you have worked with in the units, including the stages of pre-reading, reading and post-reading. Defining identity is a lifetime process. And for teens, who are experiencing it for the first time, it can be a big challenge. Look at the image and match orientar os the sentences in your notebook. Sugerimos alunos a observarem a

imagem para falar sobre o que ela transmite.

a ) This boy… II I

is secure about his identity.

II

doesn’t know who he is.

b ) He looks…

2. 3. a) Resposta esperada: it is the action of hormones that change the body and prepare it for adulthood. Você pode comentar com os alunos que a puberdade se refere ao período de mudanças físicas nos adolescentes, que os prepara para a vida adulta. 4. Você pode comentar com os alunos que a puberdade é caracterizada por uma série de mudanças físicas, mentais e sociais.

3.

I

I

confused and overwhelmed.

II

oriented and relaxed.

Resposta pessoal. Você pode orientar os alunos a identificarem, com base na observação da imagem, quais adjetivos podem descrever o adolescente ilustrado acima. É importante pedir que justifiquem suas respostas.

In your opinion, which personality adjectives describe him?

independent

nervous

arrogant

moody

courageous

easygoing

determined

careless

sensitive

impatient

Discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates. a ) Do you know what puberty is? b ) Do you know when puberty happens?

4.

mental and social changes. Você pode comentar com os alunos que, durante a puberdade, o jovem sofre mudanças físicas e mentais, além disso, o papel da pessoa na sociedade muda, uma vez que ela passa a ser mais atuante e responsável.

As boys and girls reach puberty, they face physical, emotional and social changes. In II; b – III; c – VI; d – VII; e – I; groups, match the physical changes with their descriptions. af –– IV; g – V. a ) height and weight gain

I

related to the menstrual cycle, which is a process that happens in the uterus and ovaries and makes pregnancy possible

b ) genital growth

II

the same as an increase in body mass and stature

c ) hair growth

III

the growth of the penis and the testicles

d ) voice change

IV

pain and cramps related to the menstrual cycle

V

breasts get bigger and accumulate fat

VI

growing of body hair, including in the pubic region and armpits

VII

the deepening of the tone of the voice

f ) period pain g ) breast growth

5. eighty

Resposta esperada: for girls, it usually happens between 10 and 14 years old, and from 11 to 15 for boys.

c ) Can you give some examples of changes in puberty? Resposta esperada: people experience physical,

e ) period

80

Art Capri

1.

In your notebook, write which physical changes are related to boys, girls or both. Then, in pairs, research, at least, two more physical changes and present them to the class. Girls: Period, period pain and breast growth. Boys: Genital growth and voice change. Both: height and weight gain and hair growth. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que essas são algumas das mudanças corporais ocorridas na puberdade, mas que há muitas outras, tanto para meninos quanto meninas.


6. Read

the text and answer the following questions in your notebook.

O texto abaixo trata dos efeitos da puberdade no corpo. Sugerirmos propor aos alunos uma leitura silenciosa e depois uma leitura em voz alta.

GooDween123/Shutterstock.com

Thinking cross-curricularly

Puberty Puberty is the time when a young person’s sexual and reproductive organs mature. Before any physical changes happen, the body starts to make hormones that trigger sexual development and growth. Puberty starts at around 10 years for girls and 12 years for boys, give or take a year or so. Physical changes can be seen at around 10 to 14 years for most girls and around 11 to 15 years for most boys. A lot of emotional changes happen alongside these physical changes and young people also start to think differently. [...] Emotional changes for girls and boys around puberty Along with many physical changes, a lot of emotional changes happen around puberty for both boys and girls. These include: ••Coping with a changing body – young people have to deal with a lot of physical changes that happen around the same time. They now have a new body shape and may start to feel self-conscious about how they look. They may feel embarrassed if they think they are different from their friends. Other people may start to treat them differently. For example, if they look older, they may be treated like an older person. ••Frustration because they feel different – it can be difficult coping with early physical changes or frustrating waiting for them to happen. ••Mood swings – the sudden release of hormones into a young person’s body can bring about extreme emotions and mood swings, but this will settle after a while. Parents may find these moods difficult to deal with, but it can help to remember these are mostly caused by the changing hormone levels affecting the way the young person feels. ••Energy changes – the physical growth and other changes can make a young person feel full of energy one moment and tired the next. The way young people think changes around puberty as they develop their own identity as an individual and as part of a family. They are starting to figure out their own standards and ideals, form their own ideas, morals and values and rely less on their parents. […]

Puberty. Available at: <http://m.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcpdf.nsf/ByPDF/Puberty/$File/Puberty.pdf>. Accessed on: November 23 rd, 2015.

Puberty is the time when a young person’s sexual and reproductive organs Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que puberdade se refere ao período no qual acontece o amadurecimento dos órgãos sexuais.

a ) What is puberty? mature.

b ) What is the function of hormones?

Hormones trigger sexual development and growth.

c ) What are the emotional changes listed in the text?

Coping with a changing body, frustration, mood swings and change of energy.

d ) How do the way teens think change during puberty?

During puberty, teens are figuring out their own standards and ideals, forming their own ideas, morals and values, and relying less on their parents. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que, durante a puberdade, os jovens estão se descobrindo e formando suas próprias ideias, valores e ideais.

eighty-one

81


7.

As atividades 7 e 8 e o texto da atividade 9, que apresentam aspectos relacionados à qualidade de vida, possibilitam o trabalho interdisciplinar com Geografia. 7. b) Resposta esperada: yes, they should. Because money, employment and access to goods and services are all factors linked to a good quality of life.

In order to get through puberty easier, it is important to have a healthy life. Living a healthy life depends on many factors, including healthy food and habits, exercising, freedom and many more. Considering these factors and your own ideas, discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates. a ) Do you think it is possible to measure happiness? say that it can be measured based on life conditions.

Resposta pessoal. Resposta esperada: happiness is a subjective concept, but we can

b ) Should economic issues be taken into account when measuring quality of life? c ) What other factors should be considered in order to measure quality of life? Resposta esperada: health, environment, education, employment, basic rights, among others.

8.

How do you measure your own quality of life? There are some systems of measurement of development and quality of life. In groups, research them and present to the class.

• Human Development Index 9.

• World Happiness Report

• Happy Planet Index

8. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade e informações sobre os sistemas que medem o desenvolvimento e a qualidade de vida.

Quality of life is related to the people’s well-being. Nowadays, it is possible to find several theories and research papers on how to measure happiness, welfare, life conditions, environmental sustainability and many other factors in societies. Eurostat, the organization responsible for providing statistics for the European Union, uses a multidimensional measurement of life, explained below. Read the text and discuss with your teacher and classmates the difference between the first eight dimensions and the last dimension.

Resposta esperada: the first eight dimensions relate to people’s capabilities to pursue their self-defined well-being. The last dimension relates to the personal perception of quality of life. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade.

[...] omic production and living Qual ity of life is a broader concept than econ rs that influence what people value standard s. It includes the full range of facto Qual ity of life being a in living, beyond the purely material aspects. ators was developed and orga nised mult idimensional concept, the set of indic ‘qua lity of life’ framework. In this along 8+1 dimension s which cons titut ed the stati stica lly to represent the framework, the dimension s can be meas ured of life, complementing the indicator different complementary aspects of qual ity and socia l development, the traditiona lly used as the meas ure of economic le’s capa bilities to purs ue their GDP. Eight of these dimension s relat e to peop own values and prior ities. The last self-defined well-being, according to their to the personal perception of dimension ‘overall experience of life’ refers mea ning of life). qual ity of life (i.e. life satisfaction, affec ts, framework: […] the 8+1 dimension s of the qual ity of life

• material living conditions; • productive or main activity (covering employment); • health; • education; Gros s Dom estic Prod uct • leisure and socia l interactions; y; (GDP) is a meth od used safet ical • economic and phys to evalu ate the econ omic • governance and basic rights; perfo rman ce of a country and ent; ronm envi g livin and ral natu • or regio n over a certa in perio d of time. • overa ll life satisfaction. […]

073ocuments/3217494/6856423/KS-05-14th Available at: <http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/d EUROSTAT. Quality of life: facts and views. 23>. Accessed on: September 30 , 2015. EN-N/742aee45-4085-4dac-9e2e-9ed7e9501f

82

eighty-two


10. Draw

up and complete the table in your notebook using information from the text.

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos pedir aos alunos que façam a tabela no caderno e a preencham utilizando informações do texto.

4 new words 3 words you already knew 2 interesting facts Thinking cross-curricularly

The main idea of the text

11. Read

the text again and decide if these sentences are true or false. In your notebook, write Sugerimos pedir aos alunos que analisem se as frases são down the true statements and rewrite the false ones. verdadeiras ou falsas e, no caderno, reescrevam as frases falsas corrigindo-as.

a ) Economic production and living standards are not considered for quality of life measurement. False. They are considered, but they are not the only concepts taken into consideration. b ) To measure quality of life, it is necessary to include more than material aspects. True. c ) The government is also responsible for providing quality of life. True. d ) Leisure is unnecessary to evaluate quality of life.

False. Leisure and social interactions are necessary to evaluate quality of life.

e ) The dimensions cannot be measured statistically.

False. In the ‘quality of life’ framework, the dimensions can be measured statistically.

f ) Along with economic and social development, personal development is evaluated. True.

12. Now,

it is your time to create your own quality of life measurement.

• •First, read the text from activity 9 again. • •Second, create around 8 topics of evaluation. For example: “How is your health?” or

“How good are your relationships?”. Do not forget to include economic (money, work, access to goods and services and so on), social (being part of a community, taking part in social or volunteer activities and so on) and personal (self-development, expectations about the future and so on) topics.

• •After you have established 8 topics, draw up a table where you can rate each topic from 0 to 10 (0 meaning that you are very unsatisfied with the topic, 5 meaning you are ok with it, and 10 meaning you are very satisfied).

Topics of evaluation

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

• •After that, make a graph containing the survey data.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

13. Now

that you and your classmates have defined your perceptions of quality of life, discuss Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos comentar com the questions below. alunos que eles podem responder às questões a ) How is the general feeling of well-being in the class? b ) What are the high and low points?

os

com base nos dados coletados na pesquisa realizada na atividade 12. Você pode aproveitar também para levantar pontos relativos à qualidade de vida e mobilidade urbana, que é o próximo tópico a ser trabalhado.

c ) How can these low points be improved? d ) Do you agree that the environment we live in influence our quality of life? Why (not)? e ) What could be changed in your city in order to improve your quality of life? eighty-three

83


14. Discuss

a) Resposta pessoal. Caso the following questions with your teacher and classmates. 14. alunos vivam em um grande

a ) Do you think life in big cities can be stressful? Why (not)? b ) Is traffic congestion a problem in your city? Resposta pessoal.

os

centro urbano, poderão falar de suas experiências diárias. Caso contrário, você pode orientá-los a imaginar como é o cotidiano em uma cidade grande.

c ) Can you think of solutions for this problem?

Resposta pessoal. Caso a cidade dos alunos não apresente esse problema, você pode propor que pensem em soluções para os grandes centros urbanos.

15. Read

the poster below and discuss the questions with your teacher and classmates. The League of American Bicyclists

Sugerimos propor aos alunos que analisem o pôster e infiram as mensagens textuais que não forem compreendidas por meio das imagens. Por exemplo, com base na frase I ride for less traffic, pode-se discutir sobre como as bicicletas ocupam menos espaço que os carros, portanto, o trânsito se torna mais fluido.

Você pode comentar com os alunos que o pôster foi criado por uma organização, The league of American bicyclists, que busca melhores condições para ciclistas, bem como popularizar o uso da bicicleta.

The league of American bicyclists is a North American organization that promotes better conditions for bicyclists. The league was founded in 1880 as the League of American Wheelmen. National bike month. Available at: <www.bikeleague.org/content/promotionalmaterials-0>. Accessed on: September 30 th, 2015.

15. a) Resposta pessoal. Você pode comentar com os alunos que, por ser um pôster norte-americano, alguns desses aspectos podem ser diferentes no Brasil. Por exemplo, ônibus com suporte para bicicletas não são comuns e, além disso, algumas cidades não possuem ciclovias.

a ) Do you agree with all the reasons to ride a bike? Why (not)? b ) Would you ride a bike to go to school or to work? Resposta pessoal.

c ) Is your city bike-friendly? In your opinion, what could be done to make things better? Respostas pessoais.

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According to the The league of American bicyclists, two reasons to ride a bike are for saving gas and money and for cleaner air. Read the text and answer orally: what is green transportation is any kind of transportation practice or vehicle that is eco-friendly and does not have any transportation? Green negative impact on the immediate environment. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que green transportation se

refere ao conceito de mobilidade ecológica, que pode ocorrer pela utilização de veículos que não poluem ou por meio de práticas que visam a What is Green Transportation? redução de emissão de gases Transportation is a major contributor in global climate change. It poluentes. Você pode comentar accounts for almost 23% of the world’s total carbon dioxide emissions com os alunos que o termo green from fossil fuel combustion. Of these total carbon dioxide emissions, (verde) é utilizado road transport accounts for 75% and this share is increasing every para se referir a ações ou a objetos day. Around 95% of all road transportation depends on oil; this ecologicamente corretos. corresponds to 60% of world’s total oil consumption. All this puts lot

of pressure on the national governments to devise policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions as well as oil demands. […] This leads to Green Transportation, which means any kind of transportation practice or vehicle that is eco-friendly and does not have any negative impact on the immediate environment. […] What is green transportation? Available at: <www.conserve-energy-future.com/modes-and-benefits-of-greentransportation.php>. Accessed on: February 10 th, 2016.

17.

Read the text and verify if these statements are true or false. In your notebook, write down pedir aos alunos que analisem se as frases são verdadeiras the true sentences and rewrite the false ones. Sugerimos falsas e, no caderno, reescrevam as frases falsas corrigindo-as. a ) One of the causes of the global climate change is the burning of fossil fuels.

ou

True.

b ) Road transport is responsible for 50% of the total carbon dioxide emissions. False. It is responsible for 75% of the total carbon dioxide emissions.

c ) Most of the the world’s oil consumption is related to road transportation.

True.

d ) There are demands for reducing the consumption of oil and the release of greenhouse gases. True. e ) Green transportation is related to vehicles and also to practices that are eco-friendly. True.

18.

In groups, do some research about the kinds of transportation below. In your notebook, rank them from the most green to the least green type of transport. Then, discuss the questions with your teacher and classmates. The order from the most green to the least green is: 1 - pedestrian; 2 - bicycle; public transportation single occupancy vehicles taxi

3 - public transportation; 4 - taxi; 5- high occupancy vehicles; 6 - single occupancy vehicles. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que esses meios de transporte podem ser classificados bicycle do mais ecológico ao menos ecológico. Esta atividade high occupancy vehicles apresenta aspectos relacionados à queima de combustíveis fósseis e pedestrian possibilita o trabalho interdisciplinar com Química.

a ) Which kind of transportation do you use the most? Resposta

pessoal.

b ) Do the people you know choose their transportation based on how green it is? Resposta pessoal. Você pode promover uma reflexão com os alunos com relação à maneira que encaram as suas responsabilidades com relação ao planeta e como isso é expresso através de atitudes ecológicas, tais como redução de dejetos e reciclagem, economia de água e outros recursos naturais, entre outras práticas. 18. b) Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos questionar os alunos Answer the questions and discuss them with your teacher and classmates. se a sustentabilidade e a ecologia são consideradas a ) How many people can fit on a bus? 72 people. como fatores importantes quando se opta por um meio de transporte. Você pode b ) How many people can fit in a car? 5 people. aproveitar para levantar pontos como a logística da c ) How many cars would be necessary to carry all people from one single bus? importantes mobilidade urbana, o conflito Approximately 14 cars. entre a praticidade do veículo vehicle emits around 411 gm of carbon d ) How much air pollution comes from a car? Adioxide pessoal versus a economia per mile (1,6 km). financeira do transporte público, entre outros.

c ) Do you have green habits? eles

19.

20.

In groups, research how you and your classmates could adopt green practices at your school. You can think about saving water, reducing and recycling trash. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a pensarem em alternativas sustentáveis para a escola. Eles podem pesquisar o que pode ser melhorado na escola e, em grupos, pensar em soluções.

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Thinking cross-curricularly

16.


Choosing a career

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, mais informações sobre as profissões mencionadas nesta seção.

Degree

Nutrition

Job purpose

Evaluate, diagnose and guide people’s diets in order to help them to learn how to eat or to achieve a specific health-related goal.

Usually hired by

Restaurants or hospitals.

Required skills

• Getting on well with people. • Having good research skills. • Being good at examining and processing information. • Writing well. • Knowing how to evaluate fruits and vegetables. • Being good at biology.

• Having knowledge to take care of your own

Characteristics of the job In your opinion, is it a pro (an advantage) or a con (a disadvantage)?

Resposta pessoal.

• • • • •

nutrition. Working in hot and uncomfortable environments. Having contact with different people. Being exposed to food-related bacteria. The opportunity to help people to lead a healthier lifestyle. Competitive job market.

Ao abordar as características do trabalho de um nutricionista, sugerimos pedir aos alunos que as classifiquem em pró ou contra, de acordo com a visão e a personalidade de cada um.

If you like nutrition, you can also work as a chef.

To work in the nutrition field, you can also become a technician. You can find Nutrition and Dietetic technical courses at several institutions.

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1.

Do some research and find out about other aspects related to the professions of nutritionist and personal trainer, presented on the next page. Share your findings with your classmates.

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos chamar a atenção também para os textos nos post-its e incentivar os alunos a pesquisarem outros aspectos relacionados às profissões apresentadas, como média salarial, diferentes possibilidades de atuação e curiosidades. Em

eighty-six seguida, você pode pedir que formem pequenos grupos e compartilhem uns com os outros o que descobriram.


Degree

Physical education or Sports science

Job purpose

Assist and guide people through a routine of exercises in order to help them to have healthier lives.

Usually hired by

Gyms.

Required skills

• Getting on well with people. • Having lots of energy. • Knowing about anatomy. • Being flexible in order to learn new sports activities. • Being good at motivating people. • Being a good listener to understand people’s needs.

Characteristics of the job

• The risk of injuries. • Dealing with people’s expectations about their weight

In your opinion, is it a pro (an advantage) or a con (a disadvantage)?

Resposta pessoal.

Choosing a career

Fotomontagem de Anna Simonin formada pelas imagens Agorohov, Marko Poplasen, StudioOneNine, fiphoto, Jellopy,Africa Studio//Shutterstock.com

management.

• The opportunity to exercise every day. • Working outside or in different places. • Having to work on weekends and different schedules. • Getting to know different people.

Ao abordar as características do trabalho de um personal trainer, sugerimos pedir aos alunos que as classifiquem em pró ou contra, de acordo com a visão e a personalidade de cada um.

If you like physical education, you can also be a Physical Education teacher or an athlete.

2.

Think about these professions and talk to a classmate. Resposta pessoal.

I would like to be a nutritionist / a personal trainer because… I wouldn’t like to be a nutritionist / a personal trainer because…

To work in the sports field, you can also become a technician. You can find Sports and Physical Activities or Fitness and Military Sports technical courses at several institutions.

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Getting ready for exams

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

In this section of the book, you are going to study universities entrance examinations from all over the country. This means that you are going to have the opportunity to learn and have more information about the different styles of exams and prepare yourself for when your time to take the examinations comes. The universities entrance examinations have, in most cases, objective questions. The English exams questions usually offer four or five alternatives. They can demand from the students the ability to interpret a text or to use a grammatical and linguistic knowledge. Moreover, some exams ask the questions in English, while others ask them in Portuguese.

(EEWB - 2011)

EEWB stands for Escola de Enfermagem Wenceslau Braz.

As atividades 1 a 3 referem-se ao tema e/ou conteúdos da unidade 1.

It All Begins With Awareness “Knowing others is wisdom, knowing yourself is enlightenment.” Lao Tzu

Awareness is the first step in the creation process. As you grow in self awareness, you will better understand why you feel what you feel and why you behave as you behave. That understanding then gives you the opportunity and freedom to change those things you’d like to change about yourself and create the life you want. Without fully knowing who you are, self acceptance and change become impossible. Having clarity about who you are and what you want (and why you want it), empowers you to consciously and actively make those wants a reality. Otherwise, you’ll continue to get “caught up” in your own internal dramas and unknown beliefs, allowing unknown thought processes to determine your feelings and actions. If you think about it, not understanding why you do what you do, and feel what you feel is like going through your life with a stranger’s mind. How do you make wise decisions and choices if you don’t understand why you want what you want? It’s a difficult and chaotic way to live never knowing what this stranger is going to do next. Who’s the expert? When we want good, solid information, we turn to the experts. So, who are you going to turn to for information about yourself? Who’s the expert? You. Does a friend, a therapist, a minister, your hero, your spouse, your parents know more about you than you? They can’t. You live in your skin and mind 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 52 weeks a year. Day in and day out. No one’s closer to you than you! The answers are in there, perhaps all you’ve needed to solve your riddles is a useful question. It all begins with awareness. Available at: <www.selfcreation.com/awareness/index.htm>. Accessed on: September 17th, 2010.

1. Considere

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as seguintes afirmações:

I ) O primeiro passo no processo de criação é o acordar. II ) Compreender porque você sente como sente e porque age da maneira que age pode significar a possibilidade de criar a vida que você deseja ter.


III ) Você é a pessoa mais indicada para recorrer para obter informações a seu respeito.

IV ) Se você fica preso aos seus dramas internos, permite que processos de pensamento desconhecidos definam suas ações e sentimentos.

a ) II e IV b ) somente II c ) II; III; IV d ) I; II; IV

(PUCRS - 2011/2)

Assertive questions, like this one, have true and false statements related to the text you read. You have to read these statements to check the alternative that presents the correct answer according to what the question requires.

Getting ready for exams

Podem ser consideradas corretas de acordo com o texto as afirmações c

PUCRS stands for Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul.

Nobody likes to feel impotent when facing facts. But according to many psychologists, those who do not want or do not know how to use power go far beyond a disagreeable and temporary sensation: they condemn themselves to a life of frustrations. What is not lacking in our society are theories and methods to teach us how to be more assertive and how to be more powerful. However, as any order-giver knows and is tired of hearing, power brings many problems with it. To understand these, it is enough to take into consideration that exercising power results in notable psychological changes, such as evaluating others much more unfavorably when they are regarded as manipulable. When we have managed to have others do what we want, regardless of how praiseworthy and efficient their behavior has been, we tend to attribute the success to the excellence of our orders, and not to their skills and motivations. Source: Icaro, In Flight Magazine.

2. According

to the text, b

a ) not following what psychologists believe can be very frustrating. b ) there are ways one may learn to be more confident. c ) by giving orders one lives a tiring and problematic life. d ) not everyone takes psychological changes into consideration. e ) powerful people are manipulable.

3. The

terms in the text that express positive characteristics are all of the ones below, EXCEPT c a ) assertive (line 6) b ) powerful (line 6) c ) manipulable (line 11) d ) praiseworthy (line 12) e ) efficient (line 12) eighty-nine

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Enem, The National High School Examination, is an exam that takes place every year and is organized by the Brazilian Department of Education. The exam has a total of 180 objective questions which are divided in four areas. It also has a writing question. The foreign language exam has five questions. You have to answer only the questions in the foreign language that you chose when you enrolled. Enem has the objective to evaluate the quality of the Brazilian high school education and it is also a tool to get access to a university. To see the Enem exams, you can access INEP’s website on <http://tub.im/fjoj8r>.

(UEL - 2013)

(ENEM - 2010)

Enem stands for Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio.

As atividades 4 a 6 referem-se ao tema e/ou conteúdos da unidade 2.

The weather man They say that the British love talking about the weather. For other nationalities this can be a banal and boring subject of conversation, something that people talk about when they have nothing else to say to each other. And yet the weather is a very important part of our lives. That at least is the opinion of Barry Gromett, press officer for The Met Office. This is located in Exeter, a pretty cathedral city in southwest of England. Here employees - and computers - supply weather forecasts for much of the world. Come rain or shine: we meet the weather man. Speak up, São Paulo: Rickdan, year XXIII, n. 275, p. 15-17, 2010.

4. Ao

conversar sobre a previsão do tempo, o texto mostra

d

a ) o aborrecimento do cidadão britânico ao falar sobre banalidades. b ) a falta de ter o que falar em situações de avaliação de línguas. c ) a importância de se entender sobre meteorologia para falar inglês. d ) as diferenças e as particularidades culturais no uso de uma língua. e ) o conflito entre diferentes ideias e opiniões ao se comunicar em inglês. UEL stands for Universidade Estadual de Londrina.

The 8,000 volunteers who will welcome international visitors to London 2012 have received a 66-page instruction manual on how to behave while hosting the games. But what of the visitors themselves? Could the tourists survive without a manual outlining the customs, manners and practicalities of the islands they are visiting? We hereby present a simple guide to UK etiquette for the 2012 Olympics.

••British people may seem to apologise a lot, but it doesn’t quite mean the same thing here. In the UK, “I’m sorry” actually means either a) I didn’t hear you; b) I didn’t understand you; or c) I both heard and understood you, and I think you’re an idiot.

••London’s bike hire scheme couldn’t be simpler, by the way: just go up to

the terminal at any docking station, pay by card and take away one of our so-called “Boris bikes”. When you’re done with it, simply throw it into the nearest canal. They’re disposable!

••Please aid the Olympic authorities and organisers by demonstrating at all times that you are not a terrorist. Do not perspire, take off your shoes, smile in a weird way while texting someone, or point and shout: “Hey! Look at all those missiles on that roof over there!”. In fact, if you’re not using your hands for anything, it’s probably best if you keep them in the air where everybody can see them.

Adapted from: DOWLING, T. London 2012: an etiquette guide for Olympics visitors. Available at: <www.theguardian.com/ sport/2012/jul/16/etiquette-guide-visitors-london-olympics>. Accessed on: February 17th, 2016.

5. De

acordo com o texto, assinale a alternativa correta. a

a ) Voluntários britânicos receberam um manual com orientações para recepcionar os turistas estrangeiros. b ) Um manual sobre os hábitos dos britânicos foi solicitado aos 8.000 voluntários das Olimpíadas.

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c ) Se usar o manual, o estrangeiro será capaz de compreender os aspectos práticos da vida no Reino Unido. d ) Foi elaborado um manual de 66 páginas para os turistas que estivessem em Londres durante os jogos. e ) 8.000 voluntários escreveram um manual para os estrangeiros em Londres durante as Olimpíadas. De acordo com o segundo parágrafo, para o cidadão inglês, o ato de pedir desculpas

e

a ) é considerado uma prática em desuso.

d ) sinaliza uma tentativa de aproximação.

b ) é raramente praticado entre os mais jovens.

e ) tem um significado um pouco diferente.

Getting ready for exams

6.

c ) objetiva demonstrar respeito e civilidade.

(UFMA - 2014)

UFMA stands for Universidade Federal do Maranhão.

As atividades 7 a 9 referem-se ao tema e/ou conteúdos da unidade 3.

Tokyo is celebrating as the Japanese capital won the bid to host the 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Residents have gathered outside the Metropolitan Government building to share their delight. The International Olympic Committee voted for the city which saw off bids from Istanbul and Madrid to succeed London and Rio in hosting the sporting world’s most prized events. “I very much appreciate the strong support the IOC has given to Japan. I sincerely promise that Japan will keep its word and make sure the 2020 Olympic Games will be a success.” Tokyo won by a landslide despite concerns about contaminated water leaking from the crippled Fukushima nuclear plant where radiation levels have reached a new high. Available at: <www.newsinlevels.com/products/olympic-games-2020-level-3/>. Accessed on: February 17th, 2016.

7. Assinale

a alternativa correta: b

a ) Tóquio não poderá sediar os Jogos Paralímpicos, somente os Jogos Olímpicos. b ) Tóquio sediará os jogos Olímpicos de 2020, assim como os Jogos Paralímpicos. c ) O Comitê Olímpico ainda está em dúvida na escolha da cidade para sediar os Jogos Olímpicos de 2020. d ) Londres e Rio de Janeiro são cidades candidatas a sediar os Jogos Olímpicos de 2020. e ) O povo japonês não aprova a candidatura de Tóquio para sediar os jogos de 2020.

8. Assinale

a alternativa incorreta:

a

a ) Tóquio concorreu com o Rio de Janeiro e Londres para sediar os Jogos Olímpicos de 2020. b ) Tóquio concorreu com Istambul e Madri para sediar os Jogos Olímpicos e Paralímpicos de 2020. c ) Apesar da preocupação com a água contaminada de Fukushima, Tóquio será a sede dos Jogos Olímpicos e Paralímpicos de 2020. d ) O povo japonês reuniu-se em frente ao Prédio do Governo para demonstrar seu contentamento. e ) Apesar do aumento dos níveis de radiação da usina de Fukushima, Tóquio foi escolhida com a maioria dos votos. ninety-one

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(UFU - 2015)

UFU stands for Universidade Federal de Uberlândia.

Is a Digital Gym Right for You? By Kelsey Kloss

If you want: Personalized treatment If 80’s-style group classes make you shudder, check app ($10 per month for unlimited classes). You’ll access videos of an instructor leading you, not an entire class, through a workout, creating the sense of a highly personalized training session. Choose a class based on the trainer - each is taught by one of eight Gym Box coaches, who cover details like what your posture should look like and how your muscles should feel throughout the session - or your favorite exercises, which might include strength training, kickboxing, dance, step, extreme cardio, cycling, and even “Easy Does It” (small weights, gentle core training). KLOSS, Kelsey. Is a digital gym right for you? Available at: <www.rd.com/slideshows/digital-gym/>. Accessed on: February 17th, 2016.

9. De

acordo com o texto, a Digital Gym

d

a ) dispensa a figura de um treinador, estimulando a autonomia. b ) encoraja exercícios a partir de aulas presenciais completas. c ) possibilita o desenvolvimento de sessões de treinamento grupais. d ) desenvolve uma concepção apurada de treinamento personalizado.

(UNEB - 2014)

Uneb stands for Universidade do Estado da Bahia.

As atividades 10 a 12 referem-se ao tema e/ou conteúdos da unidade 4.

A recent multicenter study found that the slimmest people also ate the most carbohydrates, and the chubbiest ate the least. The research concluded that your odds of getting and staying slim are best when 5 carbs make up to 64% of your total daily caloric intake, or 361 grams. That’s the equivalent of several stuffed potatoes, a food we bet you’ve been afraid to eat for decades. Most low-carb diets limit you to fewer than 30% of 10 total calories from carbs and sometimes contain as few as 30 grams of carbohydrates a day. Available at: <www.health.com/health/m/gallery/0,,20359383_2,00.html>. Accessed on: February 17th, 2016.

“carbs” (l. 3): carbohydrates

10. The

most suitable title for this text is

b

a ) Low-carb diets make you lose weight. b ) Eating carbohydrates makes you thin. c ) Carbs are the prime villain of obesity.

(PUCPR - 2016/Verão)

d ) Why carbohydrates are said to be unhealthy. e ) The more carbs you eat, the heavier you get.

PUCPR stands for Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná.

Study: Junk Food Doesn’t Only Make You Fat, It Makes You Lazy According to a recent study by researchers at the University of California Los Angeles, a diet rich in processed food and fat leads not only to excess weight but also to less motivation. Researchers found that rats on a junk food diet were significantly fatter than rats on a healthy diet. But the rats with the unhealthy diet also were less active and

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mentally slower. “Our data suggest that diet-induced obesity is a cause, rather than an effect, of laziness. Either the highly processed diet causes fatigue or the diet causes obesity, which causes fatigue,” says lead researcher Aaron Blaisdell. Study: junk food doesn’t only make you fat, it makes you lazy. Available at: <www.shortnews.com/start.cfm?id=94296>. Accessed on: February 17th, 2016.

11. According

I ) Rats which ate healthy food were thinner than the ones which ate junk food. II ) Laziness is a consequence of obesity

III ) Obesity can be considered as an effect of laziness.

IV ) Less motivation is one of the causes which make junk food ingestion attractive.

Getting ready for exams

to the text, it is possible to state that: d

V ) Rats on a healthy diet were more active. a ) Only II and IV are correct.

d ) Only I, II and V are correct.

b ) Only I, II and III are correct.

e ) All the sentences are correct.

c ) Only III is correct.

(UFU - 2015)

Scientists Figure Out How to Unboil an Egg By Zoë Schlanger

Chemistry major Stephan Kudlacek is part of the team that has developed a way of unboiling a hen egg. Scientists at the University of California Irvine have developed a way to unboil egg whites by “untangling” their proteins, a development that has the potential to significantly reduce costs for any biotechnology process that requires the folding of proteins. “Yes, we have invented a way to unboil a hen egg”, UCI biochemistry professor Gregory Weiss said in a statement. “We start with egg whites boiled for 20 minutes at 90 degrees Celsius and return a key protein in the egg to working order”. Proteins are the workhorses within human cells. They copy DNA, and make it possible for the body to read the DNA. The folding of proteins is key to several fields; industrial chemists use it to make chemical reactions possible, and the medical industry needs to fold proteins for therapeutic treatments of diseases such as cancer. Often, though, when scientists attempt to fold proteins, they come out as “scrambled messes”, Weiss says. The process doesn‘t result in a gooey raw egg you would want to cook up and eat, because the egg white has been dissolved in other compounds. But one of the key proteins found in egg white is returned. Weiss and his team have filed for a patent, and are raising funds to scale up the process to meet the needs of biotech companies. If all goes well, the invention has the potential to save several industries a lot of headache, and money. SCHLANGER, Zoe. Scientists figure out how to unboil an egg. Available at: <www.newsweek.com/scientists-figure-out-how-unboil-eggchemistry-301791>. Accessed on: January 25th, 2015.

12. After

reading the text “Scientists Figure Out How to Unboil an Egg”, one can say that the main objective of the author was to d a ) inform about a process to increase the level of protein in eggs. b ) announce a new procedure for raising funds for biotech companies. c ) report on recent findings related to DNA found in hen eggs. d ) describe a method to pull apart tangled proteins and refold them. ninety-three

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unit

track 25

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Like father, like son


The expression like father, like son is used when someone looks like his father or has the same behavior, personality or attitudes. He decided to study Law and, like father, like son, he wants to be a prosecutor. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, as respostas e comentários referentes a esta atividade.

Exchanging ideas A

How many people are there in your family? Who are they?

B

Do you spend some time with your family? What do you do together?

C

Talk to your classmates about the importance of a family.

Fotomont agem de Júnior Car am ez Images , Liquor ice Leg s, Samuel for mada pel as imagens Mo nke y Busine ss Bor ges Photog San tiago Cor nej raphy, Andres o, KPG _Payle ss r, Stuart Jenner e Antonio Guillem , /Shutters tock.c om

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Contextualizing

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Warming up 1.

Observe the following scenes from different movies and read about them. Then, answer the Sugerimos orientar os alunos a observarem os fotogramas dos filmes e, depois, a responderem às perguntas questions. levando em consideração o tipo de relação estabelecida entre os personagens. Você pode explorar também o

Filme de Eugenio Derbez. Não aceitamos devoluções. México. 2013. Foto: © Alebrije Cine y Video/Fulano Mengano y Asociados/Collection Christophel/Other Images

ambiente em que estão, as idades dos personagens, entre outros aspectos. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

Filme de Ella Lemhagen. Patrick 1.5. Suécia. 2008. Foto: Collection Christophel/Other Images

Title: Instructions not included Original title: No se aceptan devoluciones Origin: Mexico Year: 2013 Synopsis: Valentín used to be an irresponsible playboy. But, when he is given his daugther to raise, he is forced to grow up.

Filme de Tim Burton. A Fantástica Fábrica de Chocolates. EUA. 2005. Foto: Collection Christophel/Other Images

Title: Patrik age 1,5 Original title: Patrik 1,5 Origin: Sweden Year: 2008 Synopsis: A Swedish gay couple decide to adopt a child. They think they are adopting an 18-month-old orphan. But, when they meet their son, they find out he is a problematic and homophobic 15-year-old boy.

Title: Charlie and the chocolate factory Origin: The United States of America Year: 2005 Synopsis: Charlie lives with his parents and grandparents. One day, he wins a ticket to tour through a fantastic chocolate factory. He goes with his grandfather and has a lot of adventures there.

a ) What do these pictures have in common?

Resposta pessoal. Resposta esperada: they show different kinds of families.

b ) Describe the families shown in each movie. Resposta pessoal.

c ) Are you close to your family members? If you had to choose one picture to exemplify your family, which one would you choose? Resposta pessoal.

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2.

Unit 1

Learning vocabulary Discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates. a ) Do you know what TV series are? Where can we see them?

A primeira parte da resposta é pessoal. We can see them on TV, on DVDs, on the internet or on smartphones. pessoal. Você pode informar aos alunos que outra palavra muito usada para se referir às séries televisivas é show. pessoal. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos c ) Do you like watching TV series about families? Explain. Resposta sobre séries que tratam de famílias e pedir que descrevam as que conhecerem. Algumas sugestões são Modern family e The Simpsons, e algumas séries televisivas brasileiras que retratam diferentes constituições familiares, como Confissões de adolescente, Sai de baixo e A grande família.

b ) Which TV series do you know? Resposta

3.

The synopsis below is about a famous TV series or sitcom, which is the abbreviation of situation comedy. Read it and answer the questions.

Unit 5

About The Middle Forget about athletes, movie stars and politicians. Parents are the real heroes — but we think Frankie Heck (Patricia Heaton) must be some kind of superhero. A loving wife and mother of three, she’s middle class in the middle of the country and is rapidly approaching middle age. Frankie and her husband, Mike (Neil Flynn), have lived in Orson, Indiana, their whole lives. A man of few words (every one a zinger), Mike is a manager at the town quarry and Frankie is the third-best used car salesman (out of the three) at the local dealership. She may not be a highpowered career woman, but when it comes to her family, she’ll go to just about any length. And with kids like these, she had better. There’s Axl (Charlie McDermott), her semi-nudist teenage son conceived while under the influence of Guns N’ Roses; Sue (Eden Sher), the awkward teenage daughter who fails at everything... but with the utmost of gusto; and their seven-year-old son Brick (Atticus Shaffer), whose best friend is his backpack. Sometimes it seems like everyone is trying to get to the top, or struggling not to hit bottom, but we think Frankie and her family will find a lot of love, and a lot of laughs, somewhere in The Middle.

Série de Eileen Heisler e DeAnn Heline. The Middle. EUA. 2009

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem o texto e responderem às perguntas que o seguem.

About The Middle. Available at: <http://abc.go.com/shows/the-middle/about-the-show>. Accessed on: September 25th, 2015.

a) b) c) d)

4.

5. a) Alguns alunos podem considerar fiancé (noivo) e fiancée (noiva) como membros da família, já que há muitos casais que noivam e constituem um What is the name of the sitcom? The Middle. núcleo familiar, sem chegar a se casar. Você pode aproveitar para diferenciar fiancée de bride (item l), explicando que o último termo According to the text, who are the real heroes of the sitcom? Parents. corresponde à noivas nas situações referentes à cerimônia nupcial. Resposta esperada: it’s about the What is The Middle about? routine of a middle-class family in Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos pedir aos alunos que comparem the United States. a família retratada na série The Middle com suas próprias Is that family similar to or different from yours? Explain. famílias e comentem as semelhanças e diferenças que podem perceber. É importante evitar estereótipos e promover a igualdade de todos os tipos de famílias, sejam grandes ou pequenas, com ambos os pais ou apenas um, com pais adotivos, héteros ou homossexuais, de todas as classes sociais, e assim por diante.

There are some words in the text which are related to family members. What are they? Parents, wife, mother, husband, kids, son, daughter. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

5.

Among the words below, identify the ones related to family members. a ) fiancé

d)

b ) brother

e)

c ) sister

f)

Se necessário, você pode orientar os alunos a siblings g ) aunt j ) stepmom fazerem uma pesquisa para boyfriend h ) uncle k ) father-in-law realizar esta atividade. Ela deve ser uma cousin i ) grandparents l ) bride continuação da atividade 4, oportunizando a ampliação do vocabulário relacionado aos membros da família. b; c; d; f; g; h; i; j; k.

ninety-seven

97


Learning and acting

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Reading and reflecting Pre-reading Observe the pictures of some famous poets. Then, discuss the questions with a classmate.

William Shakespeare

Pablo Neruda

Solano José/Estadão Conteúdo

Acervo UH/Folhapress

Autor desconhecido. c. 1610. Óleo sobre madeira. Coleção particular. Foto: Oli Scarff/Getty Images

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, informações sobre os poetas e a poetisa desta atividade.

Keystone-France/Gamma/Getty Images

1.

Vinicius de Moraes

Cecília Meireles

a ) Have you read any work(s) by these poets? Which one(s)?

Resposta pessoal. Espera-se que os alunos citem obras famosas, como Romeu e Julieta, de William Shakespeare, e o Soneto de fidelidade, de Vinicius de Moraes.

b ) What comes to your mind when you hear the word poem? Resposta pessoal.

pessoal. Nesse momento, é possível perguntar c ) Do you read or write poems? Resposta leem ou escrevem poemas em língua materna.

aos alunos se eles

Resposta pessoal. Resposta esperada: poems are a way expressing feelings, emotions, memories and perceptions of differents aspects of life, such as relationships, death, existence, and so on.

d ) In your opinion, why do people write poems? of

e ) Would you like if someone wrote a poem about you? Why (not)? Resposta pessoal.

2.

You are going to read a poem. What are some characteristics of this text genre? Write relembrar os alunos do que já estudaram sobre poesia nas them down in your notebook. b; c; d; f; g. Sugerimos aulas de Língua Portuguesa. Se julgar necessário, é possível pedir a ) Poetry is written in sentences and paragraphs. b ) Most poetry is written in lines and stanzas.

uma pesquisa para a realização desta atividade. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, mais informações sobre esta atividade.

c ) Poems usually have meter and rhythm. d ) Usually, rhymes are used to give poems rhythm or musicality. e ) All poems have the same number and length of lines and stanzas. f ) Figurative language is often used in poetry. g ) Many times, the emphasis of poems is on imagination and emotions. h ) The author and the persona are the same person.

3.

Read the title of the poem on page 99 and answer. Respostas a ) What do you think the poem is about? Resposta

pessoais.

esperada: the poem is about the persona’s grandmother.

Sugerimos proporcionar aos alunos um momento de inferência sobre o conteúdo do poema, tendo como base seu título e relacionando-o ao conhecimento prévio de cada um sobre o que representa uma avó e o que poderia ser dito sobre ela em um texto poético.

b ) What ideas do you think are going to be expressed in the poem?

4.

98

Poems usually have rhymes. What rhymes do you expect to see in the poem you are going Sugerimos explicar aos alunos que as palavras abaixo aparecerão no texto to read based on the words below? e, depois, pedir a eles que imaginem quais são as palavras com as quais Possíveis respostas: a ) eyes wise, prize, size

c ) speak

e ) past last,

b ) chair care,

d ) so go,

f ) see

pear, where

elas rimam no poema. week, chic, seek flow, know

vast, cast

agree, tree, key

ninety-eight

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17/5/16 10:42 AM


5.

Unit 1

Reading Read the poem and verify if your predictions are correct. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos pedir que, na primeira leitura, os alunos verifiquem se as inferências feitas com base no título e se as rimas trabalhadas na atividade 4 realmente aparecem no texto. Além disso, é possível questioná-los sobre a pessoa descrita, se acham que ela é querida pelo eu lírico, se é uma pessoa próxima, entre outras questões.

My Grandmother by Shannon Vanderstelt

As I look into my Grandmother’s eyes I seem to feel a bit surprised She sits there in her silly old chair Clicking her heels, it’s too much to bear

Unit 5

See she can’t walk, sing, or speak She is thin and looks very weak It saddens me to see her so That life has brought her to a terrible low She can remember a little from the past But the present goes by way too fast She knows her daughter and sons you’ll see It’s hard for her to remember me […]

Art Capri

VANDERSTELT, Shannon. My grandmother. Available at: <www.netpoets.com/poems/family/0770001.htm>. Accessed on: September 23 rd , 2015.

6.

Read the poem again and write down in your notebook the full statements with the correct endings. Sugerimos explicar aos alunos que, em alguns casos, mais de uma alternativa é correta. a ) The person who wrote the poem is probably... I I

a granddaughter.

III

a daughter.

II

a mother.

IV

a grandson.

b ) The persona feels... I

and IV.

I

surprised.

III

happy.

II

jealous.

IV

sad.

c ) The person who the poem talks about is...

Se achar apropriado, você pode orientar os alunos a acessarem o site indicado na referência para se certificarem da resposta. Outra opção é dizer a eles que nesse site há uma declaração da mãe de Shannon dizendo que ficou orgulhosa e emocionada com a homenagem feita pela filha à avó e, assim, resolveu publicar o poema.

II

I

independent.

III

proactive.

II

sick.

IV

sociable. ninety-nine

99


7. In

your notebook, match the expressions below with their meanings.

a - VIII; b - V; c - IV; d - I; e - VII; f - II; g - VI; h - III; i - IX.

10. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a, em duplas, relatarem se em suas famílias houve algum caso de Alzheimer ou se conheceram/ conhecem alguém diagnosticado com essa doença. Se julgar pertinente, você pode pedir que façam uma pesquisa para saberem mais sobre o Alzheimer.

a ) to click

d ) thin

g ) brought

b ) heels

e ) weak

h ) low

c ) to bear

f ) to sadden

i ) to go by

I

slim

IV

to tolerate

VII

not physically strong

II

to make someone feel sad

V

the back end of the shoes

VIII to

III

degraded condition

VI

led, conducted

IX

make a sound

to pass

8. The

persona describes the grandmother’s physical and mental health. In your notebook, write down the lines in which they are described. a ) physical health

b ) mental health

See she can’t walk, sing, or speak/ She is thin and looks very weak

9. Answer

She can remember a little from the past/ But the present goes by way too fast

the following questions based on what is described in the poem.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) What disease would you say the persona’s gandmother has? I I

Alzheimer’s

II

diabetes

III

asthma

b ) The persona says the grandmother can remember her daughter and sons, but it is difficult for her to remember her granddaughter. Why do you think that happens? Resposta esperada: because Alzheimer’s disease initially affects short-term memory.

10. The

11. Resposta esperada: the movies are about Alzheimer’s patients and how their families deal with the disease. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade e comentários sobre os filmes e o livro.

Alzheimer is a disease that affects not only the patient, but also the family. In the poem, it is possible to feel the persona’s sadness to see her grandmother deteriorating. Have you ever had anyone in your family diagnosed with Alzheimer’s? Or do you know anyone who had or has this disease? What do you know about it? Talk to a classmate.

11. Observe the following book cover and posters of movies. Talk to your teacher and classmates about them. What are the stories about? B

12. Pair

Still Alice. USA, 2007.

Filme de Nick Cassavetes. The Notebook. EUA. 2004

Jodaeiye Nader az Simin (A separation). Iran, 2011.

C

Gallery Books

Filme de Asghar Farhadi. A Separation. Irã. 2011

A

The Notebook. USA, 2004.

up with a classmate and read the poem aloud. Then, discuss your impressions.

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

Post-reading 13. Discuss

the following questions with a classmate.

Respostas pessoais.

a ) The emotional feeling or atmosphere that a literary work produces is called mood. What is the mood of the poem you read? Sadness. b ) Do you have a grandmother or a grandfather? Did you think of her/him when you read algum aluno não tenha pelo menos um dos avós vivo, é possível pedir que respondam às the poem? Caso perguntas pensando em um idoso com o qual tenham proximidade ou afinidade. c ) What’s your grandmother’s/grandfather’s name? How old is she/he? What does she/he look like? d ) Would you like to write her/him a poem? What would you talk about in this poem?

100

one hundred

g18_ftd_lt_1noi_u05_094a109.indd 100

19/5/16 3:47 PM


Unit 1

Putting your ideas into words Before writing 14.

Read the text on page 99 again and remember some characteristics of poems. Write down some of the characteristics you learned and, after that, share your ideas with a classmate. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, informações sobre esta atividade.

15.

The characteristics of poems may differ. Identify the characteristics of the poem My Grandmother by answering the following questions in your notebook. a ) How many stanzas does the excerpt of the poem have? It b ) How many lines does each stanza have?

has 3 stanzas.

Each stanza has 4 lines.

d) e)

Sugerimos explicar aos alunos que onomatopoeia (onomatopeia) Yes, it does. One example of onomatopoeia in the poem is in the expression clicking her heels. uma figura de Does it have rhymes? Find examples. Yes, it does. The rhymes are in the words: chair and bear, speak élinguagem que and weak, so and low, past and fast, see and me. usa uma palavra Find the lines in the poem where the granddaughter expresses her feelings. para descrever ou imitar um I seem to feel a bit surprised/It saddens me to see her so. som natural. A palavra click imita o som dos sapatos da avó.

Writing

Based on what you read and discussed, write a poem about one of your family members. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade.

Anna Simonin

16.

After writing 17.

Consider the following questions when you read your classmate’s poem. Then, share your ideas with your classmates. Respostas pessoais. a ) Who is the poem about? b ) According to the poem, what is he/she like? c ) How does the persona feel about this person? d ) Which characteristics of poems did you notice in your classmate’s poem? e ) What did you feel when you read it? What is the mood in the poem? one hundred and one

101

Unit 5

c ) Does it use figurative language, such as onomatopoeia? Find one example.


Listening and understanding Listening 1.

1. a) Resposta esperada: both are older/mature mothers. 1. b) Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos perguntar aos alunos se eles conhecem familiares ou mulheres próximas que foram mães depois dos quarenta anos de idade.

Observe the images and answer the questions. a ) What do the mothers in the pictures have in common? b ) Do you know any mothers who gave birth after the age of forty?

John Kasawa/Shutterstock.com

1. d) Resposta pessoal. Você pode questionar os alunos sobre o que eles sabem a respeito da maternidade em épocas passadas. O intuito desta questão é discutir se eles acham que a track 26 maternidade após os quarenta era comum antigamente ou se é um fenômeno mais recente.

Photographee.eu/Shutterstock.com

1. c) Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos questionar os alunos sobre suas impressões com relação à maternidade e à paternidade e assuntos relacionados, tais como a possibilidade de haver uma idade ideal para ambos os casos, as possíveis consequências de ter um filho em uma idade mais madura, entre outros pontos.

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

c ) Do you think there is an ideal age to be a mother or father? Why (not)? d ) Do you think in the past it was commom to give birth after the age of forty? Why (not)?

2.

Before listening, think about the word motherhood and write down as many words as you can. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

3.

Listen and answer the questions.

4.

track 26

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, a transcrição do áudio.

a ) Do you know what a podcast is? b ) What is this podcast about?

Resposta esperada: an audio recording similar to a radio broadcast, which can be downloaded.

Resposta esperada: being a mother after turning forty.

c ) Do you enjoy listening to podcasts? Do you have a favorite one? Resposta

pessoal.

Listen again and decide if these statements are true or false. In your notebook, write down the true sentences and rewrite the false ones. Antes de tocar este trecho do áudio, convém avisar os

alunos que a velocidade de fala é rápida e que o sotaque britânico é forte; portanto, se eles tiverem dificuldade em compreender, True. isso é esperado. Uma sugestão para minimizar essa dificuldade é tocar o Miranda Sawyer is the presenter. trecho várias vezes, com pausas, True. para que os alunos comecem a se The theme of the podcast is “mums in their forties”. habituar às velocidades mais True. naturais de fala. A guest’s brother told her that women will think she is a grandmother. Após ouvirem, sugerimos True. orientá-los a corrigir Madonna is considered an example to mothers over forty. as informações True. incorretas. Para The presenter just had her third child. isso, você pode False. She just had her second child. tocar o áudio The reporter Gabby Koppel had her first child when she was forty-one. novamente e fazer pausas, se False. She had her third child when she was forty-one. necessário.

a ) The name of the podcast is The Guardian family podcast. b) c) d) e) f) g)

h ) The woman who is interviewed had her first child when she was twenty. False. She became pregnant for the first time at the age of forty-eight.

Salma Hayek is a Mexican actress. Her daughter was born when she was 41 years old.

102

one hundred and two

B

Madonna is an American singer. She gave birth to one of her sons at the age of 41.

C

Featureflash/Shutterstock.com

A

Denis Makarenko/Shutterstock.com

track 26

The host says that more and more women are following the example of famous people who had children in their forties. What are the examples she mentions? Listen again and talk to a classmate. B and C. Everett Collection/Shutterstock.com

5.

Sam Taylor-Wood is an English filmmaker. She had a daughter when she was 44 years old.


Write down the following sentences in your notebook. Then, complete them with the information you heard in the podcast. a ) Gabby Koppel had her third child when she was... I

forty-one years old.

II

Unit 1

6.

I

forty-two years old.

III

thirty-two years old.

III

forty-eight years old.

b ) Miriam became pregnant for the first time when she was... III I

7.

forty-one years old.

II

twenty-eight years old.

Listen again and identify the picture that represents what happened to Miriam when she told her friends she was pregnant. Talk to a classmate about it. A Caso os alunos

track 26

B

Ilsutrações: Art Capri

Unit 5

A

sintam dificuldade em realizar a atividade, sugerimos enfatizar o trecho que menciona a expressão jaws opened (boquiabertos), que denota a ideia de espanto, surpresa e choque.

8.

ver, nas Orientações Discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates. Sugerimos conduzir esta atividade.

para o professor, como

a ) Why do you think Miriam’s friends were surprised?

Resposta esperada: they were shocked and surprised because they did not expect her to become pregnant at that age.

b ) Do you think women who become mothers after their forties suffer from prejudice? Why (not)? Resposta pessoal.

c ) What could be some advantages and disadvantages of having a child at an older age? Resposta pessoal.

d ) It is true that, nowadays, some women decide to become mothers later. In your opinion, will it change families? Resposta pessoal.

Speaking 9.

Em grupos, os alunos podem escolher um dos temas sugeridos a seguir e construir a estrutura de um podcast seguindo os passos abaixo. You can see some suggestions below. Sugerimos que, ao fim da atividade, eles gravem o the relationship between parents and teens trabalho, usando um computador, being an only child gravador ou celular e o HAVING MANY BROTHERS AND SISTERS apresentem à turma.

In groups, you are going to create a podcast. Follow the steps below. a ) Choose a theme for your podcast. being a young mother being a young father being a mother over forties

b ) Choose an interesting name for your podcast. c ) Decide who is going to be the interviewer, who is going to make comments, and who is going to be interviewed. d ) Write down the questions you are going to ask. e ) Exchange your questions with another group and read their questions to suggest adaptations and corrections. f ) Based on the other group’s comments, correct your questions before recording your podcast. g ) Using a computer or cell phone, record your podcast as many times as necessary until you are satisfied with the result. h ) Present it to the class. one hundred and three

103


Comprehending and using

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Learning about the language Subject pronouns X Object pronouns 1. track 27

You are going to read two excerpts of lyrics about family relationships. Write them in your notebook and complete them using the words below. After that, listen to the track and verify your answers. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade. I

he

we

they

me

him

[...] Keep it together in the family ’re a reminder of your history They Brothers and sisters they hold the key To your heart and your soul Don’t forget that your family is gold [...] Brothers and sisters, they’ve always been there for me We have a connection, home is where the heart should be [...]

her

[...] To dance with my father again I When and my mother would disagree To get my way I would run from to him her He ’d make laugh just to me comfort , yeah yeah. me me Then finally make do just what my moma said [...]

DION, Celine. Dance with my father. In: So amazing: an all-star tribute to Luther Vandross. J Records, 2005.

MADONNA. Keep it together. In: Like a prayer. Warner Music Group, 1989.

2. 3. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a relerem as letras das músicas e a buscarem identificar os pronomes que se adequam a cada explicação. Nesse momento, você pode pedir que eles estudem a página 193 do Grammar appendix. 4. e) Se julgar interessante, você pode dizer aos alunos que a questão How is your relationship with them? tem como objetivo perguntar sobre a qualidade do relacionamento com os pais, tendo como possível resposta It’s fine. Enquanto What is your relationship to them? objetiva perguntar sobre o grau de parentesco em relação aos pais. Assim, a resposta seria I’m their son.

3.

Which members of the family do the songs mention?

a; b; d; e. Sugerimos relembrar os alunos de cada grau de parentesco apresentado a seguir.

a ) mother

c ) son

e ) brother

g ) uncle

b ) father

d ) sister

f ) aunt

h ) cousin

You filled the blanks in the lyrics with pronouns. Pronouns are words used in place of a full noun. Rewrite the following explanations in your notebook and complete them according to what you observed in activity 1. a ) Subject pronouns are used to replace the subject of a verb. Some subject pronouns are . I, he, we, they b ) Object pronouns are used as the object of a verb and after prepositions. Some object pronouns are .

The pronoun it is not usually used to refer to people. It is normally used to refer to objects, things, animals or ideas. The house where I live with my family is very small. But it is very comfortable.

me, him, her

4.

Answer the following questions.

Nesta atividade, espera-se que os alunos utilizem os pronomes pessoais em suas respostas.

first lyrics talks about the importance of keeping family together. a ) What do the texts talk about? The second is about the relationship between father and daughter.

The

b ) Do you have a brother? What’s his name? How old is he? Resposta pessoal.

c ) Do you have a sister? What’s her name? How old is she? Resposta pessoal.

d ) What about your parents? What are their names? How old are they? If you have only one parent, talk about him or her. You can also talk about someone you consider to be your parent. Resposta pessoal.

e ) How is your relationship with them? What do you do when you are together? Resposta pessoal.

f ) In your opinion, why is it important to keep family together? Resposta pessoal.

104

Remember

one hundred and four


5.

Unit 1

Possessive adjectives x Possessive pronouns Read Madonna’s and Celine Dion’s lyrics again. Write down the correct sentences in your notebook. a and d.

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem os trechos das músicas novamente para identificar as alternativas corretas.

a ) Madonna’s song is about the importance of being close to our family.

b ) According to the first song, brothers and sisters don’t have to support each other. c ) Celine Dion doesn’t want to dance with her father again. d ) The second song is about a daughter’s love for her father.

AFP Photo

Steven Lawton/FilmMagic/ Getty Images

Unit 5

James Devaney/FilmMagic/Getty Images

Observe the pictures of Madonna’s and Celine Dion’s families. Then, read the statements below. Write down the true sentences and rewrite the false ones in your notebook. Samir Hussein/WireImage/Getty Images

6.

a ) Celine Dion’s son is holding a ball. The ball is his. True. b ) The baby Madonna is carrying in the arms is hers. True. c ) Madonna has biological and adoptive children. True. d ) Celine Dion and her husband have two children. The twins are theirs. False.

Celine Dion and her husband have three children. The twins are theirs.

e ) Celine Dion and her family are at an event. They look sad. False.

Celine Dion and her family are at an event. They don’t look sad. They look serious.

f ) All pictures show families spending some time together. True. Observe more family pictures and answer the questions about them. B

C

I

In picture A, who is the man with? He

II

is with her In picture B, who is the woman with? She granddaughter/daughter.

III

In picture C, whose children are those?

is with his children.

The children are theirs./Those are their children.

Gerson Gerloff/Pulsar

Blend Images/Shutterstock.com

A

Monkey Business Images/ Shutterstock.com

7.

7. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a observarem atentamente as imagens e a estudarem as páginas 193 and 194 do Grammar appendix. Em seguida, eles devem responder às questões sobre as famílias de cada fotografia usando os pronomes estudados nesta seção. É importante que eles percebam e respeitem as diferentes composições familiares.

one hundred and five

105


8.

8. a) Celine Discuss the questions related to activities 6 and 7 with your classmates. Sugerimos orientar os Dion’s family alunos a discutirem as perguntas em duplas tendo como base as duas atividades realizadas anteriormente. has five a ) How many members does each family have? members. Madonna’s family has five b ) What’s an interesting characteristic of each family? members. The family in the c ) Do you know any families that are similar to the families in the pictures? first picture from activity 7 Resposta pessoal. has three members. The Now, you are going to read part of the lyrics of a song called Dear future family in the mine second picture husband, by Meghan Trainor. Write it in your notebook and complete it using has two your members. The track 28 the words in the green box. After that, listen to the track and verify your family in the answers. Then, answer the questions about the song. third picture has five members. 9. c) Alguns alunos 8. b) Possíveis podem interpretar que a respostas: Celine [...] noiva está querendo dizer Dion’s and the que verão mais a família family in the third Dear future husband, dela do que a dele, e picture from outros podem achar que activity 7 have a Make time for me o que ela quer dizer é father, a mother que verão as duas na and children. mesma medida e que Don’t leave me lonely Madonna’s family your mine não haverá privilégios and the family in para ele. Ambas as And know we’ll never see family more than the first picture respostas são from activity 7 adequadas, pois não é [...] probably have possível determinar com divorced parents. TRAINOR, Meghan. Dear future husband. In: Title. Epic, 2015. precisão a ideia original The family in the da compositora. third picture from activity 7 has a a ) Who is the girl in the song talking to? II girl who lives with her grandmother. I Her husband. II The man she is going to marry someday.

9.

b ) What is her first instruction? Make

time for me/Don’t leave me lonely.

c ) Whose family are they going to see more? III I

10.

10. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a relerem as atividades desta página e da anterior e buscarem identificar os pronomes que se adequam a cada explicação. Nesse momento, você pode pedir que eles estudem as páginas 193 e 194 do Grammar appendix.

his family

II

her family

a ) Possessive adjectives are used to indicate who owns or has something. They are used before nouns. Some possessive adjectives are . my, your, his, her, our, their b ) Possessive pronouns are also used to indicate who owns or has something. But it refers to a specific person or thing mentioned before. It can replace a noun. Some possessive pronouns are . mine, his, hers, theirs

Remember

Linking words: Addition

• Linking words are used to connect ideas and sentences.

Some linking words are used to add information, such as and, also, too, in addition, furthermore etc. I live with my mother and my father. Clare lives with her parents and also with her grandparents. Jerry’s grandparents live with him too. In addition to sharing good experiences, families go through difficulties together. Furthermore, families can be role models for teenagers.

2. In your notebook, complete these sentences using your personal information. Respostas pessoais. and

.

b ) In addition to having meals together, my family also c ) I believe families have to d ) Furthermore, families

106

both families with the same frequency

Based on what you studied on pages 105 and 106, write down the following explanations in your notebook and complete them.

Learning more 1. Read and understand.

a ) I live with

III

one hundred and six

.

too.

.

We can also indicate ownership by using the possessive case: ’s (apostrophe + s). This is used specially to indicate a relation of ownership or association with a person, not a thing. My grandmother’s name is Julieta. With plural nouns that end in -s, we use only the apostrophe (’). My parents’ names are Marcos and Luíza. With people’s names that end in -s, we can use only the apostrophe (’) or ’s. Charles’ sister is very nice. Charles’s sister is very nice. To indicate joint ownership, the possessive form is added to the final name only. Mary and Kate’s cousins are visiting them.


On page 97, you read about the Hecks, the family from the TV series The Middle. Let’s learn a little bit more about them. Read the text below. Then, rewrite it in your notebook explicar aos alunos que a fotografia a seguir retrata a família using the correct words to complete it. Sugerimos Heck do seriado The Middle, sobre o qual leram uma sinopse na página

Frankie

Frankie is a salesperson. (She/He ) is married to Mike. (Her/His) husban d is a manager. (Their/They) have thre e children, Axl, Sue and Brick. Axl plays sports at school. (His/He) also play s the guitar. Sue wears braces on (her /hers) teeth. (She/He) tries out everyth ing but never achieves success. Brick is (Frankie and Mike/Fr ankie and Mike’s) youngest child. (He/His) loves reading.

Axl

Brick Mike

In your notebook, write five sentences about the Hecks. Follow the example.

Frankie is Mike’s wife. So, we can also say “She is his wife”.

Speaking up

/ð/

The neutral word used for someone’s brother or sister is sibling. Sue and Axl are siblings.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir as atividades deste boxe.

1. In her English class, Lucy introduced her family to a classmate. Listen to and read what her classmate says about her family. track 29

Lucy’s family is a rather small one. These are her father, mother and brothers. That one on the left is her father. He’s a History teacher. The woman with the baby is her mother Maria. The baby and the other boy are her brothers. They spend a lot of time together. There is a cat next to Lucy. It’s the family’s pet Simba. Lucy has a happy family and she loves them!

Art Capri

12.

Sue

97.

Unit 5

Série de DeAnn Heline e Eileen Heisler. The Middle. EUA. 2009. Foto: Collection Christophel Blackie and Blondie Productions/The Warner Bros Television/DR/Other Images

11.

Unit 1

Using the language

12. Possíveis respostas: Mike is Frankie’s husband. So, we can also say “He is her husband”./ Frankie is the children’s mother. So, we can also say “She is their mother”./Mike is the children’s father. So, we can also say “He is their father”./ Sue is Axl and Brick’s sister. So, we can also say “She is their sister”./Axl and Brick are Sue’s brothers. So, we can also say “They are her brothers”.

2. Observe the words highlighted in the text. How do you pronounce them? Resposta pessoal. 3. Listen and practice with a partner. track 30

rather

mother

the

with

father

brother

other

together

4. Listen and identify the words you hear. a - they; b - there; c - them; d - that. a ) they – day

b ) dare – there

c ) ten – them

d ) that – date

track 31

one hundred and seven

107


13.

pedir aos alunos que observem a imagem e Observe the family tree and answer the questions. Sugerimos digam do que se trata. Você pode perguntar se eles já haviam visto uma árvore genealógica antes e em que contexto.

Elizabeth

a ) Wh o is An a’s Car los is hus ban d? hus ban

John

d.

Ana’s

b ) Wh o is Alic ia’s Rich ard and cou sin s? Rebe cca

are Alicia’s cous

Ana

Carlos

Rachel

Anthony

ins. c ) Wh o is Pe ter ’s sis ter ? Alic ia is Pet er’s sist er. d ) Wh o is Ric har d’s gra ndf ath er?

John is Rich ard’s gran dfath er.

e ) Wh o is Alic ia’s aun t? Ra ch el is Ali cia ’s au nt. f ) Wh o is Ra che l’s abe th mo the r? isElizRac hel ’s Art Capri

mo the r.

Alicia

14.

Peter

Richard

Rebecca

Read the description Rebecca wrote about her family for a website about teens and their family experiences. Rewrite the text in your notebook and complete it with the appropriate explicar aos alunos que o texto a seguir traz a descrição que Rebecca faz de possessive pronouns. Sugerimos sua família, mostrada na árvore genealógica que viram na atividade 13. My grandmother’s name is Elizabeth. She loves knitting; it’s a hers his favorite pastime of . My father is Anthony. That shirt is not , it belongs to one of his friends. My cousins, Alicia and Peter, live in a theirs very big house. Our house is a little smaller than . My brother’s name is Richard. We like to play chess together. The board game is . But the bicycle is . ours/his/mine

mine/his

15.

People usually produce family trees to be part of books about the family or blogs about family links, when they are researching ancestors, among other reasons. Imagine you are in one of these situations and, in your notebook, draw your own family tree. In pairs, present it to one of your classmates. Tell him/her who these people are, as well as their names and their relationship to you. Resposta pessoal.

16.

Pair up with a classmate. Observe his/her family tree and point to two people. Your classmate then have to write a sentence about their relationship to him/her. Resposta pessoal.

17.

Read an excerpt of a comment on how to communicate openly with your parents. It was posted on Quora, a website in which people ask and answer questions.

[...] Whatever (you’re/your) doing or whatever (your/you) believe in, explain (it/its) to (them/theirs) rationally and logically. Even if (them/they) don’t agree with (your/you), (they/theirs) will respect (your/yours) opinion if (them/they) realize that (you/yours) know what (your/you’re) doing. If (them/they) are completely ignoring (your/you’re) arguments and are still totally against (you/yours), just let (its/it) go and be cool with (it/its). [...] What is a generation gap in the context of a family? How does this gap impact the relationship between parents and children? Available at: <www.quora.com/What-is-a-generation-gap-in-the-context-of-a-family-How-doesthis-gap-impact-the-relationship-between-parents-and-children>. Accessed on: November 11th, 2015.

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one hundred and eight

a ) Talk to a classmate. Do you communicate openly with your parents? Resposta pessoal. b ) Rewrite the comment in your notebook choosing the best options to complete it. c ) Do you agree with the ideas of the comment? Share your opinion with a classmate.

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos levar os alunos a refletirem sobre o texto lido e a comentarem se concordam com a idea de que os jovens devem explicar aos pais o que pensam e acreditar que eles respeitarão suas opiniões e pontos de vista.


Summing up

Nesta unidade, você...

Sugerimos levar os alunos a refletirem sobre as alternativas apresentadas no quadro abaixo e instruí-los a escrever no caderno as frases que se relacionam ao que leram, discutiram e estudaram nesta unidade.

conversou com seus colegas de classe sobre diferentes constituições familiares e sobre sua própria família; leu uma sinopse de uma série televisa; leu um poema sobre uma avó que tem a doença de Alzheimer; revisou vocabulário relacionado aos membros da família; produziu um poema sobre um membro de sua família; ouviu parte de um podcast sobre ser mãe após os quarenta anos; criou um podcast sobre relações familiares; Unit 5

estudou os pronomes pessoais; estudou os pronomes que indicam posse; revisou os usos do caso possessivo (’s); estudou algumas palavras da língua inglesa que ligam ideias com o sentido de adição; criou sua própria árvore genealógica; analisou a árvore genealógica de outra pessoa;

Editora Chick

Going further

en House

praticou a pronúncia correta do som representado pelo símbolo /ð/.

Reading Billy Elliot is a kid who wants to follow his dream of being a ballet dancer. He needs to hide his passion from his family because his dad wants him to learn boxing. It’s an amazing story!

Billy Elliot, by Melvin Burgess. Chicken House: UK, 2001.

The movie Delivery man tells David’s story, a guy who donated his semen to a clinic twenty years ago. One day, a lawyer shows up and tells him that over 100 of the 500 children he fathered want to know who he is. Now he must decide what to do.

Fil me de Ke n Scott . Delivery ma n. EUA. 20 13

Watching

Delivery man, by Ken Scott. Disney: USA, 2013.

The song I dream of you, performed by JJ Heller and recorded on the CD I dream of you, is about a parents love for their child. In the song, they wish their kid beautiful dreams and also say the kid is their dream come true. It’s a sweet and heartwarming song.

Image ringer/G ett y

Singing

Ter ry Wy att /St

The website Relate <http://tub.im/7vt5f6> has an entire section about relationships, with articles, chat and email counseling, quizzes, workshops and more.

s

Surfing the net

JJ Heller (2014).

one hundred and nine

109


unit

track 32

110

Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ll be there for you


When you say to someone I’ll be there for you, it means that, no matter what future brings, you will support him/her. When I was a little boy, my father told me: “My son, don’t worry. I’ll be there for you.” Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, as respostas e comentários referentes a esta atividade.

Exchanging ideas In your opinion, what does the word friendship mean?

B

Talk to your classmates about the importance of friendship for you.

C

Do you expect anything of a friend? If so, what?

D

Do you believe that a friend should be there for you? Explain.

Fotomontagem de Júnior Caramez formada pela imagem José Vitor Elorza/ASC Imagens

A

111


Contextualizing

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Warming up 1. Talk

to your teacher and classmates.

Respostas pessoais.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) Do you know what a proverb is? b ) What proverbs do you know? c ) Do you know any proverbs about friendship? If so, which one(s)?

2. With

a classmate, discuss the questions below about the proverb “A friend in need is a friend indeed”. a ) What does the word indeed mean? If you don’t know, look it up in a dictionary and find the meaning that makes sense in this proverb. The word indeed means “in fact”, “in reality”. b ) What is the relation you see between in need and indeed? What kind of friend do you In need means “in necessity”. A “friend indeed” is a person who is really your think the proverb is about? friend, someone you can count on. It means that a real friend will not just say they support you, but they will do something to help you.

c ) Do you agree that a real friend will be with you even in moments in which you are not happy and need help? Can you give some examples? Resposta pessoal. d ) Do you remember any time when you noticed that someone is your friend indeed Resposta pessoal. Espera-se que os because he or she was there for you when you needed? alunos falem brevemente sobre uma

situação da qual se recordem em que um amigo os ajudou ou esteve presente em um momento difícil. Isso pode ser feito em duplas e algumas pessoas podem relatar a situação para a classe, usando inglês sempre que possível.

3. Read

Calvin & Hobbes, Bill Watterson © 1993 Watterson/Dist. by Universal Uclick

a comic strip about friendship. Then, decide if the following statements are true or false. In your notebook, write down the true sentences and rewrite the false ones.

Calvin and Hobbes, by Bill Watterson. Available at: <www.gocomics.com/ calvinandhobbes/2013/11/1>. Accessed on: September 30th, 2015.

a ) Calvin wants Hobbes to sign a friendship contract.

True.

b ) The contract prescribes conditions and rules for their friendship. True. Hobbes believes c ) Hobbes believes that contracts are for real friends. False. not be contractual.

that friends must

d ) According to Hobbes, people make friends spontaneously, not as an imposition.

4. Discuss

the following questions with a classmate. Respostas

True.

pessoais.

a ) Explain Hobbes’ opinion that “people are friends because they want to be, not because Espera-se que os alunos compreendam que a frase significa que a amizade acontece they have to be”. naturalmente, porque as pessoas têm algo em comum e querem ser amigas, e não porque é algo imposto.

b ) Do you agree with Hobbes? Why (not)? Espera-se que os alunos digam que a tirinha demonstra, provavelmente, uma Why (not)? crítica em relação às amizades ou demais relações que possam ser negociadas, firmadas por contratos com regras a serem forçadamente seguidas. Assim, Hobbes se nega a assinar o contrato, pois reconhece que a amizade deve surgir de maneira espontânea.

c ) Why do you think Calvin wants Hobbes to sign a friendship contract? d ) Do you think people need terms or rules to be friends? e ) Do you and your friends have terms or rules to follow? f ) What’s your best friend like? Describe him/her.

112

Nesta questão, é interessante levar os alunos a pensarem em características da personalidade de seus melhores amigos, retomando os adjetivos que estudaram na unidade 1. one hundred and twelve

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Learning vocabulary 5.

5. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a trabalharem em duplas para discutir os tipos de relacionamentos presentes nas imagens.

Look at the pictures. Then, discuss with a classmate what kind of relationship each picture represents. Resposta esperada: A - classmates; B - a relationship between lovers; C - long-distance

6.

7.

Rocketclips, Inc./Shutterstock.com

goodluz/Shutterstock.com

Now, match the relationships with the pictures.

F

I - E; II - B; III - A; IV - F; V - C; VI - D.

I

teammates

III

classmates

V

long-distance family/friend

II

boyfriend and girlfriend

IV

neighbors

VI

best friends

Talk to a classmate and find out which of the relationships presented in activity 5 he/she Sugerimos orientar os alunos a trabalharem em duplas nesta atividade has. Observe: Do you have a best friend?

8.

E

C

de perguntas e respostas. Eles devem conversar sobre quais relacionamentos da atividade 5 eles possuem. É importante pedir que detalhem os nomes das Yes, I do./ pessoas com quem se What’s his/ relacionam, como as No, I don’t. her name? conheceram, suas características, do que gostam nelas, e assim por diante.

In your notebook, rewrite the following sentences about relationships choosing the correct os alunos sintam dificuldade, você pode sugerir a utilização do glossário e/ou alternative to complete them. Caso um dicionário para que eles possam sanar suas dúvidas de vocabulário.

de

a ) When you (flirt/break up) with someone, you finish the relationship. b ) (A flirt/An acquaintance) is someone you know, but not very well. c ) If you go on a (date/flirt) with someone, you have a romantic meeting with this person. d ) When you go on a (blind date/love at first sight), you don’t know the person you’ll romantically meet. e ) If you (propose to someone/break up), you ask him/her to marry you. f ) If you (can’t stand/lose touch) with someone, you stop speaking to her/him. g ) When you (have a crush on someone/have an acquaintance with), you love this person secretly. h ) When two people (get on well/are heartbroken), they like each other.

9.

Talk to your teacher and classmates about your relationships using the words and Sugerimos pedir aos alunos que pensem em suas próprias relações expressions from activity 8. Follow the examples. conversar utilizando as palavras e expressões da atividade anterior. I get on well with my neighbor.

ao

My sister broke up with her boyfriend. one hundred and thirteen

113

Unit 6

D

B

Iakov Filimonov/Shutterstock.com

Pinkcandy/Shutterstock.com

A

wavebreakmedia/Shutterstock.com

spass/Shutterstock.com

family/friend; D - best friends; E - teammates; F – neighbors.


Learning and acting

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Reading and reflecting Pre-reading 1. Discuss

the following questions with a classmate.

Respostas pessoais.

a ) Do you have long-time friends? If so, what do you think makes your friendship lasts? b ) In your opinion, should friendships be tested? Why (not)? Esta questão antecipa parte do tema do texto que lerão adiante.

c ) Do you think friends can disagree? In which situations?

2. You

are going to read a short story. What are the characteristics of short stories? Do some research, if necessary, and identify the correct statements. a; b; d; f. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a anotarem no caderno as

dos contos, tomando como base, por exemplo, a ) Short stories are brief fictional works. características que já estudaram na disciplina da Língua Portuguesa. Se

b ) There are usually few characters. c ) The plot is usually very complex.

o

necessário, você pode pedir que façam uma pesquisa na internet ou na biblioteca da escola. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, informações sobre o gênero textual conto. Os contos costumam apresentar enredos menos complexos em comparação, por exemplo, com os romances.

d ) There are few actions, centered on one main story. e ) It focuses on many themes.

Em geral, os contos focam em apenas um evento.

f ) The story happens in a limited time and place.

3. Read

the title and the source of the text on the next page and answer these questions.

a ) Based on the title, what do you think this short story is about? Resposta esperada: it is about a friendship that is put to the test.

b ) Based on the source, where is this short story originally from? It is from Nigeria.

Reading 4. Read

the short story and answer the following questions.

a ) Who narrates the story?

IV

Sugerimos explicar aos alunos que as questões abaixo abordam os elementos da narrativa presentes no conto. Você pode dizer que os elementos da narrativa são: narrador (narrator), tempo (time), espaço ( place), personagens (characters) e enredo ( plot).

I

the neighbor

III

Omoteji

II

Olaleye

IV

someone who is not part of the story

b ) When does the story happen? Long c ) Where does the story happen? Far

ago.

away.

d ) Who are the main characters? Olaleye, e ) Is there any conflict? Which one(s)?

Omoteji, and the neighbor.

Yes, there is. After the neighbor puts their friendship to the test, Olaleye and Omoteji disagree with each other and start to fight.

5. Read the story again. In your notebook, write down the true statements and rewrite the false ones. a ) Both Omoteji and Olaleye were farmers. True. b ) There was a neighbor who decided to test their friendship. True. c ) To put their friendship to the test, the neighbor made a red hat. False. To put their friendship to the test, the neighbor made a red and green hat.

d ) Omoteji and Olaleye argued because they had different opinions about the neighbor’s hat. True.

e ) The neighbor said that neither of them was right about the hat. False. The neighbor said that both of them were right about the hat.

f ) After the fight, Omoteji and Olaleye were not friends anymore. False. Omoteji and Olaleye were stronger friends than ever.

114

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David Smart/Shutterstock.com

Long ago and far away there were two good friends named Olaleye and Omoteji. [...] Finally their great friendship raised a question in the heart of their wise neighbor, and he determined to test their friendship for one another. Secretly, he made a hat for himself which was red on one side and green on the other. Then one day after putting on his new hat, he strolled along the footpath. “Good morning!” he greeted Omoteji as the good fellow bent over the yams in his field. “Good morning”, answered Omoteji, standing up to stretch himself a little from his bending. “I see you have a fine new red hat.” “Oh, yes”, answered the other. “I am happy that you noticed it.” And he set his new hat more firmly upon his head. He walked on along the footpath, and Omoteji returned to his work. A few moments later, he saw Olaleye pulling weeds in his yam patch. “Good morning, Olaleye!”, he called. Olaleye looked up and returned the man’s greeting. Then, “Oho”, said he. “I see you have a fine new green hat.” “Yes, indeed”, answered the neighbor. “I looked a long time before I found the one I wanted.” [...] When the sun stood at the zenith, Olaleye stopped his work and went to eat his lunch with his good friend Omoteji. As they ate, Omoteji said

“Did you notice the fine red hat our neighbor had?” “Red hat!”, exclaimed Olaleye. [...] “It wasn’t a red hat our neighbor was wearing. It was a green hat”, explained Olaleye. And he smiled at his friend’s mistake. “A green hat!”, exclaimed Omoteji. “Oh, no, my friend. It was not green. It was red. [...]” Omoteji [...] continued to argue that the hat was red, while Olaleye for his part maintained that the hat was green. From words, the quarrel grew to blows, and Omoteji was still reeling from Olaleye’s stout blow when their neighbor hurried toward them. “What’s this!,” he exclaimed. “You two fighting! I thought you were the best friends. How can friends come to blows this way?” Olaleye and Omoteji, their excitement somewhat cooled by this interruption, stared at their neighbor. This time, Omoteji saw the green side of the hat, and Olaleye saw the red side. [...] Their neighbor [...] showed them the red side and the green one. “Look here, my friends”, he said, “You were both right about the hat. But you were both wrong about your friendship. You are not the best of friends if you cannot examine both sides of a question without anger, whether it be a hat or whether it be something more important.” [...] And thenceforth the two were stronger friends than ever.

WALKER, Barbara K. (retold by). Test of a friendship. In: The dancing palm tree and other Nigerian folktales. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 1990. p. 70-72. Excerpts from “Test of a Friendship” from The Dancing Palm Tree and Other Nigerian Folk Tales, retold by Barbara K. Walker. Copyright © 1968, 1990 by Barbara Walker. Reprinted with the permission of The Permissions Company, Inc., on behalf of Texas Tech University Press, http://ttupress.org.

one hundred and fifteen

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Unit 6

Test of a friendship


6.

Read the text again and organize the events (from 1 to 8) in the order they happened. 1 - D; 2 - F; 3 - H; 4 - C; 5 - A; 6 - G; 7 - B; 8 - E.

A

B

At lunchtime, Olaleye and Omoteji stopped work to have lunch together.

C

Because of their disagreement, they started to fight.

D

Then, he greeted Olaleye.

E

A wise man had an idea to test Olaleye and Omoteji’s friendship.

F

The neighbor interrupted their fight and showed them the hat.

H

Ilustrações: Camila Ferreira

G

He made a hat for himself. One side of the hat was red. The other side was green.

They talked about the neighbor’s hat. Omoteji said it was red. Olaleye claimed it was green.

He passed by Omoteji’s farm and said “Good morning!”.

Post-reading 7.

After reading the text, answer the following questions.

Respostas pessoais.

a ) Do you know someone who lived a similar story? If so, share with the class. b ) After he stopped Olaleye and Omoteji’s fight, the neighbor said something important. Read what he says again and discuss with a classmate. In your opinion, what does it mean? Espera-se que os alunos compreendam que, nesse trecho do conto, o sábio vizinho procura demonstrar para os dois amigos que, em uma amizade verdadeira, os conflitos devem ser resolvidos sem You are not the best of friends if you cannot examine brigas e sem raiva.

both sides of a question without anger, whether it be a hat or whether it be something more important.

116

one hundred and sixteen


Putting your ideas into words Before writing From the covers below, discuss with a classmate which one(s) is(are) short story(ies). Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade.

10.

C

The Epigram books collection of best new Singaporean short stories, edited by Jason Erick Lundberg, 2013.

On the Road, by Jack Kerouac, 2008.

After observing the covers above, would you like to read one of these books? Resposta pessoal.

Unit 6

9.

The Granta book of the African short story, edited by Helon Habila, 2011.

A and B.

Penguin Books

B

Grant Books

A

Epigram Books

8.

Observe the covers again. Choose one and try to predict the story. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

Writing In the story, Olaleye and Omoteji made up after the neighbor talked to them. However, we don’t know exactly how it happened. Imagine the dialog after the neighbor showed them ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como the hat, and rewrite the end of the short story. Sugerimos conduzir esta atividade.

Anna Simonin

11.

After writing 12.

Read the different endings for the story your classmates have come up with. Then, discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates. Respostas pessoais. a ) Talk about some aspects you found interesting in your classmates’ story endings. b ) Are your short story endings similar or different? Talk about the similarities and differences. one hundred and seventeen

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Listening and understanding

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Listening 1.

Answer the following questions. Respostas

pessoais.

a ) Do you have close friends? b ) What are the characteristics of your closest friends? c ) Look at the images below and choose the ones that represent the way you see your a realização da atividade, sugerimos organizar os alunos em friends. In pairs, explain your answers. Após duplas para que justifiquem suas escolhas a um colega de classe, dizendo por que relacionaram as imagens selecionadas a seus amigos(as).

BigLike Images/Shutterstock.com

B

Kolett/Shutterstock.com

A

stockyimages/Shutterstock.com

D

iordani/Shutterstock.com

C

2. track 33

118

You are going to listen to a program about teenage issues. Listen and answer. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, a transcrição do áudio.

a ) What kind of program is this? I

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre este item.

I

a podcast show recorded by nonprofessional hosts

II

a famous radio talk show

one hundred and eighteen

antoniodiaz/Shutterstock.com

F

michaeljung/Shutterstock.com

E


3. track 33

Listen to the track again. In your notebook, organize the following sentences from 1 to 5 in the order you hear them. 1 - b; 2 - e; 3 - c; 4 - d; 5 - a. a ) “I think being a friend is knowing about that person.” b ) “How do you define a friend?” c ) “You can hang out with somebody and not really even be their friend.” d ) “To me that higher level of a friend is someone who knows about me.” e ) “Why is it important to have real friends instead of just people that are popular?”

4.

Answer the following questions based on what you heard. a ) According to Summer, what is being a friend?

III; IV; V; VI.

I

all of your friends.

IV

how they feel about friends.

II

your friend’s secrets.

V

how they feel about school.

III

about the person, their family.

VI

their trials and emotions.

Unit 6

For her, being a friend is knowing…

b ) According to her, what is the difference among an acquaintance, someone you hang An acquaintance is someone you know; someone you hang out with is a person out with sometimes and a real friend? you spend time together, not necessarily a friend; and a friend is someone you really know, care about and have heartfelt conversations with.

c ) How about you, do you think you are a real friend? Why? Discuss it with your teacher and classmates. Resposta pessoal.

Speaking Talk to a classmate about the attitudes you consider important in a relationship between friends. If necessary, take some notes before talking. Resposta pessoal.

In my opinion, some characteristics OF A CLOSE FRIEND are...

Speaking up

In my opinion, BEING A CLOSE FRIEND requires...

Final consonants

Art Capri

5.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir as atividades deste boxe.

1. Listen and repeat. I used to talk to my friend in a group on the internet.

track 34

2. Attention! Some sounds can be tricky! Listen to the words below and focus your track 35

attention on how the final consonants and vowels are pronounced. Then, practice with a classmate. a ) noise - noisy

c ) blood - bloody

b ) wear - weary

d ) mess - messy

e ) cloud - cloudy

3. Listen to the sentence below. Can you identify the linking sounds? Listen again and repeat it to a classmate to improve your pronunciation. track 36

John is a good boy, he used to live in a big house with a red gate. His favorite food is ͝ ͝ ͝ ͝ ͝ ͝ ͝ ͝ hot dog. Last year, he didn´t travel because he had a bad cold. ͝

͝

͝

͝

͝

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119


Comprehending and using

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Learning about the language Phrasal verbs 1.

You are going to read a cartoon and a short text. Both of them give an important tip on friendship. Read the texts and answer the questions that follow. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade e o tema peer pressure.

B

In the Bleachers, Steve Moore © 2003 Steve Moore/Dist. by Universal Uclick

A

1. I) Resposta esperada: give in to peer pressure means to do things because your friends want you to do. Sugerimos levar os alunos a relacionarem o significado de give in na charge e no trecho de texto da atividade 1. Você pode recorrer às experiências dos alunos em seus relacionamentos, trazendo a ideia de pressão social. 1. III) The main meaning of the verb to give is to pass something to someone (dar); the phrasal verb to give in means to finally agree with something after someone has been trying to convince you (ceder). Sugerimos verificar se os alunos entenderam que a preposição in após o verbo to give altera seu significado.

120

[...] Why Do People Give in to Peer Pressure? Some kids give in to peer pressure because they want to be liked, to fit in, or because they worry that other kids might make fun of them if they don’t go along with the group. Others go along because they are curious to try something new that others are doing. The idea that “everyone’s doing it” can influence some kids to leave their better judgment, or their common sense, behind. [...]

In the bleachers, by Steve Moore. Available at: <www. gocomics.com/inthebleachers/2003/11/28>. Accessed on: September 23 rd, 2015.

2.

Dealing with peer pressure. Available at: <http:// kidshealth.org/kid/feeling/friend/peer_pressure.html>. Accessed on: August 7th, 2015.

I

What does the expression give in to peer pressure mean to you?

II

Is the meaning of give in the same in both texts?

III

What is the difference between the verbs to give and to give in?

Resposta esperada: yes, they have the same meaning. É importante verificar se os alunos entenderam que, tanto na charge quanto no trecho do texto, give in significa “ceder”.

Now, read the statements and decide if they are true or false. In your notebook, write down Após a releitura dos textos, sugerimos levar os alunos a the true statements and rewrite the false ones. inferirem os significados das palavras levando em In text A…

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, informações sobre phrasal verbs.

consideração o tema dos textos bem como da própria unidade.

a ) the fish are encouraging Ernie to do something good.

False. The fish are encouraging Ernie to do something bad.

b ) they are Ernie’s peers. True. c ) what happened to Ernie is bad. True. d ) Ernie resisted peer pressure.

False. Ernie gave in to peer pressure.

In text B… e ) fit in means to be accepted by a group of people. True. f ) go along with means to walk towards a specific direction.

False. Go along with means to support an idea, or to agree with someone’s opinion.

g ) make fun of means to play and have fun together.

False. Make fun of means to make a joke about someone or something in an unkind way.

h ) leave behind means to deliberately not think about something. True.

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Simple Past - Verb to be You are going to read an excerpt of a text about something bad that can happen in school. Read it and identify what it Sugerimos levar os alunos a perceberem que o texto relata um fato is about. c ocorrido no passado. Para isso, você pode pedir que eles analisem os verbos do texto focando no tempo em que a ação ocorreu.

a ) peer pressure

c ) bullying

SpeedKingz/Shutterstock.com

b ) lack of motivation

The website BullyingUK <http://tub.im/ ff4s5n> is part of Family lives, a British organization dedicated to support families to deal with problems related to parenting and relationship. They offer free services including a website, support groups and a 24-hour helpline.

[...] Jacob ha s a lea rn ing di sa bi lit y, and was bu llied by anot her boy who had specia l need s too. Luck ily, Jaco mum spot ted the b’s sig ns very ea rly an d aler ted the school, who ac ted very qu ickly to st op the bu lly ing. […] the teaching st aff were absolutely brilliant about it. […] They spoke to this boy about his behaviour and how he should behave. […] The com mun icat ion between ho me and school was br ill ia nt over th is time so that we could al so prai hi m and bu ild up se hi s self-es teem an d conf idence. Bul lyin g cas e stu die s. Ava ilab le at: <w ww .bu llyin g.c o.u k/g ene ral-adv ice/bu llyin g-c stu die s/> Acc ess ed on: Septem ber th ase 24 , 2015.

4.

Read the text again and answer the questions about it. I

and III.

a ) What is correct according to the text? I

Jacob is not bullied anymore.

III

The teaching staff helped Jacob.

II

The problem is still happening.

IV

The school did not try to solve the problem.

b ) Do you think the school has acted correctly? And what other measures do you think pessoal. Espera-se que os alunos digam que a escola agiu corretamente ao ajudar can be taken to stop bullying? Resposta os dois envolvidos, tanto quem fez o bullying quanto quem o sofreu. Sugerimos pedir que

5.

deem exemplos de outras ações que podem ser tomadas, como campanhas de prevenção,

canal de Read the following sentences about the text. Rewrite them in your notebook choosing the um denúncia na appropriate option in each case. If necessary, study page 194 to remember how to use anônima escola, diálogo Antes da realização desta atividade, sugerimos instruir os alunos a em sala de aula the past form of verb to be. estudarem a página 194 do Grammar appendix. e com os pais, entre outros.

a ) Jacob and his bully (was/were) boys with disabilities. b ) Jacob’s mother (wasn’t/weren’t) inattentive to the signs of bullying. c ) The teaching staff (wasn’t/was) efficient and talked to the boy. d ) The communication between home and school (was/were) brilliant. e ) Jacob (was/were) confident again.

There was/There were 6.

Read the sentences and decide if the statements that follow are true or false. Write down chamar a atenção dos alunos para the true sentences and rewrite the false ones in your notebook. Sugerimos essas duas frases, pois apresentam as duas

estruturas do there to be e servem de exemplo para os alunos refletirem sobre seu uso.

Last night, there was a very good program about bullying on TV. There were not so many books about indiscipline in the library. a ) There was and there were are used to talk about the present. b ) There was not and there were not are the negative forms.

False. There was and there were are used to talk about the past.

True.

c ) There was is used with singular nouns and there were with plural nouns.

True.

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121

Unit 6

3.


Using the language 7.

Read the following excerpts of texts about peer pressure. Then, analyze the context in which the highlighted words are used and choose the correct answers. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade.

[...] Say no. If you’re finding it hard to work up the guts to say no to something, you should know that sticking up for what you believe in feels really good. If you can explain to people in a calm way why something‘s not for you, more often than not, you’ll gain their respect. [...] All about peer pressure. Available at: <http://au.reachout.com/All-about-peerpressure>. Accessed on: August 8th, 2015.

[...] Be strong: just go with what you know is right. Good friends will respect your individuality and the fact that you have an opinion that may be different. Stand up for what you believe in and you’ll respect yourself more too. [...]

a ) In the text, what does work up mean? I I

to gather

II

to find a job

III

to exercise

b ) What is the meaning of stick up for? II I

to tease

II

to defend

III

to lie

c ) What does stand up for mean?

III

I

to get up in the morning

II

to wait for a decision

III

to defend or support something

Peer pressure. Available at: <www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/ articles/2Q8sK6t9xg5wrhysSMqH7bt/peer-pressure>. Accessed on: September 25th, 2015.

[...] Have you ever wondered why they call it “peer pressure” and not “teen pressure”? The reality is that peer pressure occurs at every age regardless of whether you are at school, work or uni, so learning how best to deal with it is really a learning skill you can use for the rest of your life. [...]

d ) What is the meaning of deal with? III I

to ignore a difficult situation

II

to disagree with someone

III

to do what needs to be done to solve a problem

Peer pressure. Available at: <www.kidshelpline.com.au/teens/get-info/hot-topics/ peer-pressure.php>. Accessed on: September 25th, 2015.

[...] Feedback and advice. Your friends listen and give you feedback as you try out new ideas, explore belief, and discuss problems. […] Your friends will be quick to tell you when they think you’re making a mistake or doing something risky. [...]

e ) What does try out mean? II I

to repeat

II

to test

III

to think about

Peer pressure. Available at: <http://kidshealth.org/teen/your_mind/friends/ peer_pressure.html#a_Peer_Influence_Isn_t_All_Bad>. Accessed on: September 25th, 2015.

8.

122

Imagine that one of your friends is constantly the victim of peer pressure. Write a short message of encouragement to him/her using the verbs you studied in activity 7. Then read it to your teacher and classmates and talk about it. Você pode orientar os alunos na realização desta atividade fazendo uma frase como exemplo. Depois de terminarem a atividade, sugerimos pedir que leiam suas produções para a sala.

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9.

Write some sentences about yourself and your friends using verb to be to contrast present and past with the conjunction but. Look at the examples and express yourself in pessoal. Espera-se que os alunos produzam frases contrastando o presente e o passado utilizando o verbo a similar way. Resposta to be nas duas formas e a palavra but. Você pode circular entre os alunos para acompanhar suas produções. É importante que as frases tenham a ver com eles e seus amigos, utilizando diferentes sujeitos a cada vez.

Verb to be is used to talk about a lot of things, including to say where someone was at a certain time. So, look at the pictures and find out where each person was in each specific time and make sentences in your notebook. Then, ask a classmate where he/she was at these times yesterday.

Yesterday at 08:0 0 a.m. He was in the libra ry.

Sugerimos levar os alunos a observarem as imagens e pedir para descreverem onde cada pessoa estava naquele horário. Após terminarem de escrever as frases, os alunos devem se organizar em duplas e perguntar uns aos outros e responder onde estavam naqueles horários. Por exemplo: Where were you yesterday at 08:00 am? I was at home.

Last Monday at 09:00 a.m.

Last Sunday at 01:00 p.m.

She was at school.

She was at home.

D

Vlad Teodor/Shutterstock.com

Halfpoint/Shutterstock.com

C

11.

B

wavebreakmedia/Shutterstock.com

lightpoet/Shutterstock.com

A

Unit 6

10.

This week I am OK with my friends, but last week I was disappointed in them.

Stephen Coburn/Shutterstock.com

Today my friends are happy, but yesterday they were sad.

Yesterday at 03:30 p.m.

Two days ago at 08:50 p.m.

He was at the mall.

She was at the restaurant.

The following sentences are about the pictures above. Choose the correct options to complete them and write questions and answers in your notebook. a ) (Was there/Were there) many books in the library?

Yes, there were.

b ) (There were/There was) some difficult questions in the exam. c ) (There were/There was) a very funny sitcom on TV. d ) (There weren’t/There wasn’t) a lot of people at the mall. e ) (Was there/Were there) olives in the pizza she ate?

No, there weren’t.

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123


First, tell a classmate what these sentences have in common. Then, read the sentences and observe the images below. Match them according to what they are showing. There is a phrasal verb in all sentences. A - IV; B - VI; C - I; D - V; E - II; F - III. A

B

They are making fun of him.

C

Mark worked up his self-confidence by studying more.

Hellen stands up for what she believes.

D

E

V

III

Rocketclips, Inc./Shutterstock.com

IV

Susan is at the mall with her friends. She is trying out some clothing.

wavebreakmedia/Shutterstock.com

II

Pinkcandy/Shutterstock.com

I

The exam was so hard that lilian gave in.

Goodluz/Shutterstock.com

Maria Sbytova/Shutterstock.com

Marian is dealing with unexpected low grades.

F

VI

Iakov Filimonov/Shutterstock.com

12.

Learning more 1. Read and understand. Used to

• The expression used to refers to activities that were a habit in the past, but no longer happen. In questions and negative sentences, the form is use to.

We used to spend a lot of time together when we were young. They didn’t use to go to school on foot. Did you use to go out on weekends? Yes, I did./No, I didn’t.

2. What did you use to do with your friends when you were younger? Write a few sentences in your notebook. Resposta pessoal.

124

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Summing up

Nesta unidade, você...

Sugerimos levar os alunos a refletirem sobre as alternativas apresentadas no quadro abaixo e instruí-los a escrever no caderno as frases que se relacionam ao que leram, discutiram e estudaram nesta unidade.

estudou um provérbio, em inglês, relacionado à amizade; leu e interpretou uma tirinha; estudou termos referentes a diferentes tipos de relacionamentos; refletiu sobre a influência dos amigos em sua vida; leu e interpretou um conto nigeriano sobre amizade; escreveu um final alternativo para o conto lido; ouviu um trecho de um podcast sobre a definição do que é um amigo; falou sobre as características de um amigo atencioso; viu que um verbo seguido de preposição ou advérbio é chamado de phrasal verb e que seu significado pode ser muito diferente do verbo sem essa preposição; Unit 6

praticou a pronúncia correta de palavras terminadas em consoantes; estudou e refletiu sobre os usos do verbo to be no Simple Past; estudou e refletiu sobre os usos de there was e there were;

Going further

Knopf Books

estudou a estrutura used to para falar de ações que eram comuns no passado, mas não acontecem mais hoje em dia.

Reading The book Wonder is about August Pullman, or Auggie, a boy who was born with a facial deformity. Prevented from going to school before, now is the time to start 5th grade at Beecher prep school and face this new challenge. His only desire is to be treated as an ordinary kid.

Surfing the net The website The cool spot <http://tub.im/bxpxya> talks mainly about alcohol and peer pressure, focusing on teenagers. You can find articles and different information on these subjects.

Singing The song Try, performed by Colbie Caillat and recorded on the CD Gypsy heart, is about the expectation people have to see girls always beautiful, dressed up and girly, as the beauty standards imposed by society. This is a kind of peer pressure girls suffer all the time.

re Melfi. St. Vincen t. EUA. 2014

Filme de The odo

St. Vincent, by Theodore Melfi. Paris Filmes: USA, 2014. ett y Image s

The movie St. Vincent is about Maggie, a newly divorced woman. Moving with her 12-year-old son, Oliver, to a new house means that she doesn’t have help to take care of him. Although he doesn’t seem to be the best option to do this job, she accepts the offer of the new neighbor to watch Oliver. Despite what everyone says, Mr. Vincent turns out to be a very good friend and a mentor for Oliver.

Ben Gabbe/G

Watching

Wonder, by R. J. Palacio. Knopf Books: USA, 2012.

Colbie Caillat (2014).

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125


Choosing a career

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, mais informações sobre as profissões mencionadas nesta seção.

Degree

Medicine

Job purpose

Take care of people’s health and save lives.

Usually hired by

Hospitals or clinics.

Required skills

• Getting on well with people. • Communicating well. • Speaking well in public. • Being good at examining people. • Being a good problem solver. • Being calm and patient. • Having leadership skills. • Being organized. • Enjoying studying about new drugs and technologies.

• Being a good researcher.

Ao abordar as características do trabalho de um médico, sugerimos pedir aos alunos que as classifiquem em pró ou contra, de acordo com a visão e a personalidade de cada um.

Characteristics of the job In your opinion, is it a pro (an advantage) or a con (a disadvantage)?

• Being able to save people’s lives or cure them. • Having to work on weekends and unusual times. • The opportunity to research and find a cure for •

diseases. Being exposed to diseases.

Resposta pessoal.

If you like medicine, you can also work as a medical research scientist or as a professo r.

1.

Do some research and find out other aspects related to the professions of doctor and nurse, presented on the next page. Share your findings with your classmates.

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos incentivar os alunos a pesquisarem outros aspectos relacionados às profissões apresentadas, como média salarial, diferentes possibilidades de atuação e curiosidades. Em seguida, você pode pedir que formem pequenos grupos e compartilhem uns com os outros o que descobriram.

126

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Nursing

Job purpose

Assist patients, medicating them and monitoring important aspects of the treatments, and support the doctor.

Usually hired by

Hospitals or clinics.

Required skills

• Getting on well with people. • Communicating well. • Being a good listener. • Being focused. • Being good at examining people. • Being a good problem solver. • Being calm and patient. • Being organized. • Being a team worker.

Choosing a career

Fotomontagem de Anna Simonin formada pelas imagens Micolas, ImageFlow, EsHanPhot, XiXinXing, suchalinee e Tyler Olson/ Shutterstock.com

Degree

Ao abordar as características do trabalho de um enfermeiro, sugerimos pedir aos alunos que as classifiquem em pró ou contra, de acordo com a visão e a personalidade de cada um.

Characteristics of the job In your opinion, is it a pro (an advantage) or a con (a disadvantage)?

• The opportunity to take care of people. • Standing up for long periods. • Helping to cure people. • Being exposed to diseases. • Having to work on weekends and unusual times.

Resposta pessoal.

If you like nursing, you can also be a caregiver.

2.

Think about these professions and talk to a classmate. Resposta pessoal.

To work in nursing, you can also become a technician. You can find Nursing technical courses at several institutions.

I would like to be a doctor / a nurse because… I wouldn’t like to be a doctor / a nurse because…

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g18_ftd_lt_1noi_u06_126a127_choosing3.indd 127

127

18/5/16 2:29 PM


unit

track 37

128

This is music to my ears


When you hear something that is music to your ears it means that you heard exactly what you expected and you are very pleased. My mom told me that I can travel with my friends next summer! That was music to my ears! Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, as respostas e os comentários referentes a esta atividade.

Exchanging ideas Do you like music? Do you regularly listen to music?

B

Can you name some music genres?

C

Can you name the musical instruments you see on these pages?

Fotomontagem de Júnior Caramez formada pela imagem g-stockstudio//Shutterstock.com

A

129


Contextualizing Warming up

1. a) It has the artist’s name and the CD title. It doesn’t present place, date and time, which is essential information for a poster of a concert.

Observe the picture and write down the most appropriate answers in your notebook. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade.

Unorthodox Jukebox. Bruno Mars. Gravadora: Atlantic Records. 2012

1.

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

a ) What is it? Justify your answer. I I

a CD cover

II

a concert poster

b ) What’s the name of the machine in the picture? I I

jukebox

II

radio

c ) What do you think it is used for? II I

to watch videos

II

to listen to music

MARS, Bruno. In: Unorthodox jukebox. Atlantic Records, 2012.

d ) Nowadays, what devices do we use instead of a jukebox?

2.

I; II; IV; V.

I

MP3

IV

radio

II

computer

V

smartphone

III

microwave

VI

TV

Discuss the questions with a classmate. Then, share the discussion with your class. Respostas pessoais.

a ) Do you know the names of musical instruments in English?

Não é necessário aprofundar essa questão demasiadamente porque os alunos trabalharão com instrumentos musicais na próxima página.

b ) Do you play any musical instrument? Which one(s)? c ) What music genres do you usually listen to?

Se necessário, sugerimos explicar aos alunos que R&B (rhythm and blues) é um gênero musical que combina elementos de outros gêneros, como blues, soul, funk, pop, hip hop e jazz dance.

bossa nova

hip hop

samba

reggae

blues

pop

funk

disco

rock

electronic

heavy metal

country

classical

R&B

d ) What’s your favorite music genre? e ) What’s your favorite singer or band? f ) If you had a band, how would that be? What name would you choose? What kind of music would you play?

130

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Learning vocabulary 3. Read

the poster below. Then, answer the questions in your notebook.

Unit 7

UTSC Music Society

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

Winter concert. Availabe at: <www.utscmusic.com/acband/category/concert>. Accessed on: November 17th, 2015.

a ) What is the event promoted on the poster? It’s b ) What kind of event is it?

a concert.

It’s a winter concert in which a band and a choir are going to perform classical music.

c ) Who is going to perform?

The UTSC alumni and community concert band and choir, and The Harmonie Wind Octet.

d ) What is the event’s date and time? It’s e ) Who is organizing the event?

on December 5 th, on Thursday, at 7 p.m.

UTSC* music society.

4. Se possível, sugerimos levar alguns dicionários ilustrados para a sala de aula, para que os alunos possam visualizar todos os instrumentos musicais mencionados no texto. Outra opção é levá-los para a sala de informática da escola e permitir que façam uma pesquisa por imagens que retratam o vocabulário estudado. Se julgar relevante, você pode chamar a atenção dos alunos para os termos que indicam a classificação dos cantores de música clássica: soprano, alto e tenor.

*University of Toronto Scarborough (um dos campi da University of Toronto).

4. Some

musical instruments are mentioned in the poster. In your notebook, make a list of them. Check the ones you mentioned in question a from activity 2.

Resposta esperada: cello, bass, trumpet, horn, trombone, percussion, piccolo, xylophone, euphonium, guitar, violin, viola, tuba and saxophone.

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131


Learning and acting

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Reading and reflecting Pre-reading 1. 1. c) Resposta pessoal. Você pode estimular os alunos a mencionarem outros tipos de resenhas. Algumas possibilidades são: resenhas de restaurantes, hotéis, jogos de videogame e assim por diante.

Answer the questions in your notebook. Then, discuss your answers with a classmate.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, informações sobre o gênero textual resenha.

a ) Do you know what reviews are? Try to explain what you know about them.

Resposta pessoal. Resposta esperada: a review is an article that summarizes and evaluates a work, such as a book, a restaurant, a movie etc.

b ) Where can you find them?

In magazines, newspapers and on the internet.

c ) What type of reviews do you know? MUSIC REVIEWS

movie reviews

book reviews

d ) Do you usually read reviews? Resposta pessoal.

2.

Do you know some characteristics of reviews? If necessary, do some research and write down in your notebook the alternatives that best complete their characteristics. a ) Reviews I

2. b) As resenhas críticas, além de descreverem uma obra, apresentam as qualidades e/ou pontos fracos dela. O autor costuma usar um tom crítico e persuasivo para defender seu ponto de vista.

evaluate a work. II

impartially

b ) Reviews highlight I

aspects of a

Diversas obras podem ser avaliadas em resenhas, tais como livros, filmes, peças de teatro, CDs, shows, pinturas e assim por diante. No caso da música, as resenhas podem avaliar, por exemplo, uma II critically canção, uma perfomance, um CD ou toda a obra de work. II um artista.

negative

II

c ) Reviews are usually organized in paragraphs that

positive and/or negative the work. II

I

introduce, describe, and give instructions about how to use

II

introduce or contextualize, evaluate, and make a conclusion about

d ) Reviews I

use adjectives to evaluate the work. I

may

e ) Reviews represent I

II

the public’s

II

the past tense

. II

I

concise and expository

II

descriptive, analytical and persuasive

g ) Reviews usually use I

may not

point of view. I

the writer’s

f ) Reviews are

II

.I

the present tense

h ) The author of the review may assign the work a rating to indicate

3.

I

its objective and topic of discussion

II

its qualities and relative merit

Read the headline and the subheading of the review on page 133. Then, answer these questions. a ) What type of review is it? It’s a music review.

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem a manchete e a linha-fina (primeira linha do texto, logo abaixo da manchete) da resenha disposta na página seguinte para responder às questões abaixo.

b ) What is the singer’s name? Catherine MacLellan.

c ) What is her nationality? She is Canadian.

d ) What is the name of the album? The raven’s sun.

132

. II

Convencionou-se usar estrelas para indicar essa avaliação (embora outros símbolos possam ser utilizados). Normalmente, uma estrela indica uma obra fraca e cinco estrelas uma obra excelente.

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Reading 4.

Read the review and answer the following questions. a ) Does the reviewer have a positive or negative opinion about the album?

Positive.

b ) What adjectives does the reviewer use to describe... I

Catherine MacLellan’s work? Fine,

II

Catherine MacLellan’s voice? Sweet,

III

Chris Gauthier’s guitar playing? Excellent.

impressive, beautiful, deft, moving.

www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/music/worldfolkandjazz/11040561/Catherine-MacLellan-The-Ravens-Sun-album-review.html

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Catherine MacLellan, The Raven’s Sun, album review Canadian Catherine MacLellan’s album The Raven’s Sun is full of fine melodies and impressive songwriting

By Martin Chilton, Culture Editor online 3:36PM GMT 09 Nov 2015 Catherine MacLellan, the daughter of the late Canadian folk giant Gene MacLellan (who wrote Snowbird), has an impressive haul of awards for her songwriting and she is as impressive as ever on Don’t Call Me A Stranger, one of 11 songs on her fine new album The Raven’s Sun. MacLellan has a sweet and powerfully expressive voice and she combines really well with the excellent guitar playing of producer Chris Gauthier (acoustic and electric). Don’t sink too far into their beautiful melodies, though, because the lyrics throughout are deft and moving, as on Gone Too Soon. Rémi Arsenault plays bass and Andy Leftwich and Jay Ungar guest on fiddles on The Raven’s Sun. MacLellan, who won the Contemporary Album of the Year award at the 2015 Canadian Folk Awards, deserves wider global recognition.

CHILTON, Martin. Catherine MacLellan, The raven’s sun, album review. Available at: <www. telegraph.co.uk/culture/music/worldfolkandjazz/11040561/Catherine-MacLellan-The-Ravens-Sunalbum-review.html>. Accessed on: November 16 th, 2015.

5.

Can you identify in the text the structure of a review? In your notebook, match.

a - III; b - II; c - I.

a ) paragraph 1

I

the conclusion

b ) paragraph 2

II

the evaluation of the artist’s work

c ) paragraph 3

III

the introduction of the text, by contextualizing the artist’s work one hundred and thirty-three

133

Unit 7

x

Fotomontagem de Bárbara Sarzi Canadian Press/REX/Glow Images

expressive.


6. b) Sugerimos pedir que os alunos justifiquem suas respostas identificando a palavra usada no texto que os levou a essa compreensão (giant). Além disso, você pode aproveitar esse momento para explicar que folk music é um estilo musical que se refere a músicas tradicionais de um determinado país, região ou comunidade.

6.

Read the review again and write down the following sentences in your notebook completing Sugerimos orientar os alunos a relerem o texto para them with the appropriate answers. realizar esta atividade. Durante a correção, você pode pedir que eles justifiquem suas respostas, apontando os trechos do texto em que se basearam.

a ) The author of the review is... II I

a famous Canadian musician.

II

the culture editor of an on-line newspaper.

b ) Catherine MacLellan’s father was... I

an important Canadian artist.

II

an unknown Canadian artist.

I

c ) Catherine MacLellan has won... for her songwriting.

6. h) Sugerimos explicar aos alunos que o Canadian Folk Awards é uma cerimônia anual de premiação dos melhores trabalhos de artistas da música folk canadense. Algumas categorias de premiação são: Traditional album of the year, Contemporary album of the year, Traditional singer of the year, Contemporary singer of the year, Vocal group of the year e Solo artist of the year.

I

a few awards

II

a great number of awards

II

d ) Her new album, The raven’s sun, has... I I

eleven songs.

II

fifteen songs.

e ) Some of the songs on her album are... II I

Snowbird and Rémi Arsenault.

II

Don’t call me a stranger, Gone too soon and The raven’s sun.

f ) Chris Gauthier plays...

I

I

both the acoustic and the electric guitar.

II

the electric guitar.

g ) Rémi Arsenault, Andy Leftwich and Jay Ungar play musical instruments... 7. b) No, she isn’t. Você pode aproveitar esse momento para conversar com os alunos sobre a diferença entre ser uma celebridade conhecida mundialmente e um artista local. Uma opção é levá-los a refletir se o fato de um artista ser reconhecido mundialmente significa que ele/ela tem mais talento do que outros cujo reconhecimento é local. 7. c) Resposta pessoal. Esta questão tem o objetivo de ampliar a discussão feita na questão anterior. Espera-se que os alunos percebam que, muitas vezes, fama e talento não estão relacionados e que a fama pode ser o resultado de outros fatores, como marketing, oportunidade, investimento financeiro, carisma e interesse do público.

I

on every song of the CD.

II

on the song The raven’s sun.

h ) In 2015, Catherine MacLellan won an award at the... I

Canadian Folk Awards.

II

Grammy Awards.

Post-reading 7.

I

7. a) Resposta pessoal. Espera-se que os alunos cheguem à conclusão de que o crítico que escreveu a resenha está sugerindo que a cantora deveria ser reconhecida mundialmente, e não apenas em seu próprio país.

Read the following sentence from the text and answer the questions in your notebook.

MacLellan [...] deserves wider global recognition.

a ) How do you understand it? Pair up with a classmate and exchange some ideas. b ) Is Catherine MacLellan a worldwide famous celebrity? c ) In your opinion, what are the reasons why some talented artists do not get recognition? d ) Would you buy Catherine MacLellan’s album? Why (not)? Resposta pessoal.

e ) Do some research and listen to some MacLellan’s work. Based on what you have listened to, do you agree with the reviewer that she deserves global recognition? Explain. Resposta pessoal.

134

II

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Putting your ideas into words Before writing 8.

Answer the questions below.

8. d) Sugerimos pedir que os alunos escolham os adjetivos que poderiam ser utilizados em suas resenhas e, depois, em duplas, justifiquem suas escolhas. Uma opção é orientá-los a elaborar sentenças sobre o(a) cantor(a) ou banda usando os adjetivos selecionados. É interessante incentivá-los a pesquisar outros adjetivos que podem descrever o trabalho dos cantores ou bandas sobre os quais vão escrever.

Respostas pessoais. Após a correção desta atividade, sugerimos revisar com os alunos as características das resenhas, trabalhadas na atividade 2 da página 132.

a ) What are some current well-regarded singers or bands? b ) What are some aspects that the media usually classify as adequate or inadequate in the artistic production of these singers and bands? c ) If you could choose one singer or band to write a review about, which one would you choose? Would you write a positive or negative review? d ) Among the words on the right, identify the ones you could use in your review to express your opinion. Then, talk to a classmate and explain your choices.

melodious

rhythmic

instrumental

catchy

tuneless

interesting

Writing Suppose you are a music critic. Write a review about a singer or band. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

Anna Simonin

Unit 7

9.

After writing 10.

Read some of your classmates’ reviews and complete the table in your notebook. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

Classmate’s name

11.

Singer/Band

Positive or Negative

Number of stars

Does the reviewer recommend the singer/band?

Talk to one classmate about the reviews you read. Do you agree with your classmates’ reviews about the singers/bands? Why (not)? Resposta pessoal. one hundred and thirty-five

135


Listening and understanding

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Listening 1.

Talk to a classmate.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) People can be influenced by their favorite singers or bands. In what ways could this happen? I; II; III; IV. I

hairstyles and way of dressing

III

opinions and points of view

II

attitudes and behavior

IV

life choices

b ) Have you been influenced somehow by your favorite singer or band? How?

2.

You are going to listen to an excerpt of an interview carried out by Sway Calloway with the singer Justin Timberlake. Before you listen to it, talk to your classmates about the following questions. a ) Do you know Justin Timberlake’s work as a singer?

Resposta pessoal.

Sway Calloway (1970-) is an American rapper, journalist and a news producer. Besides his artistic work in the duo Sway & king tech, he hosts a program called Sway in the morning.

Resposta pessoal.

b ) What is true about his career? II Se necessário, você pode pedir aos alunos que façam uma pesquisa para responder a esta questão.

I

In the beginning of his career, he recorded an album with Britney Spears.

II

Before he started his solo career, he was in a boy band called NSYNC.

c ) What kind of music does he sing? I I

pop and R&B

II

rock

III

reggae and funk

Paul McCartney

3. track 38

4. track 38

4. c) False. He says that Michael’s performance on stage was impressive. Se necessário, você pode comentar com os alunos que o entrevistado não usa essa palavra, porém essa informação fica implícita em sua fala.

136

Michael Jackson

JStone/Shutterstock.com

s_bukley/Shutterstock.com

Justin Sullivan/Getty Images

d ) In this interview, Justin Timberlake is going to mention some artists that influenced him. What artists do you think he is going to talk about? Resposta pessoal.

Mick Jagger

Which artists influenced Justin Timberlake? Listen to the track once and confirm if you guessed correctly. Michael Jackson and Paul McCartney. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, a transcrição do áudio.

Listen to the track again and decide if these statements are true or false. In your notebook, write down the true sentences and rewrite the false ones. a ) When he was a child, Justin Timberlake listened to Jackson 5 songs. b ) He had Michael Jackson’s jacket, gloves and socks.

True.

False. He had the jacket and the gloves. But the socks couldn’t be found anywhere.

c ) He thinks that Michael Jackson didn’t perform well on stage. d ) Justin Timberlake thinks Paul McCartney’s performance is spectacular. True.

e ) He feels that Paul McCartney makes too many pauses during his show. f)

False. He is impressed that he only pauses to put a different guitar on, to get down on the piano, and to talk to the audience. Paul McCartney is one of Justin Timberlake’s idols. True.

one hundred and thirty-six


Discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates.

Respostas pessoais.

a ) Do you agree with what Justin Timberlake says about Michael Jackson and Paul McCartney? Why (not)? b ) Famous music artists are usually considered celebrities. In your opinion, are celebrities overvalued? Explain your point of view. c ) Do you think the cult of celebrity is harmful to society? Read the two points of view below and decide which one you agree with. Then, exchange some ideas with a classmate. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem os argumentos abaixo e a dizerem com o qual concordam. Em seguida, você pode pedir que, em duplas, eles justifiquem suas opiniões.

I think the cult of celebrity is harmful to society because the media makes artists seem perfect. That is influential on youngsters and children’s minds because they try to reach an impossible standard of perfection. Also, it is not uncommon for them to worship celebrities and believe that everything they say is true and everything they do should be imitated.

I don’t think the cult of celebrity is harmful to society because, in my opinion, some celebrities actually try to help the world. Consequently, many of their fans aspire to achieve their goals and try to help other people too. Also, I believe that celebrities make many teens feel better about themselves.

5. b) Você pode aproveitar esta questão para conversar com os alunos sobre como algumas celebridades são supervalorizadas em nossa sociedade e são tidas como modelos pelas crianças e pelos jovens. Sugerimos levá-los a refletir sobre isso e a questionar se isso é adequado ou inadequado e em quais aspectos.

Unit 7

5.

Speaking 6.

Justin Timberlake said The Jackson 5 influenced him and his generation. Having that in mind, discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates. Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a pensarem em os artistas estabelecem ideias e

a ) Do you agree that singers can influence generations? Why (not)? como comportamentos que são repetidos pelas gerações posteriores.

b ) Do you think they can influence other aspects of people’s lives? How?

Sugerimos levar os alunos a considerarem outros aspectos como a influência na moda e no comportamento dos fãs.

c ) Do you think artists can influence young people more than their parents? Why (not)? Você

pode pedir aos alunos que, com base em sua própria experiência, reflitam se a influência dos artistas pode superar a influência dos pais.

d ) Can you name a band or singer that has influenced you? Talk about this influence with your classmates.

7.

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a falarem dos artistas que admiram e como eles o influenciam no que diz respeito a se vestir de determinada maneira, a pensar de outras maneiras, a desejar se tornar músico também, entre outras possibilidades.

In groups, choose a famous singer or band and do some research about their influence. Then, present it to the class. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade. Don’t forget to mention…

• how their music has influenced other artists and shaped styles of music. • how they have influenced fashion and people’s behavior. • how their ideas have helped to change the world. For example, think about artists that protested against wars, started campaigns to end poverty and hunger, and worked to make people aware of social issues.

Follow the examples: In the past, John Lennon and The Beatles influenced many generations because they talked about peace and love instead of war.

Nowadays, I think (name of the person/band) has/have influenced me/my generation because...

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137


Comprehending and using

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Learning about the language Simple Past 1.

Talk to your teacher and classmates. Respostas

pessoais.

b ) Can you name any blues and jazz artists?

a ) Do you like blues and jazz?

You are going to read the biography of the blues and jazz singer Nina Simone. Read and decide if the sentences following the text are true or false. In your notebook, write down the true statements and rewrite the false ones.

AP Photo/Glow Images

2.

Se necessário, você pode mencionar alguns nomes de artistas famosos do blues e do jazz, como Louis Armstrong, Ray Charles, Billie Holiday e Tony Bennett.

Nin a Simone Biog raphy Pian ist, Civil Rights Activ ist, Singer, Journ alist (1933 –200 3)

Nina Simone sang a mix of jazz, blue s and folk music in the 1950 s and ’60s. A civi l rights activist , she wrote songs promoting the Civi l Rights Movement. [...] Born on Febr uary 21, 1933, in Tryon, Nort h Carolina, Nina Simone received a scholarsh ip to stud y clas sica l piano at the Juill iard School in New York City, but left early when she ran out of money. She turned her interest to jazz, blues and folk music and relea sed her first albu m in 1958. In the ’60s, she beca me identified as the voice of the civi l righ ts and wrote songs about the movement. She died in France on Apr il 21, 2003. [...]

Nina Simon e biogra phy. Availab le at: <www.biogra phy.co m/peo ple/nin a-simo ne-948 4532>. Acces sed on: Novem ber 16 th, 2015.

a ) The text focuses on events that happened a long time ago. True.

b ) Nina Simone was French.

False. Nina Simone was American.

c ) Nina Simone was only a singer. False.

Besides being a singer, Nina Simone was a pianist, a journalist and a civil rights activist.

d ) Nina Simone studied at the Juilliard school in New York City. True.

e ) Nina Simone recorded only one album.

False. The text says she released her first album in 1958. Embora o texto mencione apenas esse disco, você pode comentar com os alunos que Nina Simone lançou diversos discos ao longo de sua carreira.

3.

What do you know about the Civil rights movement? If necessary, do some research.

4.

Do you think the fact that Nina Simone was an African-American citizen influenced her fans pessoal. Os alunos podem comentar que o fato de ela ser to support the movement? Explain. Resposta negra pode ter feito com que se engajasse ainda mais no movimento e

5.

The biography uses many verbs in the past form because the author is narrating the events that happened in the singer’s life. Read it again and find the past form of the verbs below.

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que o movimento dos direitos civis nos Estados Unidos engloba movimentos sociais com o objetivo de acabar com a segregação e a discriminação racial.

pode ter influenciado seus fãs a simpatizarem com a luta pelo fim da segregação racial.

a ) sing b ) write

sang wrote

c ) receive received

6. 138

d ) leave left e ) run out of ran f ) turn turned

g ) release out of

h ) become i ) die

released became

died

Among the verbs from activity 5, there are some regular and irregular verbs. In your Regular verbs: receive - received, turn - turned, notebook, classify those verbs into these categories. release - released, die - died. Irregular verbs: sing

- sang, write - wrote, leave - left, run out of - ran out of, become - became. Nesse momento, é uma boa ideia recomendar que os alunos vejam a lista de verbos irregulares disposta nas páginas 204 a 206.

one hundred and thirty-eight


Speaking up

Remember In the past, regular verbs are formed by adding -ed to the base form of the verb.

Regular verbs in the past

1. Listen to the following sentences and repeat. track 39

turn - turned; play - played; visit - visited

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir as atividades deste boxe.

a ) I listened to a great song by Paul McCartney yesterday. I loved it. b ) My parents watched a live performance of Queen when they were young. They liked it very much.

When verbs end in -e, just add -d. release - released; close - closed; love - loved

c ) Sam needed some company to go to the show, so he invited me to come along.

When verbs end in a consonant + y, change -y into -ied.

2. Listen and notice how the verbs are pronounced.

study - studied; carry - carried; try - tried

track 40

a ) listened - loved

b ) watched - liked

c ) needed - invited

3. Listen to the verbs below and, in your notebook, classify them track 41

plan - planned; stop - stopped; beg - begged

orientar os alunos a according to their final sound. Sugerimos reproduzirem o quadro no caderno, deixando espaço suficiente para classificarem as palavras.

closed

decided

kissed

started

cooked

defended

opened

traveled

crashed

jumped

played

waited

Remember, if it is not the stressed syllable, you don’t double it. open – opened; enter - entered

/d/

/t/

/id/

closed, opened, played, traveled

cooked, crashed, jumped, kissed

decided, defended, started, waited

Unit 7

When verbs end in a consonant + vowel + consonant, and that is the stressed syllable, double the last consonant and add -ed.

7. Read

Nina Simone’s biography on page 138 again. Then, in your notebook, match the following sentences to complete the information about her. a - III; b - V; c - I; d - II; e - IV. a ) Nina Simone didn’t sing only jazz.

I

before 1958.

b ) Nina Simone didn’t study classical piano anymore because

II

in the United States.

III

She sang a mix of jazz, blues and folk music.

c ) She didn’t record any albums

IV

She also wrote songs about the civil rights movement.

V

she didn’t have money to pay for the school.

d ) She didn’t live all her life e ) She didn’t write only songs of popular music.

8. Analyze

the sentences from activity 7 and choose the suitable answers. Write the complete orientar os alunos a observarem com atenção as frases da atividade anterior statements in your notebook. Sugerimos ajudá-los a perceber a formação das sentenças negativas no Simple Past. a ) The main sentences are in the I

affirmative

form. II II

negative

b ) In the past, the negative structure is formed by

9. In

e

I

did not (didn’t) + past form of the verb

II

did not (didn’t) + base form of the verb

III

.

interrogative

II

your notebook, answer the following questions about Nina Simone.

a ) Did Nina Simone compose any songs? Yes, she did.

b ) Where did she study classical piano?

She studied classical piano at the Juilliard School in New York City.

c ) Did she graduate from Juilliard School? No, she didn’t.

d ) What music styles did she become interested in?

Como os alunos já releram a biografia da cantora para realizar a atividade 5, sugerimos pedir que eles tentem responder às questões com base no que se lembram do texto. Depois, você pode orientá-los a voltar ao texto e verificar se suas respostas estão corretas. Se necessário, você pode pedir que estudem as páginas 195 e 196 do Grammar appendix. É importante certificar-se de que eles compreendem como as perguntas e respostas são feitas no Simple Past.

She became interested in jazz, blues and folk music.

e ) When did she die?

She died on April 21st, 2003.

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139


Passive voice 10.

Read the text about the history of the guitar. Then, answer the following questions in your notebook. What does the text say about... It was formed from the Latin word “cithara” and an ancient Sanskrit word, “tar”, which meant string. It was played during the European Renaissance in the 1600s.

a ) the formation of the word guitar? b ) the Baroque guitar?

It was invented in the United States in the 1930s.

d ) the first patent for the electric guitar?

It was awarded to George Beauchamp for a guitar he made with partner Adolph Rickenbacker in 1931.

grynold/Shutterstock.com

[...] History of the Guitar [...] The English word “guitar” comes from the Spanish word guitarra. Prior to that, it likely was formed from the Latin word “cithara” and an ancient Sanskrit “tar”, which meant string. […] One of the predecessors to the modern day classical guitar was the Baroque guitar. It was played during the European Renaissance in the 1600s. […] The electric guitar was invented in the United States in the 1930s. The first patent for the electric guitar was awarded to George Beauchamp for a guitar he made with partner Adolph Rickenbacker in 1931. [...]

Ljupco Smokovski/ Shutterstock.com

c ) the electric guitar?

Music for kids: history of the guitar. Available at: <www.ducksters.com/musicforkids/guitar_history.php>. Accessed on: September 28 th, 2015.

11. 11. b) É importante certificar-se de que os alunos compreendem que o particípio passado dos verbos regulares é formado pela junção de -ed, -d ou -ied ao verbo. Já o particípio passado dos verbos irregulares não atende a uma regra e deve ser pesquisado na lista de verbos irregulares apresentada nas páginas 204 a 206.

12.

Read your answers to the questions in the previous activity. Based on them, complete the sentences below with the adequate endings in your notebook. a ) These sentences focus on... II I

the doer of the actions.

II

the person or thing that experiences the actions.

b ) These sentences are formed by...

II

I

verb to be in the present form and the infinitive form of a main verb.

II

verb to be in the past form and the past participle form of a main verb.

Are these sentences in the passive voice or in the active voice? Select the passive voice sentences and write them in your notebook.

Sometimes we use the passive voice because we don’t know or do not want to express who performed the action.

Remember In the passive voice, we can mention the doer of the action using by.

A

B

C

The song Let it be was recorded by The Beatles in 1970.

140

Sugerimos aproveitar esta atividade para levar os alunos a perceberem os usos e a estrutura das frases na voz passiva. É interessante explicar que a voz passiva pode ser utilizada por razões diversas. Uma delas está explicitada no boxe de destaque. Também é usada para mudar o foco da oração, enfatizando mais a ação do que o sujeito que a realizou.

one hundred and forty

I

The word guitar was formed from the Latin word “cithara” and an ancient Sanskrit word, “tar”. Passive voice.

II

Someone formed the word guitar from the Latin word “cithara” and an ancient Sanskrit word, “tar”. Active voice.

I

The Baroque guitar was played during the European Renaissance.

II

During the European Renaissance, people played the Baroque guitar.

I

George Beauchamp and Adolph Rickenbacker invented the electric guitar.

II

The electric guitar was invented by George Beauchamp and Adolph Rickenbacker. Passive voice.

Passive voice. Active voice.

Active voice.


Using the language 13.

Draw up this table in your notebook. Write yes for the things you did and no for what you didn’t do. After that, interview a classmate and complete the table with his/her answers. Did pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir you do the same things? Respostas esta atividade. Did you…

You

Your classmate

play the guitar last week? buy a CD the last time you went shopping? listen to music yesterday evening? download any songs last weekend? watch a concert on TV last night? read a music magazine a few days ago? sing a song at school last year?

14.

Now, it’s your time to remember some facts of your life. Answer the questions about yourself and, after that, make a timeline. You can follow the example below. a ) When were you born?

d ) When did you take your first trip?

b ) When did you take your first step?

e ) When did you start learning English?

Unit 7

Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

c ) When did you go to school for the first time? 2009: I went to school

2003: I was born

2012: I started learning English Poliana Garcia

2004: My first step

15.

2011: My first trip

Do you know who David Bowie was? Do you like his songs? To learn a little bit about him, write his biography in your notebook and complete it using the past form of the verbs in the box. In some cases, you will have to use the passive form of these verbs. be

be born

become (2x)

co-write

die

induct

star

jim forrest/Alamy/Latinstock

David Bowie Biography [...] was born David Bowie in South London’s Brixton neighborhood on January 8, 1947. His first hitwas the song “Space Oddity” in 1969. The became original pop chameleon, Bowie a fantastical sci-fi character for his co-wrote breakout Ziggy Stardust album. He later “Fame” with Carlos became Alomar and John Lennon which his first American No. 1 single in starred 1975. An accomplished actor, Bowie in The Man Who Fell to Earth in 1976. He into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1996. Bowie was inducted died on January 10, 2016, from cancer at the age of 69. [...]

David Bowie biography. Available at: <www.biography.com/people/david-bowie-9222045>. Accessed on: February 3 rd , 2016.

16.

As you have seen on pages 138 and 139, biographies usually use verbs in the past because they mention facts that happened before now. Choose a music artist that you like, do some research and write a mini biography of his/her life, including the aspects you find most important. Make sure you use the verbs in the past form. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

one hundred and forty-one

141


Do you know a lot about music? To learn some curiosities about music and some artists, write down the following sentences in your notebook, completing them with the passive voice of the given verbs.

Jaguar PS/Shutterstock.com

Even though Elvis Presley got songwriting credit for Love me tender, it’s believed that this song by him. (not / write)

C

The Beatles song Mar tha my dea r by Pau l McCartn ey’s old Eng lish shee pdo g, nam ed Mar tha. (insp ire)

Sérgio Marques/CB/D.A Press

B

Age Fotostock/Easypix Brasil

A

Elis Reg ina died at the age of 36 in 1982. Befo re her death, she Brazil’s greatest livin g pop ular voca list. (conside r)

was inspi red

was not /wa sn’ t wri tten

was cons idere d

Dav id Guetta is a DJ. The term disc joc key (DJ) for the first tim e in the 193 0’s. (use)

F

Robyn Beck/AFP Photo

E

Helga Esteb/Shutterstock.com

D

Ori gin ally, the Irish roc k ban d U2 as Fee dback. In 1977, the ban d cha nge d the ir nam e to The Hyp e. Soo n afte r that, they fina lly bec am e U2. (kn ow)

was use d

Rodrigo Varela/WireImage/Getty Images

17.

cades, Over the last two de * s for ard Aw my some Gram um alb sic mu rld Best wo to Brazilian singers. who Some of the artists Milton won this prize were Gil rto Nascimento, Gilbe ve) (gi o. los and Caetano Ve

was kno wn

*Sugerimos explicar aos alunos que o Grammy Award é uma cerimônia anual que premia os destaques da indústria musical nos Estados Unidos. Algumas das categorias do evento são: Album of the year, Record of the year, Song of the year e Best new artist.

we re giv en

Learning more 1. Read and understand. Linking words: Contrast

• Some linking words are used to connect contrasting or opposite ideas and sentences. Some

examples are: but, however, despite, in spite of, although, even though and on the other hand. I’m not very artistic, but I like music very much. I have an eclectic taste in music. However, my favorite kind of music is rock. Despite/In spite of not playing any musical instruments, I’m a very musical person. Although/Even though she’s a good singer, she’s not recorded an album yet.

Boy bands are not usually the best ones. On the other hand, they are very popular among teen girls.

2. Write the following sentences in your notebook and complete them with your personal information. Respostas pessoais.

a ) I can/can’t play a musical instrument, but

.

b ) Even though I don’t have a favorite band,

.

c ) In spite of not being a fan of heavy metal,

.

d ) My parents listen/don’t listen to music all the time. However,

142

one hundred and forty-two

.


Summing up

Nesta unidade, você...

Sugerimos levar os alunos a refletirem sobre as alternativas apresentadas no quadro abaixo e instruí-los a escrever no caderno as frases que se relacionam ao que leram, discutiram e estudaram nesta unidade.

conversou com seus colegas de classe sobre música, gêneros e instrumentos musicais; leu a resenha de um álbum gravado por uma artista canadense; escreveu uma resenha; ouviu trechos de uma entrevista com um cantor famoso; refletiu sobre a supervalorização das celebridades; conversou com seus colegas sobre artistas influentes; estudou o Simple Past em inglês; praticou a pronúncia correta dos verbos regulares no passado; estudou a voz passiva em inglês; estudou algumas palavras e expressões que ligam ideias com sentidos opostos.

Reading

Editora Sp

eak

Unit 7

Going further

The book Where she went is the sequel of If I stay. Adam and Mia are now grown and they meet up in New York City. Adam has a wonderful career with a great trajectory and Mia has become a great and top-rated cellist. Will they finally open their hearts to each other?

Where she went, by Gayle Forman. Speak: New York, USA. 2012.

Watching

Filme de John Car ney. Beg in again. EUA . 2014

The movie Begin again is about Gretta and Dave, a couple that dated for a long time and were songwriting partners. When he finally gets to set a deal with a major label, Gretta is left behind and needs to start again on her own. She meets Dan, an unsuccessful record-label executive, and together they are going to start a brand new project: Gretta’s CD.

Begin again, by John Carney. Imagem Filmes: USA, 2014.

Singing The song Music, performed by Joss Stone and recorded on the CD Introducing Joss Stone, expresses the love the author feels for her own music and music in general. It talks about different musical elements, feelings and what music represents in her life.

utters tock.c s_bukl ey/ Sh

The website NPR <http://tub.im/5sgh75> has an entire section dedicated only to music. You can find audio, videos, interviews, articles and much more.

om

Surfing the net

Joss Stone (2009).

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143


unit

track 42

144

With time on your hands


When you have time on your hands, you have extra time and nothing to do. Now that she’s on vacations, she has a lot of time on her hands.

Exchanging ideas A

What do you do in your free time?

B

Is having free time important for you?

C

Observe the images on these pages. How do they relate to the title of the unit?

D

Look at the to-do list. Do you do any of these things when you have time on your hands? Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, as respostas e os comentários referentes a esta atividade.

Fot o ima mont a gen s S a gem d ndr e Jún aV io io l l a r C ar a eb ane me z f o .m/ Shu r mada t t er p s t o el as ck .c om

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Contextualizing

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Warming up Read the comic strip. In your notebook, write down the answers to the questions following the comic strip. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

© 2015 Patrick Scullin

1.

Super siblings, by Patrick Scullin. Available at: <www.supersiblingscomics.com/comic/free-time/>. Accessed on: October 8th, 2015.

a ) What’s the relationship between the man and the boy? II I

They are teacher and student.

II

They are father and son.

b ) What do they want to do in their free time? I

I

II

watch a movie

II

no

II

yes

II

the mother

II

yes

d ) Are they going to play the game? I

I

play a game

c ) Can the boy play the game?

Super siblings, by Patrick Scullin, is a comic strip about family stories for geeks and their kids.

I

probably not

e ) Who decides about their free time? II I

2.

the father

Discuss these questions with a classmate. Respostas

pessoais.

a ) Do you also play games in your free time? b ) Do you and anyone in your family spend some free time together? What do you do? c ) Does anyone in your family decide about your free time? d ) The boy’s mother doesn’t want him to spend too much time playing games. Do you Resposta esperada: the mother agree with her? Explain.

expects that her husband and son

spend their free time only e ) What plans do you think she has for her son and husband? don’t playing games. She probably wants

3. 146

them to help her, spend some time together as a family and for the son to study or do homework.

Observe the pictures on the next page. What are their free time activities?

Espera-se que os alunos respondam oralmente. Read a book, spend time with family, go to the movies, spend time with friends, watch television, play sports and games and listen to music. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a observarem as imagens e a inferirem quais atividades de lazer elas retratam.

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Learning vocabulary Choose the most appropriate names for the activities below. Then, write them in your read a book; B - spend time with the family; C - go to the movies; D - hang out with friends; E - watch notebook. AF -- play sports. B

Dean Drobot/Shutterstock.com

A

read a book/sleep

Unit 8

Syda Productions/Shutterstock.com

Syda Productions/Shutterstock.com

D

go to the movies/go dancing

go running/hang out with friends

F

watch TV/surf on the internet

Vgstockstudio/Shutterstock.com

Andrey_Popov/Shutterstock.com

E

6.

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a escreverem no caderno os nomes apropriados para cada atividade de lazer. Você pode perguntar quais atividades são mais comuns no dia a dia deles.

study/spend time with family

C

5.

TV;

Stephanie Barbary/Shutterstock.com

4.

relax/play sports

In your notebook, make a list with the activities from activity 4. Number them from 1 (your Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a fazerem uma lista no caderno com most favorite) to 6 (your least favorite). as ações da atividade 4, elencando-as de acordo com suas preferências. A primeira deve ser sua atividade favorita e a última aquela da qual não gostam ou de que menos gostam. É importante explicar que essa concepção de “mais favorito” e “menos favorito” não faz sentido no Brasil, mas em inglês é comum usarem essa classificação.

In pairs, ask and answer questions about your classmate’s free-time activities list. Observe É importante orientar os alunos a trabalharem em duplas, para que conversem sobre a lista que fizeram na the example below. atividade anterior. Se julgar necessário, sugerimos a leitura conjunta dos exemplos abaixo antes de os alunos iniciarem a atividade e também a revisão dos advérbios de frequência. Após a conversa, você pode construir um gráfico coletivamente demonstrando o ranking de favorite activities da sala.

What’s your second favorite free-time activity?

It’s listening to music.

How often do you listen to music?

Everyday.

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147


Learning and acting

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Reading and reflecting Pre-reading 1.

Some free-time activities use electronic devices. To find out about them, match the pictures with their names in your notebook. A - V; B - III; C - VI; D - I; E - IV; F - II. A

MY BLOG.COM HOME COLUMNS NEWS SOCIAL NETWORK CONTACT

COLUMN OF THE DAY

POSTS

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a observarem as imagens e, depois, perguntar a eles qual atividade está sendo representada em cada uma delas (são atividades que utilizam o computador, tablet ou celular).

C

B

D

R$100

x10 interest-free buy

E

F

Hi! =) Hi! How r u? ;) Fine! Good! Are you busy today?

Ilustrações: Anna Simonin

No, why?

*Uma ideia é apresentar também aos alunos o verbo to text, com o sentido de enviar mensagens de texto usando o aparelho celular. Por exemplo: Don’t forget to text me when you get home.

148

I

buy on-line

IV

watch videos and movies

II

send messages *

V

read/write a blog

III

play games

VI

spend time on social networks

Now, list the activities you usually do. Resposta pessoal. • Sugerimos orientar os alunos a trabalharem em duplas para compartilhar quais atividades fazem regularmente.

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2.

Discuss the following questions with a classmate. Then, share the main points of your pessoais. Sugerimos pedir aos alunos que discutam as discussion with your teacher and the whole class. Respostas perguntas em duplas e, em seguida, compartilhem com a sala os a ) Do you have a computer or tablet at home?

In American English, we say cell phone or just cell. In British English, we say mobile phone or mobile.

b ) Do you have a cell phone? c ) Do you use the internet on your computer or cell phone? d ) What do you use the internet on those devices for?

3.

In your notebook, make a list of how computers and cell phones affect people’s lives in both a positive and negative way. Share and discuss the list with a classmate.

4.

Observe the text and the pictures. Then, answer in your notebook.

principais pontos da discussão.

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

The text is... b

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, informações sobre o gênero textual notícia.

a ) a biography.

c ) a short story.

b ) a news report.

d ) a poem.

Reading Read the text. Is your prediction from activity 4 correct?

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem o texto rapidamente para confirmar as inferências feitas na atividade anterior.

Unit 8

Teenagers spend 27 hours a week online: how internet use has ballooned in the last decade The amount of time young people spend online has trebled in the past 10 years, while 70pc of adults feel comfortable giving away personal information

Young people aged between 16 and 24 spend more than 27 hours a week on the internet [...]. People are spending twice as much time online compared to 10 years ago, fuelled by increasing use of tablets and smartphones. The biggest increase has been among young adults, with time spent online almost tripling from 10 hours and 24 minutes each week in 2005 to 27 hours and 36 minutes in 2014. [...] Computer is still king, and is still the primary device for accessing online content. However, tablet and smartphone use has been steadily increasing, and two thirds of adults now regularly

use a smartphone. In particular, activities such as watching video clips online, playing games, instant messaging and social media have driven growth in mobile internet use in the UK. [...] In total, the use of social media has tripled since 2007 [...]. Nearly three quarters of internet users aged 16 and above say they have a social media profile [...]. Almost 70pc of internet users say they feel comfortable giving away personal information on the internet, including their home address, and a quarter say they don’t read website terms and conditions or privacy statements at all. Two-thirds of internet users use the same passwords for most or all websites. […] MAStock/Shutterstock.com

5:41PM BST 11 May 2015

BigLike Images/Shutterstock.com

By Elizabeth Anderson

KieferPix/Shutterstock.com

5.

ANDERSON, Elizabeth. Teenagers spend 27 hours a week online: how internet use has balloned in the last decade. Available at: <www.telegraph.co.uk/ finance/newsbysector/mediatechnologyandtelecoms/digital-media/11597743/Teenagers-spend-27-hours-a-week-online-how-internet-use-has-ballooned-in-thelast-decade.html>. Accessed on: October 7th, 2015.

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149


6.

Read the text again and answer the questions in your notebook. a ) What does the term ballooned mean in the title? That the use of internet has increased very quickly.

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem o texto novamente para realizar esta atividade. Eles podem escrever suas respostas no caderno.

b ) According to the article, how many hours a week do young people spend on the internet? More than 27 hours.

c ) What is the primary device used to access the internet?

Computer.

d ) Which kinds of activities have driven growth in mobile internet use? Activities such as watching video clips on-line, playing games, instant messaging and social media.

7.

Talk to a classmate and identify the graph that represents the information from the text. A - I; B - II.

A

The biggest increase has been among young adults, with time spent on-line almost tripling from 10 hours and 24 minutes each week in 2005 to 27 hours and 36 minutes in 2014.

I

25

30 29

20

28

15

27

10

26

5

25

Year 2005

0

2014

Year 2005

2014

In total, the use of social media has tripled since 2007 [...]. Nearly three quarters of internet users aged 16 and above say they have a social media profile [...].

Ilustrações: Poliana Garcia

I

8.

Internet users who have a social media profile

II

Internet users who don't have a social media profile

Internet users who don't have a social media profile

Internet users who have a social media profile

Read the text again. Answer these questions in your notebook.

The Telegraph is

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade. a daily morning a ) What is the article’s title? Teenagers spend 27 hours a week on-line: how internet use has ballooned in the last decade. newspaper founded in b ) What is the information that summarizes the text? The amount of 1855 and distributed time young people spend on-line has trebled in the past 10 years, while 70pc of internationally. adults feel comfortable giving c ) Who wrote the article? Elizabeth Anderson. away personal information. was published on 11 May 2015 in an English newspaper named The d ) When and where was it published? ItTelegraph. Nesse momento, você pode explicar que nos Estados Unidos o formato da data é colocado de outra forma, o dia vem após e ) What is the objective of the article? o mês e com a indicação de número ordinal (May 11th, 2015).

I

to inform people about the increase of time spent on the internet I

II

to alert people about the dangers of accessing the internet on a cell phone

III

to tell society how the internet was invented

8. f) É interessante pedir aos alunos que retornem ao texto e que busquem evidências que comprovem as características da notícia.

f ) What are some of the characteristics of a news report? I; I

150

Hours 31

0

B

II

Hours 30

The title (headline) instigates curiosity because it is interesting.

II

It can have pictures.

III

It presents information to the reader.

IV

The subheading complements the title, adding more information.

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II; III; IV; V; VI; VII.

V

The text can be divided in columns.

VI

The language is direct and impersonal.

VII

It is a reliable source, because the information is based on studies, statistics etc.


Post-reading 9.

Discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates.

Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos levar os alunos a discutirem sobre o uso da internet em seu cotidiano e a refletirem que o uso excessivo pode ser prejudicial.

a ) In your opinion, do people spend too much time on the internet? Explain. b ) Do you think people should spend less time on the internet? Why (not)? c ) If the survey was done in Brazil, do you think it would have similar results? Why?

Seria interessante levar os alunos a perceberem que os resultados mudam de acordo com o local onde a pesquisa for realizada. Você pode instigá-los a ler sobre este tema na internet, para que tragam algumas pesquisas a respeito.

Putting your ideas into words Before writing 10.

10. Resposta esperada: who? US teens who play games; what? the increase of hours a week US teens spend playing games; where? on consoles, phones and tablets; when? during 2013; additional info? people who play games on consoles are also starting playing games on phones and tablets. Sugerimos escrever no quadro who?. what?, where?, why?, when?, additional info? e pedir que os alunos identifiquem as respostas no excerto.

Read the following excerpt of a news report from a magazine and identify its main elements.

[...] According to Nielsen,* the

Also of note is that people who

average U.S. gamer age 13 or

play games on consoles are

older spent 6.3 hours a week

starting to play games on their

playing video games during 2013.

phones and tablets more, too. [...]

*Sugerimos dizer aos alunos que a Nielsen é uma companhia internacional de pesquisas de tendências do mercado.

That’s up from 5.6 hours in 2012 [...]. AAMOTH, Doug. Here’s how much time people spend playing video games. Available at: <http://time.com/120476/nielsen-video-games/>. Accessed on: 19 th November, 2015.

11.

Now, you are going to write the headline and the subheading for the article you read. Use the Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, informações sobre chart below to guide your production. gêneros textuais manchete e linha-fina.

Unit 8

Writing os

After writing 12.

Anna Simonin

*Sugerimos explicar aos alunos que comprehensive é um falso cognato, que significa “abrangente”. Existe o verbo to comprehend usado com o sentido de “compreender”, mas o adjetivo “compreensivo” se traduz como understanding.

Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos conversar com os alunos sobre a manchete (headline) e a linha-fina (subheading) que criaram. Primeiramente, sugerimos pedir que Was the headline interesting and a good reflection of the text? eles leiam as produções dos colegas de sala. Você pode se o que produziram é Was the subheading clear and consistent with the news report proposal? perguntar similar ou diferente do que os colegas produziram. Em seguida, Did you follow the chart to organize your ideas? sugerimos levar os alunos a refletirem e avaliarem suas produções através da discussão das Does your writing need improvement? In what aspects? questões nesta atividade. Depois de produzidas a manchete e linha-fina, sugerimos que elas sejam adicionadas ao grupo virtual da sala ou ao blog, a fim de que os alunos possam ler os trabalhos uns dos outros.

Discuss the following questions with the whole class and the teacher. a) b) c) d)

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Listening and understanding

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Listening 1.

Before listening to the track, discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates. Respostas pessoais.

a ) Do you think you have enough free time? b ) Do you like spending time at home? c ) Are your things organized or in a mess? d ) What are your hobbies? Do you do them at home or outside? Sugerimos orientar os alunos a falarem de suas experiências com livros e seus títulos favoritos. Como alguns alunos podem não ter o hábito da leitura, você pode trabalhar também essas questões, incluindo as razões para ler, a falta de tempo, entre outras.

e ) Do you enjoy reading? Which books do you like?

2. track 43

Neil Richard MacKinnon Gaiman is an English author. He has written novels, comics, short stories, audio theater and films. He has also won several awards.

You are going to listen to the reading of the book Coraline, by its author, Neil Gaiman. This book is about a little girl who enjoys exploring. Listen and answer the questions in your notebook. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, a transcrição do áudio. II

a ) How is Coraline’s house? I

new

II

very old

b ) What did Miss Spink and Miss Forcible tell Coraline? I

There is no well.

II

III

very small

III

The well is dangerous.

III

Play in the garden.

III

The well is very safe.

c ) What did her mother say to her? II I

3. track 43

Study more.

II

Don’t make a mess.

Listen to the track again and, in your notebook, write the names of the places and things that Coraline sees during her exploration in the order that they occur. 1 - D; 2 - A; 3 - C; 4 - B. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a relacionarem as imagens e as palavras e a escreverem em seus cadernos a ordem em que eles ocorrem.

A

B

a garden D

Ilustrações: Art Capri

C

a well

a tennis court

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a door


4. track 43

Listen to the track again and match Coraline’s free-time activities with the pictures in your notebook. a - IV; b - II; c - V; d - I; e - III. a ) Coraline explored.

c ) She watched videos.

b ) She watched the rain.

d ) She played with toys.

I

e ) She read a book.

II

III

V

5.

6.

Unit 8

Ilustrações: Art Capri

IV

In the beginning of his reading, Neil Gaiman mentioned a genre that features folkloric fantasy characters. What genre is it? Write down the right answer in your notebook. c a ) science fiction

c ) fairy tale

b ) horror

d ) fantasy

Seria interessante mostrar aos alunos que o autor Neil Gaiman cita o gênero fairy tale ao descrever a história do livro. No entanto, o gênero do livro pode ser definido como dark fantasy.

Did you like Coraline’s story? Would you like to listen to the whole story? In your opinion, what are the most interesting parts in the book? Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

7.

After listening to Coraline’s story, would you like to read the book? Do you normally prefer pessoal. Sugerimos perguntar aos alunos se eles gostariam de ler o livro reading or listening to books? Explain. Resposta Coraline após ter escutado um fragmento dele. Sugerimos discutir se eles preferem ler ou ouvir livros. Nesse momento você pode apresentar a palavra audiobook e comentar que trata-se de um livro gravado em voz.

Speaking 8.

When you were younger, what were your hobbies? Resposta

9.

Coraline explored the house and had adventures. Recall some adventures you had and tell your classmates and teacher about them.

pessoal.

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lembrarem de algum evento específico do passado, algum momento da infância que pode ser lembrado como uma aventura. Caso ache necessário, seria interessante contar algum momento da sua When I was a child... própria infância, para estimular os alunos a fazerem o mesmo. I used to travel to...

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Comprehending and using Learning about the language Zero conditional 1.

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

*É importante explicar aos alunos que o título do texto foi adaptado, pois, embora o texto original apresente sete ações que pessoas bem-sucedidas fazem em seu tempo livre, aqui serão apresentadas somente duas. Se julgar apropriado, você pode pedir que acessem o site do qual o texto foi extraído e leiam-no na íntegra.

Read the text and write the answers in your notebook.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

Some Ways Smart People Spend Their Free Time * When you get home from work, what do you do? Here are […] things successful people do with their free time. [...] They Take Classes. [...] The most successful people in the world are the ones who make a commitment to never stop learning. [...] Many local colleges offer courses for free [...]. And don’t underestimate the value of free online courses. If you have a free hour and an Internet connection, you can start learning a new skill. [...] They Spend Time With Friends and Family. [...] If you want to be successful in life, you have to prioritize your personal relationships — your bond with your friends and family members. [...] If you don’t spend your free time like this, it doesn’t mean you have no chance of being successful. However, picking up some of these strategies can improve your abilities, improve your mindset, and expand your network to levels that will increase your chances for success in the workplace. Start incorporating a few of them into your free time routines and you might just be surprised at the results. DEMERS, Jayson. 7 ways successful people spend their free time. Available at: <www.inc.com/jayson-demers/ 7-ways-successful-people-spend-their-free-time.html>. Accessed on: October 13 th, 2015.

1. c) Após a leitura do texto, seria interessante chamar a atenção dos alunos para que identifiquem uma frase em que o autor expressa seu modo de pensar. A última frase, por exemplo, expressa claramente que o autor acredita nas estratégias descritas, além da frase “And don’t underestimate the value of free on-line courses”.

a ) This is a/an... II I

short story.

b ) This text can be found... I

II

opinion article.

I Se julgar adequado, sugerimos comentar com os alunos que o artigo de opinião pode aparecer em diversos suportes, tais como jornais, revistas, entre outros.

on the internet.

II

in a dictionary.

c ) The objective of the text is... I

2.

I

to inform and defend the idea that what people do in their free time has an impact on their success at work.

II

to tell the life story of a very successful businessman and how he reached success spending his free time studying.

Read the text again and discuss the following questions with a classmate. Respostas

pessoais.

a ) Do you think the tips in the text are really important to be successful and happy? Why (not)?

Espera-se que os alunos comentem se concordam que as duas dicas são realmente importantes para ser bem-sucedido e feliz, e que deem uma dica que venha à sua mente.

b ) If you had to give a tip of your own, what tip would it be?

3.

Read the sentences below, which were taken from the text. In your notebook, write the correct answers. If necessary, study page 197. a and c. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a estudarem a página 197 do Grammar appendix para a realização desta atividade.

“If you have a free hour and an Internet connection, you can start learning a new skill.” “If you want to be successful in life, you have to prioritize your personal relationships.” a ) The sentences have two clauses. b ) They talk about things that are not true. c ) They talk about possible actions and their results.

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Resposta pessoal. Antes de os alunos realizarem a atividade, sugerimos pedir-lhes que observem as imagens para que digam as atividades que estão Observe the pictures. With a classmate, discuss the activities you like. presentes em cada uma delas. Espera-se que eles digam que as atividades representadas nas imagens são: ler, navegar na internet, desenhar e dançar, porém pode haver outras respostas, tais como, ir à biblioteca, estudar, ver vídeos ou jogar jogos no computador e assim por diante.

5.

surfing the net

drawing

dancing

Talk to a classmate about the activities you like and dislike. Use the expressions below. Observe the example. like

enjoy

love

Learning more 1. Read and understand.

dislike

can’t stand

I like watching soap operas on TV. I hate riding my bycicle when it’s too hot.

hate

Sugerimos explicar aos alunos que a forma do verbo no infinitivo é sua forma básica antecedida pelo to e que o gerúndio é quando se adiciona a terminação -ing ao verbo sem a partícula to.

Verbs followed by gerunds or infinitives

5. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a trabalharem em duplas e andar pela sala ajudando-os com a pronúncia e a entonação quando necessário. É importante que eles usem corretamente o gerúndio ou infinitivo nos verbos.

• When we follow a verb with another action, we use a gerund or infinitive. After some verbs, we use the -ing form, and after other verbs we use the infinitive. I enjoy reading comic books. Monica dislikes watching DVDs. She’d rather go to the movies. I don’t mind staying at home on weekends. I actually like it. He wants to go the party next Saturday. I decided to cut down on my internet use. Joe and Jerry need to study more and play less. Some verbs followed by gerunds are: avoid

finish

stand

consider

hate

suggest

dislike

mind

enjoy

recommend

Some verbs followed by infinitives are: agree

intend

promise

choose

need

want

decide

offer

hope

plan

• Some verbs can be followed by a gerund or an infinitive with no loss of meaning. I like playing computer games.

I like to play computer games.

2. To practice using these verb forms correctly, put the verbs in parentheses into the gerund or the infinitive form and write the sentences in your notebook. Depois de praticarem a atividade, to help

a ) I offered my brother b ) Mike wants c ) Jane hates

to go out

(help) with his homework.

(go out) with his friends.

sugerimos que os alunos criem frases relacionadas a eles e a pessoas de seu convívio.

(read) romantic novels. She likes thrillers better.

reading

d ) You should consider

(take up) a new hobby.

taking up

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Unit 8

reading

Felix Mizioznikov/Shutterstock.com

StockLite/Shutterstock.com

Andersen Ros/Blend Images/Getty Images

4.

Jacek Chabraszewski/Shutterstock.com

Likes and dislikes


Adverbs of manner 6.

Match the pictures with the sentences in your notebook. A

C

Oleg Vinnichenko/Shutterstock.com

Frank Sorge/caro images/Diomedia

B

Christopher Futcher/E+/Getty Images

A

F

Lisa F. Young/Shutterstock.com

Brian Eichhorn/Shutterstock.com

E

Juriah Mosin/Shutterstock.com

D

6. Antes de iniciar a atividade, seria interessante pedir aos alunos que, em duplas, descrevam as imagens. Espera-se que eles descrevam que na imagem A crianças estão abrindo presentes, provavelmente de Natal, na imagem B, há uma mulher desenhando um retrato, na C, um menino está assistindo televisão na sala, já na imagem D, outro menino está fazendo uma refeição, na imagem E, uma menina está estudando e, na imagem F, há uma senhora fazendo um aceno com uma das mãos.

156

7.

- V; B - I; C - II; D - III; E - IV; F - VI.

I

She likes to draw. She draws beautifully.

II

The children were quietly watching the cartoon.

III

He quickly finishes his lunch to play videogame.

IV

After the instructions, she did the test easily.

V

Slowly and carefully, they opened the Christmas’ presents.

VI

She lives happily.

Read the sentences from activity 6 again. Write the correct answers in your notebook. a ) The words in bold are used to...

II

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem as frases novamente e observarem com atenção as palavras em negrito, o importante é que eles compreendam o uso dos advérbios.

I

describe when something happens.

II

describe how something happens.

b ) Those words can be used...

I; II; III; IV.

I

at the beginning of the sentence.

II

before the verb.

III

after the verb.

IV

at the end of the sentence.

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Using the language 8.

Match the sentences so they make sense. Write them in your notebook.

a - IV; b - II; c - I; d - III.

a ) If you want to go to the movies, b ) Molly is a very good friend. She hangs out with me c ) If he doesn’t get enough sleep at night, d ) If I spend too much time in front of the computer, he feels tired all day and can’t play soccer with us.

II

if she has free time on the weekends.

III

I have a headache.

IV

call me.

These are some hypothetical situations. In your notebook, write what can happen in each Sugerimos ler o exemplo case. Follow the example. Respostas pessoais.

a) b) c)

com os alunos. Em seguida, você pode pedir a eles que pensem em uma resposta diferente para a pergunta do exemplo. Alguns alunos podem apresentar suas respostas para a What do you do if a friend tells you a secret? sala. Nesse momento é importante certificar-se de que eles utilizaram a zero If a friend tells me a secret, I don’t tell it to anyone. conditional de forma adequada. Caso seja necessário, eles podem estudar novamente a página 197 do Grammar appendix. What do you do if you get sick after buying the ticket for a concert you really want to Após a correção da go to? atividade, você pode pedir que What do your parents do if you spend too much time on the internet and don’t do your eles comparem suas respostas com um colega school homework? de sala ou pedir que What do you do if you can’t sleep at night? compartilhem com a turma.

d ) What does your best friend say if you forget his/her birthday? e ) What do you do if you have a lot of time on your hands?

10.

In pairs, ask and answer similar questions to those from activity 9.

11.

Draw up the table below in your notebook and write the answers according to your pessoal. Sugerimos pedir aos alunos que façam a tabela no caderno e marquem uma das opções, ou seja, preferences. Resposta se gostam, amam, não gostam ou detestam as atividades listadas na primeira coluna. É importante chamar a atenção

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a trabalharem em duplas para perguntar e responder a questões similares às da atividade 9. Você pode auxiliá-los na formulação das perguntas e no uso do dicionário, se necessário.

like

love

dislike

hate

deles para os diferentes graus de intensidade dos verbos, love é mais intenso que like, assim como hate é mais intenso que dislike.

singing going to the beach waking up early watching action movies surfing on the internet playing soccer eating fruits

12.

To practice saying more about yourself, write sentences in your notebook about the preferences from activity 11. Follow the example. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos I like singing in the shower.

a escreverem no caderno frases sobre o que amam, gostam, não gostam e odeiam, de acordo com o que marcaram no quadro da atividade anterior. Há um exemplo para auxiliá-los se necessário.

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Unit 8

9.

I


13.

Do you like singing?

14.

Yes, I do.

158

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a perguntarem aos colegas de sala sobre as atividades listadas no quadro da atividade 11, conforme mostrado no exemplo, para encontrar colegas com as mesmas preferências.

Choose the answer that sounds more adequate to you and write down the whole sentence Se necessário, você pode explicar aos alunos que, com exceção da alternativa e, em todas as in your notebook. outras frases as duas opções são gramaticalmente corretas, mas uma delas soa mais adequada de acordo com o contexto.

a ) He (easily/accidentally) found a DVD of his favorite movie while he was cleaning his bedroom. b ) Margot was reading the book (carefully/nervously). She loves reading. c ) She likes watching soap operas on TV, but her father likes the news. So, she asks her father (politely/quietly) to change the channel. d ) His cell phone disappeared (fast/mysteriously). e ) I went to a play yesterday and the actors performed (bad/badly). f ) Ana was (anxiously/closely) waiting for the weekend to hang out with her friends.

15.

Complete the sentences with your own ideas. a ) My mother speaks

.

b ) I think the last book I read was c ) A bus driver needs to drive d ) I think

16.

Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a completarem as frases com advérbios de modo. Seria interessante relembrá-los de que eles descrevem o modo como algo acontece. Por exemplo, no item a, eles devem usar uma palavra que descreve o modo como a mãe fala (slowly, clearly, softly etc.).

written.

.

before taking a decision.

Look at the pictures. In pairs, describe them. Follow the example.

Dean Drobot/Shutterstock.com

16. Resposta pessoal. Antes de os alunos iniciarem a atividade, sugerimos pedir que descrevam as imagens (na primeira, um homem está correndo; na segunda, um bebê chorando; na terceira, um senhor andando de bengala; na última, uma mulher toca piano). É importante certificar-se de que eles saibam quais verbos em inglês utilizarão para descrever cada imagem (run, cry, walk e play). Além disso, uma sugestão é perguntar a eles como descreveriam o modo como o homem corre, o bebê chora, o senhor caminha e a mulher toca piano (as respostas irão variar). A sugestão é que o trabalho seja feito em duplas.

Now, ask questions to your classmates and find out who has the same preferences as yours.

Raphael Daniaud/Shutterstock.com

06photo/Shutterstock.com

allbackground/Shutterstock.com

Marcel Jancovic/Shutterstock.com

She talks on the phone angrily.

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Summing up

Nesta unidade, você...

Sugerimos levar os alunos a refletirem sobre as alternativas apresentadas no quadro abaixo e instruí-los a escrever no caderno as frases que se relacionam ao que leram, discutiram e estudaram nesta unidade.

conversou com seus colegas de classe sobre seus hobbies e atividades realizadas em seu tempo livre; estudou como dizer em inglês algumas atividades que podem ser realizadas em seu tempo livre; leu uma notícia de jornal sobre quanto tempo os jovens passam na internet; escreveu um título e uma linha-fina para uma notícia de revista; ouviu um trecho de um livro; conversou com seus colegas sobre seus hobbies na infância; estudou frases na zero conditional para descrever uma ação e seu resultado; conheceu formas de expressar ideias relacionadas a coisas das quais você gosta ou não gosta; estudou que alguns verbos são seguidos de verbos na forma do infinitivo e que outros são seguidos por verbos no gerúndio;

Unit 8

Going further

Editora n HarperTee

estudou o sentido de alguns advérbios de modo e como eles são utilizados.

Reading

Singing The lyrics to the song The freedom song, performed by Jason Mraz and recorded on the CD Love is a four letter word, are about a lot of things that make us feel good and free. The last verses are about sharing this sense of freedom.

Filme de Kat ie Del lamagg iore. Brookly n cas tle. EUA . 2012

Brooklyn castle, by Katie Dellamaggiore. Sony Pictures: USA, 2012. om

Brooklyn castle is a documentary about a school that was transformed through the challenges and triumphs of its chess team. Students turned their free time into something really powerful.

utters tock.c

Watching

The rest of us just live here, by Patrick Ness. HarperTeen: USA, 2015.

s_bukl ey/ Sh

The book The rest of us just live here is about how people live their lives and spend their time. Sometimes there aren’t chosen ones. Sometimes, we just want to do simple things in life. Sometimes, we are like Mickey. We just want to graduate, go to prom and have courage to ask Hanna out. Sometimes those are the biggest problems we have. We just need to find what’s extraordinary in our lives.

Jason Mraz (2009).

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Thinking cross-curricularly

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

In this section of the book, you are going to read texts related to some of the topics you have discussed in the previous units. Here, you are going to have the opportunity to reflect on various themes and their relation with other subjects, such as Biology and Physics. The activities follow the same structure you have worked with in the units, including the stages of pre-reading, reading and post-reading.

1. 2.

You are going to read a text about aging. Before you read, list some of the bodily changes that occur while getting old. Possível resposta: hair loss, the senses are diminished, joints stiffen and connecting ligaments between bones lose their elasticity. Os alunos devem listar efeitos do envelhecimento em seres humanos baseando-se em suas próprias observações na convivência com idosos. Você pode anotar os pontos levantados na lousa, esquematizando, assim, o pensamento dos alunos.

Read the following text and identify the true statements on the next page. a; b; d; f.

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a lerem o texto e, depois, identificarem na página 161 as afirmações corretas. Esta atividade possibilita o trabalho interdisciplinar com Biologia.

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PHYSICAL CHANGES OF AGING

CONTACT

A+a-

[...] Sensory Changes Humans receive and process information from the environment through hearing, vision, taste, smell, and touch. With aging, these senses are often diminished and incoming information may be distorted or difficult to understand. As a result, the older person may give up some enjoyable activities or lose contact with friends and family who are important sources of support. […] Hearing About 30% of people over 60 have a hearing impairment, but about 33% of those 75 to 84, and about half of those over 85, have a hearing loss. Hearing loss affects the older person's ability to talk easily with others. For example, older people often have trouble hearing higher pitched tones. They also may not be able to make out sounds or words when there is background noise. […] Taste and Smell Some loss in taste sensitivity takes place with aging. However, the loss is minor and does not seem to occur in most people until well after 70. There is also a loss of smell, but this is not severe. Nevertheless, older people often complain that their meals are tasteless or that they no longer like their favorite foods. Most experts feel that these complaints are caused by a sense of loneliness at meals, or an unwillingness or inability to cook. Also, older persons may not buy more enjoyable foods when they have difficulty chewing due to poor dentures or dental problems, or are stretching their food dollars due to a limited budget. […]

Bárbara Sarzi

Touch The skin serves a protective function by buffering us from the environment. Skin changes leave the older person vulnerable to discomfort and harm. Due to reduced sensitivity, heat sources such as heating pads, hot water bottles, and pot handles can hurt the skin before the elder realizes that damage is occurring. [...] Changes in Bones and Muscles Aging adults, especially the very old, are vulnerable to broken bones. In addition, joints stiffen and connecting ligaments between bones lose their elasticity. Hand and foot pain may result. [...]

SMITH, Suzanna; GOVE, Jennifer E. Physical changes of aging. Available at: <https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/HE/HE01900.pdf>. Accessed on: October 5th, 2015.

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g18_ftd_lt_1noi_u08_160a165_thinking2.indd 160

17/5/16 10:50 AM


a ) As people get older, hand and foot pains are more likely to happen. b ) Reduced skin sensitivity can be dangerous. c ) It is possible to enjoy any meal because teeth are still strong. d ) People lose the elasticity in the connecting ligaments as they age. e ) Skin becomes tougher over time. f ) As their senses diminish, some people avoid some activities. g ) The ability to talk is not affected by hearing loss.

3.

4. Respostas pessoais. Esta atividade tem como objetivo comentários sobre esta atividade. promover uma reflexão sobre a What is ageism? discriminação etária com base nos próprios Ageism is discrimination or unfair treatment based on a person’s age. It can conceitos dos impact on someone’s confidence, job prospects, financial situation and quality of life. alunos. Sugerimos que It can also include the way that older people are represented in the media, which as imagens sejam can have a wider impact on the public’s attitudes. trabalhadas observando as […] questões What is ageism? Available at: <www.ageuk.org.uk/work-and-learning/discrimination-and-rights/what-is-ageism/>. propostas, com th Accessed on: October 6 , 2015. o propósito de desconstruir estereótipos.

Read the text below and decide if the sentences are true or false. In your notebook, write the true statements and rewrite the false ones. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor,

a ) Ageism can affect people’s quality of life. True. Thinking cross-curricularly

b ) As a consequence of ageism, older people may have financial problems. True. c ) Making fun of old people on TV, for example, cannot be considered prejudice. False. Making fun of old people on TV, for example, is a form of prejudice.

Look at the pictures and discuss the questions with your teacher and classmates.

Respostas pessoais. O objetivo desta atividade é discutir o estereótipo atribuído aos idosos. Sugerimos levar os alunos a refletirem sobre esse estereótipo, a fim de desconstruí-lo buscando alternativas para que essa visão não seja propagada e estimulada.

A

B

Tom Wang/Shutterstock.com

Fotoluminate LLC/Shutterstock.com

4.

a ) What comes to your mind when you see picture A? What about picture B? b ) Talk to a classmate and exchange some ideas. Are your opinions similar? Why (not)? c ) What kind of stereotype do you identify in picture A? d ) How does picture B challenge this stereotype? e ) Is it fair to stereotype people? f ) What are the consequences when people are stereotyped? g ) What can we do not to reinforce the stereotypes about elderly people? one hundred and sixty-one

161


8. Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos levar os alunos a prestarem atenção nos sons que eles ouvem cotidianamente e discriminarem quais deles podem ser considerados nocivos. Você pode levá-los a refletir também se sons comuns na vivência deles, como música alta, podem ser considerados poluição sonora. Com base nessa discussão, é interessante construir um conceito mais abrangente de poluição, mostrando que hábitos aparentemente inofensivos podem ser causadores de poluição sonora. Sugerimos aproveitar e pedir aos alunos que citem alguns exemplos do que consideram poluição sonora. Algumas possibilidades são: sounds of machines, vehicles and loud music.

Understanding noise pollution. Available at: <www.conserveenergy-future.com/ causes-and-effectsof-noise-pollution. php>. Accessed on: October 7th, 2015.

162

5.

In groups, interview older members of your family or from your neighborhood and ask them questions like the ones below.

• Do you think the facilities for the elderly in our city can be improved? If so, how? • Have you ever felt insecure at workplace because of your age? • Is our city planned to help you to move around? 6.

After the interviews are carried out, you and your classmates can think of solutions that could be applied in your community. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

7.

Hearing loss can be related to aging, but there are other causes too, such as exposure to loud noise. Discuss the following questions with your teacher and classmates.

Respostas pessoais.

a ) Do you like listening to loud music? b ) Do you and your friends usually make a lot of noise when you are together? c ) In your opinion, are some of your free-time activities too much noisy? d ) Do you pay attention to the sounds around you? e ) Do you think loud sounds can be considered pollution? Why (not)?

8.

Você pode aproveitar para verificar o conhecimento prévio dos alunos a respeito do tema “poluição sonora”, pedindo que eles compartilhem com a turma o que já conhecem sobre o assunto.

Think about the place where you live and answer the following questions. a ) Is it too noisy? Do you hear more nature sounds (birds singing, flowing rivers etc.) or unnatural sounds (engines, working machines etc.)? b ) Do you think noise can be harmful? If so, what would be the effects? c ) Do you think some sounds you are used to hearing can be considered noise pollution?

9.

Read the text below and answer the questions on page 163 in your notebook.

Esta atividade possibilita o trabalho com Física. Você pode pedir ao professor dessa disciplina que explique para os alunos a teoria da propagação de ondas sonoras.

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ABOUT US

NEWS

CONTACT

Understanding Noise Pollution Most of us are very used to the sounds we hear in everyday life. Loud music, the television, people talking on their phone, the traffic and even pets barking in the middle of the night. All of these have become a part of the urban culture and rarely disturb us. However, when the sound of the television keeps you from sleeping all night or the traffic starts to give you a headache, it stops becoming just noise and starts turning into noise pollution. For many of us, the concept of pollution is limited to nature and resources. However, noise that tends to disrupt the natural rhythm of life makes for one solid pollutant. By definition, noise pollution takes place when there is either excessive amount of noise or an unpleasant sound that causes temporary disruption in the natural balance. This definition is usually applicable to sounds or noises that are unnatural in either their volume or their production. Our environment is such that it has become difficult to escape noise. Even electrical appliances at home have a constant hum or beeping sound. By and large, lack of urban planning increases the exposure to unwanted sounds. This is why understanding noise pollution is necessary to curb it in time. […]

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Fotomontagem de Bárbara Sarzi formada pela imagem Alf Ribeiro/Shutterstock.com

7. d) Sugerimos orientar os alunos a pensarem na relação que têm com os sons que os cercam, isto é, se eles apenas escutam os sons de maneira mecânica ou se de fato eles prestam atenção nos detalhes sonoros, tais como o canto específico de algum pássaro, o motor de um veículo que passa exatamente no mesmo horário todo dia, e assim por diante.


a ) When do everyday sounds become noise pollution?

When the sound of the television keeps us from sleeping all night or the traffic starts to give us a headache.

b ) What is the definition of noise pollution? c)

It takes place when there is either excessive amount of noise or an unpleasant sound that causes temporary disruption in the natural balance. Which expression best relates to noise pollution? II

I

10.

natural sounds

II

unwanted sounds

Read the text again and decide if these sentences are true or false. In your notebook, write down the true statements and rewrite the false ones. a ) Some sounds are so constant and common that we may not consider them to be noise pollution. True. Sometimes, noise pollution b ) Noise pollution does not affect our health. False. at night or give us a headache.

can keep us from sleeping

c ) Noise pollution can be related to sounds that are unnatural in volume or production. True.

False. The concept of pollution is not limited to nature and It can also be applied to sounds that disrupt the natural rhythm of life.

d ) The concept of pollution is only related to resources. resources. e ) The way the cities grow can increase the noise pollution. True.

11.

In your notebook, write down some of your favorite free-time activities. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos pedir aos alunos que façam uma lista das atividades que mais gostam de fazer em seu tempo livre.

13.

With your teacher and classmates, talk about daily free-time activities you do that can be Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a falarem de suas atividades diárias que possivelmente considered noise pollution. sejam fontes de poluição sonora, como ouvir música em alto volume. É importante incentivá-los a justificar

suas respostas, dizendo se consideram que esses hábitos podem causar alguns malefícios para si e para o meio em que vivem. Se necessário, sugerimos enfatizar que a poluição sonora pode, sim, causar danos ao aparelho auditivo e pode causar estresse, dor de cabeça e irritabilidade.

Do you know what the effects of noise pollution on the human body are? Match them with the pictures. a - IV; b - II; c - III; d - I. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que a poluição sonora causa muitos malefícios

ao corpo humano, como a perda de audição e o estresse, que tem sido associado até a infartos.

d ) fatigue and lack of concentration III

IV

Syda Productions/Shutterstock.com

II

bikeriderlondon/Shutterstock.com

I

c ) stress

Kues/Shutterstock.com

b ) headache

Antonio Guillem/Shutterstock.com

a ) hearing loss

14.

What did you know about these effects? In groups, research how they affect the body. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que alguns desses efeitos são conhecidos, outros não. Em grupos, eles vão pesquisar e apresentar detalhadamente para a turma como acontecem e por quê. Se achar necessário, você pode pedir ao professor de Biologia para auxiliá-los na pesquisa.

15.

As you have studied, sounds play a very important role in our world. In your notebook, comentar que esta atividade match the words with their meanings. a - VI; b - V; c - II; d - IV; e - I; f - III. Sugerimos introduz o vocabulário relacionado à a ) acoustic

c ) noise

e ) nature

b ) ecology

d ) pollution

f ) humanity

preservação de sons, o próximo tema a ser trabalhado.

I

it is related to the elements of the world, such as rivers, forests and animals

II

a sound that is usually loud and not harmonious

III

it is related to all human beings collectively and the condition of being human

IV

the presence of harmful and dangerous substances in an environment

V

it is the study and analysis of the relations between organisms and their environments

VI

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Thinking cross-curricularly

12.


16. Read

16. Esta atividade possibilita o trabalho interdisciplinar com Biologia. O professor dessa disciplina pode auxiliar os alunos a entenderem como a ecologia acústica trabalha, em relação ao estudo e proteção dos sons da natureza, e também aprofundar o assunto sobre os efeitos da poluição sonora no corpo humano.

the text and decide if the sentences that follow are true or false. In your notebook, write down the true statements and rewrite the false ones.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Listen Up: Opening Our Ears to Acoustic Ecology [...] In the forest or on a city street, sounds bring the world alive. Whatever beauty or complexity, pattern or structure we might see around us, the world would be stark beyond recognition if we could not hear all that lies beyond our sight, hidden around corners or behind the screens of people or trees. The subtle voices of birds quietly chirping their territorial presence can fill a hillside, with an occasional outburst from the middle distance letting us know that crow, or chipmunk, is also nearby. These sounds can call us out of ourselves, so our awareness expands to know the valley a little more fully, more intimately. As our world becomes ever more dominated by the sounds of humans and our machines, the subtle beauty of nature’s voices becomes ever more precious. A fascination with the voices of nature, as well as the soundings of humanity, fuels the emerging field of “acoustic ecology.” This umbrella term encompasses work being done by academics, city planners, sociologists, activists, and sound artists, each in their own way encouraging a deeper appreciation for sound and its role in our lives. Acoustic ecology looks at the relationships that creatures develop through sound, and at the ways that humans and other animals are affected by their sonic environments. Some of this work is research-oriented, such as that pursued in the field of bioacoustics. Others turn to more subjective pursuits, such as teaching “deep listening” or forging new kinds of compositions created from field recordings. And some have taken up the cause of sound, championing the acoustic right of nature to be free of human noise. […] CUMMINGS, Jim. Listen up: opening our ears to acoustic ecology. Available at: <www.acousticecology.org/writings/listenup.html>. Accessed on: October 8 th, 2015.

a ) Acoustic ecology is an area of study.

True.

b ) Only sounds produced by humans are studied. False. The sounds of nature are studied too.

c ) Sounds of nature are precious because they are becoming rare.

True.

d ) The way humans and animals are affected by sounds is very important. True. 17. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a identificarem os trechos correspondentes às frases no texto da atividade 16.

e ) Bioacoustics is not part of these studies.

False. Bioacoustics is part of these studies.

17. Identify

17. c) (lines 13 to 15) Academics, city planners, sociologists, activists, and sound artists, each in their own way encouraging a deeper appreciation for sound and its role in our lives.

the lines of the text in which the following ideas were expressed. Then, write down the corresponding excerpts in your notebook. a ) Sounds help to create the reality around us.

b ) Distant sounds make us aware of what is happening around us. (lines 6 and 7) These sounds can call us out of ourselves, so our awareness expands to know the valley a little more fully, more intimately.

c ) Many people study the function of sound.

d ) It is important to defend the sounds of nature against sounds made by humans.

18. In

18. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a pensarem em sons que eles escutam durante o dia e quais desses sons lhes agradam ou desagradam. Caso seja necessário, você pode sugerir que utilizem um dicionário para a realização desta atividade.

(lines 21 and 22) Some have taken up the cause of sound, championing the acoustic right of nature to be free of human noise.

your notebook, make a list of sounds.

Possíveis respostas:

I love the sound of…

falling rain

my mother’s voice

I like the sound of…

flowing water

acoustic guitars

drilling machines

howling wind

dripping water

car engines

I don’t like the sound of… I hate the sound of…

164

(line 1) Sounds bring the world alive.

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Read the text again and discuss the questions with your teacher and classmates. 19. a) It means that the sounds of animals and elements from the environment are disappearing. Você pode comentar com os alunos que a diminuição de sons da natureza significa que os animais e os ambientes naturais que produzem sons estão em risco de extinção. O som serve como um indicativo da presença desses elementos da natureza.

a ) What does it mean when we hear less sounds of nature? b ) What can sounds do for us? c ) How does the sound help us to understand the environment? d ) How can the sounds created by humanity threat nature?

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos uma reflexão com os alunos para analisar possíveis medidas que protejam os sons da natureza, tais como fiscalização e desenvolvimento de tecnologias que reduzam sons oriundos de motores e criação de leis que busquem coibir a propagação de sons em ambientes naturais. Match the sentences with the pictures. a - III; b - I; c - II.

e ) In your opinion, how can we protect the sounds of nature? promover

20.

a ) A lot of noise pollution was made by that old car. b ) Many Amazonian bird songs were recorded by that researcher. c ) The noise from the radio was responsible for keeping her awake all night long. I

II

19. c) Based on what we hear, we understand what happens around us. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que os sons nos permitem entender o universo em volta e isso é extremamente útil, pois podemos nos antecipar aos perigos e prever acontecimentos que ainda não foram captados por outros sentidos, como a visão.

III

21. track 44

Ilustrações: Art Capri

22. Sugerimos organizar os alunos em grupos e orientá-los a gravar em seus celulares ou em gravadores um pequeno trecho de áudio nos moldes do ouvido na atividade anterior. Eles podem registrar o som do trânsito de uma avenida movimentada, pássaros cantando ou outros que julgarem interessantes.

Listen to the track and discuss the questions with your teacher and classmates. This soundscape was recorded in Cembra, Italy, in 1975. Respostas pessoais. a ) What do you imagine when you listen to this track?

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

b ) Do you think you can hear sounds like these in your city? c ) How much do you think soundscapes have changed since 1975? d ) Would you like to live in a place like the one from the soundscape? Why (not)?

22.

Now it is your time to capture a soundscape. In groups, record a soundscape and present it to your classmates. After that, write some sentences comparing the differences between the track from 1975 and your audio. You can use the sentences below as examples.

• My soundscape was recorded in/at... • I have recorded the sounds of… • The most interesting sound recorded is the sound of… • The weirdest sound recorded is the sound of… • Comparing the soundscape of Cembra with mine, we notice…

19. b) Sounds can call us out of ourselves, so our awareness expands to know the world around us. Você pode comentar com os alunos que a audição nos permite entender o que se passa em nossa volta, assim como os outros sentidos: visão, olfato, paladar e tato.

19. d) Animals, such as birds and whales, can be disturbed by unnatural sounds. Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que alguns animais, como certos pássaros, cujo canto tem como função promover a comunicação entre diferentes membros do bando, têm dificuldade para se comunicar em ambientes barulhentos. Isso acontece também com as baleias, cuja comunicação é comprometida pelos sons produzidos por navios.

Soundscapes are the environmental sounds around a listener. They include all the simultaneous sounds around the listener, for example, the sound of the wind, rivers, people walking around etc. one hundred and sixty-five

165

Thinking cross-curricularly

19.


Choosing a career

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, mais informações sobre as profissões mencionadas nesta seção.

Degree

Music

Job purpose

Perform in concerts and participate in recording sessions.

Usually hired by

Orchestra or theatrical ensemble.

Required skills

• Getting on well with people. • Speaking well in public. • Having good musical skills. • Having good memory. • Being organized. • Having stamina to perform at peak level. • Having good communication skills. • Being able to concentrate for long periods.

Ao abordar as características do trabalho de um músico, sugerimos pedir aos alunos que as classifiquem em pró ou contra, de acordo com a visão e a personalidade de cada um.

Characteristics of the job In your opinion, is it a pro (an advantage) or a con (a disadvantage)? Resposta pessoal.

• The opportunity to work in more than one place. • Traveling abroad to perform. • Meeting lots of different people. • Working on weekends and nights. • Dealing with relationship problems of the group and the staff.

• The fact that, sometimes, musicians are

employed for seasonal and temporary positions.

If you like music, you can also work as a music therapist.

To work as a musician, you can also become a technician. You can find Music or Musical Instrument technical courses at several institutions.

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1.

Do some research and find out other aspects related to the professions of musician and architect, presented on the next page. Share your findings with your classmates.

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos chamar a atenção também para os textos nos post-its e incentivar os alunos a pesquisarem outros aspectos relacionados às profissões apresentadas, como média salarial, diferentes possibilidades de atuação e curiosidades. Em seguida, você pode pedir que formem pequenos grupos e compartilhem uns com os outros o que descobriram.


Fotomontagem de Anna Simonin formada pelas imagens Africa Studio, Rodenberg Photography, Fabio Pagani, demarcomedia, jeenamoolstudio, Rido e Joanna Dorota/Shutterstock.com

Degree

Architecture

Job purpose

Plan, design and supervise constructions, such as houses, office buildings and other structures.

Usually hired by

Construction companies or offices.

Required skills

• Being creative. • Having drawing skills. • Being good at math. • Having experience with architecture and design

Choosing a career

software.

• Being a good listener. • Having good communication skills. • Being a good problem solver.

Ao abordar as características do trabalho de um arquiteto, sugerimos pedir alunos que as classifiquem em pró ou contra, de acordo com a visão e a personalidade de cada um.

Characteristics of the job In your opinion, is it a pro (an advantage) or a con (a disadvantage)? Resposta pessoal.

• Working on different things each day. • Working with a variety of professionals, such as engineers and construction workers.

• The fact that the market has a large and new • •

demand for architects who design using sustainable practices, materials and procedures. High competition in the job market. Long hours of work on one project.

If you like architectu re, you can also be an interior designer.

2.

Think about these professions and talk to a classmate. Resposta pessoal.

I would like to be a musician / an architect because… I wouldn’t like to be a musician / an architect because…

To work in the architecture field, you can also become a technician. You can find Building technical courses at several institutions. one hundred and twenty-seven

g18_ftd_lt_1noi_u08_166a167_choosing4.indd 167

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18/5/16 2:27 PM


Getting ready for exams

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

In this section of the book, you are going to study universities entrance examinations from all over the country. This means that you are going to have the opportunity to learn and have more information about the different styles of exams and prepare yourself for when your time to take the examinations comes. The universities entrance examinations have, in most cases, objective questions. The English exams questions usually offer four or five alternatives. They can demand from the students the ability to interpret a text or to use a grammatical and linguistic knowledge. Moreover, some exams ask the questions in English, while others ask them in Portuguese.

(UFPA - 2014)

UFPA stands for Universidade Federal do Pará.

As atividades 1 a 3 referem-se ao tema e/ou conteúdos da unidade 5.

DEAR ABBY: My 17-year-old daughter, “Erica,” is planning to marry her 24-year-old boyfriend. I use the term “boyfriend” loosely because their relationship consists entirely of texting, talking on the phone and the Internet. There has been no dating or getting to know each other in person. Erica is intent on marrying this man even though he has lied to her several times in addition to having lied to us. She is planning to attend a four-year college. I’m not sure how to handle this. She hid the relationship from us for more than six months. I realize Erica needs to make her own mistakes, but I’m not sure how to make her understand my very real concern about this. Any advice would be appreciated. -- NEEDS HELP IN VIRGINIA Available at: <www.uexpress.com/dearabby/>. Accessed on: December 13 th, 2013.

1. Dear

Abby é o nome de uma coluna de aconselhamento em que a colunista dá conselhos sobre situações as mais diversas do cotidiano de seus leitores. Na carta acima, a leitora pede conselhos sobre como agir em relação à/ao e a ) decisão da filha em não cursar faculdade.

d ) namoro escondido da filha.

b ) comportamento do namorado da filha.

e ) desejo da filha em casar.

c ) tempo que a filha passa ao telefone.

2. A

carta da leitora, endereçada à coluna da Abby, demonstra a preocupação dos pais com o(a)(s) a a ) futuro dos filhos.

d ) casamento entre pessoas jovens.

b ) redes sociais virtuais.

e ) falta de confiança dos filhos nos pais.

c ) rebeldia dos filhos adolescentes.

(ENEM - 2012)

Enem stands for Exame Nacional do Ensino Médio.

I, too I, too, sing America. I am the darker brother. They send me to eat in the kitchen When company comes, But I laugh, And eat well, And grow strong. Tomorrow, I’ll be at the table

When company comes. Nobody’ll dare Say to me, “Eat in the kitchen,” Then. Besides, They’ll see how beautiful I am And be ashamed I, too, am America.

HUGHES, L. The collected poems of Langston Hughes. New York: Knopf, 1994.

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3. Langston Hughes foi um poeta negro americano que viveu no século XX e escreveu I, too em 1932. No poema, a personagem descreve uma prática racista que provoca nela um sentimento de a a ) coragem, pela superação. b ) vergonha, pelo retraimento.

Enem, The National High School Examination, is an exam that takes place every year and is organized by the Brazilian Department of Education. The exam has a total of 180 objective questions which are divided in four areas. It also has a writing question. The foreign language exam has five questions. You have to answer only the questions in the foreign language that you chose when you enrolled. Enem has the objective to evaluate the quality of the Brazilian high school education and it is also a tool to get access to a university.

c ) compreensão, pela aceitação.

To see the Enem exams, you can access INEP’s website on <http://tub.im/fjoj8r>.

d ) superioridade, pela arrogância. e ) resignação, pela submissão.

(UEL - 2015)

UEL stands for Universidade Estadual de Londrina.

As atividades 4 a 7 referem-se ao tema e/ou conteúdos da unidade 6.

Lens You and I are in the same room

So now it’s your, your religion

We both think we’re fair

Against my, my religion

We both live for truths

My humble opinion against yours

But then how

This does not feel like love

Are we to define

It’s your, your conviction

Something so subjective

Against my, my conviction

Living under the same roof

And I’d like to know what we’ve seen

So here these battles of wills

Through the lens of love

They beg for some proof

And so now your grand assessment

Of right versus wrong

Is that I’m not in your group

Your approach seems better than mine

That I’m not your kind

Though it’s working for you

And so we’re locked in a stalemate

All I feel is disconnection

With you in your corner and me dismayed in mine

Getting ready for exams

Chorus:

Alanis Morissete

MORISSETE, Alanis. Lens. In: Harvoc and bright lights. Collective Sounds/LAB 344, 2012.

4. Em

relação à letra da música, considere as afirmativas a seguir.

I ) Os parceiros parecem discordar dos pensamentos e das atitudes um do outro.

II ) Na identidade criada pela linguagem, o eu lírico se mostra impotente.

III ) As expectativas do eu lírico relacionadas ao parceiro foram atingidas.

IV ) A identidade construída por meio da linguagem é exclusivamente feminina. Assinale a alternativa correta.

Assertive questions, like this one, have true and false statements related to the text you read. You have to read these statements to check the alternative that presents the correct answer according to what the question requires.

a

a ) Somente as afirmativas I e II são corretas. b ) Somente as afirmativas I e IV são corretas. c ) Somente as afirmativas III e IV são corretas. d ) Somente as afirmativas I, II e III são corretas. e ) Somente as afirmativas II, III e IV são corretas. one hundred and sixty-nine

169


5. Assinale

a alternativa que apresenta, corretamente, o tema central da música.

e

a ) A superação dos obstáculos através do amor construído ao longo de anos. b ) A separação de um casal resultante de uma traição. c ) A reconstrução do relacionamento de um casal após uma separação conturbada. d ) A dificuldade de um casal em ajustar-se à sociedade. e ) A divergência de opiniões e visões de mundo entre duas pessoas.

(CESUSC - 2014/1)

Cesusc stands for Complexo de Ensino Superior de Santa Catarina.

Some easy ways to make friends It’s hard to make friends if you stay home all the time. Get out of the house and do things that will put you in touch with other people. Join a club or play a sport. Attend meetings of neighborhood associations or other groups. It’s easier to make friends when you have similar interests. Learn from people at school or work who seem to have lots of friends. Observe how they make and keep friends. Don’t imitate all the things they do. But try to notice what they do. Then try some of those things yourself. Don’t be afraid to show people what you’re really good at. Talk about the things you like and do best. Don’t hide your strong points. People will be interested in you if there is something interesting about you. Plan things to talk about with people. Find out what’s in the newspaper headlines, listen to the top CDs, learn about what’s new with your favorite TV or movie star. The more you have to say, the more people will be interested in having a conversation with you. Be a good listener. Let people talk about themselves before talking about “me, me, me.” Ask lots of questions. Show an interest in their answers. This alone will make people want to be your friend. Once you start to get to know someone, don’t be friendly one day and then too shy to talk the next day. Be consistent. Consistency is something people look for in friends. Have confidence in yourself. Don’t be selfcritical all the time. This will only make the process more difficult. Think of your good qualities. People are attracted to those with self-confidence. Try to make friends with the kind of people you really like, respect, and admire – not just with those who are easy to meet. Be friendly with a lot of people. Adapted from: RICHARDS, J. C.; ECKSTUT-DIDIER, S. Strategic reading 1. CUP, 2003.

6. Select

the CORRECT statement about the text.

b

a ) An important quality of friendship is inconsistency. b ) Paying attention to what people say is a good way to start a friendship. c ) It’s better to have many friends you meet occasionally than to have a few good friends. d ) Friends are not important when we are shy. e ) It will be less difficult to make friends if you judge yourself too hard.

7. According

to the text, what are some things you can do to make friends? Select the CORRECT proposition. e a ) Do not let people know the good things about you. b ) Do exactly what people tell you to do, never disagree with them. c ) Look for the least popular people in your group and try to imitate them. d ) Be unpleasant, and avoid to get involved in activities in the company of other persons. e ) Read newspapers, watch TV and listen to music in order to be well-informed.

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(ENEM - 2010) A atividade 8 refere-se ao tema e/ou conteúdos da unidade 7.

Hip hop music Hip hop music is a musical genre which developed as part of hip hop culture, and is definited by key stylistic elements such as rapping, DJing, sampling (or synthesis), scratching and beatboxing. Hip hop began in the South Bronx of New York City in the 1970s. The term rap is often used synonymously with hip hop, but hip hop denotes the practices of an entire subculture. Hip hop music. Available at: <http://en.wikipedia.org>. Accessed on: July 8 th, 2010.

Brazilian hip hop is one of the world’s major hip hop scenes, with active rap, break dance, and graffiti scenes, especially in São Paulo, where groups tend to have a more international style, influenced by old school hip hop and gangsta rap. Brazilian rap has served as reflection of political social, and racial issues plaguing the disenfranchised youth in the suburbs of São Paulo and Rio. The lyrical content, band names, and song names used by Brazilian hip hop artists often connote the socio-political issues surrounding their communities. Available at: <http://en.wikipedia.org>. Accessed on: July 8 th, 2010.

8. Sendo

a música uma das formas de manifestação cultural de um país, o rap brasileiro, a partir das informações do texto, tem sido caracterizado b a ) pela criatividade dos primeiros adeptos do gênero hip hop. Getting ready for exams

b ) pela influência internacional nos nomes de bandas e de músicas. c ) como um gênero musical de menor prestígio na sociedade. d ) como um instrumento de reflexão crítica do jovem da periferia. e ) pela irreverência dos cantores, adeptos e suas vestimentas.

(PUCRS - 2012/1)

PUCRS stands for Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul.

As atividades 9 a 12 referem-se ao tema e/ou conteúdos da unidade 8.

If you are one of more than 600 million people on Facebook, it’s likely that you regularly friend (and sometimes unfriend) others. This extending of language – verbing of nouns – brings growing pains. Some rail against it. Why verb a noun when a perfectly serviceable verb ‘to befriend’ is already a part of the language? But language grows with need, and ‘to friend’ someone on-line is not necessarily the same as ‘to befriend’. Each new verb or noun adds a new shade to the mosaic of the language. And it happens all the time. We have the verb ‘serve’ and the noun ‘service’, but we extend ‘service’ to use it as a verb again because ‘to service’ is not necessarily the same as ‘to serve’. Put new verbs into service in your conversation and writing, at work, home, and beyond. Friend them into your vocabulary, and don’t worry about those who complain against the verbing of nouns. It has been going on for quite a while now. The Oxford English Dictionary has the first citation for the word friend as a verb from the year 1225. In fact, ‘to friend’ has an older pedigree than ‘to befriend’ (1559). There was no Facebook, no Web, no computers, not even electricity back in the 13 th century. But there was language, and a need to stretch it to fill a need. And long after Facebook is gone, we’ll continue using language in ways that fit. Here’s to verbing of nouns (and nouning of verbs)! Available at: <http://wordsmith.org/awad>. Accessed on: June 19 th, 2011.

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171


9. The

text is about

c

a ) the influence of new communication media on the development of languages and the making of dictionaries. b ) the language people use in different contexts, like work or home, and has been in use since Facebook started to be used. c ) the alteration from one grammatical category of words to another, so as to express something in a different manner. d ) the changes that have occurred in the English language from the XIII century to the age of virtual communication. e ) the difference between making friends with people by using devices such as Facebook nowadays.

(UFSC - 2006)

Ufsc stands for Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina.

Internet chatting Seeing friends, playing sports, or watching movies – that’s what college students used to name as favorite activities for their leisure, or free time. Today chatting is often on the list. Until recently chatting meant talking informally with friends about anything at all. It meant talking face-to-face, for pleasure, usually for a short time. Nowadays, technology allows chatting between groups of people sitting at their computers, sending messages to each other over the Internet. Two or more people can be in a “chat room”, exchanging information about a specific topic or about themselves. People of all ages are typing and reading messages to discuss things with people all over the world. Internet chatting is popular because it’s an easy way to have a social life. People can talk about a variety of topics on chat sites – from sports, to art and music, to business, science, and health. With Internet chat, making friends has become much easier. Typing on a computer takes away the shy or uncomfortable feelings that often go along with meeting new people in person. On-line, people often feel freer to talk. Using chat rooms can be interesting and fun, but sharing information with strangers requires that chatters take precautions. One website publishes safety tips for people meeting on-line and off. The site advises chatters to stay anonymous by not giving their real names or information about where they live and work. When chatters meet in person, they should be careful to meet in a public place and bring friends along. Following these basic rules helps keep people safe. Adapted from: HOWARD, L.; ADELSO-GOLDSTEIN, J. Read and reflect. Oxford: OUP, 2004, p. 61-62.

In this exam, the alternatives are indicated by the numbers 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64. You must choose the correct alternative(s) according to what the question requires. The final answer will be the sum of all correct answers.

10. Select

172

the CORRECT statement(s) about text

1; 4; 16. A somatória das alternativas corretas é 21.

1 ) A new activity has been added to the list of college students’ favorite pastimes.

2 ) Nowadays, people communicate more on-line than in person.

4 ) On chat sites people can find information about many different subjects.

8 ) All over the world, homes have “chat rooms” with computers in them.

16 ) Internet chatting is an enjoyable activity; however, there can be dangers related to it.

32 ) Before using the Internet, people must learn its specific regulations.

one hundred and seventy-two


11. According

to paragraph 3, select the CORRECT answer(s) to the following question:

What tips should chatters follow in order to be safe on-line and off?

4; 8; 32. A somatória das alternativas corretas é 44.

1 ) Never share any information with strangers.

2 ) Judgments about people met on-line should be avoided.

4 ) True identities must not be revealed.

8 ) Personal information should not be given.

16 ) Be careful not to involve friends in dangerous situations.

32 ) Don’t be alone when meeting another chatter in person.

(UNICAP - 2014/1)

Unicap stands for Universidade Católica de Pernambuco.

People today seem to have increasingly hectic lifestyles. The average workweek for many Americans is fifty hours. In addition, many people spend up to two or three hours a day doing household chores, and looking after the family, there is little time left for leisure activities for many Americans. However, having free-time to relax and pursue hobbies and interests is important, and good for a person’s well-being. People need time away from the pressures of study or work in order to relax and enjoy time with friends and family. Getting ready for exams

In different countries and cultures around the world free-time is spent in different ways. A survey on leisure-time activities showed that reading was the most popular spare-time activity in the United States. This was followed by watching TV, then spending time with family. In the UK, watching TV and videos was the most popular pastime; listening to the radio came second. In Japan, the most popular free-time activity was driving. Karaoke, which ranked fourth, was more popular than watching videos which came fifth. Listening to the radio or music ranked sixth. Although people around the world may enjoy doing similar things in their free-time, there is evidence to suggest that these interests are changing. In the U.S., the popularity of computer activities is increasing. Many more people in the States are spending their free-time surfing the Web, e-mailing friends, or playing games on-line. In an American survey conducted in 2001, computer activities ranked seventh in popularity; in 1998, this same activity ranked eighteenth. With people now able to download some books from the Internet into e-Book readers it is possible that, in the future, reading and computer activities will become the same pastime for many Americans. Adapted by Thompson Heinle.

12. De

acordo com o texto

I - 0, 1, 2; II - 3, 4.

I - II 0 - 0 Cultural differences exist in popular indoor free-time activities. 1 - 1 Surfing the Web is becoming an increasingly popular pastime. 2 - 2 People today have busier lifestyles. 3 - 3 Popular free-time activities are the same around the world. 4 - 4 Having free-time and hobbies is good for physics and mental health.

In this institution, the exam’s questions and answers sheet will have two columns: I and II. The alternatives will have numbers from 0-0 to 4-4. To answer that type of activity you must check the number in column I if the statement is true, and the number in column II if the statement is false, according to what you read in the text. one hundred and seventy-three

173


Going out there Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir as atividades desta seção.

Making a mural Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

O tempo estimado para a realização desta seção é de cinco semanas. O processo de avaliação deve ser contínuo, portanto sugerimos promover momentos de pausas, reflexões e correções do que já foi feito durante todo o desenvolvimento da seção.

Have you ever thought about how the Brazilian cuisine can vary? With many different dishes, this diversity can be related to several reasons, such as the influence of immigrants. In the Northeast, for example, many dishes were influenced by African immigrants. In the South, by European and Oriental immigrants. How about your state? What ethnicity influenced the gastronomy there? Read the text and the recipe below.

About Bra zili an foo d

Bra zilian foo d is an exu berant , colourf ul mix of Por tug ues e, Afr ica n and nat ive foo ds, inc lud ing some from the Amazo n. The nat ive Ind ian s dev elop ed ways of pre ser ving me ats by smoking and dry ing them […].

The nationa l dish, feijoada, is believed to have been created by Afr ican slaves using dried beans, kale and cassava, alon g with what were considered offcut s of pork and air-dried beef. The southern par t of Bra zil was set tled later with coffee pla nta tion s, wh ich brought western European and Ara b imm igra nts with the skil ls for cheese ma king and preser vin meat. They contributed to a g diverse cuisine centred around the Min as Gerais reg ion . […]

diogoppr/Shu tterstock.com

Abou t Brazil ian food. Availa ble at: <www.sbs.c om.au /food /articl e/200 8/07/01/abo ut-bra zilian-food> . Acces sed on: Febru ary 12 th, 2016.

[...]

Feijoad a (Meat Stew)

Ilustrações: Natanaele Bilmaia

Ingredients 3 strips of raw bacon 2 onions 3 cloves garl ic (or 1 teas poon garl ic powder) 1 pound smoked saus age 1 pound boneless beef (any cut of meat)

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1 can (14-ounce) stewed tomatoe s 1 cup hot water 1 tablespoon yellow mus tard 4 cups canned black bean s Salt and pepper

Proc edu re high heat for about Fry them in a large pot over med iumCut the bacon strips into big pieces. 3 minutes, stirr ing often. Turn the heat dow n to med ium. sma ll pieces. and outer layer. Chop both halves into Cut the onion in half. Peel off the skin into sma ll pieces. Peel the cloves of garl ic. Chop them soft, about 3 minutes. n in the pot. Stir unti l the onions are Add the onions and garl ic to the baco garl ic. pieces. Add them to the onions and Cut the saus age and beef into 1-inch s. Cook unti l the meat is brow n on all side and pepper. Turn water, yellow mus tard, and some salt hot ), Add the stewed tomatoe s (wit h juice pot. the heat dow n to simmer. Cover the r, ¼ cup at a time. n. If it look s too thick, add more wate Cook for about 45 minutes, stirr ing ofte Add the black bean s (wit h liqu id). minutes. Cover the pot, and cook for 10 more Serves 10 to 12. [...]

.foodbycountry.com /Algeri a-to-France/ Feijoad a (meat stew). Availab le at: <www

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th on: Februa ry 16 , 2016. Brazil.html#i xzz40L h3y5fN>. Acces sed


1. Talk

to your classmates and answer the following questions. It is believed to have been created by African slaves dried beans, kale and cassava, along with what were considered off-cuts of pork and air-dried beef.

a ) According to the text, what is the origin of feijoada? using

b ) Have you ever made feijoada? If so, is your family’s recipe similar to the one you read? Resposta pessoal.

c ) Did you notice how the recipe is organized? Have you ever seen other recipes in English? Recipes are organized in two parts: ingredients and procedure. A segunda parte da resposta é pessoal. d ) Who contributed to the diverse cuisine centered around Minas Gerais? Western European and Arab immigrants.

e ) What did they do to contribute? They

contributed with the skills for cheese making and preserving meat.

f ) Do you know any contributions of some populations in the cuisine of your state or region? Talk to your classmates about them. Resposta pessoal.

Getting down to work

1. c) Sugerimos chamar a atenção dos alunos para as unidades de medida utilizadas no inglês americano, que diferem das unidades do sistema métrico, que são as adotadas no Brasil. Pode ser interessante pedir-lhes que conversem com o professor de Matemática sobre as correspondências nos dois sistemas de medidas.

1. b) Sugerimos levar os alunos a perceberem que a receita da feijoada pode variar de uma região para outra e até mesmo de uma família para outra, pois se trata de um prato muito comum na culinária brasileira.

Researching

C íc Isu ero V zu i Im e g as ag en / s

With your teacher and classmates, list some dishes you would like to learn more about. If possible, you should prioritize foods from communities of immigrants that live in your city or surrounding areas. After organizing this list, each group will be assigned a dish and will be responsible for:

• •searching in books, magazines or websites the origin of the dish and its cultural aspects;

bin

i

• •collecting all the information and choosing the ones

Co io Fa b

• •visiting a community in which that dish is prepared.

lom

that are the most interesting and appealing;

ca Sh r l an u t t ich er s ia t toc a/ k .c om

During this visit, it’s important to observe their customs, ask them questions about their eating habits and about how their traditional recipes have been passed on from one generation to another;

• •selecting pictures that illustrate the dish you have chosen. They can be photographs taken in the community you visited;

••writing a short text with the collected information. This text will help you organize your

research results, providing you with notes to produce the mural and the oral presentation.

These are some suggestions of websites and books you can use for your research. On the website Food in every country <http://tub.im/ymkm9k>, you will have access to information about many dishes around the world, including the history and recipes.

Surfing the net

ty of North The Universi ss Carol ina Pre

Going further

The book Latin American street food, by Sandra A. Gutierrez, tells the history of Latin American food and gives some recipe tips. The author gives us examples of some interesting and unexpected street foods.

Reading

Latin American street food: the best flavors of markets, beaches, and roadside stands from Mexico to Argentina, by Sandra A. Gutierrez. The University of North Carolina Press: USA, 2013.

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Going out there

Iu S h l iia T ut t er im o f s to ee ck v a/ .co m

Now, your teacher will divide your class in small groups, so each group can research about one different aspect of the Brazilian cuisine. After the research, you are going to create some murals to share the information you have collected with your school community.


O tempo estimado para a realização das etapas seguintes é de três semanas.

Analyzing and organizing the results Now, we are going to create a mural about the findings of the research you and your group did. Your goal is to inform the school about the origin of the foods you and your classmates importante orientar os alunos na análise e na organização dos resultados, ressaltando have researched. Éa importância de selecionar de forma criteriosa o conteúdo para a produção dos murais.

Producing a mural To produce the mural, at first organize the information you have collected in your research. You can think of the following aspects:

What part of your research would you like to share with your classmates? Maybe the text you’ve produced can provide something interesting to write on the mural. It’s important to organize the selected information in a clear way.

It may be a good idea to display the recipe next to the cultural facts.

Attractive pictures * may capture readers’ attention. Select them carefully. *Sugerimos conversar com os alunos sobre a importância das imagens para tornar a exposição do texto mais atrativa e para trabalhar a inteligência visual dos demais alunos.

Presenting the results Now, you are going to share your work with your school community. Your teacher will choose a day and a place for the exhibition, and you can invite other students to see what you have produced. Each group will be responsible for explaining their mural to the visitors.

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If you have pictures of the main ingredients, you can write down the name of each ingredient in the pictures.

Remember to sign the mural with the group members’ names.

Going out there

Fotomontagem de Anna Simonin formada pelas imagens rocharibeiro, Catalin Petolea, zkruger, TunedIn by Westend61 e tiverylucky/Shutterstock.com

Using titles and subtitles is an easy way to make your mural more organized.

During the presentation You can start the exhibition by explaining that its goal is to display the origin of different dishes, showing therefore the importance of some cultures to our gastronomy. Antes da apresentação oficial, sugerimos ensaiar os alunos para que estejam preparados para a exposição, corrigindo possíveis erros e aperfeiçoando a habilidade de falar em público. É interessante que os alunos percebam que o processo pelo qual passaram os fez reconhecer e produzir textos expositivos, ampliando seu conhecimento e dos demais alunos. Além disso, as atividades desenvolvidas tiveram como propósito motivar os alunos a reconhecer e respeitar as diferentes culturas que influenciam nossa culinária.

Evaluating the process

You are going to think about the steps taken by your group in the process of making a mural, from the conception of ideas to the final exhibition. Establish the ups and downs of working on the project. You can use the questions below to guide your discussion. What was my role in my group’s work? Did I participate in all the steps?

Which step was the most difficult for me? Why?

Did I respect my group’s ideas, dates and organization? How?

What did I learn from this project? Have my opinions changed since the beginning of the project?

Could the knowledge I shared with my classmates be acquired by them? How?

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Understanding literature

Este livro será reutilizado por outro aluno no ano seguinte. Anote suas respostas no caderno.

Respostas pessoais. Sugerimos questionar os alunos sobre suas experiências com a literatura como um todo. Do you like reading? Why (not)? Sugerimos perguntar se os alunos apreciam a leitura de livros, comentando sobre os pontos que mais os agradam e desagradam e qual a frequência de leitura. What do you like reading? Do you have a favorite book or author? Você pode pedir aos alunos que falem sobre os gêneros literários, livros e autores de que mais gostam e se, dentre esses, há algum preferido.

1.

Discuss the questions below with your teacher and classmates.

2.

Read the text below and discuss the questions with your teacher and classmates.

1. c) Sugerimos pedir aos alunos que a) compartilhem com a turma suas ideias sobre o que é b) literatura como forma de arte e c ) In your opinion, what is literature? Is it important? Why? expressão. É importante ajudá-los a refletir sobre por que a literatura é comumente considerada importante: como herança cultural da humanidade, retrato de períodos passados, transmissora de valores culturais, entre outros. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade.

Narrative, lyric and drama are literary genres. They are categories in which works are classified according to their structure and/or content. There are many other subgenres.

What is Literature? […] In exploring ideas about what literature is, it is useful to look at some of the things that literature does. Literature is something that reflects society, makes us think about ourselves and our society, allows us to enjoy language and beauty, it can be didactic, and it reflects on “the human condition”. It both reflects ideology and changes ideology, just like it follows generic conventions as well as changing them. It has social and political effects […]. Literature is the creation of another world, a world that we can only see through reading literature. What is literature? Available at: <http://dlibrary.acu.edu.au/staffhome/siryan/academy/foundation/what_is_literature.htm>.

Accessed on: October 13 th, 2015. 2. a) Resposta esperada: yes, it can make us think about ourselves and our society. Você pode pedir aos alunos que reflitam sobre como uma obra literária pode levá-los a pensar no mundo em que vivem ou como podem, por meio da ficção, estabelecer conexões e fazer críticas sobre a ) Do you agree that literature can make us think about ourselves and our society? a própria realidade.

b ) According to the text, is literature related to “the human condition”?

2. b) Yes, it is. Resposta pessoal. Você pode pedir aos Literature is something c ) In your opinion, can literature create other worlds? Why? alunos que considerem os universos that reflects society, ficcionais dos livros e questioná-los sobre como, durante a leitura, imaginamos aquilo que lemos e makes us think about visualizamos as situações, mesmo que elas sejam fantásticas ou impossíveis de acontecer na realidade. ourselves and our society, allows us In your notebook, match the genres with their definitions. a - III; b - I; c - II. to enjoy language Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, mais informações sobre esses conceitos. and beauty, it can be b ) lyric c ) narrative didactic, and it reflects a ) drama on “the human condition”.

Anna Simonin

3.

Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que estes são os três gêneros literários básicos da concepção clássica de Aristóteles. O gênero narrativo é, na verdade, uma continuidade histórica do gênero épico, que engloba, por exemplo, I It expresses feelings and personal views from the artist. os épicos escritos por Homero, nos quais Structure and rhyming are very important in some works of heróis realizam feitos grandiosos. Os this genre. Ballads and sonnets are some examples. gêneros literários são subdivididos em II It tells a story. Narrator, characters, time and space are part gêneros menores: narrativo (romance, of the works. Novels and short stories are part of this genre. novela, conto, crônica, entre outros), lírico III It is meant to be performed by actors and actresses on stage. (hino, soneto, ode, entre outros), Tragedy and comedy are examples of this genre. dramático (tragédia, tragicomédia, comédia, entre outros).

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4.

Discuss the questions with your teacher and classmates. a ) What famous writers or playwrights do you know?

Resposta pessoal. O objetivo desse item é fazer um levantamento do conhecimento prévio dos alunos com relação a autores de livros e peças de teatro.

b ) Read the title of the biography in activity 5. What author are you going to read about? William Shakespeare.

Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos levar os alunos a falarem sobre o que sabem a de Shakespeare, como seu primeiro nome (William), sua nacionalidade (inglesa), sua profissão (ator e escritor), entre outros. Resposta pessoal. Muitos trabalhos de Shakespeare são conhecidos tanto pela obra original quanto por adaptações. Algumas dessas obras são Romeu e Julieta, Hamlet, Sonho de uma noite de verão, Macbeth, Rei Lear e A tempestade.

c ) What do you know about Shakespeare? respeito d ) Do you know some works by him?

The word play can also mean a theatrical perfomance. I want to watch that Shakespeare’s play tomorrow. And the verb to play also means to act or perform a character. My mother played Juliet in a high school production when she was a teenager. Sugerimos explicar aos alunos que o substantivo play pode significar “peça de teatro” e também que o verbo to play pode significar “atuar, encenar”.

5.

Read the text and decide if the statements on the next page are true or false. In your notebook, write down the true statements and rewrite the false ones.

William Shakespeare Biography Poet, Playwright (c. 1564–1616) [...] Though no birth records exist, church records indicate that a William Shakespeare was baptized at Holy Trinity Church in Stratford-upon-Avon on April 26, 1564. From this, it is believed he was born on or near April 23, 1564, and this is the date scholars acknowledge as William Shakespeare’s birthday. […] Scant records exist of William’s childhood, and virtually none regarding his education. […]

Understanding literature

William Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway on November 28, 1582, in Worcester, in Canterbury Province. Hathaway was from Shottery, a small village a mile west of Stratford. William was 18 and Anne was 26, and, as it turns out, pregnant. Their first child, a daughter they named Susanna, was born on May 26, 1583. Two years later, on February 2, 1585, twins Hamnet and Judith were born. Hamnet later died of unknown causes at age 11. [...] By 1592, there is evidence William Shakespeare earned a living as an actor and a playwright in London and possibly had several plays produced. […] By the early 1590s, documents show William Shakespeare was a managing partner in the Lord Chamberlain’s Men, an acting company in London. After the crowning of King James I, in 1603, the company changed its name to the King’s Men. From all accounts, the King’s Men company was very popular, and records show that Shakespeare had works published and sold as popular literature. […] Tradition has it that William Shakespeare died on his birthday, April 23, 1616, though many scholars believe this is a myth. Church records show he was interred at Trinity Church on April 25, 1616. Today, his plays are highly popular and constantly studied and reinterpreted in performances with diverse cultural and political contexts. The genius of Shakespeare’s characters and plots are that they present real human beings in a wide range of emotions and conflicts that transcend their origins in Elizabethan England. William Shakespeare biography. Available at: <www.biography.com/people/william-shakespeare-9480323>. Accessed on: October 14th, 2015.

Na data de nascimento de Shakespeare, existe a abreviação c. que se refere a circa, cuja tradução é “aproximadamente” e é comumente usada para expressar datas imprecisas, tais como o nascimento do autor.

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Anna Simonin

[…]

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5. c) False. By 1592, there is evidence William Shakespeare earned a living as an actor and a playwright in London and possibly had several plays produced. Você pode explicar aos alunos que Shakespeare introduziu muitas palavras à língua inglesa. É interessante comentar que muitas delas eram palavras já existentes na linguagem oral, e Shakespeare provavelmente foi o primeiro a escrevê-las, e outras foram palavras adotadas de outras línguas. Além disso, algumas vieram da alteração de palavras já existentes, como o adjetivo gloomy (sombrio), que vem do verbo to gloom (obscurecer).

a ) There are many details and records about There are not many details and Shakespeare’s life. False. records about Shakespeare’s life. b ) His wife was older than him. True. c ) He didn’t work in London. d ) Besides writing plays, he also worked as an actor. True.

e ) He was successful around 1600.

True.

f ) He was baptized and buried at different churches. False. He was baptized and buried at the same church.

g ) His works show situations and characters that are easily transferred to other times. True.

6. Discuss

6. a) Nesta atividade, sugerimos escrever a palavra love na lousa e depois pedir para os alunos fazerem um levantamento de palavras relacionadas, tais como date, marriage, couple, heart, entre outras. O objetivo é listar uma grande variedade de termos e também mostrar aos alunos o conceito de amor proibido, como o de Romeu e Julieta, que pode ser expresso por palavras como forbidden (proibido) e impossible (impossível).

Shakespeare is also known for introducing more than 1,700 words to the English vocabulary. Many of these words are still present in daily conversation, such as champion, cold-blooded, critical and unreal.

these questions with your teacher and classmates.

Respostas pessoais.

a ) Think about the word love and, with your classmates, write words related to it. b ) Can you think about some examples of forbidden relationships from books, movies or plays? If necessary, do some research. c ) Have you read any books or comics or seen any movies or books based on The tragedy Sugerimos explicar aos alunos a diferença na grafia entre o inglês americano of Romeo and Juliet? e o britânico. É possível citar outros exemplos, como kilometer, liter e fiber, na grafia do inglês americano, e kilometre, litre e fibre, no inglês britânico.

In American English, we use theater. In British English, we use theatre.

7. Now,

6. b) Você pode pedir aos alunos para pesquisar personagens de livros, filmes e peças teatrais que retratem amores impossíveis. Exemplos clássicos incluem a lenda de Tristão e Isolda e a história de Heathcliff e Catherine, do livro O morro dos ventos uivantes ( Wuthering heights ) de Emily Brontë. Um exemplo mais recente é o casal Bella Swan e Edward Cullen, da série de livros Crepúsculo ( Twilight ). Caso os alunos não mencionem Romeu e Julieta, sugerimos comentar sobre a obra e como ela é considerada uma das principais obras sobre amor impossível.

you are going to learn the plot of Romeo and Juliet’s story. But the sentences are out of order. In your notebook, organize them in the sequence they happen in the story. 1 - d; 2 - b; 3 - e; 4 - a; 5 - c.

a ) Friar Lawrence gives Juliet a potion that makes her seem dead for two days so that Romeo can meet her in her vault. Juliet drinks the potion and her family thinks she is dead. Her marriage to Paris is canceled. b ) Romeo goes back to Juliet’s house and sees her on the balcony. They talk to each other and exchange vows of love. After that, he visits Friar Lawrence and asks him to marry him and Juliet. The Friar agrees. Juliet’s nurse helps Romeo to make contact with Juliet. They get married at the chapel. c ) Romeo is told by his servant that Juliet is dead. Friar Lawrence sends Friar John to tell Romeo that Juliet is just asleep, but Friar John fails. Romeo buys poison and comes back to see Juliet’s body. He finds Paris in the tomb and they fight, Romeo kills Paris and then drinks the poison. Juliet wakes up and sees Romeo’s body. She commits suicide. After that, both families, Friar Lawrence and the Prince arrive and see the three young people dead. d ) Romeo Montague is depressed by his unrequited love for Rosaline Capulet. He goes to a masked party in the Capulet’s house with his cousin Benvolio. The Capulets and the Montagues are enemies, but he wants to see Rosaline. Once he is there, he sees Juliet Capulet and falls in love with her instantly. Tybalt Capulet recognizes Romeo and wants to kill him, but Lord Capulet intervenes and stops the fight. Romeo and Juliet meet each other and kiss. e ) Tybalt kills Mercutio, a friend of Romeo, in a fight. Romeo kills Tybalt and is banished from the city by the Prince. Friar Lawrence helps Romeo to hide, but Romeo comes back and spends the night with Juliet. The following day, a nobleman called Paris wants to marry Juliet, but she refuses. Juliet’s parents get mad at her and she asks objetivo da atividade é organizar cronologicamente o enredo de Romeu e Julieta. Friar Lawrence for help. O Embora os alunos possam não ter lido ou assistido à peça, a obra em si é muito Shakespeare wrote

conhecida e é possível que eles tenham o conhecimento necessário para realizar esta atividade. Caso julgue necessário, no entanto, é possível pedir uma pesquisa para os 154 sonnets, 37 plays and 5 poems. These numbers are auxiliar nesta tarefa.

6. c) A obra Romeu e Julieta inexact since he might have written some uncredited works with other artists and foi adaptada para diferentes formatos, como filmes ( Romeo some of his works are lost to this day. + Juliet, West side story, entre outros), quadrinhos (Mônica e Cebolinha no mundo de Romeu e Julieta) e livros (adaptações da peça e versões atualizadas), entre outros. Você pode perguntar se os alunos conhecem alguma dessas versões.

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8.

The tragedy of Romeo and Juliet was first published in the 15th century. Do you think the English language was different back then? Why? Discuss with your teacher and classmates. Resposta esperada: yes, it was. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade.

In groups, do some research about the time when the play was published. Each group must choose one of these topics: the Elizabethan Age, Elizabethan theater, famous playwrights and Shakespearean tragedy. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, informações sobre estes tópicos.

The English language spoken and written between the late 16 century and the mid 19 th century is known as early modern English.* It is close to modern English, which is the English spoken nowadays. th

10.

You are going to read an excerpt from The tragedy of Romeo and Juliet, the original play by William Shakespeare. It is the famous balcony scene, when Juliet and Romeo meet each other in secret. Juliet is talking to herself about the problems of being in love with a Montague. Romeo is hidden in the garden for a while before he reveals himself to her. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet

12. Você pode explicar aos alunos que as frases são as mesmas da atividade 10, mas reescritas usando a SHAKESPEARE, William. The tragedy of Romeo and Juliet. Available at: <www.gutenberg.org/ linguagem cache/epub/1112/pg1112-images.html>. Accessed on: October 15th, 2015. moderna. É importante relembrá-los da cena: Julieta está na varanda lamentando sobre o fato de Which of the following words do you think are not common nowadays? Exchange ideas ela e Romeo Sugerimos explicar aos alunos que muitas dessas palavras ainda são usadas hoje em dia em serem de with a classmate. contextos específicos, como livros e peças de teatro. Porém, no uso diário da língua, são famílias rivais. consideradas arcaicas. O objetivo da atividade é apresentar aos alunos algumas dessas palavras. Ela fala sobre o desejo de que X thy X wherefore why Romeu negue o speak sworn father yours próprio nome e X thou you a família, e que, X art are X wilt will longer shall caso isso não É importante explicar aos alunos que, embora a grafia seja a acontecesse, mesma de art (arte), a palavra tem outro significado neste caso. ela negaria o próprio nome In your notebook, put the sentences in order. 1 - c; 2 - a; 3 - e; 4 -b; 5 - d. em troca de suas juras de amor. Romeu, a ) Deny your father and refuse your name! escondido no jardim, ouve tudo e se questiona se deveria interromper a fala de Julieta. b ) And I won’t be a Capulet anymore. Anna Simonin

11.

12.

Act 2. Scene 2. Capulet's orchard. [...] Romeo! Why Jul. O Romeo, Romeo! wherefore art thou Romeo? Romeo, are you Romeo? your father and Deny thy father and refuse thy name! Deny refuse your name! Or, if thou wilt not, be but sworn my love,Or, if you won’t, just swear that you love me, And I’ll no longer be a Capulet. And I won’t be a Capulet anymore. Rom. [aside] Shall I hear more, or shall I speak at this? Should I listen more or should I speak right now? [...]

c ) Romeo, Romeo! Why are you Romeo? d ) Should I listen more or should I speak right now? e ) Or, if you won’t, just swear that you love me,

13.

*Você pode explicar aos alunos que a língua inglesa passou por diversos períodos de desenvolvimento e seu período atual é conhecido como modern English (século 19 – atualmente), enquanto a fase anterior é chamada de early modern English (século 16 até meados do século 19), período no qual Shakespeare produziu suas obras. Sendo assim, sua linguagem é um exemplo claro de como a língua inglesa era.

Discuss the questions with your teacher and classmates.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

a ) Why is it a problem that Romeo is from the Montague family?

Juliet’s family, the Capulets, are the sworn enemies of Romeo’s family, the Montagues.

b ) What does it mean to refuse a name?

It means to break up with the family, no longer being a member of it.

c ) In your opinion, what would happen if Romeo or Juliet refused their names and families? Resposta pessoal. d ) Can you think about other couples that were in a similar situation?

In The tragedy of Romeo and Juliet, Shakespeare created the phrase star-crossed lovers, which refers to a relationship that is condemned from its beginning because there are outside forces that cannot be stopped. It originally expressed the idea that stars would command people’s destiny. The phrase has been used to describe couples which cannot be together.

Resposta pessoal.

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9.


14. Based

on the excerpt from activity 10, answer the questions in your notebook.

Respostas pessoais.

a ) Do you think it is easy to read The tragedy of Romeo and Juliet the way it was first Sugerimos pedir aos alunos que voltem ao trecho original de Romeu e Julieta e comentem sobre a published? compreensão do texto. Por fazer uso de uma linguagem poética e repleta de figuras de linguagem, a compreensão das obras de Shakespeare pode ser mais difícil.

b ) Do you think old books need to be adapted into modern language? Why?

Sugerimos levar os alunos a quais são os pontos positivos das versões, como facilidade de acesso e compreensão do texto, resgate de obras esquecidas, entre outros, e os negativos, como a simplificação da escrita do autor, a redução do vocabulário e a distorção do sentido original da obra, entre outros.

c ) What are the advantages and disadvantages of these adaptations? pensarem

15. In

your notebook, match the pictures with the sentences.

A – II; B – III; C – I.

Xist Publishing

C

Random House Books for Young Readers

The Modern Shakespeare

B

A

14. b) Você pode comentar com os alunos que diversos livros escritos há muito tempo possuem versões com a linguagem atualizada. Frequentemente essas versões trazem comentários para que o leitor compreenda melhor o texto. Seria interessante perguntar se os alunos acham necessário esse tipo de versão e se já tiveram a chance de ler algum desses livros. 15. Você pode orientar os alunos a inferirem o conteúdo da edição a partir da capa. O objetivo da atividade é mostrar que existem versões diferentes para propósitos diferentes. A obra YOLO Juliet , de Brett Wright, traz a história para o mundo contemporâneo, no qual Romeu e Julieta se comunicam usando mensagens de celular, voltada para o público jovem. Romeo and Juliet: the original play with a modern translation , da editora The Modern Shakespeare, contém o texto original de Shakespeare e uma versão com o inglês moderno, permitindo ao leitor uma leitura comparada. E Romeo and Juliet , da coleção Shakespeare Originals, contém somente o texto original.

I

This book contains the original text from Shakespeare.

II

This book contains a really contemporary version with internet slangs and emojis.

III

This book contains the original text from Shakespeare and also a modern English version.

16. What

elements can you find in each cover? Draw up a table in your notebook and orientar os alunos a observarem cada uma das capas e nomearem os diferentes itens complete it. Sugerimos as compõem, como as imagens, textos, indicações de faixa etária, temática entre outros. YOLO Juliet title, picture, Romeo, Juliet, emojis, writers’ names, comic

Romeo and Juliet: the original play with a modern translation title, painting, Romeo, Juliet, people, classical painting

que

Romeo and Juliet title, Shakespeare drawing, comic

Romeo has been used to describe any man who is a passionate lover. Você pode comentar com os alunos que Romeu e Julieta se tornaram verdadeiros símbolos do amor. Sugerimos explicar que, em razão disso, o nome Romeo tem sido usado informalmente para nomear homens apaixonados.

17. Decide

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if these sentences are true or false. In your notebook, write down the true Você pode orientar os alunos, partindo das descrições e das capas statements and rewrite the false ones. dos livros da atividade anterior, a identificarem quais afirmações são

verdadeiras e quais são falsas. O objetivo desta atividade é a compreensão das False. The book YOLO Juliet is an adaptation of the original text. particularidades In book B, the reader can compare the original and the modern English text. de cada livro e, True. além disso, levar os alunos Book A is aimed to teenagers. a perceberem True. que cada um The book covers are not related to the contents of the books. deles foi False. The book covers are related to the contents of the books. baseado em um público-alvo. Book C does not include a contemporary version. True.

a ) All versions have the original text. b ) c ) d ) e )

one hundred eighty-two


Read the text and answer the questions in your notebook.

*Você pode explicar aos alunos que Julieta tem 13 anos à época em que se passa o enredo da peça. No período em que Romeu e Julieta foi escrito, meninas podiam se casar com 12 anos e meninos com 14, desde que os pais permitissem. Com relação a Romeo, sua idade exata é desconhecida, mas assume-se que ele seja jovem.

18. d) They are talking by cell phones and using a much more informal language. Sugerimos levar os alunos a pensarem em como Romeu e Julieta, ao conversarem por mensagens de texto, utilizam uma linguagem mais informal do que aquela encontrada na peça. A forma do texto reflete também a época em que foi produzido e, além disso, busca tornar o texto mais atraente para os jovens ao aproximar a linguagem à realidade deles. Random House Books for Young Readers

18.

WRIGHT, Brett. YOLO Juliet. New York: Random House Books for Young Readers, 2015. (OMG Shakespeare).

are exchanging a ) What is happening between Juliet and Romeo? They vows of love.

b ) Go back to activity 7. Can you tell what part from the play it is? c ) How are they talking to each other? By text messages. Sugerimos

18. e) They are using emojis to express feelings and ideas without using words. Você pode levar os alunos a pensarem na função dos emojis. Esses símbolos são desenhos que expressam sentimentos e emoções e frequentemente substituem palavras. É importante verificar se eles conhecem todos os emojis que aparecem na conversa. Os dois corações representam amor, as pegadas remetem ao caminho tomado por Romeu e o rosto sorrindo expressa o rubor de Julieta. It is the part when Romeo and Juliet talk on the balcony. Você pode orientar os alunos a voltarem à atividade 7 para ajudá-los a identificar o momento que pode ser associado ao texto acima.

orientar os alunos a observarem os balões que enquadram o texto, os emojis e as abreviações que remetem a mensagens de celular.

Understanding literature

d ) How different is it from the original play? e ) Why are they using these emojis?

Srsly (seriously). Você pode verificar se os alunos conhecem a gíria presente na conversa e quais outras eles conhecem. 19. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a acharem no texto original de Shakespeare o trecho correspondente ao que foi retirado da obra YOLO Juliet.

f ) Can you find an example of internet slang?

19.

A

In your notebook, rewrite the modern sentences according to the original text.

[...] u By whose direction found’st tho out this place? [...]

dy of Romeo and Juliet. SHAKESPE ARE, William. The trage rg/cac he/ep ub/1112/ Availa ble at: <www.guten berg.o st on: Octob er 21 , 2015. pg1112-images.html>. Acces sed

my bedr oom was? srsly, how did you find wher e

B

[…] Thou knowes t the mask of nig ht is on my face; Else wou ld a maiden blush bepaint my cheek For that which thou hast heard me speak to-night […] SHAKESPEARE, William. The trage dy of Romeo and Juliet. Available gutenberg.org/cache/epub/1112/pg1 at: <www. 112-images.html>. Accessed on: October 21st, 2015.

it´s a good thing it´s dark . you´r e maki ng me blush .

C

[...] But that thou overhea rd’s t, ere I was ware, My true-love pas sion. [...] SHAK ESPE ARE, William. The trage dy of Rome o and Juliet. Availa ble at: <www.guten berg.o rg/cac he/ep ub/1112/pg1112-image s. html>. Acces sed on: Octob er 21st , 2015.

By the time the play happens, Juliet is only thirteen years old.* By the period it was written, girls were allowed (with parental permission) to get married when they were twelve years old and boys, fourteen years old – but it was unusual to get married so young.

you heard me just now. I’m so into you. […]

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20.

You are going to see a painting by Ford Madox Brown and another one by Frederic Leighton. Before that, in groups, do some research about these painters and the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, a group related to both artists. Present it to the class.

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, informações sobre esta pintura.

Ford Madox Brown (1821 – 1893) was an English painter. He is known for his highly detailed paintings representing historical moments. Sugerimos explicar aos alunos que Ford Madox Brown foi um pintor inglês comumente associado a um grupo artístico denominado Irmandade Pré-Rafaelita.

21. O objetivo da atividade 22 é fazer os alunos relacionarem a pintura com um trecho da obra. Você pode orientá-los a analisar a imagem e, com base nos detalhes, identificar a opção que se relaciona com a pintura.

22.

Observe the painting and identify the sentences that are related to it. a; b; d. a ) Romeo and Juliet are on the balcony. b ) Romeo has climbed the balcony. c ) The painting represents a modern version of the play.

Ford Madox Brown - Romeo and Juliet. Delaware Art Museum, Delaware. 1869-1870.

d ) They are in love. Which of the following excerpts can be associated with the picture? A

Sugerimos dizer aos alunos que esta atividade trabalha com uma pintura famosa inspirada pela obra, exibida na atividade 20. É importante orientá-los a observar a imagem atentamente. Sugerimos explicar que os trechos abaixo foram retirados de uma versão contemporânea do clássico, intitulada Romeo and Juliet , de William Shakespeare e John Crowther, e que eles devem associar a imagem a um deles.

O trecho ao lado se A passa quando Julieta está na varanda pensando em Romeu. Ao perceber que ele está no jardim abaixo, escondido, os dois conversam e fazem juras de amor. O trecho é exatamente do momento em que ela o questiona sobre como conseguiu entrar na propriedade e o alerta do perigo que corre por ser de uma família rival.

No trecho ao lado, Romeu fica sabendo que sofrerá uma punição pela morte de Tibaldo (Tybalt), que havia assassinado Mercúcio em um duelo. Você pode explicar aos alunos que Friar Lawrence é o frei que ajuda Romeu e Julieta a se casarem.

B

[...] Juliet. orchard Tell me, how did you get in here? And why did you come? The s relative my of any If them. over climb to walls are high, and it’s hard are. you who of e becaus find you here they’ll kill you

Romeo. keep I flew over these walls with the light wings of love. Stone walls can’t try him love out. Whatever a man in love can possibly do, his love will make to do it. Therefore your relatives are no obstacle. [...]

Publishing, 2003. p. 83. (No fear Shakespea re). CROWTHER, John (Ed.). Romeo and Juliet. New York: Spark

23. c) Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos levar os alunos a refletirem sobre a pintura em si e sobre as [...] sensações e sentimentos que ela evoca, tais como os dois jovens se abraçando, a expressão de Romeo. deleite de Julieta, a pose triunfante de Romeu, entre outros. ce? What Father, what’s the news? What punish ment did the Prince announ sufferi ng lies in store for me that I don’t know about yet? Friar Lawrence. Prince’s You know too much about sufferi ng. I have news for you about the punish ment

[...]

Publishing, 2003. p. 167. (No fear Shakespea re). CROWTHER, John (Ed.). Romeo and Juliet. New York: Spark

23. a) They would kill him. Você pode orientar os alunos a procurarem no trecho acima o momento em que Julieta avisa Romeu do perigo.

23.

Discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates. a ) What would happen to Romeo if someone from Juliet’s family saw him there? b ) Was Romeo afraid? What was his explanation? c ) In your opinion, does the painting represent the love between them? Why (not)?

184

23. b) No, he wasn’t. He said that his love would help him. Você pode orientar os alunos a procurarem

one hundred-eighty four no trecho a resposta de Romeu para o aviso, enfatizando o quanto a resposta dele é sonhadora e abstrata frente ao perigo concreto.


Assim como a atividade 20, o objetivo é analisar a pintura e relacioná-la com as frases abaixo. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, informações sobre esta pintura.

Observe the painting and identify the sentences that are related to it. a; b; d.

Fotomontagem de Anna Simonin formada pelas imagens Ford Madox Brown. 1869-1870. Óleo sobre tela. 135,6 x 94 cm. Museu de Arte de Delaware (EUA) e Frederick Leighton. 1855. Óleo sobre tela. 178 x 231 cm. Coleção particular

Lord Frederic Leighton* (1830-1896) was an English sculptor and painter. His works depicted biblical, historical and mythical subjects.

a ) The painting represents a tragedy. b ) Romeo and Juliet seem to be dead. c ) The scene is bright and colorful. d ) Some people are shaking hands.

25.

Frederic Leighton - The reconciliation of the Montagues and Capulets over the dead bodies of Romeo and Juliet. Private Collection, 1855. *Você pode

Which of the following excerpts can be associated with the picture? B

[...] Você pode dizer aos os alunos que, como na atividade 21, esta atividade trabalha com uma imagem famosa inspirada pela obra, exibida na Romeo. atividade 24. É importante orientá-los a observar com atenção. No trecho ao Sugerimos explicar que os trechos abaixo foram retirados de uma versão Good morning, father. lado, Romeu contemporânea de Romeu e Julieta, intitulada Romeo and Juliet, de cumprimenta o William Shakespeare e John Crowther, e que eles devem associar a Frei após a noite Friar Lawrence. imagem a um deles. em que conhece Julieta. O frei fala God bless you. Who greets me so early in the morning? sobre o contraste que existe entre Young man, something’s wrong if you’re getting out of bed this early. Every homens mais old man has worries, and worried men never get any sleep, but young men velhos, que perdem o shouldn’t have a care in the world. They should get to bed early and get plenty of sono devido a preocupações, sleep. Therefore, the fact that you’re awake this early tells me you’ve been upset e homens with some anxiety. If that’s not the case, then this must be the answer: You, jovens, que não precisam se Romeo, have not been to bed tonight. preocupar. O frei suspeita que [...] Romeu está A

ansioso ou que ele não dormiu naquela noite.

B

O trecho ao lado se passa quando o Príncipe, após ler uma carta escrita pelo Frei, esclarece os fatos que levaram ao fim trágico de Romeu, Julieta e Páris. Em seguida, ele condena e responsabiliza ambas as famílias pelo conflito e pelas mortes.

26.

explicar aos alunos que Frederic Leighton foi um pintor e escultor inglês conhecido por sua técnica refinada. Um dos artistas mais celebrados de sua época, foi presidente da Academia Real de Artes da Inglaterra. Além disso, recebeu os títulos de cavaleiro, baronete e barão.

CROWTHER, John (Ed.). Romeo and Juliet. New York: Spark Publishing, 2003. p. 99. (No fear Shakespeare).

[...] Prince. (skimming the letter) This letter confirms the friar’s account. It describes the course of their love and mentions the news of her death. Here he writes that he bought poison from a poor pharmacist. He brought that poison with him to this vault to die and lie with Juliet. Where are these enemies? Capulet! Montague! Do you see what a great evil results from your hate? Heaven has figured out how to kill your joys with love. Because I looked the other way when your feud flared up, I’ve lost several members of my family as well. Everyone is punished. [...]

Understanding literature

24.

CROWTHER, John (Ed.). Romeo and Juliet. New York: Spark Publishing, 2003. p. 285. (No fear Shakespeare).

Discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates. a ) Why did the Prince say everyone is punished?

Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, como conduzir esta atividade.

He said that because everybody lost someone in the end.

b ) According to the Prince, what were the results of the problem between the families? The death of Romeo, Juliet and Paris.

c ) What did the Prince mean when he said that heaven killed their joys with love?

He meant that destiny or God found a way to punish both families by making Romeo and Juliet fall in love with each other.

d ) In your opinion, would Romeo and Juliet’s death be the only way to end the conflict between the two families? Why? Resposta pessoal.

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185


29. O objetivo desta Do you know any movie(s) based on Romeo and Juliet? If you do, have you seen it (them)? atividade é trabalhar a capacidade de inferência dos alunos com base With your teacher and classmates write a list with words related to the story of Romeo and nas capas de dois filmes baseados na Juliet. Write it in your notebook because you are going to use it in the next activities. história de Romeu e Sugerimos levar os alunos a pensarem em palavras que podem ser associadas à obra de Shakespeare, tais como love, teenagers, Julieta. Você pode fight, death, family, conflicts, confusion, entre outras. É importante escrevê-las, pois elas serão usadas em atividades posteriores. levá-los a extrair o máximo de Observe these DVD covers and decide if the sentences below are true or false. In your elementos das capas e criar notebook, write down the true statements and rewrite the false ones. suposições sobre os conteúdos dos filmes.

27.

28.

29.

Filme de Jerome Robbins e Robert Wise. West Side Story. EUA. 1961

Filme de Baz Luhrmann. Romeo + Juliet. EUA. 1996

a ) Those movies are not set in the 1500’s.

West side story, directed by Jerome Robbins and Robert Wise, 1961.

30.

31.

c ) Romeo + Juliet presents more classical elements. True. A capa de Romeo + Juliet apresenta uma armadura medieval.

d ) West side story is probably set in a big city. True. A capa do DVD mostra, ao fundo, os prédios de Nova Iorque.

e ) Both covers emphasize the same element of the play The tragedy of Romeo and Juliet: the romance between the two main characters. True. Romeo + Juliet, directed by Baz Luhrmann, 1996.

29. b) False. In the DVD cover of West side story, Romeo and Juliet aren’t dancing. West side story é um clássico do gênero musical, no qual os atores dançam e cantam músicas relacionadas ao enredo. Porém, na capa do DVD eles não estão dançando.

Read the excerpts and identify the corresponding movie.

A - I; B - II.

[...] The ground-breaking, dynamic film of 1961 was based on the successful Broadway hit […]. The play reworked the traditional love story material (of lovers that crossed racial/ethnic barriers) and translated it, in a radical, novel and revolutionary style for a musical, to include racial strife between rival New York street gangs (newly-arrived Puerto Ricans and second-generation Americans from white European immigrant families), juvenile delinquency and inner-city problems of the mid-twentieth century – in exhilarating musical and dance form. [...] West side story (1961). Available at: <www.filmsite.org/wests.html> Accessed on: October 19 th, 2015.

I

West side story

II

Romeo + Juliet

[...] Welcome to mythical Verona Beach, where the gangs fire on each other, and soldiers in choppers fire on them. Shot in Mexico in a style that might be called retrofuturistic, since it encompasses castles and armor, as well as bulletproof vests and boomboxes, the film reworks Shakespeare in a frenzy of jump cuts that makes most rock videos look like MTV on Midol.* [...]

TRAVERS, Peter. William Shakespeare’s Romeo + Juliet. Available at: <www.rollingstone.com/movies/ reviews/william-shakespeares-romeo-juliet-19961101>. Accessed on: October 19 th, 2015.

I

West Side Story

Os trechos acima foram retirados de resenhas dos dois filmes, que trabalham o enredo de Shakespeare de maneiras diferentes. West side story (1961) é um musical sobre o conflito entre duas II Romeo + Juliet gangues em Nova Iorque. Romeo + Juliet (1996) é uma modernização da obra, na qual as famílias são como máfias e os personagens usam armas de fogo.

Which words from activity 28 can you relate to both movies? Discuss with a classmate.

Sugerimos orientar os alunos a retornarem à lista de palavras e associarem cada uma a um dos filmes, com base na capa e na resenha lida. Sugerimos explicar aos alunos que, até o final do século XVI, Before the late 1600’s, women weren’t allowed to act on the stage, so Juliet mulheres não podiam atuar nos (and the other female characters) were played by male actors. teatros, então atores tinham que fazer o papel de Julieta. *Midol é um remédio utilizado para aliviar as dores causadas pela cólica menstrual e outros efeitos causados pela tensão pré-menstrual. A refêrencia ao remédio se dá porque, de acordo com a resenha, one hundred eighty-six videoclipes de rock pareciam anestesiados, sedados, em comparação ao ritmo alucinante do filme.

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Ilustrações: Anna Simonin

27. Resposta pessoal. Sugerimos perguntar aos alunos se eles conhecem alguma(s) das versões cinematográficas A de Romeu e Julieta e explicar que alguns filmes dos muitos baseados na obra são mais fieis à história, enquanto outros se passam em outras épocas, possuem alterações no enredo, entre outras diferenças. No entanto, todos mantêm contato com a obra original de alguma forma. Se julgar oportuno, é possível conversar com os alunos sobre a diferença entre a intertextualidade implícita, na qual B a relação entre as obras não é claramente expressa, e a explícita, na qual ela é facilmente reconhecida. Além dos filmes trabalhados nesta seção, uma das versões mais consagradas é Romeu e Julieta, dirigido por Franco Zeffirelli e lançado em 1968.

True.

b ) In the DVD cover of West side story, Romeo and Juliet are dancing.


32.

33.

In your notebook, match the words with their synonyms. a a ) ground-breaking

d ) immigrant

b ) musical

e ) gangs

c ) strife

f ) retrofuturistic

- IV; b - IX; c - VII; d - VIII; e - V; f - III; g - II; h - I; i - VI. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a associarem o g ) bulletproof significado das palavras abaixo com seus sinônimos.

h ) boombox i ) frenzy

I

a big portable radio

IV

innovative

VII

conflict

II

able to resist the impact of bullets

V

a group of people

VIII

a person from another country

III

a style that express how people from the past imagined the future

VI

insanity, confusion

IX

a play or movie with actors singing and dancing

Read the excerpt of lyrics below and discuss the questions with your classmates. Sugerimos ver, nas Orientações para o professor, comentários sobre esta atividade.

x http://www.romeoandjulietsongs.com/

HOME

FAVORITE

MUSIC

VIDEOS

Song 1

NEWS name: e-mail:

2018

SWIFT, Taylor. Love story. In: Fearless. Big Machine Records, 2008.

2017

Song 2

2016

Romeo and Juliet (Dire Straits) A love struck Romeo sings the streets a serenade, Laying everybody low with a love song that he made Finds a street light, steps out of the shade Says something like, ‘You and me babe, how about it?’ Juliet says, ‘Hey it’s Romeo, you nearly gave me a heart attack’ He’s underneath the window, she’s singing, ‘Hey la, my boyfriend’s back You shouldn’t come around here, singing up to people like that’ Anyway, what you gonna do about it? [...] back to the top

DIRE STRAITS. Romeo and Juliet. In: Making movies. Vertigo, 1980.

a ) Do some research about Taylor Swift and Dire Straits. What genre of music do they 33. a) Resposta esperada: Taylor Swift plays a mix play? What are the characteristics of each artist? country and pop music, her songs have a high b) c)

34.

of

commercial appeal and deal with themes related to love What elements from the play can you find in both lyrics? and life. Dire Straits were a rock group, their songs were guitar driven and mixed influences from other genres, such as blues and What is the difference between the play and the song by Dire Straits? jazz. The song is about a contemporary Romeo and Juliet. Romeo is a singer and the balcony was replaced by a window. Sugerimos explicar aos alunos que a letra da música evoca um ambiente mais atual.

In groups, imagine and write what happened after Romeo and Juliet’s death and, then, estimular a criatividade dos alunos por meio da escrita, sugerimos present it to the class. Some suggestions are: Para pedir que, em grupos, imaginem alguma dessas possibilidades para

• Did both families find peace or did they start to fight each other again? • Was Friar Lawrence punished for helping the couple? • What would happen if more people from both families fell in love?

escrever o que aconteceu após a morte de Romeu e Julieta e, posteriormente, apresentem o trabalho para a turma.

33. b) Both refer to the balcony scene. Sugerimos orientar os alunos a analisarem como as duas letras de música fazem referência à cena da varanda, que é por meio das palavras balcony e window.

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187

Understanding literature

We were both young When I first saw you I closed my eyes And the flashback starts I’m standing there On a balcony in summer air [...]

Fotomontagem de Bárbara Sarzi formada pela imagem FashionStock.com/Shutterstock.com e Gijsbert Hanekroot/Redferns/Getty Images

Love Story (Taylor Swift)


unit

Grammar appendix 1

Verb to be (Simple Present) The Simple Present form of verb to be is used to express many different ideas in English. It is used for personal introductions, with adjectives to express qualities of someone, to talk about time, weather, and prices, to indicate location, and more. It can be used with an adjective or with a noun. Full form

Contracted form

I am

I’m

You are

You’re

He is

He’s

She is

She’s

I’m studious.

KPG Payless2/ Shutterstock. com

I’m a studious person.

It is

It’s

We are

We’re

You are

You’re

She’s sensible.

They are

They’re

She’s a sensible girl.

In negative sentences, use not. Full form

Contracted form

I am not

I’m not

You are not

You’re not/You aren’t

He is not

He’s not/He isn’t

She is not

She’s not/She isn’t

It is not

It’s not/It isn’t

We are not

We’re not/We aren’t

You are not

You’re not/You aren’t

They aren’t funny.

They are not

They’re not/They aren’t

They aren’t funny boys.

You aren’t selfish. You aren’t a selfish person.

Short answers

Am I funny?

Yes, you are.

No, you aren’t.

Are you intelligent?

Yes, I am.

No, I’m not.

Is he/she/it impolite?

Yes, he/she/it is.

No, he/she/it isn’t.

Are we/you/they nice?

* Yes, we/they are.

* No, we/they aren’t.

ve

ro

mg

/S

hu

t te

rst

Questions

ol i

*Quando fazemos uma pergunta nos referindo à segunda pessoa do plural, you, a resposta será sempre na primeira pessoa do plural, we.

oc

k .c

om

In questions, put verb to be before the subject.

Tag questions

Negative question

You are tired,

aren’t you?

It is a beautiful day,

isn’t it?

one hundred and eighty-eight

Su Sh s aZo ut t er om/ s to ck .c

188

Positive statement

om

Tag questions turn a statement into a question. They are used to ask for confirmation.


Negative statement

Positive question

He isn’t arrogant,

is he?

They aren’t pessimistic,

are they?

The tag question for I am is aren’t I?.

Imperatives The imperative forms of verbs are used to give orders, warnings, advice and instructions. To make an imperative, use the infinitive of the verb without to. To make a negative imperative, use do not or don’t before the verb. Negative imperative

Open your passport.

Don’t show your ticket.

Affirmative imperative (polite)

Negative imperative (polite)

Please open your passport.

Don’t show your ticket, please.

s/

Affirmative imperative

ge

There is/There are There is and there are are used to say that something exists, that something is real. There is is used for singular nouns and there are is used for plural nouns. You can answer a question with a short answer.

There is Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

Short answers

There is a foreigner here.

There is not a foreigner here.

Is there a foreigner here?

Yes, there is. No, there isn’t.

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

Short answers

There are many Hispanics in the USA.

There are not many Hispanics in the USA.

Are there many Hispanics in the USA?

There are

Yes, there are. No, there aren’t.

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189

Grammar appendix

2

Mo S h n ke ut y B t er u s t o sin e ck ss .co Im m a

unit

I am really funny, aren’t I?


unit

3

Present Continuous The Present Continuous expresses the idea that something is happening now, at this moment. The Present Continuous is formed by verb to be followed by a verb with -ing. Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I am playing golf.

I am not playing golf.

Am I playing golf?

You are doing aerobics.

You are not doing aerobics.

Are you doing aerobics?

He/she/it is running.

He/she/it is not running.

Is he/she/it running?

We are doing yoga.

We are not doing yoga.

Are we doing yoga?

You are doing yoga.

You are not doing yoga.

Are you doing yoga?

They are doing yoga.

They are not doing yoga.

Are they doing yoga?

Questions

Short answers

Am I playing well?

Yes, you are.

No, you aren’t.

Are you having lunch?

Yes, I am.

No, I’m not.

Is he/she/it running?

Yes, he/she/it is.

No, he/she/it isn’t.

Are we/you/they doing karate?

Yes, we/they are.

No, we/they aren’t.

Spelling

••The continuous form is usually

••If the base verb has two or more

made by adding -ing to the base form of the verb. do - doing play - playing work - working

syllables ending with consonant + stressed vowel + consonant, double the last consonant and add -ing. begin - beginning commit - committing control - controlling

••If the base verb ends with a silent -e, drop the -e and add -ing. make - making dance - dancing write - writing

••If the base verb has two or more

••If the base verb is a short,

syllables ending with consonant + unstressed vowel + consonant, just add -ing. listen - listening open - opening whisper - whispering

••Some exceptions are: lie – lying picnic - picnicking

en c ik ta t /S

one-syllable verb ending with consonant + vowel + consonant, double the last consonant and add -ing. swim - swimming sit - sitting plan - planning

Rus S/Shutterstock. com

hu t te rs to ck .co m

Can/Can’t

Can expresses possibility, permission, ability and opportunity. The negative form is cannot or can’t.

190

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I can play soccer.

I cannot/can’t play soccer.

Can I play soccer?

You can swim.

You cannot/can’t swim.

Can you swim?

He/she/it can take the ball.

He/she/it cannot/can’t take the ball.

Can he/she/it take the ball?

We/you/they can ride a bike.

We/you/they cannot/can’t ride a bike.

Can we/you/they ride a bike?

one hundred and ninety


unit

Questions

4

Short answers

Can I ride a bike?

Yes, you can.

No, you can’t.

Can you play soccer?

Yes, I can.

No, I can’t.

Can he/she/it jump?

Yes, he/she/it can.

No, he/she/it can’t.

Can we/you/they start?

Yes, we/they can.

No, we/they can’t.

Simple Present The Simple Present tense is used to talk about an action that is regular, a habit or a fact. Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I live in Brazil.

I don’t live in Brazil.

Do I live in Brazil?

You enjoy Japanese food.

You don’t enjoy Japanese food.

Do you enjoy Japanese food?

He/she/it loves exercising.

He/she/it doesn’t love exercising.

Does he/she/it love exercising?

We/you/they eat a lot.

We/you/they don’t eat a lot.

Do we/you/they eat a lot?

Questions

Short answers

Do I live here?

Yes, you do.

No, you don’t.

Do you enjoy German food?

Yes, I do.

No, I don’t.

Does he/she/it love running?

Yes, he/she/it does.

No, he/she/it doesn’t.

Do we/you/they talk a lot?

Yes, we/they do.

No, we/they don’t.

Spelling

••In affirmative sentences, for the third person singular (he, she and it), we add -s to the base form of the verb.

If the base verb ends in consonant + y, omit the -y and add -ies. I study - he studies

I speak - he speaks

you play - she plays

we carry - it carries

we sleep - it sleeps

I eat - he eats

you worry - she worries

••If the base verb ends in -o, -ch, -sh, -ss, -x or -z, add -es.

they deny - he denies

we go - she goes

*Sugerimos comentar com os alunos que há exceções a essa regra, como o verbo have.

you kiss - she kisses they watch - he watches they buzz - it buzzes

Adverbs of frequency

Adverbs

100% always

usually

often

normally

sometimes

occasionally

Jos Sh hua ut t er Re sn s to ick ck / .co m

Adverbs of frequency are used to express how frequently an activity is done.

seldom

hardly ever

rarely

never 0%

Frequency one hundred and ninety-one

191

Grammar appendix

I/you/we/they have – he/she/it has *


Word order

••subject + adverb of frequency + main verb (that is not verb to be) He always plays soccer. We hardly ever eat out.

••subject + verb to be + adverb of frequency I am never late for class. She is usually very tired after running. You can start a sentence using usually, normally, often, frequently, sometimes and occasionally. You cannot start a sentence using always, seldom, rarely, hardly ever and never. Expressions like once a day/week/month/year, every day and three/four/five times a day/week/month/year are usually placed at the end of the sentence.

They have a singular and a plural form.

They only have the singular form.

one chair - two chairs, a boy - several boys, one dog three dogs, a tomato - a kilo of tomatoes, one student - twenty students, a car - lots of cars

water, milk, rice, cheese, meat, money, snow, air, information, baggage

k .c

Things that you cannot count because they are abstract, too small, related to weather conditions, sports, liquids, gases, languages and others.

oc

Things that you can count.

rst

Uncountable nouns

MI

SH

EL

LA

/S

hu

t te

Countable nouns

om

Countable and uncountable nouns

Quantifiers

To make a question, use…

To answer, use…

A few

192

Countable nouns

Uncountable nouns

How many…?

How much…?

a lot of, lots of

a lot of, lots of

some, any

some, any

many

much

few, a few

little, a little

Few

A little

Za Sh doro ut t er zhna s to N ck at a .co l ia m /

Quantifiers are used to express quantities.

Little

positive

negative

positive

negative

I have a few apples. (I don’t have many apples, but I have enough apples.)

I have few apples. (I don’t have enough apples.)

I have a little water. (I don’t have much water, but I have enough water.)

I have little water. (I don’t have enough water.)

one hundred and ninety-two


Subject pronouns

Examples

I

I live with my parents.

you

You are the youngest brother.

he

He is a father.

she

She doesn’t have cousins.

it

It is a cute cat.

we

We are sisters.

you

You don’t have brothers.

they

They are my family.

AC Sh Man ut ter ley/ s to ck .c

Subject pronouns

om

Subject pronouns are used to replace the subjects in a sentence.

Object pronouns Object pronouns are used to replace an object in a sentence to avoid repetition. They are used after a verb or a preposition. Object pronouns

Examples

me

I love my mother and she loves me.

you

Let me introduce my family to you.

him

I have a brother. Do you know him?

her

Where’s your sister? I can’t find her.

it

I have a beautiful family picture. I want to give it to my grandmother.

us

Tell us about your family.

you

Let me tell you about my grandfather.

them

Do you live with them?

Dm Sh y t ro ut t er Z in s t o ke v ck ych .co m /

Possessive adjectives Possessive adjectives are used to talk about possession. They are always used before a noun. Possessive adjectives

Examples

my

This is my family.

your

Is your mother an only child?

his

His uncle is a teacher.

her

She loves her son.

its

The cat likes to play with its ball.

our

This is our daughter.

your

Your parents are nice.

their

Margaret and Carly are their aunts.

one hundred and ninety-three

Grammar appendix

unit

5

193


Bu S h sin e ut s t er s Im s to ag c k e s/ .co m

Possessive pronouns

unit

6

Possessive pronouns

Examples

mine

That picture is mine.

Mo

nk

ey

Possessive pronouns refer to a person/people or thing/things mentioned before. They are never followed by a noun.

yours

The grandfather is yours, not mine.

his

That family is his.

hers

That’s Joshua’s father. It’s not hers.

ours

His parents are divorced, but ours are married.

yours

Those are not my cousins, they are yours.

theirs

The cute baby is theirs.

Phrasal verbs A phrasal verb is a verb followed by a preposition and/or an adverb. The meaning of the original verb changes when this preposition or adverb is added. A phrasal verb can also have more than one meaning. Verb

Phrasal verbs

run: go by moving your legs quickly

run into: meet someone unexpectedly run away: leave a place because you’re not happy there

There are many phrasal verbs, but do not worry about knowing all of them. Check some of them.

Phrasal verbs

Meaning

Examples

give up

stop trying something

Don’t give up on your dreams!

carry on

continue doing something

Carry on talking!

get over

become healthy again

Neil got over a flu.

fall apart

break into small pieces

The building is falling apart.

look forward to

expect something

I am looking forward to the holiday.

Verb to be (Past Tense) In the Simple Past tense, the verb to be has two forms: was and were.

194

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I was at home last night.

I was not/wasn’t at home last night.

Was I at home last night?

You were in my class last year.

You were not/weren’t in my class last year.

Were you in my class last year?

He/she/it was my friend.

He/she/it was not/wasn’t my friend.

Was he/she/it my friend?

We/you/they were married.

We/you/they were not/ weren’t married.

Were we/you/they married?

one hundred and ninety-four

Andrey_Popov/ Shutterstock.com


Questions

Short answers

Was I at home last night?

Yes, you were.

No, you weren’t.

Were you in my class last year?

Yes, I was.

No, I wasn’t.

Was he/she/it my friend?

Yes, he/she/it was.

No, he/she/it wasn’t.

Were we/you/they married?

Yes, we/they were.

No, we/they weren’t.

There was/There were There was and there were are used to say that something existed, that something was real in the past. There was is used for singular nouns and there were is used for plural nouns. You can answer a question with a short answer.

There was Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

Short answers

There was a student here.

There wasn’t a student here.

Was there a student here?

Yes, there was. No, there wasn’t.

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

Short answers

There were many teachers at school.

There weren’t many teachers at school.

Were there many teachers at school?

Simple Past The Simple Past is used to talk about past actions and states. To form affirmative sentences in the Simple Past, add -ed, -d or -ied to the base form of regular verbs. Spelling

• •Usually, add -ed to regular verbs in the past. listen - I listened to a rock CD yesterday. play - We played video game last weekend. dance - Brittany danced at the party. like - She liked the concert.

• •If the base verb ends in consonant + y, omit the -y and add -ied. m

study - I studied English two years ago. cry - She cried when she listened to that sad song.

s to

ck

.co

• •If the verb ends in consonant + stressed vowel + consonant,

Some past forms of verbs are irregular. They don’t follow any rules. To learn more about irregular forms of verbs in the past, study the List of irregular verbs on pages 204 to 206.

ut

t er

duplicate the last letter and add -ed. stop - He stopped playing the guitar because he hurt his arm. plan - They planned to travel with the band.

buy - I bought a DVD on the internet. sing - The band sang our favorite song. go - They went to the music store. have - She had guitar lessons when she was younger.

one hundred and ninety-five

195

Grammar appendix

• •If the base verb ends in -e, add -d.

Sh

7

Yes, there were. No, there weren’t.

AV AV A/

unit

There were


To form negative sentences, use didn’t (did not) and the verb in the base form. To ask questions, use did before the subject and the verb in the base form after the subject. Interrogative

Short answers

I didn’t send you an e-mail.

Did I send you an e-mail?

Yes, you did. No, you didn’t.

You didn’t listen to Beyoncé’s new CD.

Did you listen to Beyoncé’s new CD?

Yes, I did. No, I didn’t.

He didn’t take piano classes.

Did he take piano classes?

She didn’t go to the reggae concert.

Did she go to the reggae concert?

Yes, he/she/it did. No, he/she/it didn’t.

It didn’t have the bonus track.

Did it have the bonus track?

Negative

We didn’t sing at the festival.

Did we sing at the festival?

You didn’t like the performance.

Did you like the performance?

They didn’t play the violin at the concert.

Did they play the violin at the concert?

Yes, we/they did. No, we/they didn’t.

Passive voice The passive voice is used to emphasize the object of the sentence. It highlights the person or thing that experiences an action rather than the person or thing that performs the action. St o

Passive Voice

He played the guitar.

The guitar was played by him.

kk

Active Voice

et e/ Sh ut t er s to ck .co m

The structure to form the passive voice in the past is was/were + past participle verb.

196

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

Short answers

I was told Jon is a guitar player.

I wasn’t told Jon is a guitar player.

Was I told Jon is a guitar player?

Yes, you were.

You were known for your talent.

You weren’t known for your talent.

Were you known for your talent?

Yes, I was.

He was born in Brazil.

He wasn’t born in Brazil.

Was he born in Brazil?

Yes, he/she/it was.

She was given a CD by me.

She wasn’t given a CD by me.

Was she given a CD by me?

No, he/she/it wasn’t.

It was sung by her.

It wasn’t sung by her.

Was it sung by her?

We were taught by a classical musician.

We weren’t taught by a classical musician.

Were we taught by a classical musician?

You were influenced by friends.

You weren’t influenced by friends.

Were you influenced by friends?

They were written by a famous composer.

They weren’t written by a famous composer.

Were they written by a famous composer?

No, you weren’t.

No, I wasn’t.

Yes, we/they were. No, we/they weren’t.

one hundred and ninety-six

g18_ftd_lt_1noi_u08_188a197_grammar.indd 196

17/5/16 10:54 AM


Zero conditional The zero conditional is used to talk about a general truth or a possible action or state and its result. If you don’t exercise, you gain weight. You can see a raibow if it’s rainy and sunny.

.co

m

If the water is cold, you can’t boil an egg.

If clause

Po

ng

Mo

ji/

Sh

ut

t er

s to

ck

The zero conditional sentence has two clauses, the if clause and the main clause. When the if clause comes first, use a comma. But when the main clause comes first, don’t use a comma. Use the Simple Present in both clauses. Main clause

Main clause

If clause

If you go to France,

visit the Eiffel Tower.

Visit the Eiffel Tower

if you go to France.

If you get to the movies first,

wait for me at the box office.

Wait for me at the box office

if you get to the movies first.

Likes and dislikes The words like and dislike are used to talk about preferences. I like going to the movies to watch action movies.

I dislike watching horror movies.

After like, the following verb can be in the infinitive or gerund form. She likes surfing on the internet when she has some free time.

She likes to surf on the internet when she has some free time.

After dislike, the verb has to be in the gerund form. Matt dislikes reading novels.

They love cooking.

Lucy hates playing basketball.

He’s crazy about watching series on TV.

We can’t stand reading the newspaper.

My friends enjoy reading comic books.

Adverbs of manner The adverbs of manner describe how something happens.

They are generally placed at the end of the sentence.

The students listened to the teacher carefully.

The team lost the game. They played badly.

Could you speak slowly, please?

Susan draws amazingly.

But it’s also possible to place them before the verb or in the beginning of the sentences. Bela quickly agreed to go to the theater with her friends.

Secretly, they prepared a surprise party for her.

The children are quietly watching a cartoon. one hundred and ninety-seven

197

Grammar appendix

There are more expressions to talk about preferences. They differ in the degree of intensity. Ind S h ia P u t ic t t er ur s to e/ ck .co m

unit

8


Glossary

In this section, you can find the meaning and the classification of several words. All the meanings presented are from the uses in the specific situations of this book. The meanings and classifications of these words may vary depending on their use.

adj. = adjective

c. = conjunction

pron. = pronoun

adv. = adverb

n. = noun

prep. = preposition

v. = verb

As palavras apresentadas no glossário foram transcritas seguindo a grafia em que aparecem no livro do aluno. No caso de textos de terceiros, mantivemos a grafia original das palavras. Dessa maneira, alguns vocábulos são apresentados na grafia americana e outros na britânica.

A accomplish (v.): realizar, alcançar

attempt (n.): tentativa

beyond (prep.): além de

attempt (v.): tentar

bid (n.): oferta, proposta

attend (v.): frequentar

bike-friendly (adj.): estruturado para receber ciclistas

attentive (adj.): atencioso

accomplished (adj.): realizado, talentoso

avoid (v.): evitar

account (n.): relato

award (n.): prêmio

account (v.): ser a causa

award (v.): premiar

achieve (v.): conquistar

aware (adj.): consciente

acknowledge (v.): confirmar

awareness (n.): consciência

across (adv.): através de

awkward (adj.): desajeitada

advice (n.): conselho affectionate (adj.): afetuoso, carinhoso age (v.): envelhecer alive (adj.): vivo, vívido, vibrante allow (v.): permitir allowed (adj.): permitido along (prep.): ao longo de, juntamente

balloon (n.): balão

borrow (v.): pedir emprestado

balloon (v.): aumentar

bossy (adj.): mandão, autoritário

banished (adj.): banido

anger (n.): raiva anxiety (n.): ansiedade

beauty (n.): beleza

apologise (v.): desculpar

beeping (n.): som geralmente agudo emitido como aviso ou sinal

assertive (adj.): seguro, autoconfiante assessment (n.): avaliação

198

boring (adj.): chato

bear (v.): suportar, aguentar, tolerar [p. bore/pp. born/ borne]

asleep (adj.): adormecido

one hundred and ninety-eight

board game (n.): jogo de tabuleiro

balcony (n.): varanda

amount (n.): quantidade

ashamed (adj.): envergonhado

blush (v.): ruborizar

boombox (n.): rádio portátil

basin (n.): bacia

armpit (n.): axila

blow (n.): soco, golpe

balance (n.): equilíbrio

although (c.): embora

armor (n.): armadura

blood pressure (n.): pressão sanguínea

bond (n.): elo, vínculo

bark (v.): latir

appreciate (v.): apreciar, avaliar

blood (n.): sangue

bodily (adj.): físico, corpóreo

B

alongside (prep.): junto (a)

ancient (adj.): antigo

birth (n.): nascimento

beg (v.): mendigar, implorar behave (v.): comportar(-se) behavior (n.): comportamento behind (adv.): atrás bell (n.): campainha, sinal

both (adj./c.): ambos both (prep.): igualmente, tanto bottom (adj.): último bottom (n.): nível mais baixo, fundo bow (v.): curvar(-se), fazer uma reverência bowl (n.): tigela breakout (adj.): bem-sucedido breast (n.): seio, peito broader (adj.): mais amplo budget (n.): orçamento buffer (v.): amortecer, proteger bullet (n.): bala, projétil

besides (adv./prep.): além de

bulletproof (adj.): à prova de balas

beyond (adv.): além

bullying (n.): ato de intimidar,


ameaçar (principalmente na escola)

critical (adj.): crítico

disturb (v.): perturbar, incomodar

crow (n.): corvo

bury (v.): enterrar

docking station (n.): estação de bicicleta

crown (v.): coroar cuisine (n.): culinária

C

drawback (n.): problema, desvantagem

curb (v.): restringir

due to (prep.): devido careless (adj.): descuidado cassava (n.): mandioca catchy (adj.): cativante challenging (adj.): desafiador

dye (v.): tingir, colorir

D danger (n.): perigo dare (v.): desafiar data (n.): dados, informação

E ear (n.): ouvido

dealership (n.): concessionária

easygoing (adj.): tranquilo, descontraído

change (n.): mudança

deepen (v.): ficar mais grave (tom da voz)

eco-friendly (adj.): que não agride o meio ambiente

change (v.): mudar

deeper (adj.): mais profundo

effort (n.): esforço

chapel (n.): capela

deft (adj.): hábil, ágil

elderly (adj.): idoso

chew (v.): mascar

degree (n.): grau

elderly (n.): pessoa idosa

chewing (n.): ato de mascar

delight (n.): prazer, satisfação

chipmunk (n.): esquilo

depict (v.): retratar

electrical appliance (n.): aparelho eletrodoméstico

chirp (v.): gorjear

deserve (v.): merecer

choice (n.): escolha

despite (prep.): apesar de

chop (v.): picar

develop (v.): desenvolver

chopper (n.): helicóptero

development (n.): desenvolvimento

employee (n.): empregado

devise (v.): planejar

encompass (v.): envolver

diminish (v.): reduzido

encourage (v.): encorajar

dioxide (n.): dióxido

encouragement (n.): estímulo, motivação

champion (n.): campeão champion (v.): defender

click (v.): clicar, estalar cold-blooded (adj.): sangue-frio collectively (adv.): coletivamente comics (n.): quadrinhos

embarrassed (adj.): envergonhado embarrassment (n.): vergonha, constrangimento

empower (v.): autorizar, permitir

commitment (n.): compromisso

disability (n.): necessidade especial

communal (adj.): comunitário, comum

disagree (v.): discordar

complain (v.): reclamar

disagreeable (adj.): desagradável

enemy (n.): inimigo

disease (n.): doença

enjoyable (adj.): agradável

disenfranchised (adj.): desprivilegiado

enlightenment (n.): compreensão, conhecimento

dish (n.): prato, iguaria

enough (adj.): suficiente, bastante

complaint (n.): reclamação comprehensive (adj.): abrangente concern (n.): preocupação

endeavor (n.): empenho, esforço

engine (n.): motor

confident (adj.): seguro, confiante

dismayed (adj.): consternado display (n.): exibição, exposição

environment (n.): meio ambiente

content (n.): conteúdo

display (v.): exibir

even though (c.): mesmo que, apesar de que

contest (n.): competição core (n.): centro, núcleo cover (n.): capa

disposable (adj.): descartável

cover (v.): cobrir

disrupt (v.): perturbar, interromper

crippled (adj.): incapacitado

distorted (adj.): distorcido

ethnicity (n.): etnicidade

exhilarating (adj.): emocionante expect (v.): espera expert (n.): especialista one hundred and ninety-nine

199

Glossary

canned (adj.): enlatado


gooey (adj.): macio, viscoso

impolite (adj.): mal-educado

grade (n.): nota, ano escolar face (n.): face, rosto

green (adj.): ecológico

impressive (adj.): impressionante

face (v.): encarar, enfrentar

greenest (adj.): mais ecológico

improve (v.): melhorar

ground-breaking (adj.): inovador growth (n.): crescimento

improvement (n.): melhora, progresso

guts (n.): entranhas, coragem

incoming (adj.): em recebimento

F

fairy (n.): fada fairy tale (n.): conto de fadas fantasy (n.): fantasia (gênero literário) farmable (adj.): cultivável farthest (adj.): mais distante, mais longe

increase (n.): crescimento increase (v.): aumentar

H

indeed (adv.): de fato, certamente

harm (n.): ferimento

feedback (n.): opinião, avaliação

individual (adj.): individual, particular

fellow (n.): companheiro, colega

harmful (adj.): danoso, prejudicial

feud (n.): disputa

harmonious (adj.): harmonioso

individual (n.): pessoa, indivíduo

fiddle (n.): violino

haul (n.): quantidade

induct (v.): incluir, empossar

field (n.): campo, plantação

headache (n.): dor de cabeça

infer (v.): inferir

fight (n.): combate

hearing (n.): audição

inner-city (n.): subúrbio

fit (v.): caber [p. fit/fitted/pp. fit/fitted]

heating pad (n.): almofada aquecida (elétrica)

intake (n.): consumo

flare (v.): deflagrar

heaven (n.): paraíso, céu

flashback (n.): memória

hectic (adj.): frenético

flowing (adj.): fluido

heel (n.): calcanhar

footpath (n.): caminho, trilha forecast (n.): previsão

hereby (adv.): dessa maneira, assim

foreign (adj.): estrangeiro

hidden (adj.): escondido

foreigner (n.): estrangeiro

high (adj.): alto

framework (n.): estrutura

hillside (n.): encosta

frenzy (n.): frenesi, furor

hire (v.): alugar

friar (n.): frade

hit (n.): êxito, sucesso

friendly (adj.): amigável

hog (v.): comer demais

fuel (n.): combustível

hormone (n.): hormônio

fuel (v.): prover de combustível; estimular

horn (n.): trompa host (n.): anfitrião

kale (n.): couve

full (adj.): cheio

host (v.): sediar, ser o anfitrião

kidney (n.): rim

fully (adv.): inteiramente, completamente

household chore (n.): tarefa doméstica

kind (n.): tipo

funny (adj.): engraçado

however (adv.): entretanto hum (n.): zumbido

G

hunger (n.): fome garden (n.): jardim garlic (n.): alho gather (v.): reunir, juntar goal (n.): meta, objetivo good (n.): produto

200

two hundred

interred (adj.): enterrado intervene (v.): intervir

J jealous (adj.): invejoso, ciumento joint (n.): articulação joke (n.): piada, brincadeira joke (v.): contar uma piada

K

L lack (n.): falta landscape (n.): paisagem

I

landslide (n.): grande vitória com ampla votação illiteracy (n.): analfabetismo

lap (v.): estar uma volta à frente

impairment (n.): diminuição, enfraquecimento

late (adj.): falecido, tardio, atrasado


laugh (n.): gargalhada

mood (n.): humor

parent (n.): pai ou mãe

laugh (v.): gargalhar

moody (adj.): mal-humorado

passion (n.): paixão

laziness (n.): preguiça

moving (adj.): comovente, tocante

passionate (adj.): apaixonado

lazy (adj.): preguiçoso leaf (n.): folha leak (v.): vazar

patch (n.): trecho, pedaço pattern (n.): padrão

N

pedestrian (n.): pedestre

leisure (n.): lazer

peer (n.): colega, parceiro

length (n.): comprimento

napkin (n.): guardanapo

perform (v.): representar

lens (n.): lente

narrow (adj.): estreito

less (adj./adv.): menos

nearby (adj.): próximo, perto

perfomance (n.): representação artística

likely (adv.): provavelmente

nearly (adv.): quase

perhaps (adv.): talvez

locked (adj.): trancado

neighbor (n.): vizinho

period (n.): período menstrual

loneliness (n.): solidão

neighborhood (n.): vizinhança

persona (n.): eu lírico

loosely (adv.): informalmente, sem precisão

network (n.): rede de contatos profissionais

perspire (v.): transpirar

loss (n.): perda

nevertheless (adv.): ainda assim

pitched (adj.): agudo, estridente

low (adj.): baixo

nobleman (n.): nobre, fidalgo

plan (n.): plano

lower (adj.): mais baixo, inferior

noise (n.): barulho, ruído

plan (v.): planejar

lower (v.): reduzir

noisily (adv.): ruidosamente

play (n.): peça de teatro

novel (n.): romance (gênero de livro)

play (v.): jogar, brincar, atuar

nowadays (adv.): hoje em dia

poison (n.): veneno

nurse (n.): ama, enfermeira

polite (adj.): educado

M major (adj.): principal, importante managing partner (n.): sócio-gerente

pet (n.): animal de estimação

playwright (n.): dramaturgo

pollutant (n.): poluente

O

pool (n.): piscina poor (adj.): pobre

mask party (n.): baile de máscaras

odd (adj.): ímpar

pot (n.): panela

mature (v.): madurar

odds (n.): probabilidade, chance

pot handle (n.): cabo de panela

older (adj.): mais velho

measure (n.): medida

orchard (n.): pomar, jardim

measure (v.): medir

outburst (n.): som repentino

melodious (adj.): melodioso

overall (adj.): no geral, total

mess (n.): bagunça, confusão

overhear (v.): ouvir por acaso [p. overheard/pp. overheard]

mid-twentieth century (n.): meados do século 20

overwhelmed (adj.): oprimido, sobrecarregado

mindset (n.): mentalidade mirror (n.): espelho mistake (n.): erro, equívoco misunderstand (v.): interpretar mal, equivocar-se [p. misunderstood/pp. misunderstood] mock (v.): ridicularizar

potion (n.): poção poverty (n.): pobreza praise (v.): elogiar praiseworthy (adj.): admirável predecessor (n.): antecessor pregnant (adj.): grávida prejudice (n.): preconceito pressure (n.): pressão Glossary

measurement (n.): medida

primary (adj.): principal prior (adv.): anteriormente prioritize (v.): priorizar

P

prom (n.): baile de formatura package (n.): pacote, embalagem pain (n.): dor

proof (n.): prova proper (adj.): correto, apropriado two hundred and one

201


properly (adv.): adequadamente

rework (v.): retrabalhar

short story (n.): conto

puberty (n.): puberdade

rhythm (n.): ritmo

shovel (v.): recolher, retirar

public (adj.): público

rhythmic (adj.): rítmico

published (adj.): publicado

riddle (n.): charada, problema

shudder (v.): estremecer, arrepiar

punishment (n.): punição pursue (v.): perseguir pursuit (n.): objetivo, busca push (v.): empurrar

shy (adj.): tímido

risky (adj.): arriscado

side dish (n.): acompanhamento

role (n.): função

sight (n.): visão

roll (v.): rolar

sightseeing (n.): visita a pontos turísticos silly (adj.): bobo, tolo

S

Q

size (n.): tamanho skill (n.): habilidade

quarrel (n.): briga, discórdia, discussão

sadden (v.): entristecer

skin (n.): pele

safety (n.): segurança

slang (n.): gíria

quarry (n.): pedreira

Sanskrit (n): sânscrito (idioma)

slave (n.): escravo

quick (adj.): rápido

scant (adj.): escasso, insuficiente

slim (adj.): magro, esbelto

R R&B (n.): sigla para Rhythm and Blues (gênero musical)

scholar (n.): estudioso

slurp (v.): comer fazendo barulho

science fiction (n.): ficção científica

smash (v.): estourar, estar em evidência

scrambled (adj.): misturado

songwriting (n.): composição

season (v.): temperar

race (n.): corrida

seasonal (adj.): sazonal

soulful (adj.): emotivo, sentimental

raise (v.): criar

seem (v.): parecer

source (n.): fonte

range (n.): variedade

self-confidence (n.): autoconfiança

spill (v.): derramar

raw (n.): cru

self-conscious (adj.): consciente de si

spot (v.): notar

reach (v.): alcançar

self-defined (adj.): autodefinido

square-shaped (adj.): em formato quadrado

recipe (n.): receita

self-esteem (n.): autoestima

staff (n.): equipe

recognition (n.): reconhecimento

selfish (adj.): egoísta

stalemate (n.): impasse

recognize (v.): reconhecer

sense (n.): sentido (como olfato, visão, entre outros)

stamina (n.): vigor, energia

raven (n.): corvo

record (n.): registro, gravação

sensible (adj.): sensato, ajuizado

spoon (n.): colher

standard (n.): padrão stanza (n.): estrofe

record (v.): registrar, gravar

sensitive (adj.): sensível

recording (n.): gravação

serenade (n.): serenata

reel (v.): cambalear

settle (v.): ajustar

refuse (v.): recusar, rejeitar

several (adj.): vários

statement (n.): declaração, afirmação

regardless (adv.): independentemente

shade (n.): sombra

stature (n.): altura

shape (n.): forma

release (n.): lançamento

shape (v.): modelar

steadily (adv.): constantemente, regularmente

release (v.): lançar

share (n.): quota, parte

reliable (adj.): confiável

share (v.): compartilhar

resource (n.): recurso

sheepdog (n.): cão-pastor

revered (adj.): reverenciado, admirado

shoot (v.): filmar [p. shot/pp. shot]

202

two hundred and two

stare (v.): olhar fixamente stark (adj.): absoluto, completo

stem (n.): caule step (n.): passo step (v.): pisar stew (n.): ensopado stick (n.): pau, vareta


weed (n.): erva daninha

stick (v.): seguir, obedecer [p. stuck/pp. stuck]

throughout (prep.): ao longo, completamente

stiffen (v.): enrijecer

thumbs up: sinal de afirmativo

stout (adj.): forte

tomb (n.): túmulo

streak (n.): faixa, listra

tougher (adj.): mais duro

strength (n.): força

treat (v.): tratar

stretch (v.): alongar, esticar

treatment (n.): tratamento

well-regarded (adj.): bem-conceituado

strife (n.): conflito

trigger (v.): iniciar

west (n.): oeste

string (n.): corda

triple (v.): triplicar

stroke (n.): acidente vascular cerebral (AVC)

tuneless (adj.): desafinado, dissonante

whatever (adj./pron.): qualquer que, seja o que for, tudo que

stroll (v.): andar

twin (adj.): gêmeo

welfare (n.): bem-estar well (adv.): bem well (n.): poço well-being (n.): bem-estar

wheat (n.): trigo whenever (c.): sempre que whether (c.): se

struggle (v.): lutar stubborn (adj.): teimoso

whole (adj.): todo, inteiro

U

subtle (adj.): sutil, delicado, suave

underestimate (v.) : subestimar

succeed (v.): suceder

unexpected (adj.): inesperado

successful (adj.): bem-sucedido

unfair (adj.): injusto

sudden (adj.): repentino

uni (n.): universidade

suffer (v.): sofrer

unknown (adj.): desconhecido

suffering (n.): sofrimento

unpleasant (adj.): desagradável

supply (v.): fornecer

unrequited (adj.): não correspondido

support (n.): suporte, apoio support (v.): suportar, apoiar sustainability (n.): sustentabilidade sweep (v.): varrer [p. sweeped/swept /pp. sweeped/ swept]

wider (adj.): mais extenso, amplo will (n.): desejo, vontade wipe (v.): limpar, secar wisdom (n.): sabedoria wise (adj.): sábio workhorse (n.): máquina workout (n.): série de exercícios

until (c./prep.): até que

workplace (n.): local de trabalho

unwanted (adj.): indesejado

worry (v.): preocupar-se

unwillingness (n.): falta de vontade

worship (v.): idolatrar wrappred (adj.): embrulhado

upper-class (adj.): da classe alta upset (adj.): chateado

swing (n.): oscilação

useful (adj.): útil

Y

utmost (n.): máximo

yam (n.): inhame

T

young (adj.): novo

V

testicle (n.): testículo

vault (n.): sepultura

thankfulness (n.): agradecimento, gratidão

vest (n.): colete vow (n.): promessa, voto

theatrical (adj.): teatral thenceforth (adv.): daí em diante, desde então

Z zenith (n.): o ponto mais alto do sol no céu zinger (n.): comentário perspicaz

Glossary

tasteless (adj.): sem sabor

W

therefore (adv.): portanto thick (adj.): grosso, espesso

waste (v.): desperdiçar

thin (adj.): fino, magro

wealthy (adj.): rico, abastado

through (adv./prep.): através de, por meio de

weather (n.): clima, tempo

two hundred and three

203


List of irregular verbs

track 45

204

Infinitive

Simple Past

Past Participle

Translation

be

was/were

been

ser, estar

become

became

become

tornar(-se)

begin

began

begun

começar

bite

bit

bitten

morder

blow

blew

blown

soprar, assoprar

break

broke

broken

quebrar

bring

brought

brought

trazer

build

built

built

construir

buy

bought

bought

comprar

catch

caught

caught

pegar, agarrar

choose

chose

chosen

escolher

come

came

come

vir

cost

cost

cost

custar

cut

cut

cut

cortar

dig

dug

dug

cavar

do

did

done

fazer

draw

drew

drawn

desenhar

drink

drank

drunk

beber

drive

drove

driven

dirigir

eat

ate

eaten

comer

fall

fell

fallen

cair

feed

fed

fed

alimentar

feel

felt

felt

sentir(-se)

fight

fought

fought

lutar, brigar

find

found

found

encontrar

fly

flew

flown

voar

forbid

forbade

forbidden

proibir

forget

forgot

forgotten

esquecer

forgive

forgave

forgiven

perdoar

freeze

froze

frozen

gelar, congelar

get

got

gotten

conseguir, obter, ganhar, chegar, pegar etc.Â

two hundred and four


track 46

Infinitive

Simple Past

Past Participle

Translation

give

gave

given

dar

go

went

gone

ir

grow

grew

grown

crescer

have

had

had

ter

hear

heard

heard

ouvir

hide

hid

hidden

esconder

hit

hit

hit

bater, atingir, acertar

hold

held

held

segurar, pegar

hurt

hurt

hurt

doer, ferir

keep

kept

kept

manter

know

knew

known

saber, conhecer

lay

laid

laid

pĂ´r, colocar, botar

lead

led

led

liderar, guiar, conduzir

learn

learned/learnt

learned/learnt

aprender

leave

left

left

sair, partir

lend

lent

lent

emprestar

let

let

let

deixar, permitir

lie

lay

lain

deitar

lose

lost

lost

perder

make

made

made

fazer

mean

meant

meant

significar

meet

met

met

encontrar, conhecer

pay

paid

paid

pagar

put

put

put

pĂ´r, colocar

quit

quit

quit

largar (o emprego), parar (de fazer algo)

read

read

read

ler

ride

rode

ridden

andar (de bicicleta, a cavalo etc.)

ring

rang

rung

tocar (campainha, telefone)

rise

rose

risen

subir, aumentar, levantar (-se), nascer (o Sol)

run

ran

run

correr

say

said

said

dizer

two hundred and five

205


track 47

206

Infinitive

Simple Past

Past Participle

Translation

see

saw

seen

ver

sell

sold

sold

vender

send

sent

sent

enviar

set

set

set

marcar (uma data), pôr-se (o Sol), ajustar, programar etc.

shake

shook

shaken

sacudir, tremer, apertar as mãos

sing

sang

sung

cantar

sink

sank

sunk

afundar

sit

sat

sat

sentar

sleep

slept

slept

dormir

speak

spoke

spoken

falar

spend

spent

spent

stand

stood

stood

levantar(-se), ficar de pé

steal

stole

stolen

roubar

swear

swore

sworn

jurar

swim

swam

swum

nadar

take

took

taken

tomar, pegar, segurar etc.

teach

taught

taught

ensinar

tell

told

told

dizer

think

thought

thought

pensar

throw

threw

thrown

jogar, arremessar

understand

understood

understood

entender

wake

woke

woken

despertar, acordar

wear

wore

worn

vestir

weep

wept

wept

chorar, derramar lágrimas

win

won

won

vencer, ganhar

write

wrote

written

escrever

two hundred and six

gastar, passar (o tempo)


List of phrasal verbs track 48

Phrasal Verb

Translation

ask out

convidar para sair

bend over

curvar(-se)

break up

terminar, finalizar (um relacionamento)

build up

desenvolver(-se), fortalecer(-se)

catch up

envolver(-se)

chat away

conversar informalmente

come over

visitar

cope with

lidar com (algo), enfrentar

deal with

lidar, tratar

find out

descobrir

figure out

compreender, decifrar

fit in

encaixar, pertencer

get rid of

livrar(-se)

get up

levantar(-se)

give in

ceder

give up

desistir

go along with

concordar, consentir

go out

sair

go through

passar (por uma situação desagradável), examinar (um livro, documento etc.)

grow up

crescer

hang out

passar o tempo

keep away

manter(-se) distante, evitar

look after

cuidar de alguém ou algo

look up

procurar por informações, melhorar

make fun of

tirar sarro, ridicularizar

make up

compensar

move on

continuar, mudar

pick up

pegar

put on

pôr, colocar

scale up

crescer proporcionalmente

stand up

levantar(-se), ficar em pé

stand up for

defender (uma ideia, uma causa etc.)

step out

sair

take off

retirar

turn off

desligar

turn on

ligar

turn out

resultar em algo inesperado

try out

testar, experimentar

wake up

acordar

work out

malhar, exercitar(-se), dar certo

work up

desenvolver, intensificar two hundred and seven

207


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