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MANUAL DO PROFESSOR

1 Circles

MANUAL DO PROFESSOR

Viviane Kirmeliene Carolina Pereira Elaine Hodgson Rita Ladeia

Circles

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ENSINO MÉDIO COMPONENTE CURRICULAR LÍNGUA ESTRANGEIRA MODERNA – INGLÊS

Viviane Kirmeliene • Carolina Pereira Elaine Hodgson • Rita Ladeia

ISBN 978-85-96-00385-8 978-85-96-00358-2

ENSINO MÉDIO

9

788596 0038 55 88 2

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COMPONENTE CURRICULAR LÍNGUA ESTRANGEIRA MODERNA – INGLÊS

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Circles ENSINO MÉDIO COMPONENTE CURRICULAR

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LÍNGUA ESTRANGEIRA MODERNA – INGLÊS

Viviane Cristina Carvalho Kirmeliene Bacharel em Letras (Inglês e Português) pela Universidade de São Paulo, possui o In-Service Certificate in English Language Teaching (ICELT), da Universidade de Cambridge. Trabalha na área de ensino de língua inglesa desde 1994, tendo trabalhado em diversos segmentos de ensino e com formação de professores. Desde 2010, atua como editora e autora de materiais didáticos para o ensino de língua inglesa.

Carolina de Jesus Pereira Bacharel em Letras (Inglês e Português) pela Universidade de São Paulo, é pós-graduada (lato sensu) em Tradução de inglês pela Universidade Gama Filho (UGF) e mestranda em Educação pela Universidade de São Paulo (USP). Autora e editora de livros didáticos de língua portuguesa e de língua inglesa, também é pesquisadora do Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisa Produção Escrita e Psicanálise – GEPPEP (Faculdade de Educação da USP), professora de redação em cursinho popular na cidade de São Paulo (SP) e idealizadora do blogue Português é legal.

Elaine Carvalho Chaves Hodgson Professora de inglês do Colégio Militar de Brasília, é doutora em Linguística pela Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC) e mestre em Linguística Aplicada (UECE). Ensina inglês há mais de 25 anos, tendo trabalhado em diferentes instituições nos estados de São Paulo, Ceará e no Distrito Federal. É autora de materiais didáticos publicados no Brasil e no exterior e também orientadora do curso de Mestrado à Distância em Linguística Aplicada da Universidade de Birmingham, no Reino Unido. Desenvolveu ainda projetos de treinamento e capacitação de professores das redes municipal e estadual junto à Embaixada dos Estados Unidos, do Conselho Britânico e da associação de professores BRAZ-TESOL Fortaleza, da qual é co-fundadora.

Rita de Cássia Ladeia Graduada em Letras (Língua e Literatura Inglesas) pela Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo, é mestre e doutorada em Linguística Aplicada pela Unicamp. É pesquisadora nas áreas de planejamento de currículos para ensino de línguas estrangeiras, formação de professores e desenvolvimento de recursos didáticos. Atualmente é coordenadora do curso de Pós-graduação em Didática para Educação Bilíngue, no Instituto Singularidades, em São Paulo (SP).

1a edição São Paulo – 2016

MANUAL DO PROFESSOR

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Copyright © Viviane Kirmeliene, Carolina Pereira, Elaine Hodgson, Rita Ladeia, 2016 Lauri Cericato Cayube Galas Ana Carolina Costa Lopes Luiza Esmeralda Faustinoni, Renata Chimim Fernanda Valezini Ferreira Renata Quirino Felipe A. C . Matos, Fernanda Souza e Silva, Márcia Andréa A. de Oliveira, Maria Luciana Gomes, Rafael Galvão Monteiro Gerente de produção editorial Mariana Milani Coordenador de produção editorial Marcelo Henrique Ferreira Fontes Coordenadora de arte Daniela Máximo Projeto gráfico Claudia Ranzini Projeto de capa Bruno Attili Foto de capa Thais Falcão/Olho do Falcão Modelos da capa: Andrei Lopes, Angélica Souza, Beatriz Raielle, Bruna Soares, Bruno Guedes, Caio Freitas, Denis Wiltemburg, Eloá Souza, Jardo Gomes, Karina Farias, Karoline Vicente, Letícia Silva, Lilith Moreira, Maria Eduarda Ferreira, Rafael Souza, Tarik Abdo, Thaís Souza Supervisora de arte Patrícia De Michelis Editor de arte Julio Eugenio Diagramação Fajardo Ranzini Design Gráfico, Rafael Ribeiro, Lye Longo Nakagawa, Lucas Trevelin, Anderson Sunakozawa, Wendel Freitas Tratamento de imagens Ana Isabela Maraschin Coordenadora de preparação e revisão Lilian Semenichin Supervisora de preparação e revisão Viviam Moreira Revisão Enymilia Fujii Coordenador de iconografia e licenciamento de textos Expedito Arantes Supervisora de licenciamento de textos Elaine Bueno Iconografia Danielle Farias Diretor de operações e produção gráfica Reginaldo Soares Damasceno Diretor editorial Gerente editorial Coordenadora editorial Editoras assistentes Assistente editorial Leitura crítica Assessoria

Dados Internacionais de Catalogação na Publicação (CIP) (Câmara Brasileira do Livro, SP, Brasil) Circles 1o ano : ensino médio / Viviane Cristina Carvalho Kirmeliene...[et al.]. — 1. ed. — São Paulo : FTD, 2016. — (Coleção circles) Outros autores: Carolina de Jesus Pereira, Elaine Carvalho Chaves Hodgson, Rita de Cássia Ladeia “Componente curricular: Língua estrangeira moderna : Inglês” ISBN 978-85-96-00384-1 (aluno) ISBN 978-85-96-00385-8 (professor) 1. Inglês (Ensino médio) I. Kirmeliene, Viviane Cristina Carvalho. II. Pereira, Carolina de Jesus. III. Hodgson, Elaine Carvalho Chaves. IV. Ladeia, Rita de Cássia. V. Série. 16-03114

CDD-420.7 Índices para catálogo sistemático: 1. Inglês : Ensino médio 420.7

Reprodução proibida: Art. 184 do Código Penal e Lei 9.610 de 19 de fevereiro de 1998. Todos os direitos reservados à

Em respeito ao meio ambiente, as folhas deste livro foram produzidas com fibras obtidas de árvores de florestas plantadas, com origem certificada.

EDITORA FTD S.A. Rua Rui Barbosa, 156 – Bela Vista – São Paulo-SP CEP 01326-010 – Tel. (0-XX-11) 3598-6000 Caixa Postal 65149 – CEP da Caixa Postal 01390-970 www.ftd.com.br E-mail: central.atendimento@ftd.com.br

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Impresso no Parque Gráfico da Editora FTD S.A. CNPJ 61.186.490/0016-33 Avenida Antonio Bardella, 300 Guarulhos-SP – CEP 07220-020 Tel. (11) 3545-8600 e Fax (11) 2412-5375

6/6/16 5:12 PM


APRESENTAÇÃO Caro estudante, Ao chegar ao Ensino Médio, você provavelmente se prepara para conquistar maior independência e ir em busca de seus objetivos na vida pessoal, acadêmica e profissional. Todo o conhecimento adquirido com suas vivências e construído ao longo de anos de estudo escolar, além de ser fundamental para alcançar suas metas, certamente contribui para que você tenha uma compreensão mais ampla e crítica do mundo, a fim de nele atuar de forma responsável e construtiva. No contexto de mudanças em que vivemos, particularmente impulsionadas pela globalização e pelo crescente acesso às chamadas TICs (Tecnologias de Informação e Comunicação), o conhecimento da língua inglesa se faz cada vez mais necessário. É provável que você já tenha reparado que essa língua está presente em diferentes situações da realidade brasileira, sobretudo porque falantes dos mais variados países produzem textos, filmes, músicas e outras manifestações em língua inglesa com o objetivo de impulsionar o alcance de suas obras. Por isso, o conhecimento do inglês amplia suas possibilidades de inserção em um mundo onde ele tem se tornado a língua de comunicação entre os povos. Nesta coleção, buscamos apresentar a você a língua inglesa por meio de textos escritos e orais que circularam em diversos países e são relacionados a temas relevantes e motivadores. Além disso, as atividades que propomos a você visam a estimular a análise, o questionamento e a investigação, assim como sua participação ativa no processo de ensino/ aprendizagem, de modo a encorajar sua autonomia, que será fundamental em todas as etapas de sua vida. Esperamos que as propostas de reflexão com que terá contato ajudem você a transitar criticamente por diversos âmbitos, desde a atividade político-cidadã, tão relevante à realidade social da qual fazemos parte, até a atuação em campos de pesquisa e trabalho. É com esse intuito que você será convidado a participar de atividades coletivas e de retomadas contínuas de conteúdos, sempre buscando estabelecer uma relação clara com a sua realidade, com a da comunidade na qual você vive e com as realidades de outras pessoas ao redor do mundo. Com nossa coleção, desejamos contribuir não apenas para que você leia, escreva, fale e compreenda oralmente a língua inglesa, mas também para que você desenvolva sua formação como cidadão capaz de buscar a compreensão de si e, ciente da diversidade, pluralidade e multiplicidade que fazem parte de nossa vida, refletir sobre a comunicação com o outro. Bom ano! As autoras

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CONHEÇA SEU LIVRO Esta coleção é composta por três volumes. Cada um deles é formado por seis unidades, divididas em seções que procuram trabalhar as competências e habilidades necessárias ao desenvolvimento da compreensão e produção de diversos gêneros discursivos escritos e orais da língua inglesa. A seguir, é apresentada a estrutura deste volume, a fim de que você possa entender melhor o objetivo e o conteúdo de cada uma de suas partes e, assim, aproveitá-las ao máximo para potencializar o seu aprendizado.

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Para mais informações, consultar as orientações no Guia Didático.

Nas duas primeiras páginas de cada unidade, são apresentadas imagens relacionadas ao tema central a ser trabalhado. As perguntas em português que acompanham essa apresentação têm como objetivo não somente ajudar você a ativar seu conhecimento prévio sobre os assuntos a serem discutidos ao longo da unidade, mas também a desenvolver o seu letramento visual.

You have talked about representations of identity, using two illustrations as a starting point. Now, let’s continue discussing this topic, considering your ideas about who you are and answers given by teens from another country.

READING

?

puberty

2 The image on the right is a mirror. “Look” at it and write in

your notebook what you “see” that makes you unique – your identity.

www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/topics/adolescence/dev/en

you don’t feel comfortable talking about all of them, just mention some.

Health topics

[…]

• 63% of teens say they “know who they are” while 37% do not fully know their identity yet.

• Teens say that “Parents/Family” and “Activities/Hobbies” are the two most important factors in shaping their identity. […]

[…]

66%

Countries

Programmes

Governance

About WHO

population in Brazil, collected by IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística) in 2010. Then, read the statements and write in your notebook the ones that are correct.

[…]

34%

Publications

3 Now that you have discussed what adolescence is, you will read some data about the adolescent

a survey about identity conducted with teenagers in the United States. Do you think the answers would be similar for Brazilian adolescents?

• 66% of teenagers say that they feel most people do not see them for who they really are.

Media centre

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. Adolescent Development. [S.l.], [2015?]. Disponível em: <www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/topics/adolescence/dev/en >. Acesso em: 23 set. 2015.

5 Look at part of a survey report below. It depicts the highlights of

63%

Data

[…] the period in human growth and development that occurs , from ages 10 to 19. […] is a period of during which time several key developmental experiences occur. Besides physical and sexual maturation, these experiences include movement toward social and economic independence, and , the acquisition of skills needed to carry out adult relationships and roles, and the capacity for abstract reasoning. [...]

partners’ ideas in Activity 3.

37%

development of identity

website. Use three of the phrases in Activity 1 to replace the . Write your answers in your notebook.

4 Write in your notebook the aspects that you believe influenced your

• 63% of teenagers say that their appearance is an important factor in their identity.

37%

63%

População Total

Total de Adolescentes (12 a 17 anos)

Percentual de Adolescentes de 12 a 17 anos

Adolescentes (12 a 17 anos) Masculino (Total)

Adolescentes (12 a 17 anos) Feminino (Total)

190.475.236

20.659.171

10,8

10.441.817

10.217.354

Região Norte

15.848.358

2.056.862

13,0

1.039.283

1.017.579

Região Nordeste

53.050.120

6.316.755

11,9

Região Sudeste

80.189.867

7.959.203

Unidades da Federação

Brasil

3.189.836

3.126.919

9,9

4.020.895

3.938.308

Região Sul

27.348.689

2.803.481

10,3

1.423.003

1.380.478

Região Centro-Oeste

14.038.202

1.522.870

10,8

768.800

754.070

a. Most adolescents live in the southeast of the country. b. There are more adolescents in the central-west region than in the north of Brazil. c. In general, there are more adolescent boys than girls in Brazil.

STAGE OF LIFE. Teen Trend Report. [S.l.], [2008-2015?]. Disponível em: <www.stageoflife.com/StageHighSchool/TeenIdentity.aspx>. Acesso em: 30 set. 2015.

Adolescent: teenager, teen Adolescence: teenage years

4 Share with your classmates anything you know about the adolescent population in the world – any information that might be important for reading and understanding the report on page 14.

12

13

LISTENING

By looking at different poster campaigns, we have discussed many aspects of prejudice. Now let’s observe how some of those topics are brought up by other genres. Let´s analyze prejudice from the perspective of music.

PRE-LISTENING

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Hand made collage part of an Identity Project by artist Martin O'Neill. It was shown in an advertising campaign in Canada (2011).

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c. Qual você considera ser a provável origem das pessoas que aparecem nas imagens? Quais elementos justificam sua opinião? d. Se a pessoa retratada na primeira colagem fosse um indígena brasileiro, os elementos indígenas presentes nela seriam os mesmos? Por quê? e. Se as colagens tivessem sido criadas em resposta à pergunta “Quem é você?”, o que poderíamos conhecer sobre as pessoas retratadas?

11

READING

UNICEF. O direito de ser adolescente: oportunidade para reduzir vulnerabilidades e superar desigualdades. Brasília, DF: Fundo das Nações Unidas para a Infância, 2011. 182 pp. Disponível em: <www.unicef.org/brazil/pt/br_sabrep11.pdf>. Acesso em: 24 out. 2015.

[…]

rt.

Nesta seção, você é convidado a refletir criticamente sobre os temas que nortearão as discussões a serem feitas ao longo da unidade (que serão retomadas, expandidas e aprofundadas no decorrer das demais atividades), de modo a se preparar para realizar as atividades propostas nas demais seções.

2 Below, you will read a definition of adolescence, extracted from the World Health Organization

3 In small groups, share your perceptions with your classmates. If

A ut eb

WARM-UP

preparation for adulthood

after childhood and before adulthood

.D ge lla

10

below. Then, discuss with your classmates and teacher how they are related to being a teenager. growth and change

co

f. Em fases de transição ou de autoconhecimento, muitas pessoas se perguntam “Quem sou eu?”, em termos da sua cultura, de grupos sociais a que pertencem, suas crenças ou outros aspectos. Você já se fez essa pergunta? Caso o tenha feito, em qual contexto isso ocorreu? Foi fácil respondê-la?

1 When you are a teenager, you are moving from being a child to being an adult. Read the phrases

Reamolko/Shutterstock.com

I

DISCUTA AS QUESTÕES COM SEUS COLEGAS.

PRE-READING

Who

am

e ad

b. As imagens são uma composição de fotos e ilustrações, feitas em forma de colagem, criadas pelo mesmo autor. Em sua opinião, o que o responsável pela criação delas tinha em mente ao desenvolvê-las?

Now that you have started discussing the issues of identity and how you see yourself, let’s read and discuss the report of a demographic survey about the adolescent population around the world. At the end of this section, you will read an essay of an indigenous teenager and discuss how his identity issues relate to you and to the discussions we have had so far.

1 People often struggle to find their identity – that is, to discover who they are. Copy the diagram into your notebook and use it to write down some ideas – don’t think a lot about your answers. You will discuss them with your classmates in Activity 3.

WHO AM I?

Editoria de arte

WARM-UP

De acordo com o parecer CNE/CEB 15/2000, “o uso didático de imagens comerciais identificadas pode ser pertinente desde que faça parte de um contexto pedagógico mais amplo, conducente à apropriação crítica das múltiplas formas de linguagem presentes em nossa sociedade, submetido às determinações gerais da legislação nacional e às específicas da educação brasileira, com comparecimento módico e variado”. Disponível em: <http://portal.mec.gov.br/cne/arquivos/pdf/PCB15_2000.pdf>. Acesso em: 8 abr. 2016.

Hand made collage part of an Identity Project by artist Martin O'Neill. It was shown in an advertising campaign in Canada (2011).

a. Observe as imagens. Quais elementos você consegue reconhecer nelas? Em sua opinião, o que a composição desses elementos indica?

• discutir a formação da identidade na adolescência; • ler um relatório de pesquisa (survey report) sobre dados demográficos da população mundial adolescente; • analisar o uso do simple present para expressar fatos; • ouvir um trecho de um vlog (vlog) sobre a busca pela identidade; • rever, praticar e expandir vocabulário relacionado a aspectos da personalidade; • escrever perguntas e possíveis respostas a uma enquete (survey) direcionada a adolescentes para, depois, compartilhá-la usando um gráfico (graph); • computar e compartilhar os resultados de uma enquete (survey) em uma apresentação oral (oral presentation).

É nesta seção que se trabalham a leitura e a compreensão de textos escritos autênticos de língua inglesa. Com o objetivo de promover o estudo de gêneros discursivos escritos que são relevantes para a sociedade, ela é subdividida em três subseções: Pre-reading, While-reading e Post-reading.

1 Song lyrics commonly discuss social problems. Do you remember songs, in English or in Portuguese, that mention any of the social problems listed below? Work in small groups and brainstorm a few songs. List them in your notebook. Ethnic prejudice • Socioeconomic prejudice • Homophobia • Xenophobia • Any other topic you want to mention

LISTENING

2 In the 1960s songs were used to express protest against the dictatorship in Brazil. Brainstorm a few protest songs from the sixties with the help of your teacher and classmates. What is different about the lyrics in the 1960s and nowadays?

3 Music is a means of communicating and denouncing social problems. We are now going to analyze

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WiQq_XAVPLg

a dialog from a music video clip. The name of the song is What You Say Matters, and the singer and composer is BrothaBlack. The video clip begins with a dialog. Read it and tell your teacher and your classmates what you understand. Do you think the way the teacher distributes the grades is adequate? Why / why not? What about the reaction that one student (Kat) has?

Screenshot from the video clip What You Say Matters

Esta seção tem como finalidade proporcionar a você o contato com textos orais autênticos da língua inglesa. A fim de ajudar você a compreendê-los em seus mais diversos aspectos, o Listening é subdividido em três subseções: Pre-listening, While-listening e Post-listening.

In a classroom, a teacher returns assignments to the students. She walks to each student, returns their assignments and says their grades aloud, but very politely. Teacher: OK. So now it’s time to get back your assignments from last week. OK, so we’ve got 79. … 67… Kat, 55. And Jade, 98, great work. Kat doesn’t accept that Jade got the highest grade in class.

Kat: Of course, she is the favorite. What are you, Asian? Is that why you’re so good at maths? Well, you’ve got black skin. What are you? A blackanese or something? Transcrição livre da autora. Disponível em: BrothaBlack and Indigenous Advisory Council - Australian Government <www.humanrights.gov.au/news/videos/song-what-you-say-matters-feat-brothablack>. Trecho: 0:00-0:25. Acesso em: 10 nov. 2015.

4 Analyzing the title of the song and the dialog in Activity 3, what do you think the song is about?

Write your ideas in your notebook. Then, share your notes with your classmates and your teacher. 55

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WRITING

Since the beginning of this unit, you have been thinking about many contexts in which women have had to fight to acquire legal rights in society. Now, you are going to choose an aspect that still needs to be improved and then develop a campaign ad to help make people aware of it. Afterwards, in the Speaking section, you are going to present it to the class.

WRITING

PLANNING UN/DPI/ONU

1. Read the campaign ad and talk to your classmates about the questions below.

Nesta seção, você é convidado a mobilizar os conhecimentos adquiridos até este ponto a fim de produzir um texto na modalidade escrita. O Writing está subdivido em duas subseções: Planning (em que se planeja a produção através da exploração das características textuais, linguísticas e visuais do texto a ser escrito) e Writing (em que se trabalham as etapas para a produção do seu texto e na qual você tem a oportunidade de refletir criticamente sobre ele, seja individualmente, seja em conjunto com seus colegas).

a. What is this campaign ad about? b. Describe the elements you see and their function in the campaign ad. c. Is there a key element in this campaign ad? Why / Why not? d. Does the proportion of the elements matter? Why / Why not?

2 The ad is a campaign by the UN against violence towards women. Is this a problem where you live? Are there laws to protect women of violence in Brazil?

3 Do you think this ad would be more effective if there were more text? Why / Why not? 4 What can be the purposes of a campaign ad like this? Write all the correct options in your notebook. • selling a product

• raising awareness

• supporting a brand

• other

93

You have listened to a volunteer in Tanzania talking about a school program in which they built a vegetable garden at a primary school so as to improve the students' eating habits. Now, you are going to prepare an oral presentation about how people in your school community could eat more healthily.

SPEAKING

SPEAKING

PLANNING 1 Work in small groups. Reflect on and discuss your first impressions about the eating habits in your school community. Use the questions below to help you. Then, take notes in your notebook.

Você é convidado, nesta seção, a produzir um texto oral em língua inglesa em contextos plausíveis e próximos a sua realidade, bem como a refletir sobre diferentes gêneros do discurso na modalidade oral. Para cumprir esses objetivos, essa parte do livro é subdividida em duas subseções: Planning (com atividades voltadas ao planejamento do texto a ser produzido oralmente) e Speaking (com atividades voltadas à produção do texto oral abordado na unidade e propostas de reflexão sobre a produção).

a. What kind of food and drinks do people have in school? b. Which of the items listed in item a are healthy? c. Which of the items listed in item a are unhealthy?

2 Now, you are going to verify your first impressions. With your classmates, observe the people in your school during break, paying special attention to what they are eating/drinking. Then, use your notebook to take notes about the facts you observed.

3 With your group, you are going to prepare a presentation for your class with tips for healthy eating based on the habits you observed at the school. Revise the tips and useful language for presentations you studied in the Speaking section in Unit 1. Then, follow the guidelines below.

Guidelines a. Ask your teacher how long each group presentation should take. b. Decide which means and resources you are going to use (e.g., poster, transparencies, the classroom board, slides prepared with the help of computer programs, etc.). Remember that for ethical reasons, if you use photos of people, you have to ask their permission first. c. Prepare the opening of the presentation: How are you going to catch your audience’s attention? Which sentences can you use to introduce the topic? Use simple, objective language. d. Prepare the body of the presentation: What kind of information do you want to include? e. Prepare the closing: What kinds of food and drinks do you think people at your school should have? What shouldn’t they have? f. Decide how you are going to share your presentation: Who’s going to be responsible for each part? g. Rehearse your presentation. Remember you should not memorize your lines, but writing down a few key words and the main ideas is very useful to keep the flow of your talk. If possible, record or film your rehearsal (using a cell phone, for example). Listen to and/or watch it and make the necessary changes.

9 In which situations do you usually read, listen to, or watch interviews? Discuss with a classmate. 75

10 Think about your school community. In which situations do you think an interview could be used? Write at least three options in your notebook.

CULTURAL HERITAGE In São Sebastião, the outskirts of Brasília (DF), the local community developed a collective vegetable garden named Girassol. In the past, the area where the vegetable garden is was a landfill infested with diseases which led to the death of a resident. After that, all the people in the community got together to build the vegetable garden which is now recognized as the biggest urban producer of organic food. Fonte de pesquisa: BUCAR, Luiz Felipe. Horta Comunitária Girassol em São Sebastião DF é reconhecida como a maior produtora urbana de alimentos naturais. 22 set. 2015. Disponível em: <http://guiaoficialdf.com.br/horta-comunitaria-girassol-em-sao-sebastiao-df-e-reconhecida-como-maior-produtoraurbana-de-alimentos-naturais>. Acesso em: 1 out. 2015.

Grammar

There are many words that are used to express different relationships between ideas. Let's see how we can use so, one of these words.

SO Read these sentences extracted from the interview and identify which word they have in common. a. … children with bad feeding habits, so they lack a certain amount of special vitamins. b. One good solution is provide those children with vitamins, so we made a plan of constructing a vegetable garden. c. … to use in the school kitchens, so they have their vitamins everyday.

Read the sentences in the previous activity again. What is the word you identified used for? Read explanations below and write in your notebook the ones which are true. The conjunction in the sentences above is used for a. making discourse more fluid by connecting shorter sentences.

c. expressing contrast. d. comparing two different ideas.

b. expressing logical relationships between ideas.

In the interview you have listened to, Jo Smets mentions a problem faced when they try to sell the vegetabes from the project to marketplaces. Read what he says. … but the biggest problem we have when we go the marketplace they ... the freshness goes away.

11

GRAMMAR Esta parte pode aparecer, dependendo do contexto, depois de diferentes seções da unidade e nela, você encontra a abordagem de conteúdos gramaticais extraídos de textos estudados na unidade e com atividades contextualizadas. Dessa forma, você terá mais subsídios para desenvolver seu conhecimento não somente das estruturas gramaticais da língua inglesa, mas também do uso delas em diferentes contextos.

Now, read the sentences below, extracted from the interview and from which the conjunction so was omitted, and join them using this connector. Then, listen to the last part of the interview to check your answer and explain which relationship this conjunction expresses in the context. And we’re looking for a solution. When we go to the supermarket, price is still high instead of bad-looking vegetables.

After all the discussions, think about reasons to develop a school community garden. Write them in your notebook and talk to your teachers to check if this would be possible in See Grammar Reference your region. Try to use the conjunction so to connect your ideas.

WRAP-UP

In this unit, we have discussed the relevance of diversity to make this world a more interesting place to live in. We have also seen how poster campaigns are important instruments to fight for what we believe in. Now, let’s go back to what we have learned and organize our thoughts.

Now you’re going to improve your knowledge of vocabulary about love and relationships, which might help you in the next sections.

VOCABULARY

VOCABULARY

1 Read another comic strip and discuss the questions with your classmates. © 2011 Thaves/Dist. by Universal Uclick for UFS

74

O objetivo desta seção é ajudar você a ampliar e consolidar, por meio de diferentes atividades, o seu conhecimento sobre o léxico trabalhado na unidade.

a. Does it portray a modern habit or a situation common in the past? How do you know? b. There’s a pun (a linguistic joke) in the comic strip. Where is it?

2 Have you noticed that people feel different kinds of love? Read some of them and relate them to their definitions. Keep track of the answers in your notebook. I. maternal love

II. romantic love

III. self-love

IV. friendship

V. brotherly love

a. a friendly feeling or relation b. love received from a mother c. feelings of humanity and compassion toward fellow humans or the love that two brothers share for one another d. when a couple has a tender or passionate relationship

CULTURAL INFLUENCES IN BRAZIL

e. when someone cares about his/her own well-being

1 In the Warm-up section, you analyzed how language can be related to the traditions of a people. Do

3 Discuss with your classmates and write at least three other kinds of love in your notebook. Also write

you remember some of the languages spoken in Brazil? Copy the diagram below into your notebook and write them down.

1

10

2 3

9 LANGUAGE

6

Read some actions and attitudes related to love and relationships and discuss with your classmates to identify which definition refers to which of them. Then check if each of them was common in your grandparents' time, in your parents' time, and if it is (still) common nowadays.

WRAP-UP

4

8 7

how you would define or represent them.

4 As you already know, love may have different meanings from person to person and throughout time.

5

2 Now, complete your diagram. From each language, draw an arrow and write what influences were brought to Brazil by the same culture. You have associated languages and other cultural aspects in the Warm-up section of this unit. Compare your representation of cultural influences in Brazil with your classmates. Add any new elements you find in theirs.

3 You have participated in several activities. In your notebook, grade from zero to five each of the activities below, according to how relevant they were to you about the topic of diversity.

I. to ask someone out on a date

II. to break up

III. to fall for somebody

IV. to flirt with somebody

V. to have a blind date

VI. to have a crush on someone

VII. to have an arranged marriage

VIII. to serenade

a. to show that you are attracted to someone

Nesta seção, você tem a oportunidade de retomar e avaliar criticamente reflexões feitas sobre a temática da unidade.

b. to be enchanted with someone and hope to be more than friends c. to be set up on a meeting with someone you don’t know

36

FURTHER INFORMATION

• Websites The HONY Effect: How ‘Humans of New York’ Is Altering Lives

Self-Assessment

Disponível em: <www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/ the-hony-effect-how-humans-of-new-york-is-altering-lives-9611015. html>. Acesso em: 13 out. 2015.

• Warm-up activities about the influence of other cultures in Brazil • Reading campaign posters • Talking about campaign posters • Learning about the Unesco Declaration of Human Rights • Listening to a song

Reflita sobre suas aprendizagens ao longo dessa unidade e registre em seu caderno o grau de dificuldade encontrado. Desenhe em seu caderno uma barra semelhante à apresentada a seguir para avaliar o grau de dificuldade de cada item.

Talking to Your Parents – or Other Adults

Disponível em: <http://kidshealth.org/teen/your_mind/families/talk_to_parents. html>. Acesso em: 13 out. 2015.

Malala Yousafzai’s Mom Opens up about Going back to School

Disponível em: <www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/malala-mom-back-toschool_561b3636e4b0dbb8000f0e33>. Acesso em: 13 out. 2015.

• Vídeos He Named me Malala (em português, Malala) – Documentário que trata dos eventos que levaram ao ataque à jovem paquistanesa por parte do Talibã e acontecimentos posteriores, como seu discurso na ONU. Direção: Davis Guggenheim. Emirados Árabes Unidos/ EUA: Imagenation Abu Dhabi FZ, 2015. (88 min)

• Creating a poster campaign • Talking about ways to raise awareness

4 Share your evaluation with your classmates. Find people who gave similar grades to yours. Explain why you gave each component of the unit the grade you wrote down. 62

I. Ao longo desta unidade eu pude... a. discutir relacionamentos na família, com amigos e na comunidade; b. ler e compreender fotolegendas de retratos (portrait and caption) de personagens anônimos de diferentes projetos fotográficos pelo mundo;

The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants (em português, Quatro amigas e um jeans viajante) – Tibby, Lena, Bridget e Carmen são melhores amigas, tendo crescido juntas. Agora com 16 anos, vão se separar pela primeira vez para as férias. No último dia, encontram uma calça jeans que, estranhamente, serve nas quatro garotas. d. observar o uso de multi-word verbs e usá-los para me expressar sobre Elas decidem, então, comprar a peça e compartilhá-la – juntamente com suas relacionamentos; aventuras – durante as férias. e. ouvir o relato (account) de uma jovem sobre uma pessoa próxima que é sua fonte de Direção: Ken Kwapis. EUA: Warner Bros, 2005. inspiração; (119 min)

c. analisar o uso do present continuous para expressar ações em progresso e atividades temporárias;

SELF-ASSESSMENT Na última seção, você é convidado a realizar uma autoavaliação de seu desempenho. O propósito é que você possa refletir sobre seu próprio processo de aprendizagem e, assim, identificar se os objetivos da unidade foram cumpridos ou se há pontos a serem aprimorados.

f. colher informações sobre outra pessoa, por meio de entrevista (interview); g. transcrever, editar e compartilhar informações de entrevista (interview).

Reveja alguns gêneros utilizados nesta unidade para discutir relacionamentos em diferentes esferas sociais. Em poucas palavras, liste em seu caderno o que você aprendeu com cada um deles. Fotolegenda

Relato

Entrevista

II. Reflita sobre sua participação ao longo da unidade e registre em seu caderno aquela que você considera mais próxima da sua avaliação. a. Participei mais / menos nas atividades de b. Gostei mais / menos de c. Eu me senti

.

d. Eu poderia

.

e. Tive dificuldade em

.

.

.

f. Outra avaliação.

É importante que você reflita sobre seus registros e compartihe com colegas e seu professor as situações em que você não conseguiu participar como gostaria, para que, em conjunto, possam identificar problemas e definir ações. Escreva em seu caderno um plano de ação para superar as dificuldades encontradas em cada item. Gostaria de saber mais sobre você Ainda preciso desenvolver Planejo

.

.

.

117

5

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BOXES DA COLEÇÃO

FURTHER INFORMATION

• Websites

Brazil: Black Consciousness Day – Artigo sobre o Dia da Consciência Negra.

FURTHER INFORMATION Ao final de cada unidade, você tem acesso a diversas sugestões de sites, livros, filmes etc., para você aprofundar seu conhecimento sobre questões ligadas às temáticas abordadas.

Disponível em: <http://lab.org.uk/brazil-blackconsciousness-day-the-dayzumbi-dos-palmaresfell-down>. Acesso em: 6 nov. 2015.

CULTURAL HERITAGE

CULTURAL HERITAGE The Taming of the Shrew, a comedy written by William Shakespeare, is not the only Shakesperian work to inspire modern day movies.

O objetivo deste boxe é oferecer a você dicas e informações culturais que, além de estarem ligadas à temática da unidade, se relacionam ao Brasil e a outros países.

SPEAKING STEMS Seu objetivo é sugerir expressões comuns nas situações comunicativas presentes nos contextos das atividades das seções, para facilitar a sua comunicação nas atividades de produção oral.

PRONUNCIATION WORD STRESS We emphasize a particular syllabe in 12 every word.

STATING YOUR OPINION In my opinion…

PRONUNCIATION Neste boxe, você encontra aspectos relevantes de pronúncia para comunicar-se com mais clareza utilizando o inglês.

Antonym: a word opposite in meaning to another.

LANGUAGE TIPS

DICTIONARY.COM. 2015. Antonym. Disponível em: <http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ antonym>. Acesso em: 21 nov. 2015.

O objetivo deste boxe é oferecer alguma dica ou informação específica sobre a língua. Ele pode também retomar aspectos de gramática e de vocabulário que tenham sido abordados em unidades anteriores.

Neste boxe, que varia de cor a cada volume da coleção, você encontra diversas dicas de estratégias que você pode usar para realizar as atividades propostas. No volume 1, as dicas estão em português, e, a partir do volume 2, em inglês.

EXPANSION O propósito deste boxe é fornecer informações extras sobre a atividade que você está realizando, como forma de expansão.

GLOSSARY A finalidade deste boxe é apresentar a você o significado em português de palavras mais fundamentais para compreender os textos da seção World of Literature.

Os textos nesta unidade apresentam poucas palavras. Mas não se engane! Nem toda mensagem é veiculada por meio delas. Uma mensagem é formada por uma combinação de elementos.

Princess Merida is the daughter of Queen Elinor and King Fergus. She is sixteen years old.

DEVELOPING STRATEGIES

GLOSSARY attempt: tentativa

6

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SEÇÕES FINAIS GRAMMAR REFERENCE

GRAMMAR REFERENCE

Aqui, você encontra os conceitos gramaticais das unidades sistematizados e exemplificados. Essa é uma ótima oportunidade de rever conteúdo gramatical e esclarecer dúvidas.

UNIT 1 SIMPLE PRESENT

Nesta parte, você encontra um material de referência para sua consulta, com os conteúdos gramaticais do volume explicados em português, sistematizados e com exemplos elaborados com base no contexto de cada unidade.

Talking about general truths and concepts, permanent situations and actions that occur on a regular basis

Language Use Geralmente, usamos verbos no simple present quando falamos de situações permanentes, de fatos e conceitos aceitos como verdade geral ou de ações que ocorrem com regularidade.

What a child experiences during the early years sets a critical foundation for the entire life course. (os verbos to experience e to set expressam uma situação permanente)

They tell you to search for yourself, but strangely, they never tell you where to look. (o verbo to tell expressa uma ação que ocorre com regularidade)

Language Structure Na afirmativa, com I, you, we e they, utilizamos o verbo em sua forma infinitiva sem to. Para a terceira pessoa do singular (he/she/it), a regra geral é acrescentar -s ao verbo no infinitivo sem to.

The group allows them to feel that they stand out from the crowd. (= it)

(verbo to allow)

Unfortunately, skin tone matters in many places.

WORLD OF LITERATURE WARM-UP 1 Do you know the meaning of the noun coming-of-age? Read the dictionary entry below. coming-of-age (noun) : the time when a person becomes an adult : the attainment of prominence, respectability, recognition, or maturity

(= it)

(verbo to matter)

Há algumas exceções a essa regra. Aos verbos terminados em s, ss, sh, ch, o, x e z, acrescenta-se -es para a terceira pessoa do singular. Nos verbos que terminam em -y precedido de consoante, troca-se o y por -ies. 118

WORLD OF LITERATURE

MERRIAM-WEBSTER. Coming-of-age. Dictionary. 2015. Disponível em: <www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/coming%20of%20age>. Acesso em: 18 nov. 2015.

2 Which ideas come to mind when you see the word coming-of-age? Discuss this question in groups. Then, reproduce this mind map in your notebook and complete it using your ideas.

coming-of-age

3 In this Literature section, we are going to see how the topic of coming-of-age appears in

different literary and nonliterary genres. Look at the content of this section listed below. Do you know any of these works or authors? If you do, tell your classmates which ones. Genre

Title

Poem

Author

“Ations”

Shel Silverstein

Poem

“If”

Rudyard Kipling

Book cover

Big Fish: A Novel of Mythic Proportions

Daniel Wallace

4 Discuss the questions below. Explain your answers. a. What is the difference between a poem and a novel?

Você tem, nesta seção, a oportunidade de ler, analisar e interpretar textos autênticos da literatura, em inglês. Dessa forma, você pode aprofundar seus conhecimentos a respeito de aspectos históricos e socioculturais ligados ao contexto no qual os textos literários foram produzidos e também das formas de realizar a apreciação estética deles.

b. Do you enjoy reading poems? c. Do you normally explore the cover of a book before reading it? d. Do you like films based on novels? Can you think of any? 132

ENEM / VESTIBULARES

GLOSSARY GLOSSARY

Aqui você encontra palavras e expressões, em especial as menos usuais e com significado mais difícil de identificar pelo contexto, que são essenciais à compreensão dos textos e das atividades das unidades. Para auxiliá-lo a ampliar seu vocabulário, este glossário traz a transcrição fonética, classe gramatical, definição e tradução de cada palavra ou expressão, conforme o sentido que elas assumem no contexto em que foram usadas na unidade.

A above /əˈbʌv/ preposition or adverb in or to a higher place or position. acima absence /ˈæbs(ə)ns/ noun the state in which something, generally expected, does not exist or is not present; the act of not being present at work or class when a person is supposed to be. falta aging /ˈeɪdʒɪŋ/ noun the process of becoming old and acquiring an old person’s characteristics. envelhecimento aim /eɪm/ verb to intend or aspire to do something. objetivar, pretender, visar a alongside /əˈlɒŋˌsaɪd/ adverb close by or in a parallel position. ao lado de; ao longo de aloud /əˈlaʊd/ adverb in a way that people can clearly hear. em voz alta anchor /ˈæŋkə(r)/ noun a heavy device made of metal, designed to prevent a boat from moving; someone or something that is reliable and provides the strength and support to another (person or thing). âncora assignment /əˈsaɪnmənt/ noun a job or a task that is given out as part of a course or job. tarefa attempt /əttempt/ noun the effort made to accomplish something. tentativa aunt /ɑːnt/ noun your mother’s or father’s sister. tia avocado /ˌævəˈkɑːdəʊ/ noun a fruit that has dark green or purple skin, pale green flesh and a large seed in its middle. abacate

awareness /əˈweə(r)nəs/ noun knowledge or understanding someone has of an issue, situation or subject. qualidade ou estado de estar ciente de determinado assunto ou de determinada situação

B

O objetivo desta parte é disponibilizar a você questões dos principais exames e vestibulares do país.

background /ˈbækˌgraʊnd/ noun the conditions that exist when something happens. contexto prévio bake /beɪk/ verb to make food using an oven. assar bend /bend/ verb to curve forwards and downwards. curvar(-se) bias /ˈbaıəs/ noun a tendency to be in favor of or against something or someone without knowing enough to be able to judge fairly. preconceito

Enem/Vestibulares N

ão

escrev a

VEL REUTILIZÁ

QUESTÃO 1 (Comvest-SP, 2012)

bigotry /ˈbıgətri/ noun behavior or beliefs of intolerance to any creed, belief or opinion. intolerância

no

li vr o Adaptado de http://postsecretarchive.com/2005/09/9-3-2005/. Acessado em 01/07/2011

Esta parte apresenta a transcrição fonética, a indicação da classe gramatical, a definição e a tradução em contexto das palavras mais importantes à compreensão dos textos e das atividades presentes nas unidades. Dessa forma, você tem mais uma oportunidade de desenvolver a autonomia na leitura e ampliar seu vocabulário em língua inglesa.

billboard /ˈbɪlˌbɔː(r)d/ noun a large sign on the outside of a public place or at the side of a road, where advertisements are displayed. anúncio geralmente em forma de cartaz e em grandes dimensões, outdoor boost /buːst/ verb to increase, to raise. aumentar

C chalk /tʃɔːk/ noun an object or a piece of a soft white or colored substance used for writing or drawing, especially on a blackboard. giz challenge /ˈtʃæləndʒ/ verb to test the abilities of a person or thing. desafiar

Adaptado de: <http://postsecretarchive.com/2005/09/9-3-2005>. Acessado em 01/07/2011.

144

a. A que experiência o autor do post acima faz referência? b. Por qual motivo o autor da mensagem se sente agradecido?

AUDIO SCRIPTS Você pode encontrar, nesta parte, as transcrições dos textos orais trabalhados em cada unidade. Por isso, foram mantidos os registros de marcas características da oralidade, de modo a ajudar você a compreender os mais diversos elementos que constituem os textos orais.

IPA CHART Nesta parte, você encontra os símbolos utilizados nas transcrições fonéticas deste volume. Essa é uma ferramenta importante para que você consiga, de forma autônoma, melhorar sua pronúncia em inglês.

Garfield, Jim Davis © 2008 Paws, Inc. All Rights Reserved / Dist. Universal Uclick

QUESTÃO 2 (Enem-MEC, 2011)

Disponível em: <http://www.garfield.com>. Acesso em: 29 jul. 2010.

A tira, definida como um segmento de história em quadrinhos, pode transmitir uma mensagem com efeito de humor. A presença desse efeito no diálogo entre Jon e Garfield acontece porque

127

IRREGULAR VERBS LIST A lista com a conjugação dos principais verbos irregulares do inglês está disponível ao final de cada volume, e você pode consultá-la sempre que tiver dúvidas.

IRREGULAR VERBS LIST IPA CHART

AUDIO SCRIPTS UNIT 1

A seguir, são apresentados os símbolos que usamos nas transcrições fonéticas desta coleção. Eles foram adotados com base no International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), a principal referência para essas transcrições em dicionários de língua inglesa, e são uma ferramenta importante para você, de forma autônoma, melhorar sua pronúncia em inglês.

Sons vocálicos

TRACK 2

Símbolo

Finding yourself – that’s a term that gets thrown around a lot as you grow up, by teachers, by parents, by anyone older than you. They tell you to search for yourself, but strangely, they never tell you where to look. We then go off on this quest searching for ourselves. We travel far and wide looking for this amazing person who can be confident in front of anyone, who can be funny or sassy in the right moment, who’s outspoken enough to get their point across, but open-minded enough to understand the other person. Someone who everyone’s happy to see the moment they walk in the room. […]”

ʌ

ɑː

UNIT 2 TRACK 8 Brainstorming with mind maps in a group Mind mapping is a great way to offer an overview of an idea, by expanding on a thought, or many thoughts, through diagrams. For content marketers, it is a great tool to use when developing content ideas for your company or for your clients. For even better content ideation results, mind map as a team. Aside from being a collaborative team-building experience, your mind mapping results will cover more ground from the various viewpoints. Before you get started, you need a few things first. You need your team or a group of people to participate. Select a topic to mind map. This could be as broad as an industry vertical or as specific as a client project. Provide as much background information on the topic, client, or industry as possible. For instance, if you’re mind mapping for a client, share the company's target demographic, as well as product information. Presenting this information before you start mapping will help define goals. Mind map on a large piece of paper, like butcher paper — something that is large enough to hold all of your team’s ideas. Bring a variety of colored markers. Each person mind mapping will need their own unique color. Ask them to write their name in the corner of the paper, so if there’s a good idea mapped out, you can ask specific people to explain further. Before you start mapping, present the topic or client to the group. Then, write the topic or client name in the center of the paper, so you can expand on that thought. It’s important to set a timer. By giving yourself ten minutes for an idea to be mapped out, you’re not burning yourselves out and not going overboard. When you start mapping, briefly write down everything that comes to mind that is connected to the center topic. Remember, there are no dumb ideas. What you may consider dumb could spark an idea with someone else. Also, try to mind map in silence — so, no talking. Let you and your team’s ideas flow through the markers. Once your time is up, go person-to-person and ask them if they saw anything that stood out. Sometimes, more ideas could come from a post-mapping discussion. If they do, you can jot down additional notes on the map. If you have more than one topic or client you want to mind map, don’t be afraid to set up four tables with paper, each ready for mind mapping. If someone draws a blank on ideas on one map, move to the next map. In the end, you should have plenty of content ideas at your disposal.

mud /mʌd/, duck /dʌk/ car /kɑː(r)/, start /stɑː(r)t/

arise /əˈraiz/

Simple Past arose /əˈrəʊz/

Past Participle arisen /əˈrɪz(ə)n/ awoken /əˈwəʊkən/

Translation into Portuguese surgir

awoke /əˈwəʊk/

be /biː/

was /wʌs/, were /wɜr/

been /biːn/

ser; estar

bear /beə(r)/

bore /bɔː(r)/

born, borne /bɔː(r)n/

aguentar; suportar; dar à luz

acordar

beat /biːt/

beat /biːt/

beaten /biːt(ə)n/

vencer; bater

Símbolo

Exemplos

become /bɪˈkʌm/

became /bɪˈkeɪm/

become /bɪˈkʌm/

tornar-se

ʊ

should /ʃʊd/, hood /hʊd/

begin /bɪˈɡɪn/

boot /buːt/, glue /ɡluː/

bend /bend/

began /bɪˈɡæn/ bent /bent/

begun /bɪˈɡʌn/ bent /bent/

começar dobrar; curvar(-se), inclinar(-se)

cap /kæp/, sad /sæd/

bet /bet/

bet /bet/

bet /bet/

apostar

e

set /set/, net /net/

cow /kaʊ/, shout /ʃaʊt/

bid /bɪd/

bid /bɪd/, bade /bæd/

bid /bɪd/, bidden /ˈbɪd(ə)n/

oferecer; dar um lance (em um leilão, por exemplo)

ə

alone /əˈləʊn/, ago /əˈɡəʊ/

stay /steɪ/, great /ɡreɪt/

bite /baɪt/

bit /bɪt/

bitten /ˈbɪt(ə)n/

ɜː

burn /bɜː(r)n/, curve /kɜː(r)v/

əʊ

so /səʊ/, bone /bəʊn/

ɪ

bit /bɪt/, quit /kwɪt/

ɔɪ

joy /dʒɔɪ/, toy /tɔɪ/

sweet /swiːt/, beat /biːt/

wear /weə(r)/, there /ðeə(r)/

æ

FLETCHER, Carrie Hope. The Quest to Find Produção: It's Way Past my Bpd Time. 2013. Vídeos (2min5s). Disponível em: <www.youtube.com/watch?v=sLQWGFtTl7I>. (Fragmento.) Acesso em: 28 de set. 2015.

Exemplos

Base Form

awake /əˈweɪk/

my /maɪ/, shine /ʃaɪn/

ɒ

pocket /ˈpɒkɪt/, dot /dɒt/

ɪə

mere /mɪə(r)/, peer /pɪə(r)/

ɔː

hall /hɔːl/, chorus /ˈkɔːrəs/

ʊə

cure /kjʊə(r)/, tourism /ˈtʊərɪz(ə)m/

Símbolo

Exemplos

blew /bluː/

blown /bləʊn/

broke /brəʊk/

broken /ˈbrəʊkən/

quebrar; transgredir

breed /briːd/

bred /bred/

bred /bred/

reproduzir(-se); criar

bring /brɪŋ/

brought /brɔːt/

brought /brɔːt/

trazer

broadcast /ˈbrɔːdˌkɑːst/

transmitir (por meio de rádio ou televisão)

broadcast /ˈbrɔːdˌkɑːst/ build /bɪld/

Símbolo

Exemplos

broadcast /ˈbrɔːdˌkɑːst/

soprar; estourar

built /bɪlt/

built /bɪlt/

burned /bɜː(r)nd/, burnt /

burned /bɜː(r)nd/, burnt

queimar

burst /bɜː(r)st/

burst /bɜː(r)st/

burst/bɜː(r)st/

estourar; irromper

buy /baɪ/

bought /bɔːt/

burn /bɜː(r)n/

Sons consonantais

morder

blow /bləʊ/ break /breɪk/

bɜː(r)nt/

/bɜː(r)nt/

transmitir

bought /bɔːt/

comprar

cast /kɑːst/

lançar; descartar

caught /kɔːt/

pegar; capturar

b

ball /bɔːl/, ability /əˈbɪləti/

r

grey /ɡreɪ/, raccoon /rəˈkuːn/

d

door /dɔː(r)/, endorse /ɪnˈdɔː(r)s/

s

sister /ˈsɪstə(r)/, satellite /ˈsætəlaɪt/

catch /kætʃ/

caught /kɔːt/

f

factory /ˈfæktri/, wolf /wʊlf/

ʃ

shower /ˈʃaʊə(r)/, push /pʊʃ/

choose /tʃuːz/

chose /tʃəʊz/

chosen /ˈtʃəʊz(ə)n/

escolher

g

gate /ɡeɪt/, big /bɪɡ/

t

team /tiːm/, hat /hæt/

come /kʌm/

came /keɪm/

come /kʌm/

cost /kɒst/

cost /kɒst/

cost /kɒst/

h j

holiday /ˈhɒlɪdeɪ/, rehearsal /rɪˈhɜː(r)s(ə)l/

yard /jɑː(r)d/, youth /juːθ/

θ

quote /kwəʊt/, speak /spiːk/

ð

this /ðɪs/, clothe /kləʊð/

v

violin /ˌvaɪəˈlɪn/, convey /kənˈveɪ/

k l

laughter /ˈlɑːftə(r)/, call /kɔːl/

m

misspeak /mɪsˈspiːk/, anthem /ˈænθəm/

w

choice /tʃɔɪs/, catch /kætʃ/ throat /θrəʊt/, math /mæθ/

weather /ˈweðə(r)/, awake /əˈweɪk/

n

know /nəʊ/, can /kæn/

z

zebra /ˈzebrə/, phase /feɪz/

ŋ

linger /ˈlɪŋɡə(r)/, footing /ˈfʊtɪŋ/

ʒ

measure /ˈmeʒə(r)/, provision /prəˈvɪʒ(ə)n/

p

parrot /ˈpærət/, cap /kæp/

charge /tʃɑː(r)dʒ/, just /dʒʌst/

cast /kɑːst/

cast /kɑːst/

vir custar

cut /kʌt/

cut /kʌt/

cut /kʌt/

cortar

deal /diːl/

dealt /delt/

dealt /delt/

lidar; negociar

dig /dɪɡ/

dug /dʌɡ/

dug /dʌɡ/

cavar

do /duː/

did /dɪd/

done /dʌn/

fazer; realizar

drew /druː/

drawn /drɔːn/

desenhar; puxar; atrair

dreamed /driːmt/, dreamt /

dreamed /driːmt/, dreamt

sonhar

draw /drɔː/ dream /driːm/

dremt/

/dremt/

153

BRAINSTORMING with Mind Maps in a Group. Produção: VM Measures. 2015. Vídeo (2min36s). Disponível em: <www.youtube.com/watch?v=O0lEj2d-ipE>. Acesso em: 21 mar. 2016.

149

152

77

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UNIT

WHO AM I?

READING FOCUS Demographic Trends for Adolescents: 10 Key Facts (survey report)

LANGUAGE ITEMS Grammar: Simple present: affirmative and negative forms / Simple present: questions Vocabulary: Personality traits

p. 10

IS LOVE EVERYWHERE?

The Fault in Our Stars (movie poster and plot summary) / 2 States (movie poster and plot summary)

Grammar: Object pronouns / Possessive adjectives

Beyond the Stereotype (poster campaign) / We're a Culture, Not a Costume (poster campaign) / Be the Difference! (poster campaign)

Grammar: Imperative

Healthy Eating Plate (infographic)

Grammar: Countable and uncountable nouns / so

p. 28

DIVERSITY: MUCH BEYOND STEREOTYPES p. 46

NUTRITION: WHAT IS GOOD FOR YOU?

The Autocomplete Truth (campaign ad)

p. 100

Grammar: Should, must, and have to Vocabulary: Words and expressions related to womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s struggles

p. 82

PEOPLE IN OUR LIVES

Vocabulary: Expressions related to diversity

Vocabulary: Words and expressions related to food and nutrition

p. 64

ON THE WAY TO GENDER EQUALITY

Vocabulary: Words and expressions related to love and relationships

Grammar: Humans of Singapore (portrait and caption) / Humans of Beijing Present continuous (portrait and caption) Vocabulary: Multi-word verbs

Grammar Reference ..................... p. 118 Enem/Vestibulares ...................... p. 127 World of Literature ..................... p. 132 Glossary ...................................... p. 144 8

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WRITING Survey / graphs

LISTENING The Quest to Find Yourself (vlog)

SPEAKING FOCUS Oral presentation of survey results Pronunciation: Word stress I

Mind map

Canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t Take My Eyes off You (song) / Brainstorming session Have You Ever Really Loved a Woman? (song) / How Deep Is Your Love? (song) / All I Ask of You (song)

Poster campaign

What You Say Matters (song)

Informal conversation

Food diary

Baraa Primary School (interview)

Oral presentation about healthy eating habits

Campaign ad

Providing Egyptian Women with National ID Cards (interview)

Oral presentation about a campaign ad

Pronunciation: Word stress II Caption

My Mother is Now Going to School (interview / account)

Interview / account Pronunciation: Rise/fall intonation patterns in questions

Audio scripts ................ p. 149 IPA chart....................... p. 152 Irregular verbs list ...... p. 153 Bibliography ................ p. 157 9

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dgdom. n. United Kin

. Londo

but A rt e. De

ade colla g

dm Han O’ Ne ill. 201 1.

rtin Ma

Hand made collage part of an Identity Project by artist Martin O'Neill. It was shown in an advertising campaign in Canada (2011).

WHO AM I? Ver orientações e respostas possíveis no Guia Didático.

a. Observe as imagens. Quais elementos você consegue reconhecer nelas? Em sua opinião, o que a composição desses elementos indica? b. As imagens são uma composição de fotos e ilustrações, feitas em forma de colagem, criadas pelo mesmo autor. Em sua opinião, o que o responsável pela criação delas tinha em mente ao desenvolvê-las?

DISCUTA AS QUESTÕES COM SEUS COLEGAS.

c. Qual você considera ser a provável origem das pessoas que aparecem nas imagens? Quais elementos justificam sua opinião? d. Se a pessoa retratada na primeira colagem fosse um indígena brasileiro, os elementos indígenas presentes nela seriam os mesmos? Por quê? e. Se as colagens tivessem sido criadas em resposta à pergunta “Quem é você?”, o que poderíamos conhecer sobre as pessoas retratadas? f. Em fases de transição ou de autoconhecimento, muitas pessoas se perguntam “Quem sou eu?”, em termos da sua cultura, de grupos sociais a que pertencem, suas crenças ou outros aspectos. Você já se fez essa pergunta? Caso o tenha feito, em qual contexto isso ocorreu? Foi fácil respondê-la?

10

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dgdom.

nd m

ade colla g

e. De

but A rt

. Londo

n. United Kin

NESTA UNIDADE VOCÊ IRÁ ...

Para mais informações, consultar as orientações no Guia Didático.

• discutir a formação da identidade na adolescência; • ler um relatório de pesquisa (survey report) sobre dados demográficos da população mundial adolescente; • analisar o uso do simple present para expressar fatos; • ouvir um trecho de um vlog (vlog) sobre a busca pela identidade; • rever, praticar e expandir vocabulário relacionado a aspectos da personalidade; • escrever perguntas e possíveis respostas a uma enquete (survey) direcionada a adolescentes para, depois, compartilhá-la usando um gráfico (graph); • computar e compartilhar os resultados de uma enquete (survey) em uma apresentação oral (oral presentation).

e ad

co

.D ge lla

Ar ut eb

o nd Lo t.

n.

ed

it Un

m. gdo Kin

Hand made collage part of an Identity Project by artist Martin O'Neill. It was shown in an advertising campaign in Canada (2011).

Ma rtin

O’ Ne ill.

20 11 .H an

d

m

De acordo com o parecer CNE/CEB 15/2000, “o uso didático de imagens comerciais identificadas pode ser pertinente desde que faça parte de um contexto pedagógico mais amplo, conducente à apropriação crítica das múltiplas formas de linguagem presentes em nossa sociedade, submetido às determinações gerais da legislação nacional e às específicas da educação brasileira, com comparecimento módico e variado”. Disponível em: <http://portal.mec.gov.br/cne/arquivos/pdf/PCB15_2000.pdf>. Acesso em: 8 abr. 2016.

11

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WARM-UP

You have talked about representations of identity, using two illustrations as a starting point. Now, let’s continue discussing this topic, considering your ideas about who you are and answers given by teens from another country.

Possible answers: Teenager, student, only son/daughter, brother/sister etc. É importante deixar claro que os estudantes podem, em seus cadernos, puxar outras linhas a partir da pergunta. Além da discussão na Atividade 3, este diagrama será retomado no Wrap-up.

1 People often struggle to find their identity – that is, to discover who they are. Copy the diagram into your notebook and use it to write down some ideas – don’t think a lot about your answers. You will discuss them with your classmates in Activity 3. Mais informações no Guia Didático.

Who

I

?

Reamolko/Shutterstock.com

am

2 The image on the right is a mirror. “Look” at it and write in

your notebook what you “see” that makes you unique – your answers: Os estudantes, provavelmente, responderão identity. Possible teenager, beautiful, happy etc. Incentive-os a ver além disso e buscar características que definam sua identidade.

3 In small groups, share your perceptions with your classmates. If

you don’t feel comfortable talking about all of them, just mention some. Possible answer: I see myself as ...

4 Write in your notebook the aspects that you believe influenced your

partners’ ideas in Activity 3. Personal answers. Possible answer: Probably my

classmates' answers are related to what other people say about them. One of them mentioned the word athlete, and I know this is important to him/her because he/she plays basketball almost every day.

5 Look at part of a survey report below. It depicts the highlights of a survey about identity conducted with teenagers in the United States. Do you think the answers would be similar for Brazilian adolescents? […] • 63% of teens say they “know who they are” while 37% do not fully know their identity yet.

• 66% of teenagers say that they feel most people do not see them for who they really are. […]

[…] • Teens say that “Parents/Family” and “Activities/Hobbies” are the two most important factors in shaping their identity. […]

37% 63%

34% 66%

• 63% of teenagers say that their appearance is an important factor in their identity.

37%

63%

[…]

STAGE OF LIFE. Teen Trend Report. [S.l.], [2008-2015?]. Disponível em: <www.stageoflife.com/StageHighSchool/TeenIdentity.aspx>. Acesso em: 30 set. 2015.

Adolescent: teenager, teen Adolescence: teenage years

12

5. Possible answers: Yes, I do. I think teenagers go through the same dilemmas anywhere in the world. (or) Yes, I do. Some of the results could be applied to Brazilian teenagers, too. (or) No, I don’t. I think teenagers in Brazil have different dilemmas. O objetivo da discussão dos resultados é levantar diferenças e similaridades entre os estudantes e adolescentes que morem em outros países, nesse caso, os Estados Unidos.

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READING

Now that you have started discussing the issues of identity and how you see yourself, let’s read and discuss the report of a demographic survey about the adolescent population around the world. At the end of this section, you will read an essay of an indigenous teenager and discuss how his identity issues relate to you and to the discussions we have had so far.

PRE-READING

1. Possible answers: Growth and change, as well as puberty and development of identity, refer to characteristics of adolescence. After childhood and before adulthood is also related to this period of life, that can also be seen as a preparation for adulthood.

1 When you are a teenager, you are moving from being a child to being an adult. Read the phrases

below. Then, discuss with your classmates and teacher how they are related to being a teenager. growth and change

after childhood and before adulthood

puberty

preparation for adulthood development of identity

2 Below, you will read a definition of adolescence, extracted from the World Health Organization website. Use three of the phrases in Activity 1 to replace the . Write your answers in your notebook.

Editoria de arte

Possible answers: after childhood and before adulthood; preparation for adulthood; development of identity. Estas são as expressões usadas na definição da OMS. Porém, os estudantes podem propor outras construções que façam sentido.

www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/topics/adolescence/dev/en Health topics

Data

Media centre

Publications

Countries

Programmes

Governance

About WHO

[…] the period in human growth and development that occurs , from ages 10 to 19. […] is a period of during which time several key developmental experiences occur. Besides physical and sexual maturation, these experiences include movement toward social and economic independence, and , the acquisition of skills needed to carry out adult relationships and roles, and the capacity for abstract reasoning. [...] WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. Adolescent Development. [S.l.], [2015?]. Disponível em: <www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/topics/adolescence/dev/en >. Acesso em: 23 set. 2015.

3 Now that you have discussed what adolescence is, you will read some data about the adolescent

population in Brazil, collected by IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística) in 2010. Then, read the statements and write in your notebook the ones that are correct.

Unidades da Federação

População Total

Total de Adolescentes (12 a 17 anos)

Percentual de Adolescentes de 12 a 17 anos

Adolescentes (12 a 17 anos) Masculino (Total)

Adolescentes (12 a 17 anos) Feminino (Total)

Brasil

190.475.236

20.659.171

10,8

10.441.817

10.217.354

Região Norte

15.848.358

2.056.862

13,0

1.039.283

1.017.579

Região Nordeste

53.050.120

6.316.755

11,9

3.189.836

3.126.919

Região Sudeste

80.189.867

7.959.203

9,9

4.020.895

3.938.308

Região Sul

27.348.689

2.803.481

10,3

1.423.003

1.380.478

Região Centro-Oeste

14.038.202

1.522.870

10,8

768.800

754.070

UNICEF. O direito de ser adolescente: oportunidade para reduzir vulnerabilidades e superar desigualdades. Brasília, DF: Fundo das Nações Unidas para a Infância, 2011. 182 pp. Disponível em: <www.unicef.org/brazil/pt/br_sabrep11.pdf>. Acesso em: 24 out. 2015.

O objetivo de apresentar os dados brasileiros é contribuir

a. Most adolescents live in the southeast of the country. ✓ para a reflexão, comparando a situação no Brasil com a do b. There are more adolescents in the central-west region than in the north of Brazil. restante do mundo, que será discutida no texto apresentado posteriormente. c. In general, there are more adolescent boys than girls in Brazil. ✓

4 Share with your classmates anything you know about the adolescent population in the world – any information that might be important for reading and understanding the report on page 14.

Personal answers. É provável que os estudantes mencionem o crescimento da população adolescente no continente africano e o envelhecimento da população nos países desenvolvidos, como os europeus.

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WHILE-READING 5 Read a UNICEF survey report. Then, copy into your notebook the sentence that best describes the purpose of the text.

A atividade tem como objetivo verificar a compreensão global do texto, para, em seguida, partir para a compreensão específica.

Editoria de arte

a. To present demographic trends and information for adolescents in Brazil. b. To present demographic trends and information for adolescents around the world. ✓ c. To present educational information about adolescents in developing countries.

Demographic trends for adolescents: Ten key facts • In 2009, there were 1.2 billion adolescents aged 10–19 in the world, forming 18 per cent of world population. Adolescent numbers have more than doubled since 1950. • The vast majority of adolescents – 88 per cent – live in developing countries. The least developed countries are home to roughly 1 in every 6 adolescents. • More than half the world’s adolescents live in either the South Asia or the East Asia and Pacific region, each of which contains roughly 330 million adolescents. • On current trends, however, the regional composition of adolescents is set to alter by midcentury. In 2050, sub-Saharan Africa is projected to have more adolescents than any other region, marginally surpassing the number in either of the Asian regions. • India has the largest national population of adolescents (243 million), followed by China (207 million), United States (44 million), Indonesia and Pakistan (both 41 million). • Adolescents account for only 12 per cent of people in the industrialized world, reflecting the sharp ageing of Europe and Japan in particular. In contrast, adolescents account for more than 1 in every 5 inhabitants of sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and the least developed countries. • Adolescent boys outnumber girls in all regions with data available, including the industrialized countries. Parity is closest in Africa, with 995 girls aged 10–19 for every 1,000 boys in Eastern and Southern Africa and 982 girls per 1,000 boys in West and Central Africa, while the gender gap is greatest in both Asian regions. • At the global level, adolescents’ share of the total population peaked in the 1980s at just over 20 per cent. • Although adolescent numbers will continue to grow in absolute terms until around 2030, adolescents’ share of the total population is already declining in all regions except West and Central Africa and will steadily diminish all over the world through 2050. • One trend that will continue to intensify in the coming decades is that ever more adolescents will live in urban areas. In 2009, around 50 per cent of the world’s adolescents lived in urban areas. By 2050, this share will rise to almost 70 per cent, with the strongest increases occurring in developing countries. UNICEF. Demographic Trends for Adolescents: 10 Key Facts. In: UNICEF. The State of the World’s Children 2011: Adolescence – an Age of Opportunity. [S.l.], fev. 2011. Disponível em: <www.unicef.org/adolescence/files/SOWC_2011_Main_Report_EN_02092011.pdf>. Acesso em: 25 out. 2015.

Ver Banco de Gêneros.

6 In your notebook, write at least ten words from the survey results that are similar to Portuguese. Then, read the text again, considering how these words help you understand it.

Uma boa estratégia para a compreensão de textos em inglês é prestar atenção às palavras que têm semelhança com o português e cujo significado é o mesmo nas duas línguas – os cognatos. Como você percebeu na Atividade 6, há diversos cognatos no texto desta seção, e identificá-los torna a leitura mais acessível. Há cerca de 40 cognatos nos resultados de pesquisa. Ao copiar no caderno dez deles, os estudantes provavelmente apontarão os mais salientes e/ou relevantes para a compreensão do texto, como adolescents e population.

14

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Você pode perguntar o que os sinônimos dados nos itens a e e têm em comum (são cognatos).

7 The words below are not cognates, but they are important to understand the text. In your notebook, match them to their definitions and/or synonyms for their meanings in this text. a. trend

• clear, distinct C

b. to surpass

• the differences in size between male and female demographics F

c. sharp

• exceed B/E

d. ageing

• to be greater than something else B/E

e. outnumber

• tendency A

f. gender gap

• the process of getting old D

g. peak

• to become larger, to increase in amount, size or number H

h. to grow

• to reach the highest amount or number before declining G

8 In your notebook, match the numbers to the information they refer to in the survey report. a. 1.2 billion b. 88 per cent c. 330 million d. 2050 e. 243 million

• the year when the adolescent population in sub-Saharan Africa will surpass the adolescent population in either of the Asian regions D • the period when the adolescent population in the world reached its peak G • the percentage of adolescents in industrialized countries F • the percentage of the world adolescent population that will be living in urban areas by 2050 H

f. 12 per cent

• the approximate number of adolescents in each of the following areas: South Asia and the East Asia and Pacific region C

g. 1980s

• the percentage of the world adolescent population in developing countries B

h. 70 per cent

• the number of adolescents in the world in 2009 A • the adolescent population in India in 2009 E

9 Decide if the statements are true (T) or false (F). Keep track of your answers in your notebook. a. There were more adolescents in the world in 1950 than now. F b. In 2050, there will be fewer adolescents in South Asia and in East Asia than in sub-Saharan Africa. T c. The low number of adolescents in industrialized countries is a consequence of the ageing process in Europe and Japan. T Recomendamos pedir aos estudantes que justifiquem suas respostas. Além disso, você pode solicitar que corrijam a afirmação falsa no caderno.

POST-READING

Caso julgue necessário, explique aos estudantes que voltar ao relatório pode ajudá-los a perceber as características do gênero.

10 Survey reports are a very common way to disseminate the results of a survey and, as a text genre,

they have their own characteristics. In your notebook, match the sentence halves to find out these characteristics. Refer back to the report on page 14, if necessary. a. Survey reports are written in order to …

• are presented in a highly organized way. D

b. They are nonfictional texts, that is, …

• present readers the interpretation of a survey. A

c. The language in reports is usually …

• neutral and objective. C

d. The data and information collected …

• they are about real events / facts. B

e. Graphs and other visual representations of information may be used …

• to support the ideas presented. E

15

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11 Consider the survey report you read on page 14 to discuss the questions below with your classmates and your teacher.

Respostas possíveis no Guia Didático.

a. Who would probably read the report? Why? b. If the information in the report were represented in graphs, would it be easier to understand? Why / Why not? c. According to the survey report, one reason for the big difference in the distribution of the world adolescent population in developing countries (88%) and developed countries (12%) is the ageing process in developed countries. Can you think of other reasons for this difference? d. In your opinion, what are the consequences of low levels of adolescent population for a country’s future? You can consider the areas below in your discussion. • economy

• education

• health care

• innovation

e. Now, looking at the opposite effect, what are the consequences of a high adolescent population for a country’s present situation? You can consider the same areas in d in your discussion.

12 Now, read an excerpt of an essay written by a Costa Rican indigenous teenager, which was also

When I look at the prospects my Térraba people face, my heart sinks for our dying land and drying river. While I do not know much of the world, I know what is right and wrong, and I know this harsh reality is not their fault […]. My hope is that our indigenous culture and language will endure. […] The education system in Costa Rica is insufficient, and it is worse still for indigenous communities. Inequality is pervasive in the classroom, and the system seeks to preserve neither our identity nor our existence as Indians. […]

Paolo Najera was recently forced to leave school because of the effects of the economic crisis on his community and family. Paolo’s aim is to work in development in order to improve life for indigenous communities, such as his own, in Costa Rica.

Jerhy Rivera

included in the UNICEF report The State of the World’s Children 2011. Then, answer the questions in your notebook.

Path in a Térraba village.

NAJERA, Paolo. Keeping the Flame Alive: Indigenous Adolescents’ Right to Education and Health Services. In: UNICEF. The State of the World’s Children 2011: Adolescence – an Age of Opportunity. [S.l.], fev. 2011.Disponível em: <www.unicef.org/adolescence/files/SOWC_2011_Main_Report_EN_02092011.pdf>. Acesso em: 25 out. 2015.

a. His view is negative. Because he says

a. Is Paolo's view of the future of the Térraba people positive or negative? Why? the land is dying and the river is drying.

b. In Paolo's opinion, does the education system contribute to preserving indigenous identity in Costa Rica? Why / why not? b. No, it doesn't. Because inequality is pervasive in the classroom and the system doesn't c. Why did Paolo stop studying? seek to preserve Térraba people's identity. c. He left school because of an economic crisis.

13 Considering the discussions carried out in Warm-up on page 12 and Paolo’s personal experience essay, discuss with a classmate which aspects below are probably part of his identity. a. He is a Térraba Indian. ✓ b. He speaks the language of his people. ✓

c. He is a teenager. ✓ d. He is a student. ✓

É importante deixar claro para os estudantes que as inferências sobre os aspectos da identidade do jovem indígena têm como base os trechos de seu relato selecionados para leitura.

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14. Personal answers. Possible answer: Social media seems to be important to the indigenous person on page 10, if we consider the elements used in the collage, but we don't know if it is important to Paolo. The indigenous person depicted on page 10 also seems to be happier, but we don't know if Paolo feels the same way.

14 Based on the information you could infer about Paolo and the indigenous person depicted on page 10, are they very different people? Why / Why not?

15 Work in small groups. How would you compare Paolo’s identity formation to yours? Refer to the activities in Warm-up, if necessary.

Grammar

Personal answers. Possible answer: I'm different from Paolo. I'm not indigenous and I live in an urban area. But I'm also a teenager and I'm a student, too.

In the survey report and the essay, a specific verb tense is used to present information. Let’s analyze it to understand why and how it is used.

SIMPLE PRESENT – AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE FORMS Read three excerpts from the survey report and the essay. Pay attention to the words in bold. Then, keep track of the correct answers to questions a-d in your notebook. I. The vast majority of adolescents – 88 per cent – live in developing countries. II. When I look at the prospects my Térraba people face, my heart sinks for our dying land and drying river. III. India has the largest national population of adolescents (243 million), followed by China (207 million), United States (44 million), Indonesia and Pakistan (both 41 million). a. The simple present is used in the excerpts to express • facts and concepts people believe to be true ; actions and events that happen repeatedly. ✓

• ongoing and temporary situations.

b. In I and II, the subject of the verbs live and look are • developing countries and When.

• The vast majority of adolescents and I.✓

c. In II, an –s was added to the verb sink because the subject – my heart – is • in the third person, in the singular form. ✓

• in the third person, in the plural form.

d. In III, has is an irregular form of the verb to have. It is used because the subject – India – is • in the third person, in the singular form. ✓

• in the third person, in the plural form.

Now, read the following excerpt, focusing on the words in bold. Then, answer the questions in your notebook. IV. While I do not know much of the world, I know what is right and wrong. a. In excerpt IV, is the verb know in the affirmative or in the negative form? In the negative form. b. Which structure is used to form the negative in the simple present? The auxiliary do or does + not.

In your notebook, write down some sentences about adolescents in Brazil and in the world, based on the IBGE data presented in Activity 3 and on the survey report on page 14. Most Brazilian teenagers live in the Southeast region of the country.

See Grammar Reference

Aqui espera-se que os estudantes usem o simple present para elaborar suas sentenças.

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2. Sugerimos ressaltar que experiências anteriores como leitores de blogues e espectadores de vlogs podem ajudar a turma a realizar a atividade. Você pode orientar os estudantes que assistem a vlogs regularmente a ajudar aqueles que não tenham familiaridade com o gênero.

You have read a survey report about adolescence demographics and also an essay by an indigenous adolescent. Now, you will listen to a young vlogger discussing the issue of identity formation.

LISTENING PRE-LISTENING

Personal answers. Caso haja estudantes que não tenham familiaridade com vlogs e vloggers, sugerimos usar um dispositivo com acesso à internet, como celular ou tablet, para mostrar alguns vloggers em ação.

1 Vlogs are blogs with posts in video format and are a very popular type of web television. Discuss with your classmates and teacher the questions below.

a. Do you watch vlogs regularly? Possible answers: Yes, I do. (or) No, I don’t. b. Do you know any famous vloggers? If you do, what do they vlog about? Personal answers.

2 Like other text genres, vlogs have their own characteristics. In your notebook, replace the words and phrases in the box.

a. personal experiences and ideas / an informal; b. anonymous and famous; c. short and fast-paced; d. online; e. comment.

anonymous and famous

online

short and fast-paced

an informal

comment

personal experiences and ideas

with the

Ver Banco de Gêneros.

a. In their videos, vloggers usually share with viewers academic information, in tone. b.

people can be vloggers.

c. Vlog posts are

,

d. Vlogs are usually shared YouTube. e. Viewers can

, on platforms such as

on the videos vloggers post.

videos.

3 Finding out who you are, that is, developing a self-identity, is one of the biggest challenges of

teenage years. Read the introduction of an academic article about the topic written by an American psychologist, and then copy in your notebook the correct sentence about the extract. O objetivo da leitura do texto é dar mais subsídios aos estudantes para eles realizarem as atividades a seguir.

The journey from childhood to adolescence is very challenging. Between the ages of 10 and 18 there are major changes in physical, cognitive, social, and moral development. The major task for adolescents is to establish their self-identity. By determining — as best they can — a sense of who they are, they attempt to move into a group that reflects or reinforces this self-identity. The group allows them to feel that they stand out from the crowd. This phase of development allows the adolescent to search for their sense of self. This is in order to answer the increasingly important question that they cannot consider in earlier stages of development: “Who am I?” […] BARNETT, Rosemary V. Helping Teens Answer The Question“Who Am I?”: Cognitive Development in Adolescents. Family, Youth and Community Sciences Department, UF/IFAS Extension, Florida, dez. 2005. Disponível em: <https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fy769>. Acesso em: 29 out. 2015.

a. Adolescents don’t experience physical and psychological changes during teenage years. b. Belonging to a group is part of the development of self-identity for teenagers. ✓

4 You will listen to the introduction of a vlog post called Finding Yourself. It was posted by Carrie, a

young British vlogger. Based on the title, what can you say about the topic of the video? Write the correct answer in your notebook. a. Young people’s search for their own identity. ✓ b. The journey from childhood to adolescence.

WHILE-LISTENING 2

5 Now, listen to the vlogger, and check if your prediction in Activity 4 was correct.

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Caso a atividade seja muito desafiadora para os estudantes, eles podem trabalhar em duplas.

6 Listen to the vlogger again. Then, choose the correct answers.

WENN.com/Easypix

2

Keep track of them in your notebook.

a. According to Carrie, who tells teenagers to find themselves? • Friends. • Teachers, parents, and any person older than the teenager. ✓

2

7 Listen to the vlogger once more, and use the words in the box to replace the notebook.

in the script. Keep track of your answers in your

Carrie Hope Fletcher is a young British actress and singer, who is also famous for her vlog. In her videos, she shares her personal issues and everyday anecdotes with teens and young adults.

b. What kind of model person do teenagers want to find when they start looking for themselves? • Someone who has only good qualities. ✓ • Someone who has both flaws and good qualities.

Caso a atividade seja muito desafiadora para os estudantes, eles podem trabalhar em duplas.

amazing

finding

happy

moment

teachers

travel

understand

yourself

Carrie: yourself – that’s the time that gets thrown around a lot as you grow up, by , by parents, by anyone older than you. They tell you to search for , but strangely, they never tell you where to look. We then go off on this quest, searching for ourselves. We far and wide looking for this person who can be confident in front of anyone, who can be funny or sassy in the right , who’s outspoken enough to get their point across, but open-minded enough to the other person. Someone who everyone’s to Finding; teachers; yourself; travel; amazing; moment; see the moment they walk in the room […]. understand; happy

FLETCHER, Carrie Hope. The Quest to Find Yourself. ItsWayPastMyBedTime, 25 maio 2013. Disponível em: <www.youtube.com/watch?v=sLQWGFtTl7I >. Acesso em: 28 de set. 2015.

POST-LISTENING 8 Discuss the questions below with your teacher and your classmates. Respostas possíveis no Guia Didático. a. In your opinion, who is this “amazing person” full of qualities that Carrie, the vlogger, is talking about? b. Do you agree that society puts too much pressure on teenagers to decide who they are? Why / Why not?

VOCABULARY

You have discussed the formation of one’s identity, read a survey report about adolescents and also an essay by an indigenous teen, and heard a vlogger discussing the search to find oneself. Now, you will review and expand vocabulary from the Listening section.

Sugerimos ler com os estudantes a dica sobre o uso do contexto. Ver orientações no Guia Didático.

1 The highlighted words in Activity 7, in the previous section, are used to describe aspects of people’s personalities. Analyze the context in which the words are used and then copy and complete their definitions in your notebook, replacing the with the correct word. a. People who are

believe they can be successful and trust their own abilities.

b. People who are

are good-humored and make other people laugh.

c. People who are

consider new ideas and arguments.

d. People who are

express their opinions frankly, even if others don’t like their ideas.

e. People who are

are lively and spirited.

a. confident; b. funny; c. open-minded; d. outspoken; e. sassy.

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2 Now, match the words in Activity 1 with some possible antonyms. a. afraid, uncertain

d. serious, boring

b. introverted, tactful

e. intolerant, prejudiced

Antonym: a word opposite in meaning to another. DICTIONARY.COM. 2015. Antonym. Disponível em: <http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ antonym>. Acesso em: 21 nov. 2015.

c. timid, sad a. confident; b. outspoken; c. sassy; d. funny; e. open-minded

3 What do the words uncertain, introverted, timid, serious, and intolerant have in common? Write in your notebook.

• They are words used to describe negative characteristics.

• They are cognates. ✓

4 Which of the characteristics in Activities 1 and 2 do you have? Use a dictionary or an online translator to find three other words you would use to describe yourself. Write your answers in your notebook. Personal answers. Caso não haja dicionários disponíveis, sugerimos pedir a pesquisa das palavras para a aula seguinte.

5 If you feel comfortable, share your ideas from Activity 4 with a classmate. Explain your choices.

Personal answers. Possible answer: I think I'm responsible because I always do my homework. I also think I'm ironic because many times I say the opposite of what I'm thinking. Also, I'm friendly because I have a kind attitude towards other people.

WRITING

Now, you will use the discussions in this unit and the language you have been exposed to in order to create a survey and then a graph based on its results that will be shared with your classmates. Recomendamos usar os gráficos para trabalhar características tais como tipo (gráfico em barras), funções dos eixos, uso das cores, entre outras. Quanto ao vocabulário novo, você pode conduzir os estudantes no processo de dedução do significado das palavras.

PLANNING

1 A website called Stage of Life® conducted a survey with teenagers to learn how they feel about their self-identity. Match the three questions to the graphs that show the results. Write your answers in your notebook. a. What grade are you in now?

c. Do you think your identity is created more from nature (the way you were born) or nurture (the experiences you encounter as you are raised)?

b. Do you believe you know who you are (or were) in high school?

Graph type 1

Stage of Life

C

A

Stage of Life

Stage of Life

B

STAGE OF LIFE.COM. Teen Poll – Identity. Disponível em: <www. stageoflife.com/Portals/0/High%20 School%20Images/WritingContest/ Polls/2014-Sept/Teen-StatisticsIdentity.pdf >. Acesso em: 28 set. 2015.

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2 Analyze the information in the graphs in Activity 1. Then, decide if the statements below are true (T) or false (F). Keep track of your answers in your notebook.

a. Most respondents to the survey believe they know who they are (were) in high school. T b. Over 80% of the respondents believe that their identity is a consequence of the way they were born. F c. Over 80% of the respondents are students in grades 9 to 12. T

3 Which question in Activity 1 is NOT clearly related to identity formation? In your opinion, why was it included? Is it important to include this type of question in a survey?

Possible answers: Question a was included probably because the website wants to collect personal information about the respondents. It's important to include this type of question to check if the survey is addressing the right public.

4 The graphs below are part of the survey report you read on page 14. Use them and the survey questions in Activity 1 to choose the correct answers. Keep track of them in your notebook.

Para mais informações, consultar

Graph type 3o Guia Didático.

http://www.unicef.org/adolescence/files/SOWC_2011_Main_Report_ EN_02092011.pdf

Sugerimos levar para a sala de aula outros exemplos de enquetes que tenham culminado em gráficos.

http://www.unicef.org/adolescence/files/SOWC_2011_Main_Report_ EN_02092011.pdf

Graph type 2

UNICEF. Demographic Trends for Adolescents: 10 Key Facts. In: UNICEF. The State of The World’s Children 2011: Adolescence – an Age of Opportunity. [S.l.], fev. 2011. Disponível em: <www.unicef.org/adolescence/files/SOWC_2011_Main_Report_EN_02092011.pdf >. Acesso em: 29 out. 2015.

Ver Banco de Gêneros.

a. What kind of information do surveys aim to collect? • Scientific reports for academic studies.

• People’s data and/or opinions. ✓

b. How are surveys organized? • Into questions and (possible) answers. ✓

• Into paragraphs.

c. What kind of visual aids are used to present survey data and results? • Graphs and tables. ✓ • Graphs and photos.

5 Read the descriptions of different graphs below. In your notebook, match them to the graph types in Activities 1 and 4.

O objetivo da atividade é chamar a atenção dos estudantes para o formato dos gráficos apresentados na Atividade 4.

a. Line graphs are useful to display information that changes over time or as something else happens. They use points connected by lines to show these changes. b. Bar graphs are useful to compare facts. They use bars of different lengths to provide a visual representation of information and figures in different categories. c. Pie charts are useful to compare facts, too. They use varying slice sizes in a pie format to show how much of a certain type of information or amount exists.

• Graph type 1 B

• Graph type 2 C

• Graph type 3 A

Fontes de pesquisa: MATH GOODIES. Line Graphs. [S.l.], [1998–2015?]. Disponível em: <www.mathgoodies.com/lessons/graphs/line.html>; ______. Bar Graphs. [S.l.], [1998–2015?]. Disponível em: <www.mathgoodies.com/lessons/graphs/bar_graph.html>; MATH IS FUN. Bar Graphs. [S.l.], [2015?]. Disponível em: <www.mathsisfun.com/data/bar-graphs.html>; ______. Line Graphs. [S.l.], [2015?]. Disponível em: <www.mathsisfun.com/data/line-graphs.html>. Acesso em: 14 out. 2015.; STUDY.COM. What Is a Pie Chart? - Definition & Examples. [S.l.], [2003–2015?]. Disponível em: <https://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-a-pie-chart-definition-examples-quiz.html>. Todos os sites acesso em: 14 out. 2015.

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Grammar

In the Reading section, we discussed the use of the simple present to express facts, concepts, and repeated actions and events. Now, let’s analyze how questions are formed using this verb tense and the difference between closedended and open-ended questions (also called yes-no and wh- questions).

SIMPLE PRESENT – QUESTIONS Read these questions from the survey in Activity 1 again. Pay attention to the words in bold. Then, answer the questions in your notebook. I. Do you believe you know who you are (or were) in high school? II. Do you think your identity is created more from nature (the way you were born) or nurture (the experiences you encounter as you are raised)? a. What auxiliary verbs are used to form questions in the simple present? • you / your

• do / does ✓

b. Which are possible answers to the question in I? • Yes, I am and No, I’m not.

• Yes, I do and No, I don’t. ✓

c. What is the word order in questions such as the ones in I and II? • do / does + verb + subject

• do / does + subject + verb ✓

d. If place of living were one of the items to be covered by the survey, which question could be included? • Where are you live?

• Where do you live? ✓

e. What is the word order in questions in the simple present that start with words such as where, what, when and how? • wh- word + subject + verb

• wh- word + do / does + subject + verb ✓

• wh- word + am / is / are + subject ✓

Read again questions a–c in Activity 1 in Planning. Then, answer the questions in your notebook. a. Which question is open-ended (i.e., can have multiple answers)? Which questions are closed-ended (i.e., can have only two answers, typically yes or no)? Open-ended: a / Closed-ended: b and c. b. In surveys, which type of question can provide more information about the respondent – open-ended or closedended questions? Why? Open-ended questions provide more information because they can have multiple answers.

Work with a classmate. In your notebook, use the simple present to write one open-ended and one closed-ended question that could be included in a survey about self-identity. Personal answers. Possible answers: Open-ended questions – Who do you think has the most influence on your personality? What role does your family play in your identity? How do you see the challenges of finding who you are in adolescence? Closed-ended questions – Do you think it is difficult to be a teenager? Do your friends have an influence on your identity? Does school interfere in your identity?

WRITING

Vale explicar aos estudantes que as perguntas poderão ser usadas na produção escrita.

6 Work in small groups to create a survey that will be conducted with your classmates. Follow the steps below.

a. Think of an objective for the survey. What do you want to find out about your classmates? Look at some suggestions Recomendamos orientar os estudantes a escolher tópicos que não invadam a privacidade dos colegas. Caso below: necessário, determine um assunto para cada grupo, para que haja diversidade nas enquetes. • students’ age, place of living, number of family members

• students’ opinions about school

• students’ opinions about identity formation

• students’ personality

• how students see themselves

• other

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b. Go back to Activities 1 and 4 in Planning to review some of the characteristics of a survey. c. Use the information and language discussed in the unit so far to write in your notebook 5–6 questions for your Caso tenham acesso a uma plataforma on-line, survey. Keep the following points in mind: os estudantes podem usá-la para criar sua • Do you want to start the survey with a more personal question? enquete, compartilhá-la com os colegas, coletar as respostas e organizá-las em gráficos ou tabelas. • Are you using both open-ended and closed-ended questions? • In the open-ended questions, are you giving options for people to choose from when they answer? • Are the questions related to the objective of the survey? • Are the possible answers stated clearly? • Will your classmates feel comfortable answering the questions? d. When you have finished your survey, share it with another group of students and with your teacher. Give and receive feedback from them. Also, pay attention to appropriate language use (spelling, grammar, and vocabulary). Sugerimos observar o teor das perguntas, para que não haja situações constrangedoras em sala de aula.

e. Write the final version of your survey on a separate sheet of paper. Include your teacher’s and the other group's suggestions, or rewrite the survey, if necessary. Keep in mind that your classmates are going to answer the survey on the page, so leave some blank space for them to register their answers.

7 Share your survey with your classmates on the classroom walls. Take some time to read the other groups’ surveys and answer them.

8 Now, collect your group’s survey results. Analyze them, making sense of all the information and data collected. Follow the steps below to organize and analyze your data:

a. Go back to the objectives of your survey. Have them in mind to help you analyze the results you got. b. Organize your questions in bigger groups: demographics, positive aspects, negative aspects, etc. The groups will depend on the objectives of your survey. c. If you are comparing different groups, break down the answers to specific demographics (e.g. girls, boys, students from group A, etc.).

9 It's time to create a graph based on the results of your survey. You can use some of the graph types

presented in Activity 5. Remember to share it first with your classmates and teacher before writing que os estudantes tenham conhecimentos sobre como criar gráficos. Caso necessário, revise the final version. Espera-se esse ponto com a turma. Para mais informações, consultar o Guia Didático.

10 In the Speaking section, you will present the survey results. Before you do that, discuss the questions below in your group.

a. Possible answer: People interested in learning about the students in the class – parents, teachers, and other members of the school community. a. Who else would be interested in reading the survey results? b. Possible answers: The results could be shared on a bulletin board at school or on the school blog/newsletter. They could also be compiled in a booklet or an e-mail to be b. How could the results be shared with the people in a? sent to the people interested in reading them.

SPEAKING PLANNING

You have prepared and conducted a survey, then organized its results using graphs. Now, you will present the results to your classmates.

A organização dos resultados da pesquisa visando à apresentação será muito mais fácil se os estudantes tiverem utilizado uma plataforma online para o compartilhamento das perguntas e a coleta de respostas, pois esses sites geram gráficos e/ou tabelas automaticamente.

1 You have prepared a graph with the results in the Writing section. Now you are going to get ready to

report the results orally. Read the extract of an article with a sequence for the presentation of survey results. In your notebook, number the subheadings in the order they are used in the text. Na correção, é importante discutir com os estudantes se eles consideram válidas a sequência e as dicas dadas. • Identify the survey objectives 2 • Greet the audience, introduce yourself and the survey 1

• Describe the results 4

• Explain the answer collection process 3

• Finish with your thoughts and recommendations 5

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Editoria de arte

www.esurveyspro.com/article-reporting-survey-results.aspx

Reporting Survey Results 1 After greeting the audience and introducing yourself, list the factors that motivated you to conduct this survey. When you mention the reasons, your audience will better understand why the survey was conducted and the importance of the findings. 2 Mention the objectives you wanted to achieve. Before you wrote your survey, you had a plan about the information you needed to get from your respondents. Did your respondents’ answers give you the information you wanted when you designed the survey? 3 Specify how the information was collected. Be specific about what type of survey you used - online or paper-based. Also consider how many people answered it. 4 Explain your findings, especially facts that were important, unusual, or surprising. Briefly highlight some of the key points in your results. 5 Summarize findings in concise statements. Your conclusions and recommendations should be based on the data that you have collected. Fonte de pesquisa: ESURVEYSPRO. Reporting Survey Results. Disponível em: <www.esurveyspro.com/article-reporting-survey-results.aspx>. Acesso em: 28 set. 2015.

2 In the same groups from the Writing section, you will now get ready to present the results of your survey. Follow the steps below to prepare for the presentation.

• Make sure the results are clear and that all your classmates will be able to see them during your presentation. If necessary, recreate your graphs in larger scale. • Consider the sequence in Activity 1 as the structure for your presentation. • Look at some suggestions of language you can use below. • Rehearse your presentation in your group. Decide who is going to be responsible for each part of the presentation. • Tip! If you can use a cell phone in the classroom, use it to record the presentation and listen to it while rehearsing – this way you can make improvements, if necessary.

GREET THE AUDIENCE AND INTRODUCE THE GROUP Hi, everyone! Good morning / afternoon / evening My name’s … and these are …

24

INTRODUCE THE SURVEY Our survey is about … We conducted a survey on …

Os grupos podem preparar e ensaiar fora do horário de aula para a apresentação, na aula seguinte, dos resultados da pesquisa. Sugerimos esclarecer que os itens no boxe Stems for speaking são sugestões feitas com base em expoentes usados com frequência nesse tipo de apresentação e podem ou não ser empregados pelos estudantes.

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EXPLAIN THE ANSWER COLLECTION PROCESS In total, … students answered our survey. In order to collect answers, we used …

IDENTIFY SURVEY OBJECTIVES The objective of our survey was to … We decided to do a survey on … because we wanted to …

DESCRIBE THE RESULTS

FINISH WITH YOUR THOUGHTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This graph/table shows … For question number … ,

Based on students’ answers,

... the majority of the students answered …

... we think that … ... we recommend that …

... about half the class answered …

PRONUNCIATION 3

WORD STRESS I We emphasize a particular syllable in every word. Phonemes and word stress are part of a word “identity.” Listen to these words. In your notebook, copy the words and indicate the word stress correctly.

a. morning

c. evening

e. conduct (v.)

g. majority

b. afternoon

d. survey (n.)

f. objective

h. percent

SPEAKING apresentação para outro grupo, e não para toda a turma, otimiza o tempo de aula e 3 Now, give your presentation. Apreserva estudantes que se sintam intimidados ao falar em frente de todos os estudantes.

• Work with another group. You are going to present the results of your survey to them and be the audience of their presentation. • Each group will have 4–5 minutes to present their survey results. • While listening to the other group, write in your notebook one thing you liked about their presentation.

Personal answers. Sugerimos que os grupos reportem suas

• You can ask questions at the end of the presentation. ideias para a turma, ao final da discussão. As respostas ao item

d podem gerar uma discussão interessante sobre o que pode ser feito pelos adolescentes para ajudar outros jovens a resolver problemas típicos dessa fase da vida.

4 Discuss the questions below with the group you worked with in Activity 3. a. How did you feel about preparing and giving the presentation in English? b. Did you find any information presented surprising? If so, which? Why? c. Share with the other group the thing you liked best about their presentation.

d. If you identified in your survey a problem students are facing, what could be done to help them solve it?

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WRAP-UP

Through the different text genres in this unit, you have discussed identity formation and the quest for self in adolescence. Now, let's take a final moment to reflect about the topic.

A FINAL REFLECTION ABOUT IDENTITY AND THE QUEST FOR SELF 1 In the Warm-up section, you completed a diagram to answer the question “Who am I?” Now you will

do it again. Copy the diagram from page 12 into your notebook once more and use it to write down retorno à pergunta do início da unidade oferece uma oportunidade aos estudantes de retomada de some of your ideas. O ideias, visando verificar mudanças após as discussões realizadas durante a unidade.

2 Now, compare your diagram in Activity 1 to the one you completed in the Warm-up. Are your answers the same? If not, think about why they changed and write down some ideas in your notebook. Share them with a partner if you feel comfortable. Personal answer. Recomendamos cuidado e compreensão caso haja estudantes que não queiram compartilhar suas ideias.

3 Several books discuss the search for identity in adolescence. Look at the book covers below. Then, Editora Bloomsbury

Editora Rocco

discuss the questions with a classmate.

Mais informações sobre o enredo dos livros no Guia Didático.

a. Are you familiar with these books? If so, what are their titles in Portuguese? a. The titles of the books in Portuguese are Harry Potter e a pedra What do you remember about their plots? filosofal and Divergente. Personal answer. Possible answer: I am

familiar with the Harry Potter books. Harry is a wizard who goes to a special school for wizards.

b. Both books have movie adaptations. Have you seen them? b. Personal answer.

4 The protagonists in Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone and Divergent are on a quest to find out

who they are. Read the sentences about the protagonists and match them to the books. Keep track of your answers in your notebook. a. In this book, the protagonist is a 16 year-old girl. She must choose which faction in a dystopian society best represents her. The choice is based on one of five personal characteristics. Divergent b. In this book, the protagonist is a new student at a fictional school of magic. He must put on a magical hat that reads his personality and decides which group in the school he belongs to. Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone

5 Can you think of other books and movies where characters try to find out who they are? Share the titles with your classmates.

Personal answers.

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Para mais informações, consultar Guia Didático.

FURTHER INFORMATION • Websites

Self-Assessment Refletir sobre o que e como aprendemos, identificar dificuldades e definir ações para poder saná-las é fundamental para progredir sempre. Registre em seu caderno seus avanços e dificuldades ao longo das aulas. Desenhe em seu caderno uma barra semelhante à apresentada a seguir para avaliar o grau de dificuldade de cada item.

13 Amazing Coming of Age Traditions from Around The World. – Artigo que mostra diversos ritos de passagem da infância para a adolescência em várias culturas.

Disponível em: <www.globalcitizen.org/en/content/13-amazing-comingof-age-traditions-from-around-th/>. Acesso em: 29 out. 2015.

• Vídeos e filmes

UNICEF: Adolescence – an Age of Opportunity – Vídeo com alguns destaques do documento The State of the World’s Children 2011. Disponível em: <www.youtube.com/watch?v=g6oxjMw57mY>. Acesso em: 3 out. 2015.

The Breakfast Club (em português, Clube dos cinco) – Filme lançado em 1985, que tem a busca de adolescentes pela identidade como um de seus temas.

I. Ao longo desta unidade, eu pude...

Disponível em: THE BREAKFAST CLUB. Direção: John Hughes. EUA: Universal Pictures, 1985. DVD (130 min), son., color.

a. discutir sobre a formação da identidade na adolescência. b. ler um relatório de pesquisa (survey report) sobre dados demográficos da população mundial adolescente.

• Citações

c. analisar o uso do simple present para expressar fatos.

Top 10 best identity quotes for teenagers – Lista com dez citações relacionadas à identidade e voltadas aos adolescentes.

d. ouvir a opinião de uma vlogger sobre a busca pela identidade. e. rever, praticar e expandir vocabulário relacionado a aspectos da personalidade.

Disponível em: <www.theguardian.com/ childrens-books-site/2014/aug/26/ top-10-quotes-on-identity-forteenagers-george-r-r-martin>. Acesso em: 3 out. 2015.

f. escrever perguntas e possíveis respostas a uma enquete (survey) direcionada a adolescentes para, depois, compartilhá-la usando um gráfico (graph). g. computar e compartilhar os resultados de uma enquete (survey) em uma apresentação oral (oral presentation).

Reveja alguns gêneros utilizados nesta unidade para discutir formação e busca pela identidade. Em poucas palavras, liste em seu caderno o que você aprendeu com cada um deles. •

Relatório de pesquisa

Post em vlog

Enquete com gráficos

Apresentação oral

II. Reflita sobre sua participação ao longo da unidade e registre sua avaliação no caderno a. Participei mais/menos nas atividades de b. Gostei mais/menos de c. Eu me senti

.

d. Eu poderia

.

e. Tive dificuldade em

.

.

f. Outra avaliação.

.

É importante que você reflita sobre seus registros e compartilhe com colegas e seu professor as situações em que você não conseguiu participar como gostaria, para que, em conjunto, possam identificar problemas e definir ações. Escreva em seu caderno um plano de ação para superar as dificuldades encontradas em cada item. Você pode começar completando as frases abaixo no seu caderno. a. Do que eu mais gostei nesta unidade foi b. Mas não gostei muito de

d. Ainda preciso desenvolver

.

e. Para desenvolver o item d, planejo

.

c. Gostaria de saber mais sobre

.

.

.

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ages

on / Get ty Im h ns . Jo

is K De nn

Ver orientações e respostas possíveis no Guia Didático.

Auguste Rodin. The Kiss. c. 1882. Marble. 181.5 cm x 112.5 cm x 117 cm. Musée Rodin, Paris.

IS LOVE EVERYWHERE?

a. Descreva cada uma das obras que você viu nesta abertura. As imagens apresentadas são comuns em sua cultura? O que elas podem representar?

DISCUTA AS QUESTÕES COM SEUS COLEGAS.

b. Que tipos de obra aparecem nessas fotografias? Você considera que a representação do amor é algo frequente na arte? Em que outros contextos ela aparece? c. Observando essas representações artísticas, como você responderia à pergunta que nomeia esta unidade? Por quê? Você acha que o beijo pode ser usado para remeter ao amor em qualquer cultura? d. Em sua opinião, como o amor está presente na vida dos jovens atualmente? Os adolescentes que você conhece costumam lidar bem com seus sentimentos? Por quê?

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tty Im

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• refletir sobre obras de arte que retratam o tema amor; • identificar elementos composicionais dos gêneros pôster de filme (movie poster) e sinopse (plot summary); • ler e compreender tirinhas relacionadas ao tema; • compreender e expressar opinião sobre memes (memes); • refletir sobre diferentes formas de expressão de afeto e diferentes tipos de relacionamento; • conhecer algumas expressões relacionadas ao tema amor; • ouvir e compreender canções de amor (songs); • rever usos dos object pronouns; • reconhecer alguns usos dos possessive adjectives; • participar de uma seção de brainstorming; • produzir um mapa mental (mind map).

Leonid Afremov. Passion Evening. Oil on canvas. 100 cm x 75 cm. London.

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1. Uma finalização sugerida para esta atividade é listar as ocorrências com que os estudantes mais concordaram. Em seguida, eles podem trazer para a discussão os provérbios brasileiros que conhecem e eleger seus preferidos. Este é um preparo para que os estudantes pratiquem o gênero brainstorming, que será sistematizado na seção Speaking.

You have talked about representations of love in different works of art. Now, you're going to first read proverbs that hint at how love is seen in some countries. Then, you will analyze how the same topic usually appears in humorous contexts on the Internet nowadays.

WARM-UP

1 Read the proverbs below and copy into your notebook the ones you agree with. Compare your answers with a partner.

Personal answers.

“There is no love like the first love.” (Italian proverb) “Love itself is calm; turbulence arrives from individuals.” (Chinese proverb) Editoria de arte

“Love at first sight is cured by a second look.” (American proverb)

“Love sickness hurts but does not kill.” (Mexican proverb)

“Where there is love there is no darkness.” (Burundian proverb)

“It is love that makes the impossible possible.” (Indian proverb)

Fontes de pesquisa: MIEDER, Wolfgang (Ed.). Dictionary of American Proverbs. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992 e DROESCH, Kristen. 25 Heart-Tugging Love Proverbs That'll Make You Feel ALL The Things. 2016. Disponível em: <www.yourtango.com/2013191810/love-sayings-25-love-proverbs-around-world>. Acesso em: 23 nov. 2015.

Burundi (officially known as the Republic of Burundi), is a small country in Africa, bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and south, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west. Fonte de pesquisa: UCLA African Studies Center. Country Profiles. 2002-2016. Disponível em: <www.international.ucla.edu/africa/countries>. Acesso em: 21 abr. 2015.

and answer the questions orally.

Para respostas possíveis, consultar Guia Didático.

A “meme” is a virally-transmitted cultural symbol or social idea. [...] Most modern internet memes are humor-centered [...]. The Internet [...] is how we spread modern memes to each other’s inboxes.

CBS Photo Archive/Getty Images

2. Uma discussão sobre a função social dos memes seria propícia neste momento. Ver orientações específicas no Guia Didático.

2 Read the information below. Then read the meme

Fonte de pesquisa: GIL, Paul. What Is a 'Meme'? What Are Examples of Modern Internet Memes? About.com. [S.l. ]: [2016]. Disponível em: <http://netforbeginners.about.com/od/weirdwebculture/f/ What-Is-an-Internet-Meme.htm>. Acesso: 10 out. 2015.

a. In your opinion, what is the main message of this meme? b. Do you think this meme is funny? Why / Why not? c. Discuss the picture with your classmates to find out who the character is. Why do you think this picture was chosen for the meme? d. Is it possible to know who the author of the meme is? Why?

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So far in this unit we have discussed love and some of its forms of expression: in the arts (such as painting and sculpture), in proverbs and in memes. Now, let’s investigate how this topic is portrayed in some love stories.

READING

Personal answers. Os estudantes podem mencionar tanto histórias de livros quanto de filmes, sejam elas PRE-READING 1.contemporâneas ou clássicas. Caso eles não conheçam ou não se lembrem de nenhuma, sugira alguns títulos, como Romeo and Juliet, Tristan and Isolde, Titanic, 50 First Dates, Twilight, Cinderella etc.

1 Do you like love stories? What love stories are you familiar with? Write down three titles in your notebook.

2 Here is a list of some characteristics that may or may not appear in love stories. Talk to a partner about the features that you consider common in these stories, and write down the title of a book or movie where they can be found. Make your comments in your notebook. Personal answers. a. Platonic love turns into eternal love Possible answers: Spider-Man, Just Friends, Mary and Max, etc. b. Absence of conflicts c. Selfish love d. A happy ending Possible answers: Letters to Juliet, Love Happens, A Cinderella Story, etc. e. Forbidden love Possible answers: Romeo & Juliet, Titanic, Jane Eyre, Dear John, etc. f. Other (which one?)

Personal answers. Outras perguntas que podem ajudar a conduzir a discussão são: “Are there a great number of love stories in theaters?”, “What kind of film is usually present in movie theaters?”, “What kind of books or movies do you usually choose?” etc.

3 In your opinion, why are books and movies about love so successful? Discuss with your classmates. Possible answers. There are people who don’t like to talk about feelings. (or) Some people might find “love” a boring theme. (or) Some people prefer to watch action movies; etc.

4 There are also people who dislike or even hate love stories. Are you one of them? Why do you think these people consider these stories unpleasant? Talk about it with your classmates.

Personal answers.

5 Look at the two images on page 32. What are they? Write the answer in your notebook. a. TV program ads b. movie posters ü c. theater leaflets

6 Read the items below and make a list of the characteristics that helped you answer the previous question. Organize it in your notebook. a. tagline

d. release date ü

b. a picture ü

e. the author’s name

c. highlighted title ü

f. review

WHILE-READING

7. Recomenda-se solicitar aos estudantes que apontem nas duas imagens os elementos que reconheceram e que comentem por que eles são comuns nos pôsteres de filmes. Chame a atenção deles para as imagens, a disposição dos textos, o tamanho do título em relação aos outros textos, a indicação de sites para mais informações etc., elementos recorrentes nesse gênero.

7 Look at the movie posters on the next page. Pay attention to the images to answer question a. Then, read the selected plot summaries and talk to your classmates about question b.

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Editoria de arte

www.imdb.com/title/tt2582846/plotsummary?ref_=tt_stry_pl Celebs, Events & Photos

News & Community

Watchlist

Login Filme de Josh Boone. The Fault in Our Stars. EUA, 2014

Movies, TV & Showtimes

The Fault in Our Stars

Plot summary The seventeen year-old Hazel Grace has lung cancer and needs to carry everywhere an oxygen tank. Her mother Frannie encourages her to go to a cancer support group against her will. However, when Hazel meets the eighteen yearold Gus, who lost part of one leg with cancer but apparently is cured, they fall in love with each other. [...] Pode-se ampliar a análise destes pôsteres com perguntas como: “How is it possible to know that the movie is about a love story?”, “Is this a posed or a spontaneous picture?”, “Which elements are highlighted?” etc.

Editoria de arte

IMDb. The Fault in our Stars: Plot Summary. [S.I.]: [2014?]. Disponível em: <www.imdb.com/title/tt2582846/plotsummary?ref_=tt_stry_pl>. Acesso em: 16 out. 2015.

www.imdb.com/title/tt2372678

2 States Storyline

Celebs, Events & Photos

News & Community

Esta imagem pode ser analisada com perguntas como: “What does the book indicate?”, “Is this a posed or a spontaneous picture?”, “Are the actors staring at us? What is the effect of that?” etc.

A story about a romantic journey of a culturally opposite couple. [...] They meet at [...] College and during the program they fall in love. Complications arise after the program comes to an end and they decide to get married. [...] They take a conscious decision; they won’t get married until their parents agree. [...] Will Krish and Ananya’s love for each other sustain the battles? [...]

Watchlist

Login Filme de Abhishek Varman. 2 Satates One love. India, 2014

Movies, TV & Showtimes

IMDb. 2 States. [S.I.]: [2014?]. Disponível em: <www.imdb.com/title/tt2372678>. Acesso em: 16 out. 2015.

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Fazer inferências sobre um texto é um passo importante para compreendê-lo. Você pode se fazer perguntas como: Quem é o público-alvo? O que já sei sobre o tema? Que elementos familiares para mim (autor, gênero, estrutura) podem me ajudar a tirar conclusões sobre o que vou ler? Qual era o objetivo de quem escreveu o texto?

a. In your opinion, if a person hasn’t watched these movies, would he/she feel interested after seeing these posters? Why / Why not? Discuss with your classmates. Possible answers: Yes, because the images might call their attention. or No, because there are people who don’t like love stories.

b. If you had to choose one of these two movies after reading the plot summary, which would it be? Why?

Personal answers. Ainda que não sejam fãs de filmes românticos, os estudantes devem justificar suas respostas escolhendo uma das opções e apontando que elementos do enredo os levaram a optar por um filme (ou a excluir o outro).

8 Read the items below, discuss with your classmates, and indicate which of them refer to the poster

of the movie The Fault in Our Stars (1), which refer to the poster of the movie 2 States (2), and which refer to both (3). Write your answers in your notebook. Os estudantes podem anotar no caderno os números indicados de modo a facilitar a correção com a turma posteriormente.

a. Use of vibrant colors. 2 b. The picture is the main element. 3 c. The poster consists of a photo montage. 2 d. Information about the cast is more proeminent. 2 e. Information about the screenplay. 1 f. The title is the largest written element. 3

Ver Banco de Gêneros.

9 Now read the items below and indicate which of them refers to the movie The Fault in Our Stars (1), which refers to the summary of the movie 2 States (2), and which refers to both (3). Register the answers in your notebook. a. Health problems may be an obstacle to the experience of love. 1 b. The couple needs to convince other people in order to be together. 2 c. A happy ending doesn’t seem easy to achieve. 3

10 Read the plot summary of the movie 2 States again. In your country, is it common that teenage

couples need their parents’ approval to get married? What do you think about that? Discuss with your teacher and classmates. Personal answers. Possible answer: In Brazil, young people need their parents' approval to get married.

11 In your opinion, which of the posters might have more impact on the audience? Why? Discuss with your classmates.

Personal answers. Suggestions: The first one because the composition with the couple and the movie title might call the reader’s attention. (or) The second one because people might feel curious about the picture of the book. Besides, the colors are more intense.

POST-READING 12 Work in small groups (3-4 students). In your notebook, make a list of other elements that could be used in the movie posters to call the audience’s attention to them, or to provide information about the movies. Suggestions: appealing images, cast, genre, director’s name, country, language, release date, runtime, rhetorical question, etc.

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© 2015 King Features Syndicate/Ipress

13 Love can also be portrayed in comic strips. Read the comic strip below and answer the questions orally.

a. What is it about? It's a conversation about love, marriage, and money. b. In your opinion, which of these options can be considered the purpose of the comic strip? Discuss with your classmates and explain your opinion. • to inform

• to entertain ü

• to provoke reflection

• to criticize ü

c. Read the items below, identify the false ones, and copy the true ones into your notebook. • Hägar the Horrible wants his daughter to have a marriage of convenience. T • Honi seems to oppose the idea of having a loveless marriage. T • Both of them agree that getting married for money is a wise decision. F • Hägar is concerned about whether or not his daughter is ready to date. F

14 Can this comic strip be compared to the plot of one of the movies that you discussed in the Reading section? If so, to which one? Why? Discuss with your classmates.

Yes, it can be compared to the movie 2 States because parental approval of the relationship is also an issue in its plot.

15 In some countries, marriages arranged for political, economic or social reasons used to be frequent. Does it happen in your country today? Why / Why not?

Possible answers: The meanings of marriage can vary across different cultures and also within the same cultures across time. In the past, arrangements made by two families were very common, especially because it could involve the passage of titles and privileges, such as in royal contexts. Although it’s not very common in Brazil nowadays, there may be exceptions.

Grammar

Have you noticed that, when we speak, we try to avoid repetition of the same words? This happened in the comic strip you have just read. Let’s analyze these words.

OBJECT PRONOUNS Read the sentences from the comic strip and discuss the questions with your classmates.

I. The richest prince in the known world proposed to me. II. If you love me, you will marry him!

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OBJECT PRONOUNS Read the sentences from the comic strip and discuss the questions with your classmates. a. In the first sentence, who does the pronoun me refer to? Honi (the daughter). b. In the second sentence, who does the pronoun me refer to? Hägar the Horrible (the father). c. In the second sentence, who does the pronoun him refer to? The richest prince in the known world.

How would you complete the following statements? Look at the options, discuss with your classmates importante questionar os estudantes quanto aos termos da frase and register the answers in your notebook. Éque os ajudaram a identificar o pronome correto, para que aprendam a a. The pronouns replace... • adjectives. b. The object pronoun me refers... • to the speaking person. ü c. The object pronoun him refers... • to the interlocutor. d. The pronouns me and him replace... • the subject of a sentence.

refletir sobre seus usos nos contextos em que ocorrem.

• nouns. ü

• verbs. • to the interlocutor. • to a third person. ü • the object of a sentence. ü

Do you know the other object pronouns? They are used in other texts in this unit. Scan the unit and find them, completing the table below in your notebook. Subject

Object

Subject

Object

I

me

it

it

you

you

we

us

he

him

you (plural)

you

she

her

they

them

Complete the quotes in your notebook choosing an appropriate object pronoun from the table. a. “A friend is someone who knows all about you and still loves Elbert Hubbard b. “Love is like the wind, you can’t see but you can feel Nicholas Sparks, A Walk to Remember

.” you

.” it; it

c. “You don’t love someone because they’re perfect, you love Jodi Picoult, My Sister’s Keeper

in spite of the fact that they’re not.” them

d. “When we love, we always strive to become better than we are. When we strive to become better than we are, everything around becomes better too.” us Paulo Coelho, The Alchemist e. “If you like , if she makes you happy, and if you feel like you know Nicholas Sparks, Message in a Bottle

—then don’t let

go.” her; her; her

f. “If you remember , then I don’t care if everyone else forgets.” me Haruki Murakami, Kafka on the Shore GOODREADS. Quotes about love. 2016. Disponível em <www.goodreads.com/quotes/tag/love>. Acesso em: 24 maio 2016.

Do you know any of the books or the authors above? What do you think of their view of love? Can you remember any other quotes about love from books and authors you like? Share them with your classmates. Personal answers. See Grammar Reference

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VOCABULARY

Now you’re going to improve your knowledge of vocabulary about love and relationships, which might help you in the next sections.

© 2011 Thaves/Dist. by Universal Uclick for UFS

1 Read another comic strip and discuss the questions with your classmates.

a. Does it portray a modern habit or a situation common in the past? How do you know? Possible answer: It’s about a modern habit because online dating became popular only few years ago.

b. There’s a pun (a linguistic joke) in the comic strip. Where is it?

“Love at first website,” which is based on the expression “love at first sight.”

2 Have you noticed that people feel different kinds of love? Read some of them and relate them to their definitions. Keep track of the answers in your notebook. I. maternal love

II. romantic love

III. self-love

IV. friendship

V. brotherly love I. a, II. d, III. e, IV. a, V. c.

a. a friendly feeling or relation b. love received from a mother

c. feelings of humanity and compassion toward fellow humans or the love that two brothers share for one another d. when a couple has a tender or passionate relationship e. when someone cares about his/her own well-being

3 Discuss with your classmates and write at least three other kinds of love in your notebook. Also write how you would define or represent them.

Possible answers: paternal love, love of pets, platonic love, marital love, patriotic love, unrequited love (amor não correspondido), blind love, unconditional love, love of grandparents, love of food, love of books, love of art, love of work, etc.

4 As you already know, love may have different meanings from person to person and throughout time. Read some actions and attitudes related to love and relationships and discuss with your classmates to identify which definition refers to which of them. Then check if each of them was common in your grandparents' time, in your parents' time, and if it is (still) common nowadays. I. to ask someone out on a date

II. to break up

III. to fall for somebody

IV. to flirt with somebody

V. to have a blind date

VI. to have a crush on someone

VII. to have an arranged marriage

VIII. to serenade

a. to show that you are attracted to someone

I. g; II. h; III. d; IV. a; V. c; VI. b; VII. f; VIII. e.

b. to be enchanted with someone and hope to be more than friends c. to be set up on a meeting with someone you don’t know

4. Os estudantes podem ser orientados a identificar primeiro os itens com que têm familiaridade e fazer inferências acerca dos restantes. As respostas das últimas colunas podem variar conforme as discussões feitas por eles.

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d. when you begin to love someone e. to sing a romantic song in front of your lover’s window at night f. marital unions where the bride and groom aren’t chosen by each other g. to invite someone out h. when two people put an end to their relationship

5 In your opinion, why some actions and attitudes related to love and relationship that were common in the past are not popular anymore? Discuss your ideas with a classmate.

Personal answers.

6 Are there any attitudes and actions related to love and relationships that happen nowadays that would have been considered rare in the past? What? Why?Possible answers: Online dating and divorce are examples of things that could be found rare in the past.

7 Do some research with your classmates using dictionaries and make a list with other useful

expressions related to love and relationships. Possible answers: to get engaged, to get married, to get divorced, etc.

You have analyzed two movie posters and read plot summaries and cartoons about love in this unit. Now, you are going to listen to some excerpts from songs that feature on the soundtracks of romantic movies.

LISTENING

PRE-LISTENING 1 Do you think that soundtracks can affect how much we like a movie? Why / Why not? Discuss with your classmates.

Possible answers: Yes, because a good soundtrack might help captivate the public. (or) No, because if the movie is bad, the public will lose interest anyway.

2 Are there love songs that you like? If you answered “yes”, what are your favorite ones? Write down Personal answers. Comentar

their titles in your notebook. If If you answered “no”, why don’t they please you? com os alunos que a temática amorosa pode permear diferentes gêneros musicais: rock, blues, pop, reggae, jazz, country, funk, MPB, tango, axé-music, forró, pagode, rap, samba etc.

3 Read the following excerpt from a song that features on the soundtrack of the movie 10 Things I Hate About You, a 1999 romantic comedy based on William Shakespeare's play The Taming of the Shrew. Then answer the questions orally. Can’t Take My Eyes Off You [...] But if you feel like I feel Please let me know that it's real [...] Disponível em: <www.metrolyrics.com/canttake-my-eyes-off-you-lyrics-muse.html>. Acesso em: 20 abr. 2016.

a. Based on the title and these lines, what do you think the song is about? A person who seems to be in love with someone. b. How would describe this kind of love? In your opinion, is it popular in love songs? Discuss with your classmates. Possible answer: It seems to be quite romantic and slightly exaggerated, which is fairly common in love songs.

CULTURAL HERITAGE The Taming of the Shrew, a comedy written by William Shakespeare, is not the only Shakesperian work to inspire modern day movies. Shakespeare's Othello inspired the movie O (2001), Romeo and Juliet inspired West Side Story (1961), and Twelfth Night inspired She's the man (2006), just to name a few.

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4 Romantic songs can share some characteristics. Read the sentences below and identify the ones you expect to find when you come across a love song. Keep track of your answers in your notebook. As As respostas das atividades são your answers can vary, compare them with a classmate. sugestões e podem variar.

a. The lyrics can resemble poems. ü b. The narrative is objective, with little space to personal feelings. c. The lyric often follows a regular rhythmical pattern. ü d. The chorus seems to be intended to stick in people's heads. ü e. Lyrics and melodies don’t need to match.

Fonte de pesquisa: SONGWRITINGFEVER.COM. How to Get Started with Songwriting - P1. [S.I.]: [2014?]. Disponível em: <www.songwritingfever.com/songwritingtips/getstarted.php>. Acesso em: 19 out. 2015.

WHILE-LISTENING 4-7

5 Listen to the song excerpts below. Identify the order of the songs you hear and write their titles in your notebook to register the correct sequence.

How Deep is your love, All I ask of you, Can't take my eyes off you, Have you ever really loved a woman?.

Can't Take My Eyes off You Pardon the way that I stare 1

The sight of you makes me weak There are no words left to speak But if you feel like I feel Please let me know that it's real [...] Bob Crewe & Bob Gaudio. Featured on the soundtrack of 10 Things I Hate About You (1999). Disponível em: <www.metrolyrics.com/cant-take-my-eyes-off-you-lyrics-muse. html>. Acesso em: 3 mar. 2016.

To really love a woman, to understand her You've got to know her deep inside Hear every thought, see every dream And give her wings when she wants to fly Then when you find yourself lying Helpless in her arms

Editoria de arte

Have You Ever Really Loved a Woman?

2

[...] Robert John Lange / Bryan Adams / Michael Kamen. Featured on the soundtrack of Don Juan DeMarco (1994). Disponível em: <www.musixmatch.com/lyrics/Bryan-Adams/HaveYou-Ever-Really-Loved-a-Woman>. Acesso em: 3 mar. 2016.

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Editoria de arte

How Deep Is Your Love I know your eyes in the morning sun I feel you touch me in the pouring rain And the moment that you wander far from me 3

And you come to me on a summer breeze Keep me warm in your love then you softly leave [...] Barry Gibb / Maurice Gibb / Robin Gibb. Featured on the soundtrack of Saturday Night Fever (1977). Disponível em: <www.metrolyrics.com/how-deep-is-your-love-lyrics-bee-gees.html>. Acesso em: 3 mar. 2016.

All I Ask Of You No more talk of darkness, Forget these wide-eyed fears. I'm here, nothing can harm you My words will warm and calm you. Let me be your freedom, Let daylight dry your tears. 4

To guard you and to guide you [...] Andrew Lloyd Webber / Charles Hart. Featured on the soundtrack of The Phantom of the Opera (1989; 2004). Disponível em: <www.metrolyrics.com/all-i-ask-of-you-lyrics-andrew-lloyd-webber.html>. Acesso em: 3 mar. 2016.

Ver Banco de Gêneros.

POST-LISTENING 6 In your notebook, replace the numbers with the lines that are missing in each song excerpt. Listen again to check your understanding.

1. There’s nothing else to compare; 2. You know you really love a woman; 3. I wanna feel you in my arms again; 4. I'm here, with you, beside you.

7 Now listen and read the lyrics and, in your notebook, write the words and expressions that you interpret as related to love. Use the dictionary if you need.

Possible answers: “can’t take my eyes off you,” “love,” “helpless in her arms,” “I wanna feel you in my arms,” “I'm here, nothing can harm you,” “Let me be your freedom”, etc.

8 After listening to the song excerpts, can you notice different kinds of love in each of them? Which of the songs would you prefer as a love message? Answer in your notebook.

Possible answers: No, all of them are pretty similar in the way they express love. (or) Yes, it’s possible to notice the prevalence of friendship, romance, contemplation or idealization if we analyze each of them.

9 In your opinion, is the content of these songs realistic? Do you think that they portray the kind of relationship most people have? Why / Why not?

Possible answers: Yes, they’re very representative of the kinds of relationship people usually have. (or) No, songs and other works of art tend to somewhat exaggerate in relation to feelings.

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Grammar

In the excerpts you heard in the Listening section, two possessive adjectives are used to indicate who “owns” something. Let’s analyze them and understand how they are used.

POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES Read these lines from the songs and rewrite sentences a and b in your notebook. Complete them with the correct options regarding the use of each possessive adjective. I. "Can't take my eyes off you" II. "I know your eyes in the morning sun" III. "Keep me warm in your love then you softly leave" IV. "My words will warm and calm you" V. "Let me be your freedom"

Os estudantes deverão ler as frases para identificar os pronomes possessivos de acordo com a posição que ocupam nelas. Faça perguntas para que analisem cada alternativa em busca de compreender a quem cada pronome se refere.

a. The possessive adjective your refers to... • the person speaking.

• the song’s addressee. ü

• both of them.

b. The possessive adjective my refers to • the person speaking. ü

• the song’s addressee.

• both of them.

Now read the following movie dialogs. Identify the possessive adjectives and write them down in your notebook. a. Harry: When you realize you want to spend the rest of your life with somebody, you want the rest of your life to start as soon as possible. When Harry Met Sally (1989) b. Edward: I love you. You are my only reason to stay alive, if that’s what I am. Twilight: New Moon (2009) c. Seth: I would rather have one breath of her hair, one kiss of her mouth, one touch of her hand, than eternity without it. One. City of Angels (1998) d. Gus: I am in love with you. And I know that love is just a shout into the void, and that oblivion is inevitable, and that we’re all doomed, and that one day all of our labors will be returned to dust. And I know that the sun will swallow the only Earth we will ever have. And I am in love with you. The Fault in Our Stars (2014) e. Tom: People should be able to say how they feel - how they really feel - not, you know, some words that some strangers put in their mouths. (500) Days of Summer (2009) f. Elizabeth Bennet: How could you do it? Mr. Darcy: Because I believed your sister was indifferent. Elizabeth Bennet: Indifferent? Mr. Darcy: I observed them most carefully and realized his attachment was far deeper than hers. Elizabeth Bennet: That’s because she’s shy! Pride and Prejudice (2005) g. Jade Butterfield: My first love was everything all at once. The kind that you never fall back from. Never try to. Never want to. My love’s so big. So strong. It never dies. Never fades. Never loses its electricity. The kind of love you fight for. The kind of boy you fight for. Endless Love (2014) Todas as citações foram extraídas de: IMDb.com, Inc. 1990-2016. Disponível em <www.imdb.com>. Acesso em: 24 maio 2016.

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Do you know any of the movies above? If yes, which one is your favorite? Which is your least favorite? Ask a classmate and share your answers. Remember to use possessive adjectives to clarify whose opinion’s you are talking about. Personal answers. Read the dialogs again. What kind of love is represented in them? Do you think they are an accurate portrayal of love in real life? Personal answers.

See Grammar Reference

SPEAKING PLANNING 8

You are going to hear a short lesson on a brainstorming technique so that you can participate in a brainstorming session. Your job is to think of and to remember different kinds of love and collect as many terms as you can about it. Your notes will be used afterwards in the Writing section.

1. Pode ser necessário repetir o áudio algumas vezes até que os estudantes consigam identificar a validade de cada item. Eles estão disponibilizados na mesma ordem em que aparecem no áudio para facilitar a compreensão.

1 Listen to a video called Brainstorming with mind maps in a group. Then, read the items below and copy into your notebook the correct ones, according to what you hear. a. Brainstorming is about selecting ideas.

e. It's not necessary to select a topic.

b. It's about expanding thoughts. ü

f. Having a variety of colors won't help.

c. Mind mapping as a team leads to better results. ü

g. It's important to set a timer. ü

d. Avoid different viewpoints.

h. Write down everything that comes to mind. ü

Measures, VM. Brainstorming With Mind Maps in a Group. 16 jan. 2015. Vídeo (2min36s). Disponível em: <www.youtube.com/watch?v=O0lEj2d-ipE>. Acesso: 21 ago. 2015.

SPEAKING Ver orientações no Guia Didático.

2 In small groups, talk about different kinds of love and write in your notebook every word you and

your group think of. Remember to use some of the tips you learned. You can follow the topics in the blue box. Be sure to take notes.

PARENTAL LOVE • members • terms of endearment

• common feelings • other

3 Now, try to think of other categories (love for friends, love for pets, love for artists, etc.) and add words to them.

4 What was the easiest part of the brainstorming session? Choose at least one positive aspect. Personal answers.

5 Which category results surprised you the most? Why? Personal answers.

LEADING THE BRAINSTORMING SESSION What comes to your mind? What kinds of love do you know? What else? Who’s next?

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WRITING

It’s time to organize your ideas so you can always refer to then later. You are going to use the most interesting data you gathered so far to create a mind map.

PLANNING 1 Read the mind map and try to understand its connections. Does it contain different points of view about learning a language? Give examples. Yes. It shows different aspects of learning (enjoyment, curiosity,

iMindMap/www.thinkbuzan.com. Mind Map é uma marca registrada da Buzan Organisation Limited 1990 <www.thinkbuzan.com>.

persistence, etc.), ways of learning (immersion, play, mimicking), etc.

2 Mind maps should contain different aspects of the same subject so that they provide a general view.

Suppose you are going to organize a mind map about love of pets. Divide the following items into pros and cons. If you want, you can draw a chart in your notebook with two columns to organize the ideas.

• • • • •

receiving love allergies necessity of cleaning after the animal learning patience pets empathize with you

• • • •

improved mental health rescuing an animal from a shelter possible safety hazards high cost

Fonte de pesquisa: PRINCE, Alicia. The Pros and Cons of Getting a Pet. [N.I.]: [2016?]. Disponível em: <www.lifehack.org/articles/lifestyle/the-pros-and-cons-getting-pet.html>. Acesso em: 7 out. 2015.

Pros: receiving love; learning patience; pets empathize with you; improved mental health; rescuing an animal from a shelter. Cons: allergies; necessity of cleaning after the animal; possible safety hazards; high cost.

3 In your opinion, if someone was about to buy or adopt a pet, would this kind of information from Activity 2 be helpful? Why / Why not?

Possible answers: Yes, because it would help evaluate if the person is ready to deal with the cons. (or) No, because it's necessary to interact with a pet first. Ver Banco de Gêneros.

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WRITING 4 Go back to the notes you took during the brainstorming session. Using a sheet of paper, write down the main categories related to love you want to explore.

Sugerimos que os estudantes pensem em quatro categorias diferentes para preencher a estrutura sugerida.

5 Read your notes again and choose the words and expressions that can expand your mind map. Write a first draft in your notebook.

6 Now, create your mind map. Use the diagram below as a model. Make a copy of this in a sheet of paper. Editoria de arte

You can add colors and illustrations, if possible.

7 Write down in your notebook: Mind maps can be useful for a. learning visually. ü b. studying a topic in depth.

To create virtual mind maps, you can use tools such as:

c. giving an overview of a subject or study topic. ü

http://mindmapfree.com

d. making connections between different areas. ü

www.mindmeister.com/en

e. planning projects. ü

www.mindmup.com

f. learning detailed information about a specific topic.

Todos os sites acesso em: 22 abr. 2016.

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WRAP-UP

In this unit, you have seen different kinds of love through different perspectives. Have your opinions about love changed because of these discussions? Letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s see.

LOVE AROUND THE WORLD 1 You thought of some proverbs at the beginning of this unit. Have you changed your mind about any of them? Read them again and talk to your classmates.

2 You read and analyzed a meme based on the TV show The Big Bang Theory in the Warm-up section. CBS Photo Archive/Getty Images

Now look at another one from the same show and answer the questions.

a. Did you find any of them funny? Why / Why not? Possible answers: They might be considered funny because in both cases

the scientists see love and science in different ways, and none of them corresponds to the way love is usually portrayed in society.

b. Do you know the TV show The Big Bang Theory? Which personality differences are represented in the two memes you Sheldon is an introvert who has no social skills. Wolowitz is extrovert and considers himself the "Don Juan" among analyzed? his friends. That is why the first one has a scientific view about the assertion "love is in the air", and the second one employs scientific arguments to flirt with people.

c. Whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the main difference about how these two characters treat love? Which one do you prefer? Discuss with your classmates. Possible answer: The first meme was mocking love, while the second meme is a pick-up line. d. Considering everything that you read in this unity, what do you think about the concept of love in the society in which you live? Which of the texts gets closest to your opinion, if any? Personal answer.

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Para mais informações, ver Guia Didático.

Self-Assessment

FURTHER INFORMATION • Websites Love is Respect. – Informações sobre relacionamentos saudáveis.

Reflita sobre suas aprendizagens ao longo desta unidade e registre em seu caderno o grau de dificuldade encontrado. Desenhe em seu caderno uma barra semelhante à apresentada a seguir para avaliar o grau de dificuldade de cada item.

Disponível em: <www.loveisrespect.org/healthy-relationships>. Acesso: 24 fev. 2016.

• Vídeos The Brain in Love. – Palestra acerca de um estudo sobre efeitos físicos do amor. Produção: TED. Fev. 2008. Vídeo (15 min 46 s).

I. Ao longo desta unidade, eu pude ...

Disponível em: <www.ted.com/talks/helen_fisher_studies_the_ brain_in_love>. Acesso: 24 fev. 2016.

a. reconhecer obras de arte que retratam o tema amor;

The Mathematics of Love. – Palestra sobre padrões matemáticos relacionados ao amor.

b. identificar elementos composicionais do gênero pôster de filme (movie poster) e sinopse (plot summary);

Disponível em: <www.ted.com/talks/hannah_fry_the_ mathematics_of_love>. Acesso: 17 mar. 2016.

c. compreender e expressar minha opinião sobre memes (memes);

• Livros EVANS, Mary. Love: An Unromantic Discussion. Cambridge: Polity, 2002. – Livro que discute o conceito de amor e suas implicações sociais. GUERRA, Paisley. Relationship Greatest Quotes. Queensland: Emereo Publishing, 2016. – Coletânea de citações sobre o amor.

d. ouvir e compreender canções de amor (love songs); e. empregar diferentes expressões relacionadas a sentimentos e relacionamentos; f. usar pronomes oblíquos e adjetivos possessivos em diferentes contextos; g. conduzir ou participar de seções de brainstorming; h. produzir mapas mentais (mind maps); i. ler e compreender tirinhas.

Reveja alguns gêneros utilizados nesta unidade para discutir o cinema. Em poucas palavras, liste em seu caderno o que você aprendeu com cada um deles. Meme

Pôster de filme

Sinopse

Canção

Mind Map

II. Reflita sobre sua participação ao longo da unidade e registre sua avaliação em seu caderno. a. Participei mais / menos nas atividades de b. Gostei mais / menos de c. Eu me senti

.

d. Eu poderia

.

e. Tive dificuldade em

.

.

f. Outra avaliação.

.

É importante que você reflita sobre seus registros e compartilhe com colegas e seu professor as situações em que você não conseguiu participar como gostaria, para que, em conjunto, possam identificar problemas e definir ações. Escreva em seu caderno um plano de ação para superar as dificuldades encontradas em cada item. Gostaria de saber mais sobre

.

Ainda preciso desenvolver

.

Planejo

.

III. Pensando nas discussões de que você participou nesta unidade, responda brevemente às questões a seguir. a. Ampliei meu vocabulário ao longo das aulas? Que expressões poderei usar com mais frequência? b. Atentei-me aos passos de preparação e executei adequadamente as propostas apresentadas? c. Fiz comentários construtivos acerca dos assuntos discutidos? d. Mobilizei os conhecimentos que tinha adquirido na unidade 1?

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Ma

lia H

urw

itz

Photo taken from one of the United Nations Free & Equal campaign videos. It was entitled Can You See Past the Label? and was shown on Times Square screens, in New York, in 2015. Photographer: Malia Hurwitz.

DIVERSITY: MUCH BEYOND STEREOTYPES Para informações consultar as orientações no Guia Didático.

DISCUTA AS QUESTÕES COM SEUS COLEGAS.

a. A fotografia desta página faz parte de uma campanha de conscientização popular. Observando os elementos que compõem a imagem, pense em quais temas de campanhas poderiam se utilizar dela. b. Quais são os tipos de linguagens que você identifica na imagem? c. Observe o ponto de veiculação da mensagem, seu entorno e leia a legenda da foto. Que motivos podem ter justificado a escolha daquele lugar para promover a circulação da mensagem? d. O que podemos fazer para lidar com a questão dos rótulos que são impostos às pessoas pela sociedade? e. A dupla de fotos da página 47 faz parte de um projeto artístico sobre a questão dos estereótipos. O que as imagens têm em comum com aquela sobre a qual você acabou de discutir? Justifique sua resposta.

Ver nota na abertura da Unidade 1 sobre o Parecer CNE/CEB 15/2000.

f. Em sua opinião, qual das imagens desta abertura envolve mais diretamente o interlocutor? Justifique sua resposta.

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Para mais informações, consultar orientações no Guia Didático.

NESTA UNIDADE VOCÊ IRÁ ...

• discutir a questão dos estereótipos e a importância do respeito à diversidade; • analisar como cartazes (poster campaigns) são usados em campanhas de conscientização social popular; • observar as múltiplas linguagens utilizadas na elaboração de mensagens midiáticas em cartazes; • rever diferentes usos do imperative, especialmente em campanhas publicitárias; • ouvir uma canção (song) sobre um problema social recorrente nas escolas e discutir sua temática; • realizar uma conversa informal (informal conversation) com os colegas de classe sobre o tema respeito às diversidades; • realizar no espaço de sua escola uma mostra de cartazes de campanhas (poster campaigns) de conscientização popular.

Photos from the English photographer Harrison France, inspired by the work of the photographer Gillian Wearing on diversity and stereotypes.

Ha rri so n

Fr

an ce

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WARM-UP

We have discussed a very important social problem we face in the world: the problem of labeling people. This is a consequence of our difficulty to understand diversity, which is a very important characteristic of the world we live in. Now, let’s understand a little better what diversity really is.

1 Look at the map below, which shows some South American language families. According to the IBGE Brdaro/Wikipedia

2010 Census, approximately 274 indigenous languages are spoken in Brazil. Based on that, do you think we can consider Brazil a monolingual country? Why or why not? Discuss with your classmates.

1. Possible answers: If there are so many indigenous languages in Brazil, then we are not a monolingual country. (or) If we consider only the official languages, then we are a monolingual country because only Portuguese is an official language in Brazil. Sugerimos discutir com os estudantes a diferença entre língua oficial do país e línguas faladas no país. Para mais informações, ver o Guia Didático. 2. Possible answers: In the South of Brazil, there are immigrant communities that speak German and Italian, for example. Furthermore, close to the borders of the country, we have communities who speak Spanish, and in Holambra, in the countryside of São Paulo, there are families who speak Dutch. Para mais informações e referências, ver o Guia Didático.

W

E

0

3 115

South American language families. [S.I.], 20 nov. 2012. Disponível em: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:SouthAmerican_families_03.png>. Acesso em: 6 jun. 2016.

Language family: A set of languages deriving from a common ancestor or "parent." Languages with a significant number of common features in phonology, morphology and syntax are said to belong to the same language family. [...] NORDQUIST, Richard. Language family. About Education. [sd.]: [2016?]. Disponível em: <http://grammar.about.com/od/il/g/languagefamilyterm.htm>. Acesso em: 23 abr. 2016.

2 Besides the indigenous languages that IBGE has identified in Brazil, try to remember other

languages spoken by specific communities in this country. Write them in your notebook. Remember to count on the help of your classmates and your teacher.

3 Language is always related to our traditions. Do you believe a community may lose its traditions if it loses its language? Why / Why not? Talk to your teacher and classmates about it.

Possible answers: Yes, it may lose its traditions because it depends on language to be transmitted. (or) No, it may lose its native language, but keep its traditions. Para ter acesso a outras informações, consultar o Guia Didático.

4 According to Unesco, Brazil is considered a country of diversity. Which other cultures have contributed to our diversity? Record in your notebook the cultures you remember and their influence in Brazil. Then, share your notes with your classmates in small groups.

48

Possible answers: There are many cultures that have contributed to our diversity: the Africans, the Italian immigrants, the Portuguese immigrants, etc. (or) The cultures that have influenced our diversity are first, the Portuguese; then, the Africans; after that, many other European cultures, such as the Italian, Spanish, the Dutch, etc.

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READING

We have noticed in our discussions that diversity is part of our Brazilian identity. Now let’s get some more information about what diversity really means and how important it is for living harmoniously on our planet.

PRE-READING 1 Besides the variety of languages, what else can we identify in Brazil as signs of our diversity? Read the following categories and give examples, keeping track of them in your notebook. Ver exemplos no Guia Didático.

• music

• religious beliefs

• popular sports

• dance

• typical food

• musical instruments

2 Now, look back to your own family and to the people who are close to you. What can you identify in

the life of these people that is a sign of diversity? What about in your own life? Take a few notes in answers. Possible answers: My parents are from ... ; My grandparents were from ... ; My best friend is an your notebook.Personal immigrant. He/she is from ... ; He/she likes ... / He/she usually ... , etc. Recomendamos incentivar os estudantes a pensar nos hábitos das pessoas com quem convivem e identificar influências de culturas de origem estrangeira que foram, aos poucos, integrando-se à brasileira.

3 Now, work in small groups to share your experience, with diversity. Use your ideas in Activities 1 and 2 to help you.

Personal answers.

4 In your opinion, is it easy for people to live in harmony

with diversity? Discuss your opinion with your classmates.

Personal answers.

5 Some campaigns have been made to help people understand and respect diversity and avoid labeling people. The opening image on page 46, is one of them. Do you think this kind of campaign can be effective? Why / Why not?

Possible answers: Yes, it is effective because it shows how limited our view of people is. (or) No, it is not effective because people do not pay attention to the campaigns.

Os textos nesta unidade apresentam poucas palavras. Mas não se engane! Nem toda mensagem é veiculada por meio delas. Uma mensagem é formada por uma combinação de elementos, incluindo os não verbais, que muitas vezes carregam mais sentido do que os verbais. Imagine sempre o leitor esperado para a mensagem e a motivação do emissor para criá-la. Isso facilitará a sua compreensão dos cartazes desta seção.

6 Now, read posters 1 and 2. In your

notebook, take notes of aspects they have in common.

Poster campaign 1

6. Possible answers: They show people who are not happy with the way they are represented. (or) They show how cultures are stereotyped. They show that our view of culture is superficial and limited. Para mais informações, consultar o Guia Didático.

California State University San Marcos

WHILE-READING

This poster was used at California State University, San Marcos, in a campaign that celebrates diversity.

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Ohio University

Poster campaign 2 "[...] Cultural appropriation is the adoption or use of elements of one culture by members of a different culture as a largely negative phenomenon."

KHAN, Shehab. These are the scariest examples of cultural appropriation in this year's Halloween costumes. Independent, 1 out. 30, 2015.

Ver Banco de Gêneros.

Poster campaign developed by students at the Ohio University.

7 What are the main issues of both posters? Choose from the options below, keeping track of your choices in your notebook. More than one option is correct. Para mais informações, consultar o Guia Didático.

• cultural appropriation ü

• cultural stereotyping ü

• homophobia

• discrimination at the workplace

8 There is one word in each poster that means that we are the result of a process, and not just a simple stereotype. Which words are they? Answer in your notebook. The words are “history” (Poster 1) and “culture” (Poster 2).

9 The expression “There is more to me than what you see,” in Poster campaign 1, can be associated

with an expression in Poster campaign 2, since both posters call attention to the same aspect. Which is not who I am, and this is not okay.” O importante é que os expression is it? Write it in your notebook. “This estudantes reconheçam que, tanto no cartaz 1 quanto no 2, as pessoas representadas se sentem interpretadas na sua superficialidade, como estereótipos de suas culturas.

10 Go back to the opening image of this unit, on page 46. The slogan there was Can You See Past the

Label? What are the common points between the image on the opening page and the posters in this section? Talk to your teacher and your classmates about your findings.

11 Now, read one more poster, on page 51. Are the topics discussed in Activities 7-10 related to the ones Possible answers: Yes. Topics such as in the new poster? Discuss with your teacher and classmates. 11. racism, intolerance, discrimination and

50

injustice, are related to the issue of stereotyping, which was discussed in the previous activities. 10. Possible answers: The three messages criticize the way we label people we don’t even know, and they show that our prejudice is present when we act like that. Esperamos que os estudantes identifiquem que as três mensagens expressam indignação pelo olhar rotulador que a sociedade tende a lançar nas pessoas. Em todos os casos, é o preconceito que está por trás dos rótulos.

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The Pennsylvania State University

Poster campaign 3 Observe como a linguagem não verbal é importante na construção das mensagens dos cartazes estudados. A expressão facial das personagens, as imagens que elas seguram, as cores utilizadas para preencher o fundo dos cartazes, tudo tem significado e auxilia na composição do efeito de sentido que a mensagem pretende provocar no leitor.

This poster campaign developed by students from Penn State University.

12 Consider the words presented in Poster campaign 3. Which ones do you consider problematic in

Brazil? Write down your personal answer in your notebook. Then, share your ideas with your teacher answers: bullying, violence, prejudice, homophobia, racism, sexual assault, and your classmates. Possible etc. É necessário muito cuidado para conduzir a discussão com respeito e tolerância, evitando comentários preconceituosos.

13 In relation to the context of their production, what do all the campaign posters in this section have in

common? Why do you think these institutions are concerned about stereotypes and the other issues answer: They were all created in universities. The universities are concerned presented in the campaigns? Possible about stereotypes and the issues presented because they might be common problems in

these institutions. Sugerimos discutir com os estudantes os motivos pelos quais eles acreditam que as universidades ainda sejam um ambiente no qual estão presentes diversos tipos de preconceitos.

POST-READING 14 After comparing the three posters from the universities, which statements are correct about them? Write your choices in your notebook.

a. In Posters 1 and 2, the main topic is the same. 

Aqui temos um breve estudo do gênero. Outras características serão discutidas nas atividades subsequentes.

b. All the posters are about the same topic. O terceiro cartaz apresenta mais tópicos. c. Nonverbal language is fundamental to the understanding of Posters 1 and 2.  A linguagem persuasiva pertence ao campo da

d. Poster 3 counts on persuasive language to sensitize the reader.  função conativa da linguagem, que tem como objetivo e. The emotive function of language predominates only in Poster 1. convencer ou influenciar o receptor da mensagem. Nesta

A função emotiva da linguagem também está evidente no segundo cartaz. O slogan mostra que a primeira pessoa é o centro da mensagem, o que expressa diretamente as emoções do emissor da mensagem.

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função, o uso do imperativo é bastante comum.

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15. Rhymes: me, see. Possible answer: Yes, it is important because the reader will remember the slogan more easily. (or) No. It is nice, but it is not important. The most important thing is the message itself. Rhymes could be distractors.

15 In the first poster, a poetic device was used in

Você se lembra das funções da linguagem? Nos cartazes, é muito comum o uso da função emotiva (aquela em que predomina geralmente a escrita em primeira pessoa e que traz à tona as emoções do emissor) e da função conativa (aquela que é expressa por meio de imperativos e que visa a convencer o receptor a fazer alguma coisa).

the text. Discuss with your classmates what this device is and its importance to build the message. a. the visual structure b. the metric c. the rhyme ✓

v Grammar

There is a verb mood typically used to influence and/or convince people, as it was the author's intention in one of the posters in the Reading section. Now, let's see how this mood is used in this context and others.

IMPERATIVE As you have noticed, the verbal language used in poster campaigns is very specific. Let’s pay closer attention to Poster campaign 3 again, on page 51. There are four verbs in the message. Which verbs are those? Write them in your notebook. The verbs are be, take, help, report. Now, analyze the verbs you found in Poster 3. Which verb mood are they in? Answer in your notebook. a. indicative

b. subjunctive

c. imperative ✓

Keeping track of your answer in your notebook, complete the following sentence: estudantes devem observar que as respostas a, b, c e d são todas In Poster 3, the verbs are used in order to: Os possíveis funções do modo imperativo. Entretanto, no cartaz em foco, a função do imperativo é convocar ou convencer alguém a se unir a uma causa. c. politely invite someone to do something.

a. give an order to someone. b. suggest something to the reader.

d. call someone to join a cause. ü

In the negative form, imperatives always start with do not (or don’t). In your notebook, match the items in the column on the left to their closest meaning in the column on the right. a. Be the difference.

• Don’t silence information. c

b. Take a stand for a positive campus climate.

• Don’t miss the opportunity to help overcome problems. b

c. Report a bias incident.

• Don’t be prejudiced just like everyone else. a

The use of imperatives is very similar in English and in Portuguese. Considering the discussions in the previous activities and what you know about the use of imperatives in your language, complete each sentences in your notebook, replacing each with one of the words in the box. instructions

give orders

to

request

do not or don't

please

warnings

give orders / instructions / warnings / request / to / please / do not or don't

The imperative can be used to express different ideas. One of the most common uses of this mood is to . It can also be used to give , as in a recipe. It can be used in , when someone is in danger, as in “Look out!” or “Watch out!,” and it can also express a , as in the sentence “Please take a seat.” To form the imperative, we use the base form of the verb without . To make an imperative more polite, we can use the word in the beginning or at the end of the sentence. To make a negative imperative, we add before the verb.

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DOS: Possible answers: Preserve public places. / Respect diversity. / Accept people the way they are. / Use magic words (please, thank you). / Preserve nature. DON'TS: Possible answers: Don’t damage public places. / Don’t stereotype people. / Don’t practice bullying. / Don’t be rude to people. / Don’t damage or destroy nature.

Now, let’s make the use of imperatives more meaningful. Consider all the discussions about diversity so far in this unit. What are the dos and don’ts of diversity? How should people behave in a multicultural society? In your notebook, write a list of dos and don’ts for a better society. You can reproduce the chart below to organize your ideas. Pretendemos que os estudantes tenham aqui uma oportunidade

de compreender a expressão dos and don’ts e de registrar comportamentos apreciáveis no que diz respeito ao convívio saudável com a diversidade, bem como de pontuar negativas para comportamentos inconvenientes ou inadequados. As respostas são livres.

Dos

Don’ts

Respect people.

Don’t underestimate cultures.

Discuss with your classmates and teacher the ideas you registered in the activity above.

Rafael/B.dourado

See Grammar Reference

Have you ever noticed the difference between equality and equity? The cartoon on the right clearly illustrates these concepts. Look at the image and think: What is best for everyone - equality or equity? And what do we need to do, as society, to offer the best opportunities to each of its members?

Possible conversation: My list of dos include … In my list of don’ts, I have ... Esta pode ser mais uma oportunidade de explorar a questão da diversidade, principalmente se surgirem aspectos nas listas dos estudantes que ainda não tenham sido discutidos na unidade.

Equality vs equity

VOCABULARY

Although there is little verbal language in the posters in Reading, the words and expressions in them are very important and useful. Let’s go back and do some more intensive work on these words. This will help you express your ideas later in the unit.

Recorde aos estudantes, se necessário, que cognatos são palavras que se parecem em duas línguas e que, de fato, significam a mesma coisa. Não há falsos cognatos na lista, mas vale lembrar a turma de que os eles se parecem nas duas línguas, mas significam coisas bem diferentes em cada uma.

1 Let's start our vocabulary study with the words in Poster 3. Go back to page 51 and analyze the poster once again. Make a list in your notebook of the words that are cognate to words in Portuguese. Discrimination, homophobia, hostility, violence, racism, intolerance, defamation, injustice, oppression, abuse, report, difference, incident.

2 Now let’s focus on a few lexical items from Poster 3 that are more challenging to understand. Read the words in the box and match them to their definitions. Keep track of your answers in your notebook.

No tipo de texto com o qual estamos trabalhando, inferir os sentidos pelo contexto não é tão fácil. Contudo, vale encorajar os estudantes a parear primeiramente as palavras mais semelhantes para depois focar atenção nas mais desafiadoras.

equity

bias

harassment

bigotry

hate

sexual assault

a. An intense dislike or aversion for someone or something. hate b. Intolerance to any creed, belief or opinion. bigotry c. A particular tendency or trend that is preconceived and not explained. bias

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d. Violent sexual intercourse, or sexual contact, when the other person does not want it. sexual assault e. Disturbing and troubling someone repeatedly. harassment f. Fair and impartial distribution of something. equity

3 When you think of poster campaigns, language is very powerful. You need few words, but they have to be assertive. Think of verbs you have seen in poster campaigns. Make a list of those verbs in your notebook. If you don’t know them in English, you can count on the help of a dictionary, your classmates and your teacher. Possible answers: Come / Join us / Pay attention / Participate

Sugerimos que os estudantes façam analogias com slogans de cartazes de campanhas nacionais para pensarem nos verbos. Havendo acesso à internet, é uma boa opção permitir que consultem as traduções em dicionários on-line, pois essa é uma forma de fazer bom uso dos celulares na sala de aula e ensinar a turma a utilizar os aparelhos como recurso de pesquisa.

4 Look at the posters below. Both of them were created in the United States, the first one in 1917, and the second, in 1942. Discuss with your classmates some of their features.

Uncle Sam, 'I Want You' Us Army recruiting poster by James Montgomery Flagg, 1917.

Everett Historical/Shutterstock.com

Everett Historical/Shutterstock.com

Possible answers: few words, powerful images, strong message, etc. Para mais informações sobre essas imagens, consultar o Guia Didático.

'We can Do It' World War 2 poster boosting morale of American women contributing to the war effort. It was created by J. Howard Miller for Westinhouse Company in 1942.

5 So far, we have seen posters used in campaigns about human rights and respect for diversity. The two posters on this page, however, were created as war propaganda campaigns during World War I (it was then used again during World War II) and World War II, respectively. Can you think of other uses for poster campaigns? Possible answers: Health-related campaigns (vaccines, flu season, etc.), call for voters, politics, etc.

6 What do you know about the context in which the two American posters were created? Research

about them and discuss with your classmates. Personal answers. Esse pode ser um momento oportuno para propor que os estudantes busquem informações a respeito da época com os professores de outras áreas, em especial História e Geografia.

7 Both posters have been reframed in different contexts, creating new meanings, such as female empowerment. What other contexts have you seen the posters being used?

Personal answers. Os estudantes podem estar familiarizados com a figura do cartaz 2 e movimentos feministas ou com os usos do cartaz 1 em memes de internet.

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LISTENING

By looking at different poster campaigns, we have discussed many aspects of prejudice. Now let’s observe how some of those topics are brought up by other genres. Let´s analyze prejudice from the perspective of music. 2. Possible answers: In the 1960s, the messages were not so clear; rather, they were

metaphorical. Now they are more aggressive, more direct. É possível chamar a atenção dos estudantes para a necessidade, nos anos 60, de disfarçar as mensagens por meio, por exemplo, do emprego de linguagem rebuscada, por causa da repressão da ditadura militar. Atualmente, o regime democrático permite que nos expressemos com mais clareza e sem censura, o que leva as mensagens a serem mais explícitas nas canções. Para mais informações e referências, ver o Guia Didático.

PRE-LISTENING

1 Song lyrics commonly discuss social problems. Do you remember songs, in English or in Portuguese, that mention any of the social problems listed below? Work in small groups and brainstorm a few songs. List them in your notebook. Personal answers. Ethnic prejudice • Socioeconomic prejudice • Homophobia • Xenophobia • Any other topic you want to mention

2 In the 1960s songs were used to express protest against the dictatorship in Brazil. Brainstorm a few protest songs from the sixties with the help of your teacher and classmates. What is different about the lyrics in the 1960s and nowadays?

3. Possible answers: The teacher should not say the grades out loud. (or) I think it is OK. Kat was very rude to the other student. Her prejudice was very evident.

3 Music is a means of communicating and denouncing social problems. We are now going to analyze

a dialog from a music video clip. The name of the song is What You Say Matters, and the singer and composer is BrothaBlack. The video clip begins with a dialog. Read it and tell your teacher and your classmates what you understand. Do you think the way the teacher distributes the grades is adequate? Why / why not? What about the reaction that one student (Kat) has?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WiQq_XAVPLg

É importante discutir que dar as notas em voz alta é inadequado, pois expõe os estudantes e os incentiva à competição. O ideal seria chamar cada um em particular e mostrar a prova, discutindo não a nota em si, mas o desempenho em geral e maneiras de melhorá-lo.

Screenshot from the video clip What You Say Matters

In a classroom, a teacher returns assignments to the students. She walks to each student, returns their assignments and says their grades aloud, but very politely. Teacher: OK. So now it’s time to get back your assignments from last week. OK, so we’ve got 79. … 67… Kat, 55. And Jade, 98, great work. Kat doesn’t accept that Jade got the highest grade in class.

Kat: Of course, she is the favorite. What are you, Asian? Is that why you’re so good at maths? Well, a atenção dos estudantes para you’ve got black skin. What are you? A blackanese or something? Chamar a palavra blackanese, um trocadilho

preconceituoso da estudante Kat, unindo as palavras black + Japanese. O insulto, que parte do estereótipo de que japoneses são ótimos em matemática, soma-se ao preconceito de que estudantes de outras origens não podem ser bons.

Transcrição livre da autora. Disponível em: BrothaBlack and Indigenous Advisory Council - Australian Government <www.humanrights.gov.au/news/videos/song-what-you-say-matters-feat-brothablack>. Trecho: 0:00-0:25. Acesso em: 10 nov. 2015.

4 Analyzing the title of the song and the dialog in Activity 3, what do you think the song is about?

Write your ideas in your notebook. Then, share your notes with your classmates and your teacher.

Possible answers: The song is about prejudice. The song is about people’s difficulties in accepting other people’s superiority. The song is also about how we can hurt people by the things we say. Uma ideia é que a letra retrata o quanto as pessoas podem ser afetadas pelo que as outras dizem.

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WHILE-LISTENING Ver orientações específicas no Guia Didático.

9

5 Now, you are going to listen to the song What You Say Matters, by BrothaBlack. The lyrics criticize several aspects about prejudice. One of the things criticized is in the verses below. Listen to the song. Then in your notebook write the verse numbers in the correct sequence. You can copy the first line to help you identify them. 1, 6, 5, 2, 3, 4, 7

You get it – what is racism? 1 What do you do about it Face the racism How do you deal with racism?

When people stand by 5 Doing nothing while it happens Their actions We must examine Kick the racism 6 How do you deal with racism? Kick the racism How do you deal with racism? Kick the racism Kick the racism

Nothings has changed in 2 our communities A lasting effect If we can think unity The act of individuals 3 To make a real movement Create real change Stand proud and prove it You’re not better than me 4 You’re equal to me Not above you I’m always beside you 9

Still working 7 To stop the problem today The power’s with you So what you gonna say? [ … ]

Ver Banco de Gêneros. BROTHABLACK / Indigenous Advisory Council. What You Say Matters (2013). Disponível em: <www.humanrights.gov.au/news/videos/songwhat-you-say-matters-feat-brothablack>. Acesso em: 13 abr. 2016.

6 Listen to the song again and answer the questions below about the lyrics. Write the answers in your notebook.

a. What problem is the song about? The song is about racial prejudice.

He/she probably means

b. What does the songwriter mean when he/she says “Nothings has changed in our communities”? that prejudice is not over. It means just standing, looking, doing nothing

c. What does the expression “stand by” mean in the context of the song? to change the situation.

POST-LISTENING 7 In Activities 3 and 4, you predicted the content of the song based only on the title and the

introductory dialog. Now that you have part of the lyrics, what is the song really about? Does it encourage people to have a particular attitude towards a social problem or simply make them aware of it? Write your answer in your notebook, and then share it with your classmates and your teacher. Possible answers: The song is about prejudice. Esta pode ser uma boa oportunidade para destacar como, na canção, é feito o uso do imperative com a finalidade de incentivar o combate ao racismo.

8 Is the song written especially about the manifestation of prejudice against Jade (the girl in the

conversation in Activity 3) or about actions of racism against people in general? Write your answers in your notebook, and justify it. Then, tell your teacher and your classmates what you think. The song is about racism in general, as we can see that the writer does not mention any specific names, but states that racism can be observed in his/her and the listeners’ communities.

9 Now let’s make some connections between the problem presented in the lyrics and life in general.

answers. Incentive os estudantes a respeitar e ouvir opiniões Discuss the questions below in small groups. Personal que diferem das deles. Ver informações complementares no Guia Didático.

a. Do you consider racism a serious problem in Brazil? Why or why not? Possible answers: Yes, it is a serious problem in Brazil because many people are still discriminated against. (or) No, it is not a serious problem anymore because...

b. How do you think campaigns can be proposed to help overcome racism? Possible answers: I think campaigns can be proposed by all kinds of media, including TV, radio, the Internet, etc. I think campaigns should start at schools.

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c. Possible answers: They have been developing campaigns, helping create laws and punishment proposals for people who do not respect human rights, etc.

c. The song you listened to has the lyrics published on the website of the Australian Human Rights Commission. What do you think Human Rights Associations have been doing to help overcome racism and other types of prejudice? d. The slogan of the Australian Human Rights Commission is, “Everyone, everywhere, everyday.” How do you explain the slogan from the perspective of diversity? Possible answers: In my opinion, the slogan means that every person has

the right to go any place they want, at any time. It means that people can go where they want to go and when they want to go because they are free to choose.

© Indigenous Hip Hop Projects

CULTURAL HERITAGE BrothaBlack is considered one of Australia's pioneers of Indigenous hip-hop and he has worked with Aboriginal Communities teaching hip-hop. Now, let's read about another group involved with indigenous communities in Australia. Indigenous Hip Hop Projects (IHHP) is a unique team of talented artists in all elements of hip hop, media, entertainment and performing arts, who have been working extensively in Indigenous communities around Australia since 2005, specialising in week-long intensive Indigenous Hip Hop artists from Australia projects in Dance, Music, Film, Art and Culture. INDIGENOUS HIP HOP. Home. [S.I.]: [2015?]. Disponível em: <http://indigenoushiphop.com>. Acesso em: 10 nov. 2015.

WRITING

PLANNING

We have analyzed several poster campaigns. Each one of them defends a cause. Now, it is your turn to think of a cause and a strategy for a poster campaign. Let’s brainstorm the steps we need to follow to put a poster campaign together so that you can create your own. É interessante ajudar os alunos a baixar suas expectativas de acertar a ordem e a se concentrar mais na importância das dicas.

1 As we have seen, a poster campaign is usually a media strategy for a cause campaign. When you create

a campaign, you need to follow some steps. Socialbrite is a nonprofit organization that provides solutions for other nonprofit organizations. They have a step-by-step guide to creating a media strategy. Read the steps they suggest and use your notebook to organize them in the sequence that seems the most logical to create a campaign poster. Then, share your sequence with your teacher and classmates. a. Create your proposition statement (your theme). 2

e. Do research. 4

b. State your goal. 1

f. Choose the format and the tools. 7

c. Have clear objectives for making media. 3

g. Create an effective message. 6

d. Identify your target audience and participant communities. 5

h. Create a timeline. 8

SOCIALBRITE. A Step-by-Step Guide to Creating a Media Strategy. [S.L.]: [2010]. Disponível em: <www.socialbrite.org/2010/05/27/create-distribute-media-for-a-campaign/>. Acesso em: 10 nov. 2015.

2 But why do so many universities and nonprofit organizations get involved in campaigns for respect

and preservation of diversity? Part of the answer is in the text below. Read it and match the titles in the box to the paragraphs. Keep track of your answers in your notebook. Cultural Rights as an Enabling Environment for Cultural Diversity Human Rights as Guarantees of Cultural Diversity Towards Access for All to Cultural Diversity

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UNESCO UNIVERSAL DECLARATION ON CULTURAL DIVERSITY

Editoria de arte

http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001271/127160m.pdf

Adopted by the 31st Session of the General Conference of UNESCO PARIS, 2 NOVEMBER 2001

CULTURAL DIVERSITY AND HUMAN RIGHTS ARTICLE 4

Human Rights as Guarantees of Cultural Diversity

The defense of cultural diversity is an ethical imperative, inseparable from respect for human dignity. It implies a commitment to human rights and fundamental freedoms, in particular the rights of persons belonging to minorities and those of indigenous peoples. No one may invoke cultural diversity to infringe upon human rights guaranteed by international law, nor to limit their scope. Cultural Rights as an Enabling Environment for Cultural Diversity

ARTICLE 5

Cultural rights are an integral part of human rights, which are universal, indivisible and interdependent. […] All persons have therefore the right to express themselves and to create and disseminate their work in the language of their choice, and particularly in their mother tongue; all persons are entitled to quality education and training that fully respect their cultural identity; and all persons have the right to participate in the cultural life of their choice and conduct their own cultural practices, subject to respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.

ARTICLE 6

Towards Access for All to Cultural Diversity

[…] Freedom of expression, media pluralism, multilingualism, equal access to art and to scientific and technological knowledge, including in digital form, and the possibility for all cultures to have access to the means of expression and dissemination are the guarantees of cultural diversity.

UNESCO. Unesco Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity. Paris, 2002. Disponível em: <http://unesdoc.unesco.org/ images/0012/001271/127160m.pdf>. (Adaptado.) Acesso em: 11 nov. 2015.

3 You assigned a title to each article of Unesco’s Declaration. How did you make the connections

between the titles and their correct paragraphs? Which words helped you match them? Discuss with your classmates and your teacher and answer in your notebook.

Possible answers: I read the paragraph and looked for the title that made sense. (or) I looked for similar words between the title and the paragraph.

4 Which argument does Unesco use to defend that diversity is a human right? Copy it into your notebook. The right to diversity is guaranteed by international law.

5 Go back to the text and write in your notebook the information that you can use when you create your poster campaign. Possible answers: Respect, human dignity, rights of persons, etc.

WRITING 6 Besides many examples of poster campaigns, you have also seen in Activity 2 that, according to

Unesco, diversity is a human right. Considering this information, you are going to work in small groups to create a campaign poster. Follow the steps. Consultar orientações específicas no Guia Didático.

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a. b. c. d. e. f.

Discuss with your group some of the causes you might defend. Go back to all the poster campaigns you analyzed in this unit and choose the one you considered the most effective. Now decide the audience you want to reach with your campaign. Go back to Activity 1 and choose more steps you believe you need to follow. Choose elements to make sure your poster will be effective. Prepare a draft of your poster for an exposition at school.

7 Before you finalize your poster, join another group and share your project. Ask for some feedback from classmates who are not in your original group. Take notes on their feedback.

8 Share your poster at school. If possible, organize an exposition area with your classmates and your teacher.

9 After you share your posters, discuss the following questions with your teacher and your classmates.

a. What was the most difficult decision in the process of creating your campaign? Possible answers: The most difficult decision was to select only one idea. The most difficult decision was how to organize the information.

b. What was the most interesting comment you heard from the audience to whom you presented your campaign? Possible answers: The most interesting comment was how beautiful the poster was, how effective the message was, how clear the images were, etc.

10 After having observed your classmates' posters, discuss the following questions.

a. What was the most creative poster in your opinion? Why? Personal answers. b. Were the posters appropriate to the campaign? Why? Personal answers. c. In your opinion, if this exposition had happened in a public place, would it call the audience's attention? Why / Why answers: Yes, because the message is relevant and the images are vivid, so the posters would probably attract not? Possible many people. (or) No, because the campaigns were made so that only students get interested in them. d. If you could improve your own poster, what changes would you make? Why? Take notes of your ideas so that you can use them in the future. Personal answers.

O objetivo aqui é envolver os estudantes em uma atividade prática de conversação sobre campanhas e modos de engajamento.

SPEAKING

PLANNING

In the Writing section, we have prepared and presented a poster campaign defending a cause we consider important. Now, we are going to analyze and talk about other possible ways to engage in social causes that are considered relevant.

1. Possible answers: Celebrate a day about diversity, watch documentaries on the topic, read books about it, hold a conference on the theme, a door-to-door campaign, etc.

1 In the next activities, you will have a conversation with your classmates about different ways of

raising awareness about diversity. Before you start talking, write down what other ways, besides poster campaigns, can be used to educate people about diversity as a human right.

2 Find two or three people in your class that have at least one similar item on their lists and form

small groups. In your groups, you will talk about the activities in the Speaking part. Take notes as you talk, they will be important for reflection afterwards. Keep in mind the following during your conversation:

• Listen carefully not only to other people’s words, but to their feelings and experiences behind what they are saying. • Show respect, everyone has the right to their opinions, no matter how different they are. • Value other people’s contributions. • Trust your peers and share your ideas sincerely. Ver Banco de Gêneros.

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SPEAKING 3 May 21 is the day to celebrate the World Day for Cultural Diversity for Dialogue and Development.

www.un.org/en/events/culturaldiversityday/tenthings.shtml

© 2015 United Nations. Reprinted with the permission of the United Nations.

Editoria de arte

Besides the suggestions you have listed in Activity 1, the text below presents other ideas and possibilities. Read and discuss with your group if each of the suggestions is interesting or not, in your point of view. Personal answer.

UN. Ten Simple Things YOU Can do to celebrate the world day for Cultural Diversity for Dialogue and Development. [S.I.]: [s.d.]. Disponível em: <www.un.org/en/events/culturaldiversityday/tenthings.shtml>. Acesso em: 11 nov. 2015.

4 In the second part of the campaign, you have three suggestions on how to join it. Which of the three do you consider the most interesting? Why?

Personal answer. Possible answer: I think the most interesting idea is suggestion number #. I think it is more motivating, more effective, etc. A ideia é que a questão incentive os estudantes a posicionarem-se em relação ao tema.

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5. Personal answer. Possible answer: Access to cultural events for any citizen is guaranteed by law, and so is the right to religion. The right to scientific knowledge is considered a right, but it is not protected by law. Xenophobia and homophobia are crimes in Brazil. However, respect for minorities is not a law. Agora, queremos levar a discussão da esfera individual para uma esfera social, projetando a discussão para o âmbito nacional. É possível que os estudantes saibam que xenofobia e homofobia são crimes no Brasil. No entanto, pode ser interessante motivá-los a pesquisar sobre outras questões que concernem ao que é direito garantido por lei e ao que ainda não é.

5 In the Writing section, you read part of the Unesco Declaration on Cultural Diversity. Which topics mentioned in the Declaration are determined by law in Brazil?

6 As you have seen, diversity has been a topic of interest for many people. Analyze the following three books recently published about the topic. Which would you lik to read? Why?

Editora Lu lu

Possible answers: I think the first book is about the growing diversity in the world. I believe the second book is about the immigrants in America and where they live. I believe the third book is about diversity in Brazil.

Editora Lulu

Understanding Cultural Diversity in Today's Complex World

Editora: The Brookings

Institution

Diversity in Brazilian Essence: Knowing Brasil by the Culture of their people

Diversity Explosion: How New Racial Demographics are Remaking America

7 Having a conversation with an open mind and respect is paramount to understand and live with

diversity. What did you and your group learn from each other and the activities in this section? Read your notes from the discussions: did the different opinions and ideas increase or decrease the level of the conversation? Personal answers. 61

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Retomaremos aqui alguns dos aspectos importantes trabalhados ao longo da unidade. Caso você perceba que os estudantes precisam focalizar algum aspecto com mais profundidade, verifique os recursos disponíveis no final desta unidade, que consistem em sugestões extras para maior estudo de diversos aspectos abordados até este ponto.

WRAP-UP

In this unit, we have discussed the relevance of diversity to make this world a more interesting place to live in. We have also seen how poster campaigns are important instruments to fight for what we believe in. Now, let’s go back to what we have learned and organize our thoughts.

CULTURAL INFLUENCES IN BRAZIL 1 In the Warm-up section, you analyzed how language can be related to the traditions of a people. Do you remember some of the languages spoken in Brazil? Copy the diagram below into your notebook and write them down.

1

10 2. Personal answers. Aqui gostaríamos de incentivar a construção compartilhada de informação. Obviamente os estudantes anotarão dados diferentes em seus mapas conceituais. No entanto, vale a pena incentivar o compartilhamento da informação individual e a sua ampliação a partir das trocas com o coletivo, pois essa é uma estratégia acadêmica importante para a vida.

2 3

9 LANGUAGE

4

8 7

6

5

2 Now, complete your diagram. From each language, draw an arrow and write what influences were brought to Brazil by the same culture. You have associated languages and other cultural aspects in the Warm-up section of this unit. Compare your representation of cultural influences in Brazil with your classmates. Add any new elements you find in theirs. Possible answers: From Portuguese immigrants, we have the Portuguese language, some typical foods, such as codfish (bacalhau), the Catholic religion, etc.

3 You have participated in several activities. In your notebook, grade from zero to five each of the activities below, according to how relevant they were to you about the topic of diversity. Personal answers.

• Warm-up activities about the influence of other cultures in Brazil • Reading campaign posters • Talking about campaign posters • Learning about the Unesco Declaration of Human Rights • Listening to a song • Creating a poster campaign • Talking about ways to raise awareness

4 Share your evaluation with your classmates. Find people who gave similar grades to yours. Explain why you gave each component of the unit the grade you wrote down.

Personal answers.

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Para mais informações, consultar o Guia Didático.

FURTHER INFORMATION

Self-Assessment

• Websites Brazil: Black Consciousness Day – Artigo sobre o Dia da Consciência Negra.

Reflita sobre suas aprendizagens ao longo desta unidade e registre em seu caderno o grau de dificuldade encontrado. Desenhe no caderno uma barra semelhante à apresentada a seguir para avaliar o grau de dificuldade de cada item.

Disponível em: <http://lab.org.uk/brazil-black-consciousness-day-the-dayzumbi-dos-palmares-fell-down>. Acesso em: 6 nov. 2015.

Winnipeg’s New Art Project Stares Down Racism in the Face – Informações sobre projeto de arte com comunidades nativas de Winnipeg. Disponível em: <www.macleans.ca/news/canada/winnipegs-new-art-projectstares-down-racism-in-the-face>. Acesso em: 4 nov. 2015.

• Vídeos e Filmes

I. Ao longo desta unidade, eu pude ...

Don’t Cross the Line – Atletas em campanha pelo fim do preconceito no esporte e na vida. Disponível em: <www.youtube.com/watch?v=aHmTvpmLFKA>. Acesso em: 8 nov. 2015.

a. reconhecer o gênero cartazes de campanhas (poster campaigns) de conscientização popular.

Anti-Racism Awareness Video – Jovens falam sobre o convívio com a diversidade.

b. utilizar imperativos para dar comandos, orientações e fazer convites.

Disponível em: <www.youtube.com/watch?v= 5zWfIsl4Vcc>. Acesso em: 15 nov. 2015.

c. discutir questões relativas aos estereótipos que fazemos das culturas.

Proud to Be – Vídeo em que se demonstra o orgulho de ser quem se é.

d. ouvir uma canção (song) sobre um problema social e discutir sua temática.

Disponível em: <www.youtube.com/watch?v=mRtbOxlhvE>. Acesso em: 6 nov. 2015.

e. realizar uma conversa informal (informal conversation) sobre o tema de respeito à diversidade. f. reconhecer e utilizar palavras e expressões relacionadas à diversidade como um direito humano. g. criar cartazes para campanhas (poster campaigns) publicitárias simples, combinando recursos verbais não verbais.

Reveja alguns gêneros utilizados nesta unidade para discutir a diversidade. Em poucas palavras, liste em seu caderno o que você aprendeu com cada um deles. Respostas pessoais. Cartazes de campanha de conscientização

Conversa informal

Canção

II. Reflita sobre sua participação ao longo da unidade e registre sua avaliação no caderno. a. Participei mais / menos nas atividades de b. Gostei mais / menos de c. Eu me senti

.

d. Eu poderia

.

e. Tive dificuldade em

.

.

f. Outra avaliação.

.

É importante que você reflita sobre seus registros e compartilhe com colegas e seu professor as situações em que você não conseguiu participar como gostaria, para que, em conjunto, possam identificar problemas e definir ações. Em seguida, escreva em seu caderno um plano de ação para superar as dificuldades encontradas em cada item. Gostaria de saber mais sobre

.

Ainda preciso desenvolver

.

Planejo

.

Reflita sobre os assuntos discutidos nesta unidade e liste em seu caderno, em poucas palavras, as ideias mais importantes que você considera ter aprendido.

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Typical Brazilian dish of rice and beans

om

/p au lov ile la/ Sh ut ter sto ck .co m

/F ern and o

Fav ore tto/ Cria r Im agem

Lunch special: grilled steak, rice, and beans

c k. oc rst tte u h r/S pp go dio

Moqueca

Arroz carreteiro

NUTRITION: WHAT IS GOOD FOR YOU?

Para mais informações, consultar Guia Didático.

a. O que você vê nas imagens?

DISCUTA AS QUESTÕES COM SEUS COLEGAS.

b. Em que os alimentos nos pratos das fotos se parecem com os alimentos que você costuma consumir? Em que eles diferem? c. Por qual razão você imagina que essas fotos foram tiradas? d. Você conhece composições de pratos tipicamente consumidos em outras regiões e/ou outros países? Se sim, como eles são? e. Como as imagens estão relacionadas ao tópico da unidade?

Ver nota de abertura na Unidade 1 sobre o Parecer CNE/CEB 15/2000.

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Para mais informações, consultar as orientações no Guia Didático.

om k.c oc rst tt e hu /S

tin ka 's/ Sh utt ers to ck .co m

/p au lis ta

Cria r Im agem

NESTA UNIDADE VOCÊ IRÁ ...

• discutir informações relativas à nutrição e alimentação saudável no Brasil e em outros países; • ler um infográfico (infographic) com sugestões para uma alimentação saudável; • identificar e usar vocabulário relacionado a alimentos; • rever e ampliar usos de countable e uncountable nouns; • compreender o uso de so; • ouvir e compreender uma entrevista (interview) sobre uma horta em uma escola pública; • criar uma apresentação oral (oral presentation) sobre hábitos alimentares na escola; • preparar um diário alimentar (food diary); • avaliar os próprios hábitos alimentares e refletir sobre necessidade de ajustes.

Everyday Indian food, vegetarian and homemade

Plate of vegetable samosas with Indian sauces

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3. Personal answers. Recomendamos convidar os estudantes a pensar sobre as escolhas que fazem na hora de se alimentar. É provável que alguns itens sejam motivo de discussão, como, por exemplo, ovos, que são saudáveis, mas se fritos devem ser consumidos com moderação, assim como deve haver consumo moderado de carne vermelha, doces, azeite de dendê, banha de porco, entre outros. Sugerimos a realização desta unidade com professores de outras áreas como biologia e química.

WARM-UP

You have talked about the opening images, what you eat, and common foods in Brazil and India. Now, let’s check how this topic is related to you and how much you know about healthy eating habits.

1. Encorajar os estudantes a avaliar as afirmações com base em seu conhecimento prévio sobre o assunto. Sugerimos que façam a atividade individualmente e depois comparem suas respostas com as de um colega. Para mais informações sobre cada uma das assertivas, consultar orientações específicas no Guia Didático.

1 What is myth and what is true when it comes to healthy eating habits may vary from time to time. Read the sentences and discuss with your teacher and classmates if these statements can be considered true (T) or false (F). a. Lunch is the most important meal of the day. F b. Eggs are bad for your heart. F c. Eating snacks between meals is essential. T d. We should always skip dessert. F e. Eating carbohydrates is healthy. T f. Brown eggs are healthier than white eggs. T g. Sugar-free and fat-free mean calorie-free. F h. Milk is the only source of calcium. F i. Yellow cheese has more fat than white cheese. T j. Chocolate causes acne. F

2 Think about what you usually eat and write some examples in your notebook. a. For breakfast, I usually have b. For lunch, I usually have

.

c. For dinner, I usually have

.

d. As snacks, I usually have

.

. O objetivo da atividade é levar os estudantes a refletir sobre seus hábitos e preferências. As respostas vão variar, não só de acordo com os hábitos, mas também com a região e a condição socioeconômica da turma. É possível propor o uso de dicionários, impressos ou digitais, e/ou tradutores on-line.

3 Classify the items you wrote in Activity 2 into Healthy, Unhealthy, or It depends. Make a table like the one below in your notebook and write your answers. HEALTHY

4

UNHEALTHY

IT DEPENDS

4. Personal answers. Sugerimos discutir as respostas com toda a turma e ressaltar a importância de ter uma alimentação saudável durante todas as fases da vida, buscando alternativas compatíveis Discuss these questions: com o orçamento de cada família. De acordo com o site do hospital Albert Einstein, em São Paulo, jovens com idade entre 13 e 20 anos nem sempre costumam alimentar-se bem e por isso muitas vezes apresentam deficiência de nutrientes, tais como ferro, cálcio, vitaminas A e C e proteínas, a. How important is it for you to have a healthy diet? Why? que estão fortemente ligadas ao crescimento. Disponível em: <www.einstein.br/einstein-saude/nutricao/Paginas/cardapio-para-cada-fase-da-vida.aspx>. Acesso em: 20 set. 2015. Por isso, é b. Do you think that financial circumstances make a difference when trying to have a healthy diet? uma boa ideia pedir aos estudantes que pesquisem receitas c. Have you ever seen TV programs or websites that teach how to prepare healthy dishes for a saudáveis de baixo custo.

low price? If so, which ones? If not, why don’t you search for some of them with your classmates?

d. If you could choose one deciding factor to change your eating habits, what would it be? Why?

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READING

Now that you have talked about different kinds of food that are consumed in Brazil and India, your eating habits, and healthy and unhealthy foods, let’s talk about developing healthy habits and read some information about healthy eating.

PRE-READING 1 Do you think people should care about developing healthy eating habits? Write three possible

reasons in your notebook. Then, share your ideas with your teacher and classmates. Personal answers.

Os estudantes podem discutir a questão em pequenos grupos, de quatro ou cinco colegas, e listar as razões em português, em inglês, ou ainda mesclar as duas línguas. Monitorar e auxiliar com o vocabulário e a formação das frases, se necessário.

2 Read some benefits that developing healthy eating habits can bring to your life. Then, look back in

your notebook at your answers for Activity 1 and check if you have mentioned any of them. Um dos itens

não está necessariamente relacionado ao desenvolvimento de hábitos saudáveis. Essa questão será levantada na próxima atividade.

a. maintain your ideal weight

c. combat diseases

b. improve your mood

d. improve longevity

e. boost energy

Fonte de pesquisa: HEALTHLINE EDITORIAL TEAM. 5 Benefits of Healthy Habits. San Francisco, CA, 1 abr. 2013. Disponível em: <www.healthline.com/health/5-benefits-healthy-habits#Overview1>. Acesso em: 11 out. 2015.

3 Look at the text at the bottom of the page and analyze its characteristics. What kind of text is it?

3. Recomendamos verificar com os

Read the definitions below and decide which sentence best describes it. estudantes como eles chegaram à resposta correta. É provável que eles indiquem algumas características do gênero, como o uso de recursos visuais. Este pode ser um momento propício para perguntar se eles costumam deparar com textos b. The text is an infographic. It includes written and visual information to convey a message.  como esse com frequência e em que tipo de mídia c. The text is a set of instructions. It is organized into items that teach you how to do something. (ex.: revistas e jornais, tanto impressos como online).

a. The text is a map. It has a visual representation of information and is used to locate places.

4 Read the title of the infographic and analyze the pictures. What kind of information do you expect to find in it? Discuss your ideas with a classmate.

Personal answers. Sugerimos incentivar os estudantes a compartilhar suas predições.

WHILE-READING 5 Read the infographic called Healthy Eating Plate, written by Harvard Medical School, and check if the © Harvard University

information you mentioned in Activity 4 is included.

Ver Banco de Gêneros. HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL. Healthy Eating Plate. Boston, 2010-2016. Disponível em: <www.health.harvard. edu/healthy-eating-plate>. Acesso em: 21 abr. 2016.

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Após corrigir a atividade, vale pedir aos estudantes que expliquem por que as outras alternativas estão incorretas. Esse tipo de atividade pode ajudar os estudantes a analisar as alternativas com mais cuidado.

6 Read the statements below and discuss in pairs which one best represents the infographic's main ideas. a. If you want to be healthy, there are many different kinds of food and drink that you simply can’t have. The infographic shows examples of food and drink that are forbidden. b. You are either born healthy or unhealthy, and there is nothing you can do to change this fact. The infographic only shows what healthy people eat and drink. c. Being healthy is very hard and time-consuming. The infographic gives examples of how difficult it can be to have a balanced diet. d. Being healthy doesn’t have to be complicated. The infographic gives a few suggestions on what a balanced diet can be like. 

7 Analyze the verbal and nonverbal information in the infographic in more detail. Then, decide which

of the statements below are true (T) and which are false (F). Discuss your answers with your teacher and classmates. O objetivo da atividade é verificar a compreensão leitora. Encorajar os estudantes a, além de observar com

atenção os suportes visuais, apoiar-se nas palavras cognatas para melhor compreender o texto e as alternativas.

a. All kinds of oils are unhealthy and should be avoided. F b. Vegetables should represent a small fraction of your diet. F c. Exercising is also important for staying healthy. T d. Drinking water is also important if you want to keep a balanced and healthy diet. T e. Consumption of milk and dairy should be limited. T

8. É importante encorajar os estudantes a usar suas palavras em vez de apenas copiar trechos inteiros do texto. Possible answers: a) Some oils, like olive and canola oil, are healthy; b) Vegetables should represent a large fraction of your diet; f) Whole grains are healthier than refined grains; g) Fish, poultry, beans, and nuts are considered healthy proteins.

f. All kinds of grain are equally important in a healthy diet. F g. Bacon and processed meats are examples of healthy protein. F h. The Healthy Eating Plate infographic is based on medical research. T

8 Now, correct the false statements in your notebook using information from the text. 9 Read and analyze the statements below. Then, decide which alternative is correct. I. Potatoes and French fries are not considered healthy. II. Healthy fat is essential in our diet, but trans fat should be avoided. III. All kinds of fruit should be part of a healthy diet. IV. A balanced diet combined with physical exercise can help you have a healthy life. V. Drinks with sugar are as healthy as juice.

Encorajar os estudantes a ler as informações no infográfico com bastante atenção e focar não somente na extração, mas sim na interpretação dos dados. Você pode sugerir que eles comparem as respostas com um colega antes de corrigir a atividade com toda a turma.

a. All sentences are correct. b. Only sentences I, III and IV are correct. c. All sentences are correct, except for sentence V.  d. Only sentences I and V are correct.

10 Look the pictures and the text in the infographic in more detail. Then, copy and complete in your

notebook the sentences about the characteristics of this genre of text. Use the words from the box. easy

multimodal

newspapers

objective

nonverbal

a. nonverbal; b. multimodal; c. objective; d. newspapers; e. easy

a. Infographics combine verbal and

b. Infographics are an example of

information. text because they can combine images and words.

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c. Texts in infographics are short and

.

d. Infographics are commonly used in

and magazines, both online and in print.

e. Infographics are considered effective because they can make a subject

to understand.

Fonte de pesquisa: PAIVA, Francis Arthuso. O gênero textual infográfico: leitura de um gênero textual multimodal por alunos da 1ª série do ensino médio. Revista L@el em (Dis-)curso, São Paulo, v. 3, n. 1, p. 87-101, 2011. Disponível em: <http://revistas.pucsp.br/index.php/revlael/article/view/1905/4357>. Acesso em: 12 out. 2015.

Personal answers. Recomendamos encorajar os estudantes a analisar tanto as informações do infográfico POST-READING 12. como seus hábitos de alimentação. Pedir que discutam se há alguma informação mais próxima da realidade

deles ou alguma muito distante. Ao final da atividade, vale solicitar às duplas que compartilhem as observações feitas com toda a turma.

11 Think about your diet and the information shown in the infographic. Talk with a classmate and compare your diet with the information shown in the infographic.

12 Look at the examples of food in the infographic again and discuss the questions below with your

explorar com eles por que alimentos industrializados não são considerados teacher and classmates. Recomendamos saudáveis (ex.: eles contêm aditivos e conservantes e, em geral, teores de sódio e gordura mais elevados do que os preparados em casa).

a. Why is most of the infographic constituted of non-processed food? b. Why is processed food considered unhealthy?

Possible answer: Because it may contain high levels of salt, sugar, or artificial ingredients for color, smell, and flavor.

13 Read the questions below. Think about them and then discuss your answers with your classmates. Personal answers.

a. Who is responsible for choosing and preparing the food you eat at home? b. What kind of healthy food do you like? c. How concerned are you about the kind of food you eat?

Grammar

In English, there are nouns we can count and nouns we can't. Let's see how to use some of them to talk about food.

COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS Read these sentences extracted from the infographic. Then focus on the words in bold and decide if they are countable or uncountable nouns in the context given. Write your answers in your notebook. a. Use healthy oils. Countable b. … like olive and canola oil. Uncountable c. Eat plenty of fruits of all colors. Countable d. Limit red meat and cheese. Uncountable/Uncountable

Após a correção das atividades, você pode pedir aos estudantes que pesquisem outros substantivos, não necessariamente relacionados a alimentos, que sejam usados como contáveis ou incontáveis com diferença no significado; por exemplo: potato/a potato; pizza/a pizza; glass/a glass, etc.

e. … and other processed meats. Countable

Write the sentences below in your notebook. Then, substitute so as to correctly complete them. mass

plural

singular (2x)

a. The words oils, fruits and meats are used in terms of

with one of the words from the box

units units/singular/plural

and, because of that, can have both

b. When words such as oil, meat, and cheese are used in terms of

, they only have

and

forms.

forms. mass/singular

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Look at the words in bold. Then, with a classmate, explain the difference between the pairs of sentences below. Caso julgue apropriado, pedir que a. I love coffee. / I had a coffee this morning. b. She ordered chicken for lunch. / She baked a whole chicken for dinner. c. Eating fish is healthy. / There are several fishes that may become extinct.

os estudantes usem ilustrações para representar as diferenças, tais como um pacote de café em contraste com uma xícara de café, um pedaço de carne de frango em contraste com uma galinha ou um pedaço de peixe em contraste com vários peixes.

Read the sentence extracted from the infographic. Based on what you have studied in the unit so far, choose the alternative that best explains the expression in bold. Eat plenty of fruits of all colors. a. enough or more than enough ü b. very little c. some

Think about your last three meals. In your notebook, use the countable and uncountable nouns to describe what you had in each of them. Were your last three meals healthy? Could they be healthier? How? Personal answers.

See Grammar Reference

1. Vale incentivar a turma a usar dicionários, impressos, digitais ou online, no decorrer da atividade. Se possível, orientar pesquisa sobre o tema e trabalhar juntamente com os professores da área de ciências para que eles abordem com os estudantes as características e a importância dos nutrientes.

VOCABULARY

You have read an infographic about how to have healthy eating habits. Now, you are going to review and deepen your vocabulary related to food, its categories, and its main components so as to be better able to analyze how healthy it is.

1 Read the sentences about different kinds of food and, based on your knowledge and what you have

studied in this unit so far, decide the option that best completes them. Record the correct answer in your notebook. a. Starchy foods, such as bread, pasta, and grains / fish and seafood, are rich in carbohydrates. During the digestion process, carbohydrates are transformed into sugar and are an important source of energy / oils. b. Fruit and vegetables are a great source of vitamins, minerals, and carbohydrates. They are low in fat / fiber and rich in fiber / protein. Fruits and vegetables should always be part of a healthy diet. c. Bananas, apples, and oranges are examples of fruit / vegetables. If consumed regularly, they can diminish the risk of losing weight / chronic diseases. d. Veggies are the same as fruit / vegetables. They include foods such as fish, chicken, and beef / broccoli, carrots, and spinach. e. Fish is a source of fiber and carbohydrates / minerals, vitamins, and proteins. Some kinds of fish are also a source of oils / sugar that can prevent heart diseases.

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Esta atividade pode ser feita com toda a sala. Os estudantes podem ser encorajados a identificar palavras cognatas (fruit, vegetables) e a se basear em seu conhecimento prévio. Em regiões litorâneas ou ribeirinhas, por exemplo, é possível que os estudantes tenham visto as palavras fish e lobster em cardápios para estrangeiros. Assim como na atividade anterior, vale incentivá-los a usar dicionários como forma de expandir o vocabulário.

2 Analyze the categories in the chart, some of which were mentioned in the infographic in the Reading section in Activity 5. Then, in your notebook, classify the words listed below under the most appropriate heading. apple

chicken

lobster

salmon

avocado

crab

milk

shrimp

butter

cucumber

pineapple

veal

cauliflower

jerked beef

pork

watermelon

cheese

lettuce

pumpkin

yoghurt

Fruit

Vegetables

White and red meats

Dairy

Fish and seafood

Fruit: apple, avocado, pineapple, watermelon. Vegetables: cauliflower, cucumber, lettuce, pumpkin. Dairy: butter, cheese, milk, yoghurt. White and red meats: chicken, jerked beef, pork, veal. Fish and seafood: crab, lobster, salmon, shrimp.

3 In your notebook, next to each item, mark if you like this food (), if you don’t like it (x), or if you have never tried it? Share your answers with other classmates and find out if you have similar tastes. 3. Personal answers. É possível organizar os estudantes em pequenos grupos e incentivá-los a

compartilhar as respostas com os colegas auxiliando-os, se necessário, com exemplos: I like ... , I don’t like ... , I’ve never tried ... e ainda expandindo com detalhes, tais como I don’t like fish very much; I’ve never tried veal, but I’d like to.

4 Work in groups. Think of other foods that can be included in each category in Activity 2 and write them in the chart in your notebook. Then, share your chart with other groups. Personal answers.

5 Think about a typical dish from the region you are from or a food item that you like. Write in your

notebook what the dish/food item is. Then, look at the list of components below and write down the ones you think are present in it. Personal answers. Não é necessário que

• calcium

• sodium

• carbohydrates

• sugar

• fiber

• fat

• minerals

• vitamins

• proteins

• other

os estudantes saibam as respostas com exatidão. O objetivo da atividade é que reflitam sobre os alimentos e busquem analisar, mesmo que superficialmente, seus componentes. Alternativamente, vale pedir que observem as informações na etiqueta nutricional de algum alimento industrializado e que marquem os componentes presentes.

6 Now, look at the items you wrote down in Activity 5. Do you consider the dish or food you chose healthy or unhealthy? Why? Share your answer with a classmate. Personal answers.

7 Discuss the questions below with your classmates and teacher. a. On what kind of food do you usually find food labels? Possible answer: On industrialized and/or processed food. b. How often do you read the information on them? Personal answers. c. In your opinion, who writes food labels? Possible answer: Nutritionists, chemists, and/or other scientists who work for the government or food companies.

d. How do you think food labels are written? Possible answer: After testing the food in a laboratory, special computer programs are used to make food labels.

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LISTENING

You have read an infographic about healthy eating and categorized different kinds of food. Now you are going to listen to an interview with a volunteer in the rural part of Tanzania, talking about a vegetable garden project in a primary school.

PRE-LISTENING 1 Analyze the pictures taken at Baara School, a primary school in Arusha, Tanzania. Then, with a

www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZCRVRDQKAKw © Wakati

Editoria de arte

classmate, discuss the questions that follow.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZCRVRDQKAKw © Wakati

Editoria de arte

Kids at a primary school in Arusha, Tanzania

Vegetable garden at Baara School

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4. Sugerimos reproduzir a entrevista por completo e encorajar os estudantes a reconhecer as palavras e ideias listadas no caderno durante a Atividade 3. Depois, você pode discutir as respostas com toda a sala usando as informações escritas no quadro, conforme sugerido na nota anterior.

Personal answers. Recomendamos organizar os estudantes em pares ou pequenos grupos para que discutam as perguntas. Sugerimos que, após essa a. In your opinion, is this school in the urban or the rural area? Why? discussão, alguns estudantes compartilhem suas ideias e justificativas com toda a turma.

b. Who do you think the boy in the second picture is? What is he doing? Why?

c. Is this school similar to or different from your school? What are the differences and /or similarities?

2 In the interview, Jo Smets, a volunteer at Baara School, talks about a vegetable garden program. Have you ever heard of programs like that?

3 Why would a vegetable garden be good for the students? And for the school? And for the community? Write your answers in your notebook.

Personal answers. Recomendamos pedir que os estudantes reflitam sobre a questão e escrevam suas ideias na forma de breves anotações. Em seguida, é possível abrir a discussão para toda a turma e escrever as hipóteses deles no quadro. Isso poderá auxiliar os estudantes a antecipar não só os tópicos mencionados, mas também o tipo de vocabulário que será utilizado. Na atividade seguinte, eles vão confirmar se as ideias que previram são citadas na entrevista. Ver Banco de Gêneros.

WHILE-LISTENING 10

10

4 Listen to the interview with Jo Smets. Check if the reasons you listed in Activity 3 are mentioned.

5 Listen to the interview again and write in your notebook the alternative that best completes each sentence.

a. Jo’s program is growing

Sugerimos pedir que os estudantes descrevam as imagens e expliquem como eles imaginam que elas estejam relacionadas à entrevista. Ler as questões com toda a turma, para que eles possam antecipar algumas respostas, e reproduzir a entrevista novamente.

• only fruits.

• only vegetables.

• fruits and vegetables. 

b. A survey showed that the children at the school had • bad eating habits. 

• healthy eating habits.

• problems at school.

• small.

• poor.

c. The vegetable garden is • big. 

d. Part of the products from the vegetable garden are used • by the church.

• in the school kitchens. 

• at the students’ homes.

e. The other part of what is produced in the vegetable garden is • donated to the local hospital.

• thrown away.

• sold at the market. 

f. The biggest problem they have when selling the vegetables is that they • are expensive.

• lose freshness. 

• are not enough.

POST-LISTENING 6 At the end of the interview, Jo Smets says they are looking for a solution to keep the vegetables

in good quality when they go to the market. Work with another classmate and think of a possible solution. Share it with the whole class. 6. Personal answers. Caso julgue apropriado, explicar que a entrevista foi extraída

7

do site de um projeto denominado Wakati – nome de uma tecnologia simples composta de um painel solar voltada para pequenos produtores. Para mais informações, visitar o site <www.wakati.org>. Acesso em: 23 nov. 2015.

7. Personal answers. Além do uso tradicional Work with a classmate. How do you keep fruit and vegetables fresh in your house? da geladeira em muitas comunidades, particularmente as urbanas, há outras maneiras de se prolongar a vida útil dos alimentos, tais como separá-los por tipo ou criar uma geladeira natural com potes de barro. É importante encorajar os estudantes a pensar e compartilhar soluções alternativas.

8 Read and analyze the definitions below. Which one best describes the passage you listened to? Which elements in the definitions helped you come to a conclusion? Register the answer in your notebook.

a. The passage is an interview. Interviews are popular in contemporary journalism. They are also used in surveys and in academic research. In an interview, one person (the interviewer) asks questions to another person (the interviewee).  b. The passage is a quiz. A quiz is a set of questions about a specific topic that people try to answer as in a game or competition. Quizzes are very popular in magazines and on websites and usually take the form of yes/no or true/false questions. Discutir com os estudantes os elementos relativos a entrevistas levantados por eles.

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10. Personal answers. Sugerimos pedir em um primeiro momento que os estudantes trabalhem individualmente e que depois compartilhem suas respostas em pequenos grupos. As respostas vão variar, mas é possível que os estudantes levantem possibilidades tais como perguntar ao professor de ciências sobre os procedimentos para ter uma horta, à diretoria da escola sobre ter uma horta na escola, aos estudantes do Ensino Médio sobre como melhorar as condições da escola, entre outros.

9 In which situations do you usually read, listen to, or watch interviews? Discuss with a classmate. Personal answers. Encorajar os estudantes a compartilhar suas experiências em diferentes mídias, tais como televisão, jornais, revistas, videologs, podcasts etc.

10 Think about your school community. In which situations do you think an interview could be used? Write at least three options in your notebook.

CULTURAL HERITAGE In São Sebastião, the outskirts of Brasília (DF), the local community developed a collective vegetable garden named Girassol. In the past, the area where the vegetable garden is was a landfill infested with diseases which led to the death of a resident. After that, all the people in the community got together to build the vegetable garden which is now recognized as the biggest urban producer of organic food. Fonte de pesquisa: BUCAR, Luiz Felipe. Horta Comunitária Girassol em São Sebastião DF é reconhecida como a maior produtora urbana de alimentos naturais. 22 set. 2015. Disponível em: <http://guiaoficialdf.com.br/horta-comunitaria-girassol-em-sao-sebastiao-df-e-reconhecida-como-maior-produtoraurbana-de-alimentos-naturais>. Acesso em: 1 out. 2015.

Grammar

There are many words that are used to express different relationships between ideas. Let's see how we can use so, one of these words.

SO Read these sentences extracted from the interview and identify which word they have in common. a. … children with bad feeding habits, so they lack a certain amount of special vitamins. b. One good solution is provide those children with vitamins, so we made a plan of constructing a vegetable garden. c. … to use in the school kitchens, so they have their vitamins everyday.

Read the sentences in the previous activity again. What is the word you identified used for? Read explanations below and write in your notebook the ones which are true. The conjunction in the sentences above is used for a. making discourse more fluid by connecting shorter sentences. ü

c. expressing contrast. d. comparing two different ideas.

b. expressing logical relationships between ideas. ü

In the interview you have listened to, Jo Smets mentions a problem faced when they try to sell the vegetabes from the project to marketplaces. Read what he says. … but the biggest problem we have when we go the marketplace they ... the freshness goes away.

11

Now, read the sentences below, extracted from the interview and from which the conjunction so was omitted, and join them using this connector. Then, listen to the last part of the interview to check your answer and explain which relationship this conjunction expresses in the context. And we’re looking for a solution. When we go to the supermarket, price is still high instead of bad-looking vegetables.

And we’re looking for a solution, so when we go to the supermarket, price is still high instead of bad-looking vegetables. In the context, the conjunction so indicates purpose.

After all the discussions, think about reasons to develop a school community garden. Write them in your notebook and talk to your teachers to check if this would be possible in See Grammar Reference your region. Try to use the conjunction so to connect your ideas.

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SPEAKING

PLANNING

You have listened to a volunteer in Tanzania talking about a school program in which they built a vegetable garden at a primary school so as to improve the students' eating habits. Now, you are going to prepare an oral presentation about how people in your school community could eat more healthily.

Sugerimos organizar a turma em pequenos grupos de quatro ou cinco estudantes para a preparação do seminário.

1 Work in small groups. Reflect on and discuss your first impressions about the eating habits in your school community. Use the questions below to help you. Then, take notes in your notebook. a. What kind of food and drinks do people have in school? Personal answers. b. Which of the items listed in item a are healthy? c. Which of the items listed in item a are unhealthy?

2 Now, you are going to verify your first impressions. With your classmates, observe the people in your school during break, paying special attention to what they are eating/drinking. Then, use your notebook to take notes about the facts you observed.

3 With your group, you are going to prepare a presentation for your class with tips for healthy eating based on the habits you observed at the school. Revise the tips and useful language for presentations you studied in the Speaking section in Unit 1. Then, follow the guidelines below. Ver Banco de Gêneros.

Guidelines a. Ask your teacher how long each group presentation should take. b. Decide which means and resources you are going to use (e.g., poster, transparencies, the classroom board, slides prepared with the help of computer programs, etc.). Remember that for ethical reasons, if you use photos of people, you have to ask their permission first. c. Prepare the opening of the presentation: How are you going to catch your audience’s attention? Which sentences can you use to introduce the topic? Use simple, objective language. d. Prepare the body of the presentation: What kind of information do you want to include? e. Prepare the closing: What kinds of food and drinks do you think people at your school should have? What shouldn’t they have? f. Decide how you are going to share your presentation: Who’s going to be responsible for each part? g. Rehearse your presentation. Remember you should not memorize your lines, but writing down a few key words and the main ideas is very useful to keep the flow of your talk. If possible, record or film your rehearsal (using a cell phone, for example). Listen to and/or watch it and make the necessary changes.

3. Recomendamos determinar, juntamente com a turma, o tempo de duração da apresentação com alguma flexibilidade (ex.: de cinco a oito minutos). Levar em consideração o nível linguístico dos estudantes, o número de estudantes em sala, o número de participantes do grupo, a duração da aula e outros critérios que julgar importantes.

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SPEAKING 4 Now, present the findings and your suggestions as far as eating habits at your school are concerned. Remember to ...

a. have your notes ready; b. keep eye contact with your audience; c. speak clearly (it is not necessary to try to speak fast); d. use the visual aids you selected to support your presentation; e. keep track of time (or ask someone to do it for you).

5 Think about your first impressions and your findings about eating habits at your school and discuss the questions with a classmate. Personal answers.

a. In general, do people in your school eat more healthy or unhealthy food? What evidence do you have for that? b. What could be done in your school and community to make people more aware of the importance of having healthy eating habits?

6 Discuss the questions below with your classmates and teacher. Personal answers.

Sugerimos organizar a discussão primeiramente em pequenos grupos para só depois abri-la para toda a turma.

a. How did you feel as a presenter? b. What, if anything, would you change in your presentation? c. Which presentation did you like most? Why? d. How important is it to learn to make good presentations? e. In which situations or contexts do you see yourself making a presentation in the future?

1c. Personal answers. É provável que os estudantes digam ter esquecido alguma coisa. Vale comentar que a frase “não lembro nem o que comi ontem” é bastante comum em português justamente para representar como nossa memória não dá conta de armazenar todos os acontecimentos do dia.

WRITING

PLANNING

You have observed what kinds of food and drinks people consume at your school and suggested how to eat more healthily. Now, you are going to prepare your own food diary and find out if you need to make any changes in your diet.

1b. Personal answers. Vale encorajar os estudantes a listar todos os itens, tanto para as refeições principais como pequenos lanches. Essa também é uma forma de retomar e expandir o vocabulário relacionado à alimentação.

1 Discuss the questions that follow with a classmate.

a. What did you eat yesterday? Write all the items you remember in your notebook. Personal answer. b. How much of each item did you eat? Personal answer. c. In your opinion, could you remember all the items or is it possible you forgot to include something? d. Had you ever tried writing down the food you consumed in one day before? If so, why did you do it? If not, did you Personal answers. Sugerimos incentivar os estudantes a expor seus motivos de manter enjoy trying it now? Justify your answer. ou não uma lista dos alimentos consumidos. Essa questão será levantada quando da produção do diário alimentar ao final da seção.

e. In which situations, apart from trying to lose weight, would a person write down the food items he/she consumed in one day? Personal answers. Vale encorajar a turma a pensar também em outras possibilidades

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além de perder peso; por exemplo, verificar se estão “pulando” alguma refeição, se estão consumindo frutas e vegetais em quantidade suficiente, para ver se o consumo de alimentos é adequado para a idade, atividades diárias, para tomar mais consciência sobre os alimentos etc.

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Explicar que é possível marcar mais que uma coluna para cada item. Encorajar a turma a observar o layout das figuras e a identificar as palavras cognatas e conhecidas. Não é necessário que os estudantes reconheçam todos os itens de vocabulário para realizar a atividade.

2 Analyze the texts below. Then, read each statement and identify the picture to which it refers (a, b, or c). Write the answers in your notebook and compare them with a classmate. Meal or snack

Foods and Beverages

Amount

Breakfast (7:00 am)

White cheese

piece

Skim milk

8

Slivered almonds

2

Apple

1

Water

1 cup

Banana

1

Water

3 cups

Spinach salad w/ veggies

5

Tuna canned in water Bean

2

Vegetable soup

1

Whole with crackers

5

Water

1 cup

Nonfat cottage cheese

4

Mandarin oranges

a falf of cup

Water

2 cups

Chiken breast, bonoless, skinless

4

Snack (10:00 am)

Lunch (12:30 pm)

Snack (3:00 pm)

Dinner (6:30 pm)

Fat used

Tossed

1 tsp olive oil

Baked

Grilled

Salad

Snack (9:00 pm)

Preparation Method

Cooking spray

Steamed

Brown rice

1 cup

Water

1 cup

Lowfat yogurt

8

kiwi and strawberry slices

1 cup

Adaptado de: http://my.clevelandclinic.org/services/heart/prevention/nutrition/weightmanagement/sample-food-diary

a.

Steamed

Sample Food Diary

2 tsp light margarine

Sample Food Diaries

Amount

What kind

Time of day

Where

Alone or with someone

Activity

Mood

2

chocolate chip cookies

3:25 pm

office

alone

working

bored

1

cheeseburger

6:15 pm

snack bar

Sara

talking

happy

1

regular French fries

1

vanilla shake

1

ice cream

10:00 pm

kitchen

alone

watching TV

tired

Adaptado de: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/ prevention-wellness/food-nutrition/healthy-food-choices/ nutrition-keeping-a-food-diary.html

b.

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Breakfast

Food/Drink item

Servings

Calories

Food/Drink item

Servings

Calories

Food/Drink item

Servings

Calories

Food/Drink item

Servings

Calories

Adaptado de: https://www.etsy.com/pt/listing/92580335/daily-food-diarytracker-printable-pdf?ref=shop_home_active_4&ga_search_query=food%2Bjournal

c.

Grains Vegetables Dairy Protein Water Fruit juice Other

Light Lunch Grains Vegetables Dairy Protein Water Fruit juice Other

Light Dinner Grains Vegetables Dairy Protein Water Fruit juice Other Light Meal

Sample Food Diary

Which of the diaries show a. how a dish was prepared? 1

e. space for writing where the person ate and drank? 2

b. how the person was feeling? 2

f. space for writing who the person ate with? 2

c. if and how much fat was used? 1

g. the categories to which the food items belong? 3

d. space for writing what the person was doing when eating? 2

h. names of meals? 1/3 i. times of the day? 1/2

3 The pictures above are examples of food diaries. In your opinion, what are food diaries used for? Discuss with your classmates. Possible answer: To keep track of what you eat and drink.

Se necessário, auxiliar os estudantes a formular as orações completas.

4 Read the words below and put them in the correct order in your notebook to form tips about how to organize an effective food diary for you.

Sugerimos que a atividade seja realizada individualmente.

a. reasons / know / your. Know your reasons. b. your / choose / format. Choose your format. c. often / update / decide / to / how. Decide how often to update. d. detailed / be / want / decide / to / you / how. Decide how detailed you want to be. e. sizes / accurate / be / portion / about. Be accurate about portion sizes. f. of / obstacles / beware / common. Beware of common obstacles. g. you / wrote / what / review. Review what you wrote. Fonte de pesquisa: MAGEE, Elaine. Can a Food Diary Help You Lose Weight? [S.l.], 26 set. 2008. Disponível em: <www.webmd.com/diet/obesity/can-food-diary-help-you-lose-weight?page=2>. Acesso em: 2 out. 2015.

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5. Sugerimos organizar os estudantes em pequenos grupos e pedir que analisem e respondam as questões. Fazer um breve levantamento da opinião geral da turma. Acreditamos ser importante esclarecer que um diário desse tipo não se relaciona apenas a regimes alimentares, mas principalmente a ter uma maior consciência dos hábitos alimentares.

5 Work with a classmate. Read the seven tips in Activity 4. Discuss what each tip means. Use the questions below to help you. Possible answers: a. What reasons might a person have to keep a food diary? To help lose weight, to help gain weight, to know eating habits better, to help keep a balanced diet, etc.

b. What information can you include in it? The date, the frequency, what you eat, the category the food belongs to, the quantity, etc.

c. How frequently do you need to fill in the diary? For how long should you keep it? This will depend on your objectives and discipline. You can fill it in after each meal or at the end of the day; you can keep it for a week or two, or even for a month.

d. Why should you be as precise as possible when you write down the quantities? To have a clear idea of how much you are eating; to know if you are eating too much or too little; to know if your diet is balanced in terms of quantity.

e Which obstacles can make keeping a food diary difficult?

Lack of discipline, forgetting what you ate (es pecially if you only fill in your diary at the end of the day), feeling bad if you eat food that is considered unhealthy.

f. Why is it important to review your diary?

The purpose of the diary is to help you understand your diet better. Reviewing it will give you a clearer picture of what you are eating. Ver Banco de Gêneros.

WRITING 6 In your notebook, write two reasons why keeping a food diary would be useful for you.

Personal answers. Vale encorajar os estudantes a considerar as respostas dadas na atividade anterior e a escolher motivações relevantes para a realidade deles.

7 Now, you are going to write your own food diary for a week. Follow the steps below.

7. Recomendamos ler o passo a passo com a turma. Reforçar a ideia de que é importante

a. Revise the tips in Activity 4. manter o diário em dia e trazê-lo na data estabelecida para que ele possa ser compartilhado com outros colegas.

b. Decide the format. Remember that the format is flexible and you can add or delete items depending on your needs and motivation.

c. d. e. f.

8. Sugerimos organizar os estudantes em pequenos grupos e Choose whether to keep your diary on paper or using an online tool (e.g., a blog). pedir que mostrem os diários uns aos outros. Caso o grupo observe que um dos participantes tem uma Keep your diary for a week. Remember to be disciplined and fill it in every day. dieta mais saudável que os demais, pedir que compartilhem essa Revise your diary. Remember to keep it neat and to revise your spelling. informação com a turma dizendo quais aspectos fizeram a diferença. Bring your diary to class on the set date. Encorajar os estudantes a sugerir mudanças na dieta dos colegas.

8 Work in groups of five. Share and discuss your diary with your group. Use the guidelines below to help you. a. Say what items you consumed during the week, the quantity, and other details you have written down. b. Decide who has the healthiest diet. c. Decide who needs to make changes in their diet. d. Make suggestions to help your classmates have a healthier diet.

9 Look at your diary again. Read the questions below and think about them. Then, share your answers with a classmate. Did you come to similar or different conclusions? a. Were you surprised by the information? b. Which factors determine what you decide to eat? c. Is there anything you would like to change in your diet?

Personal answers. A princípio, sugerimos que os estudantes façam uma reflexão individual e que depois a compartilhem. É possível que eles levantem questões acerca do custo das refeições, da dificuldade ou facilidade de preparo de alguns alimentos em comparação com outros, a praticidade, o fato de prepararem as próprias refeições ou de ter alguém que o faça, entre outros. É importante que os estudantes justifiquem suas respostas com base em sua experiência de produzir o diário.

d. Would you like to continue keeping your food diary? Justify your answers.

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WRAP-UP

In this unit, you have discussed eating habits and what you should do in order to have a balanced diet and a healthier life. Now let’s observe and analyze what a healthy plate can look like.

1 Healthy eating habits are a concern in different parts of the world. Compare the examples of the

ChoseMyPlate.gov

plates presented at the beginning of the unit and the schema of a healthy plate suggested by the United States Department of Agriculture. What are the differences and similarities between them? Discuss your ideas with a classmate. Not all of them present the same variety as it is suggested in the “My plate” schema.

2a. There is salad (tomatoes, lettuce, red, green and yellow peppers).

2 Look at the image of the plates at the beginning of the unit and answer the questions below in your notebook.

a. How are vegetables represented on the plates?

d. Which fruit is there? None.

b. Which grains are there? Rice.

e. Would you like to eat the food on the plate? Why or why not? Personal answers. É importante que os

c. Which proteins are there? Meat and beans.

estudantes justifiquem suas respostas.

3 Are you familiar with any projects aimed at helping people develop healthier eating habits? If so, tell your classmates what they are.

Personal answers. Encorajar os estudantes a compartilhar suas experiências em relação a projetos locais. Muitas comunidades desenvolvem oficinas para os moradores, constroem hortas ou auxiliam e estimulam as pessoas a construí-las.

In 2015, the Brazilian Ministry of Health launched the 2nd edition of the book called Alimentos Regionais Brasileiros. The objective of the book is to show the richness and variety of different kinds of food such as fruits, vegetables, roots, and seeds in all the five regions of Brazil. The book also brings healthy recipes using these regional foods, and it’s available in pdf format at <http://bvsms.saude.gov.br/bvs/publicacoes/ alimentos_regionais_brasileiros_2ed.pdf>. Accessed on October 12, 2015.

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FURTHER INFORMATION • Websites Choose My Plate – Orientações sobre como montar um prato saudável, dicas de atividades físicas e atividades interativas.

Para mais informações, consultar o Guia Didático.

Self-Assessment

Disponível em: <www.choosemyplate.gov/about>. Acesso em: 23 nov. 2015.

Harvard School of Public Health – Informações detalhadas sobre alimentação saudável, com exemplos esquematizados pela pirâmide alimentar e pelo prato ideal.

Reflita sobre suas aprendizagens ao longo desta unidade e registre em seu caderno o grau de dificuldade encontrado. Desenhe no caderno uma barra semelhante à apresentada a seguir para avaliar o grau de dificuldade de cada item.

Disponível em: <www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/healthy-eatingplate>. Acesso em: 23 nov. 2015.

British Council ESOL Nexus – Disponibiliza para download um modelo de diário alimentar e atividades sobre esse tipo de diário. Disponível em: <http://esol.britishcouncil.org/content/learners/uk-life/ family-learning/keeping-food-diary>. Acesso em: 23 nov. 2015.

I. Ao longo desta unidade, eu pude...

Projeto Meu Prato Saudável – Programa de alimentação lançado pelo Hospital das Clínicas da USP e pelo InCor (Instituto do Coração), ambos em São Paulo.

a. discutir informações relativas à nutrição e alimentação saudável no Brasil e em outros países.

Disponível em: <http://meupratosaudavel.com.br/como-montar-oprato-saudavel>. Acesso em: 18 set. 2015.

b. ler um infográfico (infographic) com sugestões para uma alimentação saudável. c. identificar e usar vocabulário relacionado a alimentos. d. rever e ampliar usos de countable e uncountable nouns. e. compreender o uso de so. f. ouvir e compreender uma entrevista (interview) sobre uma horta em uma escola pública.

• Documentário Super Size Me (2004) – Documentário americano ícone da crítica à comida rápida (fast food), escrito, produzido, dirigido e estrelado pelo cineasta independente Morgan Spurlock. • Livros O site elivros-grátis.net oferece vários títulos sobre alimentação saudável para download gratuito. Disponível em: <www.elivros-gratis. net/elivros-gratis-saude-ealimentacao.asp>. Acesso em: 23 nov. 2015.

g. criar apresentação oral (oral presentation) sobre os hábitos alimentares em minha escola. h. preparar um diário alimentar (food diary). i. avaliar meus próprios hábitos alimentares e refletir sobre necessidade de ajustes.

Reveja alguns gêneros utilizados nesta unidade para discutir alimentação saudável. Em poucas palavras, liste no caderno o que você aprendeu com cada um deles. Infográfico

Entrevista

Apresentação oral

Diário alimentar

II. Reflita sobre sua participação ao longo da unidade e registre sua avaliação no caderno. a. Participei mais / menos nas atividades de b. Gostei mais / menos de c. Eu me senti

.

d. Eu poderia

.

e. Tive dificuldade em

.

.

.

f. Outra avaliação.

É importante que você reflita sobre seus registros e compartilhe com os colegas e professor as situações em que não conseguiu participar como gostaria, para que, em conjunto, possam identificar problemas e definir ações. Escreva em seu caderno um plano de ação para superar as dificuldades encontradas em cada item. Gostaria de saber mais sobre

.

Ainda preciso desenvolver

.

Planejo

.

Reflita sobre os assuntos discutidos nesta unidade e liste em seu caderno, em poucas palavras, as ideias mais importantes que você considera ter aprendido. 81

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ages/Getty Images Heritage Im

Suffragettes campaigning during a by-election in 1910

ON THE WAY TO GENDER EQUALITY

a. O que está sendo retratado na imagem acima? Em sua opinião, por que a fotografia não é colorida? Descreva os aspectos da imagem que chamam sua atenção. b. O que é possível inferir com base na posição que as mulheres estão ocupando na fotografia? Que outras informações você sabe sobre esse assunto?

DISCUTA AS QUESTÕES COM SEUS COLEGAS.

c. Há diversidade étnica na foto? Levante hipóteses para justificar sua resposta. d. Observe a imagem à direita. Trata-se de uma fotografia de uma equipe ministerial que tomou posse no Canadá em 2015. O que chama sua atenção nela? Compare-a com a imagem analisada anteriormente e discuta o assunto com seus colegas. e. A imagem do protesto representa uma situação que ocorreu muitas décadas atrás. Nos dias de hoje, que reivindicações as mulheres poderiam apresentar? Além das mulheres, que outros grupos costumam protestar pela igualdade? Comente com seus colegas.

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Para mais informações, consultar as orientações no Guia Didático.

Ver nota na abertura da Unidade 1 sobre o Parecer CNE/CEB 15/2000.

GE O FF

ages/Getty Images Heritage Im

NESTA UNIDADE VOCÊ IRÁ ...

• refletir sobre o sufrágio feminino e outros contextos de lutas pelos direitos das mulheres; • ler anúncios de propaganda (campaign ad) da Organização das Nações Unidas (ONU) para, a partir deles, estudar a linguagem visual e discutir o preconceito; • refletir sobre a função social dos anúncios de propaganda (campaign ads); • conhecer expressões relacionadas à igualdade de gênero; • usar should, must e have to para dar conselhos e indicar obrigações; • escutar uma entrevista (interview) sobre documentos de identidade para mulheres do Egito; • elaborar um anúncio de propaganda (campaign ad); • participar da produção e da realização de uma apresentação oral da campanha (oral presentation).

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Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau nominated fifteen women to his thirty-seat Cabinet in 2015.

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WARM-UP

You have talked about women’s suffrage while discussing and analyzing the opening images. Those pictures showed events that were very meaningful steps towards gender equality. Now, let’s see how other changes can be shown on the big screen.

1 The role of women in society has been changing throughout time. You are going to see some scenes from the movie Brave, which presents a princess as a protagonist that is quite different from other princesses. Read the information about her and identify which scene explains it. É possível, neste ponto, lembrar a turma de que, no Brasil, o filme Brave foi lançado em 2012 com o título "Valente".

Princess Merida is the daughter of Queen Elinor and King Fergus. She is sixteen years old.

a. Merida doesn’t like the idea of marrying one of her father’s allies’ sons. So, during the games where her future husband should be chosen, she surprises everybody by showing her skills with bow and arrows.

Photos 12 Cinema/Di/DIOMEDIA

b

b. Merida loves when her father helps her practice sword-fighting. c. Queen Elinor has many expectations that displease her daughter, such as seeing her as a maiden-like royal lady who follows the ancient traditions.

Scene from the movie Brave

Scene from the movie Brave

Scene from the movie Brave

Photos 12 Cinema/Di/DIOMEDIA

c Photos 12 Cinema/Di/DIOMEDIA

a

Fonte de pesquisa: IMDb. Valente. Disponível em: <www.imdb.com/title/tt1217209>. Acesso em: 23 nov. 2015.

2a. She seems to be happy only when she is practicing sword-fighting with her father. She probably isn’t happy in the other scenes because she doesn’t want to behave as her mother asks her to, and she wouldn’t like to get married at that moment.

2 Look at the scenes and read the texts about each of them again. a. Merida seems to be happy only in one of them. Which one? Why?

b. In your opinion, why doesn’t Merida’s mother want her to follow her own path?

2b. Personal answer. Possible answer: Probably because she knows that her daughter wants to live her own life, and she doesn’t fit the patterns that are expected from a princess.

c. Think about other princesses you have seen in movies. Are they similar to Merida? Why / Why not?

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Possible answers: In general, other princesses behave in a way that pleases the royal family and are eager to get married. Their appearance is different, too: their hair is almost always smooth and tidy, while Merida’s hair is usually messy. Vale dizer aos estudantes que Merida não é uma princesa como as outras, mas uma personagem que questiona os padrões e busca subverter regras que considera sem sentido. É interessante também perguntar se eles conhecem filmes mais recentes em que o papel feminino também é retratado de forma surpreendente.

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READING

Now that you have discussed how women conquered the right to vote and thought about a movie starring a female protagonist, let’s talk about two campaign ads that demonstrate there is still a lot to be done towards gender equality.

Possible answers: The internet can be an important means of making people aware of problems that PRE-READING 2.affect society if it is used to spread ideas in favor of respect and equality. / It is not useful for making people aware of social problems because I think they don’t discuss things seriously over the Internet.

1 When you see women being portrayed in ads, how are they depicted? Has this depiction changed throughout time?

Possible answer: It depends, but it is very common that women are depicted as housewives or are sexualized. Although this has been changing over time, complaints against these ads are still very common.

2 In your opinion, is the Internet useful to make people aware of social problems? In which ways? 3 When you see something disrespectful on the Internet, what should you do? If you are out of ideas,

Possible answers: You should not access that website anymore and, if possible, you should report it. On many websites, there is a channel to report inappropriate content. If someone disrespects you directly, you should ban that person from any contact with you and your personal accounts.

you can do some research on the Internet.

WHILE-READING 4

Seria propício comentar, junto aos estudantes, sobre as ferramentas de busca na internet e perguntar com que propósito eles costumam usar essas ferramentas, se as sugestões oferecidas costumam ajudar, se já se surpreenderam com sugestões oferecidas pela ferramenta etc. É Look at the campaign ad below. What is it about? aconselhável também explicar à turma que as sugestões mostradas correspondem às buscas mais frequentes realizadas pelos usuários da rede.

women should women should stay at home women should be slaves women should be in the kitchen women should not speak in church women should have the right to make their own decisions

Memac Ogilvy Mather Dubai

UN WOMEN. The Autocomplete Truth. Disponível em: <www.unwomen.org/en/news/stories/2013/10/ women-should-ads>. Acesso em: 5 nov. 2015.

a. Prejudice against women. ü b. The role of women in society. c. Government discrimination against certain groups of women. d. Family obligations in society.

Ao olhar para um texto, é possível observar alguns de seus elementos e elaborar hipóteses sobre ele, como a disposição das sentenças (se é um poema ou uma carta, por exemplo), a presença de títulos e subtítulos (como em notícias e reportagens), de fotos ou ilustrações etc. Uma observação prévia da imagem ao lado, combinada com pequenos fragmentos de texto, ajuda a apresentar pistas acerca do gênero campaign ad (anúncio de propaganda). Ver Banco de Gêneros.

5 What does the white band on her mouth mean? Discuss with your classmates. Possible answer: The white band over her mouth is probably an indication that society tries to silence women.

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6 Only one of the sentences is respectful of women’s rights. Which one? Why? Discuss with your classmates.

Only the last one, which is not part of the search, is respectful of women’s rights. The others reveal gender discrimination against women.

7 Read another ad from the same campaign and answer the questions that follow. Incentivar os estudantes a levantar hipóteses sobre quem pode ter sido o autor do anúncio e qual poderia ser o intuito da instituição nomeada "UN Women". Na página 87, eles lerão um boxe que traz informações a esse respeito, podendo, então, verificar ou refutar suas ideias anteriores.

women shouldn’t women shouldn’t have rights women shouldn’t vote women shouldn’t work women shouldn’t box women shouldn't suffer from discrimination anymore UN WOMEN. The Autocomplete Truth. Disponível em: <www.unwomen.org/en/news/stories/2013/10/women-should-ads>. Acesso em: 5 nov. 2015.

Memac Ogilvy Mather Dubai

Ver Banco de Gêneros.

Antes de analisar minuciosamente um texto, a compreensão do contexto em que foi produzido e dos possíveis objetivos para sua divulgação pode ajudar a interpretá-lo de modo mais adequado. Observando o anúncio de propaganda ao lado, o leitor poderia se perguntar, por exemplo: “Trata-se de um fato localizado em regiões específicas ou de algo comum na maioria dos países?”; “A quem interessa um anúncio de propaganda como esse?”; “Eu, leitor, estou entre o público-alvo do texto?”; “Ele remete a eventos recentes ou a problemas que sempre fizeram parte da sociedade?” etc.

Seria relevante ressaltar que as frases estão dispostas de modo a tapar a boca da mulher, o que dialoga com o fato de que essas afirmações preconceituosas trazem a ideia de que as mulheres não teriam autonomia, voz ou direitos.

8 What is the relation between the image and the sentences? Copy the correct answer(s) in your notebook. a. The sentences over the woman’s mouth reinforce that some people don’t want to give them a voice. ü b. The image reinforces the prejudicial statements about women not being autonomous or having rights. ü

c. Both campaign ads try to make people aware of the equality that women have conquered after years of struggle. d. The image and the text are conflicting: the image exposes the prejudice against women, but the text doesn’t.

9 If we had only the image or only the text separately, would the effect the campaign ad has on us be the same? Why / Why not? Choose the best answer among the options below and copy it in your notebook. a. Yes, because both the image and the text by themselves carry all the meanings that the campaign ad conveys. b. No, because it is the combination of text and image which creates the intended effect. ü c. It depends, because the text wouldn’t be enough, but the image would. d. It depends, because the image wouldn’t be enough, but the text would.

Sugerimos discutir com os estudantes o fato de que, embora seja possível depreender algumas informações com base nesses elementos separadamente, a foto ou o texto isolados não teriam o mesmo impacto que têm quando se complementam.

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Sugerimos chamar a atenção dos estudantes para o fato de que a notícia que explica a criação dos anúncios foi publicada no site da UN Women, a instituição responsável por eles. Para que a turma busque delinear o contexto de produção dessa notícia, pode-se fazer perguntas como: Qual é o possível leitor desse texto? Qual foi o suporte escolhido para ele? Qual parece ser o objetivo do texto?

POST-READING 10 After reading the previous campaign ads, read the following piece of news report, which is about

www.unwomen.org/en/news/stories/2013/10/women-should-ads ABOUT US

WHAT WE DO

WHERE WE ARE

HOW WE WORK

PARTNERSHIPS

NEWS

DIGITAL LIBRARY

UN Women ad series reveals widespread sexism A series of ads […] uses genuine Google searches to reveal the widespread prevalence of sexism and discrimination against women. Based on searches dated March 9, 2013, the ads expose negative sentiments ranging from stereotyping as well as outright denial of women’s rights. “When we came across these searches, we were shocked by how negative they were, and decided we had to do something with them,” says Christopher Hunt, Art Director of the creative team. The idea developed places the text of the Google searches over the mouths of women portraits, as if to silence their voices. “The ads are shocking because they show just how far we still have to go to achieve gender equality. They are a wake-up call, and we hope that the message will travel far,” adds Kareem Shuhaibar, copywriter. For UN Women, the searches confirm the urgent need to continue making the case for women’s rights, empowerment and equality, a cause the organization is pursuing around the world. UN Women is heartened by the initial strong reaction to the ads, and hopes they will spark constructive dialogue globally. UN WOMEN. UN Women Ad Series Reveals Widespread Sexism. 21 out. 2013. Disponível em: <www.unwomen.org/en/news/ stories/2013/10/women-should-ads>. Acesso em: 21 abr. 2016.

11 In what aspects is the news report related to the previous campaign

advertisements? Think about it and identify the true (T) and the false (F) statements. Copy the true ones in your notebook. a. The news report explains how the ads were conceived. T b. There is no information about the effects of the ads. F c. The news report proves the ads were not very necessary. F

Ao fazer a leitura de um texto pela primeira vez, não é necessário compreender todas as palavras: o objetivo é “varrer” o texto observando as informações mais importantes. Essa é uma habilidade útil também quando há a necessidade de ler rapidamente um texto com o intuito de identificar do que ele trata, sem dar atenção a detalhes.

UN WOMEN UN Women was founded in July 2010 by the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) as an attempt to accelerate the organization’s goals on gender equality and the empowerment of women. On the website, it is possible to find more information about UN Women, what they do, worldwide news and publications on gender.

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them. It will help you reflect about their content and purpose. Don’t stop reading to search for the meaning of words you don’t know: try to grasp the main idea and answer questions 11 and 12.

d. The news report reasserts the ads were based on real searches. T

12 Rewrite the complete sentence in your notebook. According to the news report, to solve the problems addressed in the ads, it is necessary to ... a. punish people who reinforce stereotypes. b. prohibit Internet searches about women. c. accept that gender equality is a minor issue. d. continue seeking to persuade people about equality. 

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13 Do you think that campaign ads are enough to make people aware of these problems? Why / Why not? Are there any reasons to create ads about them? Explain your answers in your notebook.

Possible answers: Yes, an ad is much more appealing than an article, for it attracts people’s attention instead of just providing objective information. (or) No, they can only expose a situation that already exists but will not change it.

14 In your opinion, why does this kind of prejudice against women still exist? Do you think feminism can help fight it? What are other possibilities? Discuss with a classmate.

Personal answers.

15 After reading the text, it is possible to deduce the meaning of some words and expressions. Read it again and take notes in your notebook to match the two columns and find the definitions. a. outright

• To obtain, to succeed in something. b

b. achieve

• An event that warns people that they need to take action. c

c. wake-up call

• Complete, total, without restrictions. a

d. make a case for

• To justify, to give reasons. d

e. to pursue

• To make something start or happen. f

f. to spark

• To follow something or someone. e

Grammar

É aconselhável instruir os estudantes a começar pelos termos que já conhecem ou que inferiram com facilidade, de modo que possam resolver toda a atividade com autonomia.

In the campaign ads there are sentences to express obligations and recommendations. Let’s analyze them to understand why and how they are used.

SHOULD, MUST, AND HAVE TO Read the following sentences from the ads again and find the best options. Discuss with your classmates. I. Women should stay at home.v • obligation ü

• advice

• prohibition

• recommendation ü

• advice

II. Women shouldn’t have rights. • prohibition

Besides should, we can use have to or must to express similar meanings. Read the following examples and decide how they are different from I in meaning. III. Women have to stay at home. IV. Women must stay at home.

If they should stay at home, maybe they don’t. On the other hand, if they have to or if they must stay at home, it seems that there is no choice but to do it.

Considering the previous discussions, in your notebook rewrite the sentences from the ads you disagree with. The Autocomplete feature is also based on your region. What do you think the results would be in your area? In pairs, discuss and write at least one sentence for “Women Should”, “Women shouldn't”. Share your sentences with your classmates. Now, you will rewrite each other sentences considering what you have discussed so far about gender equality. Use must or have to if necessary. See Grammar Reference

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VOCABULARY

You have read two campaign ads and more information about the campaign launched to call people’s attention to gender inequality. It was possible to analyze how Internet searches might be very representative of what people think. Now, you are going to analyze some headlines that might also indicate what has been said about women recently in the media.

Ao fim da atividade, é importante informar aos estudantes que as manchetes analisadas foram retiradas de sites da Angola, dos Estados Unidos, da Índia, do Reino Unido e de Uganda. Além disso, é válido questioná-los acerca dos estereótipos que essas manchetes carregam e incentivá-los a fazer uma comparação com o modo como a mídia brasileira retrata as esportistas. Se houver tempo, uma pesquisa pode ser proposta neste momento.

1 Here are the results of an Internet search about women and sports. Read them carefully and then

www.observer.ug/component/content/article?id=12546:top-10-list-most-influential-women-in-history-of-ugandan-sport-

News

Business

Education

Lifestyle

View Point

Sports

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Sign In

Search

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rewrite the sentences in your notebook choosing the best option to complete each of them.

Top 10 List: Most Influential Women in History of Ugandan sport

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OBSERVER MEDIA LTD. Top 10 List: Most Influential Women in History of Ugandan sport. The Observer, 14 mar. 2011. Disponível em: <www.observer.ug/component/ content/article?id=12546:top-10-list-most-influential-women-in-history-of-ugandan-sport->. Acesso em: 5 nov. 2015.

http://royalounge.com/the-9-most-beautiful-women-in-sports

RU4 REAL?

INSPIRATION

FAME

FUN

FUNKY

OUR PLANET

ART & STYLE

The 19 Most Beautiful Women in Sports

www.portalangop.co.ao/angola/en_us/noticias/desporto/2015/9/43/Increased-participation-women-sports-highlighted,7325e845-ef62-49ea-99f1-3c2016983c06.html

Home

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FAME LOUNGE. The 19 Most Beautiful Women in Sports. Disponível em: <http://royalounge.com/the-9-most-beautiful-women-in-sports>. Acesso em: 5 nov. 2015.

Increased participation of women in sports highlighted

www.feminist.org/research/sports/sports2.html HOME NEWSROOM

EVENTS ABOUT US

CAREER CENTER

TAKE ACTION OUR WORK RESEARCH CENTER

HOTLINES

SHOP

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ANGOP. Increased Participation of Women in Sports Highlighted. 19 out. 2015. Disponível em: <www.portalangop.co.ao/angola/en_us/noticias/desporto/2015/9/43/ Increased-participation-women-sports-highlighted,7325e845-ef62-49ea-99f1-3c2016983c06.html>. Acesso em: 5 nov. 2015.

Empowering Women in Sports

www.npr.org/2015/09/30/444523020/why-womens-sports-gets-so-little-attention find stations

news

arts & life

music

programs

Why Women’s Sports Get So Little Attention

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FEMINIST MAJORITY FOUNDATION. Empowering Women in Sports. Disponível em: <www.feminist.org/research/sports/sports2.html>. Acesso em: 5 nov. 2015.

DEFORD, Frank. Why Women’s Sports Get So Little Attention. NPR, 26 out. 2015. Disponível em: <www.npr.org/2015/09/30/444523020/why-womens-sports-gets-so-little-attention>. Acesso em: 5 nov. 2015.

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a. Some headlines indicate that women’s sports are usually adored / disdained. b. The list of influential women is an attempt to corroborate / destroy the general picture of women as inferior or incapable. c. Emphasizing women’s appearance in the news reinforces / rejects gender stereotypes. d. The way women are depicted in the media seems to be homogeneous / heterogeneous. e. The headline “Empowering Women in Sports” suggests that sportswomen are usually considered inferior / superior to sportsmen. f. Women's sports have been receiving less / more attention in recent times.

2 Work in pairs and analyze some of the expressions that usually appear in discussions about women nowadays. Using your notebook, relate them to their definitions. 1 Women empowerment

2 Feminism

3 Leadership

4 Women’s political participation

5 Gender pay gap

6 Gender-based violence

7 Maternal health

8 Gender-blind policies

9 Anti-discrimination legislation

10 Human rights

a. The belief that all people should have equal rights, regardless of their gender. 2 b. Measures to improve the quality of life for women, help them participate in economic life and gain more autonomy.1 c. The difference in the amount of money that men and women earn. 5 d. When someone is a leader or is able to give guidance to others. 3 e. Aggression against a person motivated by their gender (especially women or transgender people). 6 f. Related to how women are cared for during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period. 7 g. Laws that protect minority groups from being attacked because of their sexual orientation, religion, race, etc. 9 h. When all women have the opportunity to be voters or to occupy leading positions. 4 i. Basic rights that all people should have (the right to life, to food, to education, etc.). 10 j. Policies that are planned without taking into consideration the different needs of each gender. 8 Filme de Flávia Person. Antonieta. Brasil. 2015

3. Look at the picture on the right. This person was considered very

influential because she was the first black woman to become a state representative in Brazil. Think about that and try to unscramble the verbs to complete the following sentences. Record your answers in your notebook. a. She became a deputy just 3 years after women had redquecon the right to vote. conquered

b. Antonieta had to movecoer many barriers to conquer some space, which was unusual for women. overcome c. As an educator, Antonieta edfnoud a course (Antonieta de Barros Private Course) aiming at the literacy of the poor. founded

Poster of the movie Antonieta

4 Now, choose some problems women face nowadays. Then, work in pairs in order to discuss possible causes and solutions for these obstacles. Remember that you can use the language structures presented in the Grammar box (should, must, and have to) and the words in Activity 2 to carry on your discussion.

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Personal answer. Possible answer: A lot of women have important jobs nowadays, but, unfortunately, many people still believe women have to do the housework only. To fight that and encourage women empowerment, TV channels should broadcast movies and programs in which this gender stereotype is tackled. Esta pode ser uma boa oportunidade para incentivar os estudantes a aprofundar a discussão sobre a importância da igualdade de gêneros e usar mais livremente as estruturas gramaticais apresentadas no boxe Grammar e o léxico presente em Vocabulary. Para mais informações, ver Guia Didático.

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LISTENING

You have been discussing the role of women in different contexts and their achievements in society throughout time. Now you’re going to hear an interview given by the Minister of Social Solidarity of Egypt about identity cards for women in her country. What does it have to do with the discussion that you’ve been having during this unit?

PRE-LISTENING

paul prescott/Shuttersstock.com

1 Look at the picture of Egyptian women. Is there anything that calls your attention? Why / Why not?

Egyptian women in traditional dresses in Dahab, Egypt. The veil that covers their hair and neck is called hijab.

1. Personal answer. Para mais informações, ver Guia Didático.

2 You are going to listen to an interview with Ghada Waly, Egypt’s Minister of Social Solidarity. What do you know about that country?

Possible answer: Ancient Egypt had famous pyramids and pharaohs. Após a exploração do conhecimento dos estudantes, pode-se oferecer a eles mais informações a respeito do país.

WHILE-LISTENING 3 Listen to the interview Ghada Waly gave about an important issue in Egypt. What is she talking about? 12

Possible answers: She’s stating that many Egyptian women still don’t have identity cards, and that this problem is going to be solved soon. She also said that, by not having identity cards, Egyptian women can’t have access to many social services, and not even travel, and they Complete the statement in your notebook: The intention of the interviewee seems to be ... should have all these rights.

4

a. to announce good news. ü b. to report terrible news and prepare the population to deal with it. c. to leak unwelcome news about the future of women in Egypt. O termo leak, quando usado em jornalismo, significa espalhar notícias que ninguém sabia até então.

d. to spread sports news.

5 Read the following statements. Then, identify the true (T) and the false (F) statements. If necessary, listen to the interview again.

a. ID cards are not a prior condition for one to travel in Egypt. F b. The Egyptian government guarantees free mobility to all citizens. F c. Nobody is allowed to travel abroad without their identity papers. T d. Traveling safely on the road calls for identity papers. T

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12

6 Listen to the interview again. Choose the statement that corresponds to what you heard and register it in your notebook.

a. The number of Egyptian women who do not have an ID card is small. b. Women without an ID card are deprived of having the services provided by the government. ü c. All citizens have access to financial and social services in Egypt. d. Egyptian women can vote even if they do not have identity papers.

POST-LISTENING 7 What can we infer from Ghada Waly’s words? Register the best answers in your notebook. a. ID cards are not an important problem in Egypt. b. Many Egyptian women cannot travel to other countries. ü c. Men are fighting for women’s rights in Egypt. d. Millions of Egyptian women do not have identity cards. ü

8 According to what you have heard, who seems to be the target audience of this interview? Why?

target audience of the interview seems to be Egyptian people in general, mainly Discuss with your classmates. The women, because the program was intended to help them. However, any person who watches the video can help spread the information.

9 The minister says that many women in Egypt do not have ID cards. Do you have the same problem in your country? Talk about it.

In Brazil, some poor people do not have their ID cards, although there are governmental efforts to change that. It is not a gender issue, though.

PRONUNCIATION WORD STRESS II Did you notice that Ghada Waly is not a native speaker of English? Everyone has an accent, even native 13 speakers. It is not a problem when a foreign person speaks with a marked accent, but knowing the stress of the words might help others understand what is said. Listen to these words again and pay attention to their stressed syllable. country women (pl.) citizen services access government In your notebook, keep track of other words that called your attention and underline their stressed syllable.

CULTURAL HERITAGE Egypt is a country located in the northeastern corner of Africa. Egypt’s heartland, the Nile River valley and delta, was the home of one of the main civilizations of the ancient Middle East and, like Mesopotamia farther east, was the site of one of the world’s earliest urban and literate societies. Pharaonic Egypt thrived for some 3,000 years through a series of native dynasties that were interspersed with brief periods of foreign rule. Quick facts

Urban-rural population: Urban: (2012) 42.9%

Capital: Cairo

Rural: (2012) 57.1%

Official language: Arabic

Literacy: Male: (2010) 80.3%

Official religion: Islam

Female: (2010) 63.5%

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA. Egypt. Disponível em: <http://global.britannica.com/place/Egypt>. (Adaptado.) Acesso em: 28 out. 2015.

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WRITING

Since the beginning of this unit, you have been thinking about many contexts in which women have had to fight to acquire legal rights in society. Now, you are going to choose an aspect that still needs to be improved and then develop a campaign ad to help make people aware of it. Afterwards, in the Speaking section, you are going to present it to the class.

PLANNING UN/DPI/ONU

1. Read the campaign ad and talk to your classmates about the questions below.

b. Possible answers: The image of the woman holding her hand in a way that means "stop" helps reinforce the message that violence against women b. Describe the elements you see and their function in the campaign ad. must stop. The background is completely empty to put the focus on the image and the text. The text complements the message expressed by the photo and the words in her hand.

a. What is this campaign ad about? It is about violence against women. c. Is there a key element in this campaign ad? Why / Why not?

Both the image and the slogan are the key elements, although the image is bigger.

d. Does the proportion of the elements matter? Why / Why not?

The proportion of the elements is very important to compose the ad because it defines which element should call the reader’s attention, so it influences the impact that the ad may cause.

2 The ad is a campaign by the UN against violence towards women. Is this a problem where you live? Are there laws to protect women of violence in Brazil?

Possible answer: Yes, it is. There is the law number 11.340, called "Lei Maria da Penha" that has the intent of reducing domestic violence.

3 Do you think this ad would be more effective if there were more text? Why / Why not? Personal answer.

4 What can be the purposes of a campaign ad like this? Write all the correct options in your notebook. • selling a product

• raising awareness ü

• supporting a brand

• other

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WRITING 5 Work in pairs. Follow the steps to create an ad.

Para mais informações, ver Guia Didático.

a. Now that you have already discussed the main characteristics of a campaign ad, you will have to choose the topic you will explore. Discuss with your partner, and choose a common problem regarding women in society nowadays. Take some notes using a sheet of paper. b. Your job is to create a short text or slogan to develop an interesting campaign ad. You can use should, shouldn’t, have to or must in order to sound persuasive. Remember that the purpose is to convince people, so think about your audience. (To achieve this goal, you can ask yourself questions like: Who are they? What are they interested in? How old are they? Which elements might call their attention?) c. Remember that texts and images are equally important. So, you can draw something or cut pictures to make a collage. Use a sheet of paper to create it. d. Arrange the information so that your ad looks attractive! e. Read some options and define where your campaign ad could be published or exhibited. • newspapers • magazines • websites • billboards • public buildings • other f. Exchange your work so that another pair can correct it taking into account the genre features discussed on the previous page and in the Reading section. You will read your classmates’ production too and make suggestions in order to improve it, if necessary. g. Make the necessary adjustments and exhibit your campaign ad. You can take pictures and post them online on your school website or create an album with your classmates. Remember that you will use this ad in the next section to produce a presentation, so don’t lose the ideas you had and the notes you took while creating it.

6 Think about your process while creating the campaign ad and answer the following questions. Personal answers.

a. What motivated you and your partner while choosing the topic? Why? b. Did you manage to combine both text and image in your campaign ad? If you did, what is the importance of each element? Why? c. Read the campaign ad you have created. If you saw it on the street, in a magazine or on social media, would it possibly call your attention? Why / Why not? Is there anything that needs to be changed so that the message becomes more powerful?

7 Now, after taking a look at your classmates’ campaign ads, try to answer the following questions. Personal answers.

a. Were the choices of topics meaningful? In your opinion, which of them is essential? Why? b. As a citizen, were you touched by any of the messages you read? If you were, tell your classmates which one and why. Do you think some of your attitudes will change after thinking about the aspects exposed by your classmates? c. Were the campaign ads really persuasive? What information did you learn after reading them? d. Do you think that these campaign ads would be well accepted outside your school? Why / Why not? e. After reading these campaign ads and analyzing their composition, how would you improve your own ad? Take some notes in your notebook so that you will remember these ideas in the future.

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SPEAKING

So, far in this unit, you read and discussed some information about the role of women nowadays. In the previous section, you created a campaign ad to help raise awareness about a situation that still needs to change. Now, you are going to present them to your classmates.

PLANNING 1 Now, you are going to present your campaigns officially. Think about the oral presentations you have seen in your life. What kind of resources can be used? Personal answers. a. special outfits b. introductory text c. pictures d. songs e. microphone f. handouts g. slideshows h. other.

2 In your groups, the same from the Writing section, decide which features and resources you will use to present your campaign. Think about what can be used to highlight the most important aspects of your campaign. Brainstorm a few ideas with your group. Personal answers.

3 If your group decided to prepare handouts, make sure you have enough copies for everyone in the audience. Proofread and revise your handouts before making copies.

4 Even though the presentation will be delivered orally, it is important to prepare it in advance and write a script of the main points you want to cover. Answer the questions below to help you. a. Do we specify who is the target audience for our campaign? b. Are we describing clearly the tactics of our campaign (i.e. how are we trying to get a reaction of our target audience)? c. Do we state the purpose of our campaign (e.g. using an infinitive such as “to alert,” “to raise awareness,” “to inform,” “to remind,” etc.)? d. Does the audience know who will benefit from our campaign?

5 Revise your script carefully, making sure you didn’t leave out anything important or worth mentioning. Edit your presentation so it fits the time frame established by your teacher.

6 With your scripts ready, it’s time to prepare the visual aids of your presentation. You can use the ad you created for the campaign in the Writing section, or you can prepare other visual support such as a poster or slides.

7 Revise the tips on the next page before your presentation. 95

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Outras instruções e sugestões acerca da apresentação dos estudantes podem ser encontradas no Guia Didático.

Think about your audience. Do they have any background knowledge about the topic that you can assume they know? Do they have any particular interests that you could tap into to grab their attention? What are the ways you can get them involved in your presentation? Can you do it, for example, by asking questions or staging activities? […]

Check out the facilities. Does the overhead projector work? How does it turn on and off? Where is the plug for the computer? Is there a whiteboard or is there a blackboard? If there is a blackboard, is chalk provided? […]

Consider examples, pictures and illustrations. Think about how you might illustrate a complex point or provide a clarifying example with a picture, graph, table or other visual or audio device. Sometimes ideas can be communicated more directly and clearly with an image, graph or table than in words.

Record your source details. Don’t forget to write down the details of your sources so that you can record them in your speech and also on any slides (if necessary) so your tutor and fellow students can see where your ideas came from. You may also like to include them in a handout.

Emphasize key words. Any important terms should be spoken slowly and loudly.

Use your body to communicate, too. Stand straight and comfortably. […] Hold your head up. Look around and make eye contact with people in the audience. Do not just address the lecturer. Do not stare at a point on the carpet or the wall. If you don’t include the audience, they won’t listen to you.

Breathe deeply. It will calm you down and help to control the slight shaking that you might get in your hands and your voice.

UNIVERSITY OF CANBERRA. Oral Presentations. Canberra, [2015]. Disponível em: <http://learnonline.canberra.edu.au/mod/book/view. php?id=164490&chapterid=194>. (Adaptado.) Acesso em: 3 nov. 2015.

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Verificar com antecedência a pronúncia de palavras desconhecidas evitará que você se atrapalhe no meio da apresentação. A maioria dos dicionários de inglês traz uma indicação sobre como as palavras são pronunciadas. Então, quando estiver compondo alguma apresentação ou elaborando um anúncio de propaganda que será exposto oralmente, é aconselhável consultar as palavras que apresentam alguma dificuldade e verificar como elas são pronunciadas. Se houver acesso à internet ou a algum aplicativo de dicionário ou de tradução, digite a palavra desejada e ouça a pronúncia dela clicando no ícone de áudio.

SPEAKING 8 Time to present your campaign and watch the other presentations. During the presentations, take notes of what you find interesting or important.

9 After listening to each presentation, have you changed your mind about any of the topics presented by your classmates? If you have, tell your classmates what has changed and why. Personal answer.

10 Choose the presentation whose topic you considered the most relevant. Then, record some information about its content in your notebook so that you won’t forget it later.

11 Taking into account the same presentation you chose in Activity 10, write a list in your notebook to register some more information about it. Consider the following aspects: Personal answers.

• how many people presented it? • which resources were used? • how did the presentation begin? • did the audience have a chance to speak? • how much time did the presentation last?

12 In your opinion, were there enough steps for you and your classmates to create interesting

campaign presentations? Which of the steps did you find crucial? Is there something that you would add to the steps? Talk about it. Personal answer.

13 You have made a short presentation to your classmates. Considering that the audience should always be taken into account, try to indicate in your notebook which changes would be necessary in your own presentation if you had each of the following audiences. a. A group of kids. Possible answers: Avoiding very delicate or complex subjects; keeping the language simple, etc. b. A large number of people in a public place. Possible answers: Speaking into a microphone, trying to keep the presentation short, etc.

c. A group of specialists in women’s rights. Possible answers: Exposing very specific information, encouraging debates, etc.

14 Now that you have already discussed the structure of oral presentations, write down in your notebook some of the elements that compose them.

Possible answers: Interesting topics, control of time, use of visual aids (such as pictures, slides, handouts and drawings), etc.

15 Work in pairs. In your notebook, make a list including some items you would use as criteria for

evaluating oral presentations. Take into consideration all the presentations that you analyzed and your own. After that, check if your own presentation would be positively evaluated if your criteria were used to assess it. Os critérios levantados pelas duplas poderão ser compartilhados com toda a turma de modo

que se construa uma tabela avaliativa. Sempre que possível, ela poderá ser retomada durante as aulas de produção oral.

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You’ve read about women who demanded their right to vote, women who are helping other women to get their political rights, women sports, and even fictional female characters who became noteworthy in some movies. Now, let’s think about how gender has influenced women in literature throughout time? VICKY LETA/MASHABLE

WRAP-UP

Chamar a atenção dos estudantes para o fato de que, na íntegra, o infográfico apresenta 14 escritoras, e que a versão aqui disponibilizada é um recorte. Seria interessante que fossem incentivados a visitar o site e conhecer o restante do conteúdo.

WOMEN IN LITERATURE Read the infographic about women who had to keep their identities secret in order to succeed as authors. Discuss this piece of information with your classmates and answer the questions. Pode ser interessante propor uma discussão sobre outros escritores que usam pseudônimos e os motivos que podem justificar essa escolha, como maior aceitação pelo público, um tipo de livro diferente daquele pelo qual o autor é proclamado, uma necessidade de intensificar vendas etc.

a. Did you know any of these writers already? If so, which of them? Personal answers. b. Do you know other authors who also used pen names? In your opinion, what other reasons could a writer have to do it? c. Why do you think these women had to hide their identities? Discuss each item with your classmates and choose the options that seem probable to you.

Os estudantes podem sugerir outros motivos além destes mencionados. Nesse caso, cabe incentivá-los a explicar os pontos de • To combat sexism and prejudice. ü vista apresentados.

• To avoid struggling too much to succeed. ü • Because few female authors were published. ü • Because it helped convince male publishers who didn’t think the literary world was a place for women. • Because people cared less about women's writings. ü d. Nowadays, do you think that women need to hide their real names in order to succeed in literature? Why or why No, because nowadays people already know many acknowledged not? female writers and are interested in their books. / Yes, because there's still some prejudice against women.

e. If there are any other female writers you know or like, write down their names in your notebook. Personal answers. Possible answers: There are lots of successful female writers nowadays, such as Chimamanda Adichie, Danielle Steel, Toni Morrison, Stephenie Meyer, Joyce Carol Oates, etc. b. Possible answers: George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair), Richard Bachman (Stephen King), etc. Some reasons can be avoiding persecution; boosting sales, etc. Os estudantes podem pensar também em escritores de língua portuguesa, como Fernando Pessoa, que usou mais de 10 heterônimos.

Extract of an infographic showing some of the pen names of famous female authors

Disponível em: <http://mashable.com/2015/03/01/female-authors-pennames/#paN9Viv1iqqh>. Acesso em: 26 out. 2015.

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Para mais informações, consultar Guia Didático.

FURTHER INFORMATION

Self-Assessment

• Websites Policy on Gender Equality – Documento canadense sobre igualdade de gêneros. Disponível em: <www.international.gc.ca/development-developpement/ priorities-priorites/ge-es/policy-politique.aspx?lang=eng>. Acesso em: 25 nov. 2015.

Reflita sobre suas aprendizagens ao longo desta unidade e registre em seu caderno o grau de dificuldade encontrado. Desenhe no caderno uma barra semelhante à apresentada a seguir para avaliar o grau de dificuldade de cada item.

Promoting opportunities for all: Gender equality and women’s empowerment – Documento do governo australiano sobre empoderamento feminino. Disponível em: <http://dfat.gov.au/about-us/publications/Documents/ gender-equality-strategy.pdf>. Acesso em: 25 nov. 2015.

• Vídeos As sufragistas – Filme que retrata a luta de mulheres contra a opressão no início do século XX na Inglaterra.

I. Ao longo desta unidade, eu pude ...

Disponível em: <www.youtube.com/watch?v=R8le4sZHRdE>. (Trailer) Acesso em: 25 nov. 2015.

a. Discutir acerca da crescente participação feminina na política.

Why Gender Equality Is Good for Everyone — Men Included – Vídeo da conferência de Michael Kimmel no TED Talks acerca da igualdade de gêneros.

b. Observar e falar sobre a linguagem visual de anúncios de propaganda (campaign ads).

Disponível em: <www.youtube.com/watch?v=7n9IOH0Nvy>. Acesso em: 25 nov. 2015.

c. Usar should, must e have to para aconselhar e indicar obrigações.

• Livros ADICHIE, Chimamanda Ngozi. Sejamos todos feministas. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2014. – Livro da nigeriana e. Identificar a função social de anúncios de propaganda e entrevistas (interviews). Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie em que f. Criar um anúncio de propaganda (campaign ad). ela discorre sobre o quanto ainda precisa ser feito para que se g. Fazer uma apresentação oral (oral presentation) a respeito de uma causa social. alcance a igualdade de Reveja alguns gêneros utilizados nesta unidade para discutir a igualdade de gêneros. gêneros.

d. Refletir sobre a igualdade entre homens e mulheres como protagonistas de filmes, autores de literatura e esportistas de sucesso.

Em poucas palavras, liste em seu caderno o que você aprendeu com cada um deles. Anúncio de propaganda • Entrevista • Apresentação oral

II. Reflita sobre sua participação ao longo da unidade e registre sua avaliação em seu caderno. a. Participei mais / menos nas atividades de b. Gostei mais / menos de c. Eu me senti

d. Eu poderia

.

.

e. Tive dificuldade em

.

.

f. Outra avaliação.

.

É importante que você reflita sobre seus registros e compartilhe com colegas e seu professor as situações em que você não conseguiu participar como gostaria, para que, em conjunto, possam identificar problemas e definir ações. Escreva em seu caderno um plano de ação para superar as dificuldades encontradas em cada item. Gostaria de saber mais sobre

.

Ainda preciso desenvolver

.

Planejo

.

III. Para concluir esta unidade, responda às questões a seguir. a. As discussões acerca do tema igualdade de gênero serão úteis para minha vida pessoal? Por quê? b. Há algo que eu costumava achar difícil e se tornou mais fácil? O quê? c. Complete: • Ainda preciso de ajuda com

.

• Depois de participar das discussões desta unidade, cresceu meu interesse por • Para as próximas unidades espero me lembrar de

.

.

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k . co m

stoc

t te r ges /Sh u Ble nd Im a

Multigenerational Indian family in traditional dress

PEOPLE IN OUR LIVES Ver orientações e respostas possíveis no Guia Didático.

DISCUTA AS QUESTÕES COM SEUS COLEGAS.

a. Observe as imagens e leia as legendas. Considerando as situações retratadas, o que as fotos têm em comum? E o que as diferencia? b. A primeira e a segunda imagem mostram pessoas com diferença de idade considerável entre si. Em sua opinião, quais são os efeitos dessa diferença para os relacionamentos, em geral? c. Quais situações geralmente levam a conflitos na família? E nos relacionamentos em geral?

Ver nota na abertura da Unidade 1 sobre o Parecer CNE/CEB 15/2000.

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.com

NESTA UNIDADE VOCÊ IRÁ ...

W IN -In i

ti a tiv e/ Ge t

ty

Im ag es

tock

Para mais informações, consultar as orientações no Guia Didático.

• discutir relacionamentos na família, com amigos e na comunidade; • ler e compreender fotolegendas (portrait and caption) de pessoas de diferentes projetos fotográficos pelo mundo; • analisar o uso do present continuous e empregá-lo para expressar ações em progresso; • reconhecer o uso de multi-word verbs e usá-los para se expressar sobre relacionamentos; • ouvir e compreender um relato (account) de uma jovem sobre uma pessoa próxima que é sua fonte de inspiração; • colher informações sobre alguém, por meio de entrevista (interview); • transcrever, editar e compartilhar informações de entrevista.

Young men celebrating their grandfather’s birthday

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WARM-UP

You have started discussing relationships among people and possible reasons for conflicts, such as generation gaps. Now let’s continue discussing the topic, considering your ideas as well as some answers given by teens from another country.

1 We spend a significant amount of our lives interacting with other people and building and maintaining

relationships with them. Look at the diagram. Then write in your notebook the names of the people you have most contact with in the social circles suggested. O objetivo da atividade é sensibilizar os estudantes para os diversos círculos sociais em que estamos inseridos, com o registro de pessoas que são importantes para eles nesses círculos. Se possível, trazer dicionários bilíngues para a sala de aula.

COMMUNITY

FAMILY

RELATIONSHIPS

SCHOOL

FRIENDS

2 Work with a partner. Use your diagram to talk about four people. You can refer to the chart below for some things you can say about them and the vocabulary to name the relationships you have with them. What you can say about the people a. How you and the person are related b. Person’s age c. Why this person is important to you d. His/her personality traits e. When and how you met

Vocabulary to name relationships mother sister aunt

father

brother

grandparents uncle

teacher

f. What you do together g. Any conflicts you have had with this person h. Any concerns you have about the relationship

cousin

school counselor school principal

best friend neighbor

2. Possible answer: My mother is 45 years old. She’s very important to me because she’s my best friend. She’s confident and funny, but she gets angry easily. Our main conflict is about dating: I have a boyfriend, but she doesn’t like him.

3 Work in small groups. Discuss these questions about relationships. a. Is it easy for you to build new relationships at school and in your community? Why / Why not? Possible answers: It’s difficult because I’m shy. (or) It’s easy because I’m outgoing.

b. What kind of conflicts do you have in your relationships? In your opinion, what are the reasons for these conflicts?

Possible answers: I often fight with my brother because we’re very different. We have nothing in common. (or) Sometimes I argue with

c. Are you worried about any of your current relationships? If so, which ones? Why? my friends because they want me to do Personal answers. Possible answer: I’m worried about my relationship with my older sister. She moved to another city, and we don’t see each other anymore. I miss her a lot.

things that are not right.

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Now that you have started discussing relationships, talking about the people who are close to you and the different conflicts you have in your relations, let’s expand our discussion by looking at photos and reading captions inspired by a project called Humans of New York.

READING PRE-READING

1 Have you ever heard of a blog and social media page called Humans of New York? Read the text in the About section of the blog to learn about it.

STAN HONDA/AFP/Getty Images

Editoria de arte

www.humansofnewyork.com/about

My name is Brandon and I began Humans of New York in the summer of 2010. I thought it would be really cool to create an exhaustive catalogue of New York City’s inhabitants, so I set out to photograph 10,000 New Yorkers and plot their photos on a map. I worked for several months with this goal in mind, but somewhere along the way, HONY began to take on a much different character. I started collecting quotes and short stories from the people I met, and began including these snippets alongside the photographs. Taken together, these portraits and captions became the subject of a vibrant blog. With over eight million followers on social media, HONY now provides a worldwide audience with daily glimpses into the lives of strangers in New York City.

STANTON, Brandon. About. New York, [2015?]. Disponível em: <www.humansofnewyork.com/about>. Acesso em: 30 out. 2015.

2 Brandon Stanton says that he collects “quotes and short stories” from the people he meets on the streets

of New York. Discuss with your classmates what these quotes and stories could be about. Look at some options below and take notes in your notebook. Personal answers.Os estudantes vão verificar suas inferências posteriormente, a. current activities

e. pieces of advice

b. global affairs c. inner conflicts

f. special moments in their lives

d. relationships with family and friends

g. dreams and ambitions

por isso é importante o registro de ideias no caderno. Sugerimos apontar que os itens são apenas sugestões para a discussão, e que os estudantes podem mencionar quaisquer outros temas que HONY = Humans of New York acreditem que possam aparecer.

h. other

3 In your opinion, is it easy for Brandon Stanton to establish a relationship with the people he

approaches on the streets? Why / Why not? Share your ideas with your classmates. Possible answer: No, it probably isn’t. Brandon approaches people he doesn’t know, asks to take their picture, and also asks questions. Most people would feel uncomfortable with this approach.

4 As Brandon mentioned, he works with “portraits and captions” in Humans of New York. Look at four portraits inspired by HONY and their captions on pages 104-106. How different are their captions They are very from the ones for the pictures on pages 100-101? Record your ideas in your notebook. different from the

captions on p. 100-101. The captions on the following pages are longer and are reproductions of what the people in the portraits said. Their tone is personal. They have the characteristics of accounts. The captions on p. 100-101 have an informative tone.

As legendas (captions, em inglês) são um gênero textual com características e funções particulares: · elas acompanham fotos e outras imagens, geralmente abaixo ou ao lado delas; · são objetivas e curtas, podem explicar a imagem, escrever ações e / ou eventos relatados, ou dar informações. · podem esclarecer ao leitor a relevância da imagem no contexto ou chamar a atenção para informações na imagem que poderiam passar despercebidas. As legendas no jornalismo ganharam outros significados. Hoje faz parte do gênero contar uma história como vemos nas fotolegendas, ou relatar uma situação. As fotolegendas podem apresentar um relato da pessoa fotografada, o qual é resultado de perguntas feitas à pessoa, e por isso apresenta semelhanças com o relato e a entrevista. Consideramos como fotolegendas os textos dos projetos inspirados em Humans of New York. Mais informações no Guia Didático. Ver Banco de Gêneros

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WHILE-READING 5 Humans of New York has inspired similar projects in other cities. The two portraits and captions are from

Humans of Singapore and reflect the concept of quotes and short stories Brandon Stanton mentioned in the About section of his site. Look at the pictures and read the captions. Then, in your notebook, write the correct statement about the people in the portraits. O objetivo da atividade é trabalhar com a compreensão geral. a. They mention, in different ways, their relationships with other people that are important in their lives. ✓ b. They discuss the conflicts they have with their parents and other family members.

Editoria de arte

Portrait 1

© Shitij Nigam – Humans of Singapore

http://humansofsg.com/post/120999876464/what-was-the-happiest-moment-of-your-life-when#notes

“What was the happiest moment of your life?” “When I got a stable job and bought my mother a house. Things were quite bad, and so many times you feel like you’re being singled out and given all the bad things in the world. But I guess sometimes it’s best to ignore what’s happening and continue working harder. The rest works itself out, one way or another.” “What’s the one piece of advice you would give to someone else going through the same thing?” “Have a support system. Friends, family, girlfriend, anything. It helps.”

HUMANS OF SINGAPORE. 8 jun. 2015. Disponível em: <http://humansofsg.com/post/120999876464/what-was-the-happiest-moment-of-your-lifewhen#notes>. Acesso em: 11 mar. 2015.

http://humansofsg.com/post/86966424461/when-youre-growing-up-you-dont-realize-the#notes

© Shitij Nigam – Humans of Singapore

Editoria de arte

Portrait 2

“When you’re growing up, you don’t realize the value of family. But when you have a child of your own – that changes things. You start realizing the sacrifices your parents made for you, and the time and effort they put into raising you.” “And have you told them that?” “Not yet.”

HUMANS OF SINGAPORE. 27 mar. 2014. Disponível em: <http://humansofsg.com/post/86966424461/when-youre-growing-up-you-dont-realizethe#notes>. Acesso em: 11 mar. 2015.

6 Once again, look at the portraits and read the captions. Confirm the predictions you made in Activity 2.

Possible answer: In portrait 1, the caption is about relationships with family and friends and pieces of advice to other people; in portrait 2, relationships with family and friends.

7 Now scan the captions to find the specific information requested below. Keep track of your answers in your notebook.

a. The asset the man in portrait 1 bought for a family member. A house. b. Three relations the man in portrait 1 mentions as a support system. Friends, family, girlfriend. c. The moment the man in portrait 2 understood the value of his family. When he had a child.

8 Read the captions once more. Decide if the statements are true (T) or false (F). If the information to confirm the statement is not in the text, write NM (not mentioned). Keep track of your answers in your notebook. O objetivo da atividade é trabalhar com a compreensão detalhada. Você pode solicitar aos estudantes

que justifiquem suas respostas com elementos dos textos e que corrijam itens falsos. Ressaltar que o anonimato é uma característica importante nos projetos, ponto que será retomado na seção Speaking.

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a. We know the names of the people depicted in the portraits. F b. The man in portrait 1 was probably out of work for some time. T c. It is likely that he had help from his family, friends, and girlfriend during a difficult period in his life. T d. The man in portrait 2 recognizes the importance of his family now, but he probably didn’t when he was a child. T e. The son of the man in portrait 2 is 5 years old. NM f. The man will probably not tell his son about how he values his parents. F Ao lermos um texto, atribuímos sentidos ao associar “pistas” dadas ao nosso conhecimento prévio. Essa estratégia, conhecida como inferência, faz parte do nosso dia a dia e é fundamental para a compreensão de textos e para o entendimento de vocabulário desconhecido. Fonte de pesquisa: DELL’ISOLA, Regina L. Perét. Inferência na leitura. Glossário Ceale, [2014?]. Disponível em: <http://ceale.fae.ufmg.br/app/ webroot/glossarioceale/verbetes/inferencia-na-leitura>. Acesso em: 10 dez. 2015.

9 You are going to work with inferences from the captions. Match the questions to the people in the portraits. Write your answers in your notebook.

Mais informações no Guia Didático.

É importante deixar claro que nem sempre as inferências se confirmam. Vale chamar a atenção para o uso do advérbio Who ... probably e do verbo seem. Quanto mais os estudantes tiverem experiência de mundo e de leitura, mais precisas serão suas inferências. a. apparently has a deep love for his mother? 1

b. probably has a better financial situation now than in the past? 1 c. seems to be concerned about the value of family for his children? 2

10 Both people in portraits 1 and 2 are concerned about their relationships with others. Read the excerpts and choose the correct answers. Keep track of them in your notebook.

a. When the man in portrait 1 says, “But I guess sometimes it’s best to ignore what’s happening and continue working harder. The rest works itself out, one way or another," we can infer that he believes that ... • we cannot solve all our problems.  • the solution to all the personal problems we have is in our hands. b. When the man in portrait 2 says, “But when you have a child of your own – that changes things,” we can infer that ... • he has always valued his family. • he started valuing his family when he had a child. 

11 Now you are going to look at two portraits and read the captions from the pages Humans of Beijing and

Humans of Singapore. After that, write in your notebook the statements that are NOT correct about the people in the portraits.

www.facebook.com/Humans-of-Beijing-1412510822364111/?fref=ts

© Humans of Beijing

Editoria de arte

Portrait 3

“How close are you to your parents?” “Really close. They are like my friends. Our age gap isn’t that big, so we can talk about anything, and we can ask each other anything.” “What is your secret to having that relationship?” “I think communication is very important. Sometimes our parents don’t understand us, and we won’t understand then, that’s why it’s so important to try and think from their perspective as well. We need to try to understand each other better.”

HUMANS of Beijing. Facebook, 5 out. 2015. Disponível em: <www.facebook.com/Humans-of-Beijing-1412510822364111/?fref=ts>. Acesso em: 30 nov. 2015.

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www.facebook.com/HumansOfSG

© Humans of Singapore

Editoria de arte

Portrait 4

“What’s your favorite thing about him?” “He’s very calm and patient and rational. Every time we panic he is always the voice of reason. He’s our anchor.” “What’s your favorite thing about your daughters?” “I’m harsh on them sometimes, but they still speak nice things about me. It’s hard sometimes with family but they still do it. That’s why I love them.”

HUMANS of Singapore. Facebook, 7 nov. 2015. Disponível em: <www.facebook.com/HumansOfSG>. Acesso em: 30 nov. 2015.

a. The young woman in green in portrait 3 has a good relationship with her parents. b. Her parents are much older than she is, and this is the secret of their relationship.  c. The man in portrait 4 is the women’s grandfather.  d. Although he is severe with the two women, they still have a positive image of him.

12 The box on page 103 described the characteristics and functions of captions. The texts in this section also have different features. Work with a classmate to identify the characteristic of captions that the texts actually share. Write your ideas in your notebook. They accompany the portraits.

13 Read the characteristics and functions of two other text genres. Can you recognize them in any of the texts you have read in this section? Read and write the items you recognize in your notebook.

Importante apontar que, apesar de os textos da seção estarem na modalidade escrita, todos são transcrições de textos orais. Os participantes sabem que podem ter seu retrato e relato/entrevista publicados na Internet (seja no blogue ou nas redes sociais) e têm, portanto, seu público em mente.

Accounts

Interviews nonfictional 

nonfictional  subjective  subjective  organized into questions and answers  told in the first person  has an audience in mind  share with others personal experiences, opinions, and feelings 

collect information, knowledge, and opinions from people about a subject 

can be written or oral texts  usually oral texts, which can be transcribed  Ver Banco de Gêneros.

POST-READING 14 Discuss the questions below with your teacher and classmates.

Possible answer: Portrait 1 – son and mother, person a. What different relationship connections can you recognize in the texts in this section? and friends, boyfriend and girlfriend; portrait 2 – father and son, son and parents; portrait 3 – daughter and parents; portrait 4 – father and daughters.

b. The man in portrait 1 advises that it is important to have a support system in our lives for times of trouble. What does that mean? How important is that? Possible answer: A support system is a group of people you trust who can listen to you and help you. In my opinion, it is very important to have such people in our lives.

c. The young woman in portrait 3 says that sometimes parents and children don’t understand each other, which means that it’s important to try to see things from each other’s perspective. Do you agree with her? Why / Why not?

106

Possible answer: I agree with her because the age gap can make it difficult for my parents to understand my attitudes, needs, and beliefs. It is very important to try to see the situation from the other person’s point of view so that I can try to understand why the person disagrees with me.

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Grammar

In two of the captions you read in this section, a specific verb tense is used by the people in the portraits, mostly to describe actions and events in progress in their lives. Let’s analyze it to understand why and how it is used.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS Read these excerpts from the captions in portraits 1 and 2, on page 104. Pay attention to the words in bold. Then choose the correct answers, keeping track of them in your notebook. I. Things were quite bad, and so many times you feel like you’re being singled out and given all the bad things in the world. II. But I guess sometimes it’s best to ignore what’s happening and continue working harder. III. When you’re growing up, you don’t realize the value of family.

a. The present continuous is used in the excerpts to express ... • facts and concepts people believe to be true. • process of change  • actions and events in progress at the time of speaking.  b. It is formed by using ... • present tense forms of verb be + main verb in the -ing form.  • do/does + main verb in the -ing form.

If you were going to approach someone on the streets of your city for a project similar to HONY, what question would you ask in order to find out about the person's current activities? Discuss your ideas with a classmate. a. What did you do?

b. What are you going to do?

c. What are you doing? 

Look at the question you checked in the previous activity. What is the structure of wh-questions with the appropriate words. in the present continuous? Replace the Wh-question +

+ subject +

a form of be / main verb in the -ing form.

Work with a partner. Take turns asking and answering questions about your current activities. Also, talk about things that you are doing to build relationships with other people. Possible answers: I’m taking guitar lessons and I’m also doing volunteer work for an NGO. In terms of relationships, I’m trying to be less shy and take a genuine interest in other people and their stories.

See Grammar Reference

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VOCABULARY

In the Reading section, you looked at portraits and read captions in order to discuss relationships. Now you are going to talk about the importance of friends.

Se possível, trazer dicionários para a sala de aula para que os estudantes possam verificar suas respostas. Eles também podem usar outros recursos, se disponíveis, como dicionários e tradutores online para a verificação.

1 Read these excerpts from the captions in the Reading section, paying attention to the parts in bold.

Then use the context to match them to their meanings. Keep track of your answers in your notebook.

I. "[...] and so many times you feel like you’re being singled out and given all the bad things in the world." II. "What’s the one piece of advice you would give to someone else going through the same thing?" III. "The rest works itself out, one way or another." IV. "[...] and the time and effort they put into raising you." a. single out

• pass through a difficult situation b

b. go through (something)

• invest in d

c. work out (something)

• distinguish from others a

d. put into (something)

• solve c

Se possível, trazer dicionários monolíngues para a sala de aula para que os estudantes possam ver outros verbos preposicionais no verbete keep. Mais informações no Guia Didático.

The expressions in bold in extracts I-IV are multi-word verbs. These consist of a verb plus one or two particles or prepositions: single (verb) + out (adverb), go (verb) + through (preposition), etc. In some cases, the particle added to the verb completely changes the meaning of the verb, as in the case of “work out.”

2 Peanuts is a well-known comic strip. Its main character, Charlie Brown, is a boy who doesn’t have

Peanuts, Charles Schulz © 1968 Peanuts Worldwide LLC./Dist. by Universal Uclick

much self-confidence or many friends. Read the strip, in which Charlie talks to Lucy, then choose the correct statements about it. Keep track of your answers in your notebook.

a. Lucy is offering psychiatric advice for money. ✓ b. Charlie Brown feels that people don’t worry about him, nor do they consider him to be important. ✓ c. He wants Lucy to help him make friends. d. He doesn’t have to pay for Lucy’s advice.

3 Comic strips have their own text characteristics. Choose the most appropriate option to complete each feature of the genre; then rewrite the statements in your notebook. a. Comic strips are narratives / informative texts supported by visual and graphic information. b. They are divided into different paragraphs / scenes, laid out in panels. c. Texts in comic strips are concise / long. They are laid out in speech bubbles or as captions.

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5. É importante conversar com os estudantes sobre questões que podem ser problemas emocionais passageiros e outras que podem se tornar transtornos que necessitam de atenção profissional. Muitas questões da adolescência podem, obviamente, ser resolvidas com a ajuda de amigos, da família e da comunidade escolar. Outras, entretanto, podem demandar intervenção psicoterapêutica ou médica.

d. They are usually serious and formal / humorous and informal. e. They are usually published in leaflets / newspapers and magazines.

4 One of the characters uses a multi-word verb in the comic strip you read on page 108. What is it? What does it mean in this context? Write your answer in your notebook.

Care about (someone/something). It means to consider someone to be important to you, to worry about someone.

5 Discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates. a. What further questions would you ask Charlie Brown in order to give him advice on his problem?

Possible answers: Why do you think you are lonely? Do you have any friends? Have you talked to your parents about it?

b. Have you ever helped a friend who was going through a difficult period in life? How was it? Personal answers.

Possible answers: Yes, I do,

c. Do you believe that sometimes relationship problems work themselves out? Why / Why not? because sometimes people

only need time to forget the problem. (or) No, I don’t, because we need to talk about relationship problems instead of ignoring them.

d. Is it important to put time into relationships? Why / Why not?

Possible answers: Yes, it is. It is the only way to make friends and keep relationships. (or) No, it isn't. When people like you, they understand when you don't have time.

In this unit, you have discussed conflicts and concerns people have in relationships and talked about how you feel about your own relationships. Now, let’s focus on relationships as positive influences in your life. You are going to listen to the Nobel-prize winner Malala Yousafzai talk about a person who is very important to her.

LISTENING

PRE-LISTENING

Personal answers. Você pode compartilhar com a turma algumas histórias suas, para que eles tenham ideias sobre as razões que levam uma pessoa a se tornar fonte de inspiração ou uma influência positiva para alguém. Incentivar os estudantes a usar o vocabulário discutido na unidade.

1 A person we have a good relationship with, such as a family member, a friend, or a member of our community, can be a positive influence, an inspiration, or a role model for us. Reproduce the chart below in your notebook, and then complete it about two people who have influenced or inspired you. Person’s name

Relationship

2 Share your ideas in Activity 1 with other

Os estudantes trabalham em grupos classmates. 2. pequenos, de três a quatro pessoas. Possible answers: João, my neighbor, is a role model

3 Malala Yousafzai is a young woman who has

Why this person is an inspiration/influence/ role model for me

You can listen to the full interview at <www.forbes.com/under30video/#/ malala-yousafzai/3872837405001>. (Acesso em: 3 maio. 2016.)

influenced and inspired millions of people all over me because he has been through a lot in his life. / Cecilia, the world. Use the prompts below to talk with a for my mother, is a positive influence in my life. I can always rely on her. / partner about her. When you have finished, read Miguel, our math teacher, is an inspiration for me. He can relate to his the information in the box on page 110 to confirm students’ problems and bond with them. your ideas – they will help when listening to her. Pakistan

girls’ right to education

2012 – Taliban gunman shot her

moved to the United Kingdom

2013 – launch of I Am Malala

2014 – won the Nobel Peace Prize

3. Os estudantes trabalham em grupos de três a quatro pessoas. O objetivo da atividade é ativar conhecimento prévio sobre Malala e que possa contribuir para a compreensão do texto oral a seguir. Mais informações no Guia Didático. Possible answers: Malala is from Pakistan and she fights for girls’ right to education. In 2012, a Taliban gunman shot her, and then she moved to the United Kingdom. She launched an autobiography, I Am Malala, in 2013, and she won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2014.

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JStone/Shutterstock.com

CULTURAL HERITAGE Malala Yousafzai is a young Pakistani activist who gained worldwide notoriety in 2012, after being shot in the head by a Taliban activist for fighting for girls' right to education (something the fundamentalist regime of the Taliban is against). After the attack, Malala and her family (her father, Ziauddin; her mother, Toor Pekkai; and her brothers, Atal e Kushal) moved to Birmingham in the United Kingdom. There, Malala underwent multiple surgeries to repair the damage caused by her aggressor and she resides in the UK until this day. In 2013, her autobiography I Am Malala: The Girl Who Stood Up for Education and Was Shot by the Taliban was published and in the next year she received the Nobel Peace prize (along with Indian children's rights activist Kailash Satyarthi).

4 As you read above, Malala Yousafzai is an activist for the rights of girls to education. Considering

global rates of young people (15–24 years old) and adults who can’t read or write, women accounted for 61.3% and 66% of the total illiterate population, respectively. Work with a classmate to write in your notebook some possible reasons for high illiteracy rates among women. These ideas will help you during the listening activity. Fonte de pesquisa : UNESCO INSTITUTE FOR STATISTICS. International Literacy Data 2013. Montreal, 2013. Disponível em: <www.uis.unesco.org/literacy/Pages/data-release-map-2013.aspx>. Acesso em: 10 nov. 2015.

5 In 2014, Malala Yousafzai was invited to talk to an audience in an important meeting, organized by an American business magazine. The event brought together role models and business leaders who were under 30 years old. Considering the context of the event and the information you have about Malala, answer the questions below in your notebook. a. Why was she invited to this event? Possible answer: Probably because she is considered a role model. b. Who was her audience? Possible answer: Probably people interested in her story and in her activism.

WHILE-LISTENING 14

O objetivo da atividade é trabalhar, numa primeira escuta, com a compreensão geral do texto oral.

6 Listen to Malala and choose the statement that presents the main purpose of this excerpt of her participation in the meeting. Keep track of your answer in your notebook.

• To inform the audience about the current state of girls’ education in Pakistan. • To share with the audience how she was shot by a Taliban gunman and her family’s suffering. • To talk about a person who has inspired her and give a glimpse into his/her story. 

14

7 People who are an inspiration to millions of others, such as Malala Yousafzai, have also been inspired by other people. Listen to her again and choose the appropriate answer to each of the questions below. Keep track of them in your notebook. a. Who has inspired Malala? • Her mother. 

• Her friend.

• Her daughter.

• Because she has returned to school. 

• Because she sold her books to buy food.

b. Why has this person inspired her? • Because she has cried a lot and prayed for her.

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14

8 Listen to Malala once more. In your notebook, write the letters for the items in the order the ideas are mentioned in her account.

Ordem correta: d, a, c, b, g, e, f

a. Malala says that her mother loves her and is a very nice mother.

b. There weren’t other girls in her class, and her friends didn’t study with her.

d. Malala’s mother had been through a lot of suffering when Malala was shot.

f.

14

Malala’s mother is a great inspiration for her because of having returned to school at her age.

c.

Malala’s mother started going to school when she was 6 years old.

e. Now her mother is back in school. She’s learning English. She thinks education is very important to her now.

g. She left school. She sold her books and used the money to buy candy. Malala’s mother never got formal education at a school.

9 Listen to Malala one more time. What can you infer from what she says and from the information you read about her family? Choose the most appropriate statements and write them in your notebook.

• Malala’s grandparents didn’t want her mother to study. • When Toor Pekkai was a child, girls in Pakistan were not encouraged to go to school.  • Toor Pekkai is learning English in order to communicate with other people in their new home. • She is having a hard time learning English. A estratégia de inferência pode ser aplicada a textos escritos, como você fez na seção Reading, e também a textos orais, como solicitado na Atividade 9. Os princípios para a inferência na oralidade são os mesmos que na escrita: associamos pistas dadas no texto ao nosso conhecimento de mundo para produzir novos sentidos.

POST-LISTENING

O objetivo da atividade é sensibilizar os estudantes para as semelhanças entre os textos escritos e o texto oral, principalmente em termos de características textuais dos gêneros entrevista e relato.

10 What does the excerpt from Malala’s participation in the meeting have in common with the other texts you have read in this unit? Write your ideas in your notebook.

Possible answers: They are about experiences and opinions. They are ways people have found to share these experiences and opinions. Their tone is personal and informal.

11 Based on your answers in Activity 10 and on the discussions about text genre in this unit, what can you say about the genre of the excerpt you heard? Keep track of your answer in your notebook.

It is an account collected during an interview. Sugerimos discutir com os estudantes a importância de ter como modelo pessoas que contribuem ou tenham contribuído efetivamente para uma sociedade melhor.

12 Discuss these questions with your teacher and classmates.

a. Malala has become an inspiration for girls who are struggling to go to school all over the world. Do you think that her story and activism can also inspire or press government leaders to address this problem? Why / Why not? b. In your opinion, why is it important for teenagers to have a role model to look up to, or a person who inspires them? Does this person have to be someone teenagers have a close relationship with? Why / Why not?

12a. Possible answers: They can inspire or press government leaders because they draw people’s attention to the problem and raise debate in society. (or) They may not inspire or press government leaders because they are not influenced by single individuals. 12b. Possible answers: Because a role model can encourage teenagers to become better people or to follow their dreams, can help them raise their self-esteem and develop ethical and moral values. This person doesn’t have to be someone close – many teenagers have famous people, such as political leaders, activists, and athletes, as role models.

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In this unit, you have read captions as a starting point for a discussion on relationships, talked about how you feel regarding relationships, and have listened to Malala Yousafzai’s personal account of how her mother is an inspiration for her. Now you are going to provide and collect an account, similar to those which people gave to Humans of Singapore and Humans of Beijing.

SPEAKING

PLANNING 1

In the Reading section, we discussed some captions for the portraits in Humans of Singapore and Humans of Beijing. Some of them are accounts collected through interviews. To remember some of the characteristics of both genres, rewrite them in your notebook, using the words in the box to complete them. O objetivo da atividade é retomar as características dos gêneros relato e entrevista.

experiences

facts

personal

questions

a. Both accounts and interviews are based on b. They can be oral or

together

written

, but they are subjective. facts

genres. written

c. In interviews and accounts, people share d. Their tone is

share

, opinions, or feelings with others. experiences

, and the accounts are told in the first person. personal

e. Interviews are organized into

and answers. questions

f. In interviews, participants build content

. together

g. In interviews, the interviewer uses questions to help the interviewee knowledge with other people. share

his/her opinions, experience, and/or

2 Three of the captions you read start with a question, which encouraged the person depicted to share his/her

experiences and opinions. And in three captions, there is also a follow-up question, which aims to stimulate the person to expand on his/her initial statement. Reproduce the chart below in your notebook, and then complete it O objetivo da atividade é sensibilizar os estudantes para as perguntas como fio condutor dos with the questions. relatos, ponto que será importante no momento em que eles colherem os relatos dos colegas. Opening questions

Follow-up questions

“What was the happiest moment of your life?”

“What’s the one piece of advice you would give to someone else going through the same thing?”

“How close are you to your parents?” “What’s your favorite thing about him?”

“And have you told them that?” “What is your secret to having that relationship?”

3 You and your classmates are going to create content similar to the portraits and captions in

Humans of Singapore and Humans of Beijing and then later share it with the whole class. Follow última legenda, ainda há a pergunta: “What’s your favorite thing about your the steps to organize the project. Na daughters?” Essa pergunta não é uma pergunta de follow-up, mas sim direcionada a outro participante da fotografia.

a. As a class, choose a name for your project.

b. Think of a theme for the project. Look at some ideas below. • My favorite people in the world

• Conflicts in my relationships

• Generation gap

• People that inspire me

• Other

c. As you saw in the Reading section, anonymity is an important characteristic of Humans of New York and in other similar projects. Work individually to think of how an image could represent who you are, but without disclosing your identity – it could be a picture of an object you like, a magazine cutout, a collage, a work of art, or any other image that would tell others something about you. d. Next, decide how you are going to keep a record of the information you collect. You can write down what your classmate says. If devices such as cell phones or digital recorders are available, you can record it. e. As a class, brainstorm some possible questions you can ask to start the interviews, according to the topic chosen in Step b. It is essential to think of questions everybody would feel comfortable answering. Escrever as perguntas no quadro para referência da classe.

f. Individually, choose one of the questions brainstormed – this will be your starting point. Ver Banco de Gêneros.

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PRONUNCIATION INTONATION IN QUESTIONS Intonation is the rhythm of a language, how people say things, and many times it indicates the speaker’s attitude. Every language has its own range of intonation patterns, and being familiar with them can help you to communicate. We can naturally speak in a high or in a low pitch, but, for native speakers of English, certain sentence types are usually connected to specific intonation patterns. Mais informações no Guia Didático.

Wh- and yes/no questions have specific intonation patterns. Read and listen. 15

a. Who is your role model?

The pitch falls at the end of the question.

b. Do you have a good relationship with your mother?

The pitch rises at the end of the question.

Listen to questions a–f. Write in your notebook the word that corresponds to the pattern you hear. 16

a. rising

falling

c. rising

falling

e. rising

falling

b. rising

falling

d. rising

falling

f. rising

falling

SPEAKING 4 Work in pairs. You are going to take turns providing and collecting information, beginning with the question selected in Activity 3. Keep the following tips in mind.

Pontuar para a turma que os registros – orais ou escritos – serão usados na seção Writing, mais adiante.

WHEN COLLECTING INFORMATION ...

• If you are going to take notes, have paper and a pen with you. If you are going to use an electronic device to record the information, test it before you start. • Start with the image selected by your partner. Take some time to analyze it – this might help you with the opening and follow-up questions, or you might even come up with a better idea for an opening question! • Before asking your opening question, you can talk with your partner for a while in order to establish a relationship with him/her (without keeping a record of it). • During your conversation, don’t forget to smile and show genuine interest in what your partner is saying. • Once you are ready, ask the opening question. Remember the intonation patterns discussed in the Pronunciation box. • You might need to ask follow-up questions based on your partner’s answer – be ready to come up with followup questions as appropriate. • Make sure you are keeping a record of the exact words your partner is saying. • Try to limit your partner’s account to 1–2 minutes. • At the end, thank your classmate for his/her account. WHEN PROVIDING INFORMATION ...

• Answer your classmate’s opening and follow-up questions as clearly as possible. If he/she is taking notes, allow him/her some time to register your answers. • If you don’t feel comfortable answering any of the questions, tell your classmate. • Try to be short and objective.

5 How did you feel while sharing your experience and opinions with your partner? Was he/she an attentive and interested listener?

6 When you were collecting information from your partner, did you have to ask follow-up questions? If so, was it difficult to come up with them?

Os estudantes podem relatar dificuldades com a formulação imediata de perguntas.

7 Do you think this part of the project has strengthened your relationship with the classmate you worked with? Why / Why not?

Espera-se que o projeto tenha aproximado os estudantes, que provavelmente compartilharam experiências e opiniões com um colega como não haviam feito anteriormente.

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WRITING

In the previous section, you provided information to and collected information from a partner in order to create content for a classroom project inspired by Humans of New York. Now you are going to edit content to create the captions and share texts and images with the class.

PLANNING 1 Now that you have a record – either written or oral – of your partner’s information, you are going to prepare it to be shared with other classmates. Read the guidelines below.

• Check if the information is clear and intelligible. • Clarify any points with your partner, if necessary. • Make sure that you have your partner’s image. If you have recorded your partner’s information, you will have to transcribe the audio into written text. • Transcribing can take some time. Try to find a quiet place and focus on your work. • Ignore pause fillers (“uh”, “um”, and others), but use ellipses […] to indicate longer pauses. • Once you have finished, check your transcript by listening to the audio again. Fontes de pesquisa: HOW to transcribe faster. Wikihow. Disponível em: <www.wikihow.com/Transcribe-Faster>. Acesso em: 13 nov. 2015.OREGON DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH SECTION. Guide to transcribing and summarizing oral histories. Salem, 2010. Disponível em: <www.oregon.gov/odot/td/tp_res/docs/otherpublications/ guide_to_transcribing_and_summarizing_oral_histories.pdf>. Acesso em: 13 nov. 2015.

There are many pieces of software and apps – available for free – that can help you transcribe oral speeches and audio files, with keyboard shortcuts that speed up the task. A quick internet search for terms such as “free transcription software” can show you a variety of options.

If you have written down your partner’s information:

2 In Humans of New York, Brandon Stanton selects parts of the accounts collected through the

interviews for the captions; you are going to do the same with your partner’s transcript. Which tip is NOT relevant to the selection of content for the caption? Write it in your notebook. Sugerimos discutir as dicas com a turma.

a. Keep as much content from the original transcript as you can – the longer your caption, the better. ü b. The content for the caption should be the most relevant or interesting part of the account/interview. c. Consider if your questions should be kept in the final text. Are they essential to understanding the caption? d. Keep your audience – in this case, the rest of the class – in mind when selecting content. e. The excerpt selected must make sense on its own. f. The caption should be an exact reproduction of your partner’s words, as a sign of respect for his/her ideas.

WRITING 3 Work with your partner from the Speaking task. Take your time and select the content of your transcript for the caption. Follow the steps below.

a. Analyze the whole text critically, considering the tips in Activity 2. b. Write the content selected on a separate sheet of paper. c. Remember to use quotation marks (“ ”) to indicate that the caption is a reproduction of spoken language. d. If you have decided to include questions you asked, start a new paragraph for each of them. Go back to the captions in this unit, if necessary.

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e. When you have finished writing your caption, exchange texts with your partner. f. Check if the ideas in your original oral account have been respected by your partner. Give and receive any appropriate feedback. Pode-se solicitar aos estudantes que busquem e corrijam problemas neste momento. g. Share your caption with your teacher for feedback. Aqui pode ser mais uma opção de momento de correção.

4 In Humans of New York, Brandon Stanton gets people’s permission to photograph them and also to

share their portraits and accounts online. Discuss with your partner if he/she agrees to have his/her image and caption shared with the whole class, considering its advantages and disadvantages.

Como os relatos/entrevistas podem conter informações que os estudantes não se sintam confortáveis em dividir com toda a turma, é essencial refletir sobre essa escolha e respeitar a vontade daqueles que não desejem que suas imagens e textos sejam compartilhados. Nesses casos, os textos e imagens devem ser devolvidos aos estudantes após o feedback do professor.

5 Discuss, as a class, how the captions and images will be shared. Look at the two ideas below. Mention at least one other sharing possibility.

As possibilidades de compartilhamento sugeridas não fazem uso de tecnologia digital, visando não excluir escolas e a. Create an exhibition on the classroom walls with the pictures and captions. estudantes que não tenham acesso a esses recursos. Mais informações no Guia Didático. Caso a opção b. seja a b. Compile pictures and captions to create a book for the project. escolhida, é importante conversar com os estudantes sobre que outros gêneros c. Other. e textos de suporte devem aparecer no livro, como: capa, contracapa, sumário, apresentação, entre outros.

If digital resources are available and allowed in your classroom, you can discuss with your teacher and classmates other forms of sharing your productions, such as posting it online or through a slide-show presentation.

However, if you choose to share it online, it is essential to get everyone's permission to share his or her captions and images and to use an official school blog or website. Social networking websites and other media sharing apps and websites should be avoided.

6 Now that the images and captions have been shared, take some time to appreciate them. Next, discuss the questions below with your teacher and classmates.

Possible answers: Júlia’s image and caption were the most surprising because I didn’t know she was studying Chinese. (or) For me, Pedro’s image and caption a. Which image and caption were ... were the funniest because the story he told about his grandfather made me laugh a lot.

• the most surprising? • the funniest? • the most touching? • the most intriguing? Explain your choices. b. In Activity 4, you asked your partner’s permission to share his/her image and caption with the whole class. How answers: I would feel offended. / I would would you feel if yours were shared without your permission? Possible feel as if my choice had not been respected. c. Do people always ask permission of others when posting or sharing their images or ideas on social media websites? Possible answers: Most people don’t do it. It is important to ask first Why is it important to do that? in order to respect other people’s right to privacy. d. How could this project be expanded to your community? Do you think it could be used as a tool to discuss social issues in the community? Why or why not? Possible answers: People in the community could be invited to participate in

the project. A theme that is a concern for the community (e.g., lack of daycare centers for children) could be chosen, and the people photographed could share with others how this problem affects their lives.

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WRAP-UP

In this unit, you have discussed conflicts and concerns people have in relationships. Now let’s have a final reflection and discuss examples of these topics in proverbs.

PROVERBS AND QUOTES 1 Work in pairs. Read the following proverbs and quotes about relationships. Discuss what you think their messages are. Personal answers. Mais informações sobre os autores das citações no Guia Didático.

No road is long with good company.

A family tie is like a tree: it can bend, but it cannot break.

In time of test, family is best.

Absence makes the heart grow fonder.

Turkish proverb a

African proverb f

Burmese proverb c

English proverb e

“Friends are those rare people who ask how you are and then wait for the answer.”

“Lots of people want to ride with you in the limo, but what you want is someone who will take the bus with you when the limo breaks down.”

“Friends are relatives you make for yourself.” h

“True friends stab you in the front.” Oscar Wilde b

Author unknown g

Eustache Deschamps

Oprah Winfrey d QUOTEGARDEN. Quotations about Relationships. 2015. Disponível em: <www.quotegarden.com/relationships.html>; Quotations about Friendship. Disponível em: <www.quotegarden.com/friendship.html>; Quotations about Family. Disponível em: <www.quotegarden.com/family.html>; AFRITORIAL. The Best 72 African Wise Proverbs and Inspiring Quotes. Disponível em: <http://afritorial.com/the-best-72-african-wise-proverbs/>; PHRASEMIX. The 50 Most Important English Proverbs. <www.phrasemix.com/collections/the-50-most-important-english-proverbs>. Acesso em: 13 nov. 2015.

2 With your partner, match some possible meanings to the proverbs and quotes above. Are the

meanings similar to the ideas you and your partner had in Activity 1? Keep track of your answers in your notebook. Os estudantes podem confirmar ou não suas ideias – algumas propostas podem ser paráfrases dos significados

abaixo. De qualquer forma, as opiniões dos estudantes não podem ser descartadas sem uma reflexão sobre sua validade.

a. You can face difficulties in life when you have good friends.

c. Your family is the greatest support when you are facing difficulties in life. d. You need friends who enjoy having fun with you, but who are also willing to help in times of trouble. e. When you like someone, being away just makes you like him/her even more. f. A family relation might get strained, but it never ends. g. Friends are really interested in your well-being and in what you have to say. h. While you can’t choose your family, you can pick your friends.

3 Now join another pair. As a group, discuss the questions below. Personal answers.

a. Which proverbs and quotes in Activity 1 do you agree with?

Proverbs are simple sayings that express a basic truth based on common sense or practical and cultural experience. They originated in the oral tradition and folk literature. Hence, they reflect a people's customs, values, and traditions. Some values that seem to be universal may appear through proverbs in different languages, such as “custom rules the law” (“O costume faz a lei”). Research source: PROVERB. In: Encyclopaedia Brittanica Kids. 2015. Disponível em: <http:// kids.britannica.com/comptons/article-9333826/ proverb>. Accessed on: May 3rd, 2016.

b. Real friends are totally honest with you, even if they hurt your feelings.

Which one is the most interesting? Why? b. One of the proverbs in Activity 1 has a counterpart in Portuguese. Can “Abence makes the heart grow fonder.” In Portuguese we say “Longe dos olhos, perto do you say which proverb it is? What is its counterpart in our language? coração.” c. Do you know any proverbs in Portuguese which could somehow be related to the topics discussed in this unit? If so, which ones? Do you understand their messages?

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FURTHER INFORMATION

Para mais informações, ver Guia Didático.

• Websites The HONY Effect: How ‘Humans of New York’ Is Altering Lives

Self-Assessment

Disponível em: <www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/ the-hony-effect-how-humans-of-new-york-is-altering-lives-9611015. html>. Acesso em: 13 out. 2015.

Reflita sobre suas aprendizagens ao longo dessa unidade e registre em seu caderno o grau de dificuldade encontrado. Desenhe em seu caderno uma barra semelhante à apresentada a seguir para avaliar o grau de dificuldade de cada item.

Talking to Your Parents – or Other Adults

Disponível em: <http://kidshealth.org/teen/your_mind/families/talk_to_parents. html>. Acesso em: 13 out. 2015.

Malala Yousafzai’s Mom Opens up about Going back to School

Disponível em: <www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/malala-mom-back-toschool_561b3636e4b0dbb8000f0e33>. Acesso em: 13 out. 2015.

• Vídeos He Named me Malala (em português, Malala) – Documentário que trata dos eventos que levaram ao ataque à jovem paquistanesa por parte do Talibã e acontecimentos posteriores, como seu discurso na ONU. Direção: Davis Guggenheim. Emirados Árabes Unidos/ EUA: Imagenation Abu Dhabi FZ, 2015. (88 min)

I. Ao longo desta unidade eu pude... a. discutir relacionamentos na família, com amigos e na comunidade; b. ler e compreender fotolegendas de retratos (portrait and caption) de personagens anônimos de diferentes projetos fotográficos pelo mundo;

The Sisterhood of the Traveling Pants (em português, Quatro amigas e um jeans viajante) – Tibby, Lena, Bridget e Carmen são melhores amigas, tendo crescido juntas. Agora com 16 anos, vão se c. analisar o uso do present continuous para expressar ações em progresso e separar pela primeira vez para as férias. No último dia, encontram uma calça jeans que, atividades temporárias; estranhamente, serve nas quatro garotas. d. observar o uso de multi-word verbs e usá-los para me expressar sobre Elas decidem, então, comprar a peça e compartilhá-la – juntamente com suas relacionamentos; aventuras – durante as férias. e. ouvir o relato (account) de uma jovem sobre uma pessoa próxima que é sua fonte de Direção: Ken Kwapis. EUA: Warner Bros, 2005. inspiração; (119 min)

f. colher informações sobre outra pessoa, por meio de entrevista (interview); g. transcrever, editar e compartilhar informações de entrevista (interview).

Reveja alguns gêneros utilizados nesta unidade para discutir relacionamentos em diferentes esferas sociais. Em poucas palavras, liste em seu caderno o que você aprendeu com cada um deles. Fotolegenda

Relato

Entrevista

II. Reflita sobre sua participação ao longo da unidade e registre em seu caderno aquela que você considera mais próxima da sua avaliação. a. Participei mais / menos nas atividades de b. Gostei mais / menos de c. Eu me senti

.

d. Eu poderia

.

e. Tive dificuldade em

.

.

.

f. Outra avaliação.

É importante que você reflita sobre seus registros e compartihe com colegas e seu professor as situações em que você não conseguiu participar como gostaria, para que, em conjunto, possam identificar problemas e definir ações. Escreva em seu caderno um plano de ação para superar as dificuldades encontradas em cada item. Gostaria de saber mais sobre você Ainda preciso desenvolver Planejo

.

.

.

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GRAMMAR REFERENCE Aqui, você encontra os conceitos gramaticais das unidades sistematizados e exemplificados. Essa é uma ótima oportunidade de rever conteúdo gramatical e esclarecer dúvidas.

UNIT 1 SIMPLE PRESENT

Talking about general truths and concepts, permanent situations and actions that occur on a regular basis

Language Use Geralmente, usamos verbos no simple present quando falamos de situações permanentes, de fatos e conceitos aceitos como verdade geral ou de ações que ocorrem com regularidade.

What a child experiences during the early years sets a critical foundation for the entire life course. (os verbos to experience e to set expressam uma situação permanente)

They tell you to search for yourself, but strangely, they never tell you where to look. (o verbo to tell expressa uma ação que ocorre com regularidade)

Language Structure Na afirmativa, com I, you, we e they, utilizamos o verbo em sua forma infinitiva sem to. Para a terceira pessoa do singular (he/she/it), a regra geral é acrescentar -s ao verbo no infinitivo sem to.

The group allows them to feel that they stand out from the crowd. (= it)

(verbo to allow)

Unfortunately, skin tone matters in many places. (= it)

(verbo to matter)

Há algumas exceções a essa regra. Aos verbos terminados em s, ss, sh, ch, o, x e z, acrescenta-se -es para a terceira pessoa do singular. Nos verbos que terminam em -y precedido de consoante, troca-se o y por -ies. 118

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They get more mature as adolescence passes by. (verbo to pass)

When she finishes high school, she wants to enroll in law school. (verbo to finish)

When a teenager watches out for bad advice, he/she gets more prepared for the future. (verbo to watch)

Wherever she goes, she knows what she wants! (verbo to go)

She feels she fixes the world by doing her job! (verbo to fix)

My family always tries to encourage me to follow my beliefs, even when they don’t fully agree with me. (verbo to try)

Na negativa, utilizamos do not (ou don’t) + verbo no infinitivo sem to. Para he/she/it, usamos does not (ou doesn’t) + verbo no infinitivo sem to.

63% of teens say they "know who they are" while 37% do not fully know their identity yet. (= they)

(= don’t fully know)

A girl does not have the same opportunities in all countries. (= she)

(= doesn’t have)

Na interrogativa, utilizamos do (does, para he/she/it) + sujeito + verbo no infinitivo sem to. Chamamos esse tipo de pergunta de Yes/No question – as respostas para elas devem ser iniciadas pelas palavras yes ou no.

Do you believe you know who you are (or were) in high school? (do + sujeito you + verbo to believe no infinitivo)

Yes, I do. / No, I don’t. (respostas iniciadas por Yes e No)

Caso haja na frase um pronome interrogativo, ele é alocado antes de do/does. Esse tipo de pergunta recebe o nome de wh- question.

What does a teenage boy think if he is forced to leave school? (pronome interrogativo what + does + sujeito a teenage boy + verbo to think no infinitivo)

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UNIT 2 OBJECT PRONOUNS Using the pronouns in English

Language Use

Her father thinks she is lucky. The richest

Os object pronouns (correspondentes aos pronomes pessoais oblíquos em português) servem para substituir substantivos que exerçam a função de objeto direto ou indireto do verbo. Esses pronomes devem vir sempre após verbos ou preposições.

prince in the known world proposed to her.

OP

(object pronoun "her" usado como complemento do verbo to propose)

She has a crush on my neighbor. In fact, I OP

think she really started to love him! (object pronoun "him" como complemento do verbo to love)

Language Structure Ao lado, apresentamos uma tabela com os object pronouns e os subject pronouns (pronomes pessoais do caso reto) a que eles correspondem.

Note que it tem a mesma forma como subject e object pronoun, o que também ocorre com o you, cuja forma se mantém a mesma tanto no singular quanto no plural.

Subject Pronouns

Object Pronouns

I

me

you

you

he

him

she

her

it

it

we

us

you

you

they

them

POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES Expressing possession

Language Use Os possessive adjectives (adjetivos possessivos) indicam que algo pertence a alguém. Eles sempre são utilizados antes do objeto possuído – um substantivo – e não têm distinção de gênero nem de número (quantidade).

I think his paintings represent brotherly love. (o possessive adjective "his" indica posse sobre paintings)

I don’t like romantic movies very much, but my friend loves them. (o possessive adjective "my" indica posse sobre sister)

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Language Structure

Subject Pronouns

Possessive Adjectives

I

my

you

your

he

his

she

her

it

its

we

our

you

your

they

their

Cada possessive adjective se refere a uma pessoa do discurso, conforme mostra a tabela ao lado.

Note que o possessive adjective “her” tem a mesma forma do object pronoun "her”.

UNIT 3 IMPERATIVE Giving someone orders, instructions and advice or warning somebody

Language Use Imperative é o modo verbal usado para dar instruções, expressar uma ordem, um pedido ou um aviso. Além disso, ele é empregado quando se quer dar conselhos a alguém.

O uso da palavra please no início ou no final das frases na imperative form as torna mais polidas.

Help stop bigotry. (verbo to help no imperativo usado para indicar um pedido)

Read about the great thinkers of other countries than yours. (verbo to read no imperativo usado para dar um conselho)

Please, don’t talk so loud. (palavra please no início da frase)

Be respectful, please. (palavra please no final da frase)

Learn about traditional celebrations from other countries. (verbo to learn no infinitivo sem to)

Language Structure Para formar o imperative, utilizamos o verbo no infinitivo sem to. Na forma negativa, o imperative é constituído acrescentando-se do not ou don’t antes do verbo no infinitivo.

Visit an art exhibit or a museum dedicated to other countries. (verbo to visit no infinitivo sem to)

Don’t be rude to people. (= do not)

Don’t destroy nature. (= do not)

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UNIT 4 SO Linking phrases and expressing the result of an action, an answer to it and its logical continuation

Language Use A conjunção so indica o resultado de uma ação, a resposta a ela ou, ainda, a sua continuação lógica. Sendo uma conjunção coordenativa, contribui para conferir ao discurso maior fluidez, uma vez que conecta frases mais curtas, estabelecendo relações entre as ideias nelas apresentadas.

Children not always eat from all five food groups, so they may have nutritional problems. (so usado para expressar um resultado da ideia presente na primeira oração)

Many families have takeout meals these days, so they rarely prepare their own food. (so usado para expressar um resultado da ideia presente na primeira oração)

COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS Nouns that you can count, nouns that you can’t

Language Use Countable nouns (substantivos contáveis) são utilizados para nomear itens que podem ser contados individualmente, ao passo que uncountable nouns (substantivos incontáveis) referem-se a itens que não podem ser contados em unidades e precisam, assim, de uma medida de referência (litro, grama etc.) para que se estabeleça a sua quantidade.

Oranges are rich in vitamin C. (countable noun)

Cheese is good for your health. (uncountable noun)

Language Structure Uncountable nouns são usados somente no singular. Ademais, alguns determinantes são utilizados apenas com countable nouns, e outros só com uncountable.

They bought many apples.

X

(deteminante many + countable noun "apple" no plural)

She ate a few eggs for breakfast. (determinante a few + countable noun "egg" no plural)

They bought much milk. (determinante much + uncountable noun "millk" no singular)

X

He ate a little bread. (determinante a little + uncountable noun "bread" no singular)

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A separação em countable ou uncountable não é tão evidente no caso de alguns substantivos. Há ainda os que podem ser utilizados como countable ou como uncountable, dependendo do contexto. Cabe, desse modo, a consulta a um bom dicionário para sanar dúvidas.

bean/beans X rice Cannellini is a kind of bean. (bean usado no singular)

Wehani is a kind of rice. Eating rice and beans is traditional in Brazil. (not “rices”) (uncountable noun

(countable noun "bean" no plural)

"rice" no singular)

fruits

X

fruit

I prepared a delicious fruit juice. (not “fruits”) (fruit usado como uncountable noun)

Some fruits, such as orange and lemon, are called citric. (fruit usado como countable noun)

UNIT 5 SHOULD, MUST, AND HAVE TO Expressing obligation and giving advice

Language Use Should e must são verbos modais (usados com a finalidade de complementar o sentido de um verbo principal em uma frase). Utilizamos should para expressar uma obrigação leve ou dever moral. Além disso, podemos usálo para fazer uma recomendação ou dar um conselho a alguém.

Must expressa uma obrigação mais firme, podendo expressar um sentido de regra ou de necessidade. Já a expressão have to costuma ser agrupada com esses dois verbos modais pela proximidade de significado, pois também exprime uma obrigação. Porém não é um verbo modal. O verbo have é o verbo principal e precisa de verbos auxiliares para formar frases na forma negativa ou na forma interrogativa.

Everybody should work hard in order to have an equal society. (should usado para expressar uma recomendação)

The government should protect everyone’s rights. (should usado para expressar uma obrigação)

Royal princesses have to follow certain rules. (have to usado para expressar uma regra)

Women must fight for their rights. (must usado para expressar uma necessidade)

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Os mesmos verbos, quando utilizados na forma negativa, podem adquirir outro sentido. Don’t have to ou doesn’t have to, por exemplo, significam que não há obrigação de fazer algo. Must not e a forma contraída mustn’t expressam uma proibição. Utilizamos shouldn’t para expressar uma recomendação de que algo não deve ser feito.

She doesn’t have to get married if she doesn’t want to. (doesn’t have to indicando a não obrigatoriedade de uma ação)

You mustn’t laugh at sexist jokes. (mustn’t indicando uma proibição)

People shouldn’t pay attention only to a woman’s appearance. (shouldn’t usado para expressar uma recomendação de algo que não se deve fazer)

Language Structure Na afirmativa, empregos os verbos modais com todas as pessoas do discurso seguidos da forma infinitiva do verbo principal sem o to.

Teenage girls should be able to choose any careers they want. (sujeito teenage girls + should + verbo to be no infinitivo sem to)

Women's rights have to be respected. (sujeito women's rights + have to + verbo to be sem to)

simple present, 3ª pessoa do plural

Society must help to stop violence against women. (sujeito society + must + verbo to help no infinitivo sem to)

Já a expressão have to segue as regras de conjugação do verbo to have no tempo verbal em que estiver sendo empregado.

A forma negativa de should é should not (ou shouldn’t) e a de must é must not (ou mustn’t).

Suffrage prisoners should not be treated as criminals. (should + not + verbo to be no infinitivo sem to)

Violence against women must not be tolerated. (must not + verbo to be no infinitivo sem to)

Fortunately, women can work so that they don't have to depend on anybody. (don't have to + verbo to depend no infinitivo sem to)

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Na forma interrogativa, usamos should + sujeito + verbo no infinitivo sem to. Essa estrutura vale também para must, e perguntas diretas com have to e has to são formadas seguindo a mesma regra dos verbos no simple present.

Must suffrage prisoners be treated like criminals? (must + sujeito suffrage prisoners + verbo to be no infinitivo sem to)

Why should women receive higher salaries? (pronome interrogativo why + should + sujeito women + verbo to receive no infinitivo sem to)

Caso haja na frase um pronome interrogativo, este fica alocado antes de should , do (ou does) e must.

What does society have to do to stop violence against women? (pronome interrogativo what + verbo auxiliar does + sujeito the government + have to + verbo to do no infinitivo sem to)

UNIT 6 PRESENT CONTINUOUS Talking about actions that are happening or about to happen

Language Use Usamos o present continuous quando falamos de ações e eventos contínuos, temporários ou repetidos que estão acontecendo ou se encontram na iminência de acontecer.

She is feeling bad now for arguing with her father earlier today. (present continuous expressando uma ação em progresso)

They are starting to study English tomorrow in order to communicate with other people. (present continuous expressando uma ação na iminência de acontecer)

Language Structure Na afirmativa, utilizamos o sujeito seguido do verbo to be conjugado no presente e o verbo principal + -ing. 125

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The counselor is writing a letter of recommendation right now. (sujeito the counselor + forma conjugada do verbo to be "is" + gerúndio do verbo to write)

I am planning a surprise party for my cousin. (sujeito I + forma conjugada do verbo to be "am" + gerúndio do verbo to plan)

Na negativa, basta acrescentar not à forma conjugada do verbo to be. Na interrogativa, inverte-se a ordem do sujeito e da forma utilizada do verbo to be.

She is not feeling bad about that. (= isn’t)

They are not studying now. (= aren’t)

Is she feeling bad about that? Quando a pergunta apresenta um pronome interrogativo, este fica antes do verbo to be.

(forma conjugada do verbo to be + sujeito she + verbo to feel no gerúndio)

What are they studying now? (pronome interrogativo what + forma conjugada do verbo to be + sujeito she + verbo to feel no gerúndio)

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Enem/Vestibulares N

ão

escrev a

ÁVEL

REUTILIZ

QUESTÃO 1 (Comvest-SP, 2012)

li vr o Adaptado de http://postsecretarchive.com/2005/09/9-3-2005/. Acessado em 01/07/2011

no

Adaptado de: <http://postsecretarchive.com/2005/09/9-3-2005>. Acessado em 01/07/2011.

a. A que experiência o autor do post acima faz referência? b. Por qual motivo o autor da mensagem se sente agradecido?

Resposta esperada: Ele faz referência ao fato de seus colegas de escola terem sido cruéis com ele no ensino médio.

Resposta esperada: Ele se sente agradecido porque essa experiência o tornou mais forte do que seus colegas jamais serão.

Garfield, Jim Davis © 2008 Paws, Inc. All Rights Reserved / Dist. Universal Uclick

QUESTÃO 2 (Enem-MEC, 2011)

Disponível em: <http://www.garfield.com>. Acesso em: 29 jul. 2010.

A tira, definida como um segmento de história em quadrinhos, pode transmitir uma mensagem com efeito de humor. A presença desse efeito no diálogo entre Jon e Garfield acontece porque

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a. Jon pensa que sua ex-namorada é maluca e que Garfield não sabia disso. b. Jodell é a única namorada maluca que Jon teve, e Garfield acha isso estranho. c. Garfield tem certeza de que a ex-namorada de Jon é sensata, o maluco é o amigo. d. Garfield conhece as ex-namoradas de Jon e considera mais de uma como maluca. ✓ e. Jon caracteriza a ex-namorada como maluca e não entende a cara de Garfield.

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QUESTÃO 3 (Enem-MEC, 2011) War Until the philosophy which hold one race superior And another inferior Is finally and permanently discredited and abandoned, Everywhere is war — Me say war. That until there are no longer First class and second class citizens of any nation, Until the color of a man's skin Is of no more significance than the color of his eyes — Me say war. […] And until the ignoble and unhappy regimes that hold our brothers in Angola, in Mozambique, South Africa sub-human bondage have been toppled, Utterly destroyed — Well, everywhere is war — Me say war. War in the east, war in the west War up north, war down south — War — war — Rumours of war. And until that day, the African continent will not know peace. We, Africans, will fight– we find it necessary — As we are confident in the victory. […] MARLEY, B. Disponível em: <http://www.sing365.com>. Acesso em: 30 jun. 2011 (fragmento).

Bob Marley foi um artista popular e atraiu muitos fãs com suas canções. Ciente de sua influência social, na música War, o cantor se utiliza de sua arte para alertar sobre a. a inércia do continente africano diante das injustiças sociais. b. a persistência da guerra enquanto houver diferenças raciais e sociais. ✓ c. as acentuadas diferenças culturais entre os países africanos. d. as discrepâncias sociais entre moçambicanos e angolanos como causa de conflitos. e. a fragilidade das diferenças raciais e sociais como justificativas para o início de uma guerra.

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QUESTÃO 4 (Enem-MEC, 2015) My brother the star, my mother the earth my father the sun, my sister the moon, to my life give beauty, to my body give strength, to my corn give goodness, to my house give peace, to my spirit give truth, to my elders give wisdom. Disponível em: <www.blackhawkproductions.com>. Acesso em: 8 ago. 2012.

Produções artístico-culturais revelam visões de mundo próprias de um grupo social. Este poema demonstra a estreita relação entre a tradição oral da cultura indígena norte-americana e a a. transmissão de hábitos alimentares entre gerações. b. dependência da sabedoria de seus ancestrais.

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d. importância dos elementos da natureza. ✓ e. preservação da estrutura familiar.

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QUESTÃO 5 (UFAL-UAL-AL, 2014-ADAPTADA) There are two ways of getting those vitamins: making them or eating them. Our microbial ancestors probably made many of their vitamins, but later much of that ability was lost. Our primate ancestors lost the ability to make their own vitamin C about 60 million years ago. Those ancestors didn’t need to make vitamin C, however, because they regularly ate fruit. More recently, our hunter-gatherer ancestors got an abundant supply of vitamins from the game they killed and the plants they collected. But with the rise of agriculture, people began to eat more vitamin-poor starches like wheat and corn. And as we’ve transformed our diet even further, we’ve put ourselves at risk of vitamin-related diseases. Adaptado de: <http://www.nytimes.com>. Acesso em: 1 dez. 2013.

No texto, infere-se que a. os ancestrais primatas produziam vitamina C mais que as gerações atuais. b. a ingestão de amidos, como o trigo, está relacionada à alta ingestão de vitaminas. c. há relação entre agricultura e maior taxa de consumo de vitamina C. d. a dieta atual é mais rica em vitaminas do que as dos caçadores-coletores.

QUESTÃO 6 (Comvest-SP, 2012) WHY WE NEED A FOOD REVOLUTION By James Oliver We're losing the war against obesity in the US. It's sad, but true. Our kids are growing up overweight and malnourished from a diet of processed foods, and today's children will be the first generation ever to live shorter lives than their parents. It's time for change. It’s time we switch to fresh food and home cooking. It's time for a Food Revolution.

Gustavo Caballero /Getty Images

e. há duas maneiras de se obter as vitaminas: produzindo ou ingerindo. ✓

Adaptado de: <http://www.jamieoliver.com/foundation/jamies-food-revolution/>. Acesso em: 28 set. 2011.

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Resposta esperada: Elas estão crescendo obesas e mal nutridas e serão a primeira geração a viver menos do que seus pais.

a) Quais são, segundo o texto, as consequências da atual dieta das crianças norte-americanas? b) No que consiste a revolução alimentar proposta por James Oliver? Resposta esperada: Nessa revolução alimentar,

as pessoas devem deixar de ingerir alimentos processados e passar a ingerir alimentos frescos preparados em casa.

QUESTÃO 7 (Enem-MEC, 2013)

Do one thing for diversity and inclusion The United Nations Alliance of Civilizations (UNAOC) is launching a campaign aimed at engaging people around the world to Do One Thing to support Cultural Diversity and Inclusion. Every one of us can do ONE thing for diversity and inclusion; even one very little thing can become a global action if we all take part in it. Simple things YOU can do to celebrate the World Day for Cultural Diversity for Dialogue and Development on May 21. 1. Visit an art exhibit or a museum dedicated to other cultures. 2. Read about the great thinkers of other cultures. 3. Visit a place of worship different than yours and participate in the celebration. 4. Spread your own culture around the world and learn about other cultures. 5. Explore music of a different culture. There are thousands of things that you can do, are you taking part in it? Adaptado de: UNITED NATIONS ALLIANCE OF CIVILIZATIONS. Disponível em: <www.unaoc.org>. Acesso em: 16 fev. 2013.

Internautas costumam manifestar suas opiniões sobre artigos on-line por meio da postagem de comentários. O comentário que exemplifica o engajamento proposto na quarta dica da campanha apresentada no texto é: a. “Lá na minha escola, aprendi a jogar capoeira para uma apresentação no Dia da Consciência Negra.” b. “Outro dia assisti na TV uma reportagem sobre respeito à diversidade. Gente de todos os tipos, várias tribos. Curti bastante.” c. “Eu me inscrevi no Programa Jovens Embaixadores para mostrar o que tem de bom em meu país e conhecer outras formas de ser.” ✓ d. “Curto muito bater papo na internet. Meus amigos estrangeiros me ajudam a aperfeiçoar minha proficiência em língua estrangeira.” e. “Pesquisei em sites de culinária e preparei uma festa árabe para uns amigos da escola. Eles adoraram, principalmente, os doces!”

QUESTÃO 8 (Enem-MEC, 2010)

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Adaptado de: <http://www.chris-alexander.co.uk/1191>. Acesso em: 28 jul. 2010.

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Definidas pelos países membros da Organização das Nações Unidas e por organizações internacionais, as metas de desenvolvimento do milênio envolvem oito objetivos a serem alcançados até 2015. Apesar da diversidade cultural, esses objetivos, mostrados na imagem, são comuns ao mundo todo, sendo dois deles: a. O combate à AIDS e a melhoria do ensino universitário. b. A redução da mortalidade adulta e a criação de parcerias globais.

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d. A parceria global para o desenvolvimento e a valorização das crianças. e. A garantia da sustentabilidade ambiental e combate ao trabalho infantil.

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Calvin & Hobbes, Bill Watterson © 1992 Watterson / Dist. by Universal Uclick

QUESTÃO 9 (Enem-MEC, 2013)

Disponível em: <www.gocomics.com/calvinandhobbes>. Acesso em: 26 fev. 2012.

A partir da leitura dessa tirinha, infere-se que o discurso de Calvin teve um efeito diferente do pretendido, uma vez que ele a) decide tirar a neve do quintal para convencer seu pai sobre seu discurso. b) culpa o pai por exercer influência negativa na formação de sua personalidade. c) comenta que suas discussões com o pai não correspondem às suas expectativas. ✓ d) conclui que os acontecimentos ruins não fazem falta para a sociedade. e) reclama que é vítima de valores que o levam a atitudes inadequadas.

QUESTÃO 10 (Enem-MEC, 2012) Quotes of the day Friday, Sep. 02, 2011 “There probably was a shortage of not just respect and boundaries but also love. But you do need, when they cross the line and break the law, to be very tough.” British Prime Minister DAVID CAMERON, arguing that those involved in the recent riots in England need “tough love” as he vows to “get to grips” with the country’s problem families. Adaptado de: <www.time.com>. Acesso em: 5 nov. 2011.

A respeito dos tumultos causados na Inglaterra em agosto de 2011, as palavras de alerta de David Cameron têm como foco principal a) enfatizar a discriminação contra os jovens britânicos e suas famílias. b) criticar as ações agressivas demonstradas nos tumultos pelos jovens. c) estabelecer relação entre a falta de limites dos jovens e o excesso de amor. d) reforçar a ideia de que os jovens precisam de amor, mas também de firmeza. ✓ e) descrever o tipo de amor que gera problemas às famílias de jovens britânicos.

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WORLD OF LITERATURE 1. O objetivo da atividade é apresentar o tema central da seção de literatura. Recomendamos escrever o substantivo coming-of-age no quadro e pedir aos estudantes que mencionem seus possíveis significados. A fim de que cheguem mais perto de descobrir a resposta, é válido pedir que explorem o significado de cada uma das palavras separadamente. 2. Possible answers: Grow older, get more mature, have more rights and responsibilities, etc. Esta atividade busca discutir o tema central da seção e sensibilizar a turma sobre ele. Usar estratégia de brainstorming para que os estudantes expressem tudo que associam com o termo pode ajudar na condução da atividade.

WARM-UP

1 Do you know the meaning of the noun coming-of-age? Read the dictionary entry below. coming-of-age (noun) : the time when a person becomes an adult : the attainment of prominence, respectability, recognition, or maturity MERRIAM-WEBSTER. Coming-of-age. Dictionary. 2015. Disponível em: <www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/coming%20of%20age>. Acesso em: 18 nov. 2015.

2 Which ideas come to mind when you see the word coming-of-age? Discuss this question in groups. Then, reproduce this mind map in your notebook and complete it using your ideas.

3. As respostas quanto a quem são os autores e as obras se encontram nas próximas partes da seção. O objetivo desta atividade é avaliar quanto os estudantes sabem sobre o conteúdo. Por isso, sugerimos permitir que tragam suas ideias e não se expandir tanto na resposta para não antecipar o trabalho que será feito posteriormente.

coming-of-age

3 In this Literature section, we are going to see how the topic of coming-of-age appears in

different literary and nonliterary genres. Look at the content of this section listed below. Do you know any of these works or authors? If you do, tell your classmates which ones. 4. Esta atividade tem

4a. Although a poem is shorter, it may convey highly complex feelings. Also, because of its sound and rhythm, it tends to please the ears of readers.

Genre

Title

Author

Poem

“Ations”

Shel Silverstein

Poem

“If”

Rudyard Kipling

Book cover

Big Fish: A Novel of Mythic Proportions

Daniel Wallace

4 Discuss the questions below. Explain your answers. a. What is the difference between a poem and a novel? b. Do you enjoy reading poems?

o objetivo de convidar os estudantes a trocar opiniões sobre questões a serem abordadas mais adiante. Discutir em pequenos grupos antes de compartilhar respostas com a turma toda pode ajudar na realização da atividade. E vale lembrar os estudantes de justificar as respostas.

4b. Personal answers. Possible answers: Yes, I do. / I love it because poems generally use sounds to suggest meanings. (or) No, I don’t. / I don’t like it very much because it is generally very difficult to interpret poems. 4c. Personal answers. Possible answers: Yes, I do

c. Do you normally explore the cover of a book before reading it? because the illustration on the cover may offer some d. Do you like films based on novels? Can you think of any?

information about the book subject. (or) No, I don’t because reading a book is more interesting.

4d. Personal answers. Possible answers: Yes, I do. / I love them because they can help to understand the plot a little better. (or) No, I don’t. / I don’t like them very much because this kind of movie can change the book’s original plot.

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5. Personal answer. Possible answer: The children are greeting each other, or bowing as a formal sign of respect and courtesy. Aqui, estamos apresentando uma prévia da próxima parte da seção para que os estudantes tenham mais interesse no trabalho a ser realizado e também para que se habituem a fazer leituras imagéticas e a perceber as funções sociais das imagens nos diversos gêneros. Assim, sugerimos pedir que explorem a imagem ao máximo e tentem entender qual é o gesto ou a mensagem que o desenho ilustra.

5 Look at the illustration below. It accompanies the poem “Ations,” by Shel Silverstein. By looking at it, can you predict what the poem is about? Tell your classmates your prediction.

A LIGHT IN THE ATTIC by Shel Silverstein. © 1981, renewed 2002 Evil Eye LLC. By permission of Edite Kroll Literary Agency Inc.

6 Look at the picture below and discuss how you think it is connected to the topic of coming-of-age. Ton Koene/Easypix Brasil

Personal answer. Possible answer: The people in the photograph are wearing typical costumes to celebrate a special occasion. Sugerimos pedir aos estudantes que explorem a imagem ao máximo, observando as características do local, a aparência das pessoas, as roupas e a atividade realizada por aqueles que aparecem na imagem. Por fim, após essa análise, vale tentar fazer a turma pensar no motivo de as pessoas retratadas estarem realizando aquela prática.

Ngoiroro inhabitants, South of Nairobi.

PART A – Poem: “Ations,” by Shel Silverstein 1 Who is Shel Silverstein? Read the short biography below to learn about him. Then, answer the

Shel Silverstein was born on September 25, 1930 in Chicago, Illinois, and began writing and drawing at a young age. He became a cartoonist, playwright, poet, performer, recording artist, and Grammy-winning, Oscar-nominated songwriter. Silverstein is best known as the author of iconic books of prose and poetry for young readers. His works include such modern classics as Lafcadio: The Lion Who Shot Back (1963), The Giving Tree (1964), A Giraffe and a Half (1964), The Missing Piece (1976), and The Missing Piece Meets the Big O (1981). His immensely popular poetry collections are Where the Sidewalk Ends, a 1974 Michigan Young Readers Award winner; A Light in the Attic, recipient of the School Library Journal Best Books Award in 1982; Falling Up (1996); and Don’t Bump the Glump! And Other Fantasies, which was originally published in 1963 and reissued in 2008. Runny Babbit, a posthumous poetry collection of spoonerisms, was conceived and completed before his death. Silverstein’s books, which he also illustrated, are characterized by a deft mixing of the sly and the serious, the macabre, and the just plain silly. His unique imagination and bold brand of humor is beloved by countless adults and children throughout the world. He died on May 10, 1999.

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following question in your notebook: What is special about this author?

GLOSSARY bold: ousado deft: habilidoso playwright: dramaturgo sly: dissimulado spoonerism: jogo de palavras com transposição de sílabas. Ex. "tapa na cara” torna-se “capa na tara.”

POETS.ORG. Shel Silverstein. New York: [s.d.]. Disponível em: <www.poets.org/poetsorg/poet/shel-silverstein>. Acesso em: 17 nov. 2015.

1. Possible answer: The author writes for different age groups and also worked with different kinds of art. A ideia desta atividade é apresentar o autor aos estudantes para que eles possam compreender o contexto em que ele trabalha. Sugerimos lembrar a turma de que este é um texto autêntico, cujo nível de dificuldade pode ser alto; portanto, o objetivo central é responder à questão proposta. Desse modo, é válido direcionálos ao glossário para melhor compreensão do texto e, após a leitura, perguntar a eles o que passaram a saber sobre o autor.

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O objetivo desta atividade é realizar uma primeira leitura guiada do poema com foco em apreciação e compreensão global. Por isso, sugerimos certificar-se de que os estudantes leiam e entendam as questões antes da leitura. Ademais, vale incentivá-los a fazer uma leitura breve e não muito detalhada do texto, sem focar em palavras específicas, e lembrá-los de que as respostas podem variar.

2 Poem is a text genre we normally read more than once. Read the poem “Ations,” by Shel Silverstein, for the first time, and answer the questions below. Don’t take too long to read it, and don’t focus on the meaning of each word. Remember this is just the first time we are reading it.

a. What is the poem about? Discuss with your teacher and classmates, then summarize your answer in your notebook. The poem is about having good manners and being polite to other people. b. What makes this poem special or memorable? Register your ideas in your notebook. It shows a pattern of an if-clause followed by an explanation containing a noun ending with the same sound. Because of its sound structure, it is easy to memorize.

A LIGHT IN THE ATTIC by Shel Silverstein. © 1981, renewed 2002 Evil Eye LLC. By permission of Edite Kroll Literary Agency Inc.

Ations

4. Possible answer: The title comes from the noun suffixes found in words that carry most of the meaning of the poem. Ation is not a word, but simply a common suffix found in nouns. O propósito desta pergunta é incentivar o estudante a mostrar uma reação pessoal ao poema. Por isso, é válido pedir a eles que retornem ao texto para buscar ideias e elaborar uma resposta oral ou no caderno.

If we meet and I say, 'Hi,' That's a salutation. If you ask me how I feel, That's consideration. If we stop and talk a while, That's a conversation. If we understand each other, That's communication. If we argue, scream and fight, That's an altercation. If later we apologize, That's reconciliation. If we help each other home, That's cooperation. And all these actions added up Make Civilization. (And if I say this is a wonderful poem, Is that exaggeration?)

5. In Portuguese, the -ation words could be translated, respectively, as: saudação, consideração, conversa, comunicação, discussão, reconciliação, cooperação, civilização and exagero. Most of them have the same final sound in English. We notice that -ation is a common suffix for nouns, that it is always pronounced the same way, that most of these words share the same origin, therefore they look and sound similar in English and in Portuguese, and that there is a similarity between the suffix -ation in English and -ção in Portuguese. A proposta é preparar os estudantes para trabalhar a compreensão do poema e entender sua estrutura. Portanto, sugerimos pedir a eles que tentem traduzir os substantivos usando o contexto. A fim de que realizem mais facilmente essa atividade, incentive-os a ler as palavras em voz alta para perceber o padrão de som. Se necessário, eles podem usar um dicionário monolíngue.

A LIGHT IN THE ATTIC by Shel Silverstein. © 1981, renewed 2002 Evil Eye LLC. By permission of Edite Kroll Literary Agency Inc.

3 Find words in the text that correspond to the following meanings and keep track of your findings in your notebook.Aqui, buscamos trabalhar vocabulário que possivelmente interfira na compreensão do texto. a. to disagree or fight by using angry words argue b. to say you are sorry for doing or saying something wrong apologize c. to come to a total add up

4 Why do you think the poem is called “Ations?” Is Ation a word? Write your answers down. 5 How would you translate the -ation words into Portuguese? Do they also have the same sound? What does that tell you about the ending -ation? Answer in your notebook.

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6. Personal answers. Possible answers: information, creation, negotiation, celebration, nation, education, organization, inspiration. Estamos buscando entender o padrão analisado anteriormente. Desse modo, recomendamos abrir espaço para contribuições dos estudantes e dar exemplos de algumas palavras que têm esse som, se necessário.

6 Can you think of more nouns ending in -ation that have a rhyming sound? Make a list in your notebook. 7 Each of the if-clauses exemplifies the -ation word in the following line. Now, think of new beginnings for some of these if-clause sentences, maintaining the end as it is, with the same -ation words. Follow 7. Possible answers: “If you help me, that’s the example and keep track of your answers in your notebook. consideration.”; “If we talk on the phone, that’s a If we meet and I say, "Good morning," that’s a salutation.

conversation.”; “If I send you an e-mail, that’s communication.”

8 Imagine Silverstein asked for your contribution to add four more lines to his poem. Choose two of the new words you thought of that end in -ation, and create the preceding line starting with an if-clause, like you did in Activity 7. Follow the pattern of the other lines and complete them in your notebook. If ...

8. Personal answers. Possible answers: “If you invent something, that’s creation.”; “If you have a birthday party, that’s a celebration.”; “If you put things in the right place, that’s organization.”; “If you have an idea, that’s inspiration.” A ideia da atividade é propor interação do estudante com o poema.

that’s ...

11. Personal answers. Possible answers: Parents and children, teachers and students, grandparents and grandchildren. A ideia é personalizar a leitura e a compreensão do poema. Caso os estudantes não tenham ideias, vale oferecer a eles um exemplo.

If ... that’s ...

13. Recomendamos ajudar os estudantes a entender a estrutura de if-clause seguida de resposta no formato That’s + noun ending in -ation. Ademais, é possível perguntar a eles o que aconteceria se o substantivo não terminasse com -ation. Assim, trabalha-se um dos elementos importantes de análise de um poema.

9 Before you tell your classmates your new contributions to the poem, test them by reading the first line Estamos buscando promover interação entre os estudantes ao

and letting them guess what the -ation word is. propormos modificações e personalização do poema. A: If you have a great idea, B: That’s inspiration.

10 Suppose Silverstein asked you to create a different title for this same poem. How would you name it?

Personal answers. Possible answers: I think I’d name it ( … ) because … (or) I’d

Justify your choice in your notebook. probably name it ( … ) because … O objetivo da atividade é personalizar a leitura.

11 Imagine this poem is a life lesson. Who do you think is teaching the lesson, and who is supposed to be learning it? Think of them as characters and write the answer in your notebook.

12 How useful do you think this life lesson would be? Why? Tell a classmate.

Personal answers. Possible answers: In my opinion/I think it would (not) be (very) useful because ...

13 The words and lines in a poem are very well planned so that particular meanings can be transmitted. Sometimes authors use rhyming sounds, repeated words, and the exact position of lines to help express certain feelings. So, since understanding the organization of a poem helps us appreciate it more, identify the structure of “Ation.” Write it down in your notebook.

14 Identify the rhyming sounds. What do they have in common? Try to recite the poem to yourself in order to find out.

Possible answers: All the nouns end in -ation. Estamos focando a atenção nas rimas e no ritmo do poema. É válido, desse modo, retomar as palavras listadas em atividades anteriores para treinar a pronúncia do som que elas possuem.

15 Now, try to recite it together with a partner, reading it aloud in alternating verses.

A: If we meet and I say, “Hi,” O objetivo da atividade é tentar produzir os sons rimados e recitar o poema para B: That’s a salutation.

estabelecer uma relação sonora com a obra. A fim de alcançar essa finalidade, vale mostrar, a partir do exemplo dado, o tipo de interação que se espera dos estudantes.

16 Shel Silverstein was also a cartoonist, so he used to illustrate most of his poems. If you could add one more illustration to the poem you have just read, what would you draw? Use a sheet of paper to draw your idea. If you are not good at drawing, find images that could represent some aspects of the poem, and glue them there. A ideia da atividade é focar a compreensão e estabelecer uma relação visual artística com o poema. Para tanto, recomendamos incentivar os estudantes a usar imagens de revistas e da Internet caso eles não consigam desenhar.

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1. O objetivo destas perguntas é introduzir o tema e verificar se os estudantes têm alguma familiaridade com o autor. Para conduzir a atividade, sugerimos convidá-los a contribuir com ideias em resposta às perguntas. Lembre-os de que o título do livro em português é O livro da selva; no entanto, o filme recebeu o título Mogli – o menino lobo. Investigue o quanto eles sabem sobre o autor, suas obras ou seu mais conhecido personagem, Mogli.

PART B – Poem: "If," by Rudyard Kipling

1 You have probably heard of the name Rudyard Kipling before. Have you read or heard of The Jungle

Book? Have you watched the animation movie that has the same name? Are you familiar with Mowgli, 2. According to the biography, Kipling probably found inspiration the boy who was raised by wolves? Tell your classmates about it. in India as the setting for several of his works, such as The

Jungle Book. He may also have looked for inspiration in his children, especially in the suffering after the death of two of his three kids.

2 Read a short biography about Rudyard Kipling. Based on this text, what do you think were the author’s

Rudyard Kipling is one of the best-known of the late Victorian poets and story-tellers. Although he was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1907, his unpopular political views caused his work to be neglected shortly after his death. Critics, however, recognize the power of his work. […]

Archive Pics/Alamy/Latinstock

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main inspirations for his literary works. Answer in your notebook.

Kipling was born in Bombay, India, at the end of the year 1865. […] In 1871, however, his parents sent him and his sister Beatrice—called "Trix"—to England, partly to avoid health problems, but also so that the children could begin their schooling. […] Kipling's literary life in London brought him to the attention of many people. […] The Kiplings lived in America for several years, in a house they built for themselves and called "Naulahka." […] Both of Kipling's daughters were born in Vermont—Josephine late in 1892, and Elsie in 1894—as was one of the classic works of juvenile literature: The Jungle Books, which are ranked among Kipling's best works. […] Rudyard Kipling – poet and story teller

The Kiplings returned to America on several occasions, but this practice ended in 1899 when the whole family came down with pneumonia and Josephine, his eldest daughter, died from it. […] Kipling wrote many other works during the periods that he produced his children's classics […], and in 1917 he was assigned the post of 'Honorary Literary Advisor' to the Imperial War Graves Commission—the same year that his son John, who had been missing in action for two years, was confirmed dead. In his last years, explains O'Toole, he became even more withdrawn and bitter, losing much of his audience because of his unpopular political views […]. He declined awards offered him by his own government, yet accepted others from foreign nations. He finally succumbed to a painful illness early in 1936. […]

POETS.ORG. Rudyard Kipling. New York: [s.d.]. Disponível em: <www.poetryfoundation.org/bio/rudyard-kipling>. Acesso em: 18 dez. 2015.

GLOSSARY bitter: rancoroso missing: desaparecido neglected: negligenciado

schooling: estudos withdrawn: afastado, recluso

3 You have on the next page one of Kipling’s most famous poems, which is commonly read at graduation

ceremonies. Read it and try to identify who he wrote this poem for, and why it is commonly read at this kind of event. Look for evidence in the poem and register your findings in your notebook.

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3.The last verse features clear evidence that the poem was written by a father to his son. This poem is often read during graduation ceremonies because it is about life lessons that an adult might teach a younger person who is getting older. Esta primeira leitura deve preferencialmente manter o foco na apreciação global do poema. As perguntas, por sua vez, têm a função de orientar a leitura. Assim, vale lembrar os estudantes de não focar em palavras desconhecidas por ora. Caso necessário, é aconselhável também avisá-los de que adiante haverá atividades de compreensão de textos e vocabulário.

If

01

05

10

15

If you can keep your head when all about you

If you can make one heap of all your winnings

Are losing theirs and blaming it on you,

And risk it on one turn of pitch-and-toss,

If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you,

And lose, and start again at your beginnings

But make allowance for their doubting too;

And never breathe a word about your loss;

If you can wait and not be tired by waiting,

If you can force your heart and nerve and sinew

Or being lied about, don’t deal in lies,

To serve your turn long after they are gone,

Or being hated, don’t give way to hating,

And so hold on when there is nothing in you

And yet don’t look too good, nor talk too wise:

Except the Will which says to them: ‘Hold on!’

If you can dream—and not make dreams your master;

If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue,

If you can think—and not make thoughts your aim;

Or walk with Kings—nor lose the common touch,

If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster

If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you,

And treat those two impostors just the same;

If all men count with you, but none too much;

If you can bear to hear the truth you’ve spoken

If you can fill the unforgiving minute

Twisted by knaves to make a trap for fools,

With sixty seconds’ worth of distance run,

Or watch the things you gave your life to, broken,

Yours is the Earth and everything that’s in it,

And stoop and build ’em up with worn-out tools:

And—which is more—you’ll be a Man, my son!

20

25

30

KIPLING, Rudyard. "If." In: _______; ELIOT, T.S. (Ed.). A Choice of Kipling's Verse. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1943.

4. The use of such pronouns and adjectives shows that the persona referred directly to the reader, i.e., his son, as would normally happen when giving someone advice. Estamos buscando ajudar os estudantes a encontrar evidências sobre a ideia principal do poema.

4 The pronouns and adjective you and your are used very frequently in the poem. What impact do you think that causes on the reader? Explain in your notebook.

Então, recomendamos pedir a eles que identifiquem you e your na primeira estrofe antes de perguntar sobre o possível impacto que esse pronome e esse adjetivo causam no leitor.

5 What is the main purpose of the persona? Find the best answer and explain it to your classmates. a. Informative

b. Instructional ✓

c. Entertaining

d. Persuasive

6 In order to create a glossary that will help us better understand the poem, match the words or phrases to their meanings. The number in parentheses shows you in which stanza you can find the word/ phrase. Try to use the context to help you do this activity. Register the answers in your notebook. a. a dishonest man

• make allowance for (S1) – phrase

b. a strong tissue that connects muscles to bones

• bear (S2) – verb j

c. too old or damaged d. a strong desire or determination e. money won in a game or competition f. a gambling game g. take into consideration

• knave (S2) – noun • trap (S2) – noun

a

i

• stoop (S2) – verb

k

• worn-out (S2) – adjective

c

g 5. Possible answer: The poem has didactic tone, in which the father advises the son to do certain things and avoid others. A proposta é identificar o objetivo principal do poema. Para tanto, sugerimos buscar evidências em “If.”

• winnings (S3) – noun e

h. difficult; allowing no errors

• pitch-and-toss (S3) – noun

i. a situation that is difficult to escape from

• sinew (S3) – noun

j. tolerate

• will (S3) – noun

f

b

d

k. to do something that is not honest • unforgiving (S4) – adjective h 6. Nesta atividade, vamos trabalhar vocabulário que possivelmente seja importante para a compreensão do texto. Pedir que os estudantes usem a informação sobre onde localizar a palavra ou expressão no poema a fim de que o contexto os ajude a encontrar as respostas.

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11b. The lyric self suggests starting from the beginning without complaining about the loss. The verb breathe means, in this context, to express oneself.

7 Poems are normally divided in stanzas, which are groups of lines that usually develop a common idea. How many stanzas are there in this poem? How many lines are there in each stanza? Discuss with your are four stanzas, each containing eight lines. Aqui, o objetivo é compreender a estrutura do texto, para classmates. There facilitar o trabalho de compreensão nas atividades seguintes.

8 The basic grammatical structure we can find in the poem is the conditional. Conditional sentences normally consist of an if-clause (e.g., “If you can … ”) and a main clause. This poem contains lots of if-clauses, but only one main clause. Can you identify it? Copy it into your notebook.

9 In “If” a father is trying to pass his wisdom on to his teenage son. Below, there is a list of character traits that he would like his son to develop. Look at the first stanza of the poem and identify the lines in which we understand he refers to each of the character traits listed. Put the answers in your notebook. a. Honesty line 6

8. “Yours is the Earth and everything that’s in it, And—which is more—you’ll be a Man, my son!” Com a atividade, estamos tentando levar os estudantes a entender a estrutura do poema para que a leitura seja facilitada. Por isso, sugerimos direcioná-los aos dois Self-confidence lines 1–4 primeiros versos e mostrar-lhes que esse é um exemplo de if-clause, que termina com uma vírgula. Então, pedir que eles procurem a main clause nesta mesma estrofe, ou no final do poema. É importante mostrar que a main clause só é encontrada nos dois últimos versos do Modesty line 8 poema e que serve também como main clause de todas as outras if-clauses. Para facilitar a compreensão, recomendamos escrever no quadro: “If you follow my advice, you’ll be a Man, Patience line 5 my son!”

b. Resilience line 7 c. d. e.

10 Paraphrasing is a common strategy used to understand poems. Read below three paraphrased ideas from the second stanza. Identify which line(s) each idea refers to and register that in your notebook. a. It’s all right to dream, but remember to be realistic and goal-oriented, too. Line 9 b. Understand that you will have to face both positive and negative situations. Lines 11–12 c. Even if somebody hurts you badly, you should get up and start again. Lines 13–16

11 In stanza three, the persona tries to put across a strong message of persistence and determination. a. In lines 17–18, the persona suggests we should risk everything we have. What does he compare it The persona uses a metaphor, which is common in poems, to compare running to? Answer in your notebook. 11a. risks in life with gambling. He suggests betting all one’s money on one single game. b. In lines 19–20, what does he suggest we do if we lose everything we risked? c. In line 21, what do the body parts heart, nerve, and sinew represent?

11 c. They (coração, nervo e tendão) represent one’s emotional, mental, and physical states respectively.

d. In lines 21–24, what does the persona advise us to do even if we are physically and mentally weak?

11d. The persona recommends that we not give up, even when faced with difficulties that make us emotionally, mentally, and physically weak.

12 Metaphor is a common figure of speech of poetry in which a word or phrase is used with a figurative meaning to describe or explain a thing, idea, or action. We can find some metaphors in the last stanza of the poem. Read them (1–4) and find their literal meanings (a–d). Register your answers in your verbs talk and walk convey the idea of socializing and hanging out. O objetivo aqui é apresentar notebook. The metáforas aos estudantes e ajudá-los a compreender o significado figurativo delas. Para a condução da a. spend time with important people

1 talk with crowds c

b. life

2 walk with kings a

c. socialize with common people d. time that passes by fast and won’t wait for you

3 unforgiving minute d 4 distance run b

atividade, sugerimos verificar se eles compreendem o significado literal das quatro expressões selecionadas. Em seguida, perguntar quais seriam outros possíveis significados que as palavras crowds, kings, unforgiving e run poderiam ter, e, finalmente, pedir que relacionem as colunas no caderno.

13 Read the quotations from the last stanza in the following charts, then rewrite them in your notebook using your own words, but keeping the same message. Later, write down any other thoughts you have about each quote. Follow the example. Após ter trabalhado com a estratégia de parafrasear a segunda estrofe de forma

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mais guiada, desta vez os estudantes terão a chance de praticar a estratégia de forma mais livre. Para tanto, sugerimos incentivá-los a ler o exemplo e tentar segui-lo. Ademais, vale lembrá-los que, no terceiro campo, My Thoughts, eles podem explicar o significado do trecho selecionado, mas que, no campo My Paraphrase, eles devem apenas reformular o trecho usando as próprias palavras.

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Quote 1

My Paraphrase

“If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue, Or walk with Kings—nor lose the common touch,”

Don’t be corrupted by ordinary people or by people in higher positions.

My Thoughts The lyric self wants his son to be honest and humble. He is telling his son to talk to the crowds and still keep his ethics, and also to hang with kings without becoming arrogant. Possible answers: My Paraphrase: Don’t let friends or enemies hurt you. / My Thoughts: He says that we have to set limits in our relationships with people.

14. Possible answer: When Kipling wrote “If,” his son was probably a young boy. He wrote the poem, which is about life lessons young people who are coming-of-age should learn, to give “If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you,” Possible answers: My Paraphrase: Value everyone, but not one person his son some advice. Aqui, buscamos levar os a uma reação pessoal ao conteúdo • Quote 3 too much. / My Thoughts: We shouldn’t exaggerate and think someone is estudantes much better than anyone else. We shouldn’t be obsessed with anyone. do poema e ajudá-los a ter a compreensão global do poema após analisá-lo. Por isso, “If all men count with you, but none too much;” recomendamos aceitar respostas pessoais Possible answers: My Paraphrase: Make the most of every minute of life. / My Thoughts: Life is too short to waste it. Maybe the persona antes de informar os estudantes sobre a correta. • Quote 4 your Kipling escreveu o poema em 1909, mas means that time flies and we should enjoy life before it’s too late. somente o publicou em 1910 como conselhos “If you can fill the unforgiving minute ao seu filho, John, que tinha aproximadamente With sixty seconds’ worth of distance run,” 13 anos. Aos 18, John Kipling morreu em um combate durante a Primeira Guerra Mundial.

• Quote 2

14 How old do you think his son was when Kipling wrote this poem? Why did he write it for him? What is the main message in the poem? Register this data in your notebook.

15 Use the words from the box below to form three pairs that have a rhyming sound. Register them in your

You and too, lies and wise (final sound is /z/), waiting and hating. Estamos apresentando a estrutura sonora do poema

notebook. e chamando a atenção dos estudantes para a importância dos sons e ritmos para a construção dos sentidos na poesia, bem como para a forma como a ordem das palavras e versos afeta a estrutura da obra.

you

lies

waiting

wise

hating

too

16 In which position did the words from the previous activity appear in the first stanza? Now, identify four pairs of rhyming words in each stanza. Say them out loud to help you find them. Record your findings 16. Second stanza: “master” and “disaster,” “aim” and “same,” “spoken” and “broken,” “fools” and “tools,” in your notebook. Third stanza: “winnings” and “beginnings,” “toss” and “loss,” “sinew” and “you,” “gone” and “on.” Fourth stanza: “virtue” and “you,” “touch” and “much,” “minute” and “it,” “run” and “son.”

17 Which of the lessons, among those that the lyric self is trying to teach his son in the poem, do you think is the most important? Justify your opinion in your notebook. Which ones have you already been Personal answer. Possible answer: In my opinion the most important lesson is ( … ), because … . A proposta da told? atividade é discutir a temática do poema de maneira que os estudantes possam se relacionar com a obra de forma pessoal. Por isso, vale incentivá-los a pensar em sua opinião e em suas experiências pessoais.

18 Imagine you had to transform your parents’ and teachers’ advice into a poem. What would it be about?

Personal answer. Possible answer: It could be about doing

Can you think of a title for it? Register it in your notebook. well at school. Estamos buscando personalizar o conteúdo do poema. Logo, não há necessidade de escrever o poema, mas apenas imaginar como ele seria e qual título teria.

19 Compare your ideas with your partners’. In what ways are they similar or different from those of the

poem? Use your notebook to keep track of your conclusions. 19. Personal answer. O objetivo aqui é tornar a atividade mais comunicativa. Sugerimos, para tanto, organizar a turma em pequenos grupos para que os estudantes possam trocar ideias.

20 Below, there are three quotes from the poem “If.” They represent common situations people might experience in everyday life. Choose one of them, and think about a similar experience you have had in your own life. Explain to a classmate what happened, and how you dealt with the situation. “If you can keep your head when all about you are losing theirs and blaming it on you, … ”

“If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster and treat those impostors just the same, … ”

“If you can make one heap of all your winnings and risk it on one turn of pitch-and-toss, … ”

20. Personal answer. Possible answer: I have already experienced something similar to the first/second/third situation, and I … A ideia da atividade é relacionar o conteúdo do poema com a vida dos estudantes.

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22. The author wrote the poem inspired by his son who was becoming older, leaving his childhood and becoming an adolescent, and as a result taking on more responsibility. Kipling probably believed that the boy was then more mature to understand the life lessons he was trying to teach him in the poem. Estamos retomando a compreensão do tema principal do poema após ter trabalhado com a compreensão mais detalhada de cada estrofe.

21 Tell a classmate about your situation and how you dealt with it. Did you deal with the situation in a similar way the lyric self in the poem advises his son?

22 Coming-of-age is the transition from being a child to becoming an adult. How is this poem connected with this topic?

23 Around the globe, different cultures celebrate the moment of coming-of-age. The importance of this

A. Japanese Coming-of-Age Tradition: Seijin-no-Hi In Japan, the second Monday of January marks a special day when 20 year olds dress up in their finest traditional clothes, attend a ceremony in local city offices, receive gifts, and party amongst friends and family. It’s their Coming of Age Festival, also known as Seijin-no-Hi. The tradition started nearly 1,200 years ago and recognizes the age when the Japanese believe youth become mature, contributing members of society. It’s also the legal age when they can vote and drink.

Asahi Shimbun/Getty Images

transition in a person’s life is seen in distinct ways by different societies. Coming-of-age may represent having more civil and legal rights and responsibilities, achieving sexual maturity, or even religious duties. Read about three different coming-of-age celebrations, and identify the similarities and differences among them. Organize your findings in your notebook.

NUÑEZ, Christina; PFEFFER, Leticia: 13 Amazing Coming of Age Traditions from around the World. Global Citizen, 9 set. 2014. Disponível em: <www.globalcitizen.org/en/content/13-amazing-coming-of-age-traditions-from-around-th>. (Adaptado.) Acesso em: 28 nov. 2015.

The Maasai of Kenya and Tanzania have several rites of passage that carry boys into manhood. Boys between the ages of 10–20 come together to be initiated as the new “warrior class” of the tribe. The night before the ceremony the boys sleep outside in the forest, and at dawn they return for a day of singing and dancing. They drink a mixture of alcohol, cow’s blood, and milk, while also consuming large portions of meat. After these festivities they are ready to be circumcised, making the official transformation into a man, warrior, and protector.

Ton Koene/Easypix

B. Maasai Coming-of-Age Tradition: Tanzania and Kenya

NUÑEZ, Christina; PFEFFER, Leticia: 13 Amazing Coming of Age Traditions from around the World. Global Citizen, 9 set. 2014. Disponível em: <www.globalcitizen. org/en/content/13-amazing-coming-of-age-traditions-from-around-th>. (Adaptado.) Acesso em: 28 nov. 2015.

Around the world, young Jewish boys and girls celebrate their Bar and Bat Mitzvahs at age 13 and 12 in order to demonstrate their commitment to their faith and recognize that they are now responsible for following Jewish law. After the religious ceremony, a reception typically takes place to celebrate the young person’s hard work and accomplishment, as they have often spent weeks learning and preparing for this day.

David Reed/Corbis/Latinstock

C. Jewish Coming-of-Age Tradition: Bar and Bat Mitzvah

NUÑEZ, Christina; PFEFFER, Leticia: 13 Amazing Coming of Age Traditions from around the World. Global Citizen, 9 set. 2014. Disponível em: <www.globalcitizen. org/en/content/13-amazing-coming-of-age-traditions-from-around-th>. (Adaptado.) Acesso em: 28 nov. 2015.

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21. Personal answer. Possible answer: I dealt with it in a similar/different way because … A ideia é deixar a atividade mais comunicativa e permitir que os estudantes possam ajudar uns aos outros a compreender as citações. Recomendamos, assim, pedir-lhes que trabalhem em duplas ou em pequenos grupos.

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24. Personal answers. Possible answers: In Brazil, we celebrate graduation, fifteenth birthday, etc. A proposta é relacionar o tema da unidade à vida dos estudantes. Assim, vale pedir a eles que pensem na própria realidade a fim de tentar buscar uma resposta.

24 Are there any coming-of-age ceremonies in Brazil? Are there any similar traditions in your family or in

your area? What do they celebrate, and how are they celebrated? Exchange ideas with your classmates.

25 Do you think that the poem "If" could be read in the ceremony you described at the previous activity?

Personal answers. Possible answers: Yes, it could, because … (or) No, it couldn’t, because … A ideia da atividade é discutir com os estudantes um possível uso do poema em um evento real. Pedir que se refiram à celebração indicada como resposta à atividade anterior e reflitam sobre a possibilidade de o poema se encaixar como parte desse evento.

Share your answers with your classmates.

PART C – Book cover: Big Fish, by Daniel Wallace 1. Personal answer. Possible answer: The story is far-fetched, despite not being completely impossible to happen. O objetivo da

atividade é introduzir o tema desta parte da seção de Literatura a partir de um detalhe do enredo. Por isso, recomendamos fazer a

1 What would you think if you were told that someone once caught an enormous fish using a wedding ring as bait? Does it sound truthful to you? Discuss these questions with your classmates.

pergunta proposta para toda a turma e acolher as contribuições dos estudantes. É interessante também enfatizar que o peixe é realmente muito grande e que um anel de casamento, por suas propriedades de metal, não atrai peixes como isca.

2 This is an example of a tall tale, which is normally based on real-life characters or events, but

containing a great deal of exaggeration. Tall tales usually feature superhuman characters that solve an A ideia da atividade unrealistic problem in a humorous way. It is a typically North-American oral tradition. é apresentar o gênero oral para os estudantes. Sugerimos, assim, usar o exemplo da história na atividade anterior para ilustrar o gênero.

3 Have you seen the film Big Fish? Read the synopsis of the movie below and try to identify differences and

similarities between the film and the poem "If," by Rudyard Kipling. Write your findings in your notebook.

The film Big Fish, directed by Tim Burton and starred by Ewan McGregor, Jessica Lange and Marion Cotillard, is based on the 1998 novel by Daniel Wallace Big Fish: A Novel of Mythic Proportions. It also became a Broadway musical adaptation in 2013. Big Fish is a story of reconciliation between a young adult and a father at his deathbed. The man is trying to understand what is behind his father’s tall tales. Although he has always seen his father as an irresponsible liar, he begins to understand his dad's exaggerations and their roots in reality. In the end, each one of his father’s stories has a metaphorical moral, or represents a life lesson. Fonte de pesquisa: IMDb. Peixe Grande e suas histórias maravilhosas (Big Fish). Disponível em: <www.imdb.com/title/tt0319061/>. Acesso em: 2 dez. 2015.

4. Reconciliation and exaggeration. The reconciliation between the father and the son is central to the plot, and the exaggeration refers to a basic feature of the oral genre tall tale. A ideia da atividade é desenvolver compreensão global do texto a partir da

4 Which two “ations” from the poem by Shel Silverstein appear in the synopsis above? What do these

relação com o poema anteriormente

words tell us about the story of the film Big Fish? Answer in your notebook. trabalhado, a fim de interligar os temas e textos.

5 Look at two unofficial posters of the film Big Fish. What do they tell us about the story? Discuss your

Personal answers. Possible answers: Both images show the father and the son, as well as the fish and the fishhook. Por meio da leitura de imagens, estamos desenvolvendo compreensão da sinopse a partir da identificação de elementos do texto nos cartazes. Para que os estudantes aproveitem melhor esse momento, sugerimos pedir que explorem as imagens inicialmente e tentem encontrar os elementos do texto nelas. Vale também lembrá-los de relacionar o título do filme com as imagens e a sinopse. Filme de Tim Burton. Big Fish. EUA, 2004

Filme de Tim Burton. Big Fish. EUA, 2004

ideas with a classmate.

3. Similarities: both works are based on the relationship between a father and a son; they represent life lessons a father is trying to teach his son based on personal experience; the use of metaphors to convey the message. Differences: the age of the fathers and the sons is different; in the poem, there is not information about what the son thinks of his father; the texts belong to different literary genres; the movie is not about the transition from being a child to being a teenager, but it does show how the son becomes more mature when trying to understand the father’s life.

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6 Look at the front and back cover of the book Big Fish: A Novel of Mythic Proportions. Which elements 6. 1. The genre is found in the title and in the reviews. 2. Information on the plot can be found in the synopsis. 3. The theme is found in the synopsis and in the reviews. 4. We learn about two characters – the father, Edward Bloom, and the son, William. 5. Despite the fact that the father was the protagonist, such information is not evident. Editora Algonquin Books

Editora Algonquin Books

from the previous activity can you identify in them? Make a list in your notebook.

6. A number of adjectives both in the reviews and in the synopsis describe the feelings the novel convey. A ideia da atividade é ajudar os estudantes a desenvolver o hábito de explorar informações sobre obras literárias em seus elementos extratextuais (capa, quarta capa) como forma de aguçar a curiosidade por elas e observar elementos importantes que ajudam na sua leitura e compreensão.

7 In your notebook, match each selected word from the back cover with the correct definition. The context is essential to help you understand the meaning of these words. a) prime

• paintful g

b) outrun

• mysterious d

c) tame

• beat; win b

d) elusive

• that does not get tired of trying e

e) indefatigable

• the best time in a person's life a

f) failing

• loving and gentle h

g) wrenching

• control something dangerous c

h) tender

• a person's negative characteristics. f

GLOSSARY poignant: comovente feat: feito, conquista outrageous: absurdo whopper: uma grande mentira mundane: trivial debut novel: primeiro romance

7. Estamos desenvolvendo a habilidade de inferir significado de vocabulário a partir do contexto. Para tanto, vale pedir aos estudantes que identifiquem as palavras no texto e ajudá-los a, baseando-se no contexto, descobrir seu significado.

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9. As in the film posters, on the cover we can see the character riding a fish, like a cowboy. A imagem da capa representa uma das histórias contadas pelo protagonista. As críticas são todas obviamente positivas (por isso foram escolhidas pela editora) e evidenciam o tema central do romance, assim como salientam as emoções mais prováveis de serem despertadas nos leitores.

8 Which other elements present in the covers and flap of a novel can help us learn more about the work?

Possible answers: Some of the other elements that may help someone to understand more about a Answer in your notebook. 8. book are the images on the cover, reviews or quotations from reviews, biography of the writer normally

found in the flap. O objetivo da pergunta é desenvolver consciência da importância dos recursos extratextuais da obra.

9 What do the artwork and the five reviews tell us about Big Fish: A Novel of Mythic Proportions? Take notes of your ideas.

10 As an exercise, find a novel and try to identify the elements from Activity 9 just by looking at the

A ideia da atividade é praticar a análise de recursos extratextuais em outras obras. Recomendamos, para tanto, usar qualquer outro romance que os estudantes tenham em mãos, mesmo que seja em português, para que encontrem os elementos estudados.

covers. Exchange ideas with a classmate.

11 Would you like to read this book? Justify your opinion. Personal answers.

12 Are tall tales common in Brazilian culture? Share your ideas with a classmate. 13 One of the most famous quotes from the film Big Fish is “A man tells his stories so many times that he becomes the stories. They live on after him, and in that way he becomes immortal.” How do you Personal answers. Possible answers: Someone’s understand this quote? Do you agree with it? Tell a classmate. 13. identity is built by their stories, regardless of them being

true or not. Also, if passed on to other people or generations, such stories remain alive in the memory of other people. In my opinion, …

14 In the previous part of this section, we looked at the topic of coming-of-age. Both the novel and the

film Big Fish relate to a moment of transition in the life of the characters. How can we relate that to the transitions of coming-of-age? Answer in your notebook.

WRAP-UP

12. In popular culture, we know histórias de pescador. Contos da carochinha are more similar to folk tales in English than tall tales. Sugerimos ouvir as respostas de cada um dos grupos e pedir que mencionem exemplos. Além disso, vale perguntar aos estudantes como, no caso dos gêneros por eles mencionados, essas histórias são transmitidas: se são escritas ou se sobrevivem apenas oralmente.

1 Can you remember which genres, authors, and works we looked at in this section? Reproduce the chart below in your notebook, and complete it without looking at the previous pages. When you have finished, look at the previous pages and check if you could remember everything. Respostas na primeira página da seção.

Genre

Title

Author

2 What is the main topic common to all of the authors? Can you remember examples of this from each text? Make a list in your notebook including the title of the text, its main topic, and one example.

3

Personal answers. The main topic is, in all the texts, coming-of-age. Aqui, a ideia é identificar os temas e conteúdos mais memoráveis para os estudantes. 3. O objetivo da atividade é permitir que os estudantes retomem aqueles que foram mais relevantes, para compará-los. Dessa forma, eles A Venn Diagram helps you compare two conteúdos poderão perceber a sequência das atividades.

things. Choose two of the three texts we worked with in this section. Reproduce this diagram in your notebook. At the top of each circle, write down the titles of the works you chose. In each separate space, write about characteristics and elements that are unique to each work. In the middle space, write down things in common for both works.

4 Share your Venn Diagram with your classmates. Check if they have anything to add to your diagram.

O objetivo da atividade é discutir quais foram os temas e conteúdos que se mostraram mais relevantes para cada estudante.

5 Discuss the questions below. Justify your answers. 5. Personal answers. A ideia da atividade é discutir opiniões sobre a. Which of the three works did you enjoy most?

os assuntos trabalhados e encerrar a seção.

b. Would you like to read more poems? c. Would you like to read Big Fish: A Novel of Mythic Proportions, or watch the film based on it?

14. Possible answers: In Big Fish, the son is rethinking his relationship with his father, learning how to deal with death, and trying to understand the teachings passed on to him. Despite not being a celebration, it is a very symbolic transition of the growth of the son. Estamos discutindo a relação da obra Big Fish dentro do tema central da seção de Literatura. Recomendamos, assim, para ajudar na discussão, retomar o conteúdo dos dois poemas e incentivar os estudantes a tomar notas livres sobre as ideias que surgem.

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GLOSSARY

Aqui você encontra palavras e expressões, em especial as menos usuais e com significado mais difícil de identificar pelo contexto, que são essenciais à compreensão dos textos e das atividades das unidades. Para auxiliá-lo a ampliar seu vocabulário, este glossário traz a transcrição fonética, classe gramatical, definição e tradução de cada palavra ou expressão, conforme o sentido que elas assumem no contexto em que foram usadas na unidade.

A above /əˈbʌv/ preposition or adverb in or to a higher place or position. acima absence /ˈæbs(ə)ns/ noun the state in which something, generally expected, does not exist or is not present; the act of not being present at work or class when a person is supposed to be. falta aging /ˈeɪdʒɪŋ/ noun the process of becoming old and acquiring an old person’s characteristics. envelhecimento aim /eɪm/ verb to intend or aspire to do something. objetivar, pretender, visar a alongside /əˈlɒŋˌsaɪd/ adverb close by or in a parallel position. ao lado de; ao longo de aloud /əˈlaʊd/ adverb in a way that people can clearly hear. em voz alta anchor /ˈæŋkə(r)/ noun a heavy device made of metal, designed to prevent a boat from moving; someone or something that is reliable and provides the strength and support to another (person or thing). âncora assignment /əˈsaɪnmənt/ noun a job or a task that is given out as part of a course or job. tarefa attempt /əttempt/ noun the effort made to accomplish something. tentativa aunt /ɑːnt/ noun your mother’s or father’s sister. tia avocado /ˌævəˈkɑːdəʊ/ noun a fruit that has dark green or purple skin, pale green flesh and a large seed in its middle. abacate

awareness /əˈweə(r)nəs/ noun knowledge or understanding someone has of an issue, situation or subject. qualidade ou estado de estar ciente de determinado assunto ou de determinada situação

B background /ˈbækˌgraʊnd/ noun the conditions that exist when something happens. contexto prévio bake /beɪk/ verb to make food using an oven. assar bend /bend/ verb to curve forwards and downwards. curvar(-se) bias /ˈbaıəs/ noun a tendency to be in favor of or against something or someone without knowing enough to be able to judge fairly. preconceito bigotry /ˈbıgətri/ noun behavior or beliefs of intolerance to any creed, belief or opinion. intolerância billboard /ˈbɪlˌbɔː(r)d/ noun a large sign on the outside of a public place or at the side of a road, where advertisements are displayed. anúncio geralmente em forma de cartaz e em grandes dimensões, outdoor boost /buːst/ verb to increase, to raise. aumentar

C chalk /tʃɔːk/ noun an object or a piece of a soft white or colored substance used for writing or drawing, especially on a blackboard. giz challenge /ˈtʃæləndʒ/ verb to test the abilities of a person or thing. desafiar

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coldhearted /ˌkəʊldˈhaː(r)tıd/ adjective unkind, showing no sympathy. insensível

endure /ɪnˈdjʊə(r)/ verb to persist, continue to exist for a long time. durar

commitment /kəˈmıtmənt/ noun a responsibility or promise to follow certain beliefs or a certain course of action. compromisso

environment /ınˈvaırənmənt/ noun the physical and social conditions in which people live. ambiente

counselor /ˈkaʊns(ə)lə(r)/ noun a person whose job is to help people overcome problems they face by giving them advice. conselheiro(a)

equity /ˈekwɪti/ noun a fair way of treating people. equidade

cousin /ˈkʌz(ə)n/ noun your aunt’s or uncle’s son or daughter. primo(a) cucumber /ˈkjuːˌkʌmbə(r)/ noun a long, thin, round vegetable with a dark green skin and light green, watery flesh, usually cut in pieces and eaten raw. pepino

D dairy /ˈdeiry/ noun food obtained from milk or milk derivatives. laticínio dare /deə(r) / verb to do something or encourage someone to do something, even if it is dangerous. ousar, atrever-se development /dıˈveləpmənt/ noun the act of growing or increasing. desenvolvimento; crescimento ~tal adjective relativo a desenvolvimento dietary /ˈdaɪət(ə)ri/ adjective related to or of a diet. dietético disdain /dɪsˈdeɪn/ verb to dislike or disapprove in a very strong way. desprezar

E empower /imˈpaʊə(r)/ verb to give someone the power or legal right to do something. empoderar, conceder poderes ~ment noun empoderamento enable /ɪnˈeɪb(ə)l/ verb to make something possible. possibilitar encourage /ɪnˈkʌrɪdʒ/ verb to advise a person to do something; to make something become more appealing. encorajar

F facility /fəˈsɪləti/ noun something (equipment, room, etc.) available so that it can be used by people. instalação; recurso fit in /fɪt ɪn/ phrasal verb to belong to a particular group, situation or context. encaixar-se fond /fond/ adjective caring about a person, showing love or friendship. afeiçoado; afetuoso footing /ˈfʊtɪŋ/ noun a particular kind of position or base; a status. base freedom /ˈfriːdəm/ noun the state or qualitry someone has of being free. liberdade

G gender /ˈdʒendə(r)/ noun the division into male and female; sexo, gênero get a point across /get ə pɔınt əˈkr s/ phrasal verb to be understood, accepted, especially by a large group. fazer-se compreender go off /gəʊ ɒf/ phrasal verb to happen according to what was planned. ocorrer conforme o esperado growth /grəʊθ/ noun the process or rate of growing and developing. crescimento guidance /ˈgaıd(ə)ns/ noun help and advice, especially on problems connected with someone’s work, education or personal life. orientação

H haddock /ˈhædək/ noun a fish found in the Atlantic Ocean. hadoque

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handout /ˈhændaʊt/ noun information given out, especially in the form of a printed sheet, e.g., to students attending a conference. folheto informativo

lonely /ˈləʊnli/ adjective unhappy because of being alone or without friends. sozinho; solitário ~liness noun solidão

harass /ˈhærəs/ verb to cause problems by making repeated attacks against someone or something. molestar ~ment noun ato de molestar

loss /lɒs/ noun the act of losing or failing to keep something. perda

harsh /hɑː(r)ʃ/ adjective showing cruelty and a lack of sympathy. hostil

lung /lʌŋ/ noun the organ used by human beings and animals to breathe. pulmão

hate /heɪt/ noun intense or extreme hostility towards something or somebody. ódio

M

hearten /ˈhɑː(r)t(ə)n/ verb to make someone have more strength, hope, and happiness. encorajar, animar highlight /ˈhaɪˌlaɪt/ verb to describe something in a way that draws people's attention to something or someone. destacar; ressaltar; realçar

I illiterate /ɪˈlɪtərət/ adjective not able to write and read. analfabeto, iletrado imply /ɪmˈplaɪ/ verb to include or involve something so that it becomes an inherent or necessary part or result. implicar

J jerked beef /dʒɜː(r)kt biːf/ noun dried meat. carne similar ao charque

L label /ˈlab(ə)l/ noun a piece of material that is fastened to a product in order to provide information about it; discourse that aims to describe something or somebody, generally in an unfair or biased way. etiqueta; rótulo lead /liːd/ verb to go with or in front of so as to take somebody or something to a place or show them the way. guiar lobster /ˈlɒbstə(r)/ noun a large eight-legged sea animal with a shell and two large claws. lagosta

mackerel /ˈmækrəl/ noun a sea fish whose flesh is naturally very oily. cavala majority /məˈdʒɒrəti/ noun the greatest number of people or things in a group. maioria marry /ˈmæri/ verb to join someone in marriage. casar(-se) misunderstand /ˌmɪsʌndə(r)ˈstænd/ verb to interpret incorrectly; to fail to understand something or somebody. interpretar erroneamente; não compreender

N narrow /ˈnærəʊ/ adjective the opposite of wide; scope or size that is small. estreito

O oatmeal /ˈəʊtˌmiːl/ noun crushed oats used in food; a dish made from oats and generally eaten for breakfast. farinha de aveia; mingau de aveia outcast /ˈaʊtˌkɑːst/ noun a person who is not accepted by society. pária outnumber /ˌaʊtˈnʌmbə(r)/ verb to be more in number than something or someone else. superar em número outright /ˌaʊtˈraɪt/ adverb in a full and complete way. completamente, inteiramente

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overcome /ˌəʊvə(r)ˈkʌm/ verb to succeed in controlling or handling something difficult. superar overhead projector /ˌəʊvə(r)ˈhed prəˈdʒektə(r)/ noun a lamp which makes images on a large flat transparent surface and throws them, by means of a mirror, onto a white wall or screen. retroprojetor overwhelming /ˌəʊvə(r)ˈwelmıŋ/ adjective very large; too great to oppose. esmagador ~ly adverb esmagadoramente

P parent /ˈpeərənt/ noun a father or a mother. pai ou mãe pen name /pen neɪm/ noun the name an author uses instead of his or her real name. pseudônimo pervasive /pə(r)ˈveısıv/ adjective tending to pervade; widespread. penetrante pilchard /ˈpɪltʃə(r)d/ noun a fish very common along the coasts of Europe. sardinha europeia

prince /prɪns/ noun a male member of the royal family who is not the king, but generally his or the queen’s son or grandson. príncipe principal /ˈprɪnsəp(ə)l/ noun someone who is in charge of a college, university or a public school. diretor prospect /ˈprɒspekt/ noun something that someone expects or knows is going to happen. perspectiva pumpkin /ˈpʌmpkɪn/ noun a round, orange vegetable whose seeds are large. abóbora

R reach /riːtʃ/ verb to be able to catch, touch or pick up something; to arrive at a certain place; to come to something or somebody. alcançar reinforce /ˌriːɪnˈfɔː(r)s/ verb to support or encourage something, such as an idea or a belief. reforçar ~ment noun reforço right /raɪt/ noun something that someone has or should have permission to do, have or get according to the law and moral. direito

plaice /pleɪs/ noun a kind of sea fish that has brown skin covered with orange spots; found in the Northern Hemisphere. espécie de linguado americano

role /rəʊ/ noun someone's or something's responsibility in an activity or situation; a usually determined, particular behavior pattern that society expects from someone. papel; parte

plot /plɒt/ noun the main events that form the narrative of a novel, a short tale, a movie, etc. enredo

roughly /ˈrʌfli/ adverb approximately, not exactly in amount, number, time, etc. aproximadamente

pork /pɔː(r)k/ noun meat obtained from pigs. carne de porco portrait /ˈpɔː(r)trɪt/ noun the photograph, drawing or painting of a person; a description, especially a detailed one, of someone or something. retrato poultry /ˈpəʊltri/ noun birds raised for their eggs or meat. aves domésticas; carne que se obtém de aves prejudice /ˈpredʒʊdɪs/ noun unfair and often unfavorable feeling or opinion formed without thinking deeply and clearly or without enough knowledge, and sometimes resulting from fear or distrust of ideas different from one’s own. preconceito

S search /sɜː(r)tʃ/ verb to look at, through, into, etc., or examine carefully to try to find something. procurar serving /ˈsɜː(r)vɪŋ/ noun a certain portion or amount of food for one person. porção sexual assault /ˈsekʃuəl əˈsɔːlt/ noun violent sexual attack. agressão sexual shape /ʃeɪp/ verb to give something a form. moldar, formar share /ʃeə(r)/ noun the part someone gets from something divided between two or more people. parte; parcela; cota

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shrimp /ʃrɪmp/ noun a small crustacean with ten legs and a fan-shaped tail. camarão sibling /ˈsıblıŋ/ noun a brother or sister. irmão ou irmã sickness /ˈsɪknəs/ noun condition of being ill; illness or disease. doença sink /sɪŋk/ verb to reach the bottom, submerge. afundar skill /skɪl/ noun a special ability to do something well, especially as gained by learning or practice. habilidade skim milk /skɪm mɪlk/ noun milk without any milkfat. leite desnatado slave /sleɪv/ noun a person who belongs to another and is forced to obey and work without being paid. escravo ~ry noun escravidão slivered almonds /ˈslɪvə(r)d ˈɑːmənd/ noun almonds slivered very thinly. amêndoas fatiadas snippet /ˈsnıpıt/ noun a small bit of something, especially a short piece from something spoken or written. trecho de texto

support group /səˈpɔː(r)t ɡruːp/ noun a group whose members share their similar experiences and offer each other support and advice on personal or health problems. grupo de ajuda

T take off /teɪk ɒf/ phrasal verb to remove something. tirar, remover tear /teə(r)/ noun a drop of the fluid the lacrimal gland produces in order to moisten the eyes and the inner eyelids. lágrima thrive /θraɪv/ verb to succeed, to develop or grow successfully. prosperar tinned /tɪnd/ adjective British variant of canned, food preserved in containers made of metal. enlatado trout /traʊt/ noun a fish commonly found in lakes and rivers. truta tuna /ˈtjuːnə/ noun a kind of large fish found in the Pacific and the Atlantic Oceans. atum

V

spread /spred/ verb to provide information to a large number of people; to make something become widely known. espalhar, divulgar amplamente

veal /viːl/ noun meat obtained from a young cow. vitela

stand out /stænd aʊt/ phrasal verb to be easily seen or noticed because of being different. destacar-se

weak /wiːk/ adjective the opposite of strong; not having physical or emotional strength or power. fraco

starchy food /ˈstɑː(r)tʃi fu:d/ noun full of starch. alimento rico em amido stroke /strəʊk/ noun an illness that occurs when a blood vessel in someone’s brain breaks or gets blocked. derrame struggle /ˈstrʌg(ə)l/ verb to make great efforts, especially when trying to deal with a difficult problem or situation. lutar suffrage /ˈsʌfrɪdʒ/ noun the right someone has to vote. sufrágio

W

well-being /ˌwelˈbiːıŋ/ noun personal and physical comfort, especially good health and happiness. bem-estar wheat /wiːt/ noun a kind of grain used for making flour especially for bread. trigo

X xenophobia /ˌzenəˈfəʊbiə/ noun unreasonable fear and dislike of strange or foreign people, customs, etc. xenofobia

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AUDIO SCRIPTS UNIT 1 TRACK 2 Finding yourself – that’s a term that gets thrown around a lot as you grow up, by teachers, by parents, by anyone older than you. They tell you to search for yourself, but strangely, they never tell you where to look. We then go off on this quest searching for ourselves. We travel far and wide looking for this amazing person who can be confident in front of anyone, who can be funny or sassy in the right moment, who’s outspoken enough to get their point across, but open-minded enough to understand the other person. Someone who everyone’s happy to see the moment they walk in the room. […]” FLETCHER, Carrie Hope. The Quest to Find Produção: It's Way Past my Bpd Time. 2013. Vídeos (2min5s). Disponível em: <www.youtube.com/watch?v=sLQWGFtTl7I>. (Fragmento.) Acesso em: 28 de set. 2015.

UNIT 2 TRACK 8 Brainstorming with mind maps in a group Mind mapping is a great way to offer an overview of an idea, by expanding on a thought, or many thoughts, through diagrams. For content marketers, it is a great tool to use when developing content ideas for your company or for your clients. For even better content ideation results, mind map as a team. Aside from being a collaborative team-building experience, your mind mapping results will cover more ground from the various viewpoints. Before you get started, you need a few things first. You need your team or a group of people to participate. Select a topic to mind map. This could be as broad as an industry vertical or as specific as a client project. Provide as much background information on the topic, client, or industry as possible. For instance, if you’re mind mapping for a client, share the company's target demographic, as well as product information. Presenting this information before you start mapping will help define goals. Mind map on a large piece of paper, like butcher paper — something that is large enough to hold all of your team’s ideas. Bring a variety of colored markers. Each person mind mapping will need their own unique color. Ask them to write their name in the corner of the paper, so if there’s a good idea mapped out, you can ask specific people to explain further. Before you start mapping, present the topic or client to the group. Then, write the topic or client name in the center of the paper, so you can expand on that thought. It’s important to set a timer. By giving yourself ten minutes for an idea to be mapped out, you’re not burning yourselves out and not going overboard. When you start mapping, briefly write down everything that comes to mind that is connected to the center topic. Remember, there are no dumb ideas. What you may consider dumb could spark an idea with someone else. Also, try to mind map in silence — so, no talking. Let you and your team’s ideas flow through the markers. Once your time is up, go person-to-person and ask them if they saw anything that stood out. Sometimes, more ideas could come from a post-mapping discussion. If they do, you can jot down additional notes on the map. If you have more than one topic or client you want to mind map, don’t be afraid to set up four tables with paper, each ready for mind mapping. If someone draws a blank on ideas on one map, move to the next map. In the end, you should have plenty of content ideas at your disposal. BRAINSTORMING with Mind Maps in a Group. Produção: VM Measures. 2015. Vídeo (2min36s). Disponível em: <www.youtube.com/watch?v=O0lEj2d-ipE>. Acesso em: 21 mar. 2016.

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UNIT 3 TRACK 9 What You Say Matters You get it – what is racism? What do you do about it Face the racism How do you deal with racism? Kick the racism How do you deal with racism? Kick the racism How do you deal with racism? Kick the racism Kick the racism

A lasting effect If we can think unity The act of individuals To make a real movement Create real change

When people stand by Doing nothing while it happens Their actions We must examine Nothings has changed in our communities

[Chorus] Still working To stop the problem today The power’s with you So what you gonna say? […]

Stand proud and prove it You’re not better than me You’re equal to me Not above you I’m always beside you

BrothaBlack / Indigenous Advisory Council. What You Say Matters (2013). Disponível em: <www.humanrights.gov.au/news/videos/song-what-you-say-matters-featbrothablack>. Acesso em: 13 abr. 2016.

UNIT 4 TRACK 10 Interviewer: I’m here with Jo and Jo is ahh* running a program in a school outside Arusha, um* which is growing fruits and vegetables. Can you tell a little bit about your program? Jo: Ok. A few months ago we had a survey from ahh* USAID. And they showed us, or that survey showed us, we have a high number of children ah* with bad feeding habits. So, they lack a certain amount of special vitamins. One good solution is provide those children with vitamins so we made a plan of constructing a vegetable garden … Interviewer: Yes. Jo: Ah* ... But as you can see, it’s a big vegetable garden … Interviewer: Yeah. Jo: So we’re going to use one part of this vegetable garden, to use in the school kitchens, so they have their vitamins every day … Interviewer: OK. Jo: But the second thing we are going to do is ... go to the market and sell those veggies, but the

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biggest problem we have uh* when we go the marketplace they ... the freshness goes away. Interviewer: They wilt very fast. Jo: And we’re looking for a solution so when we go to the market, the price is still high instead of bad looking vegetables. […] BARAA Primary School. Produção: Wakati. 2015. Vídeo (2min). Disponível em: <www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZCRVRDQKAKw>. (Fragmento.) Acesso em: 23 nov. 2015. * Marca de hesitação.

UNIT 5 TRACK 12 Four million Egyptian women do not have an ID card. This is a very large number. Not having an ID card means that you have no access to finance. You have no access to pension or social services provided by government. You have no access to free mobility, because you cannot travel on the road safely if you have no identity papers. You cannot travel out of the country because you cannot apply for a passport without your ID card. And so on and so forth. You are lacking a lot of the rights and the benefits. The right ah* to be a citizen, to be seen by the government and for your needs to be recognized, ah* you have to have your ID card. So, it's a small piece of paper, but it means a lot to many women, and 4 million women, ah*... are Egyptian women without an ID card. So this is our target population, ah* our target group, and we hope to help them through this project ah* have their ID cards. As I said this a national initiative and it’s with only 5 dollars, which is the cost of developing an ID card. The woman [sic]** life becomes more, she has more access, more access to many services, her needs are seen, she can vote in any election, so it provides her with political participation and with access to financial services, and access to social services. So, with these ah*... with these services provided to her, ah*... and the feeling that she has access to these services, she is much better off. WALY, Ghada. Providing Egyptian Women with National ID Cards. Produção: UN Women. 2012. Vídeo (1min27s). Disponível em: <www.youtube.com/ watch?v=AdQ2dDQ0upM>. Acesso em: 21 mar. 2016. * Marca de hesitação. ** A forma gramaticalmente correta de acordo com a variante padrão da língua inglesa seria the woman´s life.

UNIT 6 TRACK 14 Malala: My mother, she suffered through a big tragedy and a trauma because it was really hard for her to imagine her daughter being shot, and um* … she ... she has cried a lot … and um* she has always prayed for me, and she loves me, and she’s a very nice mother. And when she was little, she was 6, she started going to school, but then she realized that all her friends were playing, and they were enjoying their time. And she was the only girl in her class. The rest were boys. So she sold her books and bought some candies, and she didn’t get education. So, now she has realized that education is very important for her, and she has started going to school – it is an English learning school – and she is learning every day, and she thinks that education is very important for her. So she is inspiring me, that um* education is very important and I should continue this campaign. So her struggle to get education now, at this age, gives me more courage, and it gives me strength. YOUSAFZAI, Malala. My Mother is Now Going to School. Produção: Forbes. [2014?]. Vídeo (1min6s). Disponível em: <www.forbes.com/under30video/#/malalayousafzai/3872837405001>. Acesso em: 21 mar. 2016. * Marca de hesitação.

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IPA CHART

A seguir, são apresentados os símbolos que usamos nas transcrições fonéticas desta coleção. Eles foram adotados com base no International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), a principal referência para essas transcrições em dicionários de língua inglesa, e são uma ferramenta importante para você, de forma autônoma, melhorar sua pronúncia em inglês.

Sons vocálicos Símbolo

Exemplos

Símbolo

Exemplos

ʌ

mud /mʌd/, duck /dʌk/

ʊ

should /ʃʊd/, hood /hʊd/

ɑː

car /kɑː(r)/, start /stɑː(r)t/

boot /buːt/, glue /ɡluː/

æ

cap /kæp/, sad /sæd/

my /maɪ/, shine /ʃaɪn/

e

set /set/, net /net/

cow /kaʊ/, shout /ʃaʊt/

ə

alone /əˈləʊn/, ago /əˈɡəʊ/

stay /steɪ/, great /ɡreɪt/

ɜː

burn /bɜː(r)n/, curve /kɜː(r)v/

əʊ

so /səʊ/, bone /bəʊn/

ɪ

bit /bɪt/, quit /kwɪt/

ɔɪ

joy /dʒɔɪ/, toy /tɔɪ/

sweet /swiːt/, beat /biːt/

wear /weə(r)/, there /ðeə(r)/

ɒ

pocket /ˈpɒkɪt/, dot /dɒt/

ɪə

mere /mɪə(r)/, peer /pɪə(r)/

ɔː

hall /hɔːl/, chorus /ˈkɔːrəs/

ʊə

cure /kjʊə(r)/, tourism /ˈtʊərɪz(ə)m/

Sons consonantais Símbolo

Exemplos

Símbolo

Exemplos

b

ball /bɔːl/, ability /əˈbɪləti/

r

grey /ɡreɪ/, raccoon /rəˈkuːn/

d

door /dɔː(r)/, endorse /ɪnˈdɔː(r)s/

s

sister /ˈsɪstə(r)/, satellite /ˈsætəlaɪt/

f

factory /ˈfæktri/, wolf /wʊlf/

ʃ

shower /ˈʃaʊə(r)/, push /pʊʃ/

g

gate /ɡeɪt/, big /bɪɡ/

t

team /tiːm/, hat /hæt/

h

holiday /ˈhɒlɪdeɪ/, rehearsal /rɪˈhɜː(r)s(ə)l/

choice /tʃɔɪs/, catch /kætʃ/

j

yard /jɑː(r)d/, youth /juːθ/

θ

throat /θrəʊt/, math /mæθ/

k

quote /kwəʊt/, speak /spiːk/

ð

this /ðɪs/, clothe /kləʊð/

l

laughter /ˈlɑːftə(r)/, call /kɔːl/

v

violin /ˌvaɪəˈlɪn/, convey /kənˈveɪ/

m

misspeak /mɪsˈspiːk/, anthem /ˈænθəm/

w

weather /ˈweðə(r)/, awake /əˈweɪk/

n

know /nəʊ/, can /kæn/

z

zebra /ˈzebrə/, phase /feɪz/

ŋ

linger /ˈlɪŋɡə(r)/, footing /ˈfʊtɪŋ/

ʒ

measure /ˈmeʒə(r)/, provision /prəˈvɪʒ(ə)n/

p

parrot /ˈpærət/, cap /kæp/

charge /tʃɑː(r)dʒ/, just /dʒʌst/

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IRREGULAR VERBS LIST Base Form

Simple Past

Past Participle

Translation into Portuguese

arise /əˈraiz/

arose /əˈrəʊz/

arisen /əˈrɪz(ə)n/

surgir

awake /əˈweɪk/

awoke /əˈwəʊk/

awoken /əˈwəʊkən/

acordar

be /biː/

was /wʌs/, were /wɜr/

been /biːn/

ser; estar

bear /beə(r)/

bore /bɔː(r)/

born, borne /bɔː(r)n/

aguentar; suportar; dar à luz

beat /biːt/

beat /biːt/

beaten /biːt(ə)n/

vencer; bater

become /bɪˈkʌm/

became /bɪˈkeɪm/

become /bɪˈkʌm/

tornar-se

begin /bɪˈɡɪn/

began /bɪˈɡæn/

begun /bɪˈɡʌn/

começar

bend /bend/

bent /bent/

bent /bent/

dobrar; curvar(-se), inclinar(-se)

bet /bet/

bet /bet/

bet /bet/

apostar

bid /bɪd/

bid /bɪd/, bade /bæd/

bid /bɪd/, bidden /ˈbɪd(ə)n/

oferecer; dar um lance (em um leilão, por exemplo)

bite /baɪt/

bit /bɪt/

bitten /ˈbɪt(ə)n/

morder

blow /bləʊ/

blew /bluː/

blown /bləʊn/

soprar; estourar

break /breɪk/

broke /brəʊk/

broken /ˈbrəʊkən/

quebrar; transgredir

breed /briːd/

bred /bred/

bred /bred/

reproduzir(-se); criar

bring /brɪŋ/

brought /brɔːt/

brought /brɔːt/

trazer

broadcast /ˈbrɔːdˌkɑːst/

broadcast /ˈbrɔːdˌkɑːst/

broadcast /ˈbrɔːdˌkɑːst/

transmitir (por meio de rádio ou televisão)

build /bɪld/

built /bɪlt/

built /bɪlt/

transmitir

burned /bɜː(r)nd/, burnt /

burned /bɜː(r)nd/, burnt

queimar

burst /bɜː(r)st/

burst /bɜː(r)st/

burst/bɜː(r)st/

estourar; irromper

buy /baɪ/

bought /bɔːt/

bought /bɔːt/

comprar

cast /kɑːst/

cast /kɑːst/

cast /kɑːst/

lançar; descartar

catch /kætʃ/

caught /kɔːt/

caught /kɔːt/

pegar; capturar

choose /tʃuːz/

chose /tʃəʊz/

chosen /ˈtʃəʊz(ə)n/

escolher

come /kʌm/

came /keɪm/

come /kʌm/

vir

cost /kɒst/

cost /kɒst/

cost /kɒst/

custar

cut /kʌt/

cut /kʌt/

cut /kʌt/

cortar

deal /diːl/

dealt /delt/

dealt /delt/

lidar; negociar

dig /dɪɡ/

dug /dʌɡ/

dug /dʌɡ/

cavar

do /duː/

did /dɪd/

done /dʌn/

fazer; realizar

draw /drɔː/

drew /druː/

drawn /drɔːn/

desenhar; puxar; atrair

dreamed /driːmt/, dreamt

dreamed /driːmt/, dreamt

sonhar

burn /bɜː(r)n/

dream /driːm/

bɜː(r)nt/

/dremt/

/bɜː(r)nt/

/dremt/

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Base Form

Simple Past

Past Participle

Translation into Portuguese

drink /drɪŋk/

drank /dræŋk/

drunk /drʌŋk/

beber

drive /draɪv/

drove /drəʊv/

driven /ˈdrɪv(ə)n/

dirigir; conduzir; impulsionar

eat /iːt/

ate /eɪt/

eaten /ˈiːt(ə)n/

comer

fall /fɔːl/

fell /fel/

fallen /ˈfɔːlən/

cair; baixar

feed /fiːd/

fed /fed/

fed /fed/

alimentar(-se)

feel /fiːl/

felt /felt/

felt /felt/

sentir

fight /faɪt/

fought /fɔːt/

fought /fɔːt/

lutar; combater; brigar

find /faɪnd/

found /faʊnd/

found /faʊnd/

achar; encontrar; julgar

fit /fɪt/

fit /fɪt/

fit /fɪt/

encaixar; servir; ajustar(-se)

flee /fliː/

fled /fled/

fled /fled/

fugir

forecast /ˈfɔː(r)kɑːst/

forecast /ˈfɔː(r)kɑːst/

forecast /ˈfɔː(r)kɑːst/

prever

forget /fə(r)ˈɡet/

forgot /fə(r)ˈɡɒt/

forgotten /fə(r)ˈɡɒt(ə)n/

esquecer(-se)

forgive /fə(r)ˈɡɪv/

forgave /fə(r)ˈɡeɪv/

forgiven /fə(r)ˈɡɪv(ə)n/

perdoar

fly /flaɪ/

flew /fluː/

flown /fləʊn/

voar

freeze /friːz/

froze /frəʊz/

frozen /ˈfrəʊz(ə)n/

congelar

get /ɡet/

got /ɡɒt/

got /ɡɒt/, gotten /ˈɡɒt(ə)n/

receber; alcançar; fazer que; chegar; conseguir; pegar; tornar-se

give /ɡɪv/

gave /ɡeɪv/

given /ˈɡɪv(ə)n/

dar; ceder

go /ɡəʊ/

went /went/

gone /ɡɒn/

ir; partir; sumir

grow /ɡrəʊ/

grew /ɡruː/

grown /ɡrəʊn/

crescer; cultivar; tornar-se; criar; educar

hang /hæŋ/

hung /hʌŋ/

hung /hʌŋ/

pendurar; pender; ficar

have /hæv/

had /hæd/

had /hæd/

ter

hear /hɪə(r)/

heard /hɜː(r)d/

heard /hɜː(r)d/

ouvir

hide /haɪd/

hid /hɪd/

hid /hɪd/, hidden /ˈhɪd(ə)n/

esconder(-se)

hit /hɪt/

hit /hɪt/

hit /hɪt/

bater; acertar; atingir

hold /həʊld/

held /held/

held /held/

segurar; aguentar; deter

hurt /hɜː(r)t/

hurt /hɜː(r)t/

hurt /hɜː(r)t/

machucar; ferir; magoar; doer

keep /kiːp/

kept /kept/

kept /kept/

manter; guardar; permanecer

know /nəʊ/

knew /njuː/

known /nəʊn/

saber; conhecer

lay /leɪ/

laid /leɪd/

laid /leɪd/

estender; pousar; assentar; dispor

lead /liːd/

led /led/

led /led/

levar; conduzir

learned /ˈlɜː(r)nɪd/,

learned /ˈlɜː(r)nɪd/, learnt /lɜː(r)nt/

aprender; descobrir; ficar sabendo

leave /liːv/

left /left/

left /left/

deixar; partir

lend /lend/

lent /lent/

lent /lent/

emprestar

learn /lɜː(r)n/

learnt /lɜː(r)nt/

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Base Form

Simple Past

Past Participle

Translation into Portuguese

let /let/

let /let/

let /let/

deixar; fazer que

lie /laɪ/

lay /leɪ/

lain /leɪn/

deitar; ficar; jazer

light /laɪt/

lit /lɪt/

lit /lɪt/

acender; iluminar

lose /luːz/

lost /lɒst/

lost /lɒst/

perder

make /meɪk/

made /meɪd/

made /meɪd/

fazer

mean /miːn/

meant /ment/

meant /ment/

querer dizer; significar; tencionar

meet /miːt/

met /met/

met /met/

encontrar; conhecer

overcome /ˌəʊvə(r)ˈkʌm/

overcame /ˌəʊvə(r)ˈkeɪm/

overcome /ˌəʊvə(r)ˈkʌm/

superar

pay /peɪ/

paid /peɪd/

paid /peɪd/

pagar; prestar

put /pʊt/

put /pʊt/

put /pʊt/

pôr, colocar

read /riːd/

read /red/

read /red/

ler

rid /rɪd/

rid /rɪd/

rid /rɪd/

livrar(-se)

ride /raɪd/

rode /rəʊd/

ridden /ˈrɪd(ə)n/

montar, cavalgar; nadar de

ring /rɪŋ/

rang /ræŋ/

rung /rʌŋ/

tocar (campainha, telefone); tilintar; soar

rise /raɪz/

rose /rəʊz/

risen /ˈrɪz(ə)n/

aumentar; levantar(-se); erguer(-se); elevar(-se)

run /rʌn/

ran /ræn/

run /rʌn/

correr; funcionar; administrar; dirigir

say /seɪ/

said /sed/

said /sed/

dizer

see /siː/

saw /sɔː/

seen /siːn/

enxergar; ver

seek /siːk/

sought /sɔːt/

sought /sɔːt/

buscar, procurar; aspirar a

sell /sel/

sold /səʊld/

sold /səʊld/

vender

send /send/

sent /sent/

sent /sent/

enviar

set /set/

set /set/

set /set/

estabelecer; provocar; ajustar

sew /səʊ/

sewed /səʊd/

sewed /səʊd/, sewn /səʊn/

costurar

shake /ʃeɪk/

shook /ʃʊk/

shaken /ˈʃeɪkən/

agitar; sacudir

shine /ʃaɪn/

shined /ʃaɪnd/, shone /ʃɒn/

shined /ʃaɪnd/, shone /ʃɒn/

brilhar

shoot /ʃuːt/

shot /ʃɒt/

shot /ʃɒt/

atirar; lançar; filmar; fotografar

show /ʃəʊ/

showed /ʃəʊd/

shown /ʃəʊn/

mostrar; aparecer; exibir

shut /ʃʌt/

shut /ʃʌt/

shut /ʃʌt/

fechar

sing /sɪŋ/

sang /sæŋ/

sung /sʌŋ/

cantar

sink /sɪŋk/

sank /sæŋk/

sunk /sʌŋk/

afundar(-se); penetrar; decair

sit /sɪt/

sat /sæt/

sat /sæt/

sentar(-se); pousar

sleep /sliːp/

slept /slept/

slept /slept/

dormir

slide /slaɪd/

slid /slɪd/

slid /slɪd/

deslizar

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Base Form

Simple Past

Past Participle

Translation into Portuguese

speak /spiːk/

spoke /spəʊk/

spoken /ˈspəʊkən/

falar

spend /spend/

spent /spent/

spent /spent/

gastar; despender; gastar (tempo)

spill /spɪl/

spilled /spɪld/ spilt /spɪlt/

spilled /spɪld/ spilt /spɪlt/

derramar

spin /spɪn/

spun /spʌn/

spun /spʌn/

torcer; girar; fiar

split /splɪt/

split /splɪt/

split /splɪt/

dividir; repartir; rachar

spread /spred/

spread /spred/

spread /spred/

divulgar, espalhar; expandir; estender

spring /sprɪŋ/

sprang /spræŋ/

sprung /sprʌŋ/

produzir ou apresentar repentinamente; surgir; pular ou fazer pular

stand /stænd/

stood /stʊd/

stood /stʊd/

estar de pé; aturar; levantar; ocupar determinado lugar

steal /stiːl/

stole /stəʊl/

stolen /stəʊlən/

roubar

stick /stɪk/

stuck /stʌk/

stuck /stʌk/

colar, grudar; fixar; espetar

sting /stɪŋ/

stung /stʌŋ/

stung /stʌŋ/

picar, ferroar; ferir; doer, arder

strike /straɪk/

struck /strʌk/

struck /strʌk/

atacar; golpear; abater; impressionar

swear /sweə(r)/

swore /swɔː(r)/

sworn /swɔː(r)n/

jurar; xingar; praguejar, blasfemar

sweep /swiːp/

swept /swept/

swept /swept/

varrer; eliminar; passar rapidamente

swim /swɪm/

swam /swæm/

swum /swʌm/

nadar

swing /swɪŋ/

swung /swʌŋ/

swung /swʌŋ/

balançar; gingar, mover-se com ritmo

take /teɪk/

took /tʊk/

taken /ˈteɪkən/

pegar; levar; assumir; agarrar; capturar

teach /tiːtʃ/

taught /tɔːt/

taught /tɔːt/

ensinar; ministrar aulas

tear /teə(r)/

tore /tɔː(r)/

torn /tɔːrn/

rasgar; dividir, partir

tell /tel/

told /təʊld/

told /təʊld/

contar; dizer

think /θɪŋk/

thought /θɔːt/

thought /θɔːt/

pensar; achar; considerar, julgar

throw /θrəʊ/

threw /θruː/

thrown /θrəʊn/

lançar, atirar arremessar, jogar

understand /ˌʌndə(r)ˈstænd/

understood /ˌʌndə(r)ˈstʊd/

understood /ˌʌndə(r)ˈstʊd/

entender, compreender

upset /ʌpˈset/

upset /ʌpˈset/

upset /ʌpˈset/

perturbar; descontrolar, desarranjar; impedir, frustrar

wake /weɪk/

woke /wəʊk/

woken /wəʊkən/

despertar

wear /weə(r)/

wore /wɔː(r)/

worn /wɔː(r)n/

vestir; desgastar com o uso; usar

win /wɪn/

won /wʌn/

won /wʌn/

ganhar (um prêmio, uma competição)

winded /ˈwɪndɪd/,

winded /ˈwɪndɪd/, wound /waʊnd/

soprar (instrumento musical); enrolar

withdraw /wɪðˈdrɔː/

withdrew /wɪðˈdruː/

withdrawn /wɪðˈdrɔːn/

retirar(-se); recolher(-se); sacar (dinheiro)

write /raɪt/

wrote /rəʊt/

written /ˈrɪt(ə)n/

escrever

wind /wɪnd/

wound /waʊnd/

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BIBLIOGRAPHY ABAURRE, Maria Luíza; PONTARA, Marcela. N. Gramática: texto: análise e construção de sentido. São Paulo: Moderna, 2006. ALMEIDA FILHO, José Carlos P. de. Dimensões comunicativas no ensino de línguas. 4. ed. Campinas: Pontes Editores, 2007. BASSO, Edcleia A. Quando a crença faz a diferença. In: BARCELOS, Ana Maria F.; ABRAHÃO, Maria Helena F. (Org.). Crenças e ensino de línguas: foco no professor, no aluno e na formação de professores. Campinas: Pontes Editores, 2006. BRASIL. Senado Federal. Lei de Diretrizes e Bases da Educação Nacional: nº 9394/96. Brasília, 1996. BRASIL. Ministério da Educação, Secretaria de Educação Média e Tecnológica. Parâmetros curriculares nacionais, códigos e suas tecnologias: Língua estrangeira moderna. Brasília, DF: MEC, 2000. BRASIL. Ministério da Educação. Orientações curriculares do ensino médio: Linguagem, código e suas tecnologias. Brasília, DF: v. 1, 2006. CANAGARAJAH, Athelstan. S. Resisting Linguistic Imperialism in English Teaching. China: Oxford University Press, 2009. CANALE, Michael; SWAIN, Merrill. Theoretical Bases of Communicative Approaches to Second Language Teaching and Testing. Applied Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, v. 1, n. 1, p. 1–47, 1980. CARTER, Ronald; McCARTHY, Michael. Cambridge Grammar of English. A Comprehensive Guide to Spoken and Written English Grammar and Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012. CELANI, Maria Antonieta A. Antonieta Celani fala sobre o ensino de língua estrangeira. Nova Escola, n. 222, maio 2009. Entrevista concedida a Daniela Almeida. Disponível em: <http://revistaescola.abril.com.br/linguaestrangeira/fundamentos/nao-ha-receita-ensino-lingua-estrangeira-450870.shtml>. Acesso em: 12 dez. 2015. CELANI, Maria Antonieta A. Concepções de linguagem de professores de inglês e suas práticas em sala de aula. In: CELANI, Maria Antonieta A. (Org.). Reflexões e ações (trans)formadoras no ensino-aprendizagem de inglês. Campinas: Mercado de Letras, 2010. CELCE-MURCIA, Marianne. Rethinking the Role of Communicative Competence in Language Teaching. In: SOLER, Alcón; JORDÀ, Safont Jordà (Ed.). Intercultural Language Use and Language Learning. Dordrecht: Springer, 2007. DÖRNEY, Zoltán; THURRELL, Sarah. Conversation and Dialogues in Action. Hemel Hempstead, England: Prentice Hall, 1992. EL KADRI, Michele S.; PASSONI, Taisa P., GAMERO, Raquel (Org.). Tendências contemporâneas para o ensino de língua inglesa: propostas didáticas para a educação básica. Campinas: Pontes, 2014. FERREIRA, Giovanni; TAKAKI, Nara H. Epistemologias de novos e múltiplos letramentos, identidade pós-moderna: repensando perspectivas para o ensino e aprendizagem de línguas. Revista Primeira Escrita, Aquidauana, n. 1, p. 119–133, nov. 2014. FREIRE, Paulo. Pedagogia da autonomia: saberes necessários à prática educativa. 51a ed. São Paulo: Paz e Terra, 2015. GIMENEZ, Telma (Org.). Tecendo as manhãs: pesquisa participativa e formação de professores de inglês. Londrina: UEL, 2007. GIMENEZ, Telma (Org.). Ensinar a aprender ou ensinar o que aprendeu? In: LIMA, Diógenes C. (Org.). Ensino e aprendizagem de língua inglesa: conversa com especialistas. São Paulo: Parábola Editorial, 2009. GIMENEZ, Telma (Org.). Prefácio. In: DIAS, Reinildes; CRISTÒVÃO, Vera Lúcia L. L. (Org.). O livro didático de língua estrangeira: múltiplas perspectivas. Campinas: Mercado das Letras, 2009.

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Circles 1  
Circles 1