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English as a Second Language | Secondary 2

UptoDate EnglisH

Benoit Jaret

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The publisher wishes to thank the following people for their comments and suggestions during the development of this project: Mrs. Caroline Ramsay, teacher, Polyvalente Disraeli, C.s. des Appalaches. Mrs. Patty McCurdy, teacher, Collège Durocher. Mr. Frédéric Jutras, teacher, Juvénat Saint-Louis de Marie, C.s. des Chênes. Mrs. Marie-France Piley, teacher, École Gabriel-Le-Courtois, Commission scolaire des Chic-Chocs. Mr. Danny St-Pierre, teacher, École secondaire Natagan, C.s. Harricana. Mrs. Nathalie Gauvin, teacher, École secondaire La Rencontre, C.s. Côte-du-Sud. Mrs. Christine Lavoie, teacher, École secondaire Mont-Royal, C.s. Marguerite-Bourgeoys. Mrs. Maria Saggaghian, teacher, École secondaire Lucien-Pagé, C.s. de Montréal Mrs. Betty Masella, teacher, École secondaire Édouard-Monpetit, C.s. de Montréal. Mr. Yves Plourde, teacher, École secondaire Édouard-Monpetit, C.s. de Montréal. Mr. Alain Bissonnette, teacher, École Marguerite de Lajammerais, C.s. de Montréal. The publisher also wishes to thank Mr. Patrick Langlois for his review of the answer key and the theory.

Kick-Off Common Mistakes [signature] © 2013, Éditions Grand Duc, a division of Groupe Éducalivres Inc. 955 Bergar, Laval (Québec), H7L 4Z6 Telephone: 514 334-8466 – Fax: 514 334-8387 All rights reserved. Illustrations: Stéphane Vary Graphic design: Lichen We acknowledge the financial support of the Government of Canada through the Canada Book Fund (CBF) for our publishing activities. It is illegal to reproduce this publication, in full or in part, in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photographic, recording, magnetic or other) without first obtaining written permission from the publisher. By respecting this request, you will encourage the authors in the pursuit of their careers. Product code 4296-4297 ISBN 978-2-7655-xxxx-x Legal deposit Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec, 2013. Printed in Canada

Table of content Unit 1 • Grammar Structure Level 1 – Basic Sentences Structure Plurals of Nouns Non-Count Nouns Many vs. Much Quantifiers Simple Present Tense Simple Past Tense Simple Future Tense Negative Sentences Yes/No Questions Information Questions Mini-Test

2 4 6 7 8 10 12 13 14 15


Unit 2 • Grammar Structure – Part 2 Level 2 – Less Basic Sentence Structure Indefinite Pronouns Possessives Adjectives Comparative and Superlative Adjectives Noun vs. Adjectival Forms Prepositions Adverbs Modal Verbs Mini-Test

22 23 25 26 28 29 30 31


Unit 3 • Grammar Mechanics Basic Mechanics Punctuation Capitalization and Abbreviations Misspelled Words 1 Misspelled Words 2 Mini-Test

38 41 43 44


Unit 4 • Focus on Language Conventions Level 1 – Form Adjective Endings (–ed, –ing) Order of Adjectives Regular and Irregular Verbs Simple Present vs. Present Continuous

50 52 54 57

Level 2 – Meaning Commonly Misused Words Expressions Mini-Test

58 60


Unit 5 • Functional Language Level 1 – Structuring a Text Discourse Markers


Level 2 – Improving Interactions Expressing Opinions Expressing Capabilities Expressing Feelings Expressing Interests, Needs and Obligations Mini-Test

68 70 71 72


Unit 6 • Vocabulary Basic and Familiar Vocabulary Homophones Synonyms Antonyms Cognates False Cognates Mini-Test

78 81 84 85 88


Unit 7 • Toolkit

Irregular Verb List Spelling Rules for the Simple Past Tense of Regular Verbs Spelling Rules for Comparative and Superlative Adjectives Common English Prepositions Common English Adverbs Modal Verbs Common Non-Count Noun Spelling Rules for the Plural Forms of Nouns Common English Verbal Adjectives Common English Homophones Common English Discourse Markers

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100 102 103 104 105 107 109 111 112 114

Answer: A bunch of black jabuticabas. See page 51 to learn more about this tree whose fruit grows on its trunk.

Look at this picture and try to guess what it is showing.

Focus on Language Conventions UNIT 4

Adjectives Ending in -ing and -ed what ?

Many adjectives ending in -ing describe the effect that something has on somebody’s feelings. E.g.

This is troubling news.

Various adjectives ending in -ing describe a state or process that continues over a period of time. My computer uses the new operating system. E.g.

Many adjectives ending in -ed describe people’s feelings. She was troubled by the news. E.g.

➠ p. 107 Common mistakes Wrong


Right ✓

Alex was really boring by the new sci-fi movie.

Alex was really bored by the new sci-fi movie.

In this case, the movie (object) is boring, not Alex (subject).

These recycling metal parts will save us construction fees.

These recycled metal parts will save us construction fees.

In this case, the metal parts are “recycled” (in the past), not “recycling” (in the present).

1 a) Highlight the appropriate adjectives in the sentences below. b) Use the context to decide which is best. Example

Dragons stories have always proved [interested/interesting].

1) In the stories, some dragons are [corrupted/corrupting] by power. 2) [Dedicated/Dedicating] heroes must stop the evil dragons. 3) It is hard to organize a [surprised/surprise] attack on the huge beasts. 4) The heroes sometimes get [amazed/amazing] results when they fight. 5) Dragons are always a force to be [reckoned/reckoning] with. 6) It is written that some dragons love [destroyed/destroying] villages. 7) Lots of dragon stories are indeed [fascinated/fascinating]. © Éditions Grand Duc



British English vs. American English

telly =

Write the correct word in American English.

trousers =

trolley = Marmoset monkey, Brazil

Write down the appropriate adjectival endings in the text below. 2

Jabuticaba – The Tree That Fruits on Its Trunk – Part 1 This alien-look__ing__ tree might seem like a joke played by a gardener, but the fruit of the Jabuticaba really does grow on the trunk of the tree. Otherwise known as the Brazilian grape tree, this plant is in parts of South America including cultivat Paraguay, Argentina and Brazil. The fruit, purple in colour and succulent-tast eaten straight from the tree.

, can be taken and

It is a popular ingredient in jellies and is also juiced to make summer drink. a refresh Moreover, it can be ferment If you want one of these plant patient.

and made into wine and strong liquor. in your garden, then you have to be

The tree takes ages to grow, but once it reaches an advanc of growth, it is worth it.


Brazilian jabuticaba fruit

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A fool thinks himself to be wise, but a wise man knows himself to be a fool. William Shakespeare, author

Jabuticaba – The Tree That Fruits on Its Trunk – Part 2 This tree has evolv in this manner so that animals that cannot climb seeds very high can reach it, eat the fruit and then expel the undigest to further propagate the species. If the tree is well irrigat

, it will flower and fruit all year long.

People also use the fruit for its heal


It is hop that the tree will be useful in the fight against cancer, as several anti-cancer components have been found in the fruit. It is altogether a most useful tree, if a slightly strange look


© “Jabuticaba – The Tree That Fruits on Its Trunk,” Kuriositas [Online], 2011.


Guess the expression! Can you guess what this expression means?

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Order of Adjectives HOW ?

The order of adjectives requires a certain sequence to be followed. Follow this order when applicable: 1. number or rank (one, six, fifth, tenth, etc.) 2. quality (nice, great, happy, etc.), 3. size (big, small, etc.), 4. age (old, new, 10-year-old, etc.), 5. shape (round, square, etc.), 6. colour (red, blue, white, etc.), 7. origin (Canadian, English, etc.), 8. material (water, wood, metal, etc.), 9. purpose or function (coffee as in coffee table, flying as in flying fish, etc.). E.g.

a n expensive luxury German car a small young girl

Common mistakes Wrong

That is one, wooden, big, fine, sailing boat!


Right ✓ That is one, fine, big, wooden, sailing boat.

“Wooden” (material), “big” (size) and “fine” (quality) are out of order. Only “one” (number) and “sailing” (purpose) are correct.

1 Write the appropriate types of the adjectives used in these sentences. Example

The dog has a big (


) red (


a) I don’t want to touch that disgusting ( (

Icelandic (

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) tropical

) bug!

b) We prefer these small (

) sore on its belly.

) red (


) cushions.



Match each province to its flag c) Grab my grey (

) metal (

plumbing (

) toolbox, please.

d) Guion Bluford was the first (

) black (

American (

) bright (

army-grade (


) flashlights.

f) The professor found an ancient ( Sumerian (


) in space.

e) I require a thousand (


) ) clay (



2 Write the following adjectives in the appropriate category. American



























Number/ Order









Purpose/ Function


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Associate the Canadian a) Neil Young artist to the correct album: b) Arcade Fire

1) Funeral 2) After the Gold Rush

3 Write the order of the adjectives in the text.

Left-handers vs. Right-handers Scientists do not agree on how to evaluate vague, [ 1 ] subjective [ ] concepts such as creativity and intelligence. Any link between those qualities and the hand you use to write has yet to be proved by serious studies. ] extensive [ Don’t hesitate to doubt if any scientist makes scientific [ ] reports about the intelligence of a completely random 10% of the world ] serious [ ]studies have proposed population. Then again, several [ ] multiple [ ]connections between your main hand and interesting [ your intelligence. It seems that right-handed people may perform a little better academically than left-handed people. Studies also reveal that, generally, left-handers suffer ] major [ ] disabilities and dyslexia than more often from learning [ right-handers. Nevertheless, left-handers are much better in tasks requiring mentally moving objects, which would explain the high percentage of left] professional [ ] chess and video game players. handed [ Common beliefs, especially about “right-brained” versus “left-brained” ] clear [ ] people, are based on more or less false science. The one [ advantage left-handed people benefit from is on a baseball diamond, on a tennis court or on the ice.

It seem that left-handers have certain advantages in sports clashes such as fencing, boxing or tennis. Researchers believe they move differently and their movements are difficult for opponents to predict. Famous left-handed sports personalities: Cécile Argiolas, France, fencing. Rafael Nadal, Spain, tennis (a left-hander in tennis but right-hander in everyday life).

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Rafael Nadal


Regular Versus Irregular Verbs WHAT ?

• Regular verbs always follow some basic spelling rules. • Irregular verbs do not follow the basic rules.


• Regular verbs: Most of the time, simply adding -d, -ed or -ied works. See page 96 for more precise spelling rules. to like liked E.g.

• Irregular verbs: Having a dictionary or a list, like the one on pages 94–95, helps. Common mistakes Wrong



She buyed a new pair of jeans.

She bought a new pair of jeans.

The verb “to buy” is irregular and needs to be changed to “bought.”

That guy speaked way too much!

That guy spoke way too much!

Here again, the verb “to speak” is irregular and needs to be spelled “spoke.”

1 Check the appropriate box. Verbs E.g.











d)  understand e)






h )


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Ellen Page

Nicole Kidman

Emma Watson

Natalie Portman

Which of these actresses is Canadian? 2 a) Correct any mistakes in the verbs in the following texts. b) Use a dictionary or verb list when needed.

Chocolate and Your Face

It may be fantastic on your taste buds; but chocolate is your skin’s nemesis. Except, is it really? Is there any confirmation about chocolate’s supposed pimple-producing powers?

published ) in the Journal of the A research publishe ( American Medical Association ) that chocolate doesn’t in the 1960s founded ( aggravate acne. Furthermore, a lot of other research has conffirmed ( ) that conclusion again and again. Lately, two important dermatology and health organizations say ( ) there is absolutely no relationship between chocolate and acne. Indeed, the two organizations statted ( ) that, generally speaking, your diet has modest effects on pimples. That being said, other recent studies have show ) evidence that the question isn’t so simple and ( ) in a medical clear. A recent study printted ( ) that the study journal of dermatology conclud ( ) flawed in numerous ways. in the 1960s were ( ) in yet another medical Also, another study print ( ) a connection between pure journal discover ( chocolate and pimple formation. Even with the new studies, the most important medical associations this side of the Atlantic aren’t ready to change their opinion just yet. As usual with things like this, additional research is necessary. So until then, moderation is advised.

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Simple Present Versus Present Progressive Verbs what ?

The simple present tense expresses habits or usual activities, general facts and preferences (likes, dislikes). E.g.

We live in a house.

The present progressive tense expresses actions taking place right now or these days, months, etc. They are watching the movie in the basement. E.g.

Common mistakes Wrong


Right ✓

Right now, I watch some TV.

Right now, I am watching TV.

To express an action taking place “right now” or “these days,” use the present progressive tense.

The kids playing hockey outside.

The kids are playing hockey outside.

The progressive present tense requires the auxiliary “to be.”

Highlight the appropriate verb tenses. Example

Sam and Tom usually [are going/go] to the movies on Fridays.

a) She really [is liking/likes] horror movies. b) These days, he [is working/works] on a movie script. c) She often [is looking/looks] for a better job in the industry. d) Right now, she [is not searching/doesn't search] at all. e) Every year, she [is getting/gets] new contracts with studios. f) Generally, Jake [is painting/paints] a lot for his job. g) For this contract though, he [is using/uses] a computer.

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Commonly Misused Words what ?

When learning a second or even third language, be careful of certain words that have either similar sounds or spellings, because their meaning can be very different. E.g.

bare means naked and bear is an animal.

Always refer to a dictionary when in doubt. Common mistakes Wrong


Tyler was really effected by his car accident.


Tyler was really affected by his car accident.

The word “effect” means to cause a consequence. “Affect” means to be influenced or moved (emotionally) by something.

1 a) Look at the highlighted words in the sentences. b) Check the appropriate box.

c) Correct any mistakes. Use a dictionary when needed. Words E.g.

I really need some advise. Can you help me?


He was tired, so he laid down.

Used well Misused



2) Hang your vest on that coat hangar. 3) Mom asked me to set the table. 4)  I was regarding television. 5) Close the light, it’s time for bed. 6)

This rock star has fewer fans every month.

7) I really need to past this science exam. 8) It was nice doing business with you.

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2 a) Highlight the appropriate word according to the context in the text below. b) Use a dictionary when needed.

Are Carrots Really That Good for Your Eyes? When I was a kid, my parents often tried to convince me that carrots were good for my eyes, and if I wanted to [avoid/pass] vision correction in the future, I should eat them now. After they bought me my first [pair/pear] of glasses in fourth grade, they stopped. It seems that mom was just [reminding/repeating] a common belief that got its start as wartime propaganda. During World War II, German [plaines/planes] frequently made bombing runs over Great Britain. In the early 1940s, the British set up a chain of radar stations along the southern coast of England so German bombers could be [detected/detective] and shot down before they reached land. Not wanting the Germans to know that they had this technology, the British intelligence service began a propaganda [campaign/countryside] focused on the incredible vision of the soldiers at the defence stations and their carrot diet. The operation was then used by the Ministry of endlessly: without Food, which [produced/producted] informative end, infinitely. cooking pamphlets on carrots and other root vegetables. European [civils/civilians] and parents all over the world believed the story and repeated it endlessly for decades to come, which helped hide the real reason behind the British radar stations’ [success/victory] – and got kids to eat their vegetables. Soniak, Matt, “Are Carrots Really That Good for Your Eyes?” © Reprinted with permission from Mental Floss, [Online], 2012.

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Expressions what ?

Expressions often add interesting cultural aspects to language. Expressions such as idioms can rarely be translated word for word from one language to another. For example, nobody starts a text in English using “In the life of every day...” Use online resources or an idiom dictionary when needed. Common mistakes Wrong



That is the last drop that made the vase overflow!

That’s the straw that broke the camel’s back.

It is a literal translation of “la goutte qui a fait déborder le vase.”

I can’t help you now; I have other cats to whip.

I can’t help you now; I have other fish to fry.

It is a literal translation of “d’autres chats à fouetter.”

1 a) Match the badly translated expressions with the more correct English versions.

b) Use a dictionary if needed. Spending a white night working

A) To be down in the dumps


1) N  ot being in ones plate

B) I won’t spend an arm and a leg on this

2) T  o have the wave in one’s soul

C) When pigs fly

3) T  his costs the eyes of the head

D) Burning the midnight oil

4) In the week of the four Thursdays

E) Feeling under the weather

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Continuous effort – not strength or intelligence – is the key to unlocking our potential. Winston Churchill, politician

a) Rewrite the underlined expression 2 with better English substitutes.

b) Match the meaning of the expression. Example

That guy is like an elephant in a porcelain shop. T hat guy is like a bull in a china shop. [ E ]

She was with the angels. 1) 











2)  He was so fed up, he threw the sponge.

3)  He still had a wet navel.

4)  I’ll do it when chickens have teeth.


English Idioms bull in a china shop on cloud nine to be sick and tired to throw in the towel wet behind the ears when hell freezes over Meaning A – never B – to abandon C – to be inexperienced D – to be tired or weary E – to be very clumsy F – to be very happy

5)  She really had her trip of him.

Find the mistakes! Can you find the mistakes?

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Wrap-Up Language Conventions: Focus on Form and Meaning

1 a) Correct the six mistakes in the vocabulary or expressions in the article.

b) Rewrite the sentence using the corrected version of the word or expression found.

c) Use the context to help you decide how to rewrite the sentence correctly.

How to Avoid Computer Viruses? If you’ve ever had a computer virus, you know how badly it can ruin your schoolwork, Internet surfing, gaming and even your saving1 files. The easiest way to catch a computer virus is to use the Internet. So, you have to be extra alert if you want to lower the risk of getting infected. You can do this by being preparing and educating2 so you don’t catch a vicious virus. The basics: Install an antivirus This is Internet basics. All computers should have a good-quality antivirus program, no matter what their type or model. An antivirus program can perform daily scans to catch and isolate viruses before they cause problems. They also can scan documents and other downloads for potential infections before you are authorizing3 the download to your computer. Whether you grab a free version online or use the software that came with your computer, it adds a layer of protection (or shield) for you and your files. 1) 2) 3)

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Be smart, download smart Do not click on all links you see. The techniques used to infect computers basically make you responsible for infecting your own files. One click can infect your computer. You never heard of the website? Something feels off? Is it promising something that is too good to be true? Exit the page right away, scan your computer and you’ll protect yourself from a huge, painful, one4 headache. Double-check your email Viruses often travel using email and may look like messages from fiable5 sources such as friends, family or well-known companies. That’s why it’s so vital to scan downloads before you add them to your computer. Scan them, even if the picture from your friend’s trip to Hawaii or your mom’s suggestion of a super cool website looks real. Remember: better to be safe than sorry and technologically knocked-out with an infecting6 machine on the eve of a big English project being due.

4) 5) 6)

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UptoDate English - Secondary 2 - Extract  

UptoDate English - Secondary 2 - Extract

UptoDate English - Secondary 2 - Extract  

UptoDate English - Secondary 2 - Extract