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English as a Second Language | Secondary 1

UptoDate EnglisH

Benoit Jaret


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The publisher wishes to thank the following people for their comments and suggestions during the development of this project: Mrs. Julie Buissière, teacher, Collège Jésus-Marie de Sillery. Mrs. Patty McCurdy, teacher, Collège Durocher. Mr. Frédéric Jutras, teacher, Juvénat Saint-Louis de Marie, C.s. des Chênes. Mrs. Marie-France Piley, teacher, École Gabriel-Le-Courtois, C.s. des Chic-Chocs. Mr. Danny St-Pierre, École secondaire Natagan, C.s. Harricana. Mrs. Christine Lavoie, École secondaire Mont-Royal, C.s. Marguerite-Bourgeoys. Mrs. Maria Saggaghian, École secondaire Lucien-Pagé, C.s. de Montréal Mrs. Betty Masella, École secondaire Édouard-Monpetit, C.s. de Montréal. Mr. Yves Plourde, École secondaire Édouard-Monpetit, C.s. de Montréal. Mr. Alain Bissonnette, École Marguerite de Lajammerais, C.s. de Montréal. The publisher also wishes to thank Mr. Pierre Rossi for his review of the answer key and the theory.

Kick-Off Common Mistakes [signature] © 2013, Éditions Grand Duc, a division of Groupe Éducalivres Inc. 955 Bergar, Laval (Québec), H7L 4Z6 Telephone: 514 334-8466 – Fax: 514 334-8387 www.grandduc.com All rights reserved. Illustrations: Stéphane Vary Graphic design: Lichen We acknowledge the financial support of the Government of Canada through the Canada Book Fund (CBF) for our publishing activities. It is illegal to reproduce this publication, in full or in part, in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photographic, recording, magnetic or other) without first obtaining written permission from the publisher. By respecting this request, you will encourage the authors in the pursuit of their careers. Product code 4294-4295 ISBN 978-2-7655-xxxx-x Legal deposit Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec, 2013. Printed in Canada


Table of content Unit 1: Grammar Structure – Part 1 Level 1 – Basic sentence structures Articles A, An, The Plural of Nouns Non-Count Nouns Simple Verb Tenses Auxiliary Verbs Affirmative Sentences Negative Sentences Yes/No Questions Information Questions Mini-Test

2 4 6 8 12 13 14 16 18 21

Unit 2: Grammar Structure – Part 2 Level 2 – Less Basic Sentence Structure What do you know? 23 Possessive Adjectives 24 Possessive Pronouns 25 Possessive Nouns 26 Adjectives 27 Comparative Adjectives 28 Superlative Adjectives 30 Prepositions 31 Adverbs 33 Modal Verbs 35 Mini-Test 39

Unit 3: Grammar Mechanics Level 1 – Basic Mechanics Punctuation Abbreviations Capitalization Misspelled Words 1 Misspelled Words 2 Mini-Test

42 46 47 48 50 53


Unit 4: Focus On Language Conventions Level 1 – Form Adjective Endings (–ed, –ing) Regular and Irregular Verbs Simple Present vs. Present Continuous

56 58 61

Level 2 – Meaning Commonly Misused Words Expressions Mini-Test

63 65 69

Unit 5: Functional Language Level 1 – Structuring a Text Discourse Markers (e.g. First, Next, Then, And, etc.) Level 2 – Improving Interactions Asking for/Giving Suggestions Asking for/Giving Advice and Feedback Asking for/Expressing Decision/Indecision Mini-Test

72 74 76 78 81

Unit 6: Vocabulary Level 1 – Basic and Familiar Vocabulary Homophones Synonyms Antonyms Cognates False Cognates Mini-Test

84 86 88 90 92 95

Toolkit

Irregular Verb List Spelling Rules for the Simple Past Tense of Regular Verbs Spelling Rules for Comparative and Superlative Adjectives Common English Prepositions Common English Adverbs Modal Verbs Common Non-Count Nouns Spelling Rules for the Plural Forms of Nouns Common English Verbal Adjectives Common English Homophones Common English Discourse Markers © Éditions Grand Duc

IV

100 102 103 104 105 107 109 111 112 114


UNIT 4

Garden of the Gods Park, Colorado

Focus On Language Conventions

Are you curious about the most secure safes and vaults in the world? One of them is near the Garden of the Gods Park, in Colorado. See page 59 to learn more about it.


Adjectives Ending in -ing and -ed WHAT ?

A lot of adjectives ending in -ing describe the effect that something has on somebody’s feelings. E.g.

This is troubling news.

Various adjectives ending in -ing describe a state or process that continues over a period of time. My computer uses the new operating system. E.g.

Many adjectives ending in -ed describe people’s feelings. She was troubled by the news. E.g.

➠ p. 106 Common mistakes Wrong ✗

Why?

Right ✓

Lucy was very exciting about the school trip.

Lucy was very excited about the school trip.

In this case, the trip (object) is exciting, not Lucy (subject).

Mark was captivated in the role of the mad scientist.

Mark was captivating in the role of the mad scientist.

In this case, Mark (subject) is captivating the speaker.

1 a) Highlight the appropriate adjectives in the sentences below. b) Use the context to decide which is best. Example

 hat documentary we saw in class this morning was [disturbed/ T disturbing].

1) The documentary has a lot of information that [interested/interesting] us. 2) The movie director was trying to get us to be [alarmed/alarming] about the topic. 3) There was a very [disgusted/disgusting] part that I didn’t like at all. 4) The most [shocked/shocking] thing about it is that people in the movie hardly seemed to care. 5) Most of the class were mostly [entertained/entertaining] by the documentary. 6) At least it ended on an [encouraged/encouraging] note.

Oil spill, contaminated beach

7) The scientist was really [fascinated/fascinating] when he talked about it. © Éditions Grand Duc

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UNIT 4


Metro or Subway?

Montreal and Paris: The Métro New York City: The Subway or train Chicago: The El London: The Tube or the Underground

Due to historical and design reasons, various cities use slightly different names or nicknames for their public transportation system.

2 a) Write the appropriate adjectives in the text. b) Use the Word Bank.

Some of the Most Ridiculously Secure Safes and Vaults of the World – Part 1 Fort Knox, Louisville, U.S.A. Plan on breaking into Fort Knox? First, climb the four surrounding fences – two of which are electric – and then sneak past the sentinels around the fort.

WORD BANK armed (2) awaiting locked surrounding reinforcing stored tucked

Be sure to avoid the video cameras. Don’t waste time trying to blast through the granite walls – they are 1.2 metres thick and held together by 750 tons of steel. If you get past the doors, you’ll probably guards inside, plus the maze of be stopped by the 22-ton vault door. Don’t despair. The vault can be opened, but only if you find all the staff members who know a small part of the combination (you’ll need all of them, since nobody knows the whole thing). Once you get inside the vault, you’ll have to break into the smaller vaults inside, and then you can start taking the 5,000 tons of in there. And do be careful when you leave: gold bullion 30,000 soldiers from Fort Knox’s military camp will be you outside. Reilly, Lucas, “Some of the Most Ridiculously Secure Safes and Vaults of the World” © Reprinted with permission from Mental Floss [Online], 2012.

Fort Knox, Louisville, USA

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UNIT 4


Regular Versus Irregular Verbs WHAT ?

• Regular verbs always follow some basic spelling rules. • Irregular verbs do not follow the basic rules.

HOW ?

• Regular verbs: Most of the time, simply adding -d, -ed or -ied works. See page 96 for more precise spelling rules. to like liked E.g.

• Irregular verbs: Having a dictionary or a list, like the one on pages 94–95, helps. Common mistakes Wrong ✗

Why?

Right ✓

The dog ranned as fast as it could.

The dog ran as fast as it could.

The verb “to run” is irregular and only needs to be changed to “ran.”

Mom gived me some extra money for tonight.

Mom gave me some extra money for tonight.

Again here, the verb “to give” is irregular and needs to be spelled “gave.”

1 Check the appropriate box. Verbs E.g.

to speak

a)

to learn

b)

to teach

c)

to type

Irregular

Regular

Both

d)  to clap e)

to have

f)

to use

g)

to draw

h )

to dream

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UNIT 4


NORAD: The North American Aerospace Defense Command is a United States and Canada binational organization charged with the missions of aerospace warning and aerospace control for North America.1

2 a) Write down if the highlighted words are regular or irregular. b) Write the appropriate past tense of the verbs.

Some of the Most Ridiculously Secure Safes and Vaults of the World – Part 2 Cheyenne Mountain, Colorado, U.S.A. Cheyenne Mountain redefines the phrase “job security.” Employees work behind two 25-ton doors, which can withstand a 30-megaton blast. To put that into perspective, Fat Man – the atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki – would have to explode 1,429 times to crack the entrance. The offices there are buried 610 metres inside the granite mountain, so far that air has to be pumped inside. That air, however, is the cleanest in the world. They process it by a state-of-the-art system of chemical, biological and nuclear filters. It’s no wonder why Cheyenne hosted the US Missile Warning Center and NORAD during the Cold War (1947–1991). Reilly, Lucas, “Some of the Most Ridiculously Secure Safes and Vaults of the World” © Reprinted with permission from Mental Floss [Online], 2012.

Verbs

Reg. Irr.

Past Tense

Verbs

E.g.

redefines

1)

work

5)

are

2)

withstand

6)

has

3)

explode

7)

is

4)

crack

8)

process

Reg. Irr.

Past Tense

redefined

1 Cheyenne Mountain NORAD complex hosted NORAD during the Cold War (1947–1991).

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UNIT 4


Mike Myers

Jim Carrey

Which of these actors is Canadian?

Kiefer Sutherland

Ryan Gosling

3 a) In the following text, write the corrected version of the mistakes in the verbs in the simple past tense. b) Use a dictionary or a verb list when needed.

A Fable from Aesop The Dancing Monkeys A Prince haved had some monkeys trained to dance. Being naturally themgreat mimics of men’s actions, they show selves most apt pupils, and when arrayed in their rich clothes and masks, they danced as well as any of the nobles. On one occasion a noble, bended on mischief, taked from his pocket a handful of nuts and throwed them upon the stage. The monkeys at the sight of the nuts forgotted their dancing and becomed (as indeed they were) monkeys instead of actors. Pulling off their masks and tearing their robes, they fighted with one another for the nuts. The dancing specto an end in the middle of the tacle thus comed laughter and ridicule of the audience.

“Not everything you see is what it appears to be.”

Guess the expression!

Can you guess what this expression means?

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? UNIT 4


Simple Present Versus Present Progressive Verbs WHAT ? what ?

The simple present tense expresses habits or usual activities, general facts and preferences (likes, dislikes). E.g.

The sun is hot.

The present progressive tense expresses actions taking place right now or these days, months, etc. Look! The sun is rising. E.g.

➠ p. 104 Common mistakes Wrong ✗

Why?

Right ✓

My father is not home; he rides his bicycle right now.

My father is not home; he is riding his bicycle right now.

To express an action taking place “right now” or “these days,” use the present progressive tense.

I think Robert taking the school bus today and not his bike.

I think Robert is taking the school bus today and not his bike.

The progressive present requires the auxiliary “to be.”

1 Highlight the appropriate verb tenses. Example

I usually [am riding/ride] my bicycle to school.

a)  Hurry up! The train [is leaving/leaves]! b) The plane [is taking/takes] less time to reach its destination. c)  Planes [are consuming/consume] more fuel than trains. d) Let’s go! My mother [is driving/drives] us to the mall. e)  This car [is using/uses] electricity as fuel and not gasoline. f)  That sailboat you see over there [is sailing/sails] for Hawaii. g) Space travel [is becoming/becomes] more and more of a reality every day.

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UNIT 4


2 a) Write the appropriate verb tense (simple present or present progressive). b) Use the time-related keywords and the context to help you choose. Example

Every year, very few people (to visit)

visit

1) When visitors (to walk)

Fort Knox. the security perimeter, they

are watched by cameras. 2) All the gold contained in Fort Knox (to be)

under

the protection of the US Army. 3) In order to get inside the Fort, people (to need) valid reasons. 4) Military forces (to use, still)

Garden of the Gods Park, Cheyenne Mountain (NORAD) in the distance, Colorado

the Cheyenne Mountains installations. 5) Every year, the Cheyenne Mountains National Park (to receive) thousands of visitors. 6) The military complex only (to welcome) authorized personnel. 7) Right now, visitors (to hike) close to this huge bunker. 8) NORAD (to improve)

its technology with massive

investments. 9) Americans and Canadians (to collaborate, still) at the base. 10) NORAD also (to have)

command centres in Alaska

and Manitoba.

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UNIT 4


Commonly Misused Words WHAT ?

When learning a second or even third language, be careful of some words that have either similar sounds or spellings because their meanings can be very different. E.g.

bare (which means naked) and bear (the animal)

Always refer to a dictionary when in doubt. Common mistakes Wrong ✗

Right ✓

I think I prefer the blue shirt rather then the red one.

I think I prefer the blue shirt rather than the red one.

Why? The word “then” is a synonym of “next” while “than” is used to compare.

1 a) Look at the highlighted words in the sentences. b) Check the appropriate box. Use a dictionary when needed. Words E.g.

Bilbo is the principal character in the book The Hobbit.

1)

They were walking to the mountains filled with goblins.

Used well

Misused

Corrections

main

2) They needed to travel further away. 3)

The mountain, who seemed dangerous enough, was very high.

4) 

All together, there were 14 adventurers.

5)

They were learned how to read magical maps.

6)

It was a difficult journey, especially for Bilbo.

7)

The group wanted to steel a great treasure from a dragon.

8)

A powerful ring was also discovered during the adventure.

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UNIT 4


2 a) Highlight the appropriate word according to the context. b) Use a dictionary when needed.

Some of the Most Ridiculously Secure Safes and Vaults of the World – Part 3 Svalbard Global Seed Vault, Spitsbergen, Norway If Armageddon [arrives/happens] soon, any hope of Armageddon: the end bringing the world’s crops back is buried 119 metres of the world. under a Nordic mountain. The Svalbard Global Seed crop(s): the cultivated produce of the ground, Vault on the island of Spitsbergen currently [houses/ such as wheat or corn. inhabits] over 500,000 of the world’s plant [kinds/ seed: what we put in the species]. The vault is 998 km south of the North Pole ground to grow plants. and safeguarded by hundreds of kilometres of ocean, plus a couple of thousand polar bears. It’s so deep, it’s resistant to a nuclear holocaust, not to mention severe earthquakes. It also sits 131 metres above [sea/see] If you are level, safe from any possible rise in water level. The [three/ travelling to tree] seed vaults lie behind four heavy steel doors. Spitsbergen, Norway, you could see the northern lights. This is one of the best places in the world to watch this magnificent natural spectacle. But you have to be aware of the cold. The photographer said he took this photo at a temperature of -53°C. You can also observe the northern lights in the Canadian North.

The Bank of England Vault, London, England It looks like something [straight/ strait] out of Indiana Jones: the UK’s largest gold vault – second in the world to the Fed in New York – [stars/stores] 5,152 tons of gold. The bombproof door is unlocked [via/visa] a sophisticated voice Gold reserve of the Bank of England vault, recognition system, aided by mul- London, England tiple three-foot-long keys. The bank won’t say how heavy the door is or how [deep/further] down the vault is buried, but we do know it has more floor space than London’s Tower 42, a 47-story building. Reilly, Lucas, “Some of the Most Ridiculously Secure Safes and Vaults of the World” © Reprinted with permission from Mental Floss [Online], 2012.

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UNIT 4


Expressions what ?

Expressions often add interesting cultural aspects to language. Expressions such as idioms can rarely be translated word for word from one language to another. For example, nobody starts a text in English using “In the life of every day...” Use online resources or an idiom dictionary when needed. Common mistakes Wrong ✗

Why?

Right ✓

Without my glasses, I am as nearsighted as a mole!

Without my glasses, I am as blind as a bat!

That is a literal translation of “myope comme une taupe.”

John is a real good person. He puts his hand on his heart.

John’s hand was on his heart; he was telling the truth.

This expression means to tell the truth, not to be good like: “avoir le coeur sur la main.”

1 a) Match the badly translated expressions with the better ones. b) Use a dictionary if needed. 1) It was the drop that made the vase overflow!

A) He has a quick temper.

E.g.

2) H  e touched some wood.

B) W  hen pigs fly.

3) H  e is so milk soup!

C) He was dressed to the nines.

4) In the week of four Thursdays.

D) It was the straw that broke the camel’s back.

5) He was on his 36.

E) H  e knocked on wood.

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UNIT 4


Violence is the last refuge of the incompetent. Isaac Asimov, author

2 a) Cross out the awkward French translations. b) Match the English expressions to their meanings. Expressions 1) Ace in the hole.

Meanings

E

A) Heavy rain showers.

2) Raining nails.

B) To be absolutely right.

3) Raining cats and dogs.

C) To be or feel sick.

4) To badmouth.

D) To have experience.

5) To be under the weather.

E) To have a hidden advantage.

6) To beat around the bush.

F) To hesitate to tell something.

7) To break one’s egg.

G) To say something bad about someone.

8) To burn the midnight oil. 9) To be an old hand at something. 10) To have a dirty tongue.

H) To memorize something. I) To think. J)  To work all night.

11) To hit the nail on the head. 12) To learn by heart. 13) To turn around the pot. 14) To use one’s noodle. 15) White night.

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UNIT 4


Wrap-Up Language Conventions: Focus on Form and Meaning

1 a) Correct the six mistakes in the last part of the story. b) Rewrite a sentence using the corrected version of the word/ expression found.

Some of the Most Ridiculously Secure Safes and Vaults of the World – Part 4 The WikiLeaks Vault, Stockholm, Sweden The US State Department probably doesn’t like this save1 house. Burying2 30 metres beneath the streets of Stockholm, this old nuclear bunker is the irritant of all data centres. That’s because the facility, owned by the Swedish Internet provider Bahnhof, famously protects the servers for WikiLeaks. Julian Assange’s most precious computers hide in this data bunker. Tucking3 behind a 45-cm steal4 door and driven by back-up generators that can go for weaks,5 WikiLeaks will be safe as long as it’s hear.6 Reilly, Lucas, “Some of the Most Ridiculously Secure Safes and Vaults of the World” © Reprinted with permission from Mental Floss [Online], 2012.

1) 

2) 

3) 

4) 

5) 

6) 

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UNIT 4


Wrap-Up 2 a) Write a 50-word text. b) Include the elements from the list below. c) Use a dictionary when needed. You have read some articles about some very safe places. 1. Write a short text about your definition of “safe,” or 2. Which story did you find the most interesting and why?

CheckList

(minimum requirements) ] 1 -ed adjective ] 1 -ing adjective ] 2 regular verbs ] 2 irregular verbs ] 1 English expression ] Pay attention to misused words. ] Pay attention to simple present or continuous functions.

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UNIT 4


UptoDate English - Secondary 1 - Extract  

UptoDate English - Secondary 1 - Extract

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