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ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE

› An Answer Key for all exercises and activities in the Student Workbook › A new Learning Situation that allows students to practise going through the various steps to prepare for the final evaluation › All audio recordings (MP3) for the listening activities in the Student Workbook › The Transcripts of all content on the audio recordings for all listening activities, to help students develop their listening skills while they read the texts › A progress chart so students can structure oral communication activities

Examining Issues

Suggestions and Advice ANG-5103-1

Influencing Others

PRODUCT CODE 4653 ISBN 978-2-7655-4134-9

9 782765 541349 >

CD-couvert-Examining_Issues_ANG-5101-2-mars2020-Final.indd Toutes les pages

Charles Gibbs Antonia Tzinevrakis

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ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE

ANG-5102-1

Project Supervisor

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ANG-5101-2

Examining Issues

EXAMINING ISSUES

FOR THE SECONDARY 5 COURSES, THE CONNECTING DOORS SERIES INCLUDES THREE WORKBOOKS.

ANG-5101-2

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The digital teaching guide includes:

Codes in the workbook provide direct access to online listening activities without the need to purchase any additional CDs.

2nd Edition

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Digital Teacher’s Guide

NEW!

ANG-5101-2

The Connecting Doors series integrates grammar, vocabulary, listening and speaking tasks based on real-life situations. The new edition of Examining Issues has been fully revised and updated to meet the needs of teachers and students, even in the context of multilevel classrooms.

Changes have focused on structuring each chapter as a cohesive learning situation that begins with a real-life scenario and continues to guide students toward the completion of a specific task. The reading, listening and speaking activities presented in the learning situation prepare students to organize information from written and oral texts, develop ideas, build vocabulary and follow language structures in order to succeed in their end-of-course evaluation.

CONNECTING

CONNECTING

Connecting Doors covers the complete Diversified Basic Education Program for ESL courses for adult education.

Student Workbook

GIBBS

CONNECTING

Student Workbook

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Secondary 5

Secondary 5

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ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE

Secondary 5

Student Workbook

CONNECTING

2nd Edition

ANG-5101-2

Examining Issues

Project Supervisor

Charles Gibbs

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SCHEDULE

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Antonia Tzinevrakis

Length of course ANG-5101-2: 50 hours START DATE 

  EXPECTED END DATE 

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STUDENT’S SIGNATURE  TEACHER’S SIGNATURE 

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CONNECTING Secondary 5

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© 2020, Éditions Grand Duc, a division of Groupe Éducalivres inc. 1699, boulevard Le Corbusier, bureau 350, Laval (Québec) H7S 1Z3 Telephone: 514 334-8466 www.grandducenligne.com All rights reserved.

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It is illegal to reproduce this publication, in full or in part, in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photographic, recording, magnetic or other) without first obtaining written permission from the publisher. By respecting this request, you will encourage the authors in the pursuit of their careers. PRODUCT CODE 4653 ISBN 978-2-7655-4134-9 Legal deposit Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec, 2020 Library and Archives Canada, 2020

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Table of Contents

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LEARNING SITUATION 1

Our Global Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Activity 1: Understanding and Expressing Opinions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Grammar – Future Progressive Tense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Activity 2: Relaying Findings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Grammar – Verbs To Do and To Make . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Activity 3: Formulating a Hypothesis to Solve a Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Final Task . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

LEARNING SITUATION 2

21

Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 1: Analyzing Information About an Issue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grammar – Transitional Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 2: Identifying Main Ideas and Supporting Details in an Oral Text . Grammar – So as an Adverb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grammar – Neither/Either . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 3: Predicting and Speculating About Outcomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grammar – Wish + Simple Past Tense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Final Task . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22 24 26 28 30 32 33 36 38 39

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Economic Inequality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

LEARNING SITUATION 3

Sustainable Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Activity 1: Moving Toward a Carbon-Neutral Future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Grammar – First Conditional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

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Activity 2: Promoting, Defending and Supporting Personal Ideas . . . . . . . Grammar – Present Perfect Tense Versus Simple Past Tense . . . . . . . . . . Activity 3: Understanding and Expressing Attitudes and Reactions . . . . . . Activity 4: Inquiring About and Relaying the Conclusions of Texts . . . . . . . Final Task . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49 51 53 55 58 59

LEARNING SITUATION 4

Learning Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

62 64 66 68 71 73

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LEARNING SITUATION 5

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Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 1: Analyzing and Comparing Information on an Issue . . . . . . . . . . Grammar – Review of the Present Perfect Tense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 2: Understanding and Expressing Opinions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grammar – Review of the Present Perfect Progressive Tense . . . . . . . . . . Activity 3: Summarizing Information and Formulating Hypotheses . . . . . . Grammar – Present Perfect Tense Versus Present Perfect Progressive Tense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grammar – Review of Phrasal Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Final Task . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 1: Understanding and Expressing Opinions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grammar – Metaphors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 2: Defending Personal Viewpoints on Social Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . Grammar – Second Conditional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 3: Identifying the Main Idea and Supporting Details . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 4: Reporting the Findings of Texts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Final Task . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82 84 86 88 91 93 95 98 99

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Abuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Final Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Grammar Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Presentation of the Student Workbook In this course, students will examine a number of social issues. They will make use of the readings, listening, activities and oral interactions in order to think seriously about the topics presented in the learning situations. They may find new ways of looking at a given situation and perhaps reconsider their own points of view. This workbook has five learning situations. In Learning Situation 1, students research the global economy in order to decide if it leads to mostly positive or negative impacts on themselves and their community.

In Learning Situation 2, students research the problem of economic inequality from different perspectives.

In Learning Situation 3, students explore the concept of sustainable development and find ways our society might achieve this goal.

In Learning Situation 4, students explore the fascinating world of languages, including topics such as language loss, linguistic diversity and second-language skills.

In Learning Situation 5, students consider various aspects of the issue of abuse in order to be better equipped to respond to situations characterized by Learning Situation 4 abusive behaviour.

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The first few pages of each learning situation contain the expected learning outcomes, provide the real-life situation and offer a sample text as a model for the final task. Subsequent learning activities provide guidance, suggest learning strategies and offer additional background information that will help students complete the final task.

LEARNING LANGUAGES

Scenario

The ability to communicate with others is a fundamental aspect of what it means to be human. Over the ages, it has allowed us to work together and find solutions to common problems.

The United Nations has declared September 30 as International Translation Day. Translation requires a high level of mastery in at least two languages, usually the mother tongue and another language. The language teachers at your adult education centre have decided to collaborate on a joint project to promote language learning.

IN THIS LEARNING SITUATION, YOU WILL…

There may be many language teachers at your centre. They might include French teachers, English Second Language teachers, Indigenous language teachers and teachers of foreign languages, such as Spanish or Italian.

Today, with increased interactions between people from different parts of the world, learning additional languages has become a necessity. Translators, interpreters, tour guides and bilingual customer service agents are but a few of the many professions arising from the importance of communication between people who speak different tongues.

Read and respond to informative texts that discuss language from various angles

At the same time, this increased connectivity between the peoples of the world has led to concerns that smaller linguistic groups need to be protected. One’s first language, or mother tongue, is an important aspect of culture and identity. This is particularly of concern given the prevalence of English-language films, television and music in all parts of the world. If young people do not learn to use their mother tongue correctly, some languages are likely to disappear. For this reason, attention is being called to the importance of linguistic and cultural diversity.

Review and compare the present perfect tense and present perfect progressive tense

• Three short texts, each headed by a subtitle, with information on at least three different aspects of language learning

Review separable and inseparable phrasal verbs

• A few persuasive sentences that grab people’s attention and call for action

These teachers are organizing a poster contest in recognition of International Translation Day. Since you are presently enrolled in an English class, you will be preparing your poster in English and then presenting it to your teacher. Your poster should include the following features:

Understand opinions and express your own opinion

• An interesting title

• At least one graph, diagram or map

• The date of International Translation Day (September 30)

Create and present a poster

The idea of the contest is not to create a poster only about translation as a profession. Your poster should approach the subject of language learning in a more general way. However, you may choose to talk about some of the professions open to multilingual speakers as one of your three topics. Many other ideas will be presented as you go through the learning situation.

A case in point concerns some of the languages spoken by First Nations and Inuit communities in Canada. There are more than 70 Indigenous languages spoken today, but only three of them – Cree, Inuktitut and Ojibway – are considered stable and viable long-term. Some 50 languages are still spoken by First Nations communities that have fewer than 3,000 members.

At the end of the learning situation, you will present your poster to your teacher, explain the choices you made and answer any questions your teacher may have. The discussion will last five minutes.

For all these reasons, the teaching of languages – both native and second (or foreign) – is an important part of education systems around the globe. People naturally want to protect and enhance their mother tongues, but also wish to communicate effectively with people from other parts. This learning situation will allow you to explore the fascinating world of language from diverse angles. © Éditions Grand Duc

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Learning Languages – Learning Situation 4

61

VOCABULARY BOX translator a person who translates written texts interpreter  a person who translates oral communications

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to translate express the meaning of a word or text in another language

second language a language a person learned that is not their mother tongue

mother tongue the first language a person learns

foreign language a language spoken in another country

Learning Situation 4 – Learning Languages

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ACTIVITIES

La classe numérique

The activities have one or more symbols that show what actions the student will undertake:

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interacting

A

reading

listening

B

In the Plan section, students will think about the situation, try to recall past experiences, give his or her opinion on a topic, or practise the vocabulary needed for the activity.

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PROCEDURE 1. Go to the Classe numérique: laclasse.grandducenligne.com. 2. Enter the C O D E associated with each listening activity. 3. Listen carefully to the text, then answer the questions in the workbook.

writing

PLAN

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laclasse.grandducenligne.com

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Audio tracks accompanying the listening activities can be accessed using the numeric code provided.

USE

In the Use section, students will mobilize strategies and resources to complete the activity, such as responding to a text.

C

REINVEST

In the Reinvest section, students will apply what they have learned to a new situation by completing a small task or reflecting on the topic in a new way. Presentation of the Student Workbook

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Grammar

GRAMMAR

Review of the Present Perfect Tense Pronoun PARTS OF SPEECH

Verb Adverb

a word that replaces a name or thing a word that shows an action or state a word that describes a verb

Article

a word that identifies a noun

Noun

a person, place, thing or idea

Modal auxiliary Adjective Preposition/Conjunction

Advanced grammar notions followed by exercises are introduced or reviewed throughout the workbook.

a word that adds meaning to a verb a word that describes a noun words that show the relationship between nouns or sentences

AFFIRMATIVE FORM The present perfect tense is formed by the simple present tense of the auxiliary have + the past participle, usually followed by the object of the sentence. Remember the auxiliary have could be in the contracted form (’s/’ve). He’s

bought a guidebook.

have They’ve

past participle bought their Spanish dictionaries.

To form the past participle, we add –ed to regular verbs.

FINAL ORAL OR WRITING TASK

I have called many people today. (call + –ed = called)

final task

For irregular verbs, you have to memorize the past participle. See page 112 for a list of common irregular past participles. My boss has made many phone calls since yesterday. (make She has been here since last year. (be been)

made)

Preparation

NEGATIVE FORM In the negative form, we add not or never after the auxiliary have. We often use the contracted form (hasn’t/haven’t). Melissa hasn’t eaten. (eat eaten) You haven’t signed the contract. (sign signed) She has never read a book in English. (read read)

In the space below, prepare your poster for International Translation Day, as described in the scenario on page 62. Use the notes you took on page 63 and in each activity.

Note

Remember to address three different aspects of language learning in your poster. You also need to include a graph, diagram or map.

The opposite of the word never is always. They are both often used with the present perfect tense.

You will present your poster to your teacher, explain your choices and answer questions. Your presentation will last five minutes.

INTERROGATIVE (QUESTION) FORM

After developing skills, vocabulary and knowledge related to each learning situation by completing the various activities, students complete a final task at the end.

In the interrogative form, the auxiliary have and its subject are inverted. I have returned the book.

Have I returned the book?

He has done the exercise correctly.

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Learning Situation 4 – Learning Languages

Has he done the exercise correctly?

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REVIEW

review Grammar 1. Present Perfect tense

Fill in the blanks by putting the verb in parentheses in the present perfect tense. Use the contracted form of the auxiliary to have when possible. When you see (neg.), use the negative form.

Learning Situation 4 – Learning Languages

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a)

you No, I

(to write) to your mother?

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(to have, neg.) the time.

b) Someone

The Review section provides an additional opportunity for students to practise and confirm their understanding of the grammar and vocabulary presented in the learning situation.

(to forget) this jacket on the chair.

it

(to be) there for long?

c) Arianne

always

(to want) to become a flight attendant.

she

(to apply) yet?

2. Present Perfect Progressive tense

Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the present perfect progressive. Use the contracted form when possible. When you see (neg.), put the verb in the negative form. a) I need a break. I

(to work) on my verb tenses since this morning.

b) They gone on vacation.

(to water, neg.) their garden for a month! They’ve probably

c) Your skin looks great! product you bought?

you

using (to use) the new

3. Present Perfect tense or Present Perfect Progressive tense a)

Derek

b)

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Fill in the blanks with the present perfect tense or the present perfect progressive tense. Use the contracted form where possible. (to get) a job yet?

you

(to understand) what she

(to tell) you so often? c) People

(to wait) for a long time to get tickets.

d) I can’t believe that you

(to run) in such heat! It’s 35° with the humidity.

4. Phrasal verbs

Fill in the blanks with one of the following phrasal verbs: pick out, turn down, sign up, end up, get through. Conjugate the verb in the correct tense. Use a logical pronoun if necessary.

b) There are language classes starting next week, but the deadline to c) They haven’t gone to Barcelona to study. They finally

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? is on Friday. going to Mexico City.

Learning Languages – Learning Situation 4

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a) I’d like to get Paulina a gift for her birthday. Can you help me

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to Say It

Strategies Used

The learning strategies in this workbook will help you learn English better and faster. As you do each activity, several learning strategies are suggested that may help you get started.

Self-Evaluation

The Vocabulary Box helps students understand a word in the text.

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VOCABULARY BOX

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The Ways to Say It box helps students complete a speaking activity. It provides ideas on how to say something.

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The Learning Situations Include the Following Features:

The ICT Challenge involves activities that require the use of information and communications technologies in order to expand skills and knowledge in a particular area.

At the end of each learning situation, there is a section in which the student can evaluate his or her own progress and give his or her opinion about the learning situation.

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The End of the Book Includes the Following Sections:

FINAL REVIEW

The Final Review section contains exercises that review the main grammar concepts presented in this workbook.

GRAMMAR REVIEW The Grammar Review section is for reference and practice only. It helps students find and use the correct word, expression or verb tense, as required in the writing task.

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STRATEGIES The Strategies section explains the various learning strategies and how to apply them.

GLOSSARY Most of the difficult words in the book are explained in French in the Glossary. This will help students understand the instructions and texts. Words that are English and French cognates are not included in the Glossary. Thank you for not photocopying

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Learning Situation 1

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OUR GLOBAL ECONOMY

In recent years, companies in various countries have been trading goods and services more than ever before. For example, Canadians buy wine from Europe (an import) and sell wood to India (an export). This development has been made possible because of free trade agreements between countries.

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Some people are in favour of the world having a global economy. They see the benefits of increasing trade and communications between countries. Other people are opposed to this trend, called globalization, for a variety of reasons.

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You will be asked to research the global economy in order to decide if it leads to mostly positive or negative impacts on you and your community. After forming an opinion, you will decide whether you want to support an online petition opposing or limiting free trade agreements.

IN THIS LEARNING SITUATION, YOU WILL… Read and respond to texts that highlight issues related to the global economy Discuss solutions to certain problems related to the global economy Give your opinion and ask other people for their opinions Use the future progressive tense Distinguish between the verbs to make and to do

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Our Global Economy – Learning Situation 1

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Your other friend, Naomi, is the manager at an electronics store. She has noticed a reduction in the cost of many items in her store, such as cellphones and computers. She says this is made possible thanks to free trade between countries. She thinks free trade agreements make it possible for more people to buy more things, and that it gives people more choices, which is good for everyone. She believes that other countries usually benefit too, because more people can buy their products. She also thinks that international trade helps promote democracy and prevent wars, because countries are more open to the world. She has asked you not to sign the petition.

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You have had a conversation recently with two friends, Mark and Naomi. Mark works on the production line at a car manufacturer. He has heard that his employer is considering outsourcing some aspects of vehicle production to India. Because of this, he fears he may lose his job at the car plant. He thinks that people in other countries would be better off if they manufactured their own things. He has heard about problems like child labour in other countries and thinks the low price of products like coffee or sugar makes it difficult for farmers in some countries to make a living. He believes in fair trade not free trade. He has asked you to sign a petition that would cancel or limit some free trade agreements.

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Scenario

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What do you think? Your task is to research this issue so you can form an opinion on the global economy and determine whose ideas you share. Using notes you have taken throughout the learning situation, you will explain your decision to your teacher. Your conversation will last about five minutes.

VOCABULARY

manufacturer company that produces a product

child labour children working instead of going to school

imports products coming into the country

outsourcing sending work to another company

free trade exchange of goods with no taxes added

exports local products being sold to other countries

car plant of vehicles

2

BOX

place for production

Learning Situation 1 – Our Global Economy

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fair trade paying a reasonable price for products so that workers earn a living wage

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FINAL TASK ORGANIZATION PAGE Complete the chart below with information from the scenario on page 2. Then, add your own ideas to the chart as you go through the learning situation. MARK

NAOMI

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Is this person in favour of free trade?

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Reasons for their opinion

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What does this person want you to do?

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Your ideas

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Other reasons you might support Mark’s opinion:

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Other reasons you might support Naomi’s opinion:

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Activity 1 Understanding and Expressing Opinions

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Outsourcing to other places is a common technique used by companies to save money. It involves transferring a service from its production line to another company whose costs are lower. Outsourcing may mean lower prices for consumers. However, it has also created a lot of controversy. In this activity, you will read an article and listen to a podcast on the topic.

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Name some different countries in which you might expect the following to be produced. a) Clothing:

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b) Electronics: c) Plastic items:

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d) Furniture:

Part 1

1. Read the article on the next page.

2. Look at the Vocabulary Box for help with new words. 3. Answer the following questions.

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a) When did we begin to hear about outsourcing?

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b) What happened during this period?

c) What changes made it easier to send work to other countries?

d) Are economists generally in favour of outsourcing or against it?

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Learning Situation 1 – Our Global Economy

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About Outsourcing The term “outsourcing” entered the business lexicon in the 1980s. In the second half of the 20th century, as companies grew larger, more specialized skills were required. Companies found that external providers were often able to get work done faster and more efficiently due to the particular skills they possessed.

provider business that sells a product or service efficiently  quickly and correctly

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improvement something that has been made better a different

overseas continent

growing

developing

wages laid off 

salaries lose one’s job

consumers people who buy a product

Part 2

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Outsourcing has been subject to a lot of criticism. Workers who are laid off often blame outsourcing, yet most economists agree that it lowers costs for companies and passes on benefits to consumers. On the whole, outsourcing is on the rise. The worldwide economic recession has forced companies to explore all options to increase efficiency and cut costs.

vocabulary

lexicon

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Toward the end of the 20th century, with improvements in shipping, technology and telecommunications, it became more and more cost-effective to get work done overseas, especially in developing countries, where wages were low. Multinational corporations get various types of work done in different countries. Factors considered in outsourcing to other countries include costs for wages, materials, transportation and electricity.

BOX

VOCABULARY

1. Listen to the conversation between

the host of a podcast and Allison Frankfort.

La classe numérique

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sw

jq

ry

laclasse.grandducenligne.com

2. Answer the questions below.

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a) What types of jobs are more at risk due to outsourcing?

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b) Name three ways in which companies may save money by outsourcing.

VOCABULARY contracting contracts

BOX giving

Western countries Canada, USA, Europe, Australia, etc. shipped 

transported

IT information technologies (computers) developed countries  Western countries

c) Why does offshoring make it easier to offer 24-hour customer service?

developing countries countries that are trying to become more advanced economically and socially beneficial 

d) Name three problems involving communications with another country.

bottom line result

profitable financial

training learning how to do the job offshoring  sending work outside the country

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C

REINVEST

1. Find a partner or work with the teacher. Discuss the statements below. Put a check mark (

)

to show how you feel about the statement. Explain to your partner why you feel this way. Ask your partner to explain his or her opinion.

2. If you and your partner disagree about certain issues, try to convince him or her to see things your way. MY PARTNER’S

MY OPINION

e) Cheap labour does not help the economy of a developing country.

3. Which statements did you convince your partner to reconsider?

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My New Words

Strategies Used Cooperating

4. Which statements did your partner convince you to rethink? Explain.

6

� �

g) Fair trade practices will improve labour standards in other countries.

Explain.

� �

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f) By buying cheaper items, we encourage poverty and lower labour standards in other countries.

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d) Outsourcing has helped poorer countries, but has given us more unemployment.

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c) We will be helping developing countries if companies continue to send work there.

D

b) Outsourcing has helped us pay much less for products that would normally be more expensive.

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a) Outsourcing to other countries is the reason people are losing their jobs.

OPINION

Recognizing and correcting inaccuracies Rephrasing

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GRAMMAR

Future Progressive Tense Pronoun

a word that replaces a name or thing a word that shows an action or state

Adverb

a word that describes a verb

Article

a word that identifies a noun

Noun

a person, place, thing or idea

Adjective Preposition/Conjunction

a word that adds meaning to a verb a word that describes a noun

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Modal auxiliary

words that show the relationship between nouns or sentences

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PARTS OF SPEECH

Verb

The future progressive tense is used:

1. To say that something will be in progress at a particular moment in the future. Example   On this day next week, I will be swimming in the sea.

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2. To talk about future events that have been decided upon.

Example   I will be travelling to Asia on a business trip in a few days.

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3. To predict a situation.

Example   If you call now, Rena will be helping her son with his homework.

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4. To make polite enquiries about people’s plans.

Example   Will Norman be joining us?

The future progressive tense uses the following structure:

AFFIRMATIVE

NEGATIVE

I will not/won’t be changing jobs.

Will I be going to Asia?

You’ll/will be arriving tomorrow night.

You will not/won’t be working on that project.

Will you be accepting any new contracts?

She’ll/will be sleeping at 9 p.m.

She will not/won’t be replacing Eduardo.

Will she be taking a vacation this week?

We’ll/will be moving soon.

We will not/won’t be outsourcing this year.

Will we be forwarding all the documents?

They’ll/will be watching the hockey game this weekend.

They will not/won’t be raising prices.

Will they be receiving an answer this week?

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I’ll/will be staying home tonight.

INTERROGATIVE

Note

The contracted form: will + not = won’t

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GRAMMAR PRACTICE 1. Look at the examples on the previous page. Use the following words to identify the structure of the future progressive tense:

[verb (–ing), subject, will, be, not] a) Affirmative:

+ .

b) Negative:

+

+

+

+

.

c) Interrogative:

+  ?

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+

+

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+

+

nd

2. Fill in the blanks by putting the verb in parentheses in the future progressive tense.

a) I

Will you be running (run) in the Annual Marathon?

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Example

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Use the contracted form of will when possible. When you see (neg.), use the negative form.

(to buy) fair trade coffee this week.

b) She

(to encourage, neg.) new free trade agreements.

c) He

(to do) overtime hours during the holidays.

d)

they

e) The conference on trade

g)

Éd

f) They

(to live) there for long? (to end, neg.) until next week.

(to shop) for a new car made in Canada.

you

(to go) to the information

meeting?

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h) I

(to read) that article tomorrow.

i) What

you

j) Diane

(to work, neg.) overtime this week.

k) How long l) Who

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(to do) this weekend?

you you

(to spend) in Asia? (to meet) this morning?

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Activity 2 Relaying Findings One concern with the globalized economy is about labour standards and practices around the world, especially when children are concerned.

A

PLAN

1. At what age can young people start to work where you live?

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2. What kind of work can they do?

gg-foto/Shutterstock.com

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USE

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B

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3. In which countries do you think there is a problem with child labour?

1. Look at the Vocabulary Box on the next page.

2. Read the information on child labour on the next page. 3. Circle the correct statement from the choices below. a) The main idea of this text is:

1) Child labour is a widespread problem, but there are solutions. 2) Child labour is part of the economic system of many countries. 3) Child labour is growing due to unfair trading practices.

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b) Fair trade...

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c) Child labour is work that…

1) doesn’t change the cost for the consumer. 2) is an obstacle to economic growth.

3) gives the producer an adequate income. 1) only happens in one country. 2) keeps children from getting an education. 3) only 5- to 17-year-olds do. 4) around 215,000 children are involved in.

d) Working conditions are…

1) illegal, exploitative, but not dangerous. 2) hazardous, extremely exploitative, but legal. 3) legal, but very dangerous and exploitative. 4) illegal, dangerous and exploitative.

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e) Underage children…

1) only work because they aren’t in school. 2) are sometimes forced to work because they help make money for their families. 3) do all kinds of work because they are young. 4) do minor jobs.

f) Children have been…

1) harvesting oranges in Argentina. 2) harvesting cocoa in Egypt. 3) manufacturing carpets in China.

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Child Labour

nd

D

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4) making fireworks in the Dominican Republic.

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Child labour is work that harms children or keeps them from attending school around the world. The International Labour Organization estimates that 215 million children between the ages of 5 and 17 currently work under conditions that are considered illegal, hazardous or extremely exploitative. Underage children do all sorts of jobs around the world. They are usually forced to work because their family is extremely poor and they lack education.

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About 60% of child labour occurs in commercial, agricultural, fishing, manufacturing, mining and domestic service sectors. Children have been found harvesting bananas in Ecuador, cotton in Egypt, oranges in Brazil, cocoa in the Ivory Coast, tea in Argentina and Bangladesh, fruit and vegetables in the United States. Around 14 million children are estimated to be directly involved in manufacturing goods. This includes carpets in India, Pakistan and Egypt, clothing sewn in Bangladesh, footwear made in India and the Philippines, glass and bricks made in India. In China, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, India and Peru, fireworks are made by children.

Dietmar Temps/Shutterstock.com

VOCABULARY

BOX

work

labour

currently

presently

underage legal age

not of

lack

not enough

involved

implicated

footwear shoes, sandals, boots enforcement  application to remain  to continue to exist

Although countries may agree on the importance of labour standards, there remain many obstacles to the enforcement of these standards. The use of unfair trading practices is one of the key obstacles to economic progress in poor countries. Hopefully, fair trade is a practice that allows the local producer or worker to earn a respectable wage in order to adequately provide for his or her family. In the end, it costs the Western consumer a bit more to buy the product, but they can feel reassured they are doing a good thing.

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C

REINVEST

1. Read the two questions below. 2. Talk to 10 friends or classmates about the problem of child labour. Ask each person his or her opinion on each question.

3. Draw a bar graph for each question showing the results of your survey. 4. In the space below, write some comments about what surprised you Questions

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or didn’t surprise you about the results.

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a) Do you think we should boycott items produced in countries where there is evidence of child labour? 10

nd

8 Number of people

om

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a/Shutte

SeeVer

6

2

No

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Yes

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4

Don’t know

Opinion

My New Words

b) Do you think consumers should pay more for some products, to help reduce the problem of child labour in other countries? 10 8

Strategies Used

6 4

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Number of people

Using facial expressions

2

Yes

Note-taking No

Don’t know

Encouraging self and others

©

Opinion

Your comments

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GRAMMAR

Verbs To Do and To Make In English, it can be difficult to know when to use the verb to do or the verb to make. The verb to do is used for actions, tasks, activities or obligations. It does not produce a physical object. It also involves an element of responsibility. Here is list of common examples with to do:

Do a report

Have you done the report?

Do business

They do business with a country overseas.

Do homework

Most kids don’t like doing homework.

Do volunteer work

Elena really likes to do volunteer work.

2. Actions that involve some kind of work for the home:

D

She’ll be doing the work by herself.

nd

Do work

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1. Actions that involve some kind of preparation (work or study):

I can’t meet you because I have to do the shopping.

Do gardening

Now that spring is here, I have to do the gardening.

Do laundry

I have nothing to wear, so I’d better do the laundry.

Do dishes

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Do ironing

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Do shopping

My shirts are never smooth because I never do the ironing. Can you do the dishes while I make lunch?

3. Actions that are good or bad: Do the right thing Do your best

Do well Do badly

Here is one exception. We say:

✓ ✗

Make your bed Do your bed

I make the bed before I leave the house each day.

You did the right thing by defending that man. She did her best to send the work on time.

The team has done terribly in the last few games.

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Do terribly

Note

You’ve done well, so we’re going to give you a promotion. They had to send the work back because it was done badly.

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4. Actions that are general without being specific:

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Do anything

Are you doing anything this weekend?

Do something

You have to do something about this situation!

Do nothing

They have done nothing to improve the conditions.

Do everything

I’ll do everything in my power to help.

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GRAMMAR (continued) The verb to make is used for creating or producing something. We can usually touch the thing that we create. Here is a list of common examples with to make:

Make tea/coffee

She made tea for me and then made coffee for herself.

Make a salad/sandwich/ pizza, etc.

I’m trying to make salads more often.

Make breakfast/lunch/dinner

I’m making breakfast. Do you want some?

Make a drink

What kind of drink would you like me to make for you?

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1. To talk about food or beverages:

Did he make much money in the garage sale?

Make a profit

They made a large profit last year.

Make a fortune

She made a fortune investing in those stocks.

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3. To talk about plans or progress:

nd

Make money

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2. To talk about money:

They’ve already made plans for this weekend.

Make an exception

Our manager made an exception by giving us more time to finish the job.

Make sure

We want to make sure we are buying a fair trade product.

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Make plans

Have they made a decision about who they will be hiring?

Make a mistake/error

Who made a mistake and wrote the wrong address on the envelope?

Make an improvement

They’ve been making improvements to their product for two years.

Make a difference

Going to the gym has made a difference to the way I feel.

Make an effort

They’re making an effort to satisfy our demands.

Éd

Make a decision/choice

4. Other expressions with to make: Did you make friends easily when you moved to that country?

Make a complaint

We’ve made a few complaints about the terrible service.

Make a suggestion

I don’t know why I ever make suggestions. No one ever listens to me.

Make a prediction

Has she made many predictions about the future of our economy?

©

Make friends

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GRAMMAR PRACTICE 1. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs to do or to make in each question or answer. Then, match the questions on the left side with the correct answer on the right. The first question has been completed for you. 4

a) Will you be doing anything tonight?

1. He’ll be pasta with a light tomato sauce and a green salad.

b) Who’s going to

2. Can you

the cleaning after the party?

me a green tea?

3. She

c) What will Medhi be for dinner this evening?

very well.

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4. No, I think that I’ll be staying home and doing my homework. 5. I

e) How did Chantal on her exam?

it this morning.

D

d) Would you like anything to drink?

6. Don’t worry! The kids are going to the dishes and all the rest of the housework.

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nd

f) Have you finished the report for Miriam?

2. Fill in the blanks with to do or to make in the following dialogues. Don’t forget to use the correct

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verb tense, as required.

A: Is he doing his best to get the contract? B: Yes, and I think he’s making progress.

Example

a) A: I’d like to

something about the problem.

B: Why don’t you

a complaint?

Éd

b) A: How are you

B: Not great. But I’ve already c) A: I’m going to

©

B: OK. Get me some cereal, but

d) A:

e) A: He

some grocery shopping. Do you want me to get you anything? sure it’s whole wheat.

a big difference. a prediction that the economy would be getting better.

B: I hope he’s right. They’ve

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three friends.

business overseas is not always easy.

B: I know. Communication

14

with your schoolwork?

the right thing.

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Activity 3 Formulating a Hypothesis to Solve a Problem One solution to some of the problems caused by the global economy is the concept of fair trade.

A

PLAN

USE

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B

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2. Have you bought any fair trade products? What did you buy?

D

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1. Have you heard of fair trade? What is it?

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1. Look at the Vocabulary Box on the next page. 2. Read the text on fair trade on the next page.

3. Answer the questions below. Circle T if the statement is true and F if the statement is false. If the statement is false, write the correct information below it.

Éd

a) Farmers and workers in developing countries always benefit from trade.  T

b) Most fair trade products are low in price.  T

F

F

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c) Producers and their communities benefit from the Fairtrade Premium.  T

F

d) Fair trade products are more expensive to buy because they meet strict economic, social and environmental standards.  T F

e) Fair trade products are not often organic.  T

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F

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Not All Trade Is Fair Trade Farmers or workers in developing countries don’t often get a fair share of the benefits of trade. The economic reality is that when craftsmen, producers and farmers fail to receive enough payment for their work, they are unable to invest financially in their families, communities and businesses. Without fair wages and healthy working conditions, industries are unable to thrive, and individual workers are often unable to feed their families properly or avoid hazardous working conditions.

fair trade 

BOX

just or correct exchange

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craftsmen skilled trade worker thrive  grow or succeed

D

hazardous dangerous sum 

strict

amount severe

attributes

nd

Most products have a fair trade price, which is the minimum that must be paid to the producers. In addition, producers get an extra sum, called the “Fairtrade Premium,” to invest in their communities. Fair trade organizations focus on increasing the quality of workers’ lives, circumstances and communities. When buying fair trade products, we support fair wages and labour conditions. When fair trade purchases are made, income from the purchases is placed into an industry that is operating at higher standards than before.

VOCABULARY

aspects

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In order for a product to be fair trade certified, it must meet strict economic, social and environmental standards. When produced under those standards, products are often more expensive for consumers. For example, fair trade food and coffee must not have genetically modified organisms or agrochemicals used in their processing. Producers and traders can negotiate higher prices on the basis of quality and other attributes.

Éd

Fair trade standards exist for food products from tea and coffee to fresh fruits and nuts, as well as for non-food products such as flowers, plants, sports balls and cotton.

Strategies Used

REINVEST

©

C

Activating prior knowledge

Find a partner or work with the teacher. Are you willing to pay more to support fair trade? Summarize your opinions below.

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Making hypotheses Scanning for specific information

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final task Preparation for the Oral Presentation

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You can talk about:

nd

You will be required to explain your opinion by discussing a variety of issues related to the global economy that have been discussed in this learning situation. You must demonstrate that you have read and understood the reading and listening texts.

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You are now ready to have a conversation with your teacher, as outlined at the beginning of the learning situation. You must choose whether to support the ideas of Mark or Naomi, and explain your decision. Will you sign the petition cancelling or limiting free trade agreements, as Mark has requested? Or will you not sign it, as Naomi recommends?

The advantages of free trade for consumers and countries

The purpose and consequences of outsourcing work to other countries

Problems raised by global trade, such as child labour

Solutions to some of these problems, such as fair trade

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Use the space on the following page to take notes that will help you in your discussion. Write your notes in point form. Do not write complete sentences.

©

Éd

Your conversation should last about five minutes.

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NOTES FOR THE ORAL PRESENTATION Use the space below to take notes to help you explain your ideas during the oral discussion with your teacher. The words below are optional. They are provided to help generate ideas.

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Free trade means…

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nd

It is…

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Outsourcing means…

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It is…

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Notes about child labour

Notes about fair trade

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review Grammar 1. Future Progressive tense   Fill in the blanks using the future progressive tense. Write the negative form when you see (neg.). Use the contracted form when possible. Choose from the following list of verbs to complete each sentence: pay, get, give out, ask, make, drive, sell, go, wear, look, come, park, apply, open, fall. a) Who b) Beatrice a lift from George.

(neg.) by train. They they

hotel reservations

they

e) I’m not sure if I

my car on the street. It depends if I find a spot;

for a spot in the parking lot.

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otherwise, I

f) Do you know if Carmine and Dan or will they wait until next week? g) His sister h) He i) The snow

the restaurant this weekend

for work at the call centre.

a suit and tie because it’s a formal event. (neg.) until tomorrow evening.

j) Did you say that you

your car? How much

for it?

Éd

you

for a place

ra

in advance or when they get there?

nd

d)

D

(neg.) with us. She

c) They to Boston.

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the diplomas at the graduation ceremonies?

2. Verbs to do and to make   Fill in the blanks with the correct form of to do or to make in the following sentences. Make sure you choose the correct verb tense. a) Has she

©

a decision on where she’s moving yet?

b) Our grandmothers used to

c) We

so much ironing.

nothing special last weekend.

d) Don’t worry! Just e) I prefer to

your best. pizza at home.

f) When she saw smoke, she

the right thing by pulling the fire alarm.

g) How much money did the school h) I hope that I

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selling tickets for the concert?

well in the interview on Tuesday.

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3. REVIEW OF VOCABULARY   Choose the best word from the following options to complete each sentence below. bottom line  • consumer • enforce • export • import • income • trade • underage a) The money that you receive from work is your

.

b) Companies are interested in their c) The use of

, which means making a profit.

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children for work is called child labour.

d) International countries.

e) Canada sells automobile parts to the United States. It is an f) Canada buys chocolate from Belgium. It is an

nd

.

ra

rules on labour and environmental

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Self-Evaluation

.

.

g) A person who buys a product or service is called a h) All countries should try to practices.

D

is the exchange of products and services between

1 How much progress have you made during this learning situation? Read the following statements. Check ( ) the box that shows how you feel.

YES NO MAYBE

a) I can give my opinion on issues such as outsourcing.

b) I can ask other people their opinions on issues in English.

c) I can discuss solutions to issues in English.

d) I can use the future progressive tense correctly.

e) I can use the verbs to do and to make correctly.

Éd

©

2 What do you like best about this learning situation? Why?

3 What do you not like about this learning situation? Why?

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Learning Situation 2

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nd

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ECONOMIC INEQUALITY

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In recent years, the difference between the incomes of people who are rich and those who are poor has been growing. This is the case everywhere, but it is more obvious in some places than others. There are a variety of things individuals and governments can do to reduce economic inequality. Some solutions include increasing taxes in order to spend more on social programs, increasing the minimum wage or supporting people in need through programs such as welfare or minimum guaranteed income.

©

Éd

However, not everyone agrees with these ideas. Some people feel it is not the government’s job to redistribute wealth. They believe that each person should be responsible for themselves and their families. Other people have an approach that falls in the middle of the debate. They would like to ensure that society offers equality of opportunity. This means that basic services, such as education and health care, are provided to everyone, but each person must work hard to obtain more. In this learning situation, you will research the problem of economic inequality from different perspectives. You will be asked to decide whether or not to support a proposal to reduce economic inequality. Then, you will explain your decision to your teacher.

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IN THIS LEARNING SITUATION, YOU WILL… Read about and discuss the problem of economic inequality Discuss possible solutions to economic inequality Express personal opinions and persuade others to take action Use transitional expressions Use the words either, neither and so to emphasize or confirm statements Use the word wish to talk about situations we cannot change

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Scenario

The money raised from this new tax will go to measures designed to reduce economic inequality in your community. The exact ways of doing this have not yet been decided. For example, the money could support local homeless shelters, food banks, health clinics and education centres. Or, the funds could create a minimum guaranteed income plan for the community or increase welfare payments to residents in need.

D

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Your local municipality has decided to hold a referendum on a new “economic inequality tax.” The amount of the tax will depend on the income level of each individual. The average person will pay about $30 per month. Some people will pay less, but wealthier people will pay more.

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Like most people, you probably don’t want to pay more taxes. You wonder: Is economic inequality such a big problem? Is a tax a good way to reduce poverty? Should the government be doing this, or is it more up to individuals to take care of themselves?

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You will be asked to vote Yes or No in the referendum on the new economic inequality tax. You will also be required to explain your decision and propose measures that can be taken to improve the lives of residents in your community.

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In this learning situation, you will explore the issue of economic inequality by reading and listening to a variety of texts. This will help you form an opinion. Then, you will have a five-minute conversation with your teacher explaining why you voted Yes or No in the referendum.

VOCABULARY wealthier

measure

BOX

richer, more wealthy government action

homeless shelter place to sleep for people with no home

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food bank place to obtain food for people in need funds 

money

minimum guaranteed income plan government program that ensures everyone has a basic income welfare  government program that provides money to people in need

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FINAL TASK ORGANIZATION PAGE Complete the chart below with information from the scenario on page 22. Then, add your own ideas in the last row as you go through the learning situation. What does your municipality plan to do?

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Your tasks (3 things)

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Measures to reduce economic inequality mentioned in the text

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Éd

Questions asked in the text

Other ways to improve life in the community (your own ideas)

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Activity 1 Analyzing Information About an Issue

PLAN

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A

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Poverty exists in both rich and poor countries around the world. There are numerous reasons for this. Because of their situations, many people suffer every day. As you will see in this activity, there are different ways to talk about poverty.

† A person who doesn’t have enough to eat.

B

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† A person who can’t afford to buy healthy food.

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† A person who can’t afford monthly Internet service.

nd

† A person who pays more than 50% of their income on rent.

D

What conditions do you think make a person poor where you live? Put a check mark ( ) beside the condition. On the line below, explain why you think that way.

USE

1. Look at the questions below and the Vocabulary Box on the next page. 2. Read the text on the next page.

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3. Answer the questions.

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a) What are three categories of poverty mentioned in the article?

b) Name five social conditions that might lead people to poverty.

c) What are two essential things that poor people may have a difficult time obtaining?

d) What is relative poverty?

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Understanding Poverty Poverty is a word that describes the situation of someone who is extremely poor. Those who are impoverished may be unemployed, living in developing countries or homeless. There are many reasons why poverty exists. It may be due to social, economic and/or political reasons.

VOCABULARY

BOX

impoverished

poor

affecting

afflicting

illiteracy inability to read or write led 

guided puts

threatens in danger

live

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survive involves 

consists

D

According to the group Poverty Education, poverty is a social problem afflicting one-sixth of the world’s population. Illiteracy, drug use, violence, oppression and insecurity are some of the social reasons that have led people to poverty. At an extreme level, it threatens an individual’s ability to find food and shelter and, ultimately, to survive from day to day. This form of poverty was common in simpler societies and is still found in many developing countries in Africa, Asia and South America.

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nd

Many of today's wealthier societies have people who suffer in relative poverty. This involves an inability to obtain the social necessities available to the majority, and it is often intensified by social exclusion. For example, in a society where most people rely on a computer or a car, people who cannot afford these things cannot participate fully in society. Because of this, they are often socially excluded.

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In fact, the answer to what exactly constitutes poverty is not simple, as it comes in different forms and can be defined in many ways. What we know is that it’s always harmful to those concerned, especially children, because it can negatively affect their biological development. In other words, poverty greatly limits lifestyle choices and makes people vulnerable to forms of exploitation. In conclusion, it seems obvious that we must take collective action today to make a difference in people’s lives.

Éd

My New Words

REINVEST

©

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Find a partner or work with the teacher. Together, think of some actions that individuals and governments could undertake to reduce economic inequality. Choose the three best options and write them below.

Strategies Used Asking for help Creating practice opportunities Transferring knowledge to new contexts

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GRAMMAR

Transitional Expressions Transitional expressions help us move from one idea to the next when writing or reading. They may be a word or phrase that shows how the meaning of a sentence is related to the meaning of the preceding sentence. We can use transitional expressions to emphasize, summarize or contrast ideas. 1. Expressions of emphasis: •

in my opinion: what I think In my opinion, there should be more shelters for homeless people.

Many people live without electricity. In fact, there are approximately 1.6 billion people living without electricity. 2. Expressions of summary: because of this: for this reason

Another expression that means “in fact” is “as a matter of fact.”

nd

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Note

in fact: added information to make an opinion clearer

D

in conclusion: to summarize/end

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Many countries still don’t have clean water. Because of this, those who drink contaminated water become sick or die.

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People around the world are suffering from poverty. Many people do not have access to shelter or clean drinking water. In conclusion, we must continue working to reduce poverty. in other words: another way to say something

Note Another expression that means “in conclusion” is “in short.”

Food banks provide food to people in need every day. In other words, many people use food banks daily. 3. Expressions of contrast: •

however: a different way of seeing something

Éd

Many people believe we can fight poverty by increasing the minimum wage. However, not everyone agrees. 4. Expressions of cause and effect: therefore, as a result: because of what was just said, this is the result

©

Economic inequality is a growing problem in North America. Therefore, the government must do something about it.

5. Expressions of example: •

for example, for instance: here is an example of what is meant Guaranteed minimum income makes economic sense. For instance, the costs of this system are lower than the existing welfare system.

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GRAMMAR PRACTICE Fill in the blanks with one of the following transitional expressions. Use each of the expressions once. More than one logical answer may be possible.

Example

Most of the world’s population is poor. In fact , 80% of the world’s population lives on less than $10 a day.

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in my opinion  •  in fact  •  because of this  •  however  •  in conclusion  •  in other words  •  for instance  •  therefore

care and nutrition to every person in every developing country.

D

1. It would cost around $40 billion to provide basic education, clean water, sanitation, basic health , I believe governments must find a way to raise this amount

nd

of money.

2. It’s been raining all week. We wish we were able to have our charity event outdoors.

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, we won’t be having it outdoors as planned.

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3. My friend asked me what I thought of her volunteering to work abroad. , she should get all the necessary information before she decides

to go.

4. We don’t need to look far to see that homelessness is a problem today. , we see it in our own big cities.

5. I haven’t had enough sleep for three nights in a row.

, I need to stop going to bed so late.

Éd

6. You can help alleviate poverty by making a donation.

, it is even better to do volunteer work.

©

7. Karen and I disagree on many things. , we have different views on the causes of homelessness.

8. I find it very sad that not everybody has enough to eat. , I have decided to volunteer at a food bank.

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Activity 2 Identifying Main Ideas and Supporting Details in an Oral Text Is it better to work against poverty in other countries or closer to home? In this dialogue, Jessie and Athina are discussing this question.

PLAN

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A

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1. Have you done volunteer work where you live or in other countries? Describe your experience.

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2. If you were going to do volunteer work in the future, would you do it at home or in another country?

USE

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B

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Why?

8n

1. Listen to the dialogue between Jessie and Athina. Explain how their

jq

things

humanitarian work volunteer work needy  a person who needs help

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F

homelessness problem of people not having a place to live funding  money raised to support a cause or organization disease  sickness

b) She would like to volunteer in developing countries.  T

F

hunger to eat

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illness, not enough

aid

relief ignore 

Learning Situation 2 – Economic Inequality

BOX

affecting

bothering

statement is true and F if the statement is false. If the statement is false, write the correct information on the line below.

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ru

laclasse.grandducenligne.com

stuff

2. Listen to the dialogue again. For each statement, circle T if the a) Athina has been volunteering at a food bank.  T

se

VOCABULARY

Éd

opinions differ.

La classe numérique

fail to recognize

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c) According to Athina, international organizations always require more money and support.  T F

d) Jessie thinks Athina should travel on her own.  T

e) Athina would like to volunteer in Tanzania or Haiti.  T

F

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F

1. Find a partner or work with the teacher. Explain the difference

Strategies Used

D

of opinion between Athina and Jessie in this activity. Discuss your own opinions. Who do you agree with more?

Skimming for the main idea Making eye contact

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2. Discuss the following statements. Beside each statement, indicate

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whether you strongly agree, agree, disagree or strongly disagree. If you agree with your partner, use the words neither, either or so. STRONGLY

Asking for and giving constructive feedback

STRONGLY

AGREE

DISAGREE

I don’t need to donate money because governments and organizations are already raising money for global poverty.

Most people only care about things that affect themselves.

It is worth increasing taxes to help fight poverty.

AGREE

Éd

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Not all people who beg need money.

DISAGREE

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Making a Word Cloud

A word cloud is a graphic representation of the different words in a text. It helps you quickly see the relative importance of various words and expressions in a text. They are easy and fun to do.

1. Find one of the many Internet applications for making word clouds. 2. Choose an electronic text on the issue of poverty from a website. 3. Insert the text into the word cloud application. Create the word cloud. 4. Print the document and share with your teacher and classmates. Try to find some patterns. © Éditions Grand Duc

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GRAMMAR

Pronoun

a word that replaces a name or thing

Verb

a word that shows an action or state a word that describes a verb

Article

a word that identifies a noun

Noun

a person, place, thing or idea

Modal auxiliary Adjective Preposition/Conjunction

a word that adds meaning to a verb a word that describes a noun words that show the relationship between nouns or sentences

Meaning

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Structure

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Person A: “I’m happy to be able to help people.” Person B: “So am I.” (I am happy too/as well/also.)

nd

The word so can be used in response to a comment, to emphasize or to confirm a positive statement. Using the word so at the beginning of a sentence is similar in meaning to the words too, as well and also at the end of a sentence.

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Adverb

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PARTS OF SPEECH

So as an Adverb

In response to a comment, you start with so, use a verb, auxiliary or modal that goes with the first statement, and finish with the subject. so + auxiliary/modal + subject pronoun OR so + verb/auxiliary/modal + subject

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ORIGINAL VERB OR MODAL AUXILIARY

EXAMPLES

be (verb or auxiliary)

be

A: I am going to do volunteer work in Peru. B: So am I.

have (auxiliary)

have

A: She has travelled abroad. B: So have I.

have (verb)

do

A: I have two brothers. B: So do I.

other verb (present tense)

do

A: You speak English well. B: So do you.

other verb (past tense)

did

A: My family went to Niagara Falls yesterday. B: So did my friends.

other verb (future tense)

no change

A: They will arrive at 3 p.m. B: So will we.

modal (would, might, could, etc.)

the same modal (would, might, could, etc.)

A: They would like to donate to the cause. B: So would we.

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RESPONSE VERB OR MODAL AUXILIARY

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GRAMMAR PRACTICE Write a response to the following statements using the structure so + auxiliary/modal + subject (pronoun). Use the subject or pronoun in brackets in your response.

Example

A: She has been worrying about the exams for two days. (Michelle) B: So has Michelle .

a) A: Francesca really cares for the homeless. (Ben)

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B:

B:

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c) A: My three-year-old son can count to 20. (my daughter)

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b) A: I have chosen a destination. (I)

B:

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d) A: I should give a few hours of my time to help the needy. (I) B:

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e) A: You could teach in a developing country. (you) B:

f) A: Lena went to Kenya last year. (my sister) B:

g) A: We will fly to Africa next month. (we) B:

B:

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h) A: Janice has many options to choose from. (I)

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i) A: Sumi works very hard during the week. (you) B:

j) A: Thierry and Frank finished their work early. (we) B: k) A: The people next door are very nice. (my neighbours) B:

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GRAMMAR

Neither /Either Meaning The adverb neither can be used at the beginning of a sentence to show agreement with a negative statement. The adverb either is also used to show agreement with a negative sentence, but it is placed at the end of a sentence.

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Person A: “I am not tired.” Person B: “Neither am I.” (=“I am not tired either.”)

The structure for using the word neither is the same as for the word so:

nd

neither + auxiliary/modal + subject

D

Structure

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GRAMMAR PRACTICE

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Again, the auxiliary needs to agree with the verb tense in the original statement. The same rules apply for choosing the right auxiliary or modal.

Agree with the following positive or negative statements using two different ways by using so, too, neither or either. Respond by using the information in parentheses. Remember to use the correct tense.

Example

I don’t think enough is done to help citizens in the community. (I) Neither do I./I don’t either.

Éd

a) She really loves working outdoors. (he)

b) They take public transport every day. (we)

©

c) I won’t be doing anything special this weekend. (I)

d) Mindy has been thinking about studying architecture. (Jade)

e) We won’t be leaving until November. (we)

f) They would like to make many changes. (we)

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Activity 3 Predicting and Speculating About Outcomes

A

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As a way to fight poverty, many governments implement a minimum wage for workers. There is often controversy about how much the minimum wage should be. You are going to read a news report on the topic.

PLAN

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1. The minimum wage is the lowest hourly rate that employers can pay their employees by law.

nd

What are some reasons certain people might want to increase the minimum wage?

USE

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2. Can you think of some reasons some people may not want to increase the minimum wage?

1. Look at the questions below and the Vocabulary Box on the next page. 2. Read the article on the next page. 3. Where might you find this text?

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4. What is the target audience of this text?

5. Complete each sentence on the left with the correct information on the right.

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a) This article is about…

1. 288,200 people.

b) For most minimum wage earners, the hourly rate has gone up 50 cents…

2. work in the service industry, such as hotels, restaurants and retail stores.

c) Minimum wage has gone up 25 cents…

3. to fight poverty and improve the work environment.

d) The increases will benefit… e) Across Canada, the minimum hourly wage is…

4. for people who receive tips when they work. 5. to $12.50 per hour.

f) The minimum wage increase is a way for the government…

6. an increase in the minimum wage in Québec.

g) In Québec, most minimum wage earners…

7. lowest in Saskatchewan and highest in Alberta.

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Minimum Wage Increase A Québec coalition of workers’ rights groups, the Front de défense des non-syndiqués (FDNS), says today’s minimum wage increase in Québec still leaves many in poverty. The minimum wage in Québec goes up 50 cents today, to $12.50 per hour. People who receive tips when they work will see their pay rise to $10.05, an increase of 25 cents.

VOCABULARY

earners people who receive an income from their work

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The Québec Labour Minister says today’s increases will benefit 288,200 wage earners. The Minister has said the annual minimum wage increase is a way for the government to fight poverty and improve the work environment.

praised complimented

D

comprehensiveness completeness defining 

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In 2001, the National Assembly of Québec unanimously passed an act to combat poverty and social exclusion. The law has been praised for its comprehensiveness and for defining poverty as more than just low income, by including lack of means, choices and power as poverty indicators. The goal was to reduce poverty in the province by half over 10 years and achieve one of the lowest levels of poverty in the industrialized world by 2013.

identifying

income pay

wage, salary,

means

abilities

achieve

obtain

growth

progress

nd

More than 90% of minimum wage earners in Québec work in the service industry, in places such as hotels, restaurants and retail stores. The hourly minimum wage is lowest in Saskatchewan at $11.32 and highest in Alberta, at $15.

BOX

commitment dedication

©

Éd

The poverty reduction strategy has been a partial success. In fact, the proportion of people living on low incomes in the province dropped from 19.3% in 1997 to 11.8% in 2005. Economic growth is seen as the main factor behind this decline in poverty. On the other hand, because of the impact of the recession, there are concerns that the plan offers only limited income security, and only minor improvements in working conditions. It will take continued commitment from the government and pressure from the population to ensure that Québec’s poverty reduction strategy becomes a complete success. In other words, although we might wish that poverty was gone forever, there’s still a lot of work to be done before that day arrives.

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C

REINVEST

My New Words

What other actions can we take to help reduce poverty? Here is a list of ideas. Do an Internet search to find out about each idea and then decide if each one would help reduce poverty or not. Write your opinion of each idea in the space provided. Try to find out the advantages and disadvantages of each idea. Then, do some research on other ideas.

Strategies Used

1. There should be more unionized employees.

Simplifying

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Reorganizing information to make it meaningful Self-monitoring

nd

D

2. We should buy more local products.

Éd

4. Other ideas:

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3. The government should increase benefits for welfare recipients.

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Do an Internet search to compare different attempts to reduce poverty in various provinces or states. Complete the following chart. You can use the title of each column keywords in your research.

PROVINCE/STATE

MINIMUM WAGE/HOUR

BENEFITS

PERCENTAGE

FOR WELFARE

OF UNIONIZED

RECIPIENTS/MONTH

EMPLOYEES

Québec Ontario

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GRAMMAR

Wish + Simple Past Tense Pronoun

a word that replaces a name or thing

Verb

a word that shows an action or state

Adverb

a word that describes a verb

Article

a word that identifies a noun

Noun

a person, place, thing or idea

Adjective

a word that describes a noun words that show the relationship between nouns or sentences

D

Preposition/Conjunction

a word that adds meaning to a verb

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Modal auxiliary

You feel sick. He goes to bed late every night. We go to the beach every summer.

You wish you didn’t feel sick. You wish you felt better.

He wish he didn’t go to bed late every night. He wish he went to bed earlier. We wish we didn’t go to the beach. We wish we went somewhere else.

They wish they didn’t participate every year. They wish they did something else.

Note

After the modal auxiliary wish, you may hear the verb to be expressed as were instead of was in certain situations. I wish I were/weren’t… I wish she were/weren’t… I wish he were/weren’t… I wish it were/weren’t…

Éd

They participate every year.

I wish I weren’t always late for class. I wish I were on time more often.

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I am always late for class.

PREFERRED SITUATION

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PRESENT SITUATION

nd

We use the expression wish + simple past tense to say that we would prefer a situation in the present to be different from what it is now. The preferred situation can be in the affirmative or negative form.

©

When the present situation involves negation, we also change the verb from the simple present tense to the simple past tense.

PRESENT SITUATION

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PREFERRED SITUATION

I don’t feel well.

I wish I felt better.

You don’t say much.

You wish you said more.

She doesn’t enjoy yoga classes.

She wish she enjoyed yoga classes.

We don’t have much to do.

We wish we had more to do.

They aren’t coming.

They wish they were coming.

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GRAMMAR PRACTICE 1. Read the following situations. Use the expression wish + simple past tense to express a desire for the situations to be different.

Example

I don’t speak many languages. I wish I spoke more languages.

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a) It’s cold today.

b) She’s afraid of taking an airplane.

D

c) He doesn’t travel a lot.

nd

d) Cristina is at work right now.

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e) I don’t live in the countryside.

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2. Read the following situations. Explain how you wish they were different. Use the affirmative form.

Example

It snows so much in winter. You would like it to snow less. I wish it snowed less in winter.

a) It’s Monday today. You want it to be Friday.

Éd

b) You would like to buy a car, but you don’t know how to drive.

©

c) Our society throws out too much food every day. You want us to waste less food.

d) You spend too much money. You would like to spend less.

e) You only have two weeks off every year. You would like more holiday time.

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final task Preparation for the Oral Presentation You are now ready to have a five-minute conversation with your teacher about economic inequality. Use the space below to take notes in preparation for the oral interaction. Write your notes in point form. Do not write complete sentences.

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During your conversation, you should: Explain the situation

Say how you plan to vote in the referendum

Support your decision by giving reasons based on information from the texts you read in this learning situation

Be prepared to answer questions about your opinion

©

Éd

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nd

D

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review Grammar 1. Either, neither or so   Agree with the following positive and negative statements. Respond by using the words either, neither or so, together with the information in parentheses. For either and neither, try using both ways of expressing the statement.

D

b) My neighbour is having a garage sale today. (Our neighbour)

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a) I haven’t done my groceries this week. (I)

nd

c) Our garden isn’t as green as last summer. (My mother’s garden)

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d) I’m hoping a lot of people will participate in the fundraiser. (I)

2. Transitional expressions   Fill in the blanks with one of the following transitional

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expressions: in fact, because of this, however or in other words. Use each expression only once. There may be more than one logical answer. a) I’ve always wanted to travel around the world. working my way around Europe for a year. b) Denise broke her leg last week. for four months.

, I’ll be travelling and

, she won’t be able to play soccer

c) The hotel cost them $310 for three nights. The same room is normally $600 for three nights. , they paid half price.

Éd

d) My friends are leaving this evening, so they won’t be here until tomorrow morning. , my neighbours will be here.

3. Wish

©

Simple Past TENSE   Read the following situations. Use wish + simple past tense to express a desire for a situation to be different. a) People are suffering all over the world.

b) She isn’t in good shape.

c) My roommate has to get up at 5:30 on workdays.

d) You would like to go to the party, but you weren’t invited.

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Speaking Discuss these questions with a classmate or your teacher. Ask your partner questions to get a better understanding of his or her opinion, and explain your own opinion.

1. Should the government increase the minimum wage?

D

Expressing Personal Opinions

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2. Is it better to help poor people closer to home or in other countries?

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nd

Think of certain things that bother you about the world today. How do you wish the world were different? Explain.

Self-Evaluation

1 How much progress have you made during this learning situation? Read the following statements. Check ( ) the box that shows how you feel.

YES NO MAYBE

a) I can understand positions on the topic of poverty.

b) I can give my opinion about poverty.

c) I can suggest solutions to the problem of poverty.

d) I can recognize transitional expressions.

e) I can use the words either, neither and so correctly.

f) I can talk about situations that we cannot change using the expression wish.

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2 What do you like best about this learning situation? Why? 3 What do you not like about this learning situation? Why?

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Learning Situation 3

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Sustainable Development

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The word sustainability means that things can keep going; they can sustain themselves and continue on into the future. The term sustainable development refers to the goal of balancing economic development with the preservation of nature: Earth’s ability to provide the natural resources and maintain the ecosystems upon which all human populations depend. By striving for sustainable development now, we allow future generations to meet their needs for food, building materials, fresh water and clean air.

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To help ensure this happens, the United Nations has created 17 Sustainable Development Goals. The concept of sustainable development has also been included as a shared goal in many international agreements, including the Paris Agreement on Climate Change. You will ask yourself and others questions such as: Are we succeeding in this quest for sustainable development? Can we count on renewable sources of energy such as hydro, solar and wind power to meet our future needs? How can food production become more sustainable? Can individual actions make a difference?

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IN THIS LEARNING SITUATION, YOU WILL… Read and respond to texts on sustainable development, food production and climate change Discuss these issues and express your opinions about them Explore possible solutions Discuss situations using the first conditional Review and use the present perfect tense and simple past tense

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Scenario

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As you go through this learning situation, you will explore the idea of sustainable development from a variety of angles. You will think about things that can be done by individuals and groups to promote sustainable development, both locally and globally. After researching and discussing these topics with your teacher and your classmates, you will take a stance on how we can live more sustainable lives, both as individuals and concerned citizens of the world.

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Because you are concerned about the environment, you have joined the Eco-Club at your Adult Education Centre. This group is planning a workshop on sustainable development for all students, staff and members of the general public. It will take place next April 22, which is Earth Day. At this workshop, club members want to explain to the participants what sustainable development means, and suggest a list of actions that individuals, institutions and governments can do to advance this goal. The Eco-Club has asked you to help them prepare for the workshop by doing some research, taking notes and making an oral presentation to Eco-Club members.

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You will take notes to prepare for an oral presentation to your teacher, who will represent the members of the Eco-Club. If you want, you can make a multimedia presentation by creating a podcast, slideshow or video. The oral presentation will last about five minutes, including time for questions.

BOX

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VOCABULARY

environmental

Eco-Club group

workshop session globally 

stance

42

group learning

internationally position

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FINAL TASK ORGANIZATION PAGE Complete the chart below with background information from page 41 and the scenario on page 42. BACKGROUND INFORMATION (page 41) Meaning of sustainable development

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Purpose of sustainable development

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Examples of actions taken

Date of the upcoming activity

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Description of the activity

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INFORMATION FROM THE SCENARIO (page 42)

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Examples of renewable energy

Organizer of the activity

Who can participate

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Purpose of the activity

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Your task

Length of the task

NOTES

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Activity 1 Moving Toward a Carbon-Neutral Future

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PLAN

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1. Read the definitions of renewable and non-renewable forms of energy.

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One of the most important ways we can ensure sustainability is to reduce carbon emissions that lead to climate change. In preparation for your oral presentation, you have found a feature article on this topic.

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A renewable form of energy is one that is provided by a natural resource that is always available or can be replaced in a short time. A non-renewable form of energy comes from a natural resource that cannot be replaced or is replaced very slowly by natural processes. Renewable resources are generally unlimited, while the Earth provides a limited amount of non-renewable resources.

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its meaning or synonym on the right.

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2. Look at the list of forms of energy in the column on the left. Match each form of energy with 3. Write the letter R if you think the form of energy comes from a renewable natural resource, or N if it comes from a non-renewable natural resource. a) wind b) coal c) geothermal

1. methane transformed into a liquid 2. energy from the movement of air 3. petroleum

4. energy from the sun

e) natural gas

5. energy from moving water

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d) hydroelectricity

f) biomass

6. energy from the Earth’s centre

g) oil

7. prehistoric vegetation which burns 8. energy from decomposing organic matter

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h) solar

4. There is one important form of energy used in Canada that is not listed above. What is it?

B

USE

1. Read the feature article on the goal of becoming carbon-neutral on the next page. 2. Complete the chart on page 46 with information from the article.

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Our Collective Goal The Canadian government has made a commitment to become carbon-neutral by the year 2050. What exactly does that mean? Coal, natural gas and oil are all fossil fuels. They each represent a cost-effective way of obtaining energy, and are widely used to heat homes, transport people and products, and make plastic materials.

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When using these non-renewable natural resources, carbon (also called CO2) emissions are released into the air. These emissions are captured within the atmosphere, which results in an increase in average temperatures around the world. This process used to be called global warming but is now known as climate change, because its effects go far beyond rising temperatures. Climate change risks affecting wind patterns, sea levels, forest fires and drought, and increasing the number of devastating weather events, such as hurricanes and tornados.

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The goal of becoming carbon-neutral does not mean that fossil fuels will no longer be used in Canada. It does mean, however, that our dependence on fossil fuels must be reduced. A variety of policy initiatives, such as placing a price on carbon or imposing fines on heavy emitters, are designed to encourage people to cut down on their use of fossil fuels. By making it easier and less expensive to use public transportation, people will be less likely to use private vehicles for transportation.

Anya Douglas / Shutterstock.com

It is also possible to offset our emissions by implementing measures that help retain carbon before it is released. For example, trees are nature’s way of trapping carbon so long as they are not burned. As part of its plan, the Canadian government is planning to plant 2 billion trees, and encourages individuals and institutions to do the same. Wood that is used in constructing buildings prevents carbon from being released.

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Another way that Canada can offset its emissions is to support the preservation efforts of other countries, such as Gabon. This central African country is fortunate to be covered in densely treed rainforests. Countries such as Norway have entered into agreements with Gabon to help them preserve their forests, which is more economical and effective than replanting. Will Canada reach its goal of carbon neutrality by 2050? That depends on all of us.

VOCABULARY

BOX

carbon-neutral equivalent to zero emissions

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cost-effective efficient and productive released  freed

liberated,

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sea level average level of water in the oceans

offset to make up for, to compensate for

policy initiatives governmental actions

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3. Complete the chart below with information from the feature article on page 45. Examples of fossil fuels

Uses of fossil fuels

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Consequence of burning fossil fuels

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Measures designed to offset emissions

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Measures designed to reduce the use of fossil fuels

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Examples of the results of climate change

My New Words

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1. How do you react to this article? Write a short comment to the author.

2. What parts of your lifestyle represent a challenge to the goal of having a carbon-neutral future? Think of three different ways and explain why they represent a challenge.

Strategies Used Skimming for the main idea Scanning for specific information Activating prior knowledge

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GRAMMAR

First Conditional Pronoun

a word that replaces a name or thing a word that shows an action or state

Adverb

a word that describes a verb

Article

a word that identifies a noun

Noun

a person, place, thing or idea

Modal auxiliary Adjective

a word that describes a noun words that show the relationship between nouns or sentences

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Preposition/Conjunction

a word that adds meaning to a verb

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PARTS OF SPEECH

Verb

We use the first conditional to talk about a future event that is likely to happen.

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Situation: You work in the city and would like to rent an apartment near a subway station. It will probably cost you more, but you’ll save on gas if you take the subway.

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If I rent (simple present tense) an apartment near a subway line, I will save (simple future tense) on gas.

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Basic Structure

If + condition

+

(verb in the simple present tense)

Condition

result

(verb in the simple future tense)

Result

I’ll save on gas.

If I don’t rent an apartment near a subway station, …

I’ll pay less for the apartment.

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If I rent an apartment near a subway station, …

Note

I’m going to save on gas.

We can use will or the contracted form ’ll.

I’m going to pay less for the apartment.

In the “Result section” of the sentence, we can express the future using will, the contraction ’ll or be going to.

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We can also reverse the order of the result and the condition. This is often the case with questions. result + if + conditional Result

Condition

I’m going to save on gas prices…

if I rent an apartment near a subway station.

What will you do…

if you don’t rent an apartment near a subway station?

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Note Notice that the word if is always attached to the condition.

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GRAMMAR PRACTICE Read the following situations. Fill in the blanks with the first conditional for each situation. Use the contracted form when possible. When you see (neg.), use the negative form.

If there are (to be) accessible roads, we will help (to help) the village that was devastated.

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Example

We want to go and help the village that was devastated by the cyclone, but we aren’t sure if there are any accessible roads.

Answer using will for the first four answers.

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a) The world population is growing rapidly. Governments are afraid there won’t be a sufficient supply of food in the future. There

(to be, neg.) a sufficient supply (to continue) to grow.

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of food in the future if the world population

b) It hasn’t rained in two weeks. It has to rain soon, or plants and crops won’t survive. If it

(to rain, neg.) soon, plants and crops

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(to survive, neg.).

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c) There are fewer and fewer trees growing, and more carbon dioxide in the air. We have to cut down fewer trees and preserve more green spaces. We cleaner air if we

(to have)

(to cut) down fewer trees.

d) Deforestation has to stop, because some plant and animal species will become extinct. If deforestation

(to stop, neg.), some plant and animal species

(to become) extinct.

Answer using be going to for the last four answers.

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e) Farmers are meeting the world’s growing demand for food with the help of new technologies. If farmers they

(to use, neg.) new technologies, (to be) able to meet the world’s growing demand for food.

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f) A successful sustainable environment needs everybody’s participation. If everyone (to participate), we

(to ensure)

a sustainable environment.

g) Some pesticides can remain in the environment for years, doing harm to ecosystems in various ways. If pesticides

(to remain) in the environment for years,

they

(to cause) harm to ecosystems in many ways.

h) Martine wants to plant a vegetable garden, but she’s waiting for her neighbour’s help. She

(to plant) a vegetable garden if her neighbour (to help) her.

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Activity 2 Promoting, Defending and Supporting Personal Ideas Some people believe that due to overconsumption, we are destroying the very systems we depend on to stay alive. Do you agree?

PLAN

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1. Find a partner or work with the teacher. 3. Do an Internet search to find the correct answer.

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How much gas does the average driver use in one year (in litres)?

CORRECT ANSWER

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ESTIMATION

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2. Discuss the questions in the chart below. Write your estimation in the chart.

How much total garbage is collected in our community every year (in kilograms)?

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How much water does the average individual use in one year (in litres)?

B

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USE

1. Look at the questions and the Vocabulary Box on the next page.

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laclasse.grandducenligne.com

2. Listen to the conversation between Otilia and Etienne.

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3. Answer the questions. a) What kind of research has Dr. Evinson done?

b) How has Otilia changed some of her habits?

c) According to Dr. Evinson, what consequence is there for our health when farmers use less traditional methods of growing crops? amongst

aware

between

conscious

life expectancy of time we live

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d) What will happen in the future if we don’t use cleaner energy?

BOX

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VOCABULARY

length

overweight more than normal weight

nd

heat wave temperature above normal

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e) What are four suggestions Dr. Evinson makes?

f) What are four things we can do as individuals to help the environment?

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REINVEST

flood

inundation

lack

insufficiency

infectious infection

causing

unwise not wise/ unintelligent mad cow disease  infectious and fatal disease in cows

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1. Find a partner or work with the teacher.

2. Discuss your opinions on the statements below.

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3. Write a summary of the things you agree on and disagree on. a) People in the past had fewer health risks due to cleaner water and better food. b) Air pollution only threatens those who live in large cities. c) Allergies are caused more by genetics than the environment.

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GRAMMAR

Present Perfect Tense Versus Simple Past Tense We form the present perfect tense using the auxiliary to have in the simple present tense + past participle: I have gone to France. Mary has gone also. The simple past tense is formed with one word; the regular form uses –ed or there is an irregular form:

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I visited the Eiffel Tower when I was in Paris. Look at the differences when we use the present perfect tense and simple past tense.

Unfinished actions that began in the past and continue into the present.

Time

Gives recent information. The time when the action happened is not specific.

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Use

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Present Perfect Tense (I have gone)

for this week, this month, lately, since, how long, ever, never, yet, always, already

Examples

How long has he lived in the suburbs? He hasn’t lived there for long.

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He’s lived there for a year.

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Keywords

Note

Remember the contracted forms: He + is = He’s He + has = He’s

Simple Past Tense (I went)

Use

Actions do not continue because they are finished.

Time

The action happened in the past and is now completed.

Keywords

yesterday, last week, last month, last year, recently, before, ago, when, suddenly, then

Examples

Did he live in the city when he was a child?

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No, he lived in the countryside before he moved to the suburbs. He decided to move to the suburbs last year because he started a new job there.

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We do not use the present perfect tense when the sentence establishes that the action is finished.

✓ She planted her garden last summer.

has planted ✗ She her garden last

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Note

summer.

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GRAMMAR PRACTICE 1. Fill in the blanks with the present perfect tense or simple past tense. Look for keywords for help. When you see (neg.), put the verb in the negative form. Use the contracted form when possible.

When I was (to be) 18 years old, I went (to go) to school in a big city.

Example

a) Recently, the residents of this area preserve their parks and green spaces.

(to sign) a petition to

b) You don’t know when the project will start. How long (to wait) for confirmation?

c) We yesterday morning.

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you

d)

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(to buy) our fruits and vegetables from the Farmers’ Market you (to eat) it?

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you

(to wash) the apple well before

e) She

(to cook) with organic products ever since she

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(to find out) the effects of pesticides five years ago. f) They

(to approve, neg.) the project last month because there

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(to be) no budget for it. g)

governments

h) Our city councillor as well as develop new businesses. i) Sandra them tomorrow.

(to do) anything about climate change?

(to advocate) lately to preserve green spaces

(to buy, neg.) organic vegetables yet, but she’s going to buy

2. Complete the text using the correct form of the present perfect tense or simple past tense of the

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verb in brackets. When you see (neg.), put the verb in the negative form. Use the contracted form when possible. Moving to the city last year was one of the best decisions I

ever

(to make). I can either take my bike or walk to work. The only small problem (to rent) a third-floor apartment, which means I have no place to plant

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is that I

a garden. I

always

(to dream) of making salads in the

summer with fresh produce. However, my wish

I

(to come) true last week when

(to run into) my neighbour on the street. We

talking and soon

(to realize) that we

passion for gardening. He

(to share) the same

(to tell) me that he

a community garden space recently. He I

(to rent)

(to plant) all kinds of crops and herbs.

(to try) to contact the organization responsible for the project,

but I

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(to start)

(to receive, neg.) an answer yet.

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Activity 3 Understanding and Expressing Attitudes and Reactions Sometimes people ask themselves about the best place to live: in the countryside, the suburbs or the city. Alexandra and Yun Jung are discussing this issue as it relates to sustainable development.

PLAN

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1. Presently, do you live in the countryside, the suburbs or a city?

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2. What are some advantages of living where you live?

B

USE

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3. What would be some advantages of living somewhere else?

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laclasse.grandducenligne.com 1. Look at the questions below and on the next page. 2. Listen to the conversation between Alexandra and Yun Jung. 3. Answer questions 5 a) and b). 4. Listen to the conversation again. 5. Answer questions c) to i). Circle T if the statement is true and F if the statement is false. For a false

statement, write the correct information. a) Alexandra lives in the:

countryside

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b) Yun Jung presently lives in the:

suburbs

countryside

c) It has been warm for the month of October.  T

d) It was really cold the year before.  T

city suburbs

F

F

e) There wasn’t much snow when Alexandra was young.  T

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city

F

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f) They have had the same warm weather conditions in the south of the United States.  T

F

g) If they continue cutting down trees and constructing buildings, climate change will get worse.  T F

h) Yun Jung might buy a condo in the city, because it’s cheaper.  T

F

REINVEST

1. Find a partner or work with the teacher.

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i) When Yun Jung was a child, her parents didn’t let her play outdoors.  T

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F

Ways to Say It Rural areas are safer and quieter because…

3. Discuss the question: What is your definition of “quality of life”?

Urban areas are more diverse and interesting because…

4. With your partner, decide on the five most important things you agree

When I was a kid, I could…

are necessary for a quality of life. You must agree on all five.

Strategies Used Note-taking Setting goals Paying selective attention

My New Words

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5. Explain why it is better to live in the countryside, suburbs or city.

I like being able to…

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Activity Inquiring About and Relaying the Conclusions of Texts

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Every year, population growth increases the demand for food and energy. How can we meet today’s food and energy needs without affecting the ability of future generations to meet theirs? One answer to this question involves the issue of genetically modified foods.

PLAN

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1. Look at the words and expressions in the box below. 2. Look at the Vocabulary Box on the next page. 3. Read the following text on genetically modified foods. 4. Complete the text using the best word from the box. Use each word only once. 5. Right now, are you in favour of eating genetically modified foods or not? Why?

DNA  •  North America  • changed • genes • onions • 1980s • nutrients • apples  •  food products  • removed •  grocery stores  • removing Genetically Modified Organisms

Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) Foods are

that have been

through genetic processes that modify the

Éd

Sometimes

will be added to provide extra

such as in rice,

© since the

B

,

and corn. Sometimes a gene may be

to improve other characteristics, such as by of

of seeds.

the tear-inducing element

. GM foods have been on sale in and in

in Europe since the 1990s.

USE

1. Read the following two texts on genetically modified organisms on the next page. 2. Give each text an appropriate title that captures the main idea of the text. 3. Complete the chart on the following page with information obtained from the texts. © Éditions Grand Duc

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Text 1

Title:

The world population is growing at a rapid rate. Therefore, it is essential for our agricultural processes to be as sustainable as possible. This means getting more from our cultivated land in an economical way.

rate measurement of progress

Many farmers are using biotechnology to help address food, fuel and water shortages. Since biotech crops were introduced in 1996, farmers have been producing more crops and have seen improvements in production. This means more affordable prices and food for people, and better incomes for farmers. Biotech crops are helping more people meet nutritional needs, which is especially important in developing countries. They also offer resistance to pests and crop diseases.

fuel substance used to produce energy (wood, coal, gas, oil) not

shortage enough of crop 

plants began

affordable reasonably

priced

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introduced

pest small harmful animal or insect

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Title:

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Biotechnology has helped farmers cope with drought and water shortages, which can devastate entire communities. In turn, this helps solve problems of malnutrition, because more people can be fed using less land. Biotechnology has allowed for the development of pest-resistant crops, which means that fewer pesticide applications are necessary. Scientists working in biotechnology have also developed new sources of sustainable energy, such as renewable biofuels derived from plants. In the future, these biofuels will make a greater contribution to our energy needs while helping to preserve the environment.

Text 2

BOX

VOCABULARY

The use of transgenic crops is occurring at a rapid pace. Biotechnology proponents argue that expansion of such crops to developing countries is essential to feed the poor in those countries, reduce environmental degradation and promote sustainable agriculture. However, such promises do not match reality.

Éd

Transgenic crops threaten the existence of small farming systems. Farmers must use more herbicides and are restricted to producing only one crop. Also, transgenic crops can produce environmental toxins that move through the food chain, and may also end up in the soil and water, affecting living things.

manage

cope with

lack of rain

drought

fed past form of verb feed (give food) biofuels  fuel produced with grown products

BOX

VOCABULARY pace

rate

proponents in favour threaten  in danger

people

put

widespread common, popular yields 

crop amounts

output what is produce

There is widespread consensus that yields have not increased with transgenic crops.

lack of

not enough

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There are alternatives to biotechnology that are cheap, accessible, free of risk and productive, as well as being environmentally, culturally and socially acceptable. Biotechnology companies often claim that genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are needed to feed the world. In fact, the world today produces more food per inhabitant than ever before. Simply raising food output may be the last thing that is needed. The real causes of hunger are poverty, inequality and lack of access to food and land. Many people are too poor to buy the food that is available but poorly distributed, or lack the land and resources to grow it themselves.

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4. Complete the chart with information from the texts on the previous page. TEXT 1

TEXT 2

Different words and expressions used to talk about genetically modified foods General opinion on genetically modified foods

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D

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Reasons mentioned in favour of this practice

Éd

Reasons given against this practice

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Your response to the arguments in this text

C

REINVEST

1. Find a partner or work with the teacher. 2. Discuss your opinions on using pesticides when growing food. 3. Guess which fruits and vegetables require a lot of pesticides in order to produce. They are called the “Dirty Dozen.”

4. Do an Internet search to find the correct answer.

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Strategies Used Comparing Practising to improve skills Asking for help

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final task Preparation for the Oral Presentation You are now ready to make a presentation to the Eco-Club as explained in the scenario at the beginning of this learning situation. Your task is to help the Eco-Club prepare for a workshop on sustainable development. Your teacher will represent the members of the Eco-Club. In your presentation, you should: Explain the meaning of the term sustainable development.

Provide points about carbon emissions and climate change.

Provide points about food production.

Give examples of measures that governments or organizations can take to become more sustainable.

Give examples of actions that individuals can take.

Be prepared to answer questions.

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Your presentation should last five minutes, including questions. You can use the space below to take notes in point form (not complete sentences) to help remember key points from the learning situation.

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EXPLANATION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

POINTS ABOUT CARBON EMISSIONS,

POINTS ABOUT FOOD PRODUCTION

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CLIMATE CHANGE

MEASURES THAT GOVERNMENTS OR ORGANIZATIONS CAN TAKE

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INDIVIDUAL ACTIONS

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review Grammar 1. First Conditional     Read the following situations. Write a sentence in the first conditional for each situation. Different answers are possible. a) I’m planning to live in the countryside because I want to grow my own vegetables.

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c) They would love to adopt a child, but they have to wait a few years.

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b) My friend Nora wants to buy a condo, but the bank has to approve her loan.

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d) My grandmother has lived in a warm country all her life. We have to convince her to come and visit us in this cold city.

2. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE VERSUS SIMPLE PAST TENSE   Fill in the blanks with the present

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perfect tense or the simple past tense of the verb in brackets. When you see (neg.), put the verb in the negative form. Use the contracted form when possible. a) When she outdoors with her friends. b) They c) d) We

(to play)

(to decide, neg.) yet how many people will be invited.

many people always

(to sign) the petition last month? (to tell) our kids to respect others.

(to leave) for Brazil last year, but she

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e) Cedrica

(to be) a child, she always

(to make up, neg.) her mind about when she’ll be coming back.

3. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE VERSUS SIMPLE PAST TENSE   Fill in the blanks in the following text

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with the present perfect tense or simple past tense of the verb in brackets. A Brief History of Green Spaces Our perception of nature first

(to evolve) over time. When European settlers (to arrive) in North America, nature was something to be controlled

and conquered. With industrialization, cities (to increase). Since then, municipalities parks for many reasons. In 1874, Mount Royal

(to grow) and the population (to create) (to become) the first

protected area in Quebec.

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Giving Personal Information You have joined a community group in an effort to improve your town, city or neighbourhood. You have been asked to make a list of suggestions to promote sustainable development.

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Write two things you would like to change. Explain why. Try to use the first conditional.

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Speaking

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Work with a classmate or your teacher. Discuss why you are or are not concerned about these issues. Prepare for the conversation by taking notes in the space below.

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a) Genetically modified foods    b)  Pesticides   c)  Climate change

Self-Evaluation

1 How much progress have you made during this learning situation? Read the following statements. Check ( ) the box that shows how you feel.

YES

NO MAYBE

a) I can understand texts on challenging topics.

b) I can determine the author’s opinion when reading texts on topics.

c) I can discuss information and express my opinion.

d) I can use the first conditional.

e) I can use the present perfect tense and simple past tense correctly.

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2 What do you like best about this learning situation? Why?

3 What don’t you like about this learning situation? Why?

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Learning Situation 4

IN THIS LEARNING SITUATION, YOU WILL…

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The ability to communicate with others is a fundamental aspect of what it means to be human. Over the ages, it has allowed us to work together and find solutions to common problems.

D

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LEARNING LANGUAGES

Read and respond to informative texts that discuss language from various angles

At the same time, this increased connectivity between the peoples of the world has led to concerns that smaller linguistic groups need to be protected. One’s first language, or mother tongue, is an important aspect of culture and identity. This is particularly of concern given the prevalence of English-language films, television and music in all parts of the world. If young people do not learn to use their mother tongue correctly, some languages are likely to disappear. For this reason, attention is being called to the importance of linguistic and cultural diversity.

Review and compare the present perfect tense and present perfect progressive tense

Understand opinions and express your own opinion

Review separable and inseparable phrasal verbs Create and present a poster

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Today, with increased interactions between people from different parts of the world, learning additional languages has become a necessity. Translators, interpreters, tour guides and bilingual customer service agents are but a few of the many professions arising from the importance of communication between people who speak different tongues.

A case in point concerns some of the languages spoken by First Nations and Inuit communities in Canada. There are more than 70 Indigenous languages spoken today, but only three of them – Cree, Inuktitut and Ojibway – are considered stable and viable long-term. Some 50 languages are still spoken by First Nations communities that have fewer than 3,000 members. For all these reasons, the teaching of languages – both native and second (or foreign) – is an important part of education systems around the globe. People naturally want to protect and enhance their mother tongues, but also wish to communicate effectively with people from other parts. This learning situation will allow you to explore the fascinating world of language from diverse angles.

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Scenario The United Nations has declared September 30 as International Translation Day. Translation requires a high level of mastery in at least two languages, usually the mother tongue and another language. The language teachers at your adult education centre have decided to collaborate on a joint project to promote language learning.

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There may be many language teachers at your centre. They might include French teachers, English Second Language teachers, Indigenous language teachers and teachers of foreign languages, such as Spanish or Italian.

• An interesting title

• At least one graph, diagram or map

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• Three short texts, each headed by a subtitle, with information on at least three different aspects of language learning

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These teachers are organizing a poster contest in recognition of International Translation Day. Since you are presently enrolled in an English class, you will be preparing your poster in English and then presenting it to your teacher. Your poster should include the following features:

• A few persuasive sentences that grab people’s attention and call for action

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• The date of International Translation Day (September 30)

The idea of the contest is not to create a poster only about translation as a profession. Your poster should approach the subject of language learning in a more general way. However, you may choose to talk about some of the professions open to multilingual speakers as one of your three topics. Many other ideas will be presented as you go through the learning situation.

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At the end of the learning situation, you will present your poster to your teacher, explain the choices you made and answer any questions your teacher may have. The discussion will last five minutes.

VOCABULARY

BOX

translator a person who translates written texts interpreter  a person who translates oral communications

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to translate express the meaning of a word or text in another language

second language a language a person learned that is not their mother tongue

mother tongue the first language a person learns

foreign language a language spoken in another country

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FINAL TASK ORGANIZATION PAGE Add notes to the chart below with information from the learning activities. Later, you will choose which three aspects of language learning you will include in your poster. IDEAS FOR THE POSTER (WHAT IS THE CALL TO ACTION?)

©

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ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE LEARNING

Ideas for a graph, diagram or map:

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Activity 1 Analyzing and Comparing Information on an Issue Bianca and Guillaume are registering for language classes. They are waiting their turn to take their placement test. They are discussing their interest in languages and their reasons for learning a specific language.

PLAN

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A

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1. Which languages do you speak? How long have you been speaking these languages?

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2. What languages would you like to learn?

B

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3. Do you think it’s good to learn more than one language at the same time? Why?

USE

La classe numérique

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1. Look at the Vocabulary Box and the questions below.

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3. Read the statements. Circle T if the statement is true or F if the statement is false. If the statement is false, write the correct information.

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b) She wants to learn French to communicate with her extended family. T F

jv

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laclasse.grandducenligne.com

2. Listen to the conversation between Bianca and Guillaume.

a) Bianca has been speaking Spanish for 10 years.  T

sb

F

VOCABULARY

BOX

go over

visit, review

get into

participate

keep up practising

continue

pick up

learn

mother tongue language learned mix up 

confuse

end up

conclude

first

heritage language language of an immigrant’s parents or of an ancestor polyglot  person who speaks many languages

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c) Her boyfriend learned Spanish in Spain.  T

F

d) Guillaume studied Italian when he was at university.  T

e) He spoke French growing up.  T

F

F

f) Guillaume feels that he has forgotten his Italian.  T

F

g) Bianca believes it’s good for children to learn many languages.  T

D

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F

REINVEST

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C

F

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h) Guillaume believes a person should only learn one language at a time.  T

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1. Write a summary of Bianca’s opinion about learning languages.

My New Words

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2. Write a summary of Guillaume’s opinion about learning languages.

Strategies Used

3. Which person do you agree with more? Why?

Making sense Summarizing Skimming for the main idea

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GRAMMAR

Review of the Present Perfect Tense Verb Adverb

a word that replaces a name or thing a word that shows an action or state a word that describes a verb

Article

a word that identifies a noun

Noun

a person, place, thing or idea

Modal auxiliary Adjective Preposition/Conjunction

a word that adds meaning to a verb a word that describes a noun words that show the relationship between nouns or sentences

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AFFIRMATIVE FORM

bought a guidebook.

have past participle They’ve

bought their Spanish dictionaries.

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The present perfect tense is formed by the simple present tense of the auxiliary have + the past participle, usually followed by the object of the sentence. Remember the auxiliary have could be in the contracted form (’s/’ve). He’s

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PARTS OF SPEECH

Pronoun

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To form the past participle, we add –ed to regular verbs.

I have called many people today. (call + –ed = called)

For irregular verbs, you have to memorize the past participle. See page 112 for a list of common irregular past participles. made)

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My boss has made many phone calls since yesterday. (make She has been here since last year. (be been)

NEGATIVE FORM

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In the negative form, we add not or never after the auxiliary have. We often use the contracted form (hasn’t/haven’t). Melissa hasn’t eaten. (eat eaten) You haven’t signed the contract. (sign signed) She has never read a book in English. (read read)

Note The opposite of the word never is always. They are both often used with the present perfect tense.

INTERROGATIVE (QUESTION) FORM In the interrogative form, the auxiliary have and its subject are inverted. I have returned the book.

Have I returned the book?

He has done the exercise correctly.

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Has he done the exercise correctly?

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GRAMMAR (continued)

Uses of the Present Perfect Tense 1. To express activities or situations at some unspecified time in the past.

Note

He has studied Persian. PAST

We often use the words for and since with the present perfect tense.

????????????????????? NOW

She has spoken Greek since she was a child. she was a child

NOW

Since is used after a specific time: Joe has lived in Paris since 2011.

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nd

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PAST

For is used to talk about a time period: I have known Sam for five years.

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2. To talk about something that began in the past and continues today.

GRAMMAR PRACTICE

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Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs in the present perfect tense. Use the words always or never where specified. When you see (neg.), put the sentence in the negative form. Use the contracted form when possible.

Example

b) I c)

(to tell, always) the truth.

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a) She

I ’ve never enjoyed (to enjoy, never) that sport.

(to hear, neg.) from Guillaume since he left for Italy.

you mother tongue since you moved here?

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d) How long to write?

e) I

humans

(to be) able

(to pronounce, never) that word correctly.

f) We

g) I

(to continue) to speak your

(to watch) many foreign films in class. (to feel, always) nervous speaking another language.

h) They

(to do, neg.) the research because they (to have) too much work.

i) j) I

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it

(to stop) raining?

(to like, always) learning about new cultures.

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Activity 2 Understanding and Expressing Opinions Jacinthe is trying to convince her boyfriend to register for English classes with her. She wants them to go travelling and maybe work in an English-speaking country. She has found two interesting articles to help her convince him.

A

PLAN

USE

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B

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2. What might prevent you from learning new languages? Why?

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1. What are some advantages of speaking more than one language? Try to name three.

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1. Look at the Vocabulary Box below and the questions on the next page. 2. Read the articles below and on the next page. 3. Answer the questions on the next page.

tio ns

Why You Should Brush Up on Your Latin

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Learning a new language might not be very easy, but there are many benefits. For example, by being able to speak a language with native speakers, you can better understand their culture and traditions when travelling to another country. It also encourages respect for other cultures. When you travel, people are much more receptive if you make an effort to speak their language.

©

Knowledge of another language can also increase your chances of finding a new job, getting a promotion, working abroad or being sent on foreign business trips. How about getting in touch with your roots? If your family spoke a particular language in the past, you might want to learn it or pass it on to your children or grandchildren in order to keep it going from generation to generation.

VOCABULARY

BOX

abroad outside your own country foreign  country

from another

pass it on something

transfer

strengthen stronger

make

overall

in general

dementia a form of mental illness unilingual  a person who speaks only one language

retirement the time Several studies have shown that learning new languages helps after a person has stopped strengthen mental muscles and improves overall memory. People who working speak more than one language are better at remembering names, turning it into  directions and lists. Consistent results from a number of studies transform something into also show that the average age for early signs of dementia is 71.4 for unilingual adults and 75.5 for those who speak two or more languages. With all these benefits, why wait until retirement? By enjoying the experience and turning it into an interactive process, you can truly have a lot of fun! So why not start sooner rather than later!

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Why Learn English?

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Learning to speak English well can be very beneficial. Around 1.5 billion people in the world speak English. Another 1 billion are learning it. Are you interested in music, science, computers, health, business or sports? Today’s media gives you unlimited access to these subjects and more, however, most of it is in English. It’s amazing how learning one language can give you access to almost all knowledge on the Internet. Books on any subject from all over the world are also translated from other languages and can be read in English. Almost all international conferences and competitions, such as the Olympics, are conducted in English. Diplomats and politicians from different countries use English to communicate with each other. It is one of the main languages for organizations such as the United Nations, NATO and the European Free Trade Association.

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You can talk about your ideas and opinions in Internet discussion groups, send emails to interesting people and learn about their life and culture. You can also travel more easily. How about having the chance to work internationally?

Questions

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English has a lot of advantages for people who want to get a basic knowledge of the most commonly used phrases quickly, and respond to simple questions. It is a fairly easy language to learn. The alphabet is simple. It has no problematic gender issues and not many verb conjugations. It has easy plurals and most basic words are short. You can call everyone “you,” whether the person is a friend or someone you’ve just met.

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a) Give two reasons mentioned in the article that explain why it is important to be able to speak to local people in their language when you visit another country.

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b) Give four reasons to explain how learning a new language can help your career.

c) What advantages do speakers of multiple languages have?

d) What is the benefit of speaking two or more languages after the age of 70?

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e) Which international organizations use English?

Strategies Used Asking for repetition and clarification

f) Why is English often seen as being easy to learn?

Simplifying Practising to improve skills

REINVEST

D

C

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g) Explain how people from different places can communicate using English today.

Our shared opinion

My partner’s opinion

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My opinion

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Find a partner or work with the teacher. Discuss the opinions expressed in these texts. Create a Venn diagram comparing your opinion with your partner’s opinion.

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GRAMMAR

Review of the Present Perfect Progressive Tense Uses of the Present Perfect Progressive Tense The present perfect progressive tense serves to express an action that began in the past and continues in the present. subject + have/has + been + verb (–ing) + object

PAST

I started learning German 2 years

D

NOW

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I’ve been learning German for two years.

nd

Forms of the Present Perfect PROGRESSIVE Tense

Look at the following examples:

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The present perfect progressive tense uses the auxiliary have plus been (has been for subjects in the 3rd person singular), followed by the –ing form of the main verb.

tock.com

Balate Dorin/Shutters

Negative Form

Interrogative (Question) Form

I have (I’ve) been pronouncing the word correctly.

I have not been (I haven’t been) pronouncing the word correctly.

Have I been pronouncing the word correctly?

You have (You’ve) been working long hours this week.

You have not been (You haven’t been) working long hours this week.

Have you been working long hours this week?

He has (He’s) been having headaches.

He has not (He hasn’t) been having headaches.

Has he been having headaches?

She has (She’s) been waiting since she got here at 2 p.m. today.

She has not (She hasn’t) been waiting since she got here at 2 p.m. today.

Has she been waiting since she got here at 2 p.m. today?

It has (It’s) been raining since this morning.

It has not (It hasn’t) been raining since this morning.

Has it been raining since this morning?

We have (We’ve) been practising for a week.

We have not (We haven’t) been practising for a week.

Have we been practising for a week?

They have (They’ve) been living in Morocco for six months.

They have not (They haven’t) been living in Morocco for six months.

Have they been living in Morocco for six months?

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Affirmative Form

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GRAMMAR PRACTICE 1. Look at the examples on the previous page. Place the following words in the correct order to show how the present perfect progressive tense is formed.

[not/never, verb (–ing), auxiliary to have, object, subject, been] a) Affirmative form:

+ +

 .

b) Interrogative form:

+

+

 ?

c) Negative form:

+

+

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+

+

+

+

+

 ?

D

+

+

2. Complete the sentences below. Choose one of the following verbs and conjugate it using

I ’ve been travelling on business since I started this job.

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Example

nd

the present perfect progressive tense. Use the contracted form where possible. When you see (neg.), use the negative form.

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learn  • run • try • do • talk • grow • cough • walk • see • go a) My throat is so sore because I b) The plumber

to fix the broken pipe since this morning.

(neg.) early in the morning recently, because he gets to bed

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c) He too late. d) How long e)

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f) You

you

you

i) We j) I

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your girlfriend? to the gym regularly?

on the phone for more than half an hour!

g) My plant

h) What

a lot.

(neg.). Should I water it more often? you

since we last met?

many new expressions in English. (neg.) to work since we moved to the suburbs.

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Activity 3 Summarizing Information and Formulating Hypotheses You have been curious about which languages are most commonly spoken in the world. You have read an article outlining the reasons why certain languages are in danger of becoming extinct.

PLAN

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A

D

1. Do you think a language can disappear completely? Why?

2. UNESCO is an international organization that, among other things, studies languages around the a) Language only spoken by the oldest generation.

2. Definitely endangered

b) Not all children in the community speak the language.

3. Severely endangered

c) Language spoken by a few members of the oldest generation.

4. Critically endangered

d) Language not spoken by children as a mother tongue at home.

USE

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1. Vulnerable

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B

nd

world. It has identified four stages that determine the risk of a language disappearing. Match each stage on the left with its definition on the right.

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1. Look at the Vocabulary Box and the questions on the next page. 2. Read the article on endangered languages. 3. Answer the questions on the next page.

Endangered Languages

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A language is in danger of disappearing when native speakers stop using it. While languages have become extinct throughout history, they are currently disappearing at an accelerated rate due to globalization. Economic globalization and the media are changing the face of culture around the globe. As the world economy becomes more integrated, a common tongue has become important. In addition, advances in telecommunications has pressured languages to become standardized. More commonly spoken languages dominate the rest. The general consensus is that there are between 5,000 and 7,000 languages currently spoken and that between 50% and 90% of those will become extinct by the year 2100. The top 20 languages are spoken by 50 percent of the world population. Many of the other languages are spoken only by small communities, most of them with fewer than 10,000 speakers. Speakers of endangered languages consider the loss of their language to also mean the loss of the cultural traditions tied to that language. For example, songs, myths and poems may not be easily translated into another language, and therefore lost.

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Questions a) How can a language become extinct?

VOCABULARY

BOX

endangered

in danger

extinct

b) Why have languages begun to disappear faster than before?

no longer exists

globalization having a worldwide influence tongue  spoken language currently 

presently

pressured

forced

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c) Which languages continue to survive?

tied

nd

D

d) How many languages do people speak around the world?

connected

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e) How many languages are at risk of disappearing by the 22nd century?

C

REINVEST

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f) How many major languages are there in the world today?

Ways to Say It

Find a partner or work with the teacher. Discuss the following questions. Prepare notes for your conversation. Do not write in complete sentences.

CREATING A HYPOTHESIS

Maybe we could… I think it would be a good idea to… Don’t you think we could…

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1. Why do you think languages are disappearing?

In my opinion, everyone should…

My New Words

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2. Does the disappearance of languages worry you? Why?

3. What can individuals or governments do to prevent the disappearance of languages? Look at the Ways to Say It box to help you create a hypothesis to solve a problem.

Strategies Used Setting goals Summarizing Self-evaluation

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GRAMMAR

Present Perfect Tense Versus Present Perfect Progressive Tense There is often very little difference in meaning between the present perfect tense and the present perfect progressive tense. They are both often used to express an action that began in the past and is still continuing today.

I have wanted to learn Portuguese for a long time.

I have been wanting to learn Portuguese for a long time.

They’ve helped their grandfather with the housework since he injured his back.

They’ve been helping their grandfather with the housework since he injured his back.

for = when talking about a length of time (duration) of the action since = when talking about the moment when the action began

nd

Here are some differences:

Note

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Present Perfect Progressive Tense

D

Present Perfect Tense

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1. When we want to place extra emphasis on an action, we use the present perfect progressive tense. How long have you been sitting here? (action: sitting)

I’ve been waiting my turn to see the doctor for an hour. (action: waiting)

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I have been having serious back pains since Monday. (action: having back pains) 2. When we want to place extra emphasis on the result of an action, we use the present perfect tense. He has spoken Italian very well since he came back from Italy. (result: he speaks well) I’ve felt better for the last few weeks. (result: I feel better)

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3. When an action is finished and you can see the result, we use the present perfect progressive tense. The house is a mess! Have you been having parties?

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Sorry about the white spots on my arms. I’ve been painting the kitchen. 4. With verbs such as live, work and teach, there is little or no difference between the two tenses when since or for are used to express duration. Present Perfect Tense

Present Perfect Progressive Tense

I’ve worked since I was 16.

I’ve been working since I was 16.

He has taught English for over 10 years.

He has been teaching English for over 10 years.

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GRAMMAR PRACTICE Complete the following sentences using the present perfect tense or the present perfect progressive tense of the verbs in parentheses. Use the contracted form when possible. There may be two possible answers. Use the negative form when you see (neg.).

Example

I ’ve been trying (to try) to translate this paragraph for 30 minutes. It’s not easy.

1. I

you

(to leave)

D

the house at the usual time?

2. She

(to live) in the same house since she was born.

3.

Coming to work early in the morning is great. I

all of the reports.

4.

Many languages in the past

5.

How many countries

(to visit) so far?

6. He

You look tired.

8.

I’m talking to you!

©

10. Where

G ra they

tio ns

7.

Éd i

at 8 a.m. every morning.

she

(to become) extinct.

(to get, neg.) to bed late because he has to be at work

9. She

(to finish)

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(to see, neg.) you on the 8 a.m. bus lately.

his hair cut? Is it true that he

you

(to sleep) enough?

you

(to listen)?

(to feel, neg.) well for two days because (to be) ill. he

(to go) to get (to have) the same hairdresser

for 15 years?

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GRAMMAR

Review of Phrasal Verbs A phrasal verb is a verb followed by one or two other words, usually prepositions or adverbs. See page 109 for more examples of phrasal verbs. When we use separable phrasal verbs, the object we are talking about may come after the phrasal verb or separate it in two parts. When we change the object to a pronoun, the two parts of the phrasal verb must be separated. Here is the contract. Please look it over carefully.

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Note

With non-separable phrasal verbs, the verb and preposition may not be separated.

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The first word of a phrasal verb (the real verb) is conjugated just like any other verb.

Please go over the report carefully. Common Non-Separable Phrasal Verbs

pick out = select, choose

get along = have a good relationship

mix up = confuse

get out = leave, exit

help out = give assistance

get into = participate in

give up = quit, abandon an activity

go over = examine, study

look over = review

end up = conclude

sign up = register

find out = discover

nd

Common Separable Phrasal Verbs

She always fills out the passport forms a year before the expiry date. (present)

G ra

She has filled out the passport forms. (present perfect) She filled out the passport forms yesterday. (past)

She has been filling out the passport forms for an hour. (present perfect progressive)

Éd i

tio ns

Did you fill out the passport forms yesterday? (past, int.)

GRAMMAR PRACTICE

Fill in the blanks with one of the phrasal verbs listed above. Use the verb tense indicated in parentheses.

©

Example

I’d like to give Samantha a small gift because she helped me out a lot. (past)

1. At first, English was so difficult. I 2.

you

3. My friend always

all the verb tenses. (simple past) where you want to go on your trip? (present perfect) arguments when he takes a taxi. (simple present)

4.

your change to make sure the cashier hasn’t made

5. We

our lines all week. (present perfect progressive)

you a mistake? (present, int.)

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final task Preparation In the space below, prepare your poster for International Translation Day, as described in the scenario on page 62. Use the notes you took on page 63 and in each activity.

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Éd i

tio ns

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You will present your poster to your teacher, explain your choices and answer questions. Your presentation will last five minutes.

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Remember to address three different aspects of language learning in your poster. You also need to include a graph, diagram or map.

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review Grammar 1. Present Perfect tense   Fill in the blanks by putting the verb in parentheses in the present perfect tense. Use the contracted form of the auxiliary to have when possible. When you see (neg.), use the negative form. you No, I

(to write) to your mother? (to have, neg.) the time.

b) Someone

(to forget) this jacket on the chair. (to be) there for long?

c) Arianne

D

it

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a)

always

(to want) to become a flight attendant. (to apply) yet?

nd

she

2. Present Perfect Progressive tense   Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the

G ra

present perfect progressive. Use the contracted form when possible. When you see (neg.), put the verb in the negative form. a) I need a break. I

(to work) on my verb tenses since this morning.

b) They gone on vacation.

tio ns

(to water, neg.) their garden for a month! They’ve probably

c) Your skin looks great! product you bought?

you

using (to use) the new

3. Present Perfect tense or Present Perfect Progressive tense   Fill in the blanks a) b)

Éd i

with the present perfect tense or the present perfect progressive tense. Use the contracted form where possible. Derek

(to get) a job yet?

you

(to understand) what she

(to tell) you so often?

©

c) People

(to wait) for a long time to get tickets.

d) I can’t believe that you

(to run) in such heat! It’s 35° with the humidity.

4. Phrasal verbs   Fill in the blanks with one of the following phrasal verbs: pick out, turn down, sign up, end up, get through. Conjugate the verb in the correct tense. Use a logical pronoun if necessary. a) I’d like to get Paulina a gift for her birthday. Can you help me b) There are language classes starting next week, but the deadline to c) They haven’t gone to Barcelona to study. They finally

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? is on Friday. going to Mexico City.

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Writing Give your opinion about the following topic. Explain why you feel this way.

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Everyone should speak two or more languages.

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Speaking

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Find a partner or work with the teacher. Discuss the following statement. Explain your opinion and ask your partner to explain their opinion. Everyone should be concerned about disappearing languages.

tio ns

Self-Evaluation

1 How much progress have you made during this learning situation? Read the following statements. Check ( ) the boxes that show how you feel.

YES NO MAYBE

Éd i

a) I can understand and compare written texts in English.

b) I can understand and express opinions in English.

c) I can discuss issues with a partner in English.

d) I can find a way to solve a problem and discuss it in English.

e) I can use the present perfect tense and the present perfect progressive tense.

f) I can use many phrasal verbs.

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2 What do you like best about this learning situation? Why? 3 What do you dislike about this learning situation? Why?

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Learning Situation 5

IN THIS LEARNING SITUATION, YOU WILL…

ra

nd

All individuals have the right to be treated with respect. Unfortunately, a variety of forms of abuse continues to beset vulnerable or marginalized groups in our society, including women, children and the elderly. The causes of abusive behaviour are multiple and the consequences can be severe.

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ABUSE

on

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Abuse may take many forms. It can be physical – such as violent actions that harm another person – but it takes other forms as well. Psychological or emotional abuse, such as bullying or harassment, can be equally harmful. Sexual abuse remains a pressing problem, as highlighted by the #MeToo movement around the world. In the case of children, neglect is another form of abuse.

Éd

iti

The advent of the Internet has brought the issue of cyberbullying into focus. The anonymity offered by a computer screen leads some people to make aggressive and hurtful comments that can have serious consequences on a victim’s self-esteem.

©

One powerful tool that can help combat the problem of abuse is knowledge about how it works and what can be done about it. In this learning situation, you will explore this issue from a variety of angles in order to be better equipped to respond to any situations of abuse you may witness.

VOCABULARY elderly

senior, older person

to harm or injury

to hurt, cause pain

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Listen to and exchange factual information about abuse Share opinions orally and in writing Learn some useful metaphors Review the second conditional in order to predict and speculate about outcomes Discuss steps or procedures to resolve situations

BOX

to beset to surround (as a problem)

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Read and respond to reports on the topic of abuse

harassment repeated use of negative comments or actions #MeToo movement  international movement bringing attention to the sexual abuse of women

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advent

rise, beginning

anonymity remaining unidentified, secret to witness 

to observe

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Scenario You have decided to do some volunteer work as a way of giving back to the community. After completing an interview with a community service organization, you have been asked to work with a team on a distress line to take telephone calls related to abuse.

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In preparation for this challenging but important role, your team is developing a set of guidelines about how to respond to calls related to abuse. These guidelines will help your team be prepared to receive calls from all types of people in relation to all forms of abuse.

Set an appropriate tone (use appropriate words and voice level) Ask the right questions to understand the situation correctly Provide useful information Give some good advice

on

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Your task will be to participate in a brainstorming session with another team member (or your English teacher) to come up with ideas that could be included in the guidelines. For example, your guidelines might include information about the causes of abuse, how to identify abusive behaviour or how a person might respond. You do not have to write down the guidelines; you will simply be exchanging ideas with your fellow team member. However, you can use your notes from the Final Task Organization Page to help you.

nd

• • • •

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Your guidelines should help the volunteer to do the following:

Éd

iti

Since calls are received in both English and French on this help line, guidelines need to be written in both languages. For this reason, you are going to do the brainstorming session in English.

©

Your conversation will last about five minutes. You need to be prepared to answer questions about your ideas.

VOCABULARY

BOX

distress line telephone number to call for help guidelines  directions on how to react

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advice

suggestions

brainstorming session group discussion designed to generate ideas

fellow sharing a quality or role with someone

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FINAL TASK ORGANIZATION PAGE Complete the chart below with background information from page 81 and information from the scenario on page 82. Write notes in point form only (not complete sentences). BACKGROUND INFORMATION

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Forms of abuse

INFORMATION RELATED TO THE TASK

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Final task

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Examples of vulnerable people

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Length of the task (time)

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Purpose of the task

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Suggested content

PERSONAL NOTES

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Activity 1 Understanding and Expressing Opinions Domestic, or spousal, abuse has a negative impact on the adults in the relationship, as well as on the children. It puts their health and well-being at risk. Roxanne and Harouk are discussing this important topic.

PLAN

dead tired tired

BOX

extremely

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A

VOCABULARY

joking

kidding

Children confronted with domestic violence can be affected in a variety of ways. Here are adjectives to describe how children may feel in the face of domestic abuse: powerless, confused, angry, guilty, sad, afraid, alone.

D

run into meet by coincidence

behind closed doors where no one can see

1. Look at the following reasons why they might experience these feelings.

nd

the light of someone’s life the most important person

2. Choose an adjective from the list above that goes with each reason.

difficult to swallow hard to accept

ra

Reasons

digest the news accept the news/situation

a) Children may possibly lose someone they love, or be concerned

self-esteem self-confidence

sG

that others may find out about their situation.

lack of trust trusting

b) They think that it’s happening only to them. c) It doesn’t make sense.

e) It shouldn’t happen.

on

d) Their parents may separate.

f) They think that they’ve done something wrong.

iti

USE

tolerate

stir up problems cause/create problems

La classe numérique

Éd

B

put up with

not

8b

1. Look at the questions below.

sz

jv

rq

laclasse.grandducenligne.com

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2. Listen to the conversation between Roxanne and Harouk. 3. Answer the questions. For True or False statements, circle T if the statement is true or F if the statement is false. If the statement is false, write the correct information on the line below. a) Why hasn’t Harouk been feeling well lately?

b) What has he been thinking about?

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c) What kind of sounds has he been hearing?

d) How long have the noises been going on?

e) Why does he think that the neighbours don’t have any children?

f) How long have Roxanne’s parents been divorced?

uc

g) What did she do when her parents were arguing?

h) At the beginning, she felt she was to blame for her parents’ problems.  T

D

F

sG

k) Why did she feel better in the long run?

F

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j) At first, it wasn’t easy for her to accept.  T

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i) Her parents stayed together.  T

F

REINVEST

iti

C

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l) In what ways do children continue to be disturbed by domestic violence when they become adults? Try to find three ways.

Éd

Find a partner or work with the teacher. Discuss Roxanne’s advice to Harouk. Was it good advice? Explain your opinion. Ask your partner to explain their opinion. If you disagree, try to convince the other person to see things your way.

My New Words

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Complete the information below. a) Roxanne’s advice:

Strategies Used

b) My opinion:

Cooperating Making hypotheses

c) My partner’s opinion:

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Summarizing

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GRAMMAR

Metaphors The word metaphor comes from the Greek word metapherin, which means “to transfer.” A metaphor is a word or phrase that compares something to something else. Her home is a prison.

METAPHOR

EXAMPLE

MEANING

to be an angel

Mireille is always there to help. She’s an angel.

melting pot

America is a melting pot.

to be a pig

He’s such a pig when he eats.

to dig up (information, evidence)

The police dug up a lot of information.

to recover evidence

to have a heart of stone

It’s impossible to ignore neglected children, unless you have a heart of stone.

to show no emotion to others; to appear cold and unemotional

dead tired

They were dead tired after walking for six hours.

extremely tired; completely exhausted

to jump for joy

She jumped for joy when she heard the news.

to be very happy or ecstatic

heartbroken

Franny was heartbroken to see that child so neglected.

very sad

to digest (the news)

He could not digest the news that she had asked for a divorce.

to accept something

Being told that she needed help was difficult to swallow.

hard to accept

to stir up (emotions)

Thinking back to his childhood stirs up emotions.

causes emotional disturbance

to walk on eggshells

He always walks on eggshells when his boss is around.

to be nervous or afraid something might happen

This job is a prison with long hours and no advancement.

a place you cannot escape from

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to eat too much or too messily

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prison

a great or helpful person

a place where many different people, styles and cultures come together

Éd

difficult to swallow

86

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We can create metaphors from nouns, verbs or adjectives.

William Shakespeare

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Metaphorical sense: With a few words, we understand that she feels that her home may have some of the characteristics of a prison for certain reasons. She may feel trapped because she is restricted in doing certain things. We may not really know the reason, but the context of the sentence will tell us why.

“All the world’s a stage, And all the men and women merely players. They have their exits and their entrances.”

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GRAMMAR PRACTICE Complete the following sentences with the metaphors listed on the previous page.

Example

3.

.

uc

2.

It’s a real

I can’t believe she moved in with that guy. She’s only known him for a month. If I were her, I’d try to

some information about his past.

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People from so many countries have been immigrating to the United States for many years.

Even though he goes to school and works full-time, he also finds time to help others. Not too many people are like that. He’s an

.

nd

1.

They’ve not told Joshua yet that they’re getting a divorce. They’re afraid he’s going to be heartbroken .

4.

We’ve been painting all day. I’m

5.

My teenage son keeps telling me our home is a him to stay out past 9 p.m.

6.

When she hears the news that she was chosen for a scholarship to study there, she’s going

ra

My mother has been sick in hospital for a week. When I asked my boss if I could take a day off

on

8.

to visit her, he refused. He’s got a

.

My friends haven’t done anything since they won $10 million. They have to

first.

Richard is a so much!

Éd

9.

.

iti

, because I don’t want

sG

to

7.

. We should take a break.

when we go to restaurants. I’ve never seen anyone eat

10. The kids in my class fear our math teacher. We

©

every day because we don’t know if he’s going to be in a good or bad mood when he arrives in class.

11. I can’t believe she was stealing money from her grandfather. It’s

,

but it’s true.

12. I don’t like to look at old pictures. It

when I see my grandparents who

have passed away.

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Activity 2 Defending Personal Viewpoints on Social Issues

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A close friend of yours hasn’t been herself since she moved in with her boyfriend. She’s been quieter than usual and you’ve noticed bruises on her face and arms in the last couple of months. You’ve been worried, but don’t know if you should interfere. You’ve been doing some research on different types of abuse and the reasons behind it.

1. Read the definition of different forms of abuse below.

nd

PLAN

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2. Based on each description, decide what type of abuse might be involved:

sG

Emotional abuse  •  Physical abuse  •  Sexual abuse  • Neglect a) It may involve contact between an adult and a person under 18 years of age. It can also involve

a young child and an older child.

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b) It applies to a child or teen who doesn’t have basic needs such as food, housing, clothes, medical care or supervision. It can also involve a lack of love or affection.

not worthy.

iti

c) It involves constantly criticizing or threatening someone, making the person feel that they are

beating or other actions that cause injury, leave marks or cause pain.

USE

©

B

Éd

d) It is the most easily recognized form because it involves any kind of hitting, choking, throwing,

1. Look at the Vocabulary Box on the next page. 2. Read the two texts on abuse on the next page. 3. Answer the questions on the pages 90. For True or False statements, circle T if the statement is true or F if the statement is false. If the statement is false, rewrite it correctly on the line.

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Strategies Used Reorganizing information to make it meaningful Asking for repetition, clarification Simplifying

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Text 1 Abuse does not discriminate. It occurs among heterosexual or same-sex partners. It has occurred and continues to happen within all age ranges, ethnic backgrounds and economic levels. While women have been more commonly victimized, men have also been abused, mostly verbally or emotionally, yet sometimes physically as well. The bottom line is that abusive behaviour is never acceptable, no matter who it comes from.

range

category culture

background

breaking rules weighty subject  subject

not following rules heavy, important

reasons

factors

deal or live with

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cope with

attack

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lash out

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People might sometimes have trouble recognizing that they are being abused. It can be especially difficult for people who have lived with abuse for many years. They may think it’s their own fault because they haven’t been doing what their partner or parent has told them to do: breaking rules perhaps, or not living up to someone’s expectations. Someone who has grown up in a family where there is violence or abuse may think it’s the only way family members treat each other. Somebody who has only known an abusive relationship might mistakenly think that hitting, beating, pushing, shoving or angry name-calling are normal ways to treat another person when you’re upset. For example, children who have seen their parents treat each other abusively might think that this behaviour is acceptable in later relationships.

BOX

VOCABULARY

on

Text 2

©

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Abuse is a weighty subject. It is not an acceptable or healthy way to treat anyone. If you know someone who is in an abusive relationship, you will better understand why some people abuse others. Sometimes abusers manipulate others by telling them they did something wrong or saying, “You asked for it.” There is no single reason why people might abuse others. Certain factors make it more likely that someone might lose control, yell, scream, hit or hurt others. Growing up in an abusive family may lead a person to think it’s a good way to promote discipline. Others become abusive because they are unable to control their anger or cope with stressful situations. The loss of a job or spousal problems may make a person lash out inappropriately. Drinking too much or using drugs can also make it difficult for people to control their reactions. Personality disorders or mental illness might also be the cause of problems of aggression or lack of self-control. Obviously, not everyone with these problems becomes aggressive. Fortunately, abusers who get help and learn to take responsibility for their actions can also learn to stop.

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Questions for Text 1 a) Only heterosexuals get involved in abusive relationships.  T

b) Only those who have financial problems are abusive.  T

c) Men are never physically abused.  T

F

F

F

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d) When you live with someone for many years, it may be hard to recognize that this person is abusive. T F

Questions for Text 2

D

e) Abusers may manipulate those they abuse by saying it’s the other person’s fault.  T

F

nd

f) Complete the sentence: Someone who has grown up in an abusive family may think that…

REINVEST

Ways to Say It

GIVING ADVICE

You should… call the police. If I were you, I would… talk to the person. I think it would be a good idea to… listen carefully. You shouldn’t… react impulsively. If I were you, I wouldn’t… say anything. I think it would be a bad idea to… get involved in the situation.

iti

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g) Name six situations that may lead a person to be abusive.

Éd

1. Find a partner or work with the teacher.

2. Discuss what you should or shouldn’t do in the following situations when you’re trying to help someone you suspect is being abused. SHOULDN’T

a) Ask if something is wrong.

b) Wait for them to come to you.

c) Judge or blame them.

d) Pressure them.

e) Let them know that you are concerned about their safety.

f) Offer your help.

©

SHOULD

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GRAMMAR

Second Conditional Pronoun

a word that shows an action or state

Adverb

a word that describes a verb

Article

a word that identifies a noun

Noun

a person, place, thing or idea

Modal auxiliary Adjective

words that show the relationship between nouns or sentences

D

Preposition/Conjunction

a word that adds meaning to a verb a word that describes a noun

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PARTS OF SPEECH

Verb

a word that replaces a name or thing

Meaning

nd

The first conditional is used to express a future event. Review the first conditional on page 47. If I go to the store, I’ll buy some vegetables.

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The second conditional is used to talk about situations that are unreal. We can imagine a situation that is different from reality. We can use it to talk about future things that are unlikely to happen.

sG

The choice between the first conditional or the second conditional depends on the point of view of the speaker. First conditional: there is a possibility that something will happen.

on

If I get the job, I’ll buy champagne for everyone. (= I might get the job.) Second conditional: there is no real possibility that something will happen.

Éd

Form

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If I got the job, I would buy champagne for everyone. (= I don’t expect to get the job.)

Look at the following examples. Then, explain the structure of the second conditional in question 1 on the next page.

©

I don’t have $10 million. I won’t travel around the world to help people in need. If I had $10 million, I would travel around the world to help people in need.

The reverse structure is also possible: I would travel around the world to help people in need if I had $10 million. We can also apply the negative form: She has a bad cold, so she can’t go out. If she didn’t have a bad cold, she would go out. She’d go out if she didn’t have a bad cold. © Éditions Grand Duc

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GRAMMAR

Second Conditional (continued )

Note

We can also use the modals could or might to express possibility or uncertainty.

Remember! The contracted form of would is ’d:

If I had $10 million, I could/might travel around the world to help people in need.

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I would = I’d you would = you’d he/she would = he’d/she’d we would = we’d they would = they’d

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GRAMMAR PRACTICE

1. Use the following words to show how we form the second conditional. You have to use two words twice.

+

+

+

+

;

+

+

.

sG

ra

[verb in present tense, subject, object, would, if, verb in past tense]

on

2. Put the verb in base form in the conditional form. Apply the negative form when necessary. I don’t have time, so I can’t help you. If I had (to have) time, I ’d/would help (to help) you.

iti

Example

Éd

a) He drinks a lot of alcohol on weekends, so he always has a hangover the next day. He so much.

(to have) a hangover the next day if he

(to drink)

©

b) She drives fast and often gets speeding tickets. If she

(to drive) so fast, she

(to get) speeding tickets.

c) She gets professional help. She is able to control her emotions. If she to control her emotions.

(to get) professional help, she

(to be) able

d) I have to pay my bills this week, so I can’t go shopping. I

if I

(to go) shopping

(to have) to pay my bills this week.

e) My friend has a serious drug problem, but she doesn’t want to get help. If she drug problem.

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(to get) help, she

(to have) a serious

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Activity 3 Identifying the Main Idea and Supporting Details

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Many of us are concerned about the idea that our parents or grandparents are getting old. Choosing the right nursing home where they are treated well is an important decision. We have often heard of facilities that don’t take care of the elderly very well.

PLAN

D

1. Have you ever taken care of a family member who has become too frail to take care of himself

nd

or herself? Describe the situation.

on

B

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2. Should children have the right to place an elderly parent in a nursing home? Give reasons.

USE

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1. Look at the Vocabulary Box on the next page and read the questions below. 2. Read the blog posts about nursing homes and long-term care facilities on the next page. 3. Beside each blog post, indicate if the author supports or opposes nursing homes, or does neither. 4. Give four reasons from the blog posts explaining why some seniors may not like the environment

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of a nursing home.

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Blog Post 1

VOCABULARY

I often hear stories of old people who cannot stay on their own any more, but who fight tooth and nail against going to a nursing home. Are nursing homes that bad? If you’ve ever visited one, you’ve noticed how nice and clean it is. When my aunt had her 85th birthday, she told us that she wanted to live in a nursing home. She’s been staying there for three years and when we visit her, she’s always happy and tells us that it was a great decision.

BOX

cast aside put on the side, abandon, throw away drop off  deliver

dispose,

check into enter a hotel, hospital

Author’s opinion:

D

There are bad nursing homes, but there are good ones too. I think that the real reason many elderly people hate going to nursing homes is because they feel as though they have been cast aside. Suddenly, they feel unwanted and useless and they aren’t jumping for joy to be there. They are also scared when they know that it’s probably the last place they will be living.

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Blog Post 2

nd

Author’s opinion: Blog Post 3

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I’ve seen shows and read articles about abuse and neglect in nursing homes. The living conditions make me sad. Sure, there are also some great homes out there, but I think that for the most part, seniors may fear they are being dropped off and forgotten. They soon learn that once they’ve checked into one, they’ve handed control to the staff. They may have other people there their age, but it’s still lonely without loved ones nearby.

on

Author’s opinion: Blog Post 4

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I’ve been working as a nurse in a nursing home for years. The facility where I work houses 120 seniors. We don’t have hearts of stone. We take care of them and love them. In return, they feel loved because they have become our family. Many seniors are already suffering with dementia or Alzheimer’s and the move often makes the condition worse. If a patient has a fall, it’s not the fault of the staff. We can only be in one place at a time. Author’s opinion:

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My New Words

C

REINVEST

Discuss the following question with a classmate or your teacher: a) Would your parents accept to live in a nursing home? b) If so, would you agree with this decision?

Strategies Used Encouraging self and others Comparing Note-taking

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Activity Reporting the Findings of Texts A friend has started working at a daycare centre. She is concerned because one of the children has been arriving with scratches, bruises and burn marks on his arms and face. She wants to know what to do in this situation.

A

PLAN

a) It’s only abuse when it’s violent.

Myth

Fact

b) Neglect and emotional abuse can be just as damaging. c) Only bad people abuse their children.

Myth

Myth

Fact

Fact

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e) Most child abusers are family members or people close to the family. Myth

Myth

Fact

Fact

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f) Abused children always grow up to be abusers.

B

Fact

nd

d) It doesn’t happen in good families.

Myth

D

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1. Read the following list of statements about child abuse and neglect. 2. Decide which statements are facts and which are myths. Circle the appropriate word.

USE

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1. Read the public information brochure on page 97 about signs indicating that a child may be abused. 2. Answer the following questions.

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a) Why is physical abuse more obvious?

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b) How can a child recover quickly?

c) What can you do to detect child abuse?

d) What can you do when you are not sure if a child has been abused?

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e) Find at least two warning signs for each of the following types of abuse. Physical abuse:

Emotional abuse:

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Sexual abuse:

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C

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Neglect:

REINVEST

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Find a partner or work with the teacher. Give your opinion on the following questions. Write an answer in the space provided.

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a) What is the difference between discipline and abuse?

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b) Why might parents become abusive or negligent?

c) What can parents do to prevent their children from being abused?

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Child Abuse Child abuse is more than bruises or broken bones. Though physical abuse is shocking due to the visible scars it leaves, not all child abuse is obvious. The earlier child abuse is detected, the better the chance for appropriate treatment and recovery for the child. Since child abuse is not always apparent, learning some of the common warning signs is important. Of course, just because you’ve seen certain warning signs doesn’t mean a child is being abused. Looking for a pattern of abusive behaviour is essential. Here are some signs to look for in a child:

• Is extremely compliant, demanding, passive or aggressive

• Is not close to parent or caregiver

warning signs

clues

inappropriate appropriate

not

compliant

submissive

untreated looked after

not

unsupervised watched

nd

• Shows knowledge of sexual acts inappropriate for his or her age

• Has unexplained cuts or bruises or injuries

unsafe

not

dangerous

run away

escape

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• Runs away from home

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• Is always on the alert as if waiting for something to happen

recovery recuperation, convalescence

• Is frequently unsupervised in unsafe environments

• Tries to avoid certain people for no obvious reason

apparent

obvious

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• Has untreated physical injuries or illnesses

BOX

bruise blue-black mark on skin from injury

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• Wears clothes that are dirty or inappropriate for the weather

VOCABULARY

• Has trouble walking or sitting

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• Has injuries that seem to have a pattern, such as marks from a belt or hand • Refuses to change clothes in front of others

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• Seems afraid of sudden movements

Éd

• Seems afraid to go home

• Wears clothing that covers up injuries

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• Is frequently late or absent from school • Is withdrawn, fearful or anxious about doing something wrong • Has bad hygiene on a regular basis

My New Words

Strategies Used Making eye contact Inferring Setting goals

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final task Preparation for the Oral Presentation You are now ready to participate in the brainstorming session with your fellow team member (your English teacher). You are working on the distress line as described in the scenario on page 82. You need to think of ideas that can be included in a set of guidelines that will help volunteers respond to phone calls related to abuse.

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To help you, take notes in point form in the chart below. Remember, do not write complete sentences, as that will not help you speak freely during the brainstorming session.

Description How to identify

Advice

Other information

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nd

Form of abuse

D

INFORMATION ABOUT ABUSE

OTHER POINTS FOR THE GUIDELINES (QUESTIONS, TONE OF VOICE, ETC.)

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review Grammar 1. Second Conditional   Say what you would do in the following situations using the second conditional.

uc

Example

Your roommate comes home drunk smelling of alcohol. If my roommate came home drunk smelling of alcohol, I would say, “I hope you didn’t drive.”

nd

b) A classmate tells you he’s afraid to go home.

D

a) You receive an A+ on an English assignment.

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c) You open the yogurt you’ve just bought and it’s spoiled.

sG

d) You’re at home alone. It’s 10 p.m. and the lights suddenly go off.

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e) Your grandfather needs help because he has a hard time walking.

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f) She doesn’t have a home. She lives on the streets.

Éd

g) I can’t go on a cruise because I get seasick.

h) Your boss often yells and never appreciates anything you do.

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2. Metaphors   Complete the following sentences with one of the following metaphors: an angel, heartbroken, dead tired, difficult to swallow, walk on eggshells. a) I’ve had such a long day. I’m

.

b) She is such a wonderful person, she’s

.

c) Our boss is very sensitive right now. You have to d) I’m really

because my best friend won’t be coming to visit.

e) This news report about abuse is really

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when you’re around him.

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Speaking Discuss the following questions with a classmate or your teacher. Use the space below to prepare notes for your conversation.

1. What are four types of abuse? Which type of abuse do you consider to be the most dangerous? Give reasons.

D

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2. Do you think that an abusive person can change? How?

nd

Writing

sG

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Think of someone you know, or a character in a book or a movie who has been abused in his or her environment (e.g. at work, home, school). Describe the situation. What kind of abuse was this person facing?

on

Self-Evaluation

iti

1 How much progress have you made during this learning situation? Read the following statements. Check ( ) the box that shows how you feel.

YES NO MAYBE

Éd

b) I can understand a dialogue on the topic of abuse.

c) I can discuss issues related to abuse with a partner, in English.

d) I can use metaphors.

e) I can talk about unreal situations using the second conditional.

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a) I can understand articles about abuse.

2 What do you like best about this learning situation? Why?

3 What do you not like about this learning situation? Why?

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FINAL REVIEW 1. Future progressive tense. Complete the following paragraph with the correct form of the verb in parentheses in the future progressive tense. When you see (neg.), use the negative form. Use the contracted form when possible. What will Greg be doing on his day off? Greg took the day off today. He

(to sit, neg.) at home. First,

he

(to go) to see his doctor for his annual checkup. After that,

he

(to have) lunch with his parents because he hasn’t seen them (to meet) a friend at a coffee shop.

He

(to stay, neg.) long because he

(to work) on a contract this afternoon. Finally, he

(to get) home

(to feed) his cat.

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around 5 p.m. and he

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in a month. Next, he

he

(to sleep) early tonight? Probably not! He

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(to try) to finish the contract due tomorrow morning.

2. Verbs to do and to make. Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the verbs a) He has to

ra

to do or to make.

an accounting course.

b) She hasn’t had time to

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the groceries.

c) We won’t be

a nickel because everything is going to charity.

d) Has anything been e) We’re f) You

to ban child labour?

a big spaghetti dinner in order to raise money in aid of children.

the right thing by pointing out the problem to the manager.

g) She won’t be

anything special for dinner tomorrow.

h) My kids always

a fuss whenever I ask them what they want for dinner.

Éd

i) Have you j) She

everything necessary to solve the problem?

too many promises that she can’t keep.

k) My daughter always

sure to call me if she’s going to be late.

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l) There were many complaints any suggestions. m) Have you

n) Ron doesn’t o) We p) Have you

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in the meeting, but no one

everything possible to solve the problem? jokes because he’s very serious. a bet that our favourite team would win the game. your choice on the menu?

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3. Adverb so. Respond to the following statements using the adverb so and the words in brackets. a) My three-year-old son can count to 20. (my daughter)

b) I should give a few hours of my time to help those in need. (I)

c) You could teach in a developing country. (you)

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d) We will fly to Africa next month. (we)

neither on the first line and the adverb either on the second line.

1) 2)

b) We didn’t have school today. (we)

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1)

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nd

a) My boyfriend Ricardo wasn’t born here. (my girlfriend)

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4. Neither/either. Respond to the following statements using the words in brackets and the adverb

2)

c) I haven’t been to that park. (I) 1) 2)

d) We’re not going away this summer. We need to save money. (my family) 1)

Éd

2)

5. Wish + simple past tense. Complete the following sentences using the correct form of the structure wish + simple past tense using the verb in brackets. Use the same pronoun as the one at the start of the sentence. When you see (neg.), use the negative form.

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a) I

b) Do you

(to be) feeling better. (to be) here?

c) You hate the snow. I know you d) The waiter e) She wishes she

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(to live) in Florida. (could go) home. (to have, neg.) a terrible headache.

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6. First conditional. Conclude the following sentences with the correct form of the first conditional (if + present tense, future tense). a) She’s applied to two universities for next year. She’s hoping to get accepted by the university closer to home.

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b) I’d like to prepare something special for dinner tonight, but I need to pick up some things from the supermarket.

D

c) We’d like to visit our friend this weekend, but we don’t know if he’ll be home.

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nd

d) I would prefer to find a free parking spot on the street, but it’s usually hard to find. I might have to park in a parking lot.

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7. Present perfect tense versus simple past tense. Complete the following sentences using either the present perfect tense or the simple past tense of the verbs in brackets. When you see (neg.), use the negative form. a)

you

I b) She

(to go) yesterday.

(to take, neg.) a course in a long time.

you

one last term? (to take)

(to buy) a gift for the birthday boy.

Éd

c) We

(to go) to the drugstore yet?

you

d) My favourite rock group

(to release) several new albums recently.

e) How long in Europe?

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it

f) Suddenly, the gardener (to quit) his job. g) Frank (to read, neg.) a single one.

(to buy) one yet?

(to be) since you were (to stop) working and

(to finish) three books this week. I

h) I (to see) many things in my lifetime, but I (to see, neg.) anything like this.

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8. Present perfect tense. Fill in the blanks by putting the verb in parentheses in the present perfect tense. Use the contracted form of the verb to have when possible. When you see (neg.), use the negative form. a)

you No, I

(to write) to your mother? (to have, neg.) the time.

b) To whom

Petru (to lend) it to Alexandre.

c)

you I

(to travel) to Asia?

never

(to go) there, but I’d like to go one day.

d) Someone

(to forget) this jacket on the chair. (to be) there for long?

e) Arianne

D

it always

(to want) to become she

(to apply) yet?

nd

a flight attendant. f)

your parents ever

(to speak) to you in Hindi?

(to try), but the conversation goes back to English after

ra

They five minutes.

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He

(to give) his dictionary?

g) My doctor “No news is good news.”

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(to call, neg.) to give me the results. You know what they say,

h) She

(to give up, neg.) trying to learn Spanish.

she

(to take) another course this session?

9. Present perfect progressive tense. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the present perfect progressive tense. Use the contracted form when possible. When you see (neg.), put the verb in the negative form. (to work) on your verb tenses since this morning.

Éd

a) You Maybe you should take a break.

b) They (to water, neg.) their garden for a month! They’ve probably gone on vacation. c) Brenda

(to have) a problem with her stomach since Monday.

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What

she

(to eat)?

d) Your skin looks great! (to use) the new product you bought?

e) Your English Who

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you really

you

(to improve). (to practise) with?

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10. Present perfect tense versus present perfect progressive tense. Decide if it’s better to use the present perfect tense or the present perfect progressive tense of the verb in parentheses in the following paragraph. Use the contracted form if possible. I

(to do) a lot of stuff since I arrived in Italy 10 days ago.

The first thing I did when I got here was visit my grandparents in Luino. They (to get) older since the last time I saw them, but it’s only to be expected. I

(to stay) with them since I got here.

We

(to have) conversations that continue after midnight. (to ask) me lots of questions about the family back home

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They and my career plans for the future. They

(to consider) coming

D

to Québec to see my parents this winter, but my grandmother is afraid she might not be able to tolerate the cold. I

(to tell) them it’s not as bad as they think.

I’m really glad I took a few Italian lessons; otherwise, I wouldn’t be able to tell them to stop

nd

feeding me so much food. But I get what they are doing. This is the way they express their love and hospitality. If I don’t leave soon, I’m going to explode! I

ra

(to think) about staying a few more days and then travelling around the country. See you in a couple of months! Ciao!

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11. Phrasal verbs. Complete the following sentences with the correct form of one of the following phrasal verbs: keep up, end up, get in, go over, try on, get out, give up, help out, pick up, mix up. a) When you can’t

, just ask the person to speak more slowly.

b) He stayed in Italy permanently and his parents.

speaking better Italian than

c) You look sleepy. What time did you

last night?

d) If you really want to learn the alphabet, I

you

.

Éd

e) When the woman fell into the hole in the street, it was hard to her

.

f) I don’t understand the grammar exercise. Can we

it one more time?

©

g) If you have dreams for the future, never

.

h) Why do I get confused between the past tense and the participle? I always

them

.

i) The earrings he gave you when you left are beautiful. Have you them

yet?

j) Your Portuguese is very good. Where did you

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12. Metaphors. Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the most appropriate metaphor from the following choices: be a pig, heartbroken, dig up, walk on eggshells, be an angel, jump for joy, difficult to swallow, melting pot, stir up, heart of stone, dead tired. a) My boss has a

. He doesn’t say yes to anything.

b) I know it’s

, but your brother hasn’t been telling the truth.

c) Could you

and pass the butter, please?

d) Careful what you say to Andrea. You have to

around her.

e) You eat a lot. Has anyone said that you f) Heather is really

?

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right now because of her recent separation.

g) This novel has really

a lot of feelings in me.

h) Our city is a

D

of people from all over the world.

i) I’m

after working three shifts in a row.

j) Why don’t you

nd

some information on your new roommate?

k) Everyone

when the victory was announced.

ra

13. Second conditional. Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the second

iti on sG

conditional using the verbs in brackets. Use the modal would. When you see (neg.), use the negative form. a) If I (to travel) around the world. b) If my neighbours (to change) apartments. c) I (to be) kinder to me.

(to have) a million dollars, I (to move), I

(to be) nicer to my work colleagues if they

d) If you (to go) to the beach.

(to go) to Jamaica, you

Éd

e) If he (to read) the newspaper, he (to know) what happened last month.

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f) Jules (to buy, neg.) my car if he (to know) how many miles were on it. g) If governments I

h) If companies they i) My sister (to look) for more friends. j) If city officials they

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(to do) something about global warming, (to worry, neg.) about it so much. (to outsource, neg.) some services, (to be able to) to compete in today’s economy. (to feel) so lonely if she (to want) to change things, (to accept) all the recommendations in the report.

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grammar review Abbreviations and Acronyms Abbreviations are shortened forms of words or phrases. They are used to simplify language. We can shorten a long word or we can reduce a name, title or expression by taking the first letter of all or most of the words and combining them. Abbreviations that are spoken like one word are called acronyms. Here are some examples of abbreviations. Acronyms are marked with an asterisk (*). Category

Abbreviation or Acronym Canada

EG

Egypt

FR

France

GR

Greece

NZ

New Zealand

SA

Saudi Arabia

UK

United Kingdom

US or USA

United States of America

.doc

Microsoft Word document

.docx

Microsoft Word Open XML document

.exe

D

Email message file

.pdf

Portable Document Format

.rtf

Rich Text Format file

.txt

Text file

.wav

Wave audio file

.wpd

WordPerfect document

.wps

Microsoft Works wordprocessor file

.xls

Excel spreadsheet

AIG

American International Group

CBC

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation

CBS

Columbia Broadcasting System

PBS

Public Broadcasting Service

SNC Lavalin

Surveyer, Nenniger & Chênevert, Inc.

IMF

International Monetary Fund

IOC

International Olympic Committee

NATO*

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

NFL

National Football League

NHL

National Hockey League

UN

United Nations

UNESCO*

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

WFP

World Food Program

Dr.

Doctor

Mr.

For a man (pronounced mister)

Mrs.

For a married woman (pronounced misses)

Ms.

For a married or unmarried woman (pronounced mizz)

Éd

Corporations

Windows executable file

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.msg

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Brazil

CA

nd

File Extensions

BZ

ra

Countries

Meaning

©

Organizations

Titles

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Antonyms, Synonyms and Heteronyms Antonyms Antonyms are words that have the opposite meaning. Here are some antonyms: Nouns

Verbs

Adjectives

Prepositions

begin ≠ end

exciting ≠ boring

on ≠ off

start ≠ finish

start ≠ finish

blunt ≠ sharp

above ≠ below

sale ≠ purchase

sell ≠ buy

cheap ≠ expensive

on ≠ under

inside ≠ outside

stay ≠ leave

better ≠ worse

in front of ≠ behind

abroad ≠ home

admit ≠ deny

wide ≠ narrow

over ≠ under

here ≠ there

lead ≠ follow

new ≠ old

up ≠ down

summit ≠ valley

climb ≠ descend

safe ≠ dangerous

before ≠ after

entrance ≠ exit

enter ≠ exit

calm ≠ stressed

D to ≠ from

nd

Synonyms

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beginning ≠ ending

Synonyms are words that have the same meaning. Here are some synonyms: Verbs

Adjectives

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Nouns

Prepositions

repair = fix

skinny = thin

near = close

discount = reduction

buy = purchase

costly = expensive

beside = next to

equity = fairness

answer = reply

cold = chilly

above = over

arrive = reach

sticky = muggy

below = under

attempt = try

correct = right

in front = ahead

understand = comprehend

kind = nice

in the back = behind

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mistake = error

hole = gap film = movie object = thing

Heteronyms

©

Éd

Heteronyms are different words that are spelled the same, but have a different pronunciation and different meaning, depending on the context of the sentence. The pronunciation may be different because of a particular sound, or because of the stress put on the word. A word can change from a verb to a noun or adjective, or from a noun to an adjective. Here are some common heteronyms. You can listen to the recording to hear the difference between the two words.

Verb

to abuse ( = z) to address

to associate ( = A) to close ( = z) to conflict to lead ( = E) to present to subject

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Noun

Verb

abuse ( = s)

to alternate ( = A)

address

to deliberate ( = A)

associate ( = a)

to house ( = z)

close ( = s)

to live ( = i)

conflict

to moderate ( = A)

lead ( = e)

to perfect

present

to polish ( = au)

subject

to rebel

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Adjective

alternate ( = a) deliberate ( = a)

La classe numérique

8a

sj

j3

r4

laclasse.grandducenligne.com

house ( = s) live ( = I) moderate ( = a) perfect Polish ( = O) rebel

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Phrasal Verbs Phrasal verbs are verbs followed by a preposition. They often replace the verb. They are conjugated like verbs. Example: The band might call off their concert tonight. call + off = cancel verb + preposition List of Popular Phrasal Verbs Meaning

Phrasal Verb

Meaning

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Phrasal Verb add up

add or include together

hear from

back out

change a decision

help out

bring up

introduce a topic

hold off

call back

return a telephone call

keep in mind

not forget

call off

cancel

keep in touch

stay in contact

call up

use the telephone

keep on

continue doing something

check out

look at; examine

keep up

continue

come up

happen; occur

leave out

omit

do over

complete again

look forward to

anticipate

drop out

quit; abandon a program

look over

review for errors

eat out

eat in a restaurant

look up

search for information

finish in a certain way

make up

invent; imagine

write missing information

mix up

change the position of things

complete in writing

move up

progress; get a promotion

locate information

pass on

hand over something to someone else

repair; arrange; organize

pick out

choose

be friendly with someone

put off

postpone; delay

arrive at home; enter a car

put on

add clothing

enjoy participating in

read over

read again; revise

exit a bus or train; dismount from a bicycle

show up

arrive

sign up

register

get on

enter a bus or train; mount a bicycle

start over

start again from the beginning

get out

exit a car

take on

employ

get through

finish

take over

take control

give away

donate

talk over

discuss

give back

return something

try out

try something new

give out

distribute something

turn down

refuse; lower the volume

give up

quit; abandon an activity

turn out

result in a particular situation

go over

review

turn up

arrive; increase the volume

hand in

submit an assignment

write down

write information on paper

hang up

suspend clothes on a hanger; end a telephone conversation

fill in fill out find out fix up get along get in get into

©

Éd

get off

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assist in doing a task

D

wait before doing something

nd ra

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end up

receive news from someone

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Prefixes and Suffixes Prefixes and suffixes are specific letters at the beginning or end of a word. When we understand the meaning of the prefix or suffix, it helps us to understand the word. A prefix can be added to the beginning of a word. anti-

against

anti-abortion

dis-

negation; reversal

disadvantage

ex-

past; out of; former

ex-colleague

hyper-

more; over

hypertension

hypo-

under

hypothermia

inter-

between

intermediate

mis-

badly; wrongly

misinformed

over-

excessive

overconfident

in favour

pro-choice

repeat

redo

retro-

in the past

retrospective

sub-

under

submarine

under-

less; lower

underdeveloped

ra

prore-

uc

Example

D

Meaning

nd

Prefix

A suffix can be added to the end of a word.

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Some suffixes help create a different form of a word, such as:

• We add –s to verbs in the third person singular form of the simple present tense (he speaks). • We add –ed to verbs in the simple past tense (I walked).

• We add –ing to verbs in the present progressive tense (she is going). • We add –s or –es to nouns to make them plural (the books). Other suffixes change the meaning of the word. Suffix -dom -er -ess

comfortable

condition

freedom

person

worker

feminine

actress

full of

useful

-holic

having an abnormal desire for or dependence on something

workaholic

-ism

a practice; behaviour; doctrine; prejudice

Buddhism

-less

without

flawless

-ly

manner or nature of something

friendly

-ness

state or quality

darkness

-ware

things of the same kind

hardware

©

-ful

Example

capable of; good for

Éd

-able

Meaning

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Relaxed Pronunciation Relaxed pronunciation occurs when syllables of common words are pronounced together. This is very common in everyday conversation using an informal register or slang. Mistakes are often made in writing because of the way we pronounce words.

Informal Linking and Blending Words

Examples in a Sentence I’m not going out cuz I’m just too tired.

bet you = betcha

I betcha the stores are all closed now.

could you = could ya; couldya

Could ya come over here, please?

did you = did ya

Did ya hear what happened yesterday?

do you = dya

Dya wanna know a secret?

don’t know = dunno

I dunno what that means.

give me = gimme

This is too much! Gimme a break!

got to = gotta

We gotta go now. See you later!

How are ya? I haven’t seen you in ages!

kind of = kinda

It’s kinda complicated; I’d rather not talk about it.

laclasse.grandducenligne.com

Please, lemme do that for you. This is a big mess. Lotsa things are going wrong. He called me outta the blue.

Éd

see you = see ya

ra

nd

how are you = how are ya

out of = outta

jx

ra

Have ya ever been to Greece?

lots of = lotsa

s6

I gotcha something special.

have you = have ya

let me = lemme

8g

iti on sG

got you = gotcha

La classe numérique

D

because = cuz

uc

Here are some examples. Listen to them on the recording, then repeat the expression and sentences out loud.

I’ll see ya later. Bye!

He sorta said the same thing.

want to = wanna

Wanna go to a movie tonight?

what a = wadda

Wadda cool bracelet!

©

sort of = sorta

what are you = watcha

Watcha thinking about?

what do you = whadda ya

Whadda ya know? I got a pay raise.

what’s up = wassup

Hi, Julia. Wassup?

would you = would ya; wouldya

Would ya stop acting like a baby?

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Irregular Past Tense and Past Participle awakened

be

was; were

been

beat

beat

beat/beaten

become

became

become

begin

began

begun

bend

bent

bent

break

broke

broken

bring

brought

brought

build

built

built

burn

burned/burnt

burned/burnt

buy

bought

bought

catch

caught

caught

choose

chose

chosen

come

came

come

cost

cost

cost

cut

cut

cut

dig

dug

dug

do

did

done

draw

drew

dream

dreamed/dreamt

dreamed/dreamt

drink

drank

drunk

drive

drove

eat

ate

fall

fell

feel

felt

fight

fought

find

found

fly

flew

driven eaten fallen felt

fought found flown

Éd

forget

drawn

forgot

forgotten

forgave

forgiven

got

gotten

give

gave

given

go

went

gone

grow

grew

grown

hang

hung

hung

have

had

had

hear

heard

heard

hide

hid

hidden

hit

hit

hit

forgive

112

©

get

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Past Tense

Past Participle

hurt

hurt

hurt

keep

kept

kept

know

knew

known

learn

learned/learnt

learned/learnt

leave

left

left

lend

lent

lent

let

let

let

light

lighted/lit

lighted/lit

lose

lost

make

made

mean

meant

meet

met

met

pay

paid

paid

put read ride

uc

awoke

lost

made

meant

put

put

read

read

rode

ridden

ring

rang

rung

rise

rose

risen

run

ran

run

say

said

said

see

saw

seen

sell

sold

sold

send

sent

sent

show

showed

showed/shown

sing

sang

sung

sit

sat

sat

sleep

slept

slept

speak

spoke

spoken

spend

spent

spent

swim

swam

swum

take

took

taken

teach

taught

taught

tear

tore

torn

tell

told

told

think

thought

thought

throw

threw

thrown

understand

understood

understood

wear

wore

worn

write

wrote

written

iti on sG

awake

Base Form

D

Past Participle

nd

Past Tense

ra

Base Form

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Strategies Sometimes you may find it easy to interact, read and write in English. At other times, you may feel it is very difficult. Don’t panic! When you learn a new language, there are things you can do to help you face the difficulties. These are called communication and learning strategies. They can be learned and practised to make learning a new language such as English easier and more fun.

uc

Communication and learning strategies are: • Actions you do

D

• Attitudes you take • Steps you follow

iti on sG

There are many different communication and learning strategies. The most important ones are listed and explained in the following pages.

ra

… to help you learn and use English.

nd

• Techniques you use

Throughout the book, you will find short lists of strategies you can use, like this one:

Strategies Used Inferring

Scanning for specific information

Éd

Planning steps related to a task

©

This list reminds you about the importance of using strategies as you complete the activity. It also recommends strategies that may be useful for the activity you are about to do. These steps will help you to learn English. 1. Look at the list of strategies before you start the activity. 2. When you have finished the activity, think about which strategies you used most. 3. Put a check mark (✓) beside the strategies you think were helpful. Of course, you will probably use other strategies as well. The following pages explain each of the strategies in more detail.

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Communication Strategies Communication strategies help you start (and continue) conversations with people. Here are some verbal strategies (things you can say).

Asking for Help

What does accountant mean?

Asking for Repetition/Clarification

Sorry?

Could you repeat that, please?

Do you mean…?

Éd

iti on sG

Don’t feel embarrassed about asking someone to repeat something or explain what they mean.

ra

nd

D

uc

Many people can help you learn English, including your teacher, friends and classmates. You can ask for help by asking the meaning of a word, expression or idea, or how to say something.

How do you say comptable in English?

Recognizing and Correcting Inaccuracies

©

Sometimes you see your mistake right after you say something. It’s a good idea to correct yourself. It’s a way to practise using the correct expressions. Example:  “Tomorrow we go the movies… I mean, tomorrow we are going to the movies.”

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Rephrasing The weather forecast for tomorrow calls for stormy winds and heavy precipitation.

uc

Rephrasing is repeating what you or someone else said, but in a different way. We can often repeat a message using different words that we are more familiar with.

nd

Tomorrow will be windy and rainy.

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ra

Simplifying is repeating what you or someone else said using easier words.

D

Simplifying

Non-verbal strategies Gesturing/Miming

Éd

Gesturing is using your hands to help explain an idea. Miming is using a variety of gestures and body movements to convey meaning. Making Eye Contact

©

It is easier to understand a person who is speaking to you when you look at them directly. Making eye contact is also how you show a person you are interested in what they are saying. It’s a way of showing respect. Respecting Social Touch Conventions/Boundaries When you learn a new language, you are learning a new culture as well. People interact with each other differently in different cultures. Sometimes it is appropriate to touch people, while at other times it is not. You must assess each situation. Using Facial Expressions Facial expressions are a natural and important part of communication. Even though we use words to speak, our facial expressions add meaning in person-to-person interactions. They help us express our message.

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Learning Strategies Learning strategies help you: •

Learn new things about the language (grammar, vocabulary, expressions, etc.)

Develop a positive attitude about the language

Think about what you have learned (self-evaluate)

Cognitive (mental or thinking) learning strategies

uc

Activating Prior Knowledge

nd

D

Activating prior knowledge means thinking about what you know on a topic before talking, writing or reading about it. Activating prior knowledge helps you make connections to the new information so it will make sense and so you can remember it more easily. In this workbook, section A of each activity is designed to help you activate your prior knowledge by asking questions about your experience, opinions or preferences, or by giving you an exercise to practise vocabulary.

ra

Comparing

Present tense in English She walks. She is walking. She does walk.

iti on sG

Comparing things helps you understand and remember information. You can compare things in lots of different ways. One way of comparing is to think about how a grammar point, such as the present tense, is structured in English and in another language. Le présent en français Elle marche.

Reorganizing Information to Make It Meaningful

Éd

This strategy is similar to comparing. To help us understand and remember information, we can reorganize information in graphic organizers, such as charts or concept maps, or use connecting arrows and so on. Here is an example. Uncountable Nouns in English some advice

©

some furniture

Countable Nouns in French des conseils des meubles

some hair

des cheveux

some homework

des devoirs

some information

des informations

some knowledge

des connaissances

some news

des nouvelles

some research

des recherches

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Inferring Inferring is guessing the meaning by using the available information. If you think about the meaning of the whole sentence, you can often get (or guess) the meaning of a new word. I think it means…

Making Hypotheses

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When reading or listening, you can often skim (listen or search) for the main idea of a message, even if you don’t understand all the details.

Exam Wednesday, not Tuesday.

ra

Skimming for the Main Idea

nd

D

uc

You make a hypothesis when you predict what something means, even if you’re not sure.

Scanning for Specific Information

Éd

You don’t have to understand everything a person says or everything in a text to get the information you need. You can sometimes scan (listen or look) for specific information. Practising to Improve Skills

©

In English, we say, “Practice makes perfect.” The more you practise speaking, listening, reading or writing, the easier it will become. Note-taking It is often helpful to write down information you hear or read in your own words. The action of writing things down helps you remember it. Summarizing Summarizing is repeating a message in a shorter way using your own words. If you can do this, you will probably remember the information quite well. When you summarize, concentrate on the main idea and the important details.

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Socioaffective Learning Strategies People learn a new language best when they feel comfortable. These socioaffective strategies will help you feel better about learning and using English. OK, thanks for the suggestion.

Asking for and Giving Constructive Feedback

D

uc

Feedback is comments and suggestions about a person’s skills or progress as they learn something new, such as speaking a second language. It’s important that the feedback we receive or give other people is constructive – it must help a person improve and provide support and encouragement at the same time.

nd

Good job on the presentation. Maybe you could slow down a bit.

Cooperating

iti on sG

ra

Everyone in your class is here to learn English. Cooperating – working together – will make the job easier and more enjoyable. The speaking activities in this book require you to discuss a topic or complete a role play with a partner. Your classmates will also ask you to help them complete different speaking activities at other times. These speaking activities provide everyone with valuable opportunities to practise speaking English. Encouraging Yourself and Others

It’s never easy to learn a new language. Sometimes it may seem like your progress is slow, but you are probably advancing faster than you think. It’s always good to encourage yourself and other people. Find an occasion to celebrate reaching a small goal. Here are some words to help: Super!

Good job!

That’s it!

Great!

• •

118

Terrific!

Éd

Right on!

Sensational!

Superb!

Excellent!

Keep it up!

Wonderful!

Way to go!

Congratulations!

Outstanding!

Good going!

Nice going!

Fantastic!

Good for you!

©

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Metacognitive Learning Strategies Metacognitive strategies help us become better learners. They are like an interior voice that helps us solve problems, understand how we learn and evaluate our performance. Setting Goals Setting goals means deciding what you want to do and working toward that objective. It can be a very powerful way to stay concentrated and maintain motivation. Here are a few pointers when setting goals:

2. Know exactly what you want. Goals should be precise and focused.

uc

1. Know your purpose. Why are you learning this topic in English? What will it help you do in the future?

D

3. Build a goal plan. People who set goals effectively have a clear road map for their success. Think of it as going for a long run. Focus on what is in front of you, and you will arrive quicker than you expected.

Planning Steps Related to a Task

ra

nd

4. Expect obstacles. Obstacles always get in the way of goals. It’s how you deal with them that is important. Adapt, adjust, make new plans – do whatever you have to do to get past them.

iti on sG

Any task we do requires us to follow a procedure. It’s the same thing when we learn and use a second language, even when speaking. The activities in this book are divided into sections A, B and C and the instructions are numbered (1, 2, 3) to help you follow a logical order when completing a task. Paying Selective Attention

Éd

When we use English, it may be impossible to understand every word and notice every detail, but we can often get the information we need anyway. Paying selective attention is choosing one important thing to concentrate on as we listen or read. It helps us focus our attention on what is most important at that time. Creating Practice Opportunities

©

When we do not live in a place where people usually speak the language we are learning, it is often difficult to practise. People who are good at learning languages know how to create opportunities. Here are some ideas. You can probably think of more. •

Watch videos on the Internet.

Read or listen to the news in English.

Read out loud.

Converse with tourists.

Place orders by phone in English.

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Self-Monitoring Self-monitoring is checking your performance as you do something, such as speaking. People who self-monitor think about their pronunciation, vocabulary or grammar as they speak. They may stop and start their sentence again to correct themselves.

Self-Evaluation

uc

I did a good job using English expressions.

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Transferring Knowledge to New Contexts

ra

nd

D

Self-evaluation is checking how well you are doing. It is similar to self-monitoring except that we self-evaluate after we have completed something, such as a task, project or course.

Transferring knowledge to new contexts means using what you learned in one situation to help you complete a different but similar task in a new situation. As we learn English or any other subject, we want to gain knowledge and skills that can be used both inside and outside of school, immediately and in the future. For example, we learn English in classrooms so that we can use it when we travel or work.

Éd

How do you transfer knowledge to new contexts? One way is to learn, practise and use combinations of words (“chunks”) in different situations. We don’t have to make up new sentences every time. Hello, may I help you?

©

May I help you?

I would like a ham sandwich, please. Do you have any chocolate milk? How much does it cost?

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Yes. I would like to try these shoes on, please. Do you have size 6? How much do they cost?

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glossary A

banker

banquier, banquière

à l’extérieur du pays

bar graph

diagramme à bande

abuse (to)

abuser

basic

de base, élémentaire

abuser

agresseur

beach

plage

abusively

de manière abusive

because of this

à cause de cela

according to

selon

become (to)

devenir

achieve (to)

atteindre

beg (to)

supplier

add (to)

ajouter

behave (to)

se comporter

address (to)

s’adresser à, aborder

behaviour

comportement

adequately

de manière adéquate

behind closed doors

derrière les portes closes

advantages

avantages

believe (to)

croire

advent

arrivée

belt

advice

conseil(s)

beneficial

bénéfique

advisor

conseiller, conseillère

benefits

bénéfices

se permettre (de payer)

affordable

abordable

afraid (to be)

avoir peur

against

contre

ago

il y a

agreement agrochemicals alert (to be) alleviate (to) alone amongst amount another

accord

produits agrochimiques être vigilant(e) soulager seul(e) parmi

montant

un(e) autre

faire une demande, s’appliquer

Éd

apply (to)

D

nd

afford (to)

ceinture

beset (to)

être assaili(e) par

best; (it’s) best (to)

les meilleur(e)s, le mieux; il vaut mieux

better

mieux

better off (to be)

être en meilleure position

bills

factures

biofuels

biocarburants

biological development

développement biologique

blanks

espaces

blood

sang

body language

langage corporel

borrow (to)

emprunter

boss

patron(ne)

bother (to)

déranger

bottom line

résultat final

brackets

parenthèses

ra

affliger

iti on sG

afflict (to)

uc

abroad

région, domaine

argue (to)

croire, insister, expliquer

around

autour, environ

brainstorming session

session de remue-méninges

available

disponible, offert(e)

break; break (to)

pause; casser

average

moyen(ne)

breath

respiration, souffle

avoid (to)

éviter

briefly

brièvement

aware

conscient(e)

broke

forme passée du verbe to break

bruises

contusions

back; send back (to); dos; retourner; revenir come back (to)

building

édifice

bullying

intimidation

background

origines

burn; burn (to)

brûlure; brûler

badly

mal (fait)

business

entreprise, affaires

balance (to)

équilibrer

business lexicon

jargon des affaires

©

area

B

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C

concern; concerned (to be); concerned (those)

préoccupation; être concerné(e), s’inquiéter; ceux qui sont touchés

conclude (to)

conclure

call back (to)

rappeler

call to action (to)

appel à l’action

candles

bougies

carbon dioxide

dioxyde de carbone

carbon-neutral

carboneutre; totale des émissions de carbon équivalent à 0

care for (to); care about (to); care

prendre soin; être concerné(e); soins

confused

confus(e)

conquered (to be)

être conquis(e)

carpets

tapis

consistently

de manière constante

cast aside

mis(e) de côté

construct (to)

construire

catch (to)

attraper

constructive feedback

rétroaction constructive

consumer

uc

D

challenge; challenge défi; défier (to)

conducted (to be) les Jeux se déroulent; des études (the Olympics are ont été menées conducted); studies have been conducted

consommateur, consommatrice

charity

œuvre de bienfaisance

contract negotiations négociations de contrat

chart

tableau

contracted form

cheaper

moins cher, moins chère

controversy

controverse

check (to); check into (to)

vérifier; s’informer

convince (to)

convaincre

chemicals

produits chimiques

cope, cope with (to)

gérer, faire face (à un problème ou une situation)

child; child labour

enfant; travail des enfants

cost-effective

rentable

choice

choix

costs

coûts

choose (to)

choisir

count (to)

compter

chosen

participe passé du verbe to choose

country

pays

countryside

campagne

craftsmen

artisans

criticism

critique

crops

récoltes

cruise

croisière

currently

présentement

customer; customer service

client(e); service à la clientèle

cut down (to)

couper, réduire

cuts

coupures

cyberbullying

cyberintimidation

city councillor

conseiller municipal

claim (to)

affirmer

classmates

camarades de classe

clean; cleaner

propre; plus propre

climate change

changements climatiques

close (to); close; closer

fermer; proche; plus proche

clothing

vêtements

cloud

nuage

charbon

collect (to)

recueillir

commitment

engagement

common tongue

langue commune

complain (to)

se plaindre

complaint

plainte

comprehensiveness

approche globale

compromise (to)

compromettre, faire un compromis

©

coal

computer

122

nd

ra

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citoyens

Éd

citizens

ordinateur

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forme contractée

D daycare

garderie

dead tired

mort(e) de fatigue

define (to)

définir

dementia

démence

depend (to)

dépendre

derived

fait par, provenant de

describe (to)

décrire

designed (to be)

être conçu(e)

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désespérément

ending

terminaison, fin

destroy (to)

détruire

end up (to)

finir

developed countries

pays industrialisés

enforcement

application

developing countries pays en voie de développement

enough

assez

die (to)

mourir

ensure (to)

vérifier, assurer

difficult time (to have a)

avoir de la difficulté

entire (communities) au complet (les communautés au complet)

dig up (to)

s’informer, s’enquêter

entrances

entrées

disadvantages

désavantages

escape (to)

fuir

disagree (to)

être en désaccord

especially

surtout

disappear (to)

disparaître

event

événement

disease

maladie

expect (to)

uc

desperately

s’attendre à

disorder; personality désordre; trouble de la disorder personnalité

expected explain (to)

expliquer

disproportionately

de façon disproportionnée

exploitative

abusif, abusive

distinguish (to)

distinguer

export (to)

exportation

distress line

ligne d’écoute

express (to)

exprimer

DNA

ADN

extended family

famille élargie

domestic service

service à domicile

external providers

fournisseurs externes

donate (to)

faire un don

donation

don

done

participe passé du verbe to do

drank dream (to) drink (to) drive (to) driver

D

nd ra

iti on sG

download (to)

télécharger

forme passée du verbe to drink rêver boire

conduire

conducteur, conductrice

baisser, laisser tomber, abandonner; déposer à un endroit

drought

sécheresse

Éd

drop (to); drop off (to) dry

sec, sèche

due to

à cause de

during

pendant

©

E

attendu(e)

F

facility

installation

fair; fair trade

juste; commerce équitable

fallen

participe passé du verbe to fall

false

faux, fausse

far away

loin

farmers

fermiers, fermières

faster

plus rapide

favour (in)

en faveur

fear (to)

craindre

fearful

peureux, peureuse

fed (to be)

être nourri(e)

feed (to)

nourrir

feel (to)

se sentir, ressentir

fellow

confrère, consœur

fewer

moins

each

chaque

earlier

plus tôt

fight (to); fight tooth and nail (to)

combattre; se défendre bec et ongles

Earth

Terre

figure of speech

figure de style

easier

plus facile

fill out (to)

remplir, compléter

economic growth

croissance économique

find out (to)

apprendre, découvrir

efficiently

de manière efficace

findings

résultats

elderly

personnes âgées

fire alarm

avertisseur d’incendie

emphasize (to)

mettre l’accent (sur)

fireworks

feux d’artifice

endangered

en voie de disparition

fishing

pêche

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123 2020-03-12 08:54


agent(e) de bord

grew

forme passée du verbe to grow

flood

inondation

grocery store

épicerie

flowers

fleurs

pousser; grandir, vieillir

fly (to)

voyager en avion, voler

grow (to); grow up (to)

follow (to)

suivre

grown

participe passé du verbe to grow

following

suivant, à la suite de

growth

croissance

food; food bank; food chain

nourriture; banque alimentaire; chaîne alimentaire

guaranteed minimum payment

salaire minimum garanti

footwear

chaussures

guess (to)

deviner

forest fires

incendie de forêt

guest

invité(e)

forget (to)

oublier

guidelines

lignes directrices

forgotten

participe passé du verbe to forget

guilty

coupable

fortunate (to be)

être chanceux, chanceuse

forward (to)

transmettre, faire suivre

habits

fossil fuels

combustibles fossiles

hairdresser

free of risk

sans danger

hangover

free trade

libre échange

happen (to)

se passer, se dérouler

free trade agreement accord de libre échange

harassment

harcèlement

freely

librement

hard time (to have a) avoir de la difficulté

frightened (to be)

être effrayé(e)

fuel

carburant

funding

financement

harvest (to)

récolter

fundraiser

campagne de financement

hazardous

dangereux, dangereuse

funds

fonds

headache

mal de tête

headed by a subtitle (to be)

ayant un sous-titre

health

santé

healthy; healthy working conditions

en santé; conditions de travail saines

heard

forme passée et participe passé du verbe to hear

heard about (to have)

avoir entendu parler de

heartbroken

cœur brisé

heat (to)

chauffer

give (to); give up (to) donner; abandonner

heat wave

canicule

given

participe passé du verbe to give

heating

chauffage

globalized

mondialisé(e)

heavy metals

métaux lourds

global warming

réchauffement climatique

help line

ligne d’écoute

go over (to); go up (to) réviser; monter

help out (to)

venir en aide

goal

but

hire (to)

embaucher

goods

biens

hit (to)

frapper

grab attention (to)

attirer l’attention

homeless

sans abri

grapes

raisins

homelessness

absence de domicile

graph

graphique, diagramme

homework

devoirs

jardin; jardiner, faire du jardinage

gardening

jardinage

gas

essence

genetically modified (crops)

cultures génétiquement modifiés

get along (to); get hurt (to); get into (to); get out (to); get through (to)

bien s’entendre; être blessé(e), se blesser; commencer à apprécier (une nouvelle activité); sortir (d’un endroit); passer au travers de

©

Éd

garden; garden (to)

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D

H

habitudes

coiffeur, coiffeuse

ra

nd

gueule de bois

harm (to)

blesser

harmful

dommageable

iti on sG

G

uc

flight attendant

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L

I

©

jacket jewellery join (to) junk food

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manque

laid off (to be)

être mis(e) à pied

language barriers

obstacles linguistiques

lash out (to)

fustiger, s’en prendre à quelqu’un

late

tard, en retard

lately

récemment

laundry (to do)

faire le lavage

law; by law

loi; selon la loi avocat(e) mener

leave (to) led left

gauche, forme et participe passé passée du verbe to leave

let (to); let(’s) take a walk

permettre; prenons une marche

nd

garder; maintenir mots-clés blaguer tuer savoir connaissances participe passé du verbe to know

partir, laisser

forme passée et participe passé du verbe to lead

ra

veston bijoux se joindre malbouffe

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lack

lead (to)

K

keep (to); keep up (to) keywords kid (to) kill (to) know (to) knowledge known

normes du travail

lawyer

Éd

J

glacé(e) malade analphabétisme analphabète mettre en vigueur importation appauvri(e) amélioration incapacité de manière inappropriée inclus(e), compris(e) revenu augmenter indicateurs, critères monde industrialisé inéquité contagieux blesser blessure mis(e) en place, utilisé(e) impliquer repasser problème, question, enjeu

iti on sG

icy ill illiteracy illiterate implement (to) import impoverished improvement inability inappropriately included income increase (to) indicators industrialized world inequality infectious injure (to) injury introduced (to be) involve (to) iron (to) issue

labour standards

uc

hôte, hôtesse foyers ménage cependant travail humanitaire faim hypothèse

D

host households housework however humanitarian work hunger hypothesis

level

niveau

life; life expectancy

vie; durée de vie

lifestyle habits

habitudes de vie

lights

lumières

likely; not likely

probable; peu probable

little

peu, petit(e)

live (to); live on low incomes (to)

vivre; vivre à faible revenu

lives

forme plurielle du mot life

living standards

standards de vie

loan

prêt

location

endroit

lonely

seul(e)

long-term care

soins de longue durée

look over (to)

lire, examiner, étudier

lose (to)

perdre

loss

perte

loved ones

proches, êtres chers

lower

plus bas, faible, inférieur(e)

M Mad Cow disease

maladie de la vache folle

main factor

explication principale

maintain (to)

maintenir

make sense (to)

avoir du sens

make sure (to)

vérifier

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O

manage (to)

gérer

manager

gérant, gérante

obtain (to)

obtenir

manufactured

produit(e)

obvious

évident(e)

manufacturer (car manufacturer)

fabricant de voiture

obviously

de manière évidente, évidemment

manufacturing

production

occur (to)

se passer, se dérouler

map

carte

offset (to)

contrebalancer

mastery

maîtrise

often

souvent

match (to)

faire correspondre, correspondre

oil

pétrole

mean (to)

vouloir dire, signifier

once

une fois

meaning

sens, signification

meaningful

significatif, significative

means

moyens

meet (to)

rencontrer

melting pot

fusion de cultures différentes

memory

souvenir

mental illness

maladie mentale

merely

seulement

mess

désordre

minimum wage

salaire minimum

mining

exploitation minière

minus

sans, en moins

mistake; mistakenly

erreur; par erreur

mix up (to)

mélanger

mood

humeur

mother tongue

langue maternelle

move (to)

déménager, se déplacer

multinational corporations

entreprises multinationales

uc

sinon

outcomes

résultats

outdoors

à l’extérieur

output

D

otherwise

production

outsourcing

sous-traitance en général

overconsumption

surconsommation

overcrowded

surpeuplé(e)

overseas

outre-mer

overweight

en surpoids

owner

propriétaire

iti on sG

ra

nd

overall

P

pace

rythme

paid

forme passée et participe passé du verbe to pay

pain

douleur

park (to)

stationner

pass away (to)

mourir

besoins

pattern; weather patterns; pattern of behaviour

forme précise; conditions météorologiques; type de comportement

dans le besoin, défavorisé(e)

pay; pay (to)

salaire; payer

négligence

N

pay raise

augmentation de salaire

neighbour

Éd

needs

other; in other words autre; en d’autres mots

voisin(e)

payment

paiement

nevermore

plus jamais

perform (to)

travailler

noises

bruits

periodically

occasionnellement

non-renewable

non-renouvelable

persuade (to)

convaincre

nothing

rien

pest-resistant crops

notice (to)

remarquer

cultures agricoles résistantes aux parasites

numerous

nombreux, nombreuse

pests

insectes nuisibles

nursing home

centre d’hébergement et de soins de longue durée

pick out (to); pick up (to)

choisir; apprendre

nuts

noix

pig

cochon

plant (car plant)

usine de fabrication des voitures

needy

©

neglect

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R

planter

play (to)

jouer

rainforest

forêt tropicale

players

joueurs

plumber

plombier, plombière

raise (to); raise money (to)

lever; amasser de l’argent, recueillir des fonds

policy

politique

range; age range

gamme; tranche d’âge

poorest

le plus pauvre

rate

rythme

poorly

mal

reach (to)

atteindre

possess (to)

avoir, posséder

react (to)

réagir

power

pouvoir

realize (to)

se rendre compte

powerful

puissant(e)

reassured (to be)

être rassuré(e)

powerless

sans pouvoir, impuissant

receive (to)

practice

pratique

recipients

praised (to be)

être loué(e), être félicité(e)

recognize (to)

predict (to)

prévoir

recording

enregistrement

preoccupied (to be)

être inquiet, inquiète ou soucieux, soucieuse

recover (to)

guérir, récupérer

recovery

guérison, récupération

presently

présentement

reduce (to)

réduire

pressure (to)

mettre de la pression

refundable

remboursable

prevent (to)

prévenir

register (to)

s’inscrire

previous

précédent(e)

related (to be)

être en rapport

preceding

précédent(e)

processing produce (to) produced (to be) producers product production line productive proficiency

D

nd

ra

released (to be)

relâcher

traitement

relief

soulagement

produire

rely on (to)

dépendre de

être fait(e)

remain (to)

rester, demeurer

producteurs

remember (to)

se souvenir

produit

remove (to)

enlever, retirer

chaîne d’assemblage

renewable

renouvelable

productif, productive

rent; rent (to)

loyer; louer

compétence

rental (apartment rental)

location d’un logement

report (to); report; report findings (to)

informer; étude, article; communiquer les résultats

require (to)

demander, exiger

research

recherche

restricted (to be)

être limité(e)

retail store

magasin de détail

rethink (to)

repenser

retirement

retraite

return (in)

en retour

reuse (to)

réutiliser

review (to)

réviser, examiner

promesse

properly

correctement

proponent

partisan(e)

proposal

proposition

provide (to)

fournir

punch (to)

donner un coup de poing

purchase (to)

acheter

purpose

raison

©

promouvoir

Q quest

quête

quieter

plus tranquille

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reconnaître

pauvreté relative

promote (to)

© Éditions Grand Duc

bénéficiaires

relative poverty

Éd

promise

recevoir

prix

iti on sG

prize

uc

plant (to)

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127 2020-03-12 08:54


right; right away; right now; workers’ rights; that’s right; the right thing

correct(e), droit(e); immédiatement; en ce moment; droits des travailleurs; c’est exact; la bonne chose

rules

règlements

run away (to)

fuir

run into (to)

rencontrer par hasard

S

sighs

soupirs

sign up (to)

s’inscrire

signs

affiches, indications

similar

semblable

simply

simplement

skills

habiletés

skim (to)

lire en diagonale

skip (to)

sauter par-dessus

slap (to)

donner une claque

sleep (to)

dormir

slept

forme passée et participe passé du verbe to sleep diaporama

plus sécuritaire

safety

sécurité

same-sex partners

conjoints du même sexe

satisfy (to)

satisfaire

save (to)

économiser

scars

slideshow

cicatrices

scholarship

smack (to)

bourse

schoolwork

smell (to)

travail scolaire

score

snow

points

scratch (to)

snugly

confortablement

égratigner

scratches

social housing

logement social

égratignures

scrimp (to)

soil

terre

lésiner

sea level

niveau de la mer

seafood

fruits de mer

search

somewhere else

ailleurs

recherche

seasick

songs

chansons

mal de mer (avoir le)

see things your way (to)

sore (to be)

avoir mal

voir les choses de votre point de vue

sorrow

peine

seeds

graines

sounds

bruits

self-control

maîtrise de soi

sow (to)

coudre

self-esteem

confiance en soi

speak (to)

parler

self-evaluation

auto-évaluation

speaker

locuteur, locutrice

self-monitoring

autosurveillance

speculate (to)

s’interroger

send (to)

envoyer

speeding ticket

infraction pour vitesse

spend (to)

dépenser

spices

épices

spoiled (to be)

gâté(e), pourri(e)

spoke

forme passée du verbe to speak

spokeswoman

porte-parole (femme)

stage

scène

stance (to take a)

prendre position

starve to death (to)

mourir de faim

statement

énoncé

separate (to)

phrase

séparer

D gifler

sentir

ra

nd

neige

someone

quelqu’un

something

quelque chose

iti on sG

Éd

sentence

uc

safer

industrie des services

set (to)

établir

settings

paramètres

settlers

pionniers

sewn

participe passé du verbe to sow

share (to); share

partager; part

shelter

abri

shipping

transport de marchandises

rester; rester en vie

shortages

stay (to); stay alive (to)

pénuries

shove (to)

steps

étapes

pousser (une personne)

stir up (to)

susciter, provoquer, engendrer

©

service industry

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coudre

teenage

adolescent(e)

stocking

bas

tell (to)

raconter

stone

pierre

terribly

terriblement

stove

four

theirs

les leurs

strengthen (to)

renforcer

themselves

eux-mêmes, elles-mêmes

stressful

stressant(e)

therefore

donc, par conséquent

strike; strike (to)

grève; donner un coup

thin

mince

strive (to)

avoir comme objectif

those

ceux, celles

stuff

chose

threat

menace

substance abuse

abus d’alcool et d’autres drogues

threaten (to)

menacer

subtitle

sous-titre

thrive (to)

suburbs

banlieues

throat

subway

métro

throughout

succeed (to)

réussir

successful

couronné(e) de succès

throw (to); throw out lancer; jeter (to)

sudden

soudain(e)

ticket

suddenly

soudainement

suffer (to)

souffrir

sufficient

suffisant(e)

uc

stitch (to)

prospérer gorge

nd

D

dans tout(e)

billet

cravate

tied (to be)

être à égalité

time zone

fuseau horaire

tips

pourboires

’tis (= it is)

c’est

résumé

too poor

trop pauvre

supermarché

tool

outil

approvisionnement

topic

sujet

appuyer

tour guide

guide touristique

être certain(e); bien entendu, certainement

toward

vers

trade (to)

échanger

surpris(e)

trader

marchand, marchande

alentours

train (to)

former

sondage, étude

transgenic crops

cultures transgéniques

soutenir, maintenir

translate (to)

traduire

sustainability

durabilité

translation

traduction

swallow (to)

avaler

translator

traducteur

swim (to)

nager

trapped (to be)

être pris(e), piégé(e)

synthetic chemicals

produits chimiques synthétiques

travel (to)

voyager

trend

tendance

complet, tailleur

summarize (to)

résumer

summary supermarket supply support (to)

iti on sG

suit

sure (to be); sure surprised surroundings survey

©

Éd

sustain (to)

ra

tie

T

talk show

émission-débat

trouble (to have)

avoir de la difficulté

target audience

public cible

true; come true (to)

vrai(e); se réaliser

forme passée et participe passé du verbe to teach

trust

confiance

tucked away (to be)

être mis(e) de côté

taxes

impôts

tea

thé

teach (to)

enseigner

turn; to turn down tourner; baisser, refuser; (to); turn off (to); turn éteindre; s’avérer out (to)

tear-inducing

qui crée des larmes aux yeux

taught

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turnover

renouvellement, rotation

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129 2020-03-12 08:54


U unable

incapable

underage

mineur(e)

underground

sous terre

understand (to)

comprendre

unemployment

chômage

unexplained

inexpliqué(e)

unfortunately

malheureusement

unionized employees employés, employées syndiqués, syndiquées

willing (to be)

accepter, être d’accord, être prêt(e)

win the prize (to)

remporter le prix

withdrawn

retiré(e)

without

sans

witness (to)

être témoin

woke

forme passée du verbe to wake

workers

travailleurs

working environment conditions de travail workshop

atelier monde

peu probable

unlimited

sans limites

worried (to be)

être inquiet, inquiète

unreal

irréel, irréelle

worse

pire

unsafe

dangereux, dangereuse

worth; (it is) worth

unsupervised

sans supervision

wrong

untreated

non soigné(e)

Y

unwise

imprudent(e)

yell (to)

crier

use (to); our grandmothers used to do so much ironing

utiliser; nos grands-mères repassaient si souvent

yields

récoltes, rendements

usually

d’habitude

D

valeur; ça vaut la peine

nd

erroné(e)

ra

young

jeune

iti on sG

V vacation

vacances

various (ways)

différentes façons

volunteer (to); volunteer work

faire du bénévolat; bénévolat

W

salariés, salariées

wages

salaires

wake up (to)

se réveiller

Éd

wage earners

war

uc

unlikely

world

guerre

warning signs

indicateurs

waste (to)

gaspiller richesse

wear (to)

porter

weather conditions

conditions météorologiques

weighty subject

problématique importante

welfare; welfare recipients

aide sociale; bénéficiaires d’aide sociale

well-being

bien-être

went

forme passée du verbe to go

wheelchair

fauteuil roulant

widespread consensus

large consensus, consensus général

©

wealth

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ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE

2nd Edition

TZINEVRAKIS

Secondary 5

› An Answer Key for all exercises and activities in the Student Workbook › A new Learning Situation that allows students to practise going through the various steps to prepare for the final evaluation

©

› All audio recordings (MP3) for the listening activities in the Student Workbook › The Transcripts of all content on the audio recordings for all listening activities, to help students develop their listening skills while they read the texts › A progress chart so students can structure oral communication activities

ANG-5101-2

Examining Issues

9 782765 541349 >

CD-couvert-Examining_Issues_ANG-5101-2-mars2020-Final.indd Toutes les pages

Student Workbook

Charles Gibbs Antonia Tzinevrakis

ANG-5102-1

Suggestions and Advice ANG-5103-1

Influencing Others

PRODUCT CODE 4653 ISBN 978-2-7655-4134-9

Project Supervisor

CONNECTING

Éd

The digital teaching guide includes:

ANG-5101-2

ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE

ra nd

iti

Digital Teacher’s Guide

FOR THE SECONDARY 5 COURSES, THE CONNECTING DOORS SERIES INCLUDES THREE WORKBOOKS.

Examining Issues

2nd Edition

EXAMINING ISSUES

Codes in the workbook provide direct access to online listening activities without the need to purchase any additional CDs.

CONNECTING

Student Workbook

ANG-5101-2

NEW!

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The Connecting Doors series integrates grammar, vocabulary, listening and speaking tasks based on real-life situations. The new edition of Examining Issues has been fully revised and updated to meet the needs of teachers and students, even in the context of multilevel classrooms.

Changes have focused on structuring each chapter as a cohesive learning situation that begins with a real-life scenario and continues to guide students toward the completion of a specific task. The reading, listening and speaking activities presented in the learning situation prepare students to organize information from written and oral texts, develop ideas, build vocabulary and follow language structures in order to succeed in their end-of-course evaluation.

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Connecting Doors covers the complete Diversified Basic Education Program for ESL courses for adult education.

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GIBBS

CONNECTING

Secondary 5

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COMPLIES WITH THE PROGRAM IN THE NEW CURRICULUM 2020-03-06 14:35

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CD5_ExaminingIssues_2ndEdition_Complet.pdf  

CD5_ExaminingIssues_2ndEdition_Complet.pdf  

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